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Sample records for form t-1 trust

  1. 75 FR 74935 - Rescission of Form T-1, Trust Annual Report; Requiring Subsidiary Organization Reporting on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Labor-Management Standards and permits re-delegation of such authority. See 74 FR 58835 (Nov. 13, 2009... extensively change the Form LM-2. 67 FR 79279 (Dec. 27, 2002). The rule was proposed under the authority of... establishing a Form T-1. 68 FR 58374 (Oct. 9, 2003) (2003 Form T-1 rule). The 2003 Form T-1 rule eliminated...

  2. 17 CFR 239.16 - Form S-6, for unit investment trusts registered on Form N-8B-2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form S-6, for unit investment... § 239.16 Form S-6, for unit investment trusts registered on Form N-8B-2. This form may be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of any unit investment trust registered under...

  3. Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    Children rely extensively on others' testimony to learn about the world. However, they are not uniformly credulous toward other people. From an early age, children's reliance on testimony is tempered by selective trust in particular informants. Three- and 4-year-olds monitor the accuracy or knowledge of informants, including those that are…

  4. Forming social capital--does participatory planning foster trust in institutions?

    PubMed

    Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias

    2013-12-15

    Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation.

  5. Forming social capital--does participatory planning foster trust in institutions?

    PubMed

    Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias

    2013-12-15

    Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation. PMID:24211564

  6. 75 FR 5455 - Rescission of Form T-1, Trust Annual Report; Require Subsidiary Organization Reporting on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... labor organization finances and effectuates the goals of the LMRDA.'' (emphasis added) 73 FR 57414. In... in the Federal Register on June 6, 2008, 73 FR 32424 (Jun. 6, 2008), contains the delegation of... FR 79279 (Dec. 27, 2002). The rule was proposed under the authority of Section 208, which permits...

  7. 17 CFR 274.11c - Form N-4, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-4, see the List of CFR Sections... variable annuity contracts to register as unit investment trusts. This form shall also be used...

  8. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  9. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  10. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  11. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  12. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  13. The T=1 Capsid Protein of Penicillium chrysogenum Virus Is Formed by a Repeated Helix-Rich Core Indicative of Gene Duplication▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Daniel; González, José M.; Garriga, Damiá; Ghabrial, Said A.; Havens, Wendy M.; Trus, Benes; Verdaguer, Nuria; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV), a member of the Chrysoviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fungal virus with a multipartite genome, with each RNA molecule encapsidated in a separate particle. Chrysoviruses lack an extracellular route and are transmitted during sporogenesis and cell fusion. The PcV capsid, based on a T=1 lattice containing 60 subunits of the 982-amino-acid capsid protein, remains structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, participates in genome metabolism, and isolates the virus genome from host defense mechanisms. Using three-dimensional cryoelectron microscopy, we determined the structure of the PcV virion at 8.0 Å resolution. The capsid protein has a high content of rod-like densities characteristic of α-helices, forming a repeated α-helical core indicative of gene duplication. Whereas the PcV capsid protein has two motifs with the same fold, most dsRNA virus capsid subunits consist of dimers of a single protein with similar folds. The spatial arrangement of the α-helical core resembles that found in the capsid protein of the L-A virus, a fungal totivirus with an undivided genome, suggesting a conserved basic fold. The encapsidated genome is organized in concentric shells; whereas the inner dsRNA shells are well defined, the outermost layer is dense due to numerous interactions with the inner capsid surface, specifically, six interacting areas per monomer. The outermost genome layer is arranged in an icosahedral cage, sufficiently well ordered to allow for modeling of an A-form dsRNA. The genome ordering might constitute a framework for dsRNA transcription at the capsid interior and/or have a structural role for capsid stability. PMID:20463071

  14. The T=1 capsid protein of Penicillium chrysogenum virus is formed by a repeated helix-rich core indicative of gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Luque, Daniel; González, José M; Garriga, Damiá; Ghabrial, Said A; Havens, Wendy M; Trus, Benes; Verdaguer, Nuria; Carrascosa, José L; Castón, José R

    2010-07-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV), a member of the Chrysoviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fungal virus with a multipartite genome, with each RNA molecule encapsidated in a separate particle. Chrysoviruses lack an extracellular route and are transmitted during sporogenesis and cell fusion. The PcV capsid, based on a T=1 lattice containing 60 subunits of the 982-amino-acid capsid protein, remains structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, participates in genome metabolism, and isolates the virus genome from host defense mechanisms. Using three-dimensional cryoelectron microscopy, we determined the structure of the PcV virion at 8.0 A resolution. The capsid protein has a high content of rod-like densities characteristic of alpha-helices, forming a repeated alpha-helical core indicative of gene duplication. Whereas the PcV capsid protein has two motifs with the same fold, most dsRNA virus capsid subunits consist of dimers of a single protein with similar folds. The spatial arrangement of the alpha-helical core resembles that found in the capsid protein of the L-A virus, a fungal totivirus with an undivided genome, suggesting a conserved basic fold. The encapsidated genome is organized in concentric shells; whereas the inner dsRNA shells are well defined, the outermost layer is dense due to numerous interactions with the inner capsid surface, specifically, six interacting areas per monomer. The outermost genome layer is arranged in an icosahedral cage, sufficiently well ordered to allow for modeling of an A-form dsRNA. The genome ordering might constitute a framework for dsRNA transcription at the capsid interior and/or have a structural role for capsid stability.

  15. The Role of Social Trust in Reducing Long-Term Truancy and Forming Human Capital in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how social trust influences human capital formation using prefectural level data in Japan. To this end, I constructed a proxy for social trust, based on the Japanese General Social Surveys. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, I found that social trust plays an important role in reducing the rate of long-term…

  16. The Role of Teacher and Faculty Trust in Forming Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Do Years of Experience Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    This study relates trust at the level of both the teacher and the faculty to teachers' job satisfaction. Teaching experience is explored as a moderator of the trust-satisfaction relationship. Multilevel analyses on data of 2091 teachers across 80 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) revealed positive associations between teacher trust in…

  17. The Need to Trust and to Trust More Wisely in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Where trust is an issue, there is no trust. Trust in diverse organizations has never been lower. A shadow of doubt stalks one's every decision to trust collegially and institutionally. Still, colleagues sense intuitively that institutions cannot function optimally without a bedrock level of trust. In academic life, trust is a form of social…

  18. Professional Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frowe, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of professional trust and argues that trust is an essential component of what it means to be a professional. The first part of the paper discusses the nature of trust in general and attempts to establish two main points: that we are all involved in relationships of trust and that all trust involves risk. The second…

  19. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under the..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable...

  20. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable...

  1. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable...

  2. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable...

  3. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable...

  4. T-1 Training Area

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-07

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  5. T-1 Training Area

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  6. Impact of signals and experience on trust and trusting behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hueih; Chien, Shu-Hua; Wu, Jyh-Jeng; Tsai, Pei-Yin

    2010-10-01

    Trust is an essential factor that drives virtual interaction and transactions on the Internet. Researchers have investigated the trust development process, and identified several important factors that form the basis for trust. This research combines the signal perspective and trust theory to examine the impact of market signals and past experience on trust formation and trusting behavior. Three market signals, including brand image, Web-site investment, and privacy policies, are identified and empirically tested to determine their impact on consumer trust. Based on 322 active Web users, the quantitative results suggest that brand image, Web-site investment, privacy policies, and past experience all positively impact trust formation. Furthermore, trust shows a positive effect on Web-site stickiness. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are also offered.

  7. Trust in interprofessional collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trust is integral to effective interprofessional collaboration. There has been scant literature characterizing how trust between practitioners is formed, maintained or lost. The objective of this study was to characterize the cognitive model of trust that exists between pharmacists and family physicians working in collaborative primary care settings. Methods: Pharmacists and family physicians who work collaboratively in primary care were participants in this study. Family health teams were excluded from this study because of the distinct nature of these settings. Through a snowball convenience sampling method, a total of 11 pharmacists and 8 family physicians were recruited. A semistructured interview guide was used to guide discussion around trust, relationships and collaboration. Constant-comparative coding was used to identify themes emerging from these data. Results: Pharmacists and family physicians demonstrate different cognitive models of trust in primary care collaboration. For pharmacists, trust appears to be conferred on physicians based on title, degree, status and positional authority. For family physicians, trust appears to be earned based on competency and performance. These differences may lead to interprofessional tension when expectations of reciprocal trust are not met. Conclusions: Further work in characterizing how trust is developed in interprofessional relationships is needed to support effective team formation and functioning. PMID:27540406

  8. TRUST: TDRSS Resource User Support Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparn, Thomas P.; Gablehouse, R. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    TRUST-TDRSS (Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System) Resource User Support Tool is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: TRUST development cycle; the TRUST system; scheduling window; ODM/GCMR window; TRUST architecture; surpass; and summary.

  9. Revealing Preconditions for Trustful Collaboration in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses preconditions for trust in virtual learning environments. The concept of trust is discussed with reference to cases reporting trust in cyberspace and through a philosophical clarification holding that trust in the form of self-surrender is a common characteristic of all human co-existence. In virtual learning environments,…

  10. Chimpanzees Trust Their Friends.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther

    2016-01-25

    The identification and recruitment of trustworthy partners represents an important adaptive challenge for any species that relies heavily on cooperation [1, 2]. From an evolutionary perspective, trust is difficult to account for as it involves, by definition, a risk of non-reciprocation and defection by cheaters [3, 4]. One solution for this problem is to form close emotional bonds, i.e., friendships, which enable trust even in contexts where cheating would be profitable [5]. Little is known about the evolutionary origins of the human tendency to form close social bonds to overcome the trust problem. Studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), one of our closest living relatives, is one way of identifying these origins. While a growing body of research indicates that at least some of the properties of close human relationships find parallels in the social bonds of chimpanzees [6-10] and that chimpanzees extend favors preferentially toward selected individuals [11-14], it is unclear whether such interactions are based on trust. To fill this gap in knowledge, we observed the social interactions of a group of chimpanzees and established dyadic friendship relations. We then presented chimpanzees with a modified, non-verbal version of the human trust game and found that chimpanzees trust their friends significantly more frequently than their non-friends. These results suggest that trust within closely bonded dyads is not unique to humans but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social relationships of our closest primate relatives. PMID:26776735

  11. Social Trust of Virtual Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    Most other chapters of this book discuss computational models of trust in broader terms, giving definitions of trust, explaining how trust should evolve over time, surveying the different facets of trust .On the other hand, this chapter has a clear focus on the important element of identity in computational trust mechanisms. Trust and reputation are easier to form in face-to-face situations than in situations involving the use of computers and networks because the identity of the trustee is more difficult to verify. In this chapter, the different means to recognise virtual identities are surveyed. Next, their integration into computational trust engines is discussed, especially according to four main requirements: Adaptability, Security, Usability and Privacy (ASUP).

  12. T1 Radiculopathy: Electrodiagnostic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Radecki, Jeffrey; Zimmer, Zachary R.

    2008-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) studies are useful in the anatomical localization of nerve injuries and, in most cases, isolating lesions to a single nerve root level. Their utility is important in identifying specific nerve-root-level injuries where surgical or interventional procedures may be warranted. In this case report, an individual presented with right upper extremity radicular symptoms consistent with a clinical diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. EMG studies revealed that the lesion could be more specifically isolated to the T1 nerve root and, furthermore, provided evidence that the abductor pollicis brevis receives predominantly T1 innervation. PMID:19083061

  13. 17 CFR 239.17b - Form N-4, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form N-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 1933 of securities of separate accounts that offer variable annuity contracts and which register...

  14. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  15. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand.

  16. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. PMID:26680285

  17. Explaining the justice-performance relationship: trust as exchange deepener or trust as uncertainty reducer?

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Lepine, Jeffery A; Piccolo, Ronald F; Zapata, Cindy P; Rich, Bruce L

    2012-01-01

    Past research has revealed significant relationships between organizational justice dimensions and job performance, and trust is thought to be one mediator of those relationships. However, trust has been positioned in justice theorizing in 2 different ways, either as an indicator of the depth of an exchange relationship or as a variable that reflects levels of work-related uncertainty. Moreover, trust scholars distinguish between multiple forms of trust, including affect- and cognition-based trust, and it remains unclear which form is most relevant to justice effects. To explore these issues, we built and tested a more comprehensive model of trust mediation in which procedural, interpersonal, and distributive justice predicted affect- and cognition-based trust, with those trust forms predicting both exchange- and uncertainty-based mechanisms. The results of a field study in a hospital system revealed that the trust variables did indeed mediate the relationships between the organizational justice dimensions and job performance, with affect-based trust driving exchange-based mediation and cognition-based trust driving uncertainty-based mediation.

  18. Ultra-low field T1 vs. T1rho at 3T and 7T: study of rotationally immobilized protein gels and animal brain tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Inglis, Ben; Barr, Ian; Clarke, John

    2015-03-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines operating in static fields of typically 1.5 T or 3 T can capture information on slow molecular dynamics utilizing the so-called T1rho technique. This technique, in which a radiofrequency (RF) spin-lock field is applied with microtesla amplitude, has been used, for example, to determine the onset time of stroke in studies on rats. The long RF pulse, however, may exceed the specific absorption rate (SAR) limit, putting subjects at risk. Ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI, based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), directly detects proton signals at a static magnetic field of typically 50-250 μT. Using our ULF MRI system with adjustable static field of typically 55 to 240 μT, we systematically measured the T1 and T2 dispersion profiles of rotationally immobilized protein gels (bovine serum albumin), ex vivo pig brains, and ex vivo rat brains with induced stroke. Comparing the ULF results with T1rho dispersion obtained at 3 T and 7 T, we find that the degree of protein immobilization determines the frequency-dependence of both T1 and T1rho. Furthermore, T1rho and ULF T1 show similar results for stroke, suggesting that ULF MRI may be used to image traumatic brain injury with negligible SAR. This research was supported by the Henry H. Wheeler, Jr. Brain Imaging Center and the Donaldson Trust.

  19. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  20. Trust in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Hummels, H; Roosendaal, H E

    2001-11-01

    Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organizational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust: process-based trust, institutional-based trust, characteristic-based trust. In this article we will add a fourth type: values-based trust. Similarly, it is customary in scientific communication to distinguish four main communication functions: registration, archiving, certification, awareness. These types of trust and communication functions offer somewhat similar classification schemes. In this paper we will elaborate on these classification schemes with the aim to analyse possible similarities or even mapping. Such similarities will allow drawing conclusions on the development of trust in a (virtual) organisation in general and the process of scientific communication as a special kind of a (virtual) organisation in particular.

  1. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture.

  2. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture. PMID:26267958

  3. The Measure of the Trust Beliefs of Elderly Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.

    1990-01-01

    Examined trust beliefs of older adults (N=140) using a modified Rotter's trust scale. Identified a complex relationship between trust and income. Found a curvilinear shift with age in dependability of social-legal organizations attributed to postretirement experiences in middle-old age and a form of generativity in very old age. (Author/ABL)

  4. Developing a Trusting Community: Dilemmas in ESL Adult Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Marsha

    1994-01-01

    The example of an adult teacher of English as a Second Language illustrates that, in attempting to build learner trust, dilemmas between creating a safe learning environment and holding students academically accountable are normal. Multiple forms of trusting relationships may conflict; educators should view trust as not only establishing rapport…

  5. Transfer of hyperpolarization from long T 1 storage nuclei to short T 1 neighbors using FLOPSY-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Karlos X.; Harrison, Crystal; Dean Sherry, A.; Malloy, Craig R.; Merritt, Matthew E.

    2011-12-01

    Nuclei with long T 1s are optimal targets for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Therefore, most of the agents used in metabolic imaging and spectroscopy studies are based on carboxylic acid moieties that lack protons, a strong source of dipolar relaxation. Metabolic flux information encoded into spectra of small molecule metabolites in the form of the 13C isotopomer data cannot be accessed using standard 13C hyperpolarization methods because protonated carbons relax too quickly through T 1 dipolar relaxation. It is shown here that the longitudinal mixing sequence FLOPSY-8 can be used to transfer polarization from a long T 1 storage nucleus to adjacent protonated carbons so that they may be detected with high sensitivity. We demonstrate that FLOPSY-8 allows a direct readout of isotopomer populations in butyrate and glutamate in vitro.

  6. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  7. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination.

  8. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. PMID:26912569

  9. T1 Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Bentrem, David J.; Okabe, Satoshi; Wong, W Douglas; Guillem, Jose G.; Weiser, Martin R.; Temple, Larissa K.; Ben-Porat, Leah S.; Minsky, Bruce D.; Cohen, Alfred M.; Paty, Philip B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest local excision may be acceptable treatment of T1 adenocarcinoma of the rectum, but there is little comparative data with radical surgery to assess outcomes and quantify risk. We performed a retrospective evaluation of patients with T1 rectal cancers treated by either transanal excision or radical resection at our institution to assess patient selection, cancer recurrence, and survival. Methods: All patients who underwent surgery for T1 adenocarcinomas of the rectum (0–15 cm from anal verge) by either transanal excision (TAE) or radical resection (RAD) between January 1987 and January 2004 were identified from a prospective database. Data were analyzed using Fisher exact test, Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank test. Results: Three hundred nineteen consecutive patients with T1 lesions were treated by transanal excision (n = 151) or radical surgery (n = 168) over the 17-year period. RAD surgery was associated with higher tumor location in the rectum, slightly larger tumor size, a similar rate of adverse histology, and a lymph node metastasis rate of 18%. Despite these features, patients who underwent RAD surgery had fewer local recurrences, fewer distant recurrences, and significantly better recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0001). Overall and disease-specific survival was similar for RAD and TAE groups. Conclusion: Despite a similar risk profile in the 2 surgical groups, patients with T1 rectal cancer treated by local excision were observed to have a 3- to 5-fold higher risk of tumor recurrence compared with patients treated by radical surgery. Local excision should be reserved for low-risk cancers in patients who will accept an increased risk of tumor recurrence, prolonged surveillance, and possible need for aggressive salvage surgery. Radical resection is the more definitive surgical treatment of T1 rectal cancers. PMID:16192807

  10. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness. PMID:26421343

  11. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness.

  12. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  13. The Functional Role of the T1R Family of Receptors in Sweet Taste and Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Treesukosol, Yada; Smith, Kimberly R.; Spector, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the T1R family of Class C G protein-coupled receptors in the peripheral gustatory system a decade ago has been a tremendous advance for taste research, and its conceptual reach has extended to other organ systems. There are three proteins in the family, T1R1, T1R2, and T1R3, encoded by their respective genes, Tas1r1, Tas1r2, and Tas1r3. T1R2 combines with T1R3 to form a heterodimer that binds with sugars and other sweeteners. T1R3 also combines with T1R1 to form a heterodimer that binds with L-amino acids. These proteins are expressed not only in taste bud cells, but one or more of these T1Rs have also been identified in the nasal epithelium, gut, pancreas, liver, kidney, testes and brain in various mammalian species. Here we review current perspectives regarding the functional role of these receptors, concentrating on sweet taste and feeding. We also discuss behavioral findings suggesting that a glucose polymer mixture, Polycose, which rodents avidly prefer, appears to activate a receptor that does not depend on the combined expression of T1R2 and T1R3. In addition, although the T1Rs have been implicated as playing a role in glucose sensing, T1R2 knock-out (KO) and T1R3 KO mice display normal chow and fluid intake as well as normal body weight compared with same-sex littermate wild type (WT) controls. Moreover, regardless of whether they are fasted or not, these KO mice do not differ from their WT counterparts in their Polycose intake across a broad range of concentrations in 30-min intake tests. The functional implications of these results and those in the literature are considered. PMID:21376068

  14. Rapid T2- and susceptometry-based CMRO2 quantification with interleaved TRUST (iTRUST).

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Zachary B; Englund, Erin K; Langham, Michael C; Magland, Jeremy F; Wehrli, Felix W

    2015-02-01

    Susceptometry-based oximetry (SBO) and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) are two promising methods for quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), a critical parameter of brain function. We present a combined method, interleaved TRUST (iTRUST), which achieves rapid, simultaneous quantification of both susceptometry- and T2-based CMRO2 via insertion of a flow-encoded, dual-echo gradient-recalled echo (OxFlow) module within the T1 recovery portion of the TRUST sequence. In addition to allowing direct comparison between SBO- and TRUST-derived venous oxygen saturation (Yv) values, iTRUST substantially improves TRUST temporal resolution for CMRO2 quantification and obviates the need for a separate blood flow measurement following TRUST acquisition. iTRUST was compared directly to TRUST and OxFlow alone in three resting subjects at baseline, exhibiting close agreement with the separate techniques and comparable precision. These baseline data as well as simulation results support the use of two instead of the traditional four T2 preparation times for T2 fitting, allowing simultaneous quantification of susceptometry- and T2-based Yv (and CMRO2) with three- and six-second temporal resolution, respectively. In 10 young healthy subjects, iTRUST was applied during a 5% CO2 gas mixture-breathing paradigm. T2-based Yv values were lower at baseline relative to susceptometry (62.3 ± 3.1 vs. 66.7 ± 5.1 %HbO2, P<0.05), but increased more in response to hypercapnia. As a result, T2-based CMRO2 decreased from 140.4 ± 9.7 to 120.0 ± 9.5 μMol/100g/min, a significant -14.6 ± 3.6% response (P < 0.0001), whereas susceptometry-based CMRO2 changed insignificantly from 123.4 ± 18.7 to 127.9 ± 25.7, a 3.3 ± 9.7% response (P = 0.31). These differing results are in accord with previous studies applying the parent OxFlow or TRUST sequences individually, thus supporting the reliability of iTRUST but also strongly suggesting that a systematic bias exists between the

  15. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-12-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging's basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs.

  16. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging’s basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs. PMID:26807369

  17. Trusted Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaretta, D.

    2008-08-01

    Data is valuable, expensive to create, and may be impossible to re-create, so who can be trusted to look after it in the long term? This is a question which applies to all the types of digital data on which most astronomical research, and much of the rest of civilisation, depends. This talk will outline the work which has been, and continues to be, carried out to provide an answer to the question of how to judge whether any given data repository is up to the task and deserves to be funded. The OAIS Reference Model (ISO 14721) forms the basis of most serious work on digital preservation and the aim of the work described here is to build on OAIS to create an international standard on which an accreditation and certification process can be based. The talk will touch on some of the fundamental ideas about preservation of digital objects and on ways to detect preservation snakeoil salesmen.

  18. Distinct Human and Mouse Membrane Trafficking Systems for Sweet Taste Receptors T1r2 and T1r3

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

  19. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  20. The geography of trust.

    PubMed

    Joni, Saj-nicole A

    2004-03-01

    Leaders who rely forever on the same internal advisers, entrusting them with issues of ever greater sensitivity and consequence, run the risk of being sold short and possibly betrayed. Alternatively, lone-wolf leaders who trust no one may make enormous, yet preventable, mistakes when trying to sort through difficult decisions. A sophisticated understanding of trust can protect leaders from both fates. During the past decade, author and consultant Saj-nicole Joni studied leadership in more than 150 European and North American companies. Her research reveals three fundamental types of trustpersonal trust, expertise trust, and structural trust. Executives may persevere in relationships that are based on personal trust, no matter how exalted their leadership roles become. But such relationships are unlikely to remain static. They also probably won't provide the kinds of deep, often specialized knowledge leaders need. In circumstances where advisers' competence matters as much as their character, expertise trust--reliance on an adviser's ability in a specific subject--enters the picture. In organizations, leaders develop expertise trust by working closely with people who consistently demonstrate their mastery of particular subjects or processes. Structural trust refers to how roles and ambitions influence advisers' perspectives and candor. It shifts constantly as people rise through organizations. High-level structural trust can provide leaders with pure insight and information--but advisers in positions of the highest structural trust generally reside outside organizations. These advisers provide leaders with insights that their organizations cannot. High-performing leaders' most enduring--and most valuable--relationships are characterized by enormous levels of all three kinds of trust.

  1. Inorganic nanoparticle-based T1 and T1/T2 magnetic resonance contrast probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fengqin; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields high spatially resolved contrast with anatomical details for diagnosis, deeper penetration depth and rapid 3D scanning. To improve imaging sensitivity, adding contrast agents accelerates the relaxation rate of water molecules, thereby greatly increasing the contrast between specific issues or organs of interest. Currently, the majority of T1 contrast agents are paramagnetic molecular complexes, typically Gd(iii) chelates. Various nanoparticulate T1 and T1/T2 contrast agents have recently been investigated as novel agents possessing the advantages of both the T1 contrast effect and nanostructural characteristics. In this minireview, we describe the recent progress of these inorganic nanoparticle-based MRI contrast agents. Specifically, we mainly report on Gd and Mn-based inorganic nanoparticles and ultrasmall iron oxide/ferrite nanoparticles.

  2. National Education Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  3. Trust versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of trust in the education system. What is different about the issue of trust in the education system is the assault upon it, sometimes overt but most often subtle. There is a difference between strong criticism and willful manipulation. The nation's schools are responding to the former--perhaps too slowly for…

  4. T1R2 and T1R3 subunits are individually unnecessary for normal affective licking responses to Polycose: implications for saccharide taste receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Treesukosol, Yada; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2009-04-01

    The T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are expressed in taste receptor cells and form a heterodimer binding with compounds described as sweet by humans. We examined whether Polycose taste might be mediated through this heterodimer by testing T1R2 knockout (KO) and T1R3 KO mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls in a series of brief-access taste tests (25-min sessions with 5-s trials). Sucrose, Na-saccharin, and Polycose were each tested for three consecutive sessions with order of presentation varied among subgroups in a Latin-Square manner. Both KO groups displayed blunted licking responses and initiated significantly fewer trials of sucrose and Na-saccharin across a range of concentrations. KO mice tested after Polycose exposure demonstrated some degree of concentration-dependent licking of sucrose, likely attributable to learning related to prior postingestive experience. These results are consistent with prior findings in the literature, implicating the T1R2+3 heterodimer as the principal taste receptor for sweet-tasting ligands, and also provide support for the potential of postingestive experience to influence responding in the KO mice. In contrast, T1R2 KO and T1R3 KO mice displayed concentration-dependent licking responses to Polycose that tracked those of their WT controls and in some cases licked midrange concentrations more; the number of Polycose trials initiated overall did not differ between KO and WT mice. Thus, the T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are individually unnecessary for normal concentration-dependent licking of Polycose to be expressed in a brief-access test. Whether at least one of these T1R protein subunits is necessary for normal Polycose responsiveness remains untested. Alternatively, there may be a novel taste receptor(s) that mediates polysaccharide taste. PMID:19158407

  5. The enemies of trust.

    PubMed

    Galford, Robert; Drapeau, Anne Seibold

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have established that trust is critical to organizational effectiveness. Being trustworthy yourself, however, does not guarantee that you are capable of building trust in an organization. That takes old-fashioned managerial virtues like consistency, clear communication, and a willingness to tackle awkward questions. It also requires a good defense: You must protect trust from its enemies. Any act of bad management erodes trust, so the list of potential enemies is endless. Among the most common enemies of trust, though, are inconsistent messages from top management, inconsistent standards, a willingness to tolerate incompetence or bad behavior, dishonest feedback, a failure to trust others to do good work, a tendency to ignore painful or politically charged situations, consistent corporate underperformance, and rumors. Fending off these enemies must be at the top of every chief executive's agenda. But even with constant vigilance, an organization and its leaders will sometimes lose people's trust. During a crisis, managers should enlist the help of an objective third party--chances are you won't be thinking clearly--and be available physically and emotionally. If you "go dark" in the face of a crisis, employees will worry about the company's survival, about their own capacity to cope, and about your abilities as a leader. And if trust has broken down so badly that your only choice is to start over, you can do so by figuring out exactly how the breach of trust happened, ascertaining the depth and breadth of the loss, owning up to the loss instead of downplaying it, and identifying as precisely as possible the specific changes you must make to rebuild trust.

  6. [Fidelity to trust].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Avello, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Trust in the doctor, an essential condition of medical practice throughout its history, appears to be considered as an outdated value, destined to extinction. In his work, Pellegrino analyzes the epistemological, empirical and conceptual basis of trust in professional relationships, the reasons for its weakening in an ethics of distrust, and he presents his philosophical proposal, which recovers and reappraises the fidelity to trust placed in the doctor-patient relationship, as an essential virtue for an appropriate ethical behaviour in the practice of medicine as in a moral community.

  7. Orosensory detection of sucrose, maltose, and glucose is severely impaired in mice lacking T1R2 or T1R3, but Polycose sensitivity remains relatively normal

    PubMed Central

    Treesukosol, Yada

    2012-01-01

    Evidence in the literature supports the hypothesis that the T1R2+3 heterodimer binds to compounds that humans describe as sweet. Here, we assessed the necessity of the T1R2 and T1R3 subunits in the maintenance of normal taste sensitivity to carbohydrate stimuli. We trained and tested water-restricted T1R2 knockout (KO), T1R3 KO and their wild-type (WT) same-sex littermate controls in a two-response operant procedure to sample a fluid and differentially respond on the basis of whether the stimulus was water or a tastant. Correct responses were reinforced with water and incorrect responses were punished with a time-out. Testing was conducted with a modified descending method of limits procedure across daily 25-min sessions. Both KO groups displayed severely impaired performance and markedly decreased sensitivity when required to discriminate water from sucrose, glucose, or maltose. In contrast, when Polycose was tested, KO mice had normal EC50 values for their psychometric functions, with some slight, but significant, impairment in performance. Sensitivity to NaCl did not differ between these mice and their WT controls. Our findings support the view that the T1R2+3 heterodimer is the principal receptor that mediates taste detection of natural sweeteners, but not of all carbohydrate stimuli. The combined presence of T1R2 and T1R3 appears unnecessary for the maintenance of relatively normal sensitivity to Polycose, at least in this task. Some detectability of sugars at high concentrations might be mediated by the putative polysaccharide taste receptor, the remaining T1R subunit forming either a homodimer or heteromer with another protein(s), or nontaste orosensory cues. PMID:22621968

  8. Sampling Submicron T1 Bacteriophage Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Harstad, J. Bruce

    1965-01-01

    Liquid impingers, filter papers, and fritted bubblers were partial viable collectors of radioactive submicron T1 bacteriophage aerosols at 30, 55, and 85% relative humidity. Sampler differences for viable collection were due to incomplete physical collection (slippage) and killing of phage by the samplers. Dynamic aerosols of a mass median diameter of 0.2 μ were produced with a Dautrebande generator from concentrated aqueous purified phage suspensions containing extracellular soluble radioactive phosphate as a physical tracer. There was considerable destruction of phage by the Dautrebande generator; phage titers of the Dautrebande suspension decreased exponentially, but there was a progressive (linear) increase in tracer titers. Liquid impingers recovered the most viable phage but allowed considerable (30 to 48%) slippage, which varies inversely with the aerosol relative humidity. Filter papers were virtually complete physical collectors of submicron particles but were the most destructive. Fritted bubbler slippage was more than 80%. With all samplers, phage kill was highest at 85% relative humidity and lowest at 55% relative humidity. An electrostatic precipitator was used to collect aerosol samples for particle sizing with an electron microscope. The particle size was slightly larger at 85% relative humidity than at 30 or 55% relative humidity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:5866038

  9. Some correlates of trust.

    PubMed

    Frost, T; Stimpson, D V; Maughan, M R

    1978-05-01

    Trust has been variously defined by behavioral scientists and not very thoroughly investigated. In this study trust was defined as an expectancy held by an individual that the behavior of another person or a group would be altruistic and personally beneficial. An attempt was made, using this conceptual definition, to identify some personality and behavioral correlates of trust. Seven interpersonal relations groups with approximately 10 male and female undergraduates per group were studied with use of the Janis and Field self-esteem inventory, Schutz's FIRO-B scale, and the Rotter internal-external scale. It was discovered that a trusted person is one who is highly influential, has an internal locus of control, a low need to control others, high self-esteem, and is open to being influenced by others.

