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Sample records for formaldehyde dehydrogenase role

  1. Structure-Function Relationships in Human Glutathione-Dependent Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase. Role of Glu-67 and Arg-368 in the Catalytic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghani,P.; Davis, W.; Zhai, L.; Robinson, H.

    2006-01-01

    The active-site zinc in human glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) undergoes coenzyme-induced displacement and transient coordination to a highly conserved glutamate residue (Glu-67) during the catalytic cycle. The role of this transient coordination of the active-site zinc to Glu-67 in the FDH catalytic cycle and the associated coenzyme interactions were investigated by studying enzymes in which Glu-67 and Arg-368 were substituted with Leu. Structures of FDH{center_dot}adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (ADP-ribose) and E67L{center_dot}NAD(H) binary complexes were determined. Steady-state kinetics, isotope effects, and presteady-state analysis of the E67L enzyme show that Glu-67 is critical for capturing the substrates for catalysis. The catalytic efficiency (V/Km) of the E67L enzyme in reactions involving S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-hydroxymethylglutathione (HMGSH) and 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid (12-HDDA) were 25 000-, 3000-, and 180-fold lower, respectively, than for the wild-type enzyme. The large decrease in the efficiency of capturing GSNO and HMGSH by the E67L enzyme results mainly because of the impaired binding of these substrates to the mutant enzyme. In the case of 12-HDDA, a decrease in the rate of hydride transfer is the major factor responsible for the reduction in the efficiency of its capture for catalysis by the E67L enzyme. Binding of the coenzyme is not affected by the Glu-67 substitution. A partial displacement of the active-site zinc in the FDH{center_dot}ADP-ribose binary complex indicates that the disruption of the interaction between Glu-67 and Arg-368 is involved in the displacement of active-site zinc. Kinetic studies with the R368L enzyme show that the predominant role of Arg-368 is in the binding of the coenzyme. An isomerization of the ternary complex before hydride transfer is detected in the kinetic pathway of HMGSH. Steps involved in the binding of the coenzyme to the FDH active site are also discerned from the

  2. "Enzymogenesis": classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase origin from the glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase line.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, O; Jörnvall, H

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the activity and structure of lower vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenases reveals that relationships between the classical liver and yeast enzymes need not be continuous. Both the ethanol activity of class I-type alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) and the glutathione-dependent formaldehyde activity of the class III-type enzyme [formaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase (glutathione-formylating), EC 1.2.1.1] are present in liver down to at least the stage of bony fishes (cod liver: ethanol activity, 3.4 units/mg of protein in one enzyme; formaldehyde activity, 4.5 units/mg in the major form of another enzyme). Structural analysis of the latter protein reveals it to be a typical class III enzyme, with limited variation from the mammalian form and therefore with stable activity and structure throughout much of the vertebrate lineage. In contrast, the classical alcohol dehydrogenase (the class I enzyme) appears to be the emerging form, first in activity and later also in structure. The class I activity is present already in the piscine line, whereas the overall structural-type enzyme is not observed until amphibians and still more recent vertebrates. Consequently, the class I/III duplicatory origin appears to have arisen from a functional class III form, not a class I form. Therefore, ethanol dehydrogenases from organisms existing before this duplication have origins separate from those leading to the "classical" liver alcohol dehydrogenases. The latter now often occur in isozyme forms from further gene duplications and have a high rate of evolutionary change. The pattern is, however, not simple and we presently find in cod the first evidence for isozymes also within a class III alcohol dehydrogenase. Overall, the results indicate that both of these classes of vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase are important and suggest a protective metabolic function for the whole enzyme system. Images PMID:1409630

  3. [Class III alcohol dehydrogenase and its role in the human body].

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Sani, Tufik Alizade; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2006-01-01

    Class III alcohol dehydrogenase is composed of two chi subunits, encoded by the ADH5 gene and existing in all tissues examined. It possesses a great ability to metabolize long-chain alcohols, while its capacity to oxidize ethanol is very limited. The amino-acid sequence homology and identical structural and kinetic properties indicate that class III alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase are identical enzymes. ADH III plays a significant role in the metabolism of formaldehyde in the human body.