  10. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  11. Trust in healthcare settings: Scale development, methods, and preliminary determinants

    PubMed Central

    LoCurto, Jamie; Berg, Gina M

    2016-01-01

    The literature contains research regarding how trust is formed in healthcare settings but rarely discusses trust formation in an emergent care population. A literature review was conducted to determine which of the trust determinants are important for this process as well as how to develop a scale to measure trust. A search generated a total of 155 articles, 65 of which met eligibility criteria. Determinants that were important included the following: honesty, confidentiality, dependability, communication, competency, fiduciary responsibility, fidelity, and agency. The process of developing a scale includes the following: a literature review, qualitative analysis, piloting, and survey validation. Results suggest that physician behaviors are important in influencing trust in patients and should be included in scales measuring trust. Next steps consist of interviewing emergent care patients to commence the process of developing a scale. PMID:27635245

  12. Trust in healthcare settings: Scale development, methods, and preliminary determinants

    PubMed Central

    LoCurto, Jamie; Berg, Gina M

    2016-01-01

    The literature contains research regarding how trust is formed in healthcare settings but rarely discusses trust formation in an emergent care population. A literature review was conducted to determine which of the trust determinants are important for this process as well as how to develop a scale to measure trust. A search generated a total of 155 articles, 65 of which met eligibility criteria. Determinants that were important included the following: honesty, confidentiality, dependability, communication, competency, fiduciary responsibility, fidelity, and agency. The process of developing a scale includes the following: a literature review, qualitative analysis, piloting, and survey validation. Results suggest that physician behaviors are important in influencing trust in patients and should be included in scales measuring trust. Next steps consist of interviewing emergent care patients to commence the process of developing a scale.

  13. Trust in healthcare settings: Scale development, methods, and preliminary determinants.

    PubMed

    LoCurto, Jamie; Berg, Gina M

    2016-01-01

    The literature contains research regarding how trust is formed in healthcare settings but rarely discusses trust formation in an emergent care population. A literature review was conducted to determine which of the trust determinants are important for this process as well as how to develop a scale to measure trust. A search generated a total of 155 articles, 65 of which met eligibility criteria. Determinants that were important included the following: honesty, confidentiality, dependability, communication, competency, fiduciary responsibility, fidelity, and agency. The process of developing a scale includes the following: a literature review, qualitative analysis, piloting, and survey validation. Results suggest that physician behaviors are important in influencing trust in patients and should be included in scales measuring trust. Next steps consist of interviewing emergent care patients to commence the process of developing a scale. PMID:27635245

  14. TrustBuilder2

    2007-07-20

    TrustBuilder2 is a flexible framework for supporting research in the area trust negotiation protocols, designed to allow researchers to quickly prototype and experiment with various approaches to trust negotiation. In Trustbuilder2, the primary components of a trust negotiation system are represented using abstract interfaces. Any or all of these components can be implemented or extended by users of the TrustBuilder2 system, thereby making the system's functionality easily extensible. The TrustBuilder2 configuration files can be modifiedmore » to load these custom components in place of the default system components; this facilitates the use of new features without modifications to the underlying runtime system. In our implementation, we provide support for one negotiation strategy, a policy compliance checker based on Jess (the Java Expert System Shell), query interfaces enabling access to disk-based credential and policy repositories, a credential chain construction algorithm, two credential chain verification routines, and both graphical and text-based logging facilities. Trustbuilder2 also supports the interposition of user-defined plug-ins at communication points between system components to allow for easy monitoring of system activity or the modification of messages passed between components.« less

  15. Computationally modeling interpersonal trust

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W. Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Breazeal, Cynthia; DeSteno, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust. PMID:24363649

  16. Improving the radiologist-CAD interaction: designing for appropriate trust.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, W; Cnossen, F; van Ooijen, P M A

    2015-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist-CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the interaction between radiologists and the CAD system is not optimal. An important factor in the interaction between humans and automated aids (such as CAD) is trust. Suboptimal performance of the human-automation team is often caused by an inappropriate level of trust in the automation. In this review, we examine the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction and suggest ways to improve the output of the CAD system so that it allows radiologists to calibrate their trust in the CAD system more effectively. Observer studies of the CAD systems show that radiologists often have an inappropriate level of trust in the CAD system. They sometimes under-trust CAD, thereby reducing its potential benefits, and sometimes over-trust it, leading to diagnostic errors they would not have made without CAD. Based on the literature on trust in human-automation interaction and the results of CAD observer studies, we have identified four ways to improve the output of CAD so that it allows radiologists to form a more appropriate level of trust in CAD. Designing CAD systems for appropriate trust is important and can improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team. Future CAD research and development should acknowledge the importance of the radiologist-CAD interaction, and specifically the role of trust therein, in order to create the perfect artificial partner for the radiologist. This review focuses on the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction. The aim of the review is to encourage CAD developers to design for appropriate trust and thereby improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team. PMID:25459198

  17. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  18. Trusting Beliefs: A Functional Measurement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Massidda, Davide; Noventa, Stefano; Vicentini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Trust is a fundamental aspect of everyday life. Several authors define trust as the wish to depend on another entity and split the concept of trust into several interconnected components such as trusting beliefs (e.g., benevolence, competence, honesty, and predictability), trusting intentions, trusting behaviors, disposition to trust, and…

  19. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  20. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    PubMed

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P

    2011-04-05

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers.

  1. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(18)-1 - Certain funded pension trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain funded pension trusts. 1.501(c)(18)-1... pension trusts. (a) In general. Organizations described in section 501(c)(18) are trusts created before June 25, 1959, forming part of a plan for the payment of benefits under a pension plan funded only...

  3. Communication Competence and Trust in Leaders: From Transactional, through Transitional, to Transformational Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Ian Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Trust is recognized as a critical component of effective leadership. However, limited empirical evidence exists that provides support for specific leader behaviors that contribute to the development of trust in followers. One way trust forms is through the experiences in the history of communication transactions between individuals. The Spitzberg…

  4. Quantifying and Qualifying Trust: Spectral Decomposition of Trust Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    In a previous FAST paper, I presented a quantitative model of the process of trust building, and showed that trust is accumulated like wealth: the rich get richer. This explained the pervasive phenomenon of adverse selection of trust certificates, as well as the fragility of trust networks in general. But a simple explanation does not always suggest a simple solution. It turns out that it is impossible to alter the fragile distribution of trust without sacrificing some of its fundamental functions. A solution for the vulnerability of trust must thus be sought elsewhere, without tampering with its distribution. This observation was the starting point of the present paper. It explores different methods for securing trust: not by redistributing, but by qualifying it. The methods used to break privacy can be used to secure trust.

  5. 78 FR 27296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 3520

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... foreign trust or transfer property to a foreign trust must file Form 3520 to report the establishment of the trust or the transfer of property to the trust. Form 3520 must also be filed by U.S. persons who... will become a matter of public record. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the collection...

  6. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... money owed in connection with produce transactions. (3) “Default” means the failure to pay promptly money owed in connection with transactions in perishable agricultural commodities; i.e., within the... commodities in whatever form, documentary or electronic, for billing or invoicing purposes. (b) Trust...

  7. Managing healthcare information: analyzing trust.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Eva; Eriksson, Nomie; Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze two case studies with a trust matrix tool, to identify trust issues related to electronic health records. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative research approach is applied using two case studies. The data analysis of these studies generated a problem list, which was mapped to a trust matrix. Findings - Results demonstrate flaws in current practices and point to achieving balance between organizational, person and technology trust perspectives. The analysis revealed three challenge areas, to: achieve higher trust in patient-focussed healthcare; improve communication between patients and healthcare professionals; and establish clear terminology. By taking trust into account, a more holistic perspective on healthcare can be achieved, where trust can be obtained and optimized. Research limitations/implications - A trust matrix is tested and shown to identify trust problems on different levels and relating to trusting beliefs. Future research should elaborate and more fully address issues within three identified challenge areas. Practical implications - The trust matrix's usefulness as a tool for organizations to analyze trust problems and issues is demonstrated. Originality/value - Healthcare trust issues are captured to a greater extent and from previously unchartered perspectives. PMID:27477934

  8. Linear least-squares method for unbiased estimation of T1 from SPGR signals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Cheng Guan; Basser, Peter J; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    The longitudinal relaxation time, T(1), can be estimated from two or more spoiled gradient recalled echo images (SPGR) acquired with different flip angles and/or repetition times (TRs). The function relating signal intensity to flip angle and TR is nonlinear; however, a linear form proposed 30 years ago is currently widely used. Here we show that this linear method provides T(1) estimates that have similar precision but lower accuracy than those obtained with a nonlinear method. We also show that T(1) estimated by the linear method is biased due to improper accounting for noise in the fitting. This bias can be significant for clinical SPGR images; for example, T(1) estimated in brain tissue (800 ms < T(1) < 1600 ms) can be overestimated by 10% to 20%. We propose a weighting scheme that correctly accounts for the noise contribution in the fitting procedure. Monte Carlo simulations of SPGR experiments are used to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated T(1) from the widely-used linear, the proposed weighted-uncertainty linear, and the nonlinear methods. We show that the linear method with weighted uncertainties reduces the bias of the linear method, providing T(1) estimates comparable in precision and accuracy to those of the nonlinear method while reducing computation time significantly. PMID:18666108

  9. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  10. Trust in the Contemporary Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Brian; Walker, Keith; Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The social relevance of trust and the principals' obligation to foster trust in schools have been strongly advocated. This paper describes an in-depth, qualitative study that engaged a group of twenty-five Canadian school principals over a period of seven months, exploring the issues of trust as it affects principals' roles and responsibilities.…

  11. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  12. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  13. Trust models in ubiquitous computing.

    PubMed

    Krukow, Karl; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2008-10-28

    We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models.

  14. Trust It or Trash It?

    MedlinePlus

    Trust It or Trash It? About | Contact | Español Tab 1 Tab 2 What is Trust It or Trash It? This is a tool to help you think ... here for the developer version. Home Who Said It? Who wrote it? Think about TRUSTING IT if: ...

  15. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  16. Trust, Collegiality, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeShaw, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the role of trust, a complex and understudied aspect of working relationships, among teachers in smaller learning communities (SLC). Based on a review of the literature, four kinds of interpersonal professional relationships were defined and described from individualism to community. An…

  17. Reclaiming the Public Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Derek

    1994-01-01

    The former president of Harvard University (Massachusetts) argues that college and university public relations specialists must attempt to understand what underlies the public's concerns about higher education, rather than simply to react to individual complaints. To reclaim public trust, higher education's leaders must consider carefully how they…

  18. Two Distinct Determinants of Ligand Specificity in T1R1/T1R3 (the Umami Taste Receptor)*

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; Hayakawa, Takashi; Okada, Shinji; Narukawa, Masataka; Imai, Hiroo; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    Umami taste perception in mammals is mediated by a heteromeric complex of two G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. T1R1/T1R3 exhibits species-dependent differences in ligand specificity; human T1R1/T1R3 specifically responds to l-Glu, whereas mouse T1R1/T1R3 responds more strongly to other l-amino acids than to l-Glu. The mechanism underlying this species difference remains unknown. In this study we analyzed chimeric human-mouse receptors and point mutants of T1R1/T1R3 and identified 12 key residues that modulate amino acid recognition in the human- and mouse-type responses in the extracellular Venus flytrap domain of T1R1. Molecular modeling revealed that the residues critical for human-type acidic amino acid recognition were located at the orthosteric ligand binding site. In contrast, all of the key residues for the mouse-type broad response were located at regions outside of both the orthosteric ligand binding site and the allosteric binding site for inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP), a known natural umami taste enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the newly identified key residues for the mouse-type responses modulated receptor activity in a manner distinct from that of the allosteric modulation via IMP. Analyses of multiple point mutants suggested that the combination of two distinct determinants, amino acid selectivity at the orthosteric site and receptor activity modulation at the non-orthosteric sites, may mediate the ligand specificity of T1R1/T1R3. This hypothesis was supported by the results of studies using nonhuman primate T1R1 receptors. A complex molecular mechanism involving changes in the properties of both the orthosteric and non-orthosteric sites of T1R1 underlies the determination of ligand specificity in mammalian T1R1/T1R3. PMID:24214976

  19. 26 CFR 1.401-12 - Requirements for qualification of trusts and plans benefiting owner-employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for qualification of a trust forming part of a pension or profit-sharing plan, or of an annuity plan... of future employees. (c) Bank trustee. (1)(i) If a trust created after October 9, 1962, is to form a... trustee of such trust must be a bank as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, unless an...

  20. Moral opinion polarization and the erosion of trust.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Since Puntam's seminal work on declining levels of social capital, the question of how social trust is formed has reached unprecedented heights of critical enquiry. While most of the current research concentrates on ethnic diversity and income inequality as the main influences driving down generalized trust, we focus on opinion polarization as another potential impact factor on trust. In more detail, we investigate the extent to which polarization over morally charged issues such as homsexuality, abortion and euthanasia affects individuals' likelihood to trust others. We hypothesize that moral issues have a natural tendency to divide societies' opinions into opposing poles and, thus, to challenge social cohesion in modern civil societies. Based on hierarchical analyses of the fifth wave of the World Values Survey (WVS) - comprising a sample of 39 countries - our results reveal that individuals living in countries characterized by more opinion polarization tend to have less trust in other people.

  1. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain trusts treated as separate trusts. 26... 1986 § 26.2654-1 Certain trusts treated as separate trusts. (a) Single trust treated as separate trusts... to each beneficiary (or group of beneficiaries) is treated as a separate trust for purposes...

  2. Myocardial Native T1 Time in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Nakamori, Shiro; Bellm, Steven; Jang, Jihye; Basha, Tamer; Maron, Martin; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2016-10-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), there are significant variations in left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and fibrosis, which necessitates a volumetric coverage. Slice-interleaved T1 (STONE) mapping sequence allows for the assessment of native T1 time with complete coverage of LV myocardium. The aims of this study were to evaluate spatial heterogeneity of native T1 time in patients with HC. Twenty-nine patients with HC (55 ± 16 years) and 15 healthy adult control subjects (46 ± 19 years) were studied. Native T1 mapping was performed using STONE sequence which enables acquisition of 5 slices in the short-axis plane within a 90 seconds free-breathing scan. We measured LV native T1 time and maximum LV wall thickness in each 16 segments from 3 slices (basal, midventricular and apical slice). Late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging was acquired to assess the presence of myocardial enhancement. In patients with HC, LV native T1 time was significantly elevated compared with healthy controls, regardless of the presence or absence of LGE (mean native T1 time; LGE positive segments from HC, 1,141 ± 46 ms; LGE negative segments from HC, 1,114 ± 56 ms; segments from healthy controls, 1,065 ± 35 ms, p <0.001). Elevation of native T1 time was defined as >1,135 ms, which was +2SD of native T1 time by STONE sequence in healthy controls. A total of 120 of 405 (30%) LGE negative segments from patients with HC showed elevated native T1 time. Prevalence of segments with elevated native T1 time for basal, midventricular, and apical slice was 29%, 25%, 38%, respectively. Significant correlation was found between LV wall thickness and LV native T1 time (y = 0.029 × -22.6, p <0.001 by Spearman's correlation coefficient). In conclusion, substantial number of segments without LGE showed elevation of native T1 time, and whole-heart T1 mapping revealed heterogeneity of myocardial native T1 time in patients with HC. PMID:27567135

  3. T1 Relaxation Time in Lungs of Asymptomatic Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Alamidi, Daniel F.; Kindvall, Simon S. I.; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; Young, Simon S.; Naish, Josephine H.; Waterton, John C.; Wollmer, Per; Diaz, Sandra; Olsson, Marita; Hockings, Paul D.; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M.; Parker, Geoffrey J. M.; Olsson, Lars E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interest in using T1 as a potential MRI biomarker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has recently increased. Since tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for development of COPD, the aim for this study was to examine whether tobacco smoking, pack-years (PY), influenced T1 of the lung parenchyma in asymptomatic current smokers. Materials and Methods Lung T1 measurements from 35 subjects, 23 never smokers and 12 current smokers were retrospectively analyzed from an institutional review board approved study. All 35 subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and lung T1, with similar T1 measurement protocols. A backward linear model of T1 as a function of FEV1, FVC, weight, height, age and PY was tested. Results A significant correlation between lung T1 and PY was found with a negative slope of -3.2 ms/year (95% confidence interval [CI] [-5.8, -0.6], p = 0.02), when adjusted for age and height. Lung T1 shortens with ageing among all subjects, -4.0 ms/year (95%CI [-6.3, -1.7], p = 0.001), and among the never smokers, -3.7 ms/year (95%CI [-6.0, -1.3], p = 0.003). Conclusions A correlation between lung T1 and PY when adjusted for both age and height was found, and T1 of the lung shortens with ageing. Accordingly, PY and age can be significant confounding factors when T1 is used as a biomarker in lung MRI studies that must be taken into account to detect underlying patterns of disease. PMID:26958856

  4. Trust in the medical profession and patient attachment style.

    PubMed

    Klest, Bridget; Philippon, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Attachment style is a person's approach to interpersonal relationships, which develops from early experiences with primary caregivers and can remain stable into adulthood. Depending on a person's attachment style, the amount of trust one has in others can vary when forming relationships, and trust is important in formation of the patient-physician relationship. The purpose of this study was to see if there is an association between attachment style and trust in physicians in general. Participants were recruited from an emergency department (ED) and an online university participant pool, and completed short questionnaires assessing attachment style and trust in the medical profession. Results revealed that individuals with a fearful attachment style reported significantly lower levels of trust in the medical profession than those with a secure attachment style. ED participants also reported higher levels of trust in the medical profession in comparison to student participants. This study provides a better understanding of trust in the medical profession, and insight into future care for patients who have low trust.

  5. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  6. Towards a politics of trust.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper draws upon sociological theory to demonstrate that the manufacture and deployment of trust is an integral part of the function of complex systems such as health care. The discussion begins by identifying the error within the nursing literature which arises from a rather technical conceptualization of trust. This tends to limit the dimensions to trust which is established, and fails to recognize that trust may be subject to competition and conflict. The paper continues by drawing upon the work of two theorists, Niklas Luhmann and Susan P. Shapiro, to demonstrate how trust functions within systems such as health care and the mechanisms through which it is controlled. The title of this paper, 'Towards a politics of trust', identifies that this is merely the first stage in the analysis. Further stages are necessary which analyse the ways in which power is exercised in the conflict for control within discrete elements of the system.

  7. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests. PMID:27140657

  8. Trust-Effectiveness Patterns in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Barnes, Laura L. B.; Adams, Curt M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the consequences of relational trust, especially parent measured trust, for desirable school outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Using a US Midwestern state sample of 79 schools, parent and teacher trust data are used to derive a trust-effectiveness typology. Trust was conceptualized as one party's willingness to be…

  9. Irreversible change in the T1 temperature dependence with thermal dose using the proton resonance frequency-T1 technique.

    PubMed

    Diakite, Mahamadou; Payne, Allison; Todd, Nick; Parker, Dennis L

    2013-04-01

    Denaturation of macromolecules within the tissues is believed to be the major factor contributing to the damage of tissues upon hyperthermia. As a result, the value of the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of the tissue water, which is related to the translational and rotational rates of water, represents an intrinsic probe for investigating structural changes in tissues at high temperature. Therefore, the goal of this work is to investigate whether the simultaneous measurement of temperature and T1 using a hybrid proton resonance frequency (PRF)-T1 measurement technique can be used to detect irreversible changes in T1 that might be indicative of tissue damage. A new hybrid PRF-T1 sequence was implemented based on the variable flip angle driven-equilibrium single-pulse observation (DESPOT)1 method from a standard three dimensional segmented echo-planar imaging sequence by alternating two flip angles from measurement to measurement. The structural changes of the heated tissue volumes were analyzed based on the derived T1 values and the corresponding PRF temperatures. Using the hybrid PRF-T1 technique, we demonstrate that the change of spin lattice relaxation time T1 is reversible with temperature for low thermal dose (thermal dose ≤ 240 cumulative equivalent minutes [CEM] 43°C) and irreversible with temperature after significant accumulation of thermal dose in ex vivo chicken breast tissue. These results suggest that the hybrid PRF-T1 method may be a potentially powerful tool to investigate the extent and mechanism of heat damage of biological tissues.

  10. A thermoalkaliphilic lipase of Geobacillus sp. T1.

    PubMed

    Leow, Thean Chor; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2007-05-01

    A thermoalkaliphilic T1 lipase gene of Geobacillus sp. strain T1 was overexpressed in pGEX vector in the prokaryotic system. Removal of the signal peptide improved protein solubility and promoted the binding of GST moiety to the glutathione-Sepharose column. High-yield purification of T1 lipase was achieved through two-step affinity chromatography with a final specific activity and yield of 958.2 U/mg and 51.5%, respectively. The molecular mass of T1 lipase was determined to be approximately 43 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. T1 lipase had an optimum temperature and pH of 70 degrees C and pH 9, respectively. It was stable up to 65 degrees C with a half-life of 5 h 15 min at pH 9. It was stable in the presence of 1 mM metal ions Na(+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+ ), but inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+). Tween 80 significantly enhanced T1 lipase activity. T1 lipase was active towards medium to long chain triacylglycerols (C10-C14) and various natural oils with a marked preference for trilaurin (C12) (triacylglycerol) and sunflower oil (natural oil). Serine and aspartate residues were involved in catalysis, as its activity was strongly inhibited by 5 mM PMSF and 1 mM Pepstatin. The T(m) for T1 lipase was around 72.2 degrees C, as revealed by denatured protein analysis of CD spectra.

  11. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  12. Establishment of safety paradigms and trust in emerging adult relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Sanders, Stephanie; Higgins, Jenny; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand the interplay between relationship trust and public health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of emerging adult women’s processes of establishing trust in sexual relationships. Twenty-five women aged 18–24 years participated in semi-structured interviews. Throughout the interviews, women compared and contrasted experiences in which they felt comfortable engaging in sexual intercourse with a partner versus times in which they did not feel comfortable. Analysis was based on a critical qualitative research orientation. When asked to speak to instances when they felt comfortable having sex, most women spoke about relationship trust. Many participants conceptualised trust based on past experiences with bad relationships or sexual violence. Based on their previous experiences of feeling unsafe or undervalued, emotional and physical security became prioritised in relationship development. Trust was developed through friendship, communication over time, and through shared life experiences. This research is among the first to qualitatively investigate trust formation and other impersonal dynamics related to sexual health decision-making. Insights from this study should be translated into future action by public health practitioners to promote healthy sexual relationships and communication about sexual health topics as a form of trust building. PMID:26943023

  13. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  14. 26 CFR 1.401-12 - Requirements for qualification of trusts and plans benefiting owner-employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in the trust instrument to control the investment of the trust funds either by directing investments, including reinvestments, disposals, and exchanges, or by disapproving proposed investments, including... to a qualified trust forming a part of a pension or profit-sharing plan if— (A) The investments...

  15. 78 FR 24814 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8612

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Undistributed Income of Real Estate Investment Trusts. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before... INFORMATION: Title: Return of Excise Tax on Undistributed Income of Real Estate Investment Trusts. OMB Number: 1545-1013. Form Number: Form 8612. Abstract: Form 8612 is used by real estate investment trusts...

  16. 75 FR 33887 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8612

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Undistributed Income of Real Estate Investment Trusts. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before... INFORMATION: Title: Return of Excise Tax on Undistributed Income of Real Estate Investment Trusts. OMB Number: 1545-1013. Form Number: Form 8612. Abstract: Form 8612 is used by real estate investment trusts...

  17. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe T (1) in oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, M. S.; Balamore, D.; Kacher, D. F.; Venkatesh, A. K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    The viability of the new technique of hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI (HypX-MRI) for imaging organs other than the lungs depends on whether the spin-lattice relaxation time, T(1), of (129)Xe is sufficiently long in the blood. In previous experiments by the authors, the T(1) was found to be strongly dependent upon the oxygenation of the blood, with T(1) increasing from about 3 s in deoxygenated samples to about 10 s in oxygenated samples. Contrarily, Tseng et al. (J. Magn. Reson. 1997; 126: 79-86) reported extremely long T(1) values deduced from an indirect experiment in which hyperpolarized (129)Xe was used to create a 'blood-foam'. They found that oxygenation decreased T(1). Pivotal to their experiment is the continual and rapid exchange of hyperpolarized (129)Xe between the gas phase (within blood-foam bubbles) and the dissolved phase (in the skin of the bubbles); this necessitated a complicated analysis to extract the T(1) of (129)Xe in blood. In the present study, the experimental design minimizes gas exchange after the initial bolus of hyperpolarized (129)Xe has been bubbled through the sample. This study confirms that oxygenation increases the T(1) of (129)Xe in blood, from about 4 s in freshly drawn venous blood, to about 13 s in blood oxygenated to arterial levels, and also shifts the red blood cell resonance to higher frequency. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Abbreviations used BOLD blood oxygen level dependent NOE nuclear overhouses effect PO(2) oxygen partial pressure RBC red blood cells RF radio frequency SNR signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Effective management of trust volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Carol

    2012-04-01

    A robust, well-managed volunteer programme can help NHS trusts have a better patient experience, engage with local communities, and improve and maintain their reputations. This article looks at the benefits of involving volunteers in trust activities and sets out the requirements to do this effectively, to enable them to achieve these aims.

  19. Interpersonal Trust, Trustworthiness, and Gullibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Julian B.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews positive and potential negative consequences of being high or low in interpersonal trust in social life, particularly in interacting with ordinary people. Research suggests that people who trust are less likely to lie or to be unhappy and more likely to be sought out as a friend. (Author/JLF)

  20. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  1. Online bargaining and interpersonal trust.

    PubMed

    Naquin, Charles E; Paulson, Gaylen D

    2003-02-01

    The presented study explores the effect of interacting over the Internet on interpersonal trust when bargaining online. Relative to face-to-face negotiations, online negotiations were characterized by (a) lower levels of pre-negotiation trust and (b) lower levels of post-negotiation trust. The reduced levels of pre-negotiation trust in online negotiations (i.e., before any interaction took place) demonstrate that negotiators bring different expectations to the electronic bargaining table than to face-to-face negotiations. These negative perceptions of trust were found to mediate another aspect of the relationship, namely, desired future interaction. Those who negotiated online reported less desire for future interactions with the other party. Online negotiators also were less satisfied with their outcome and less confident in the quality of their performance, despite the absence of observable differences in economic outcome quality.

  2. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  3. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  4. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context. PMID:26297747

  5. The Business of Trust.

    PubMed

    Frisse, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    New mobile devices, social networks, analytics, and communications technologies are emerging at an unparalleled rate. As a result, academic health centers will face both new opportunities and formidable challenges. Unlike previous transitions from paper-based systems to networked computer systems, these new technologies are the product of new entrepreneurial and commercial interests driven by consumers. As these new commercial products and services are more widely adopted, the likelihood grows that data will be used in unanticipated ways inconsistent with societal norms. Academic health centers will have to understand the implications of these technologies and engage more actively in processes governing the collection, aggregation, and use of health data produced in a new era of consumer-driven health care technology. Maintaining public trust should be a paramount concern.

  6. Myocardial T1 mapping: modalities and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Jellis, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis appears to be linked to myocardial dysfunction in a multitude of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Accurate non-invasive quantitation of this extra-cellular matrix has the potential for widespread clinical benefit in both diagnosis and guiding therapeutic intervention. T1 mapping is a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging technique, which shows early clinical promise particularly in the setting of diffuse fibrosis. This review will outline the evolution of T1 mapping and the various techniques available with their inherent advantages and limitations. Histological validation of this technique remains somewhat limited, however clinical application in a range of pathologies suggests strong potential for future development. PMID:24834410

  7. Wettability and fluid saturations determined from NMR T1 distributions.

    PubMed

    Howard, J J

    1994-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of brine and decane are determined from T1 distributions at different stages of a water-flood test in water-wet and oil-wet chalks. The T1 distributions generated from multi-exponential decomposition of inversion-recovery data provide more information than obtained from stretched and bi-exponential fits. Chalk samples because of their uniform pore size and ideal sedimentary rocks for NMR investigations of wettability since water and decane interactions with pore walls of differing wettability are easily distinguished.

  8. A novel enterocin T1 with anti-Pseudomonas activity produced by Enterococcus faecium T1 from Chinese Tibet cheese.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Han, Xue; Gao, Wei; Chi, Chunliang; Song, Wei; Li, Haiying; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-02-01

    An enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium T1 was isolated from Chinese Tibet cheese. The enterocin was purified by SP-Sepharose and reversed phase HPLC. It was identified as unique from other reported bacteriocins based on molecular weight (4629 Da) and amino acid compositions; therefore it was subsequently named enterocin T1. Enterocin T1 was stable at 80-100 °C and over a wide pH range, pH 3.0-10.0. Protease sensitivity was observed to trypsin, pepsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Importantly, enterocin T1 was observed to inhibit the growth of numerous Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Take together, these results suggest that enterocin T1 is a novel bacteriocin with the potential to be used as a bio-preservative to control Pseudomonas spp. in food. PMID:26745981

  9. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 47.8 Section 47.8... REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. (a) If a voting trust is used to qualify a domestic corporation as a... the fully executed voting trust agreement, which must identify each voting interest of the...

  10. 43 CFR 426.7 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trusts. 426.7 Section 426.7 Public Lands... LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.7 Trusts. (a) Definitions for purposes of this section: Grantor revocable trust means a trust that holds irrigable land or irrigation land that may be revoked at...

  11. Trust, Behavior, and High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…

  12. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the separate trusts, unless..., additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the separate trusts, unless... Code. Also, additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the...

  13. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the separate trusts, unless..., additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the separate trusts, unless... Code. Also, additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the...

  14. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the separate trusts, unless..., additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the separate trusts, unless... Code. Also, additions to, and distributions from, such trusts are allocated pro rata among the...

  15. Recombinant expression, in vitro refolding, and biophysical characterization of the N-terminal domain of T1R3 taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Maîtrepierre, Elodie; Sigoillot, Maud; Le Pessot, Laurence; Briand, Loïc

    2012-05-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimeric receptor composed of the T1R2 and T1R3 subunits, while T1R1 and T1R3 assemble to form the umami taste receptor. T1R receptors belong to the family of class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In addition to a transmembrane heptahelical domain, class C GPCRs have a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD), which is the primary ligand-binding site. The T1R2 and T1R1 subunits have been shown to be responsible for ligand binding, via their NTDs. However, little is known about the contribution of T1R3-NTD to receptor functions. To enable biophysical characterization, we overexpressed the human NTD of T1R3 (hT1R3-NTD) using Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies. Using a fractional factorial screen coupled to a functional assay, conditions were determined for the refolding of hT1R3-NTD. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopic studies revealed that hT1R3-NTD was well refolded. Using size-exclusion chromatography, we found that the refolded protein behaves as a dimer. Ligand binding quantified by tryptophan fluorescence quenching and microcalorimetry showed that hT1R3-NTD is functional and capable of binding sucralose with an affinity in the millimolar range. This study also provides a strategy to produce functional hT1R3-NTD by heterologous expression in E. coli; this is a prerequisite for structural determination and functional analysis of ligand-binding regions of other class C GPCRs. PMID:22450161

  16. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  17. Recent Results of IRAN-T1 Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Dorranian, D.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salem, M. K.; Mahmoodi D, M.; Arvin, R.; Talebitaher, Alireza; Abhari, Ali; Khorshid, P.; Hojabri, A.

    2006-12-04

    In this article after introducing the IR-T1 tokamak and its diagnostic systems a brief discussion on the range of grossly stable operating conditions of its plasma by Hugill diagram is presented. Hard disruption instability is studied experimentally in the next part, which confirms that MHD behavior in small tokamaks can be characterized by a single parameter q(a), safety factor at plasma edge. Finally the characteristics of the new regime of IR-T1 are reported. By our new model of triggering different fields (toroidal, ohmic and vertical), the plasma duration time is increased up to 35 ms with Ip of about 25 kA. By modifying capacitance and charging voltage of ohmic and vertical fields the spike oscillations which was appeared in the plasma behavior is taken out. The role of cleaning the vacuum chamber and using heavier gas for glow discharge and the effect of base pressure is described in detail.

  18. ACTS T1-VSAT - The intelligent earth station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, John R.; Spiegler, Jeffrey D.; Lowry, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    The functional design of the software for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) T1-VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is described. The design provides a flexible interface to allow customized control of a satellite network and to provide external processes with access to network capabilities without requiring modification to the network hardware or software. Some of the envisioned features are: automatic number location; dynamic reconfiguration of the number plan tables; security features of call priority, call preemption, and remote verification; automatic reconfiguration of least cost routing tables; circuit availability verification prior to call setup; audio and video conferencing; on demand broadband dial-up service; on demand dial-up broadband broadcast service; and ISDN. A brief review is also given of the ACTS satellite and network, the network management, and the ACTS T1-VSAT earth station.

  19. Tunneling at νT=1 in quantum Hall bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, D.; Khaire, T.; Finck, A. D. K.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2013-10-01

    Interlayer tunneling measurements in the strongly correlated bilayer quantized Hall phase at νT=1 are reported. The maximum, or critical, current for tunneling at νT=1 is shown to be a well-defined global property of the coherent phase, insensitive to extrinsic circuit effects and the precise configuration used to measure it, but also exhibiting a surprising scaling behavior with temperature. Comparisons between the experimentally observed tunneling characteristics and a recent theory are favorable at high temperatures, but not at low temperatures where the tunneling closely resembles the dc Josephson effect. The zero-bias tunneling resistance becomes extremely small at low temperatures, vastly less than that observed at zero magnetic field, but nonetheless remains finite. The temperature dependence of this tunneling resistance is similar to that of the ordinary in-plane resistivity of the quantum Hall phase.

  20. Towards T 1-limited magnetic resonance imaging using Rabi beats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedder, H.; Dolde, F.; Rempp, F.; Wolf, T.; Hemmer, P.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2011-03-01

    Two proof-of-principle experiments toward T 1-limited magnetic resonance imaging with NV centers in diamond are demonstrated. First, a large number of Rabi oscillations is measured and it is demonstrated that the hyperfine interaction due to the NV's 14N can be extracted from the beating oscillations. Second, the Rabi beats under V-type microwave excitation of the three hyperfine manifolds is studied experimentally and described theoretically.

  1. 77 FR 52135 - HomeTrust Bank, Clyde, North Carolina; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency HomeTrust Bank, Clyde, North Carolina; Approval of Conversion...) approved the application of HomeTrust Bank, Clyde, North Carolina to convert to the stock form...

  2. Medical bribery and the ethics of trust: the Romanian case.

    PubMed

    Manea, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    Medical bribery seems to be a global problem from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to China, a diffuse phenomenon, starting with morally acceptable gratitude and ending with institutional bribery. I focus my attention on Romania and analyze similar cases in Eastern European and postcommunist countries. Medical bribery can be regarded as a particular form of human transaction, a kind of primitive contract that occurs when people do not trust institutions or other forms of social contract that are meant to guarantee their rights and protect their interests. Concluding with strategies to fight medical bribery, I will underline better public policies for financing health and social care, and an ethic of trust that may help to restore trustworthiness of institutions and to rebuild interpersonal trust. This should be complemented by an educational program dedicated to understanding the negative consequences and mechanisms of corruption and the importance of ethical behavior.

  3. Medical bribery and the ethics of trust: the Romanian case.

    PubMed

    Manea, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    Medical bribery seems to be a global problem from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to China, a diffuse phenomenon, starting with morally acceptable gratitude and ending with institutional bribery. I focus my attention on Romania and analyze similar cases in Eastern European and postcommunist countries. Medical bribery can be regarded as a particular form of human transaction, a kind of primitive contract that occurs when people do not trust institutions or other forms of social contract that are meant to guarantee their rights and protect their interests. Concluding with strategies to fight medical bribery, I will underline better public policies for financing health and social care, and an ethic of trust that may help to restore trustworthiness of institutions and to rebuild interpersonal trust. This should be complemented by an educational program dedicated to understanding the negative consequences and mechanisms of corruption and the importance of ethical behavior. PMID:25503609

  4. T1 relaxometry of crossing fibres in the human brain.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Silvia; Assaf, Yaniv; Jeurissen, Ben; Jones, Derek K; Roebroeck, Alard

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive tract-based characterisation of white matter should include the ability to quantify myelin and axonal attributes irrespective of the complexity of fibre organisation within the voxel. Recently, a new experimental framework that combines inversion recovery and diffusion MRI, called inversion recovery diffusion tensor imaging (IR-DTI), was introduced and applied in an animal study. IR-DTI provides the ability to assign to each unique fibre population within a voxel a specific value of the longitudinal relaxation time, T1, which is a proxy for myelin content. Here, we apply the IR-DTI approach to the human brain in vivo on 7 healthy subjects for the first time. We demonstrate that the approach is able to measure differential tract properties in crossing fibre areas, reflecting the different myelination of tracts. We also show that tract-specific T1 has less inter-subject variability compared to conventional T1 in areas of crossing fibres, suggesting increased specificity to distinct fibre populations. Finally we show in simulations that changes in myelination selectively affecting one fibre bundle in crossing fibre areas can potentially be detected earlier using IR-DTI.

  5. T1 relaxometry of crossing fibres in the human brain.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Silvia; Assaf, Yaniv; Jeurissen, Ben; Jones, Derek K; Roebroeck, Alard

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive tract-based characterisation of white matter should include the ability to quantify myelin and axonal attributes irrespective of the complexity of fibre organisation within the voxel. Recently, a new experimental framework that combines inversion recovery and diffusion MRI, called inversion recovery diffusion tensor imaging (IR-DTI), was introduced and applied in an animal study. IR-DTI provides the ability to assign to each unique fibre population within a voxel a specific value of the longitudinal relaxation time, T1, which is a proxy for myelin content. Here, we apply the IR-DTI approach to the human brain in vivo on 7 healthy subjects for the first time. We demonstrate that the approach is able to measure differential tract properties in crossing fibre areas, reflecting the different myelination of tracts. We also show that tract-specific T1 has less inter-subject variability compared to conventional T1 in areas of crossing fibres, suggesting increased specificity to distinct fibre populations. Finally we show in simulations that changes in myelination selectively affecting one fibre bundle in crossing fibre areas can potentially be detected earlier using IR-DTI. PMID:27444568

  6. T1 and susceptibility contrast at high fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    Clinical imaging at high magnetic field strengths (≥ 3Tesla) is sought after primarily due to the increased signal strength available at these fields. This increased SNR can be used to perform: (a) high resolution imaging in the same time as at lower field strengths; (b) the same resolution imaging with much faster acquisition; and (c) functional MR imaging (fMRI), dynamic perfusion and diffusion imaging with increased sensitivity. However they are also associated with increased power deposition (SAR) due to increase in imaging frequency and longer T1 relaxation times. Longer T1s mean longer imaging times for generating good T1 contrast images. On the other hand for faster imaging, at high fields fast spin echo or magnetization prepared sequences are conventionally proposed which are, however, associated with high SAR values. Imaging with low SAR is more and more important as we move towards high fields and particularly for patients with metallic implants like pacemakers or deep brain stimulator. The SAR limit acceptable for these patients is much less than the limit acceptable for normal subjects. A new method is proposed for imaging at high fields with good contrast with simultaneous reduction in power deposition. Further, T1 based contrast optimization problem in FLASH imaging is considered for tissues with different T1s but same spin densities. The solution providing optimal imaging parameters is simplified for quick and easy computation in a clinical setting. The efficacy of the simplification is evaluated and practical limits under which the simplification can be applied are worked out. The phase difference due to variation in magnetic susceptibility property among biological tissues is another unique source of contrast which is different from the conventional T1, T2 and T2* contrast. This susceptibility based phase contrast has become more and more important at high fields, partly due to contrast generation issues due to longer T 1s and shorter T2s and

  7. Elimination of Subjectivity from Trust Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Omar; Brunie, Lionel; Pierson, Jean-Marc; Bertino, Elisa

    In many distributed applications, a party who wishes to make a transaction requires that it has a certain level of trust in the other party. It is frequently the case that the parties are unknown to each other and thus share no pre-existing trust. Trust-based systems enable users to establish trust in unknown users through trust recommendation from known users. For example, Bob may choose to trust an unknown user Carol when he receives a recommendation from his friend Alice that Carol’s trustworthiness is 0.8 on the interval [0,1].

  8. [Prospective factors of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Piwczyński, Dariusz; Betlejewski, Stanisław; Owczarek, Arkadiusz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate the probability of the neoplasm recurrence in patients with T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma operated with CO2 laser microsurgery. We analyzed the material of 171 patients treated in the Otolaryngology Department of the Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University between 1991 and 2003. The statistical method of logistic regression was used to estimate factors disposing the local recurrence of laryngeal cancer. We studied: age, sex, extent and location of the lesion, time up to recurrence, carbon granuloma, smoking cigarettes before and after the operation. We confirmed statistically significant correlation between the local recurrence and anterior commissure involvement.

  9. T-1 Test Program Ver. 6.0.1

    2004-05-21

    The software allows for easy setup and testing of a variety of RF Electronic Sensor Platforms (ESPs). The software interprets RF messages from the ESP and displays the information in a graphical user interface. This program is used primarily for testing of the T-1 Electronic Sensor Platform. The software imports Electronic Tag Data files which are created from the Electronic Sensor Platform Programmer (ESPP). The software will automatically add sensors to its database when amore » RF message s received that the program recognizes. Any data that is generated can be stored to a file for later analysis.« less

  10. The TOTEM T1 read out card motherboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minutoli, S.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the Read Out Card (ROC) motherboard, which is the main component of the T1 forward telescope front-end electronic system. The ROC main objectives are to acquire tracking data and trigger information from the detector. It performs data conversion from electrical to optical format and transfers the data streams to the next level of the system and it implements Slow Control modules which are able to receive, decode and distribute the LHC machine low jitter clock and fast command. The ROC also provides a spy mezzanine connection based on programmable FPGA and USB2.0 for laboratory and portable DAQ debugging system.

  11. The Effect of Instructional Supervision on Principal Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahnee, Robbie L.

    2010-01-01

    Within-school climates and culture are predicated on organizational structures, distributions of power, and roles that are highly interactive. Hierarchical structures and uneven power distributions, primarily those of teacher-principal, have been found to challenge levels of trust. School interaction patterns form the basis of much of the school…

  12. Online trust, trustworthiness, or assurance?

    PubMed

    Cheshire, Coye

    2011-01-01

    Every day, individuals around the world retrieve, share, and exchange information on the Internet. We interact online to share personal information, find answers to questions, make financial transactions, play social games, and maintain professional and personal relationships. Sometimes our online interactions take place between two or more humans. In other cases, we rely on computers to manage information on our behalf. In each scenario, risk and uncertainty are essential for determining possible actions and outcomes. This essay highlights common deficiencies in our understanding of key concepts such as trust, trustworthiness, cooperation, and assurance in online environments. Empirical evidence from experimental work in computer-mediated environments underscores the promises and perils of overreliance on security and assurance structures as replacements for interpersonal trust. These conceptual distinctions are critical because the future shape of the Internet will depend on whether we build assurance structures to limit and control ambiguity or allow trust to emerge in the presence of risk and uncertainty.

  13. Online trust, trustworthiness, or assurance?

    PubMed

    Cheshire, Coye

    2011-01-01

    Every day, individuals around the world retrieve, share, and exchange information on the Internet. We interact online to share personal information, find answers to questions, make financial transactions, play social games, and maintain professional and personal relationships. Sometimes our online interactions take place between two or more humans. In other cases, we rely on computers to manage information on our behalf. In each scenario, risk and uncertainty are essential for determining possible actions and outcomes. This essay highlights common deficiencies in our understanding of key concepts such as trust, trustworthiness, cooperation, and assurance in online environments. Empirical evidence from experimental work in computer-mediated environments underscores the promises and perils of overreliance on security and assurance structures as replacements for interpersonal trust. These conceptual distinctions are critical because the future shape of the Internet will depend on whether we build assurance structures to limit and control ambiguity or allow trust to emerge in the presence of risk and uncertainty. PMID:22167913

  14. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  15. Extended ISIS sequences insensitive to T(1) smearing.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, M; Starck, G; Vikhoff-Baaz, B; Alpsten, M; Ekholm, S; Forssell-Aronsson, E

    2000-10-01

    Image selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) is a volume selection method often used for in vivo (31)P MRS, since it is suitable for measurements of substances with short T(2). However, ISIS can suffer from significant signal contributions caused by T(1) smearing from regions outside the VOI. A computer model was developed to simulate this contamination. The simulation results for the ISIS experiment order implemented in our MR system (ISIS-0) were in agreement with results obtained from phantom measurements. A new extended ISIS experiment order (E-ISIS) was developed, consisting of four "optimal" ISIS experiment orders (ISIS-1 to ISIS-4) performed consecutively with dummy ISIS experiments in between. The simulation results show that contamination due to T(1) smearing is, effectively, eliminated with E-ISIS and is significantly lower than for ISIS-0 and ISIS-1. E-ISIS offers increased accuracy for quantitative and qualitative determination of substances studied using in vivo MRS. Hence, E-ISIS can be valuable for both clinical and research applications.

  16. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. PMID:22681564

  17. T(1)--T(2) correlation spectra obtained using a fast two-dimensional Laplace inversion.

    PubMed

    Song, Y-Q; Venkataramanan, L; Hürlimann, M D; Flaum, M; Frulla, P; Straley, C

    2002-02-01

    Spin relaxation is a sensitive probe of molecular structure and dynamics. Correlation of relaxation time constants, such as T(1) and T(2), conceptually similar to the conventional multidimensional spectroscopy, have been difficult to determine primarily due to the absense of an efficient multidimensional Laplace inversion program. We demonstrate the use of a novel computer algorithm for fast two-dimensional inverse Laplace transformation to obtain T(1)--T(2) correlation functions. The algorithm efficiently performs a least-squares fit on two-dimensional data with a nonnegativity constraint. We use a regularization method to find a balance between the residual fitting errors and the known noise amplitude, thus producing a result that is found to be stable in the presence of noise. This algorithm can be extended to include functional forms other than exponential kernels. We demonstrate the performance of the algorithm at different signal-to-noise ratios and with different T(1)--T(2) spectral characteristics using several brine-saturated rock samples.

  18. Ultrafast NMR T1 Relaxation Measurements: Probing Molecular Properties in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pieter E. S.; Donovan, Kevin J.; Szekely, Or; Baias, Maria; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation properties of NMR active nuclei carry useful information about the site-specific chemical environments and about the mobility of molecular fragments. Molecular mobility is in turn a key parameter reporting both on stable properties like size, as well as on dynamic ones such as transient interactions and irreversible aggregation. In order to fully investigate the latter, a fast sampling of the relaxation parameters of transiently formed molecular species may be needed. Nevertheless, the acquisition of longitudinal relaxation data is typically slow, being limited by the requirement that the time for which the nucleus relaxes be varied incrementally until a complete build-up curve is generated. Recently a number of single-shot inversion recovery methods have been developed capable of alleviating this need; still, these may be challenged by either spectral resolution restrictions or when coping with very fast relaxing nuclei. Here we present a new experiment to measure the T1s of multiple nuclear spins that experience fast longitudinal relaxation, while retaining full high-resolution chemical shift information. Good agreement is observed between T1s measured with conventional means and T1s measured using the new technique. The method is applied to the real time investigation of the reaction between D-xylose and sodium borate, which is in turn elucidated with the aid of ancillary ultrafast and conventional 2D TOCSY measurements. PMID:23878001

  19. Trust or Consequences: The Relationship between Faculty Trust and Faculty Learning Communities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gaye R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between FLC membership and faculty trust in higher education colleagues and faculty trust in higher education administration in public and private universities in the United States. This quantitative study examines trust in colleagues and trust in administration in higher education, two…

  20. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... children and grandchildren. The trust provides that, when T's youngest child reaches age 21, the trust will... youngest child reaches age 21 will be recognized as of that date as separate trusts for purposes of Chapter... before the severance. Any allocation of GST tax exemption to the trust after T's youngest child...

  1. 77 FR 5065 - Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application January 26...'') and Northern Lights Fund Trust (the ``Trust''). FILING DATES: The application was filed on...

  2. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

  3. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voting trusts. 47.8 Section 47.8 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. (a) If a voting trust is used to qualify a domestic corporation as...

  4. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting trusts. 47.8 Section 47.8... REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 41979, July 20, 2010. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 41980, July 20, 2010. (a) If a voting trust is used to qualify...

  5. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under...

  6. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under...

  7. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102...) Financial Responsibility § 280.102 Trust fund. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of § 280.93 by establishing a trust fund that conforms to the requirements of this section. The...

  8. Factors predicting trust between GPs and OPs

    PubMed Central

    Nauta, A.P.; von Grumbkow, J.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To study possible differences in trust between general practitioners (GPs) and occupational physicians (OPs) and the explanatory factors for trust. Insight into the factors predicting trust can improve programmes for stimulating the co-operation of GPs and OPs. Theory On the basis of theories of trust and of social identity theory we expected, (1) in both professions a higher level of knowledge-based trust than of identification-based trust, (2) a relationship between higher levels of identification-based trust and higher frequency of contact, (3) OPs to have a higher level of identification-based trust than GPs. We hypothesised (4) that OPs perceiving an equal status have higher levels of trust and (5) GPs perceiving a higher status have lower levels of trust. Methods A mail survey sent to 2297 doctors (1728 GPs and 569 OPs) of which we used 547 questionnaires. Results Hypotheses 1 and 2 were supported. Hypothesis 3 was not supported. Hypotheses 4 and 5 were supported for knowledge-based trust. On the basis of these findings it is possible that co-operation between the two groups is still in its early stages. Conclusions Programmes to improve the co-operation of GPs and OPs should focus on equalising status and stimulating contacts to build (identification-based) trust. PMID:16896412

  9. 46 CFR 67.36 - Trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.36 Trust. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or recreational endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship requirements if: (1) Each of its...) For the purpose of obtaining a fishery endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship...

  10. 46 CFR 67.36 - Trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.36 Trust. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or recreational endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship requirements if: (1) Each of its...) For the purpose of obtaining a fishery endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship...

  11. 46 CFR 67.36 - Trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.36 Trust. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or recreational endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship requirements if: (1) Each of its...) For the purpose of obtaining a fishery endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship...

  12. 46 CFR 67.36 - Trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.36 Trust. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or recreational endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship requirements if: (1) Each of its...) For the purpose of obtaining a fishery endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship...

  13. 46 CFR 67.36 - Trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.36 Trust. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or recreational endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship requirements if: (1) Each of its...) For the purpose of obtaining a fishery endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship...

  14. Trust and Schooling in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Oguzhan C.

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the effects of trust on human capital measured as average years of schooling in U.S. states using data from the 1980s and the 1990s. I find robust evidence that an increase in trust increases schooling across U.S. states. According the results of the seemingly unrelated regression estimation, a 25 percentage point increase in "Trust"…

  15. Sex Differences in Children's Trust in Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.

    1984-01-01

    Children (in Grades K, 2, and 4) were required to judge how much they trusted each of their classmates. A same sex pattern of peer trust was found in fourth and second graders, but not in kindergarten children. Contrary to expectation, girls were not significantly more trusting in peers than were boys. (KH)

  16. Animal Behaviour: Friendship Enhances Trust in Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan

    2016-01-25

    Individuals that participate in exchanges with delayed rewards can be exploited if their partners don't reciprocate. In humans, friendships are built on trust, and trust enhances cooperation. New evidence suggests that close social bonds also enhance trust in chimpanzees.

  17. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  18. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  19. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  20. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  1. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  2. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  3. Enhancing Trust in SOA Based Collaborative Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa; Bourimi, Mohamed; Hommel, Wolfgang; Kesdogan, Dogan

    Considering trust and privacy requirements for online and collaborative distance learning environments, this paper discusses potential extensions of SOA based applications to simultaneously support authentication and authorization services, and offering mutual trust to both learners and service providers. This study shows that the security mechanisms integrated in the SOA platform can be effectively extended and correlated with a trust model.

  4. 43 CFR 426.7 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... indirectly to a person(s) or entity(ies) other than the grantor(s). Otherwise revocable trust means a trust... entity(ies) other than the grantor(s). (b) Attribution of land held by a trust. The acreage...

  5. The Relationship between Collective Student Trust and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, David Carl

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between collective student trust and student achievement was tested in a sample of 1,748 5th grade students in 34 Title I elementary schools in an urban and urban fringe district. Trust was defined, the conditions of trust described, and the facets of trust discussed. Collective trust was distinguished from relational trust and…

  6. The Role of Trust in Information Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Stephen; Dibben, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the notion of trust as it relates to information science and technology, specifically user interfaces, autonomous agents, and information systems. Highlights include theoretical meaning of trust; trust and levels of analysis, including organizational trust; electronic commerce, user interfaces, and static trust; dynamic trust; and trust…

  7. The Administrative Team, Trust & Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Elliot Z.

    This paper describes the first phase of a research study that examined (1) how superintendents define and select their administrative teams; (2) how team values are conceptualized by superintendents; (3) how "trust" is defined and its value perceived by superintendents; and (4) whether or not gender influences the way superintendents define "team"…

  8. The Sutton Trust: Mobility Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Ahead of the party conference season, the Sutton Trust is urging fairer admissions to comprehensives, grammar schools and independent schools as part of a 10-point Mobility Manifesto setting out ten practical policy steps designed to put social mobility at the heart of the 2015 election campaign. The manifesto urges greater use of ballots (random…

  9. Trust enhances IT service management.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    ITIL process adoption may be a prerequisite for the National Programme for IT (NPfIT), but implementation is far from straightforward. IT services company Plan-Net has been assisting Barts and The London NHS Trust with implementing its ambitious ITIL processes deployment. PMID:17847874

  10. Trust enhances IT service management.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    ITIL process adoption may be a prerequisite for the National Programme for IT (NPfIT), but implementation is far from straightforward. IT services company Plan-Net has been assisting Barts and The London NHS Trust with implementing its ambitious ITIL processes deployment.

  11. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  12. Trust as a Teaching Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon-Weil, Anica; Hewitt, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Should I stop the conflict or narrate it? Do I redirect or reassure? Two infant/toddler teachers explain how they use trust as a teaching tool, "teaching" less and involving the toddlers in their classroom in the decisions that affect them. They took to heart the philosophy of Magda Gerber, who urged parents to "observe more, do less." The author…

  13. Effect of Air Ions on Submicron T1 Bacteriophage Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Happ, John W.; Harstad, J. Bruce; Buchanan, Lee M.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of a high concentration of ionized air molecules on sampling T1 phage aerosols of submicron particle size was evaluated by comparing the phage recoveries of all-glass impingers (AGI-4) and type 6 filter papers. Sampler recoveries of all ionized aerosols were less than the recoveries of nonionized control aerosols. These reductions in recovery were greater with positive ions than with negative ions or ions of mixed polarity. The AGI-4 allowed considerable slippage, which was not affected by the air ions. Type 6 filter paper recoveries were less than AGI-4 recoveries. The air ions did not appear to affect the aerosol particle size as determined by an electron microscope. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16349691

  14. Internal disruptions and RHF in IR-T1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoranneviss, M.; Masnavi, M.; Khademian, A.

    1996-12-31

    Sawtooth oscillations are observed on IR-T1 Tokamak during low ql discharge with a disruption time of about 30--60 {micro}s. The q = 1 singular surface occurs at radius 3--3.5 cm and inverted Sawtooth from chords outside this radius. The superimposed (m = 1) oscillation with a frequency of about 19 kHz {approx} 25 kHz, according to the tokamak discharges parameters, preceding the Sawtooth oscillation. One major effect the Sawtooth oscillation is to flatten the temperature and density profiles approximately out to a mixing radius rm = {radical}2 rs,. Furthermore, by applying RHFs (L = 2 and L = 3), the Sawtooth behavior is modified. The magnitude of the weak RHFs used in the experiments did not exceed 1% of Bp. Results showed that the weak RHFs magnetic perturbation would change the MHD instabilities and the Sawtooth behavior, as well as plasma, confinement.

  15. MAIN-BELT COMET P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Kaluna, Heather M.; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Micheli, Marco; Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Kleyna, Jan; Veres, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Ansdell, Megan; Elliott, Garrett T.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Meech, Karen J.; Riesen, Timm E.; Sonnett, Sarah; Novakovic, Bojan; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; and others

    2013-07-01

    We present initial results from observations and numerical analyses aimed at characterizing the main-belt comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS). Optical monitoring observations were made between 2012 October and 2013 February using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, the Keck I telescope, the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, Faulkes Telescope South, the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. The object's intrinsic brightness approximately doubles from the time of its discovery in early October until mid-November and then decreases by {approx}60% between late December and early February, similar to photometric behavior exhibited by several other main-belt comets and unlike that exhibited by disrupted asteroid (596) Scheila. We also used Keck to conduct spectroscopic searches for CN emission as well as absorption at 0.7 {mu}m that could indicate the presence of hydrated minerals, finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q{sub CN} < 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} mol s{sup -1}, from which we infer a water production rate of Q{sub H{sub 2O}}<5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} mol s{sup -1}, and no evidence of the presence of hydrated minerals. Numerical simulations indicate that P/2012 T1 is largely dynamically stable for >100 Myr and is unlikely to be a recently implanted interloper from the outer solar system, while a search for potential asteroid family associations reveals that it is dynamically linked to the {approx}155 Myr old Lixiaohua asteroid family.

  16. Using informed consent to save trust.

    PubMed

    Eyal, Nir

    2014-07-01

    Increasingly, bioethicists defend informed consent as a safeguard for trust in caretakers and medical institutions.This paper discusses an ‘ideal type’ of that move. What I call the trust-promotion argument for informed consent states:1. Social trust, especially trust in caretakers and medical institutions, is necessary so that, for example,people seek medical advice, comply with it, and participate in medical research.2. Therefore, it is usually wrong to jeopardise that trust.3. Coercion, deception, manipulation and other violations of standard informed consent requirements seriously jeopardise that trust.4. Thus, standard informed consent requirements are justified.This article describes the initial promise of this argument, then identifies challenges to it. As I show, the value of trust fails to account for some common sense intuitions about informed consent. We should revise the argument, common sense morality, or both.

  17. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems. PMID:22799560

  18. Public knowledge and public trust.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  19. Main-belt Comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Kaluna, Heather M.; Novaković, Bojan; Yang, Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Micheli, Marco; Denneau, Larry; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Jedicke, Robert; Kleyna, Jan; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Ansdell, Megan; Elliott, Garrett T.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Meech, Karen J.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Riesen, Timm E.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Sonnett, Sarah; Tholen, David J.; Urban, Laurie; Kaiser, Nick; Chambers, K. C.; Burgett, William S.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-07-01

    We present initial results from observations and numerical analyses aimed at characterizing the main-belt comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS). Optical monitoring observations were made between 2012 October and 2013 February using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, the Keck I telescope, the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, Faulkes Telescope South, the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. The object's intrinsic brightness approximately doubles from the time of its discovery in early October until mid-November and then decreases by ~60% between late December and early February, similar to photometric behavior exhibited by several other main-belt comets and unlike that exhibited by disrupted asteroid (596) Scheila. We also used Keck to conduct spectroscopic searches for CN emission as well as absorption at 0.7 μm that could indicate the presence of hydrated minerals, finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q CN < 1.5 × 1023 mol s-1, from which we infer a water production rate of Q_H_2O<5\\times 10^{25} mol s-1, and no evidence of the presence of hydrated minerals. Numerical simulations indicate that P/2012 T1 is largely dynamically stable for >100 Myr and is unlikely to be a recently implanted interloper from the outer solar system, while a search for potential asteroid family associations reveals that it is dynamically linked to the ~155 Myr old Lixiaohua asteroid family. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation, the Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inova

  20. Sinking slowly: Diversity in propensity to trust predicts downward trust spirals in small groups.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda J; Peterson, Randall S

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of trust spirals in small groups. Drawing on literature on the spiral reinforcement of trust, we theorize that diversity in propensity to trust has affective and cognitive consequences related to trust (i.e., feelings of frustration and perceptions of low similarity), reducing the level of experienced intragroup trust early in a group's development. Reduced experienced trust then fuels relationship conflict and lowers trust even further over time, ultimately having a negative effect on group performance. These ideas are tested using a sample of MBA student groups surveyed at 3 time periods over 4 months. Results confirm our hypothesis that diversity in propensity to trust is sufficient to trigger a downward trust spiral and poor performance in small groups. PMID:25602121

  1. Role of nutrient-sensing taste 1 receptor (T1R) family members in gastrointestinal chemosensing.

    PubMed

    Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P; Daly, Kristian; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Moran, Andrew W; Bravo, David

    2014-06-01

    Luminal nutrient sensing by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed on the apical domain of enteroendocrine cells activates intracellular pathways leading to secretion of gut hormones that control vital physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, food intake and glucose homeostasis. The taste 1 receptor (T1R) family of GPCR consists of three members: T1R1; T1R2; T1R3. Expression of T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 at mRNA and protein levels has been demonstrated in the intestinal tissue of various species. It has been shown that T1R2-T1R3, in association with G-protein gustducin, is expressed in intestinal K and L endocrine cells, where it acts as the intestinal glucose (sweet) sensor. A number of studies have demonstrated that activation of T1R2-T1R3 by natural sugars and artificial sweeteners leads to secretion of glucagon-like peptides 1&2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin secretion; GLP-2 increases intestinal growth and glucose absorption. T1R1-T1R3 combination co-expressed on the apical domain of cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing cells is a luminal sensor for a number of L-amino acids; with amino acid-activation of the receptor eliciting CCK secretion. This article focuses on the role of the gut-expressed T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 in intestinal sweet and L-amino acid sensing. The impact of exploiting T1R2-T1R3 as a nutritional target for enhancing intestinal glucose absorption and gut structural maturity in young animals is also highlighted.

  2. Resolution enhanced T1-insensitive steady-state imaging.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Jamal J; Nour, Sherif G; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A; Duerk, Jeffrey L

    2012-08-01

    Resolution enhanced T(1)-insensitive steady-state imaging (RE-TOSSI) is a new MRI pulse sequence for the generation of rapid T(2) contrast with high spatial resolution. TOSSI provides T(2) contrast by using nonequally spaced inversion pulses throughout a balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) acquisition. In RE-TOSSI, these energy and time intensive adiabatic inversion pulses and associated magnetization preparation are removed from TOSSI after acquisition of the data around the center of k-space. Magnetization evolution simulations demonstrate T(2) contrast in TOSSI as well as reduction in the widening of the point spread function width (by up to a factor of 4) to a near ideal case for RE-TOSSI. Phantom experimentation is used to characterize and compare the contrast and spatial resolution properties of TOSSI, RE-TOSSI, balanced SSFP, Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE), and turbo spin echo and to optimize the fraction of k-space acquired using TOSSI. Comparison images in the abdomen and brain demonstrate similar contrast and improved spatial resolution in RE-TOSSI compared with TOSSI; comparison balanced SSFP, HASTE, and turbo spin echo images are provided. RE-TOSSI is capable of providing high spatial resolution T(2)-weighted images in 1 s or less per image.

  3. Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. C.; Whitelaw, E.; Doppelt, B.; Burchell, A.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate and particle forcing, government must mitigate dangerous carbon loading of the atmosphere. Confronting climate change and protecting natural resources requires a clear sense of government obligation that is inherent to sovereignty, not a matter of political choice. Our government representatives can and must reframe government's discretion into a trustee obligation to protect Nature and ensure natural resource stewardship. Drawing upon enduring legal principles and court decisions, government can be characterized as a trustee of the natural resources essential to human survival. A trust is a fundamental type of ownership whereby one manages property for the benefit of another. Viewed as a trust, the environment consists of a portfolio of quantified natural assets that government manages. As beneficiaries, citizens hold a common property interest in defined, bounded assets that make up Nature's Trust. Such trust principles form the bedrock of statutory law. Trustees have a fiduciary obligation to protect trust assets and may not allow destruction of property they manage. This session will provide a policy frame for current scientific efforts to address climate change and natural resources loss. Under the Nature's Trust frame, U.S. government leaders and agencies at every level inherit a strict fiduciary obligation to protect our collective natural resources, including our water and the atmosphere, as assets in the trust. Their fiduciary standard of care consists of a proportionate responsibility, which ties directly to "Nature's Mandate" as defined by current climate

  4. Unfounded trust: a constructivist meditation.

    PubMed

    Neimeyer, R A

    2001-01-01

    From a postmodern standpoint, all trust is ultimately unfounded, in the sense that no authoritative theoretical, empirical or practical foundation exists to ground a unified, explicit, and justified framework for psychotherapeutic practice. Following a constructivist meditation on these themes, I offer five playful prescriptions for addressing this predicament that suggest a provisional way forward in a terrain that offers no firm footholds having bedrock certainty.