  4. Biochemical properties of rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase with respect to oxidation of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D L; Keyes, S R; Lemelin, M A; Denk, H; Schenkman, J B

    1976-03-25

    The oxidation of formaldehyde by rat liver mitochondria in the presence of 50 mM phosphate was enhanced 2-fold by exogenous NAD+. Absolute requirement of NAD+ for formaldehyde oxidation was demonstrated by depleting the mitochondria of their NAD+ content (4.6 nmol/mg of protein), followed by reincorporation of the NAD+ into the depleted mitochondria. Aldehyde (formaldehyde) dehydrogenase activity was completely abolished in the depleted mitochondria, but the enzyme activity was restored to control levels following reincorporation of the pyridine nucleotide. Phosphate stimulation of formaldehyde oxidation could not be explained fully by the phosphate-induced swelling which enhances membrane permeability to NAD+, since stimulation of the enzyme activity by increased phosphate concentrations was still observed in the absence of exogenous NAD+. The Km for formaldehyde oxidation by the mitochondria was found to be 0.38 nM, a value similar to that obtained with varying concentrations of NAD+; both Vmax values were very similar, giving a value of 70 to 80 nmol/min/mg of protein. The pH optimum for the mitochondrial enzyme was 8.0. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by anaerobiosis was apparently due to the inability of the respiratory chain to oxidize the generated NADH. The inhibition of mitochondrial formaldehyde oxidation by succinate was found to be due to a lowering of the NAD+ level in the mitochondria. Succinate also inhibited acetaldehyde oxidation by the mitochondria. Malonate, a competitive inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase, blocked the inhibitory effect of succinate. The respiratory chain inhibitors, rotenone, and antimycin A plus succinate, strongly inhibited formaldehyde oxidation by apparently the same mechanism, although the crude enzyme preparation (freed from the membrane) was slightly sensitive to rotenone. The mitochondria were subfractionated, and 85% of the enzyme activity was found in the inner membrane fraction (mitoplast). Furthermore, separation

  5. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  6. Cloning and high-level expression of the glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshimoto, T; Tsuru, D

    1994-01-01

    A DNA fragment of 485 bp was specifically amplified by PCR with primers based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified formaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.46) from Pseudomonas putida and on that of a cyanogen bromide-derived peptide. With this product as a probe, a gene coding for formaldehyde dehydrogenase (fdhA) in P. putida chromosomal DNA was cloned in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. Sequencing analysis revealed that the fdhA gene contained 1,197-bp open reading frame, encoding a protein composed of 399 amino acid residues whose calculated molecular weight was 42,082. The transformant of E. coli DH5 alpha harboring the hybrid plasmid, pFDHK3DN71, showed about 50-fold-higher formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity than P. putida. The predicted amino acid sequence contained several features characteristic of the zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family. Most of the glycine residues strictly conserved within the family, including a Gly-Xaa-Gly-Xaa-Xaa-Gly pattern in the coenzyme binding domain, were well conserved in this enzyme. Regions around both the catalytic and the structural zinc atoms were also conserved. Analyses of structural and enzymatic characteristics indicated that P. putida FDH belongs to the medium-chain ADH family, with mixed properties of mammalian class I and III ADHs. Images PMID:8169197

  7. Formaldehyde

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formaldehyde ; CASRN 50 - 00 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  8. Purification and properties of methyl formate synthase, a mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase, participating in formaldehyde oxidation in methylotrophic yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murdanoto, A P; Sakai, Y; Konishi, T; Yasuda, F; Tani, Y; Kato, N

    1997-01-01

    Methyl formate synthase, which catalyzes methyl formate formation during the growth of methylotrophic yeasts, was purified to homogeneity from methanol-grown Candida boidinii and Pichia methanolica cells. Both purified enzymes were tetrameric, with identical subunits with molecular masses of 42 to 45 kDa, containing two atoms of zinc per subunit. The enzymes catalyze NAD(+)-linked dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl group of the hemiacetal adduct [CH2(OH)OCH3] of methanol and formaldehyde, leading to the formation of a stoichiometric amount of methyl formate. Although neither methanol nor formaldehyde alone acted as a substrate for the enzymes, they showed simple NAD(+)-linked alcohol dehydrogenase activity toward aliphatic long-chain alcohols such as octanol, showing that they belong to the class III alcohol dehydrogenase family. The methyl formate synthase activity of C. boidinii was found in the mitochondrial fraction in subcellular fractionation experiments, suggesting that methyl formate synthase is a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adh3p. These results indicate that formaldehyde could be oxidized in a glutathione-independent manner by methyl formate synthase in methylotrophic yeasts. The significance of methyl formate synthase in both formaldehyde resistance and energy metabolism is also discussed. PMID:9143107