  5. YpT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Sun, Wen-jie; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic T1-2N0 rectal cancer shows an excellent prognosis without preoperative or postoperative chemoradiation. However, oncologic outcome of ypT1-2N0 remains unclear and undetermined. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the survival of ypT1-2 and pT1-2 rectal cancer patients after radical resection and identify risk factors of ypT1-2 rectal cancer in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered rectal cancer patients. The results showed that ypT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer and mucinous/signet-ring cancer and less than 12 lymph nodes retrieval were two risk factors in ypT1-2 patients. These results suggest that ypT1-2 patients with one or two risk factors may benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26517674

  6. Money and trust among strangers

    PubMed Central

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-01-01

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable. PMID:23980139

  7. Money and trust among strangers.

    PubMed

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-09-10

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable.

  8. Improvement, trust, and the healthcare workforce

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, D

    2003-01-01

    Although major defects in the performance of healthcare systems are well documented, progress toward remedy remains slow. Accelerating improvement will require large shifts in attitudes toward and strategies for developing the healthcare workforce. At present, prevailing strategies rely largely on outmoded theories of control and standardisation of work. More modern, and much more effective, theories of production seek to harness the imagination and participation of the workforce in reinventing the system. This requires a workforce capable of setting bold aims, measuring progress, finding alternative designs for the work itself, and testing changes rapidly and informatively. It also requires a high degree of trust in many forms, a bias toward teamwork, and a predilection toward shouldering the burden of improvement, rather than blaming external factors. A new healthcare workforce strategy, founded on these principles, will yield much faster improvement than at present. PMID:14645740

  9. Identification of amino acid residues essential to the activity of lyase CpcT1 from Nostoc sp. PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Sun, Ya Fang; Zhao, Kai Hong; Zhou, Ming

    2012-12-10

    The phycocyanin lyase CpcT1 (encoded by gene all5339) and lyase CpcS1 (encoded by gene alr0617) are capable of catalyzing the phycocyanobilin (PCB) covalently bound to the different sites of phycocyanin's and phycoerythrocyanin's β subunits, respectively. Lyase CpcS1, whose catalytic mechanism had been researched clearly, participates in the covalent coupling of phycobilin and apoprotein in the form of chaperone, and its important amino acids have been confirmed. In order to identify the functional amino acid residues of CpcT1, chemical modification was conducted to arginine, histidine, tryptophan, lysine and amino acid carboxyl of CpcT1. The results indicated that the catalytic activity of the CpcT1 was changed. After the modification of arginine, tryptophan and histidine, site-directed mutations were performed to those highly conserved amino acids which were selected by means of homologous comparison. The mutated lyase, apoprotein and the enzymes that synthesize the phycobilins were recombined in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and in vitro, yielding chromoproteins, which were detected by fluorescence and UV absorption spectrometry. The spectra were compared with that of the chromoprotein catalyzed by wild type lyase CpcT1, achieving relative specific activities of the various mutants. Meanwhile, the mutants were expressed in E. coli, and then circular dichroism structure of near-UV region was determined. The results demonstrated that H33F, W175S, R97A, C137S and C116S influence the catalytic activity of CpcT1. Being different from wild CpcT1, a great deal of α helix was involved in the structure of circular dichroism of R97A and W13S. CpcT1 or its mutants and the enzymes that synthesize the phycobilins, were reconstituted in E. coli and detected by spectra to check the bounding of lyases and PCB. The results of spectra and SDS-PAGE confirm that CpcT1 and its mutants cannot bind phycobilin, differing from the catalytic mechanism of CpcS1. PMID:22982227

  10. Different functional roles of T1R subunits in the heteromeric taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Staszewski, Lena; Tang, Huixian; Adler, Elliot; Zoller, Mark; Li, Xiaodong

    2004-09-28

    The T1R receptors, a family of taste-specific class C G protein-coupled receptors, mediate mammalian sweet and umami tastes. The structure-function relationships of T1R receptors remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R extracellular and transmembrane domains in ligand recognition and G protein coupling. Similar to other family C G protein-coupled receptors, the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain of T1R2 is required for recognizing sweeteners, such as aspartame and neotame. The G protein coupling requires the transmembrane domain of T1R2. Surprisingly, the C-terminal transmembrane domain of T1R3 is required for recognizing sweetener cyclamate and sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Because T1R3 is the common subunit in the sweet taste receptor and the umami taste receptor, we tested the interaction of lactisole and cyclamate with the umami taste receptor. Lactisole inhibits the activity of the human T1R1/T1R3 receptor, and, as predicted, blocked the umami taste of l-glutamate in human taste tests. Cyclamate does not activate the T1R1/T1R3 receptor by itself, but potentiates the receptor's response to l-glutamate. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R3 and T1R2 and the presence of multiple ligand binding sites on the sweet taste receptor. PMID:15353592

  11. Different functional roles of T1R subunits in the heteromeric taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Staszewski, Lena; Tang, Huixian; Adler, Elliot; Zoller, Mark; Li, Xiaodong

    2004-09-28

    The T1R receptors, a family of taste-specific class C G protein-coupled receptors, mediate mammalian sweet and umami tastes. The structure-function relationships of T1R receptors remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R extracellular and transmembrane domains in ligand recognition and G protein coupling. Similar to other family C G protein-coupled receptors, the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain of T1R2 is required for recognizing sweeteners, such as aspartame and neotame. The G protein coupling requires the transmembrane domain of T1R2. Surprisingly, the C-terminal transmembrane domain of T1R3 is required for recognizing sweetener cyclamate and sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Because T1R3 is the common subunit in the sweet taste receptor and the umami taste receptor, we tested the interaction of lactisole and cyclamate with the umami taste receptor. Lactisole inhibits the activity of the human T1R1/T1R3 receptor, and, as predicted, blocked the umami taste of l-glutamate in human taste tests. Cyclamate does not activate the T1R1/T1R3 receptor by itself, but potentiates the receptor's response to l-glutamate. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R3 and T1R2 and the presence of multiple ligand binding sites on the sweet taste receptor.

  12. Trusted Routing Based on Dynamic Trust Mechanism in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sancheng; Jia, Weijia; Wang, Guojun; Wu, Jie; Guo, Minyi

    Due to the distributed nature, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are vulnerable to various attacks, resulting in distrusted communications. To achieve trusted communications, it is important to build trusted routes in routing algorithms in a self-organizing and decentralized fashion. This paper proposes a trusted routing to locate and to preserve trusted routes in MANETs. Instead of using a hard security mechanism, we employ a new dynamic trust mechanism based on multiple constraints and collaborative filtering. The dynamic trust mechanism can effectively evaluate the trust and obtain the precise trust value among nodes, and can also be integrated into existing routing protocols for MANETs, such as ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). As an example, we present a trusted routing protocol, based on dynamic trust mechanism, by extending DSR, in which a node makes a routing decision based on the trust values on its neighboring nodes, and finally, establish a trusted route through the trust values of the nodes along the route in MANETs. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through extensive simulations.

  13. The interplay of T1- and T2-relaxation on T1-weighted MRI of hMSCs induced by Gd-DOTA-peptides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Limin; Li, Binbin; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Hailu; Dai, Jianwu; Tan, Bo; Deng, Zongwu

    2014-04-01

    Three Gd-DOTA-peptide complexes with different peptide sequence are synthesized and used as T1 contrast agent to label human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for magnetic resonance imaging study. The peptides include a universal cell penetrating peptide TAT, a linear MSC-specific peptide EM7, and a cyclic MSC-specific peptide CC9. A significant difference in labeling efficacy is observed between the Gd-DOTA-peptides as well as a control Dotarem. All Gd-DOTA-peptides as well as Dotarem induce significant increase in T1 relaxation rate which is in favor of T1-weighted MR imaging. Gd-DOTA-CC9 yields the maximum labeling efficacy but poor T1 contrast enhancement. Gd-DOTA-EM7 yields the minimum labeling efficacy but better T1 contrast enhancement. Gd-DOTA-TAT yields a similar labeling efficacy as Gd-DOTA-CC9 and similar T1 contrast enhancement as Gd-DOTA-EM7. The underlying mechanism that governs T1 contrast enhancement effect is discussed. Our results suggest that T1 contrast enhancement induced by Gd-DOTA-peptides depends not only on the introduced cellular Gd content, but more importantly on the effect that Gd-DOTA-peptides exert on the T1-relaxation and T2-relaxation processes/rates. Both T1 and particularly T2 relaxation rate have to be taken into account to interpret T1 contrast enhancement. In addition, the interpretation has to be based on cellular instead of aqueous longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of Gd-DOTA-peptides.

  14. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Derek M; Hurst, Norman R; Bradley, Zachary L; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F; Lyall, Vijay; DeSimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S; Grider, John R

    2014-12-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), in taste cells. Ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide release were measured in three-chamber flat-sheet preparations of rat colon in response to MSG alone or with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP). Velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion was measured by video recording in guinea pig distal colon. T1R1/T1R3 receptors were present in enteroendocrine cells of colonic sections from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig. MSG initiated ascending contraction and descending relaxation components of the peristaltic reflex and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in flat-sheet preparations. IMP augmented the MSG-induced effects, suggesting activation of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. In T1R1(-/-) mice, mucosal stroking, but not MSG, elicited a peristaltic reflex. Intraluminal perfusion of MSG enhanced the velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion, which was also augmented by IMP. Propulsion was also increased by l-cysteine, but not l-tryptophan, supporting a role of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. We conclude that T1R1/T1R3 activation by luminal MSG or l-cysteine elicits a peristaltic reflex and CGRP release and increases the velocity of pellet propulsion in distal colon. This mechanism may explain how nutrients regulate colonic propulsion. PMID:25324508

  15. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Derek M.; Hurst, Norman R.; Bradley, Zachary L.; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F.; Lyall, Vijay; DeSimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S.

    2014-01-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), in taste cells. Ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide release were measured in three-chamber flat-sheet preparations of rat colon in response to MSG alone or with inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP). Velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion was measured by video recording in guinea pig distal colon. T1R1/T1R3 receptors were present in enteroendocrine cells of colonic sections from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig. MSG initiated ascending contraction and descending relaxation components of the peristaltic reflex and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in flat-sheet preparations. IMP augmented the MSG-induced effects, suggesting activation of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. In T1R1−/− mice, mucosal stroking, but not MSG, elicited a peristaltic reflex. Intraluminal perfusion of MSG enhanced the velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion, which was also augmented by IMP. Propulsion was also increased by l-cysteine, but not l-tryptophan, supporting a role of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. We conclude that T1R1/T1R3 activation by luminal MSG or l-cysteine elicits a peristaltic reflex and CGRP release and increases the velocity of pellet propulsion in distal colon. This mechanism may explain how nutrients regulate colonic propulsion. PMID:25324508

  16. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Derek M; Hurst, Norman R; Bradley, Zachary L; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F; Lyall, Vijay; DeSimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S; Grider, John R

    2014-12-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), in taste cells. Ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide release were measured in three-chamber flat-sheet preparations of rat colon in response to MSG alone or with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP). Velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion was measured by video recording in guinea pig distal colon. T1R1/T1R3 receptors were present in enteroendocrine cells of colonic sections from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig. MSG initiated ascending contraction and descending relaxation components of the peristaltic reflex and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in flat-sheet preparations. IMP augmented the MSG-induced effects, suggesting activation of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. In T1R1(-/-) mice, mucosal stroking, but not MSG, elicited a peristaltic reflex. Intraluminal perfusion of MSG enhanced the velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion, which was also augmented by IMP. Propulsion was also increased by l-cysteine, but not l-tryptophan, supporting a role of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. We conclude that T1R1/T1R3 activation by luminal MSG or l-cysteine elicits a peristaltic reflex and CGRP release and increases the velocity of pellet propulsion in distal colon. This mechanism may explain how nutrients regulate colonic propulsion.

  17. Public trust in government concerning tobacco control in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayachi, Kazuya; Cvetkovich, George

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated public trust and its determinants concerning the government's control of tobacco in Japan. We focused on the two issues of government policies to ban smoking by minors and increase taxes on tobacco. We conducted a questionnaire survey in which respondents were asked to assess their trust in the government, the government's fairness and competency, and their value similarity with the government. One thousand three hundred and ninety-four respondents agreed to participate in the survey out of 2,600 randomly sampled adults over 20 years old from all over Japan. The results of multiple regression analysis confirmed that value similarity is the strongest predictor of public trust in the government. On the affirmatively supported issue of prohibiting smoking among minors, the results further indicated that assessment of competency is a stronger predictor than assessment of fairness. In contrast, assessment of fairness is a stronger predictor than assessment of competency for the still divided issue of increasing tobacco tax. Respondents who had low concern and had not formed clear opinions on the issues showed a weak link between assessment of value similarity and trust. Based on these findings, we considered the implications for the government's implementation of tobacco controls.

  18. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner.

  19. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  20. Accelerated and Navigator-Gated Look-Locker Imaging for Cardiac T1 Estimation (ANGIE): Development and Application to T1 Mapping of the Right Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bhairav B.; Chen, Xiao; Bilchick, Kenneth C.; Salerno, Michael; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for high-resolution cardiac T1 mapping. Methods: A new method, accelerated and navigator-gated look-locker imaging for cardiac T1 estimation (ANGIE), was developed. An adaptive acquisition algorithm that accounts for the interplay between navigator gating and undersampling patterns well-suited for compressed sensing was used to minimize scan time. Computer simulations, phantom experiments, and imaging of the left ventricle (LV) were used to optimize and evaluate ANGIE. ANGIE’s high spatial resolution was demonstrated by T1 mapping of the right ventricle (RV). Comparisons were made to modified Look-Locker imaging (MOLLI). Results: Retrospective reconstruction of fully sampled datasets demonstrated the advantages of the adaptive algorithm. For the LV, ANGIE measurements of T1 were in good agreement with MOLLI. For the RV, ANGIE achieved a spatial resolution of 1.2 × 1.2 mm2 with a scan time of 157±53 s per slice, and measured RV T1 values of 980±96 ms versus 1076±157 ms for lower-resolution MOLLI. ANGIE provided lower intrascan variation in the RV T1 estimate compared with MOLLI (P<0.05). Conclusion: ANGIE enables high-resolution cardiac T1 mapping in clinically reasonable scan times. ANGIE opens the prospect of quantitative T1 mapping of thin cardiovascular structures such as the RV wall. PMID:24515952

  1. Interactions between Equine Cyclin T1, Tat, and TAR Are Disrupted by a Leucine-to-Valine Substitution Found in Human Cyclin T1

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Ran; Fujinaga, Koh; Irwin, Dan; Wimmer, Jörg; Geyer, Matthias; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2000-01-01

    Transcriptional transactivators (Tat) from human immunodeficiency and equine infectious anemia viruses (HIV and EIAV) interact with their transactivation response elements (TAR) to increase the rates of viral transcription. Whereas the human cyclin T1 is required for the binding of Tat to TAR from HIV, it is unknown how Tat from EIAV interacts with its TAR. Furthermore, Tat from EIAV functions in equine and canine cells but not in human cells. In this study, we present sequences of cyclins T1 from horse and dog and demonstrate that their N-terminal 300 residues rescue the transactivation of Tat from EIAV in human cells. Although human and equine cyclins T1 bind to this Tat, only the equine cyclin T1 supports the binding of Tat to TAR from EIAV. Finally, a reciprocal exchange of the valine for the leucine at position 29 in human and equine cyclins T1, respectively, renders the human cyclin T1 active and the equine cyclin T1 inactive for Tat transactivation from EIAV. Thus, the collaboration between a specific cyclin T1 and Tat for their high-affinity interaction with TAR is a common theme of lentiviral transactivation. PMID:10623752

  2. 17 CFR 240.16a-8 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts. 240.16a-8 Section 240...-8 Trusts. (a) Persons subject to section 16—(1) Trusts. A trust shall be subject to section 16 of the Act with respect to securities of the issuer if the trust is a beneficial owner, pursuant to §...

  3. 7 CFR 1400.100 - Revocable trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES PAYMENT LIMITATION AND PAYMENT ELIGIBILITY FOR 2009 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.100 Revocable trust....

  4. Trust in automation: designing for appropriate reliance.

    PubMed

    Lee, John D; See, Katrina A

    2004-01-01

    Automation is often problematic because people fail to rely upon it appropriately. Because people respond to technology socially, trust influences reliance on automation. In particular, trust guides reliance when complexity and unanticipated situations make a complete understanding of the automation impractical. This review considers trust from the organizational, sociological, interpersonal, psychological, and neurological perspectives. It considers how the context, automation characteristics, and cognitive processes affect the appropriateness of trust. The context in which the automation is used influences automation performance and provides a goal-oriented perspective to assess automation characteristics along a dimension of attributional abstraction. These characteristics can influence trust through analytic, analogical, and affective processes. The challenges of extrapolating the concept of trust in people to trust in automation are discussed. A conceptual model integrates research regarding trust in automation and describes the dynamics of trust, the role of context, and the influence of display characteristics. Actual or potential applications of this research include improved designs of systems that require people to manage imperfect automation.

  5. On Propagating Interpersonal Trust in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Cai-Nicolas

    The age of information glut has fostered the proliferation of data and documents on the Web, created by man and machine alike. Hence, there is an enormous wealth of minable knowledge that is yet to be extracted, in particular, on the Semantic Web. However, besides understanding information stated by subjects, knowing about their credibility becomes equally crucial. Hence, trust and trust metrics, conceived as computational means to evaluate trust relationships between individuals, come into play. Our major contribution to Semantic Web trust management through this work is twofold. First, we introduce a classification scheme for trust metrics along various axes and discuss advantages and drawbacks of existing approaches for Semantic Web scenarios. Hereby, we devise an advocacy for local group trust metrics, guiding us to the second part, which presents Appleseed, our novel proposal for local group trust computation. Compelling in its simplicity, Appleseed borrows many ideas from spreading activation models in psychology and relates their concepts to trust evaluation in an intuitive fashion. Moreover, we provide extensions for the Appleseed nucleus that make our trust metric handle distrust statements.

  6. Adjuvant chemotherapy of pT1a and pT1b breast carcinoma: results from the NEMESI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognosis of pT1a-pT1b breast cancer (BC) used to be considered very good, with a 10-y RFS of 90%. However, some retrospective studies reported a 10-y RFS of 81%–86% and suggested benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. Methods To evaluate the variables that determined the choice of adjuvant chemotherapy and the type of chemotherapy delivered in pT1a-pT1b BC, we analysed the small tumours enrolled in the NEMESI study. Results Out of 1,894 patients with pathological stage I-II BC enrolled in NEMESI, 402 (21.2%) were pT1a-pT1b. Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 127/402 (31.59%). Younger age, grading G3, high proliferative index, ER-negative and HER2-positive status were significantly associated with the decision to administer adjuvant chemotherapy. An anthracycline without taxane regimen was administered in 59.1% of patients, anthracycline with taxane in 24.4%, a CMF-like regimen in 14.2% and taxane in 2.4%. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 88.4% triple-negative and 73.46% HER2-positive pT1a-pT1b BC. Adjuvant trastuzumab was delivered in 30/49 HER2-positive BC (61.2%). Conclusions Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 31.59% T1a-pT1b BC treated at 63 Italian oncological centres from January 2008 to June 2008. The choice to deliver chemotherapy was based on biological prognostic factors. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was administered in 83.5% patients. PMID:22545982

  7. Is It a Trust Issue? Factors That Influence Trust for Persons Living With HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; May, Warren L

    2016-09-01

    Trust in one's health care provider, trust in the health care system in general, and even trust in one's community affects engagement in HIV-related health care. This article examines the issue of trust among a random sample of HIV-infected individuals residing in Mississippi, an area hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Five constructs based on survey responses from these individuals were developed: (1) trust in one's provider to offer the best possible medical care, (2) trust in one's provider to protect patient privacy, (3) willingness to disclose HIV status to one's provider, (4) trust in the health care system, and (5) trust in one's community. Findings suggest that interventions to improve trust in providers to deliver the highest quality of care should be targeted to young people, African Americans, and the more highly educated. Interventions to increase trust in providers to protect privacy should focus on creating and strengthening social support groups or networks that build relationships and foster trust. Interventions aimed to increase community trust also should be targeted to young people. This information is useful to researchers, policy makers, health care providers, and organizations interested in prioritizing interventions and strategies that have the greatest potential to reduce health disparities in HIV diagnosis and treatment in the Deep South.

  8. Is It a Trust Issue? Factors That Influence Trust for Persons Living With HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; May, Warren L

    2016-09-01

    Trust in one's health care provider, trust in the health care system in general, and even trust in one's community affects engagement in HIV-related health care. This article examines the issue of trust among a random sample of HIV-infected individuals residing in Mississippi, an area hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Five constructs based on survey responses from these individuals were developed: (1) trust in one's provider to offer the best possible medical care, (2) trust in one's provider to protect patient privacy, (3) willingness to disclose HIV status to one's provider, (4) trust in the health care system, and (5) trust in one's community. Findings suggest that interventions to improve trust in providers to deliver the highest quality of care should be targeted to young people, African Americans, and the more highly educated. Interventions to increase trust in providers to protect privacy should focus on creating and strengthening social support groups or networks that build relationships and foster trust. Interventions aimed to increase community trust also should be targeted to young people. This information is useful to researchers, policy makers, health care providers, and organizations interested in prioritizing interventions and strategies that have the greatest potential to reduce health disparities in HIV diagnosis and treatment in the Deep South. PMID:27095034

  9. Drawing on a Knowledge-Based Trust Perspective to Examine and Conceptualize within-School Trust Development by Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed the importance of trust to schools and pointed to the central role that principals play in cultivating within-school trust, yet less is known about the ways that principals cultivate such trust. Moreover, divergent perspectives and varied contexts for examining trust have limited the transfer of trust scholarship to practice…

  10. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review § 1000.352 What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process? (a) Trust resources include property and...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review § 1000.352 What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process? (a) Trust resources include property and...

  12. Muscle regulatory factors regulate T1R3 taste receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Kokabu, Shoichiro; Lowery, Jonathan W; Toyono, Takashi; Seta, Yuji; Hitomi, Suzuro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Enoki, Yuichiro; Okubo, Masahiko; Fukushima, Yosuke; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2015-12-25

    T1R3 is a T1R class of G protein-coupled receptors, composing subunit of the umami taste receptor when complexed with T1R1. T1R3 was originally discovered in gustatory tissue but is now known to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types such the intestine, pancreatic β-cells, skeletal muscle, and heart. In addition to taste recognition, the T1R1/T1R3 complex functions as an amino acid sensor and has been proposed to be a control mechanism for the secretion of hormones, such as cholecystokinin, insulin, and duodenal HCO3(-) and activates the mammalian rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) to inhibit autophagy. T1R3 knockout mice have increased rate of autophagy in the heart, skeletal muscle and liver. Thus, T1R3 has multiple physiological functions and is widely expressed in vivo. However, the exact mechanisms regulating T1R3 expression are largely unknown. Here, we used comparative genomics and functional analyses to characterize the genomic region upstream of the annotated transcriptional start of human T1R3. This revealed that the T1R3 promoter in human and mouse resides in an evolutionary conserved region (ECR). We also identified a repressive element located upstream of the human T1R3 promoter that has relatively high degree of conservation with rhesus macaque. Additionally, the muscle regulatory factors MyoD and Myogenin regulate T1R3 expression and T1R3 expression increases with skeletal muscle differentiation of murine myoblast C2C12 cells. Taken together, our study raises the possibility that MyoD and Myogenin might control skeletal muscle metabolism and homeostasis through the regulation of T1R3 promoter activity. PMID:26545778

  13. der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) in breast cancer detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization is an indicator of better patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, H; Takarabe, T; Fukutomi, T; Hirohashi, S

    1999-01-01

    By two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), der(16)t(1;16) or der(1;16) was frequently detected in low-grade papillary carcinoma but not in benign intraductal papilloma of the breast. In order to clarify the incidence and clinicopathological significance of der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) in common breast cancers, der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) was examined by two-color FISH in breast cancers resected from 51 patients by using DNA probes for 16cen, 16q11.2, and 1q12 labeled with biotin or digoxigenin. der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) was clonally detected in 16 cancers (31%), being more frequent in ductal carcinomas of lower grade and invasive lobular carcinoma than in high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma (P<0.001). der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) was also correlated with a higher amount of hormone receptors in the tumor (P<0.05). Disease-free and overall survival rates of the patient group with der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16)-positive cancer were higher (88% and 94%) than those of the group with der(16)t(1;16)/der(1; 16)-negative cancer (39% and 68%) (P<0.05). Among the 16 patients with lymph node metastasis who received one of two similar forms of postsurgical adjuvant chemo-endocrine therapy, the prognosis of those with der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16)-positive cancer was better than that of those with der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16)-negative cancer (P<0.05). der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) detected by FISH is considered helpful in identifying patients with a better prognosis and for stratification of patients in randomized clinical trials of adjuvant chemo-endocrine therapies. PMID:9892111

  14. Evolution of Trust in Economic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossomaier, Terry; Harré, Michael; Thompson, James

    When ET in the eponymous Spielberg movie follows a trail of Smarties to meet his new human friends, we find this entirely plausible — that a baby alien will quickly form a bond with human kids and for each to quickly learn to trust the other. This surely reflects the way trust is such a fundamental part of human nature that its absence would be more remarkable than its presence, even where one of the protagonists is a not overly attractive alien species! Another, less plausible, fictional character which has often been employed in economic settings is Homo Economicus. The character played by this economic actor is that of the perfectly informed, perfectly rational, self interested individual trying to maximise their personal utility. This view of the economic actor, particularly as it is used in decision theory, inspired Herbert Simon in his Nobel Prize award speech to criticise models of economic microphenomena [29]: "Thus economists who are zealous in insisting that economic actors maximize turn around and become satisficers when the evaluation of their own theories is concerned. They believe that businessmen maximize, but they know that economic theorists satisfice." However, in the three decades since Simon's speech there has been a large body of evidence accumulating which demonstrates the lack of universality of the assumptions of economic man [6] and has contributed to the advancement of more reasonable models, as described by Daniel Kahneman [14], another Nobel Laureate: "... proposed that an automatic affective valuation — the emotional core of an attitude — is the main determinant of many judgements and behaviours."

  15. Trust, Punishment, and Cooperation Across 18 Societies: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-07-01

    Punishment promotes contributions to public goods, but recent evidence suggests that its effectiveness varies across societies. Prior theorizing suggests that cross-societal differences in trust play a key role in determining the effectiveness of punishment, as a form of social norm enforcement, to promote cooperation. One line of reasoning is that punishment promotes cooperation in low-trust societies, primarily because people in such societies expect their fellow members to contribute only if there are strong incentives to do so. Yet another line of reasoning is that high trust makes punishment work, presumably because in high-trust societies people may count on each other to make contributions to public goods and also enforce norm violations by punishing free riders. This poses a puzzle of punishment: Is punishment more effective in promoting cooperation in high- or low-trust societies? In the present article, we examine this puzzle of punishment in a quantitative review of 83 studies involving 7,361 participants across 18 societies that examine the impact of punishment on cooperation in a public goods dilemma. The findings provide a clear answer: Punishment more strongly promotes cooperation in societies with high trust rather than low trust.

  16. Trust, Punishment, and Cooperation Across 18 Societies: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-07-01

    Punishment promotes contributions to public goods, but recent evidence suggests that its effectiveness varies across societies. Prior theorizing suggests that cross-societal differences in trust play a key role in determining the effectiveness of punishment, as a form of social norm enforcement, to promote cooperation. One line of reasoning is that punishment promotes cooperation in low-trust societies, primarily because people in such societies expect their fellow members to contribute only if there are strong incentives to do so. Yet another line of reasoning is that high trust makes punishment work, presumably because in high-trust societies people may count on each other to make contributions to public goods and also enforce norm violations by punishing free riders. This poses a puzzle of punishment: Is punishment more effective in promoting cooperation in high- or low-trust societies? In the present article, we examine this puzzle of punishment in a quantitative review of 83 studies involving 7,361 participants across 18 societies that examine the impact of punishment on cooperation in a public goods dilemma. The findings provide a clear answer: Punishment more strongly promotes cooperation in societies with high trust rather than low trust. PMID:26173117

  17. Comparisons of EPR imaging and T1-weighted MRI for efficient imaging of nitroxyl contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Narazaki, Michiko; Ikehira, Hiroo; Anzai, Kazunori; Ikota, Nobuo

    2007-07-01

    The resolution and signal to noise ratio of EPR imaging and T(1)-weighted MRI were compared using an identical phantom. Several solutions of nitroxyl contrast agents with different EPR spectral shapes were tested. The feasibility of T(1)-weighted MRI to detect nitroxyl contrast agents was described. T(1)-weighted MRI can detect nitroxyl contrast agents with a complicated EPR spectrum easier and quicker; however, T(1)-weighted MRI has less quantitative ability especially for lipophilic nitroxyl contrast agents, because T(1)-relaxivity, i.e. accessibility to water, is affected by the hydrophilic/hydrophobic micro-environment of a nitroxyl contrast agent. The less quantitative ability of T(1)-weighted MRI may not be a disadvantage of redox imaging, which obtains reduction rate of a nitroxyl contrast. Therefore, T(1)-weighted MRI has a great advantage to check the pharmacokinetics of newly modified and/or designed nitroxyl contrast agents. PMID:17433743

  18. High Resolution X-Ray Microangiography of 4T1 Tumor in Mouse Using Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Jianqi; Liu Ping; Gu Xiang; Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xiao Tiqiao; Xu, Lisa X.

    2010-07-23

    Angiogenesis is very important in tumor growth and metastasis. But in clinic, only vessels lager than 200 {mu}m in diameter, can be observed using conventional medical imaging. Synchrotron radiation (SR) phase contrast imaging, whose spatial resolution can reach as high as 1 {mu}m, has great advantages in imaging soft tissue structures, such as blood vessels and tumor tissues. In this paper, the morphology of newly formed micro-vessels in the mouse 4T1 tumor samples was firstly studied with contrast agent. Then, the angiogenesis in nude mice tumor window model was observed without contrast agent using the SR phase contrast imaging at the beamline for X-ray imaging and biomedical applications, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The images of tumors showed dense, irregular and tortuous tumor micro-vessels with the smallest size of 20-30 {mu}m in diameter.

  19. Recent changes in the surgical management of T1/2 breast cancer in England.

    PubMed

    Morris, J; Farmer, A; Royle, G

    1992-01-01

    Following the results of a study undertaken in 1985, a second survey was undertaken to examine whether there had been any changes in England in the surgical management of patients with a T1/2/NOMO breast cancer. The major findings were that: (i) there was a significant increase in the number of surgeons who would undertake breast conservation surgery; (ii) there was a significant increase in the number of surgeons who would discuss breast reconstruction where mastectomy was the preferred form of treatment; (iii) that significantly more surgeons would offer the patient a choice of surgery when there was more than one surgical option; and (iv) that significantly more surgeons had access to a breast specialist nurse and/or a cancer counsellor. These changes are consistent with the recommendations of the 1986 King's Fund Consensus' Conference for breast cancer treatment. PMID:1389490

  20. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... allow for the Tribe's/Consortium's unique history and circumstances and the terms and conditions of...

  1. 5 CFR 2634.405 - Certification of trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of a qualified trust, or the nature or negligible value of the assets proposed for a trust's initial... the umbrella agreement is certified as a qualified trust (categorized as to value in accordance...

  2. Obtaining T1-T2 distribution functions from 1-dimensional T1 and T2 measurements: The pseudo 2-D relaxation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Nathan H.; Röding, Magnus; Galvosas, Petrik; Miklavcic, Stanley J.; Nydén, Magnus

    2016-08-01

    We present the pseudo 2-D relaxation model (P2DRM), a method to estimate multidimensional probability distributions of material parameters from independent 1-D measurements. We illustrate its use on 1-D T1 and T2 relaxation measurements of saturated rock and evaluate it on both simulated and experimental T1-T2 correlation measurement data sets. Results were in excellent agreement with the actual, known 2-D distribution in the case of the simulated data set. In both the simulated and experimental case, the functional relationships between T1 and T2 were in good agreement with the T1-T2 correlation maps from the 2-D inverse Laplace transform of the full 2-D data sets. When a 1-D CPMG experiment is combined with a rapid T1 measurement, the P2DRM provides a double-shot method for obtaining a T1-T2 relationship, with significantly decreased experimental time in comparison to the full T1-T2 correlation measurement.

  3. Deletion of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) in forebrain neurons facilitates reversal learning: enhanced cognitive adaptability?

    PubMed

    Singer, Philipp; Boison, Detlev; Möhler, Hanns; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2009-10-01

    Local availability of glycine near N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is partly regulated by neuronal glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1), which can therefore modulate NMDAR function because binding to the glycine site of the NMDAR is necessary for channel activation. Disrupting GlyT1 in forebrain neurons has been shown to enhance Pavlovian conditioning and object recognition memory. Here, the authors report that the same genetic manipulation facilitated reversal learning in the water maze test of reference memory, but did not lead to any clear improvement in a working memory version of the water maze test. Facilitation in a nonspatial discrimination reversal task conducted on a T maze was also observed, supporting the conclusion that forebrain neuronal GlyT1 may modulate the flexibility in (new) learning and relevant mnemonic functions. One possibility is that these phenotypes may reflect reduced susceptibility to certain forms of proactive interference. This may be relevant for the suggested clinical application of GlyT1 inhibitors in the treatment of cognitive deficits, including schizophrenia, which is characterized by cognitive inflexibility in addition to the positive symptoms of the disease.

  4. Normal variation of magnetic resonance T1 relaxation times in the human population at 1.5 T using ShMOLLI

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    blood ShMOLLI T1 correlated strongly with each other and also with myocardial T1 with the slope of 0.1 that is justifiable by the resting partition of blood volume in myocardial tissue. Overall, the effect of all variables on myocardial ShMOLLI T1 was within 2% of relative changes from the average. Conclusion Native T1-mapping using ShMOLLI generates reproducible and consistent results in normal individuals within 2% of relative changes from the average, well below the effects of most acute forms of myocardial disease. The main potential confounder is the partial volume effect arising from over-inclusion of neighbouring tissue at the manual stages of image analysis. In the study of cardiac conditions such as diffuse fibrosis or small focal changes, the use of “myocardial midwall” T1, age and gender matching, and compensation for heart rate differences may all help to improve the method sensitivity in detecting subtle changes. As the accuracy of current T1 measurement methods remains to be established, this study does not claim to report an accurate measure of T1, but that ShMOLLI is a stable and reproducible method for T1-mapping. PMID:23331520

  5. Characterization of oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Junchang; Lu, Shuangqing; Zhao, Qiong; Zhang, Jianshe

    2013-03-01

    The oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) is located on the brush-border membrane of the intestinal epithelium, and plays an important role in dipeptide and tripeptide absorptions from protein digestion. In this study, we cloned the PepT1 cDNA from grass carp and characterized its expression profile in response to dietary protein and feed additives (sodium butyrate) treatments. The PepT1 gene encodes a protein of 714 amino acids with high sequence similarity with other vertebrate homologues. Expression analysis revealed highest levels of PepT1 mRNA expression in the foregut of grass carp. In addition, PepT1 mRNA expression exhibited diurnal variation in all three bowel segments of intestine with lower levels of expression in daytime than nighttime. During embryonic development, PepT1 showed a dynamic pattern of expression reaching maximal levels of expression in the gastrula stage and minimal levels in the organ stage. The PepT1 expression showed constant levels from 14 to 34 day post-hatch. To determine whether fish diet of different protein contents may have any effect on PepT1 expression, we extended our research to dietary regulation of PepT1 expression. We found that dietary protein levels had a significant effect on PepT1 gene expression. In addition, PepT1 mRNA levels were higher after feeding with fish meal than with soybean meal. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo sodium butyrate treatments increased PepT1 expression in the intestine of grass carp. The results demonstrate for the first time that PepT1 mRNA expression is regulated in a temporal and spatial pattern during development, and dietary protein and feed additives had a significant effects on PepT1 gene expression in grass carp.

  6. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members. PMID:17405387

  7. Detection of Leptomeningeal Metastasis by Contrast-Enhanced 3D T1-SPACE: Comparison with 2D FLAIR and Contrast-Enhanced 2D T1-Weighted Images

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Bomi; Hwang, Eo-Jin; Lee, Song; Jang, Jinhee; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced 3D(dimensional) T1-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions (T1-SPACE), 2D fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images and 2D contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image in detection of leptomeningeal metastasis except for invasive procedures such as a CSF tapping. Materials and Methods Three groups of patients were included retrospectively for 9 months (from 2013-04-01 to 2013-12-31). Group 1 patients with positive malignant cells in CSF cytology (n = 22); group 2, stroke patients with steno-occlusion in ICA or MCA (n = 16); and group 3, patients with negative results on MRI, whose symptom were dizziness or headache (n = 25). A total of 63 sets of MR images are separately collected and randomly arranged: (1) CE 3D T1-SPACE; (2) 2D FLAIR; and (3) CE T1-GRE using a 3-Tesla MR system. A faculty neuroradiologist with 8-year-experience and another 2nd grade trainee in radiology reviewed each MR image- blinded by the results of CSF cytology and coded their observations as positives or negatives of leptomeningeal metastasis. The CSF cytology result was considered as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity of each MR images were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using a McNemar’s test. A Cohen's kappa analysis was performed to assess inter-observer agreements. Results Diagnostic accuracy was not different between 3D T1-SPACE and CSF cytology by both raters. However, the accuracy test of 2D FLAIR and 2D contrast-enhanced T1-weighted GRE was inconsistent by the two raters. The Kappa statistic results were 0.657 (3D T1-SPACE), 0.420 (2D FLAIR), and 0.160 (2D contrast-enhanced T1-weighted GRE). The 3D T1-SPACE images showed the highest inter-observer agreements between the raters. Conclusions Compared to 2D FLAIR and 2D contrast-enhanced T1-weighted GRE, contrast-enhanced 3D T1 SPACE showed a better detection rate of

  8. A Strategic Model of Trust Management in Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqing; Sun, Zhaohao; Li, Yuanzhe; Zhao, Shuliang

    This article examines trust and trust management in web services and proposes a multiagent model of trust relationship in web services. It looks at the hierarchical structure of trust management in web services and proposes a strategic model of trust management in web services. The proposed approach in this article will facilitate research and development of trust management in e-commerce, web services and social networking.

  9. Further Exploration of Organizational Trust Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain strategic goals and survive. Furthermore, leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning. This paper builds on prior research…

  10. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... multiple classes of ownership interests is incidental to the trust's purpose of facilitating direct... classes of ownership, the multiple classes simply provide each certificate holder with a direct interest... multiple classes of trust interests merely facilitate direct investment in the assets held by the...

  12. Social Trust and the Growth of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornskov, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops a simple model to examine how social trust might affect the growth of schooling through lowering transaction costs associated with employing educated individuals. In a sample of 52 countries, the paper thereafter provides empirical evidence that trust has led to faster growth of schooling in the period 1960-2000. The findings…

  13. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  14. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  15. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  16. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  17. The Early Childhood Generalized Trust Belief Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Trueman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to develop and evaluate the Early Childhood Generalized Trust Belief Scale (ECGTBS) as a method of assessing 5-8-year-olds' generalized trust. Two hundred and eleven (103 male and 108 female) children (mean age 6 years and 2 months at Time 1) completed the ECGTBS twice over a year. A subsample of participants completed the…

  18. Geographical dimensions and correlates of trust

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.R. ); Williams, B. )

    1999-04-01

    A sample of 323 residents of New Jersey stratified by neighborhood quality (excellent, good, fair, poor) was gathered to determine if trust in science and technology to protect public health and environment at the societal scale was associated with trust of the local officials, such as the mayor, health officer, developers, mass media, and legislators who are guardians of the local environment. Societal (trust of science and technology) and neighborhood (mayor, health officer) dimensions of trust were found. These societal and neighborhood trust dimensions were weakly correlated. Respondents were divided into fur trust-of-authority groups: high societal-high neighborhood, low societal-low neighborhood, high societal-low neighborhood, and low societal-high neighborhood. High societal-high neighborhood trust respondents were older, had lived in the neighborhoods for many years, were not troubled much by neighborhood or societal environmental threats, and had a strong sense of control over their environment. In strong contrast, low societal-low neighborhood trust respondents were relatively young, typically had lived in their present neighborhood for a short time, were troubled by numerous neighborhood and societal environmental threats, did not practice many personal public health practices, and felt little control over their environment.

  19. Trusting Transformational Principals: An Empirical Surprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, Patrick T.

    This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership and trust in schools. The central thesis is that high levels of trust should significantly correlate with transformational leadership behaviors by school principals. The study involved a sample of 451 teachers in 39 public secondary schools located in four suburban areas…

  20. Attachment Relationships: Self-Disclosure and Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences in trust and self-disclosure associated with secure, anxious/ambivalent, and avoidant attachment. Findings from 98 undergraduate students revealed that, in general, subjects who reported themselves as securely attached also reported, in comparison with avoidant attachment, higher levels of trust in partner, amount of…

  1. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  2. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…

  3. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  4. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR 11800.... 12674, 54 FR 15159, 3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 215, as modified by E.O. 12731, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1990 Comp... the use of a qualified blind trust is the lack of knowledge, or actual ``blindness,'' by an...

  5. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  6. Perceptions of Trust in Public Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lucy; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years, the credibility of public examinations in England has increasingly come to the fore. Government agencies have invested time and money into researching public perceptions of the reliability and validity of examinations. Whilst such research overlaps into the conceptual domain of trust, trust in examinations remains an elusive…

  7. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  8. Trusting Facebook in Crisis Situations: The Role of General Use and General Trust Toward Facebook.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Hermann; Kücükbalaban, Pinar; Lemanski, Sandra; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    An important concept that has been rather neglected in research on social media is the concept of trust. Although there is a considerable amount of research on online trust in general, little has been done in the area of social media. As a situation of risk is necessary for trust, the perceived trustworthiness of Facebook in crisis situations was examined in this study. A sample of 340 European Facebook users were questioned as part of a large European study about social media in the context of emergency situations. We found that participants' general trust toward Facebook as a medium predicted to a significant degree how much they would trust Facebook in a crisis situation. General use of Facebook and dispositional trust were also significantly associated with trust toward Facebook in a crisis situation.

  9. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  10. Trusting Facebook in Crisis Situations: The Role of General Use and General Trust Toward Facebook.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Hermann; Kücükbalaban, Pinar; Lemanski, Sandra; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    An important concept that has been rather neglected in research on social media is the concept of trust. Although there is a considerable amount of research on online trust in general, little has been done in the area of social media. As a situation of risk is necessary for trust, the perceived trustworthiness of Facebook in crisis situations was examined in this study. A sample of 340 European Facebook users were questioned as part of a large European study about social media in the context of emergency situations. We found that participants' general trust toward Facebook as a medium predicted to a significant degree how much they would trust Facebook in a crisis situation. General use of Facebook and dispositional trust were also significantly associated with trust toward Facebook in a crisis situation. PMID:26779662

  11. High levels of the type III inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) can confer faster cell adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Kongsfelt, Iben Boutrup; Byskov, Kristina; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Pedersen, Lene

    2014-08-01

    The inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. We recently showed that overexpression of human PiT1 was sufficient to increase proliferation of two strict density-inhibited cell lines, murine fibroblastic NIH3T3 and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and allowed the cultures to grow to higher cell densities. In addition, upon transformation NIH3T3 cells showed increased ability to form colonies in soft agar. The cellular regulation of PiT1 expression supports that cells utilize the PiT1 levels to control proliferation, with non-proliferating cells showing the lowest PiT1 mRNA levels. The mechanism behind the role of PiT1 in increased cell proliferation is not known. We, however, found that compared to control cells, cultures of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing PiT1 upon seeding showed increased cell number after 24 h and had shifted more cells from G0/G1 to S+G2/M within 12 h, suggesting that an early event may play a role. We here show that expression of human PiT1 in NIH3T3 cells led to faster cell adhesion; this effect was not cell type specific in that it was also observed when expressing human PiT1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also show for NIH3T3 that PiT1 overexpression led to faster cell spreading. The final total numbers of attached cells did, however, not differ between cultures of PiT1 overexpressing cells and control cells of neither cell type. We suggest that the PiT1-mediated fast adhesion potentials allow the cells to go faster out of G0/G1 and thereby contribute to their proliferative advantage within the first 24 h after seeding. - Highlights: • Effects of elevated levels of the inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 were studied. • The density-inhibited murine cell lines NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 showed faster adhesion. • NIH3T3 cells showed faster spreading. • We suggest that the faster adhesion/spreading contributes to faster proliferation.

  12. Dose correction for post-contrast T1 mapping of the heart: the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Gai, Neville D; Sandfort, Veit; Liu, Songtao; Lima, João A C; Bluemke, David A

    2016-02-01

    Post-contrast myocardial T1 (T1(myo,c)) values have been shown to be sensitive to myocardial fibrosis. Recent studies have shown differences in results obtained from T1(myo,c) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) with respect to percentage fibrosis. By exploring the relationship between blood plasma volume and T1(myo,c), the underlying basis for the divergence can be explained. Furthermore, dose administration based on body mass index (BMI), age and gender can mitigate the divergence in results. Inter-subject comparison of T1(myo,c) required adjustment for dose (in mmol/kg), time and glomerular filtration rate. Further adjustment for effective dose based on lean muscle mass reflected by blood/plasma volume was performed. A test case of 605 subjects from the MESA study who had undergone pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping was studied. T1(myo,c) values were compared between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), between smoking and non-smoking subjects, and subjects with and without impaired glucose tolerance, before and after dose adjustment based on plasma volume. Comparison with ECV (which is dose independent), pre-contrast myocardial T1 and blood normalized myocardial T1 values was also performed to validate the correction. There were significant differences in T1(myo,c) (post plasma volume correction) and ECV between current and former smokers (p value 0.017 and 0.01, respectively) but not T1(myo,c) prior to correction (p = 0.12). Prior to dose adjustment for plasma volume, p value was <0.001 for T1(myo,c) between MetS and non-MetS groups and was 0.13 between subjects with and without glucose intolerance; after adjustment for PV, p value was 0.63 and 0.99. Corresponding ECV p values were 0.44 and 0.99, respectively. Overall, ECV results showed the best agreement with PV corrected T1(myo,c) (mean absolute difference in p values = 0.073) and pre-contrast myocardial T1 in comparison with other measures (T1(myo,c( prior to correction, blood/plasma T1

  13. Fully automatic detection of deep white matter T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spies, Lothar; Tewes, Anja; Suppa, Per; Opfer, Roland; Buchert, Ralph; Winkler, Gerhard; Raji, Alaleh

    2013-12-01

    A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a consequence, T1 hypointense lesions are assigned an increased GM probability by the standard classification algorithm. The GM component image of a patient is then tested voxel-by-voxel against GM component images of a normative database of healthy individuals. Clusters (≥0.1 ml) of significantly increased GM density within a predefined mask of deep WM are defined as lesions. The performance of the algorithm was assessed on voxel level by a simulation study. A maximum dice similarity coefficient of 60% was found for a typical T1 lesion pattern with contrasts ranging from WM to cortical GM, indicating substantial agreement between ground truth and automatic detection. Retrospective application to 10 patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that 93 out of 96 T1 hypointense lesions were detected. On average 3.6 false positive T1 hypointense lesions per patient were found. The novel method is promising to support the detection of hypointense lesions in T1-weighted images which warrants further evaluation in larger patient samples.

  14. Multi-voxel algorithm for quantitative bi-exponential MRI T1 estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladt, P.; Van Steenkiste, G.; Ramos-Llordén, G.; den Dekker, A. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, of tissues is important for characterization of tissues in clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In T1 mapping, T1 values are estimated from a set of T1-weighted MRI images. Due to the limited spatial resolution of the T1-weighted images, one voxel might consist of two tissues, causing partial volume effects (PVE). In conventional mono-exponential T1 estimation, these PVE result in systematic errors in the T1 map. To account for PVE, single-voxel bi-exponential estimators have been suggested. Unfortunately, in general, they suffer from low accuracy and precision. In this work, we propose a joint multi-voxel bi-exponential T1 estimator (JMBE) and compare its performance to a single-voxel bi-exponential T1 estimator (SBE). Results show that, in contrast to the SBE, and for clinically achievable single-voxel SNRs, the JMBE is accurate and efficient if four or more neighboring voxels are used in the joint estimation framework. This illustrates that, for clinically realistic SNRs, accurate results for quantitative biexponential T1 estimation are only achievable if information of neighboring voxels is incorporated.

  15. Distinct Contributions of T1R2 and T1R3 Taste Receptor Subunits to the Detection of Sweet Stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Nie,Y.; Vigues, S.; Hobbs, J.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type chemosensory receptors of animals selectively interact with their cognate ligands remain poorly understood. There is growing evidence that many chemosensory receptors exist in multimeric complexes, though little is known about the relative contributions of individual subunits to receptor functions. This study showed that each of the two subunits in the mammalian heteromeric T1R2:T1R3 sweet taste receptor binds sweet stimuli, though with distinct affinities and conformational changes. Furthermore, ligand affinities for T1R3 are drastically reduced by the introduction of a single amino acid change associated with decreased sweet taste sensitivity in mice. Thus, individual T1R subunits increase the receptive range of the sweet taste receptor, offering a functional mechanism for phenotypic variations in sweet taste.

  16. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F.; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar. PMID:26157055

  17. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F; Vasselli, Joseph R; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar.

  18. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D.

  19. Facile synthesis and functionalization of manganese oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted tumor MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Li, Jingchao; Yu, Zhibo; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang; Shen, Mingwu

    2015-12-01

    We report the polyethyleneimine (PEI)-enabled synthesis and functionalization of manganese oxide (Mn3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in vivo. In this work, monodispersed PEI-coated Mn3O4 NPs were formed by decomposition of acetylacetone manganese via a solvothermal approach. The Mn3O4 NPs with PEI coating were sequentially conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, folic acid (FA)-linked polyethylene glycol (PEG), and PEG monomethyl ether. Followed by final acetylation of the remaining PEI surface amines, multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs were formed and well characterized. We show that the formed multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs with a mean diameter of 8.0 nm possess good water-dispersibility, colloidal stability, and cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility in the given concentration range. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopic observation reveal that the multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs are able to target FA receptor-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, the FA-targeted Mn3O4 NPs can be used as a nanoprobe for efficient T1-weighted MR imaging of cancer cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active FA-mediated targeting pathway. With the facile PEI-enabled formation and functionalization, the developed PEI-coated Mn3O4 NPs may be modified with other biomolecules for different biomedical imaging applications. PMID:26454057

  20. The GST T1 and CYP2E1 genotypes are possible factors causing vinyl chloride induced abnormal liver function.

    PubMed

    Huang, C Y; Huang, K L; Cheng, T J; Wang, J D; Hsieh, L L

    1997-01-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is hepatotoxic as well as carcinogenic in humans. There are reports that exposure to VCM seems to induce abnormal liver function, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and angiosarcoma of the liver. In vivo, VCM is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to form the electrophilic metabolites, chloroethylene oxide (CEO) and chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), which may either cause cell damage or be further metabolized and detoxified by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This study investigated whether or not the genotypes CYP2E1, glutathione S-transferase theta (GST T1) and mu (GST M1) correlated with abnormal liver function found in vinyl chloride exposed workers. For this study, 251 workers from five polyvinyl chloride plants were enrolled. The workers were classified into two exposure groups (high and low) and the degree of exposure was determined based on their job titles and airborne VCM concentration. The activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used as the parameter of liver function. The genotypes CYP2E1, GST T1 and GST M1 were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism on peripheral white blood cell DNA. Other potential risk factors were also ascertained and the confounding effect was adjusted accordingly. Stratified analyses were used to explore the correlation between the alteration of liver function and the genotypes CYP2E1, GST T1 and GST M1 among the workers exposed to different levels of VCM. The following results were obtained (1) at low VCM exposure, the odds ratio (OR) of positive GST T1 on abnormal ALT was 3.8 (95% CI 1.2-14.5) but the CYP2E1 genotype was not associated with abnormal ALT. (2) At high VCM exposure, a c2c2 CYP2E1 genotype was associated with increased OR on abnormal ALT (OR 5.4, 95% CI 0.7-35.1) and positive GST T1 was significantly associated with decreased OR on abnormal ALT (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). (3) Multiple linear and logistic regression

  1. Taste responses in mice lacking taste receptor subunit T1R1

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhara, Yoko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Voigt, Anja; Hübner, Sandra; Maeda, Katsumasa; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    The T1R1 receptor subunit acts as an umami taste receptor in combination with its partner, T1R3. In addition, metabotropic glutamate receptors (brain and taste variants of mGluR1 and mGluR4) are thought to function as umami taste receptors. To elucidate the function of T1R1 and the contribution of mGluRs to umami taste detection in vivo, we used newly developed knock-out (T1R1−/−) mice, which lack the entire coding region of the Tas1r1 gene and express mCherry in T1R1-expressing cells. Gustatory nerve recordings demonstrated that T1R1−/− mice exhibited a serious deficit in inosine monophosphate-elicited synergy but substantial residual responses to glutamate alone in both chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. Interestingly, chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners were smaller in T1R1−/− mice. Taste cell recordings demonstrated that many mCherry-expressing taste cells in T1R1+/− mice responded to sweet and umami compounds, whereas those in T1R1−/− mice responded to sweet stimuli. The proportion of sweet-responsive cells was smaller in T1R1−/− than in T1R1+/− mice. Single-cell RT-PCR demonstrated that some single mCherry-expressing cells expressed all three T1R subunits. Chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve responses to glutamate were significantly inhibited by addition of mGluR antagonists in both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice. Conditioned taste aversion tests demonstrated that both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice were equally capable of discriminating glutamate from other basic taste stimuli. Avoidance conditioned to glutamate was significantly reduced by addition of mGluR antagonists. These results suggest that T1R1-expressing cells mainly contribute to umami taste synergism and partly to sweet sensitivity and that mGluRs are involved in the detection of umami compounds. PMID:23339178

  2. RGD-functionalized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Yan, Yu; Li, Jingchao; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Mignani, Serge; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration range, and display targeting specificity to glioma cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in vitro. With the relatively high r1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.4 mM-1 s-1), the Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles can be used as an efficient nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted positive MR imaging of glioma cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active RGD-mediated targeting pathway. The developed RGD-functionalized Fe3O4 NPs may hold great promise to be used as a nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of different αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells or biological systems.We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration

  3. Recommendation Based on Trust Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Recommender system is emerging as a powerful and popular tool for online information relevant to a given user. The traditional recommendation system suffers from the cold start problem and the data sparsity problem. Many methods have been proposed to solve these problems, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the trust diffusion (DiffTrust) algorithm and the probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF). DiffTrust is first used to study the possible diffusions of trust between various users. It is able to make use of the implicit relationship of the trust network, thus alleviating the data sparsity problem. The probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is then employed to combine the users' tastes with their trusted friends' interests. We evaluate the algorithm on Flixster, Moviedata, and Epinions datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the recommendation based on our proposed DiffTrust + PMF model achieves high performance in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE), Recall, and F Measure. PMID:25009827

  4. Hype and Public Trust in Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities in designing empirical studies that provide evidence for a causal link between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support, but also illustrate how this may be remedied. Further empirical research on hype and public trust is needed in order to improve public communication of science and to design evidence-based education on the responsible conduct of research for scientists. We conclude that conceptual arguments made on hype and public trust must be nuanced to reflect our current understanding of this relationship. PMID:22045550

  5. Recommendation based on trust diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Recommender system is emerging as a powerful and popular tool for online information relevant to a given user. The traditional recommendation system suffers from the cold start problem and the data sparsity problem. Many methods have been proposed to solve these problems, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the trust diffusion (DiffTrust) algorithm and the probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF). DiffTrust is first used to study the possible diffusions of trust between various users. It is able to make use of the implicit relationship of the trust network, thus alleviating the data sparsity problem. The probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is then employed to combine the users' tastes with their trusted friends' interests. We evaluate the algorithm on Flixster, Moviedata, and Epinions datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the recommendation based on our proposed DiffTrust + PMF model achieves high performance in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE), Recall, and F Measure.

  6. Genetic Influences Are Virtually Absent for Trust

    PubMed Central

    Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such heritability also present in social traits that are conceptualized as causes and consequences of social interactions or in other ways strongly shaped by behavior of other people? Here we examine a population-based sample of 1,012 twins and relatives. We show that the genetic influence on generalized trust in other people (trust-in-others: h2 = 5%, ns), and beliefs regarding other people’s trust in the self (trust-in-self: h2 = 13%, ns), is virtually absent. As test-retest reliability for both scales were found to be moderate or high (r = .76 and r = .53, respectively) in an independent sample, we conclude that all variance in trust is likely to be accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. We show that, relative to cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and classic personality variables, genetic influences are smaller for trust, and propose that experiences with or observations of the behavior of other people shape trust more strongly than other traits. PMID:24709897

  7. Phase-sensitive inversion recovery for myocardial T1 mapping with motion correction and parametric fitting.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Greiser, Andreas; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Guehring, Jens; Arai, Andrew E; Kellman, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of myocardial fibrosis and extracellular volume requires accurate estimation of myocardial T1 s. While image acquisition using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery technique is clinically feasible for myocardial T1 mapping, respiratory motion can limit its applicability. Moreover, the conventional T1 fitting approach using the magnitude inversion recovery images can lead to less stable T1 estimates and increased computational cost. In this article, we propose a novel T1 mapping scheme that is based on phase-sensitive image reconstruction and the restoration of polarity of the MR signal after inversion. The motion correction is achieved by registering the reconstructed images after background phase removal. The restored signal polarity of the inversion recovery signal helps the T1 fitting resulting in improved quality of the T1 map and reducing the computational cost. Quantitative validation on a data cohort of 45 patients proves the robustness of the proposed method against varying image contrast. Compared to the magnitude T1 fitting, the proposed phase-sensitive method leads to less fluctuation in T1 estimates.

  8. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains

    PubMed Central

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states. PMID:27160511

  9. Measurement of T1 of human arterial and venous blood at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Rane, S.; Gore, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for measuring cerebral perfusion require accurate longitudinal relaxation (T1) of blood, a MRI parameter that is field dependent. T1 of arterial and venous human blood was measured at 7T using three different sources – pathology laboratory, blood bank and in vivo. The T1 of venous blood was measured from sealed samples from a pathology lab and in vivo. Samples from a blood bank were oxygenated and mixed to obtain different physiological concentrations of hematocrit and oxygenation. T1 relaxation times were estimated using a three-point fit to a simple inversion recovery equation. At 37° C, the T1 of blood at arterial pO2was 2.29 ± 0.1 s and 2.07 ± 0.12 at venous pO2. The in vivo T1 of venous blood, in three subjects, was slightly longer at 2.45 ± 0.11s. T1 of arterial and venous blood at 7T was measured and found to be significantly different. The T1 values were longer in vivo than in vitro. While the exact cause for the discrepancy is unknown, the additives in the blood samples, degradation during experiment, oxygenation differences, and the non-stagnant nature of blood in vivo could be potential contributors to the lower values of T1 in the venous samples. PMID:23102945

  10. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states. PMID:27160511

  11. Food risks and consumer trust. Avian influenza and the knowing and non-knowing on UK shopping floors.

    PubMed

    de Krom, Michiel P M M; Mol, Arthur P J

    2010-12-01

    Irrespective of major food crises in the 2000s consumer trust in food seems to remain high in Western Europe. Transparent information provision to consumers on food risks is a central strategy of the EU, its Member States and private food providers to build food trust among consumers. But can the interpretation of such information by consumers explain high levels of trust in food safety? Following recent outbreaks of avian influenza in the UK, this paper investigates the constitution of food trust among UK poultry consumers by focusing on the place where consumer decisions are made: the shopping floor. In-store qualitative interviews with consumers of a variety of poultry products at different shops are used to reveal the use of information in constructing trust. Besides on knowledge inducted from information provision, trust depends as much on consumer strategies to handle non-knowing of food risks. Three main forms of trust relations are distinguished, which together at a system level result in high levels of consumer trust in food.

  12. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  13. Serial changes in the T1 magnetic relaxation parameter after myocardial infarction in man.

    PubMed Central

    Been, M; Smith, M A; Ridgway, J P; Douglas, R H; de Bono, D P; Best, J J; Muir, A L

    1988-01-01

    A low field resistive nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system (0.08 Tesla) was used to study the in vivo changes in the relaxation parameter T1 of the left ventricular myocardium from the first day to six months after acute myocardial infarction in 41 consecutive patients admitted to a coronary care unit. T1 maps were constructed from transverse and coronal images at various times after infarction. Thrombolytic treatment had been successful in 28 patients. Thirty three of the 34 patients studied within two weeks of infarction had a significantly increased T1 value but this developed only after the third day in four. At day 1-3 the mean (1 SD) maximum T1 was 413 (29) ms (n = 23) compared with 430 (41) ms (n = 22) at day 4-7, 433 (35) ms (n = 24) at day 8-14, 420 (34) at one month (n = 22), 388 (39) (n = 20) at three months, and 361 (24) (n = 14) at six months. The number of regions of interest with an increased T1 followed a similar time course. Although the increase in T1 measured at three months correlated with the initial maximum creatine kinase and with the left ventricular ejection fraction measured at one month, the number of regions with abnormal T1 from day 4 through to one month correlated best with left ventricular ejection fraction. There was no significant difference in T1 between patients with or without reperfusion. The rise in T1 over the first few days together with the prolonged time course of T1 increase suggests that the increase in T1 may reflect cellular infiltration as much or more than tissue oedema. Images Fig 3 PMID:3342143

  14. Role of glycosyltransferase PomGnT1 in glioblastoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jin; Guo, Pin; Lin, Yingying; Mao, Qing; Guo, Liemei; Ge, Jianwei; Li, Xiaoxiong; Jiang, Jiyao; Lin, Xinjian; Qiu, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and invasive brain tumor, for which novel prognostic markers and predictors of therapeutic response are urgently needed. We reported previously that levels of peptide-O-linked mannose β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (PomGnT1) in glioma specimens correlated with tumor grade. However, the prognostic significance of PomGnT1 in glioma patients and its function in GBM progression remain unknown. Methods Clinical relevance of PomGnT1 in GBM patients' prognosis was analyzed both in a clinically annotated expression dataset of 446 GBM tumor specimens and in 82 GBM tumor samples collected at our institution. The function of PomGnT1 in glioma growth and invasion, and the underlying mechanisms of PomGnT1 regulation were explored in vitro and in vivo. Results PomGnT1 expression in GBM tissues was closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Forced overexpression of PomGnT1 in glioblastoma cells impaired cell adhesion and increased their proliferation and invasion in vitro. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed that overexpression of PomGnT1 promoted tumor growth and shortened the survival time of tumor-bearing mice in an orthotopic model. Conversely, stable short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown of PomGnT1 expression produced opposite effects both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) resulted in EGFR/extracellular signal-regulated kinase–dependent upregulation of PomGnT1, downregulation of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase β, and activation of β-catenin pathway signaling. Conclusion These findings suggest that PomGnT1 promotes GBM progression via activation of β-catenin and may serve as a prognostic factor for glioma patient survival as well as a novel molecular target for anticancer therapy in malignant glioma. PMID:25085363

  15. 26 CFR 1.47-5 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.47-5 Section 1.47-5... Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-5 Estates and trusts. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of estate or trust. If an estate or trust disposes of...

  16. 26 CFR 8.1 - Charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charitable remainder trusts. 8.1 Section 8.1... Charitable remainder trusts. (a) Certain wills and trusts in existence on September 21, 1974. In the case of a will executed before September 21, 1974, or a trust created (within the meaning of...

  17. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in this... Investment Trust Fund United States Treasury account for each participating jurisdiction. Each...