  9. Microbial Formaldehyde Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Donohue

    2004-12-09

    This project analyzed how cells sense and generate energy from formaldehyde oxidation. Formaldehyde is a toxin that is produced naturally, chemically or by metabolism of a wide variety of methyl-containing compounds. Our goals are to identify how cells sense the presence of this toxic compound and determine how they generate energy and nutrients from the oxidation of formaldehyde. This research capitalizes on the role of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides glutathione dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GSH FDH) in a formaldehyde oxidation pathway that is apparently found in a wide variety of microbes, plants and animals. Thus, our findings illustrate what is required for a large variety of cells to metabolize this toxic compound. A second major focus of our research is to determine how cells sense the presence of this toxic compound and control the expression of gene products required for its detoxification.

  10. Cloning of the Arabidopsis and Rice Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase Genes: Implications for the Origin of Plant Adh Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R.; Osterman, J. C.; Peacock, W. J.; Dennis, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the cloning of the genes encoding the Arabidopsis and rice class III ADH enzymes, members of the alcohol dehydrogenase or medium chain reductase/dehydrogenase superfamily of proteins with glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (GSH-FDH). Both genes contain eight introns in exactly the same positions, and these positions are conserved in plant ethanol-active Adh genes (class P). These data provide further evidence that plant class P genes have evolved from class III genes by gene duplication and acquisition of new substrate specificities. The position of introns and similarities in the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of the different classes of ADH enzymes in plants and humans suggest that plant and animal class III enzymes diverged before they duplicated to give rise to plant and animal ethanol-active ADH enzymes. Plant class P ADH enzymes have gained substrate specificities and evolved promoters with different expression properties, in keeping with their metabolic function as part of the alcohol fermentation pathway. PMID:9215914

  11. A steady-state-kinetic model for formaldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver. A mechanism involving NAD+ and the hemimercaptal adduct of glutathione and formaldehyde as substrates and free glutathione as an allosteric activator of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Uotila, L; Mannervik, B

    1979-01-01

    The steady-state kinetics of formaldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver have been explored. Non-linearities were obtained in v-versus-v[S] plots. It was necessary and sufficient to consider two reactants of the equilibrium mixture of formaldehyde, glutathione and their hemimercaptal adduct for a complete description of the kinetics. A random sequential reaction scheme is proposed in which adduct and beta-NAD+ are the substrates. In addition, glutathione can bind to an allosteric regulatory site and only the glutathione-containing enzyme is considered productive. Various alternative reaction models were examined but no simple alterative was superior to the model chosen. The discrimination was largely based on results of non-linear regression analysis. Several S-substituted glutathione derivatives were tested as activators or inhibitors of the enzyme, but all were without effect. Thio-NAD+, nicotinamide--hypoxanthine dinucleotide and 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide could substitute for beta-NAD+ as the nucleotide substrate. alpha-NAD+ and ADP-ribose were competitive inhibitors with respect to beta-NAD+ and non-competitive with glutathione and the adduct. When used simultaneously, the inhibitors were linear competitive versus each other, indicating a single nucleotide-binding site or, if more than one, non-co-operative binding sites. PMID:220952

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF THE ROLE OF APOPTOSIS PATHWAYS POTENTIALLY INVOLVED IN FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED CARCINOGENESIS USING CDNA ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of the Role of Apoptosis Pathways Potentially Involved in Formaldehyde- Induced Carcinogenesis Using cDNA Arrays.

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a genotoxic chemical found in household, medicinal, and industrial products. Although the major source of human exposure is...