  18. A Novel Trust Service Provider for Internet Based Commerce Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyal, M. Y.; Barkat, B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for enhancing trust in Internet commerce. Shows how trust can be provided through a network of Trust Service Providers (TSp). Identifies a set of services that should be offered by a TSp. Presents a distributed object-oriented implementation of trust services using CORBA, JAVA and XML. (Author/AEF)

  19. An Investigation of Teacher Trust in the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makiewicz, Monica Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the concept of trust, its meaning, antecedents, and outcomes as they applied to teacher trust in principals. Since there are very few in-depth studies specifically on trust in a school principal, research on trust from an organizational perspective was consulted. This body of research has numerous and…

  20. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  1. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  2. Trust Building via Risk Taking: A Cross-Societal Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen S.; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cheshire, Coye; Cooper, Robin; Matsuda, Masafumi; Mashima, Rie

    2005-01-01

    The role of risk taking in building trust relations has largely been overlooked in the burgeoning literature on trust in the social sciences; yet it is central to understanding how trust develops. We argue that a series of risk-taking behaviors is indispensable to building a trust relation. We conducted experiments in Japan and the United States…

  3. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  4. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  5. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  6. Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Make your school soar by escalating trust between teachers, students, and families. Trust is an essential element in all healthy relationships, and the relationships that exist in your school are no different. How can your school leaders or teachers cultivate trust? How can your institution maintain trust once it is established? These are the…

  7. Guide to the Administration of Charitable Remainder Trusts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David W.; And Others

    This is the third edition of a workbook prepared as a kind of primer for those responsible for the administration of charitable remainder trusts in accordance with the Tax Reform Act of 1969. The topics covered include: trust administration in general; pooled income fund; unitrust; annuity trust; gift annuity; short term income (lead) trust; gift…

  8. Ethnic diversity, trust, and the mediating role of positive and negative interethnic contact: a priming experiment.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Ruud; Veit, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This study not only shows that the empirically well-established negative relationship between residential diversity and trust in neighbors holds for the case of Germany, but goes beyond existing research by providing experimental evidence on the causal nature of the diversity effect. Respondents exposed to experimental stimuli that made salient the ethnic or religious heterogeneity of their neighborhoods display significantly lower levels of trust in their neighbors than do respondents in the control group. Further, we explore the role of interethnic contact in mediating the relationship between diversity and trust in a degree of detail unmatched by earlier studies. We consider not only positive forms of interethnic contact such as friendships, but also neutral and negative encounters between people of native and immigrant origin. We find that interethnic contacts mediate negative diversity effects on trust in different ways for both groups. For natives, distant encounters and negative experiences with immigrants in diverse contexts reduce trust, whereas for people of immigrant origin trust in neighbors suffers from the relatively small number of native acquaintances in diverse neighborhoods.

  9. The Impact of Third-Party Information on Trust: Valence, Source, and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Economic exchange between strangers happens extremely frequently due to the growing number of internet transactions. In trust situations like online transactions, a trustor usually does not know whether she encounters a trustworthy trustee. However, the trustor might form beliefs about the trustee's trustworthiness by relying on third-party information. Different kinds of third-party information can vary dramatically in their importance to the trustor. We ran a factorial design to study how the different characteristics of third-party information affect the trustor’s decision to trust. We systematically varied unregulated third-party information regarding the source (friend or a stranger), the reliability (gossip or experiences), and the valence (positive or negative) of the information. The results show that negative information is more salient for withholding trust than positive information is for placing trust. If third-party information is positive, experience of a friend has the strongest effect on trusting followed by friend’s gossip. Positive information from a stranger does not matter to the trustor. With respect to negative information, the data show that even the slightest hint of an untrustworthy trustee leads to significantly less placed trust irrespective of the source or the reliability of the information. PMID:26882013

  10. The Impact of Third-Party Information on Trust: Valence, Source, and Reliability.

    PubMed

    Bozoyan, Christiane; Vogt, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Economic exchange between strangers happens extremely frequently due to the growing number of internet transactions. In trust situations like online transactions, a trustor usually does not know whether she encounters a trustworthy trustee. However, the trustor might form beliefs about the trustee's trustworthiness by relying on third-party information. Different kinds of third-party information can vary dramatically in their importance to the trustor. We ran a factorial design to study how the different characteristics of third-party information affect the trustor's decision to trust. We systematically varied unregulated third-party information regarding the source (friend or a stranger), the reliability (gossip or experiences), and the valence (positive or negative) of the information. The results show that negative information is more salient for withholding trust than positive information is for placing trust. If third-party information is positive, experience of a friend has the strongest effect on trusting followed by friend's gossip. Positive information from a stranger does not matter to the trustor. With respect to negative information, the data show that even the slightest hint of an untrustworthy trustee leads to significantly less placed trust irrespective of the source or the reliability of the information.

  11. Trust- and Location-Based Recommendations for Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, Annika; Quan, Qiu

    Recommender systems in a travel guide suggest touristic sites a user may like. Typically, people are more willing to trust recommendations from people they know. We present a trust-based recommendation service for a mobile tourist guide that uses the notion of directly and indirectly trusted peers. The recommendations combine information about the peers' ratings on sights, interpersonal trust and geographical constraints. We created two trust propagation models to spread trust information throughout the traveller peer group. Our prototype supports six trust-based, location-aware recommendation algorithms.

  12. Security policies and trust in ubiquitous computing.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anupam; Finin, Tim; Kagal, Lalana; Parker, Jim; Patwardhan, Anand

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous environments comprise resource-constrained mobile and wearable devices and computational elements embedded in everyday artefacts. These are connected to each other using both infrastructure-based as well as short-range ad hoc networks. Limited Internet connectivity limits the use of conventional security mechanisms such as public key infrastructures and other forms of server-centric authentication. Under these circumstances, peer-to-peer interactions are well suited for not just information interchange, but also managing security and privacy. However, practical solutions for protecting mobile devices, preserving privacy, evaluating trust and determining the reliability and accuracy of peer-provided data in such interactions are still in their infancy. Our research is directed towards providing stronger assurances of the reliability and trustworthiness of information and services, and the use of declarative policy-driven approaches to handle the open and dynamic nature of such systems. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges and issues, and points out directions for progress.

  13. Fast acquisition of cooperation and trust: A two-stage view of trusting behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Tom L.; Hake, Don F.

    1983-01-01

    Trustful behavior was defined in terms of the consecutive numbers of matching-to-sample problems worth money that each subject worked during sessions that ended in an equitable distribution. Two stages of acquisition are inherent in this definition; the first stage requires acquisition of an equitable method of distributing reinforcers (cooperation) to show that the within-session deviations (trust) from equity that develop during the second stage are temporary and are not part of an inequitable method of distributing reinforcers. Previous research has indicated that a contingency to trust is necessary to override the aversiveness of the inequity inherent in trusting and to produce consistent and maximal trust (half of the problems worked consecutively by each subject). The present experiment examined such a contingency. The trust contingency was an increased requirement for changing the direction of problem allocation. Only the subject who had been allocated a problem could change that allocation, by pulling a lever 45 or more times. On the other hand, no separate responses were required to allow the person who worked the last problem to also work the next one (passive trust). Hence, giving a problem was the only way to increase the distribution of problems to the other person and hence prevent oneself from receiving all of the reinforcers. All eight pairs of subjects cooperated from the outset. Trusting behavior developed for all four pairs exposed to the contingency to trust and expanded to maximal levels by the second session for three of the four pairs. PMID:16812342

  14. A Non-reductionist Approach to Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelfranchi, Cristiano; Falcone, Rino; Lorini, Emiliano

    We develop in this chapter a conceptual and logical model of social trust. We first present a modal logic of mental attitudes and action in which the concepts of plausible belief, certain belief, and a possibility order over formulas can be characterized. Then, we apply the logic to the formalization of the truster's expectation about some fundamental properties of the trustee (trustee's opportunity to accomplish a given task, his skills, abilities, and willingness to perform a given action for the accomplishment of the task). A, part of this chapter is devoted to discuss and formalize some concepts related to trust such as distrust, mistrust, lack of trust, and delegation. Finally, a concept of comparative trust is presented.

  15. Usability and trust in e-banking.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking. PMID:18361127

  16. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... electronic means if it can verify that the electronic data invoice or other billing statement was transmitted... buyer or third party vendor downloads or accepts the trust statement. (5) If a buyer conducts...

  17. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... electronic means if it can verify that the electronic data invoice or other billing statement was transmitted... buyer or third party vendor downloads or accepts the trust statement. (5) If a buyer conducts...

  18. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... electronic means if it can verify that the electronic data invoice or other billing statement was transmitted... buyer or third party vendor downloads or accepts the trust statement. (5) If a buyer conducts...

  19. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... electronic means if it can verify that the electronic data invoice or other billing statement was transmitted... buyer or third party vendor downloads or accepts the trust statement. (5) If a buyer conducts...

  20. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  1. Usability and trust in e-banking.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking.

  2. Trust and adolescent sports: starters vs nonstarters.

    PubMed

    McGowan, S J; McGowan, R W

    1991-12-01

    Confirming earlier research, starters in basketball were found to be less trusting than nonstarters among junior high school boys (n = 12) and girls (n = 18). Researchers should explore the etiology of these differences.

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust... administrators have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. (a) In... have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  8. An Investigation of Children's Peer Trust across Culture: Is the Composition of Peer Trust Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Petrocchi, Serena; Lecciso, Flavia; Sakai, Atsushi; Maeshiro, Kazumi; Judson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The components of children's trust in same-gender peers (trust beliefs, ascribed trustworthiness, and dyadic reciprocal trust) were examined in samples of 8-11-year-olds from the UK, Italy, and Japan. Trust was assessed by children's ratings of the extent to which same-gender classmates kept promises and kept secrets. Social relations…

  9. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  10. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  11. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  12. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  13. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  14. Health information privacy: why trust matters.

    PubMed

    Mancilla, Desla; Biedermann, Sue

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to recognize the importance of gaining consumers' trust in how their health information is accessed and used. With the increased use of technology for creating, maintaining, and transmitting health information and the inherent distrust of these kinds of systems, consumer support for advantageous technology is lacking. This article addresses numerous protective measures that are in place and the role of healthcare professionals in building trust with healthcare consumers.

  15. T 1 Relaxation Measurement of Ex-Vivo Breast Cancer Tissues at Ultralow Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Hwang, Seong-min; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Lim, Sanghyun; Han, Jae Ho; Yim, Hyunee; Kim, Jang-Hee; Jung, Yong Sik; Kim, Ku Sang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated T1 relaxations of ex-vivo cancer tissues at low magnetic fields in order to check the possibility of achieving a T1 contrast higher than those obtained at high fields. The T1 relaxations of fifteen pairs (normal and cancerous) of breast tissue samples were measured at three magnetic fields, 37, 62, and 122 μT, using our superconducting quantum interference device-based ultralow field nuclear magnetic resonance setup, optimally developed for ex-vivo tissue studies. A signal reconstruction based on Bayesian statistics for noise reduction was exploited to overcome the low signal-to-noise ratio. The ductal and lobular-type tissues did not exhibit meaningful T1 contrast values between normal and cancerous tissues at the three different fields. On the other hand, an enhanced T1 contrast was obtained for the mucinous cancer tissue. PMID:25705658

  16. Establishing trust in decentralized smart sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, H.; Cosar, T.; Beyerer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Smart sensors can gather all kind of information and process it. Cameras are still dominating and smart cameras can offer services for face recognition or person tracking. Operators are building collaborations to cover a larger area, to save costs and to add more and different sensors. Cryptographic methods may achieve integrity and confidentiality between operators, but not trust. Even if a partner or one of his sensors is authenticated, no statements can be made about the quality of the sensor data. Hence, trust must be established between the partners and their sensors. Trust can be built based on past experience. A reputation system collects opinions of operators about the behavior of sensors and calculates trust based on these opinions. Many reputation systems have been proposed, e.g., for authentication of files in peer-topeer networks. This work presents a new reputation system, which is designed to calculate the trustworthiness of smart sensors and smart sensor systems. A new trust model, including functions to calculate and update trust on past experiences, is proposed. When fusing information of multiple sensors, it cannot always be reconstructed, which information led to a bad result. Hence, an approach for fair rating is shown. The proposed system has been realized in a Service-Oriented Architecture for easy integration in existing smart sensor systems, e.g., smart surveillance systems. The model itself can be used in every decentralized heterogeneous smart sensor network.

  17. T1BT* structural study of an anti-plasmodial peptide through NMR and molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background T1BT* is a peptide construct containing the T1 and B epitopes located in the 5’ minor repeat and the 3’ major repeat of the central repeat region of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), respectively, and the universal T* epitope located in the C-terminus of the same protein. This peptide construct, with B = (NANP)3, has been found to elicit antisporozoite antibodies and gamma-interferon-screening T-cell responses in inbred strains of mice and in outbred nonhuman primates. On the other hand, NMR and CD spectroscopies have identified the peptide B’ = (NPNA)3 as the structural unit of the major repeat in the CSP, rather than the more commonly quoted NANP. With the goal of assessing the structural impact of the NPNA cadence on a proven anti-plasmodial peptide, the solution structures of T1BT* and T1B’T* were determined in this work. Methods NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics calculations were used to determine the solution structures of T1BT* and T1B’T*. These structures were compared to determine the main differences and similarities between them. Results Both peptides exhibit radically different structures, with the T1B’T* showing strong helical tendencies. NMR and CD data, in conjunction with molecular modelling, provide additional information about the topologies of T1BT* and T1B’T*. Knowing the peptide structures required to elicit the proper immunogenic response can help in the design of more effective, conformationally defined malaria vaccine candidates. If peptides derived from the CSP are required to have helical structures to interact efficiently with their corresponding antibodies, a vaccine based on the T1B’T* construct should show higher efficiency as a pre-erythrocyte vaccine that would prevent infection of hepatocytes by sporozoites. PMID:23506240

  18. Interpersonal Trust across Six Asia-Pacific Countries: Testing and Extending the ‘High Trust Society’ and ‘Low Trust Society’ Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trust is regarded as a necessary component for the smooth running of society, although societal and political modernising processes have been linked to an increase in mistrust, potentially signalling social and economic problems. Fukuyama developed the notion of ‘high trust’ and ‘low trust’ societies, as a way of understanding trust within different societies. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test and extend Fukuyama’s theory utilising data on interpersonal trust in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Australia and Thailand. This paper focuses on trust in family, neighbours, strangers, foreigners and people with a different religion. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 2009–10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Results Our data indicate a tripartite trust model: ‘high trust’ in Australia and Hong Kong; ‘medium trust’ in Japan and Taiwan; and ‘low trust’ in South Korea and Thailand. Trust in family and neighbours were very high across all countries, although trust in people with a different religion, trust in strangers and trust in foreigners varied considerably between countries. The regression models found a consistent group of subpopulations with low trust across the countries: people on low incomes, younger people and people with poor self-rated health. The results were conflicting for gender: females had lower trust in Thailand and Hong Kong, although in Australia, males had lower trust in strangers, whereas females had lower trust in foreigners. Conclusion This paper identifies high, medium and low trust societies, in addition to high and low trusting population subgroups. Our analyses extend the seminal work of Fukuyama, providing both corroboration and

  19. Conformational analysis of N-methylformamide in ground S0 and excited S1 and T1 electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukachev, N. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Godunov, I. A.

    2016-07-01

    For conformers of the N-methylformamide (HCONHCH3) molecule, calculations of equilibrium geometry parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies, energy differences and potential barriers to conformational transitions were performed in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) electronic states. In the S0 state, the molecule exists in trans and cis stable conformations (having Cs symmetry). Our calculations show that the electronic excitations T1←S0 and S1←S0 cause changes in the structure of conformers: both HCON and HNCC fragments become pyramidal and rotate around the CN bond. As a result, in each excited electronic state under consideration, there are 12 minima forming six pairs of equivalent conformers separated by relatively small potential barriers. One- and two-dimensional potential energy surface sections corresponding to different intramolecular large-amplitude motions were calculated using the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (S0) and CASPT2/cc-pVTZ (S1 and T1) methods. Anharmonic vibrational problems for large-amplitude motions were solved, and the corresponding frequencies were estimated.

  20. Brown remodeling of white adipose tissue by SirT1-dependent deacetylation of Pparγ.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Li; Wang, Liheng; Kon, Ning; Zhao, Wenhui; Lee, Sangkyu; Zhang, Yiying; Rosenbaum, Michael; Zhao, Yingming; Gu, Wei; Farmer, Stephen R; Accili, Domenico

    2012-08-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can disperse stored energy as heat. Promoting BAT-like features in white adipose (WAT) is an attractive, if elusive, therapeutic approach to staunch the current obesity epidemic. Here we report that gain of function of the NAD-dependent deacetylase SirT1 or loss of function of its endogenous inhibitor Deleted in breast cancer-1 (Dbc1) promote "browning" of WAT by deacetylating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-γ on Lys268 and Lys293. SirT1-dependent deacetylation of Lys268 and Lys293 is required to recruit the BAT program coactivator Prdm16 to Pparγ, leading to selective induction of BAT genes and repression of visceral WAT genes associated with insulin resistance. An acetylation-defective Pparγ mutant induces a brown phenotype in white adipocytes, whereas an acetylated mimetic fails to induce "brown" genes but retains the ability to activate "white" genes. We propose that SirT1-dependent Pparγ deacetylation is a form of selective Pparγ modulation of potential therapeutic import. PMID:22863012

  1. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food—who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit—has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Methods Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants’ comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. Discussion This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food. PMID:23496819

  2. Origin and Spread of Bos taurus: New Clues from Mitochondrial Genomes Belonging to Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Ginja, Catarina; De Gaetano, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Colli, Licia; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Agha, Saif Hassan; Gama, Luis T.; Cattonaro, Federica; Penedo, M. Cecilia T; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka) ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. Methodology A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American) identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a–T1f). Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d) arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified “African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1). This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt), indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers

  3. Disappearing "T1 black holes" in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pirko, Istvan; Johnson, Aaron; Gamez, Jeff; Macura, Slobodan I; Rodriguez, Moses

    2004-05-01

    Brain MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently shows areas of hypointensity in the white matter on T1 weighted sequences ("T1 black holes"). These areas are thought to be consistent with irreversible axonal loss. In this study T1 black holes were characterized in Theiler's Murine Encephalitis Virus infection, an established model of demyelinating diseases in mice. The spectrum of TMEV is broad in different strains. C57BL/6J mice develop a self-limited brain disease, which resolves within 4-6 weeks. We followed six mice with serial MRI and MRS on days 0, 3,7,21 and 45. The studies were performed in a 7 Tesla magnet. Periventricular and parahippocampal T1 black holes seen as early as 3 days, with decreasing NAA/Cre ratio on MRS. The extent of pathology was most severe on days 3 and 7. T1 black holes are thought to be consistent with areas of irreversible axonal loss. This is challenged by our observations of resolution of T1 black holes by day 45. This was concomitant with the normalization of MRS findings in the areas of interest. We conclude that T1 black holes may represent a transient phenomenon in this model of MS. The recovery of these areas studied suggests an active repair mechanism.

  4. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts1

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Kelsey; Erokwu, Bernadette O.; Johansen, Mette L.; Basilion, James P.; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A.; Flask, Chris A.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.

    2016-01-01

    Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents. PMID:27084431

  5. T1 of 129Xe in Blood and the Role of Oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Mitchell S.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Balamore, Dilip; Venkatesh, Arvind K.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1999-09-01

    In previous experiments by the authors, in which hyperpolarized 129Xe was dissolved in fresh blood samples, the T1 was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygenation level, the values increasing with oxygenation: T1 was about 4 s in deoxygenated samples and about 13 s in oxygenated samples. C. H. Tseng et al. (1997, J. Magn. Reson. 126, 79-86), on the other hand, recently reported extremely long T1 values using hyperpolarized 129Xe to create a "blood foam" and found that oxygenation decreased T1. In their experiments, the continual and rapid exchange of hyperpolarized 129Xe between the gas phase (within blood-foam bubbles) and the dissolved phase (in the skin of the bubbles) necessitated a complicated analysis to extract the effective blood T1. In the present study, the complications of hyperpolarized 129Xe exchange dynamics have been avoided by using thermally polarized 129Xe dissolved in whole blood and in suspensions of lysed red blood cells (RBC). During T1 measurements in whole blood, the samples were gently and continuously agitated, for the entire course of the experiment, to avert sedimentation. Oxygenation was found to markedly increase the T1 of 129Xe in blood, as originally measured, and it shifts the RBC resonance to a higher frequency. Carbon monoxide has a similar but somewhat stronger effect.

  6. Direct reconstruction of T1 from k-space using a radial saturation-recovery sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liyong; DiBella, Edward V. R.

    2011-03-01

    Contrast agent concentration ([CA]) must be known accurately to quantify dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging. Accurate concentrations can be obtained if the longitudinal relaxation rate constant T1 is known both pre- and post-contrast injection. Post-contrast signal intensity in the images is often saturated and an approximation to T1 can be difficult to obtain. One method that has been proposed for accurate T1 estimation effectively acquires multiple images with different effective saturation recovery times (eSRTs) and fits the images to the equation for T1 recovery to obtain T1 values. This was done with a radial saturation-recovery sequence for 2D imaging of myocardial perfusion with DCE MRI. This multi-SRT method assumes that the signal intensity is constant for different readouts in each image. Here this assumption is not necessary as a model-based reconstruction method is proposed that directly reconstructs an image of T1 values from k-space. The magnetization for each ray at each readout pulse is modeled in the reconstruction with Bloch equations. Computer simulations based on a 72 ray cardiac DCE MRI acquisition were used to test the method. The direct model-based reconstruction gave accurate T1 values and was slightly more accurate than the multi-SRT method that used three sub-images.

  7. T-1, a mitotic arrester, alters centrosome configurations in fertilized sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Itoh, T J; Schatten, H; Schatten, G; Mazia, D; Kobayashi, A; Sato, H

    1990-01-01

    T-1 induces modifications in the shape of the centrosome at division in fertilized eggs of the North American sea urchin, Lytechinus pictus. Phase contrast microscopy observations of mitotic apparatus isolated from T-1-treated (1.7-8.5 microM) eggs at first division shows that the centrosomes already begin to spread or to separate by prophase and that the mitotic spindle is barrel-shaped. When eggs are fertilized with sperm that have been preteated with T-1, the centrosomes become flattened; the spindles are of normal length. Immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-centrosomal monoclonal antibody reveals that T-1 modifies the structure of the centrosome so that barrel-shaped spindles with broad centrosomes are observed at metaphase, rather than the expected focused poles and fusiform spindle. Higher concentrations of T-1 induce fragmentation of centrosomes, causing abnormal accumulation of microtubules in polar regions. These results indicate that T-1 directly alters centrosomal configuration from a compact structure to a flattened or a spread structure. T-1 can be classified as a new category of mitotic drugs that may prove valuable in dissecting the molecular nature of centrosomes.

  8. Total Syntheses of Amphidinolides T1 and T4 via Catalytic, Stereoselective Reductive Macrocyclizations

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Elizabeth A.; O’Brien, Karen C.

    2011-01-01

    Described in this work are total syntheses of amphidinolides T1 and T4 using two nickel-catalyzed reductive coupling reactions of alkynes, with an epoxide in one case (intermolecular) and with an aldehyde in another (intramolecular). The latter was used to effect a macrocyclization, form a C-C bond and install a stereogenic center with >10:1 selectivity in both natural product syntheses. Alternative approaches in which intermolecular alkyne-aldehyde reductive coupling reactions would serve to join key fragments were investigated and are also discussed; it was found that macrocyclization (i.e. intramolecular alkyne-aldehyde coupling) was superior in several respects (diastereoselectivity, yield, and length of syntheses). Alkyne-epoxide reductive couplings were instrumental in the construction of key fragments corresponding to approximately half of the molecule of both natural products. In one case (T4 series), the alkyne-epoxide coupling exhibited very high site selectivity in a coupling of a diyne. A model for the stereoselectivity observed in the macrocyclizations is also proposed. PMID:15783211

  9. Building a Culture of Trust: Trust in the Use of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the place of trust in a school context and its importance in achieving the aims of schooling, "namely high academic performance and positive affects among members of the school community" (Forsyth, 2008). The role of trust in the use of technology and technological change is examined. Literature is surveyed in the…

  10. In Public Education Expenditures We Trust: Does Trust Increase Support for Public Education Expenditures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Nurullah; Boyaci, Israfil; Ozcan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is one crucial prerequisite for the welfare state. However, very few empirical studies exist that help us understand the mechanisms through which trust affects the welfare state. Influencing public support for developing friendly public policies might be one of these mechanisms. In this study, we use unique micro data from 34 countries to…

  11. Trust and Its Role in Principal Succession: A Preliminary Examination of a Continuum of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Robert B.; Meyer, Matthew J.; Northfield, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Trust is a critical factor in determining whether principal-teacher working relationships are positive or negative. This article begins to explore the concept of trust and its development in twelve Canadian secondary schools that experienced frequent principal turnover in a period of eight years. The authors found that the development of trust…

  12. Sodium and T1rho MRI for molecular and diagnostic imaging of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Arijitt; Mellon, Eric; Niyogi, Sampreet; Witschey, Walter; Kneeland, J Bruce; Reddy, Ravinder

    2006-11-01

    In this article, both sodium magnetic resonance (MR) and T1rho relaxation mapping aimed at measuring molecular changes in cartilage for the diagnostic imaging of osteoarthritis are reviewed. First, an introduction to structure of cartilage, its degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA) and an outline of diagnostic imaging methods in quantifying molecular changes and early diagnostic aspects of cartilage degeneration are described. The sodium MRI section begins with a brief overview of the theory of sodium NMR of biological tissues and is followed by a section on multiple quantum filters that can be used to quantify both bi-exponential relaxation and residual quadrupolar interaction. Specifically, (i) the rationale behind the use of sodium MRI in quantifying proteoglycan (PG) changes, (ii) validation studies using biochemical assays, (iii) studies on human OA specimens, (iv) results on animal models and (v) clinical imaging protocols are reviewed. Results demonstrating the feasibility of quantifying PG in OA patients and comparison with that in healthy subjects are also presented. The section concludes with the discussion of advantages and potential issues with sodium MRI and the impact of new technological advancements (e.g. ultra-high field scanners and parallel imaging methods). In the theory section on T1rho, a brief description of (i) principles of measuring T1rho relaxation, (ii) pulse sequences for computing T1rho relaxation maps, (iii) issues regarding radio frequency power deposition, (iv) mechanisms that contribute to T1rho in biological tissues and (v) effects of exchange and dipolar interaction on T1rho dispersion are discussed. Correlation of T1rho relaxation rate with macromolecular content and biomechanical properties in cartilage specimens subjected to trypsin and cytokine-induced glycosaminoglycan depletion and validation against biochemical assay and histopathology are presented. Experimental T1rho data from osteoarthritic specimens, animal models

  13. Native Magnetic Resonance T1-Mapping Identifies Diffuse Myocardial Injury in Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Aijuan; Chen, Zhe; Jia, Yumei; Yang, Ning; Feng, Xiaomeng; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yuan; Yang, Xinchun; Wang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Hypothyroidism (HT) is characterized by thyroid hormone deficiencies, which can lead to diffuse myocardial interstitium lesions in patients with HT. Myocardial longitudinal relaxation time (T1) mapping is a potential diagnostic tool for quantifying diffuse myocardial injury. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of T1 mapping in identifying myocardial involvement in HT, and determine the relationship between T1 values and myocardial function. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 30 untreated HT patients alongside 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with non-contrast (native) T1 mapping using a modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence to assess the native T1 values of myocardium and cardiac function. Results Native myocardial T1 values were significantly increased in HT patients, especially those with pericardial effusion (p < 0.05), compared with healthy controls. In addition, significantly reduced peak filling rate (PFR) and prolonged peak filling time (PFT) were obtained (p < 0.05) in HT patients compared with controls. Furthermore, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac index (CI) were significantly lower in HT patients than controls (all p < 0.05). Interestingly, native T1 values were negatively correlated with free triiodothyronine (FT3), PFR, SV and CI (all p < 0.05). Conclusion Diffuse myocardial injuries are common in HT patients, and increased T1 values are correlated with FT3 and cardiac function impairment. These findings indicate that T1 mapping might be useful in evaluating myocardial injuries in HT patients. PMID:26964099

  14. T1-201 chloride scintigraphy for bone tumors and soft part sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Terui, S.; Oyamada, H.; Nishikawa, K.; Beppu, Y.; Fukuma, H.

    1984-01-01

    The author investigated T1-201 chloride as a tumor scanning agent of both tumors and soft part sarcomas. Six bone tumors (2 with Ewing sarcoma, 3 with osteosarcoma and 1 with giant cell tumor) and 3 soft part sarcoma (1 with liposarcoma and 2 with malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH)) were examined. All but one MFH were untreated primary cases. The diagnosis was determined from biopsy specimen. One patient with Ewing sarcoma had bone metastases. All cases were subsequently received chemotherpeutic agents. Surgery or local irradiation were also used in treatment. T1-201 scintigraphy were performed with intravenous administration of 2 mCi of T1-201 chloride before initiation of therapy. In addition, follow-up examinations were done in 4 patients (2 with Ewing sarcoma and 2 with osteosarcoma) to study the effect of chemotherapy on T1-201 uptake by the tumor. Tc-99m bone scans were available for comparison in 6 tumor. Ga-67 citrate scans were also examined for the 3 soft part sarcomas. The untreated tumors even in the metastatic lesions of Ewing sarcoma were distinctly visualized with T1-201 in all cases. The distribution of T1-201 in the tumors was sometimes different from that of Tc-99m and similar to that of Ga-67. Of 3 out of the 4 follow-up patients, the post-therapy scan showed reduction in T1-201 uptake more markedly than Tc-99m uptake during effective chemotherapy. The other one patient had not responded to the treatment so that the scan showed no changes in T1-201 uptake. These findings indicate that the tumor imaging with T1-201 is useful in the diagnosis of these malignant tumors and may be of value in assessing the response of bone tumors to chemotherapy.

  15. Consumer trust in the Australian food system - The everyday erosive impact of food labelling.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Emma; Webb, Trevor; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M

    2016-08-01

    Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems.

  16. Hypothesized predictors of patient–physician trust and distrust in the elderly: implications for health and disease management

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Oswald AJ; Cardozo, Lavoisier J; Afonso, Nelia M; Siddique, Mohamed; Steinberg, Joel; Lepczyk, Marybeth; Aranha, Anil NF

    2006-01-01

    This study notes the differences between trust and distrust perceptions by the elderly as compared with younger populations. Given the importance of trust and distrust in compliance, changing behaviors, and forming partnerships for both health and disease management, it is necessary to be able to measure patient–doctor trust and distrust (PDTD). Following recent conceptualizations on trust and distrust as coexistent states, this study hypothesizes predictors of PDTD. We are proposing that these predictors form the basis for designing, developing and validating a PDTD scale (PDTDS). It is important to capture the trust–distrust perceptions of older patients as they confront the complexities and vulnerabilities of the modern healthcare delivery system. This is necessary if we are to design interventions to change behaviors of both the healthcare provider and the older patient. PMID:18044114

  17. Can one trust quantum simulators?

    PubMed

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Deutsch, Ivan; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Various fundamental phenomena of strongly correlated quantum systems such as high-T(c) superconductivity, the fractional quantum-Hall effect and quark confinement are still awaiting a universally accepted explanation. The main obstacle is the computational complexity of solving even the most simplified theoretical models which are designed to capture the relevant quantum correlations of the many-body system of interest. In his seminal 1982 paper (Feynman 1982 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21 467), Richard Feynman suggested that such models might be solved by 'simulation' with a new type of computer whose constituent parts are effectively governed by a desired quantum many-body dynamics. Measurements on this engineered machine, now known as a 'quantum simulator,' would reveal some unknown or difficult to compute properties of a model of interest. We argue that a useful quantum simulator must satisfy four conditions: relevance, controllability, reliability and efficiency. We review the current state of the art of digital and analog quantum simulators. Whereas so far the majority of the focus, both theoretically and experimentally, has been on controllability of relevant models, we emphasize here the need for a careful analysis of reliability and efficiency in the presence of imperfections. We discuss how disorder and noise can impact these conditions, and illustrate our concerns with novel numerical simulations of a paradigmatic example: a disordered quantum spin chain governed by the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. We find that disorder can decrease the reliability of an analog quantum simulator of this model, although large errors in local observables are introduced only for strong levels of disorder. We conclude that the answer to the question 'Can we trust quantum simulators?' is … to some extent.

  18. Error reduction and parameter optimization of the TAPIR method for fast T1 mapping.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, M; Steinhoff, S; Shah, N J

    2003-06-01

    A methodology is presented for the reduction of both systematic and random errors in T(1) determination using TAPIR, a Look-Locker-based fast T(1) mapping technique. The relations between various sequence parameters were carefully investigated in order to develop recipes for choosing optimal sequence parameters. Theoretical predictions for the optimal flip angle were verified experimentally. Inversion pulse imperfections were identified as the main source of systematic errors in T(1) determination with TAPIR. An effective remedy is demonstrated which includes extension of the measurement protocol to include a special sequence for mapping the inversion efficiency itself.

  19. Effect of relationship experience on trust recovery following a breach

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    A violation of trust can have quite different consequences, depending on the nature of the relationship in which the trust breach occurs. In this article, we identify a key relationship characteristic that affects trust recovery: the extent of relationship experience before the trust breach. Across two experiments, this investigation establishes the behavioral effect that greater relationship experience before a trust breach fosters trust recovery. A neuroimaging experiment provides initial evidence that this behavioral effect is possible because of differential activation of two brain systems: while decision making after early trust breaches engages structures of a controlled social cognition system (C-system), specifically the anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortex, decision making after later trust breaches engages structures of an automatic social cognition system (X-system), specifically the lateral temporal cortex. The present findings make contributions to both social psychological theory and the neurophysiology of trust. PMID:24003151

  20. Chimpanzees trust conspecifics to engage in low-cost reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Jan M.; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many of humans' most important social interactions rely on trust, including most notably among strangers. But little is known about the evolutionary roots of human trust. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a modified version of the human trust game—trust in reciprocity—in which subjects could opt either to obtain a small but safe reward on their own or else to send a larger reward to a partner and trust her to reciprocate a part of the reward that she could not access herself. In a series of three studies, we found strong evidence that in interacting with a conspecific, chimpanzees show spontaneous trust in a novel context; flexibly adjust their level of trust to the trustworthiness of their partner and develop patterns of trusting reciprocity over time. At least in some contexts then, trust in reciprocity is not unique to humans, but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social interactions of humans' closest primate relatives. PMID:25589606

  1. Blinding trust: the effect of perceived group victimhood on intergroup trust.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Katie N; Richeson, Jennifer A; Chiao, Joan Y; Bean, Meghan G

    2013-01-01

    Four studies investigate how perceptions that one's social group has been victimized in society-that is, perceived group victimhood (PGV)-influence intergroup trust. Jewish and politically conservative participants played an economic trust game ostensibly with "partners" from their ingroup and/or a salient outgroup. Across studies, participants dispositionally or primed to be high in PGV revealed greater trust behavior with ingroup than outgroup partners. Control participants and those dispositionally low in PGV did not display such bias. Study 3 revealed, moreover, that high PGV enhanced ingroup trust even after an overt betrayal by an ingroup partner. Results were not explained by fluctuations in group identification, highlighting the novel, independent role of PGV in shaping an important aspect of intergroup relations-that is, trust. Implications of PGV for intergroup relations are discussed.

  2. Improving the trust in results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Cappello, Franck; Constantinescu, Emil; Hovland, Paul; Peterka, Tom; Phillips, Carolyn; Snir, Marc; Wild, Stefan

    2015-04-30

    This white paper investigates several key aspects of the trust that a user can give to the results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics. In this document, the notion of trust is related to the integrity of numerical simulations and data analytics applications. This white paper complements the DOE ASCR report on Cybersecurity for Scientific Computing Integrity by (1) exploring the sources of trust loss; (2) reviewing the definitions of trust in several areas; (3) providing numerous cases of result alteration, some of them leading to catastrophic failures; (4) examining the current notion of trust in numerical simulation and scientific data analytics; (5) providing a gap analysis; and (6) suggesting two important research directions and their respective research topics. To simplify the presentation without loss of generality, we consider that trust in results can be lost (or the results’ integrity impaired) because of any form of corruption happening during the execution of the numerical simulation or the data analytics application. In general, the sources of such corruption are threefold: errors, bugs, and attacks. Current applications are already using techniques to deal with different types of corruption. However, not all potential corruptions are covered by these techniques. We firmly believe that the current level of trust that a user has in the results is at least partially founded on ignorance of this issue or the hope that no undetected corruptions will occur during the execution. This white paper explores the notion of trust and suggests recommendations for developing a more scientifically grounded notion of trust in numerical simulation and scientific data analytics. We first formulate the problem and show that it goes beyond previous questions regarding the quality of results such as V&V, uncertainly quantification, and data assimilation. We then explore the complexity of this difficult problem, and we sketch complementary general

  3. 76 FR 36620 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-F and Form 8879-F

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-F and Form 8879-F AGENCY... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 8453-F, U.S. Estate of Trust Income Tax Declaration and Signature for Electronic and Magnetic Made Filing and Form...

  4. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  5. Power decreases trust in social exchange

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people’s trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants’ power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals’ hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners’ benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust. PMID:26438869

  6. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust. PMID:26438869

  7. Trust dynamics in multi-agent coalition formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2011-05-01

    We present a rigorous treatment of coalition formation based on trust interactions in multi-agent systems. Current literature on trust in multi-agent systems primarily deals with trust models and protocols of interaction in noncooperative scenarios. Here, we use cooperative game theory as the underlying mathematical framework to study the trust dynamics between agents as a result of their trust synergy and trust liability in cooperative coalitions. We rigorously justify the behaviors of agents for different classes of games, and discuss ways to exploit the formal properties of these games for specific applications, such as unmanned cooperative control.

  8. Further exploration of MRI techniques for liver T1rho quantification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Yuan, Jing; Deng, Min; Lu, Pu-Xuan; Ahuja, Anil T; Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2013-12-01

    With biliary duct ligation and CCl4 induced rat liver fibrosis models, recent studies showed that MR T1rho imaging is able to detect liver fibrosis, and the degree of fibrosis is correlated with the degree of elevation of the T1rho measurements, suggesting liver T1rho quantification may play an important role for liver fibrosis early detection and grading. It has also been reported it is feasible to obtain consistent liver T1rho measurement for human subjects at 3 Tesla (3 T), and preliminary clinical data suggest liver T1rho is increased in patients with cirrhosis. In these previous studies, T1rho imaging was used with the rotary-echo spin-lock pulse for T1rho preparation, and number of signal averaging (NSA) was 2. Due to the presence of inhomogeneous B0 field, artifacts may occur in the acquired T1rho-weighted images. The method described by Dixon et al. (Magn Reson Med 1996;36:90-4), which is a hard RF pulse with 135° flip angle and same RF phase as the spin-locking RF pulse is inserted right before and after the spin-locking RF pulse, has been proposed to reduce sensitivity to B0 field inhomogeneity in T1rho imaging. In this study, we compared the images scanned by rotary-echo spin-lock pulse method (sequence 1) and the pulse modified according to Dixon method (sequence 2). When the artifacts occurred in T1rho images, we repeated the same scan until satisfactory. We accepted images if artifact in liver was less than 10% of liver area by visual estimation. When NSA =2, the breath-holding duration for data acquisition of one slice scanning was 8 sec due to a delay time of 6,000 ms for magnetization restoration. If NSA =1, the duration was shortened to be 2 sec. In previous studies, manual region of interest (ROI) analysis of T1rho map was used. In this current study, histogram analysis was also applied to evaluate liver T1rho value on T1rho maps. MRI data acquisition was performed on a 3 T clinical scanner. There were 29 subjects with 61 examinations obtained

  9. Dependence of the solvent proton 1/T1 on the iron content in normal human serum.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A; Chu, S C; Osmanoglu, S

    1988-07-01

    The iron content dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) of solvent protons in healthy human serum has been studied by FT NMR at 60 MHz. A linear relationship has been established between 1/T1 and the iron content (with a correlation of 0.89). Our data suggest that Fe(III)-transferrin can contribute to the relaxation rate in healthy human serum. PMID:2849703

  10. Native Myocardial T1 as a Biomarker of Cardiac Structure in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi V; Kato, Shingo; Roujol, Sebastien; Murthy, Venkatesh; Bellm, Steven; Kashem, Abyaad; Basha, Tamer; Jang, Jihye; Eisman, Aaron S; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2016-01-15

    Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is involved in the pathology of nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC). Recently, the application of native (noncontrast) myocardial T1 measurement has been proposed as a method for characterizing diffuse interstitial fibrosis. To determine the association of native T1 with myocardial structure and function, we prospectively studied 39 patients with NIC (defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 50% without cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) evidence of previous infarction) and 27 subjects with normal LVEF without known overt cardiovascular disease. T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were determined over 16 segments across the base, mid, and apical left ventricular (LV). NIC participants (57 ± 15 years) were predominantly men (74%), with a mean LVEF 34 ± 10%. Subjects with NIC had a greater native T1 (1,131 ± 51 vs 1,069 ± 29 ms; p <0.0001), a greater ECV (0.28 ± 0.04 vs 0.25 ± 0.02, p = 0.002), and a longer myocardial T2 (52 ± 8 vs 47 ± 5 ms; p = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment, a lower global native T1 time in NIC was associated with a greater LVEF (β = -0.59, p = 0.0003), greater right ventricular ejection fraction (β = -0.47, p = 0.006), and smaller left atrial volume index (β = 0.51, p = 0.001). The regional distribution of native myocardial T1 was similar in patients with and without NIC. In NIC, native myocardial T1 is elevated in all myocardial segments, suggesting a global (not regional) abnormality of myocardial tissue composition. In conclusion, native T1 may represent a rapid, noncontrast alternative to ECV for delineating myocardial tissue remodeling in NIC.

  11. Errors in quantitative T1rho imaging and the correction methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weitian

    2015-08-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation time constant in rotating frame (T1rho) is useful for assessment of the properties of macromolecular environment inside tissue. Quantification of T1rho is found promising in various clinical applications. However, T1rho imaging is prone to image artifacts and quantification errors, which remains one of the greatest challenges to adopt this technique in routine clinical practice. The conventional continuous wave spin-lock is susceptible to B1 radiofrequency (RF) and B0 field inhomogeneity, which appears as banding artifacts in acquired images. A number of methods have been reported to modify T1rho prep RF pulse cluster to mitigate this effect. Adiabatic RF pulse can also be used for spin-lock with insensitivity to both B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity. Another source of quantification error in T1rho imaging is signal evolution during imaging data acquisition. Care is needed to affirm such error does not take place when specific pulse sequence is used for imaging data acquisition. Another source of T1rho quantification error is insufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is common among various quantitative imaging approaches. Measurement of T1rho within an ROI can mitigate this issue, but at the cost of reduced resolution. Noise-corrected methods are reported to address this issue in pixel-wise quantification. For certain tissue type, T1rho quantification can be confounded by magic angle effect and the presence of multiple tissue components. Review of these confounding factors from inherent tissue properties is not included in this article. PMID:26435922

  12. Native Myocardial T1 as a Biomarker of Cardiac Structure in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi V; Kato, Shingo; Roujol, Sebastien; Murthy, Venkatesh; Bellm, Steven; Kashem, Abyaad; Basha, Tamer; Jang, Jihye; Eisman, Aaron S; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2016-01-15

    Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is involved in the pathology of nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC). Recently, the application of native (noncontrast) myocardial T1 measurement has been proposed as a method for characterizing diffuse interstitial fibrosis. To determine the association of native T1 with myocardial structure and function, we prospectively studied 39 patients with NIC (defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 50% without cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) evidence of previous infarction) and 27 subjects with normal LVEF without known overt cardiovascular disease. T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were determined over 16 segments across the base, mid, and apical left ventricular (LV). NIC participants (57 ± 15 years) were predominantly men (74%), with a mean LVEF 34 ± 10%. Subjects with NIC had a greater native T1 (1,131 ± 51 vs 1,069 ± 29 ms; p <0.0001), a greater ECV (0.28 ± 0.04 vs 0.25 ± 0.02, p = 0.002), and a longer myocardial T2 (52 ± 8 vs 47 ± 5 ms; p = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment, a lower global native T1 time in NIC was associated with a greater LVEF (β = -0.59, p = 0.0003), greater right ventricular ejection fraction (β = -0.47, p = 0.006), and smaller left atrial volume index (β = 0.51, p = 0.001). The regional distribution of native myocardial T1 was similar in patients with and without NIC. In NIC, native myocardial T1 is elevated in all myocardial segments, suggesting a global (not regional) abnormality of myocardial tissue composition. In conclusion, native T1 may represent a rapid, noncontrast alternative to ECV for delineating myocardial tissue remodeling in NIC. PMID:26684511

  13. Errors in quantitative T1rho imaging and the correction methods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation time constant in rotating frame (T1rho) is useful for assessment of the properties of macromolecular environment inside tissue. Quantification of T1rho is found promising in various clinical applications. However, T1rho imaging is prone to image artifacts and quantification errors, which remains one of the greatest challenges to adopt this technique in routine clinical practice. The conventional continuous wave spin-lock is susceptible to B1 radiofrequency (RF) and B0 field inhomogeneity, which appears as banding artifacts in acquired images. A number of methods have been reported to modify T1rho prep RF pulse cluster to mitigate this effect. Adiabatic RF pulse can also be used for spin-lock with insensitivity to both B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity. Another source of quantification error in T1rho imaging is signal evolution during imaging data acquisition. Care is needed to affirm such error does not take place when specific pulse sequence is used for imaging data acquisition. Another source of T1rho quantification error is insufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is common among various quantitative imaging approaches. Measurement of T1rho within an ROI can mitigate this issue, but at the cost of reduced resolution. Noise-corrected methods are reported to address this issue in pixel-wise quantification. For certain tissue type, T1rho quantification can be confounded by magic angle effect and the presence of multiple tissue components. Review of these confounding factors from inherent tissue properties is not included in this article. PMID:26435922

  14. Horner's syndrome secondary to intervertebral disc herniation at the level of T1–2

    PubMed Central

    Spacey, Kate; Dannawi, Zaher; Khazim, R; Dannawi, Z

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 6 week history of periscapular pain and a T1 radiculopathy associated with Horner's syndrome. MRI of her cervicothoracic spine revealed an intervertebral disc herniation at the level of T1–2. During investigation she experienced some improvement in her symptoms and a conservative approach was pursued. At 6 months her pain and radiculopathy had resolved, and there was mild residual ptosis. PMID:24903729

  15. Development and validation of a socioculturally competent trust in physician scale for a developing country setting

    PubMed Central

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Wouters, Edwin; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Trust in physicians is the unwritten covenant between the patient and the physician that the physician will do what is in the best interest of the patient. This forms the undercurrent of all healthcare relationships. Several scales exist for assessment of trust in physicians in developed healthcare settings, but to our knowledge none of these have been developed in a developing country context. Objectives To develop and validate a new trust in physician scale for a developing country setting. Methods Dimensions of trust in physicians, which were identified in a previous qualitative study in the same setting, were used to develop a scale. This scale was administered among 616 adults selected from urban and rural areas of Tamil Nadu, south India, using a multistage sampling cross sectional survey method. The individual items were analysed using a classical test approach as well as item response theory. Cronbach's α was calculated and the item to total correlation of each item was assessed. After testing for unidimensionality and absence of local dependence, a 2 parameter logistic Semajima's graded response model was fit and item characteristics assessed. Results Competence, assurance of treatment, respect for the physician and loyalty to the physician were important dimensions of trust. A total of 31 items were developed using these dimensions. Of these, 22 were selected for final analysis. The Cronbach's α was 0.928. The item to total correlations were acceptable for all the 22 items. The item response analysis revealed good item characteristic curves and item information for all the items. Based on the item parameters and item information, a final 12 item scale was developed. The scale performs optimally in the low to moderate trust range. Conclusions The final 12 item trust in physician scale has a good construct validity and internal consistency. PMID:25941182

  16. Effects of pulmonary inhalation on hyperpolarized krypton-83 magnetic resonance T1 relaxation.

    PubMed

    Stupic, K F; Elkins, N D; Pavlovskaya, G E; Repine, J E; Meersmann, T

    2011-07-01

    The (83)Kr magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation time T(1) of krypton gas in contact with model surfaces was previously found to be highly sensitive to surface composition, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature. The work presented here explored aspects of pulmonary (83)Kr T(1) relaxation measurements in excised lungs from healthy rats using hyperpolarized (hp) (83)Kr with approximately 4.4% spin polarization. MR spectroscopy without spatial resolution was applied to the ex vivo lungs that actively inhale hp (83)Kr through a custom designed ventilation system. Various inhalation schemes were devised to study the influence of anatomical dead space upon the measured (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times. The longitudinal (83)Kr relaxation times in the distal airways and the respiratory zones were independent of the lung inhalation volume, with T(1) = 1.3 s and T(1) = 1.0 s, depending only on the applied inhalation scheme. The obtained data were highly reproducible between different specimens. Further, the (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times in excised lungs were unaffected by the presence of up to 40% oxygen in the hp gas mixture. The results support the possible importance of (83)Kr as a biomarker for evaluating lung function.

  17. Effects of pulmonary inhalation on hyperpolarized krypton-83 magnetic resonance T1 relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupic, K. F.; Elkins, N. D.; Pavlovskaya, G. E.; Repine, J. E.; Meersmann, T.

    2011-07-01

    The 83Kr magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation time T1 of krypton gas in contact with model surfaces was previously found to be highly sensitive to surface composition, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature. The work presented here explored aspects of pulmonary 83Kr T1 relaxation measurements in excised lungs from healthy rats using hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr with approximately 4.4% spin polarization. MR spectroscopy without spatial resolution was applied to the ex vivo lungs that actively inhale hp 83Kr through a custom designed ventilation system. Various inhalation schemes were devised to study the influence of anatomical dead space upon the measured 83Kr T1 relaxation times. The longitudinal 83Kr relaxation times in the distal airways and the respiratory zones were independent of the lung inhalation volume, with T1 = 1.3 s and T1 = 1.0 s, depending only on the applied inhalation scheme. The obtained data were highly reproducible between different specimens. Further, the 83Kr T1 relaxation times in excised lungs were unaffected by the presence of up to 40% oxygen in the hp gas mixture. The results support the possible importance of 83Kr as a biomarker for evaluating lung function.

  18. Faculty Trust in the Principal: An Essential Ingredient in High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Gareis, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among faculty trust in the principal, principal leadership behaviors, school climate, and student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: Data from 64 elementary, middle, and high schools in two school districts formed the basis of the study (n = 3,215 teachers), allowing for…

  19. Too Little and Too Much Trust: Performance Measurement in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Yates, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    A striking feature of contemporary Australian higher education governance is the strong emphasis on centralized, template style, metric-based, and consequential forms of performance measurement. Such emphasis is indicative of a low degree of political trust among the central authorities in Australia in the intrinsic capacity of universities and…

  20. Redefining Genomic Privacy: Trust and Empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B.; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D.; Witkowski, Jan A.; Kain, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research. PMID:25369215

  1. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D; Witkowski, Jan A; Kain, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research. PMID:25369215

  2. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  3. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D; Witkowski, Jan A; Kain, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research.

  4. Surrogate Motherhood: A Trust-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Beier, Katharina

    2015-12-01

    Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit--the "surrogacy triad" consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents--whose constituents are bound together by mutual trustful commitments. Even though a trust-based approach does not provide an ultimate answer to whether surrogacy should be sanctioned or prohibited, it allows for at least some practical suggestions. In particular, I will argue that, under certain conditions, surrogacy is tenable within familial or other significant relationships, and I will stress the necessity of acknowledging the new relationships and moral commitments that result from this practice.

  5. Surrogate Motherhood: A Trust-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Beier, Katharina

    2015-12-01

    Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit--the "surrogacy triad" consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents--whose constituents are bound together by mutual trustful commitments. Even though a trust-based approach does not provide an ultimate answer to whether surrogacy should be sanctioned or prohibited, it allows for at least some practical suggestions. In particular, I will argue that, under certain conditions, surrogacy is tenable within familial or other significant relationships, and I will stress the necessity of acknowledging the new relationships and moral commitments that result from this practice. PMID:26449234

  6. Who Adolescents Trust May Impact Their Health: Findings from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Marshall, Beth; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-06-01

    This study is one of the first to explore the relevance of trust to the health of adolescents living in a disadvantaged urban setting. The primary objectives were to determine the differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between adolescents who do and do not trust and to examine the associations between trust and health. Data were drawn from the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study, which is a cross-sectional global study of adolescents in very low-income urban settings conducted in 2011-2013. This paper focused on 446 adolescents in Baltimore as it was the primary site where trust was explicitly measured. For the main analyses, six health outcomes were examined: (1) self-rated health; (2) violence victimization; (3) binge drinking; (4) marijuana use; (5) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (6) condom use at last sex. Independent variables included sociodemographic variables (age, gender, current school enrolment, perceived relative wealth, and family structure) and two dimensions of trust: community trust (trust in individuals/groups within neighborhood) and institutional trust (trust in authorities). The results show that more than half the sample had no trust in police, and a high proportion had no trust in other types of authority. Among girls, those with higher levels of community trust were less likely to be victimized and involved in binge drinking. Meanwhile, girls with higher levels of institutional trust were more likely to use a condom and less likely to have used marijuana. Among boys, those with higher levels of community trust were more likely to use a condom, while those with higher levels of institutional trust were less likely to use marijuana, but more likely binge drink. Overall, this study highlights the importance of trust for adolescent health. Most surprising were the differences in the associations between boys and girls with regard to the type of trust and specific health outcome that was

  7. Trust, conflict, and cooperation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-09-01

    Many theories of trust emphasize that trust is most relevant to behavior in situations involving a conflict of interests. However, it is not clear how trust relates to behavior across situations that differ in the degree of conflicting interest: Does trust matter more when the conflict of interest is small or large? According to an interdependence perspective, trust becomes an especially important determinant of behavior in situations involving larger, compared to smaller, degrees of conflicting interests. To examine this perspective, we conducted a meta-analysis involving 212 effect sizes on the relation between trust (both state and dispositional trust in others) and cooperation in social dilemmas-situations that involve varying degrees of conflict between self-interest and collective interest. Results revealed that the positive relation between trust and cooperation is stronger when there is a larger, compared to smaller, degree of conflict. We also examined several other possible moderators of the relation between trust and cooperation. The relation between trust and cooperation was stronger during individual, compared to intergroup, interactions but did not vary as a function of the situation being either a one-shot or repeated interaction. We also find differences across countries in the extent that people condition their own cooperation based on their trust in others. We discuss how the results support an emerging consensus about trust being limited to situations of conflict and address some theoretical and societal implications for our understanding of how and why trust is so important to social interactions and relationships.

  8. Trust, conflict, and cooperation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-09-01

    Many theories of trust emphasize that trust is most relevant to behavior in situations involving a conflict of interests. However, it is not clear how trust relates to behavior across situations that differ in the degree of conflicting interest: Does trust matter more when the conflict of interest is small or large? According to an interdependence perspective, trust becomes an especially important determinant of behavior in situations involving larger, compared to smaller, degrees of conflicting interests. To examine this perspective, we conducted a meta-analysis involving 212 effect sizes on the relation between trust (both state and dispositional trust in others) and cooperation in social dilemmas-situations that involve varying degrees of conflict between self-interest and collective interest. Results revealed that the positive relation between trust and cooperation is stronger when there is a larger, compared to smaller, degree of conflict. We also examined several other possible moderators of the relation between trust and cooperation. The relation between trust and cooperation was stronger during individual, compared to intergroup, interactions but did not vary as a function of the situation being either a one-shot or repeated interaction. We also find differences across countries in the extent that people condition their own cooperation based on their trust in others. We discuss how the results support an emerging consensus about trust being limited to situations of conflict and address some theoretical and societal implications for our understanding of how and why trust is so important to social interactions and relationships. PMID:23231532

  9. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  10. ReTrust: attack-resistant and lightweight trust management for medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2012-07-01

    Wireless medical sensor networks (MSNs) enable ubiquitous health monitoring of users during their everyday lives, at health sites, without restricting their freedom. Establishing trust among distributed network entities has been recognized as a powerful tool to improve the security and performance of distributed networks such as mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks. However, most existing trust systems are not well suited for MSNs due to the unique operational and security requirements of MSNs. Moreover, similar to most security schemes, trust management methods themselves can be vulnerable to attacks. Unfortunately, this issue is often ignored in existing trust systems. In this paper, we identify the security and performance challenges facing a sensor network for wireless medical monitoring and suggest it should follow a two-tier architecture. Based on such an architecture, we develop an attack-resistant and lightweight trust management scheme named ReTrust. This paper also reports the experimental results of the Collection Tree Protocol using our proposed system in a network of TelosB motes, which show that ReTrust not only can efficiently detect malicious/faulty behaviors, but can also significantly improve the network performance in practice.

  11. Examining Competing Models of Transformational Leadership, Leadership Trust, Change Commitment, and Job Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2016-08-01

    This study discusses the influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction through assessing six alternative models related to the mediators of leadership trust and change commitment utilizing a data sample (N = 341; M age = 32.5 year, SD = 5.2) for service promotion personnel in Taiwan. The bootstrap sampling technique was used to select the better fitting model. The tool of hierarchical nested model analysis was applied, along with the approaches of bootstrapping mediation, PRODCLIN2, and structural equation modeling comparison. The results overall demonstrate that leadership is important and that leadership role identification (trust) and workgroup cohesiveness (commitment) form an ordered serial relationship.

  12. Integrity Management Infrastructure for Trusted Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munetoh, Seiji; Nakamura, Megumi; Yoshihama, Sachiko; Kudo, Michiharu

    Computer security concerns have been rapidly increasing because of repeated security breaches and leakages of sensitive personal information. Such security breaches are mainly caused by an inappropriate management of the PCs, so maintaining integrity of the platform configuration is essential, and, verifying the integrity of the computer platform and software becomes more significant. To address these problems, the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) has developed various specifications that are used to measure the integrity of the platform based on hardware trust. In the trusted computing technology, the integrity data of each component running on the platform is recorded in the security chip and they are securely checked by a remote attestation. The infrastructure working group in the TCG is trying to define an Integrity Management Infrastructure in which the Platform Trust Services (PTS) is a new key component which deals with an Integrity Report. When we use the PTS in the target platform, it is a service component that collects and measures the runtime integrity of the target platform in a secure way. The PTS can also be used to validate the Integrity Reports. We introduce the notion of the Platform Validation Authority, a trusted third party, which verifies the composition of the integrity measurement of the target platform in the Integrity Reports. The Platform Validation Authority complements the role of the current Certificate Authority in the Public Key Infrastructure which attests to the integrity of the user identity as well as to related artifacts such as digital signatures. In this paper, we cover the research topics in this new area, the relevant technologies and open issues of the trusted computing, and the detail of our PTS implementation.

  13. Measurement of Myocardial T1ρ with a Motion Corrected, Parametric Mapping Sequence in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Mohammed; Han, Yuchi; Witschey, Walter R. T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a robust T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence for assessment of myocardial disease in humans. Materials and Methods We developed a breath-held T1ρ mapping method using a single-shot, T1ρ-prepared balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) sequence. The magnetization trajectory was simulated to identify sources of T1ρ error. To limit motion artifacts, an optical flow-based image registration method was used to align T1ρ images. The reproducibility and accuracy of these methods was assessed in phantoms and 10 healthy subjects. Results are shown in 1 patient with pre-ventricular contractions (PVCs), 1 patient with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) and 2 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Results In phantoms, the mean bias was 1.0 ± 2.7 msec (100 msec phantom) and 0.9 ± 0.9 msec (60 msec phantom) at 60 bpm and 2.2 ± 3.2 msec (100 msec) and 1.4 ± 0.9 msec (60 msec) at 80 bpm. The coefficient of variation (COV) was 2.2 (100 msec) and 1.3 (60 msec) at 60 bpm and 2.6 (100 msec) and 1.4 (60 msec) at 80 bpm. Motion correction improved the alignment of T1ρ images in subjects, as determined by the increase in Dice Score Coefficient (DSC) from 0.76 to 0.88. T1ρ reproducibility was high (COV < 0.05, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.85–0.97). Mean myocardial T1ρ value in healthy subjects was 63.5 ± 4.6 msec. There was good correspondence between late-gadolinium enhanced (LGE) MRI and increased T1ρ relaxation times in patients. Conclusion Single-shot, motion corrected, spin echo, spin lock MRI permits 2D T1ρ mapping in a breath-hold with good accuracy and precision. PMID:27003184

  14. Macroeconomic Dynamics of Assets, Leverage and Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, Jeroen C.; Malevergne, Yannick; Sornette, Didier

    A macroeconomic model based on the economic variables (i) assets, (ii) leverage (defined as debt over asset) and (iii) trust (defined as the maximum sustainable leverage) is proposed to investigate the role of credit in the dynamics of economic growth, and how credit may be associated with both economic performance and confidence. Our first notable finding is the mechanism of reward/penalty associated with patience, as quantified by the return on assets. In regular economies where the EBITA/Assets ratio is larger than the cost of debt, starting with a trust higher than leverage results in the highest long-term return on assets (which can be seen as a proxy for economic growth). Therefore, patient economies that first build trust and then increase leverage are positively rewarded. Our second main finding concerns a recommendation for the reaction of a central bank to an external shock that affects negatively the economic growth. We find that late policy intervention in the model economy results in the highest long-term return on assets. However, this comes at the cost of suffering longer from the crisis until the intervention occurs. The phenomenon that late intervention is most effective to attain a high long-term return on assets can be ascribed to the fact that postponing intervention allows trust to increase first, and it is most effective to intervene when trust is high. These results are derived from two fundamental assumptions underlying our model: (a) trust tends to increase when it is above leverage; (b) economic agents learn optimally to adjust debt for a given level of trust and amount of assets. Using a Markov Switching Model for the EBITA/Assets ratio, we have successfully calibrated our model to the empirical data of the return on equity of the EURO STOXX 50 for the time period 2000-2013. We find that dynamics of leverage and trust can be highly nonmonotonous with curved trajectories, as a result of the nonlinear coupling between the variables. This

  15. Capturing Trust in Social Web Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donovan, John

    The Social Web constitutes a shift in information flow from the traditional Web. Previously, content was provided by the owners of a website, for consumption by the end-user. Nowadays, these websites are being replaced by Social Web applications which are frameworks for the publication of user-provided content. Traditionally, Web content could be `trusted' to some extent based on the site it originated from. Algorithms such as Google's PageRank were (and still are) used to compute the importance of a website, based on analysis of underlying link topology. In the Social Web, analysis of link topology merely tells us about the importance of the information framework which hosts the content. Consumers of information still need to know about the importance/reliability of the content they are reading, and therefore about the reliability of the producers of that content. Research into trust and reputation of the producers of information in the Social Web is still very much in its infancy. Every day, people are forced to make trusting decisions about strangers on the Web based on a very limited amount of information. For example, purchasing a product from an eBay seller with a `reputation' of 99%, downloading a file from a peer-to-peer application such as Bit-Torrent, or allowing Amazon.com tell you what products you will like. Even something as simple as reading comments on a Web-blog requires the consumer to make a trusting decision about the quality of that information. In all of these example cases, and indeed throughout the Social Web, there is a pressing demand for increased information upon which we can make trusting decisions. This chapter examines the diversity of sources from which trust information can be harnessed within Social Web applications and discusses a high level classification of those sources. Three different techniques for harnessing and using trust from a range of sources are presented. These techniques are deployed in two sample Social Web

  16. Caffeine intake inverts the effect of adenosine on myocardial perfusion during stress as measured by T1 mapping.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Prakken, Niek H; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Dijkman, Paul R M; van der Harst, Pim; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine intake before adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging may cause false negative findings. We hypothesized that the antagonistic effect of caffeine can be measured by T1 relaxation times in rest and adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), as T1 mapping techniques are sensitive to changes in myocardial blood volume. We prospectively analyzed 105 consecutive patients with adenosine stress perfusion CMR on a 1.5-T MRI system. Rest and stress T1 mapping was performed using Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery. T1 reactivity was defined as difference in T1rest and T1stress (∆T1). Fifteen patients drank coffee within 4 h of CMR (<4H caffeine group), and 10 patients had coffee the day before (>8H caffeine group). Comparison was made to patients without self-reported coffee intake: 50 with normal CMR (control group), 18 with myocardial ischemia, and 12 with myocardial infarction. The national review board approved the study; all patients gave written informed consent. The <4H caffeine group showed inverted ∆T1 of -7.8 % (T1rest 975 ± 42 ms, T1stress 898 ± 51 ms, p < 0.0005). The >8H caffeine group showed reduced T1 reactivity (1.8 %; T1rest 979 ms, T1stress 997 ms) compared to the controls (4.3 %; T1rest 977 ± 40 ms, T1stress 1018 ± 40 ms), p < 0.0005. Ischemic and infarcted myocardium showed minimal T1 reactivity (0.2 and 0.3 %, respectively). Caffeine intake inverts the adenosine effect during stress perfusion CMR as measured by T1 mapping. T1 reactivity can assess the adequacy of adenosine-induced stress in perfusion CMR. PMID:27473274

  17. A Marketing Perspective: Try Looking at Charitable Trusts from the Donor's Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoren, Linda J.

    1979-01-01

    Charitable remainder trusts and charitable income trusts are discussed as essentials in any "marketing mix" of gift-giving options. Unitrusts and annuity trusts are described and tax benefits of the charitable income trust are explained. (MLW)

  18. Trust and trust relations from the providers' perspective: the case of the healthcare system in India.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media.

  19. Trust and trust relations from the providers' perspective: the case of the healthcare system in India.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media. PMID:26228048

  20. Trust that binds: the impact of collective felt trust on organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Sabrina Deutsch; Robinson, Sandra L

    2008-05-01

    The impact of employees' collective perceptions of being trusted by management was examined with a longitudinal study involving 88 retail stores. Drawing on the appropriateness framework (March, 1994; Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004), the authors develop and test a model showing that when employees in an organization perceive they are trusted by management, increases in the presence of responsibility norms, as well as in the sales performance and customer service performance of the organization, are observed. Moreover, the relationship between perceptions of being trusted and sales performance is fully mediated by responsibility norms. PMID:18457488

  1. Neural and behavioral bases of age differences in perceptions of trust

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Elizabeth; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Moons, Wesley G.; Boggero, Ian A.; Grinblatt, Mark S.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults are disproportionately vulnerable to fraud, and federal agencies have speculated that excessive trust explains their greater vulnerability. Two studies, one behavioral and one using neuroimaging methodology, identified age differences in trust and their neural underpinnings. Older and younger adults rated faces high in trust cues similarly, but older adults perceived faces with cues to untrustworthiness to be significantly more trustworthy and approachable than younger adults. This age-related pattern was mirrored in neural activation to cues of trustworthiness. Whereas younger adults showed greater anterior insula activation to untrustworthy versus trustworthy faces, older adults showed muted activation of the anterior insula to untrustworthy faces. The insula has been shown to support interoceptive awareness that forms the basis of “gut feelings,” which represent expected risk and predict risk-avoidant behavior. Thus, a diminished “gut” response to cues of untrustworthiness may partially underlie older adults’ vulnerability to fraud. PMID:23213232

  2. Combined trust model based on evidence theory in iterated prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    In the iterated prisoner's dilemma game, agents often play defection based on mutual distrust for the sake of their own benefits. However, most game strategies and mechanisms are limited for strengthening cooperative behaviour in the current literature, especially in noisy environments. In this article, we construct a combined trust model by combining the locally owned information and the recommending information from other agents and develop a combined trust strategy in the iterated prisoner's dilemma game. The proposed game strategy can provide not only a higher payoff for agents, but also a trust mechanism for the system. Furthermore, agents can form their own reputation evaluations upon their opponents and make more rational and precise decisions under our framework. Simulations of application are performed to show the performance of the proposed strategy in noise-free and noisy environments.

  3. Improving the trust algorithm of information in semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zong-bao; Min, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer networks, especially with the introduction of the Semantic Web perspective, the problem of trust computation in the network has become an important research part of current computer system theoretical. In this paper, according the information properties of the Semantic Web and interact between nodes, the definition semantic trust as content trust of information and the node trust between the nodes of two parts. By Calculate the content of the trust of information and the trust between nodes, then get the final credibility num of information in semantic web. In this paper , we are improve the computation algorithm of the node trust .Finally, stimulations and analyses show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve the trust of information more accurately.

  4. Improving the trust algorithm of information in semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zong-Bao; Min, Jiang

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid development of computer networks, especially with the introduction of the Semantic Web perspective, the problem of trust computation in the network has become an important research part of current computer system theoretical. In this paper, according the information properties of the Semantic Web and interact between nodes, the definition semantic trust as content trust of information and the node trust between the nodes of two parts. By Calculate the content of the trust of information and the trust between nodes, then get the final credibility num of information in semantic web. In this paper , we are improve the computation algorithm of the node trust .Finally, stimulations and analyses show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve the trust of information more accurately.

  5. A Language for Modelling Trust in Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimrah, Kamaljit Kaur; Mouratidis, Haralambos; Preston, David

    It has been argued in recent research that trust is an important issue for modern information systems and that it should be considered from the early stages of the development process. Nevertheless, little effort has been put into understanding how trust can be modelled and reasoned when developing information systems. Equally little effort has been put into developing modelling languages to support trust modelling. Our motivation comes from this situation and we aim to develop a trust-aware modelling framework that will enable information system developers to consider trust and its related concepts collectively during the development of information systems. In this chapter we re-enforce the argument about the need to consider trust during information systems development and we describe a modelling language that supports trust modelling. We employ a case study from a trust critical domain to demonstrate the application of our language.

  6. Challenges and future directions of the T1D Exchange Clinic Network and registry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kellee M; Xing, Dongyuan; Tamborlane, William V; Bergenstal, Richard M; Beck, Roy W

    2013-07-01

    The T1D Exchange Clinic Network consists of 67 clinics throughout the United States. Among the more than 100,000 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who receive care at these centers, more than 26,000 have been enrolled in a registry. The registry includes participants over a wide age range, from age <1 to 93 years, and consists of both those newly diagnosed (more than 3000 diagnosed <1 year from the time of enrollment) and those with long-standing diabetes (more than 1000 with T1DM for at least 40 years). Data on diabetes history, insulin administration, diabetes management, monitoring, complications, medical conditions, medications, and laboratory results are collected at enrollment and annually through participant completion of Web-based questionnaires and data extraction from medical records. The clinic registry has provided a rich data set to address important clinical and public health issues, including important observations regarding the current state of treatment of T1DM in diabetes centers in the United States. Challenges encountered during the establishment of the clinic registry include establishment of criteria for a diagnosis of presumed autoimmune T1DM, standardization of data collected across clinics, data quality, and understanding of potential bias. Collecting the data and maximizing data quality has required considerable effort. Even with these efforts, certain data elements are difficult to capture in a meaningful way. A standard T1DM module used by all electronic health records could be developed based on the data collection instruments developed for the T1D Exchange clinic registry.

  7. Spatial variation in T1 of healthy human articular cartilage of the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, E; Pfirrmann, C W A; Hodler, J

    2010-01-01

    The longitudiual relaxation time T1 of native cartilage is frequently assumed to be constant. To redress this, the spatial variation of T1 in unenhanced healthy human knee cartilage in different compartments and cartilage layers was investigated. Knees of 25 volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T MRI system. A three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence with a variable flip angle, in combination with parallel imaging, was used for rapid T1 mapping of the whole knee. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in five different cartilage segments (medial and lateral femoral cartilage, medial and lateral tibial cartilage and patellar cartilage). Pooled histograms and averaged profiles across the cartilage thickness were generated. The mean values were compared for global variance using the Kruskal–Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann–Whitney U-test. Mean T1 decreased from 900–1100 ms in superficial cartilage to 400–500 ms in deep cartilage. The averaged T1 value of the medial femoral cartilage was 702±68 ms, of the lateral femoral cartilage 630±75 ms, of the medial tibial cartilage 700±87 ms, of the lateral tibial cartilage 594±74 ms and of the patellar cartilage 666±78 ms. There were significant differences between the medial and lateral compartment (p<0.01). In each cartilage segment, T1 decreased considerably from superficial to deep cartilage. Only small variations of T1 between different cartilage segments were found but with a significant difference between the medial and lateral compartments. PMID:19723767

  8. The T1 domain of Kv1.3 mediates intracellular targeting to axons.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jacqueline F; Chu, Po-Ju; Arnold, Don B

    2005-10-01

    Shaker K+ channels play an important role in modulating electrical excitability of axons. Recent work has demonstrated that the T1 tetramerization domain of Kv1.2 is both necessary and sufficient for targeting of the channel to the axonal surface [Gu, C., Jan, Y.N. & Jan, L.Y. (2003) Science,301, 646-649]. Here we use a related channel, Kv1.3, as a model to investigate cellular mechanisms that mediate axonal targeting. We show that the T1 domain of Kv1.3 is necessary and sufficient to mediate targeting of the channel to the axonal surface in pyramidal neurons in slices of cortex from neonatal rat. The T1 domain is also sufficient to cause preferential axonal localization of intracellular protein, which indicates that the domain probably does not work through compartment-specific endocytosis or compartment-specific vesicle docking. To determine whether the T1 domain mediates axonal trafficking of transport vesicles, we compared the trafficking of vesicles containing green fluorescent protein-labelled transferrin receptor with those containing the same protein fused with the T1 domain in living cortical neurons. Vesicles containing the wild-type transferrin receptor did not traffic to the axon, in accord with previously published results; however, those containing the transferrin receptor fused to T1 did traffic to the axon. These results are consistent with the T1 domain of Kv1.3 mediating axonal targeting by causing transport vesicles to traffic to axons and they represent the first evidence that such a mechanism might underlie axonal targeting. PMID:16262625

  9. 26 CFR 1.50A-6 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.50A-6 Section 1.50A-6... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50A-6 Estates and trusts. (a) In general—(1) Termination of employment by an estate or trust. If an estate or trust terminates (in a termination subject...

  10. CaT1 knock-down strategies fail to affect CRAC channels in mucosal-type mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Heike; Schindl, Rainer; Fritsch, Reinhard; Heinze, Barbara; Hofbauer, Michael; Hack, Marlene E; Mörtelmaier, Manuel A; Groschner, Klaus; Peng, Ji-Bin; Takanaga, Hitomi; Hediger, Matthias A; Romanin, Christoph

    2004-05-15

    CaT1, the calcium transport protein 1 encoded by TRPV6, is able to generate a Ca(2+) conductance similar but not identical to the classical CRAC current in mucosal-type mast cells. Here we show that CaT1-derived Ca(2+) entry into HEK293 cells is effectively inhibited either by expression of various dominant negative N-terminal fragments of CaT1 (N(334)-CaT1, N(198)-CaT1 and N(154)-CaT1) or by antisense suppression. By contrast, the endogenous CRAC current of the mast cells was unaffected by CaT1 antisense and siRNA knockdown but markedly suppressed by two (N(334)-CaT1, N(198)-CaT1) of the dominant negative N-CaT1 fragments. Inhibition of CRAC current was not an unspecific, toxic effect, as inward rectifier K(+) and MagNuM currents of the mast cells were not significantly affected by these N-CaT1 fragments. The shortest N(154)-CaT1 fragment inhibited CaT1-derived currents in mast cells, but failed to inhibit CRAC currents. Thus, the structural requirements of rCaT N-terminal fragments for inhibition of rCaT1 and CRAC channels are different. These results together with the lack of CaT1 antisense and siRNA effects on currents render it unlikely that CaT1 is a component of native CRAC channels in mast cells. The data further demonstrate a novel strategy for CRAC current inhibition by an N-terminal structure of CaT1.

  11. Exploring the Antecedents of Trust in Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Meng-Hsiang; Chang, Chun-Ming; Yen, Chia-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research has established that interpersonal trust and system trust are critical in shaping individual behaviour in virtual settings, the two perspectives have not been examined by IS researchers in virtual communities (VCs) simultaneously. Drawing from prior literature on trust and VCs, a research model for understanding the…

  12. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  13. 17 CFR 240.16b-8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voting trusts. 240.16b-8... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-8 Voting trusts. Any... deposit or withdrawal from a voting trust or deposit agreement shall be exempt from section 16(b) of...

  14. 17 CFR 240.16b-8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Voting trusts. 240.16b-8... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-8 Voting trusts. Any... deposit or withdrawal from a voting trust or deposit agreement shall be exempt from section 16(b) of...

  15. Revisiting the Trust Effect in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    More than a decade after Goddard, Tschannen-Moran, and Hoy (2001) found that collective faculty trust in clients predicts student achievement in urban elementary schools, we sought to identify a plausible link for this relationship. Our purpose in revisiting the trust effect was twofold: (1) to test the main effect of collective faculty trust on…

  16. 24 CFR 203.434 - Declaration of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.434... Mortgage § 203.434 Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured mortgages... interest in a specific mortgage shall be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has...

  17. 40 CFR 30.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 30.37... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for...

  18. 7 CFR 784.10 - Estates, trusts, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estates, trusts, and minors. 784.10 Section 784.10... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.10 Estates, trusts... trusts will be accepted only if such person furnishes evidence of the authority to execute such...

  19. 7 CFR 3019.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 3019.37 Section 3019.37... Standards § 3019.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient...

  20. 32 CFR 32.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 32.37 Section 32.37... trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for...

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.407 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust... § 105-72.407 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient...

  2. 10 CFR 600.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 600.137 Section 600.137..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.137 Property trust relationship... Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for the beneficiaries of the project...

  3. 15 CFR 14.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 14.37... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.37 Property trust relationship. Real... funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for the beneficiaries of the project or...

  4. 38 CFR 49.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for...

  5. 34 CFR 74.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 74.37 Section 74.37... Property Standards § 74.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property, and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds must be held in trust by...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1493-1 - Definition of foreign trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of foreign trust. 1.1493-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Transfers to Avoid Income Tax § 1.1493-1 Definition of foreign trust. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967, a trust is to be considered a “foreign trust” within...

  7. 49 CFR 19.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 19.37 Section 19.37... Requirements Property Standards § 19.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust...

  8. 2 CFR 215.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 215.37 Section... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for...

  9. 26 CFR 1.584-1 - Common trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Common trust funds. 1.584-1 Section 1.584-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.584-1 Common trust funds. (a) Method of taxation. A common trust fund maintained by a bank is not subject to taxation under this chapter and is...

  10. 45 CFR 74.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 74.37 Section 74.37... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.37 Property trust... with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipients as trustee for the beneficiaries of...

  11. 24 CFR 203.493 - Declaration of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.493... Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured loans, where the interest to be... be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has been approved by the Commissioner prior...

  12. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  13. 29 CFR 95.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Property trust relationship. 95.37 Section 95.37 Labor... Requirements Property Standards § 95.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust...

  14. 22 CFR 226.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 226.37 Section 226.... NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.37 Property trust... with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for the beneficiaries of...

  15. 36 CFR 1210.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship... Standards § 1210.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with NHPRC funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as...

  16. 9 CFR 201.42 - Custodial accounts for trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custodial accounts for trust funds... STOCKYARDS ACT Proceeds of Sale § 201.42 Custodial accounts for trust funds. (a) Payments for livestock are trust funds. Each payment that a livestock buyer makes to a market agency selling on commission is...

  17. 22 CFR 518.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property trust relationship. 518.37 Section 518... Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 518.37 Property trust relationship. Real property... be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for the beneficiaries of the project or program...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 2543.37 Section 2543...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.37 Property trust relationship... Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for the beneficiaries of the project...

  19. 20 CFR 435.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 435.37 Section..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.37 Property trust... with Federal funds must be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for the beneficiaries of...

  20. 7 CFR 795.9 - Estate or trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estate or trust. 795.9 Section 795.9 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.9 Estate or trust. (a) An estate or irrevocable trust shall be considered as one person except that, where two or more estates...

  1. The Fragility of Trust in the World of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Keith; Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Noonan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the trust-related aspect of the work of school principals. The authors' exploratory examination of the Canadian school principals' perceptions of their moral agency and trust-brokering roles described their establishing, maintaining, and recovering of trust in schools. This article is delimited to…

  2. 28 CFR 70.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 70.37... AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.37 Property trust... with Federal funds must be held in trust by the recipient as trustee for the beneficiaries of...

  3. Convoluted Essence: Indian Rights and the Federal Trust Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, David

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the trust responsibility of the federal government toward American Indians and what primacy it has in the pyramid of federal values and decision making. Examines the contested origins of the federal trust doctrine, negative and positive aspects of the relationship, three kinds of trust responsibility, and the enforceability…

  4. Teachers' Beliefs about the Development of Teacher-Adolescent Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Shannon L.; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Donlan, Alice E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined teachers' beliefs concerning the meaning and nature of teacher--student trust in a diverse sample of secondary-school teachers (n = 34). Using a grounded-theory approach, a process model of teacher-adolescent trust emerged based on semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Antecedents of trust could be categorised as…

  5. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  6. A Trust That Can't Be Breached.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Children's Investment Trust is a proposed trust fund for children's services (nutrition, health, education, and social services) similar in design to Social Security fund. The trust would be funded by a small, progressive payroll tax levied on both employer and employee on wages greater than $5 per hour. The tax would raise $25 billion more every…

  7. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  8. 78 FR 70959 - Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform... Secretary of the Interior is renewing the Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform. FOR...

  9. Trust in School: A Pathway to Inhibit Teacher Burnout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider trust as an important relational source in schools by exploring whether trust lowers teacher burnout. The authors examine how trust relationships with different school parties such as the principal relate to distinct dimensions of teacher burnout. The authors further analyze whether school-level…

  10. Social Trust, Social Partner Time and Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patulny, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Social trust is an important phenomenon, but the influence of important time-based measures upon trust has not been examined. Such measures include social contact and anti-social activity, such as television watching, which allows for the co-presence of other people. This paper reports on associations between trust and weighted means of co-present…

  11. Racially Based Trust Expectancies of Native American and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Cerda, Carrie

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of trust expectancies among 113 Native American and Caucasian intermediate grade students in same-race and mixed-race schools. Finds that both racial groups had more trust expectancy of their own race. Also finds that this trust expectancy pattern was somewhat less evident in mixed-race schools. (CFR)

  12. The Relationship between Loneliness and Interpersonal Trust during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; MacDonald, Keltie J.; King, Emily V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors administered measures of loneliness, generalized trust beliefs in peers, and trust beliefs in specific familiar peers (i.e., opposite-gender peers, same-gender peers, close same-gender peers) to a sample of 63 children (33 girls, 30 boys) from 4th and 5th grades (M age = 10 years, 6 months). They assessed children's trusting behavior…

  13. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  14. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  15. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  16. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  17. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  18. 12 CFR 330.13 - Irrevocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Irrevocable trust accounts. 330.13 Section 330... POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.13 Irrevocable trust accounts. (a) General rule. Funds... one or more deposit accounts established pursuant to one or more irrevocable trust agreements...

  19. 76 FR 55322 - Section 67 Limitations on Estates or Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... the Federal Register (72 FR 41243) on July 27, 2007. The proposed regulations provide that a cost is... Register on July 27, 2007, 72 FR 41243 (REG-128224-06), is withdrawn. Proposed Amendments to the... incurred by estates or trusts other than grantor trusts (non-grantor trusts) are subject to the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a unit...

  1. Trusting Relationships and Emotional Epistemologies: A Foundational Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Brenda R.; Brew, Christine R.

    2004-01-01

    The connections among relational trust, learning and development are implicit in transformational leadership theory. They have also been established empirically in recent studies. Leadership preparation programs often endorse the need for leaders to build effective collaborative relationships that rely on trust. Trust is an emotional phenomenon.…

  2. The Lifecycle of Trust in Educational Leadership: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    As establishing and fostering trust are imperative activities for school leaders, cognizance of the fundamental importance of trust is essential for the leader's moral agency and ethical decision-making. In this article, we use an ecological perspective to uncover the dynamics of the lifecycle of trust as evident from extant literature on…

  3. Trust in Online Collaborative Groups: A Constructivist Psychodynamic View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.

    2011-01-01

    Trust represents one of the most critical issues facing online collaborative groups (OCG). The growth of online courses and programs and the growth of collaborative learning pedagogical strategies through the text-based online environment can make trust issues more salient. This paper examines trust issues in the OCG from a psychodynamic view;…

  4. Trust in Organizations. Symposium 6. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) and trust in organizations. "Organizational Trust: An Orientation for the HRD Practitioner" (Christina L. Lafferty, Brad D. Lafferty) reviews research on organizational trust that was conducted with a focus on cognitive-based theories, affect-based theories, and combined…

  5. Collective Trust: A Social Indicator of Instructional Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to test the validity of using collective trust as a social indicator of instructional capacity. Design/methodology/approach: A hypothesized model was advanced for the empirical investigation. Collective trust was specified as a latent construct with observable indicators being principal trust in faculty (PTF),…

  6. The Effects of Individual Communicator Styles on Perceived Faculty Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    The research problem addressed in this study was the lack of trust between faculty-principal, faculty-client, and faculty-colleague in U.S. secondary schools. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between communicator styles and perceptions of trust. Organizational trust theory served as the theoretical foundation. A…

  7. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  8. Conceptions of Trust: How Designers Approach Usable Privacy and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birge, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Designers who create user interfaces are frequently required to ask users for personal information. For the user, this is a "trust question": Do I, the user, trust the system or entity that is asking me for this information? The creation and management of these trust questions is an important aspect of the research field called usable…

  9. 26 CFR 25.2702-5 - Personal residence trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... governing instrument must provide that the right of the term holder to receive the annuity amount begins on... right to use the condominium during L's lifetime. The trust is a qualified personal residence trust... enclosures for confinement of farm animals. W transfers the farm to an irrevocable trust, retaining the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  13. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  14. Trust an Essential Ingredient in Collaborative Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Ripley, Joan; Adams, Curt; Raju, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    The following study explored the relationship between trust and collaboration in one Northeastern suburban district. In sum, 122 teachers responded to a trust and a collaboration survey. We hypothesized that the level of trust would be correlated with the level of collaboration. Bivariate and canonical correlations were used to analyze the…

  15. The Formation of Parent-School Trust: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' focus was on understanding antecedents of parent trust toward schools. Two questions guided the inquiry: Is there a systematic difference in parent-school trust across schools? If so, what organizational conditions predict between-school variability in parent-school trust? Research Methods/Approach: Using multilevel modeling,…

  16. Rejection of metastatic 4T1 breast cancer by attenuation of Treg cells in combination with immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Huang, Tian-Gui; Meseck, Marcia; Mandeli, John; Fallon, John; Woo, Savio L C

    2007-12-01

    4T1 breast carcinoma is a highly malignant and poorly immunogenic murine tumor model that resembles advanced breast cancer in humans, and is refractory to most immune stimulation-based treatments. We hypothesize that the ineffectiveness of immune stimulatory treatment is mediated by the suppressive effects of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, which can be attenuated by engaging the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein with its natural ligand (GITRL); further, combination treatment with existing immune stimulation regimens will augment anti-tumor immunity and eradicate metastatic 4T1 tumors in mice.A soluble homodimeric form of mouse GITRL (mIg-mGITRLs) was molecularly constructed and used to treat orthotopic 4T1 tumors established in immune-competent, syngeneic Balb/c mice. When applied in combination with adenovirus-mediated intratumoral murine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene delivery plus systemic 4-1BB activation, mIg-mGITRLs attenuated the immune-suppressive function of splenic Treg cells, which led to elevated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, tumor-specific cytolytic T-cell activities, tumor rejection and long-term survival in 65% of the animals without apparent toxicities. The results demonstrate that addition of mIg-mGITRLs to an immune-stimulatory treatment regimen significantly improved long-term survival without apparent toxicity, and could potentially be clinically translated into an effective and safe treatment modality for metastatic breast cancer in patients. PMID:17968355

  17. Rapid multi-field T1 estimation algorithm for Fast Field-Cycling MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broche, Lionel M.; James Ross, P.; Pine, Kerrin J.; Lurie, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Fast Field-Cycling MRI (FFC-MRI) is an emerging MRI technique that allows the main magnetic field to vary, allowing probing T1 at various magnetic field strengths. This technique offers promising possibilities but requires long scan times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. This paper presents an algorithm derived from the two-point method proposed by Edelstein that can estimate T1 using only one image per field, thereby shortening the scan time by a factor of nearly two, taking advantage of the fact that the equilibrium magnetisation is proportional to the magnetic field strength. Therefore the equilibrium magnetisation only needs measuring once, then T1 can be found from inversion recovery experiments using the Bloch equations. The precision and accuracy of the algorithm are estimated using both simulated and experimental data, by Monte-Carlo simulations and by comparison with standard techniques on a phantom. The results are acceptable but usage is limited to the case where variations of the main magnetic field are fast compared with T1 and where the dispersion curve is relatively linear. The speed-up of T1-dispersion measurements resulting from the new method is likely to make FFC-MRI more acceptable when it is applied in the clinic.

  18. Stable CoT-1 repeat RNA is abundant and associated with euchromatic interphase chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lisa L.; Carone, Dawn M.; Gomez, Alvin; Kolpa, Heather J.; Byron, Meg; Mehta, Nitish; Fackelmayer, Frank O.; Lawrence, Jeanne B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies recognize a vast diversity of non-coding RNAs with largely unknown functions, but few have examined interspersed repeat sequences, which constitute almost half our genome. RNA hybridization in situ using CoT-1 (highly repeated) DNA probes detects surprisingly abundant euchromatin-associated RNA comprised predominantly of repeat sequences (“CoT-1 RNA”), including LINE-1. CoT-1-hybridizing RNA strictly localizes to the interphase chromosome territory in cis, and remains stably associated with the chromosome territory following prolonged transcriptional inhibition. The CoT-1 RNA territory resists mechanical disruption and fractionates with the non-chromatin scaffold, but can be experimentally released. Loss of repeat-rich, stable nuclear RNAs from euchromatin corresponds to aberrant chromatin distribution and condensation. CoT-1 RNA has several properties similar to XIST chromosomal RNA, but is excluded from chromatin condensed by XIST. These findings impact two “black boxes” of genome science: the poorly understood diversity of non-coding RNA and the unexplained abundance of repetitive elements. PMID:24581492

  19. Optimized Inversion Recovery Sequences for Quantitative T1 and Magnetization Transfer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Zu, Zhongliang; Xu, Junzhong; Janve, Vaibhav A.; Gore, John C.; Does, Mark D.; Gochberg, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Inversion recovery sequences that vary the inversion time (ti) have been employed to determine T1 and, more recently, quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) parameters. Specifically, in previous work, the inversion recovery pulse sequences varied ti only, while maintaining a constant delay (td) between repetitions. T1 values were determined by fitting to an exponential function, and qMT parameters were then determined by fitting to a bi-exponential function with an approximate solution. In the current study, new protocols are employed, which vary both ti and td and fit the data with minimal approximations. Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLB) are calculated to search for acquisition schemes that will maximize the precision efficiencies of T1 and qMT parameters. This approach is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements on MnCl2 samples verified the optimal T1 schemes. The optimal qMT schemes are confirmed by measurements on a series of cross linked bovine serum albumin (BSA) phantoms of varying concentrations. The effects of varying the number of sampling data points are also explored, and a rapid acquisition scheme is demonstrated in vivo. These new optimized quantitative imaging methods provide an improved means for determining T1 and MT parameter values compared to previous inversion recovery based methods. PMID:20665793

  20. A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Moore, James R; Adler, Fred

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351

  1. 78 FR 34410 - First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... COMMISSION First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application June 3, 2013. AGENCY: Securities... disclosure requirements. Applicants: First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, First Trust Exchange- Traded Fund II, First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund III, First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund IV, First Trust...

  2. 77 FR 16873 - First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ..., ``Existing Trusts''), First Trust Advisors L.P. (the ``Advisor''), and First Trust Portfolios L.P. (the.... Applicants' Representations 1. The Existing Trusts are each open-end management investment companies registered under the Act and organized as Massachusetts business trusts. Trust IV will offer one series...

  3. Effects of cognitive load on trusting behavior--an experiment using the trust game.

    PubMed

    Samson, Katarzyna; Kostyszyn, Patrycjusz

    2015-01-01

    Last decades have witnessed a progressing decline of social trust, which has been predominantly linked to worsening economic conditions and increasing social inequality. In the present research we propose a different type of explanation for the observed decline - cognitive load related to technological development and the accelerating pace of modern life. In an experimental study participants played the trust game while performing one of two different secondary tasks - listening to a disturbing noise or memorizing a sequence of characters - or with no additional task in the control condition. Results show that in both cognitive load conditions participants expressed significantly less trust in the trust game than in case of no cognitive load. Additionally, when cognitive resources were limited, participants' behavior was more impulsive than when their resources were fully available.

  4. Effects of Cognitive Load on Trusting Behavior – An Experiment Using the Trust Game

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Last decades have witnessed a progressing decline of social trust, which has been predominantly linked to worsening economic conditions and increasing social inequality. In the present research we propose a different type of explanation for the observed decline – cognitive load related to technological development and the accelerating pace of modern life. In an experimental study participants played the trust game while performing one of two different secondary tasks – listening to a disturbing noise or memorizing a sequence of characters – or with no additional task in the control condition. Results show that in both cognitive load conditions participants expressed significantly less trust in the trust game than in case of no cognitive load. Additionally, when cognitive resources were limited, participants’ behavior was more impulsive than when their resources were fully available. PMID:26010489

  5. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  6. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  7. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  8. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  9. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  10. Sex Restricted Scholarships and the Charitable Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Law Review, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Examines three areas of vulnerability of charitable trusts which provide scholarships restricting applicants to one sex. The first area is based on constitutional grounds; the second, under the 1972 amendment to the Education Act; and the third, the entitlement of tax exempt status. (Author/PG)

  11. Analysing Trust Building in Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farini, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to offer both a theoretical contribution and examples of practices of trust building in peace education; the article presents an empirical analysis of videotaped interactions in the context of peace education activities in international groups of adolescents. The analysis aims to understand if and in which ways peace education is…

  12. Relationships between Accountability, Job Satisfaction, and Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Peg; Dose, Jennifer J.; Scott, Kimberly S.

    2002-01-01

    Survey responses from 264 manufacturing workers revealed a significant relationship between job satisfaction and perceived accountability to coworkers and managers. Accountability was significantly positively related to trust in supervisors/managers. The only aspect of accountability that had explanatory power was manager and coworker awareness of…

  13. Sudden trust collapse in networked societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Gama Batista, João; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Challet, Damien

    2015-03-01

    Trust is a collective, self-fulfilling phenomenon that suggests analogies with phase transitions. We introduce a stylized model for the build-up and collapse of trust in networks, which generically displays a first order transition. The basic assumption of our model is that whereas trustworthiness begets trustworthiness, panic also begets panic, in the sense that a small decrease in trustworthiness may be amplified and ultimately lead to a sudden and catastrophic drop of collective trust. We show, using both numerical simulations and mean-field analytic arguments, that there are extended regions of the parameter space where two equilibrium states coexist: a well-connected network where global confidence is high, and a poorly connected network where global confidence is low. In these coexistence regions, spontaneous jumps from the well-connected state to the poorly connected state can occur, corresponding to a sudden collapse of trust that is not caused by any major external catastrophe. In large systems, spontaneous crises are replaced by history dependence: whether the system is found in one state or in the other essentially depends on initial conditions. Finally, we document a new phase, in which agents are well connected yet distrustful.

  14. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  15. Do Higher Education Institutes Communicate Trust Well?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul; Dean, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between trust and information sources for new purchasers of higher education is discussed. A range of sources is evaluated by potential entrants into UK higher education, and indicates that universities tend to be regarded as the most trustworthy when information is directly associated with them and social networks, and friends…

  16. The Importance of Trust in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, David L.

    2014-01-01

    If one looks at the different philosophies on leadership, each espouses various attributes that are essential to create a bond between the leader and the followers who are being led. This article is intended to focus on how the bond is created that provides the leader with the vehicle for success. Trust is the glue which binds the leader to…

  17. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  18. Keeping "Community" in a Community Land Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha

    2011-01-01

    This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…

  19. [Patient-physician relations, consent and trust].

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Marie-Paule

    2013-10-01

    The therapeutic relationship between the doctor and the patient is asymmetric. Through the trust which the patient places in him or her, the doctor is invited to see the illness, in other words the narcissistic flaw which he or she alone is authorised to examine "objectively".

  20. Partnership, Trust and Leadership among Nursing Researchers.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Margareth S; Edwards, Susanne; Salami, Bukola; Osino, Eunice; Yu, Lina; Babalola, Oluwafunmbi; Cooper, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Members of a nursing research cluster realized that they needed to determine whether, given their diverse philosophies, they could formulate a collective research agenda responding to an administrative recommendation. The cluster's leaders conducted an appraisal of the role and importance of trust as an element for promoting collaboration in a nursing research cluster and for building a collective social identity. The Social Exchange Theory framed the appraisal. A survey and a facilitation session about trust in research partnerships were conducted with eight female nursing researchers/faculty. Facilitation day's discussion was fully audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and the content coded using ATLAS.ti 6. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the qualitative aspects of the recorded discussion and the survey questionnaire explanatory responses. Responses to survey closed-questions were compiled as descriptive statistics. Participants revealed that mutual support, valuing each other and working collaboratively facilitated trust in intellectual partnership. Hindering factors were an environment suppressing expression of ideas and views, lack of open dialogue and decision-making among team members and lack of a sense of belonging. This paper has the potential to contribute to the knowledge of nursing leaders who are intending to develop and sustain nursing research teams in both academic and non-academic organizations. The paper will be especially useful as they deal with issues of trust in intellectual partnership in diverse settings. PMID:27673403