  13. A novel formaldehyde metabolic pathway plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in tobacco leaves under liquid formaldehyde stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Zeng, Zhidong; Liu, Ting; Liu, Ang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco and Arabidopsis are two model plants often used in botany research. Our previous study indicated that the formaldehyde (HCHO) uptake and assimilation capacities of tobacco leaves were weaker than those of Arabidopsis leaves. After treatment with a 2, 4 or 6 mM HCHO solution for 24 h, detached tobacco leaves absorbed approximately 40% of the HCHO from the treatment solution. (13)C-NMR analysis detected a novel HCHO metabolic pathway in 2 mM H(13)CHO-treated tobacco leaves. [4-(13)C]Asn, [3-(13)C]Gln and [U-(13)C]oxalic acid (OA) were produced from this pathway after H(13)COOH generation during H(13)CHO metabolism in tobacco leaves. Pretreatments of cyclosporin A (CSA) and dark almost completely inhibited the generation of [4-(13)C]Asn, [3-(13)C]Gln and [U-(13)C]OA from this pathway but did not suppressed the production of H(13)COOH in 2 mM H(13)CHO-treated tobacco leaves. The evidence suggests that this novel pathway has an important role during the metabolic detoxification of HCHO in tobacco leaves. The analysis of the chlorophyll and Rubisco contents indicated that CSA and dark pretreatments did not severely affect the survival of leaf cells but significantly inhibited the HCHO uptake by tobacco leaves. Based on the effects of CSA and dark pretreatments on HCHO uptake and metabolism, it is estimated that the contribution of this novel metabolic pathway to HCHO uptake is approximately 60%. The data obtained from the (13)C-NMR analysis revealed the mechanism underlying the weaker HCHO uptake and assimilation of tobacco leaves compared to Arabidopsis leaves.

  14. Differing roles of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases during mouse oocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Liang; Han, Longsen; Ge, Juan; Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Xuesen; Moley, Kelle; Schedl, Tim; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) modulate energy homeostasis in multiple tissues and cell types, under various nutrient conditions, through phosphorylation of the α subunit (PDHE1α, also known as PDHA1) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. However, the roles of PDKs in meiotic maturation are currently unknown. Here, by undertaking knockdown and overexpression analysis of PDK paralogs (PDK1–PDK4) in mouse oocytes, we established the site-specificity of PDKs towards the phosphorylation of three serine residues (Ser232, Ser293 and Ser300) on PDHE1α. We found that PDK3-mediated phosphorylation of Ser293-PDHE1α results in disruption of meiotic spindle morphology and chromosome alignment and decreased total ATP levels, probably through inhibition of PDH activity. Unexpectedly, we discovered that PDK1 and PDK2 promote meiotic maturation, as their knockdown disturbs the assembly of the meiotic apparatus, without significantly altering ATP content. Moreover, phosphorylation of Ser232-PDHE1α was demonstrated to mediate PDK1 and PDK2 action in meiotic maturation, possibly through a mechanism that is distinct from PDH inactivation. These findings reveal that there are divergent roles of PDKs during oocyte maturation and indicate a new mechanism controlling meiotic structure. PMID:25991547

  15. The role of glutamate dehydrogenase in mammalian ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Spanaki, Cleanthe; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia. High levels of GDH activity is found in mammalian liver, kidney, brain, and pancreas. In the liver, GDH reaction appears to be close-to-equilibrium, providing the appropriate ratio of ammonia and amino acids for urea synthesis in periportal hepatocytes. In addition, GDH produces glutamate for glutamine synthesis in a small rim of pericentral hepatocytes. Hence, hepatic GDH can be either a source for ammonia or an ammonia scavenger. In the kidney, GDH function produces ammonia from glutamate to control acidosis. In the human, the presence of two differentially regulated isoforms (hGDH1 and hGDH2) suggests a complex role for GDH in ammonia homeostasis. Whereas hGDH1 is sensitive to GTP inhibition, hGDH2 has dissociated its function from GTP control. Furthermore, hGDH2 shows a lower optimal pH than hGDH1. The hGDH2 enzyme is selectively expressed in human astrocytes and Sertoli cells, probably facilitating metabolic recycling processes essential for their supportive role. Here, we report that hGDH2 is also expressed in the epithelial cells lining the convoluted tubules of the renal cortex. As hGDH2 functions more efficiently under acidotic conditions without the operation of the GTP energy switch, its presence in the kidney may increase the efficacy of the organ to maintain acid base equilibrium.

  16. Formaldehyde in pathology departments.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P

    1983-01-01

    Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

  17. Pea formaldehyde-active class III alcohol dehydrogenase: common derivation of the plant and animal forms but not of the corresponding ethanol-active forms (classes I and P).

    PubMed Central

    Shafqat, J; El-Ahmad, M; Danielsson, O; Martínez, M C; Persson, B; Parés, X; Jornvall, H

    1996-01-01

    A plant class III alcohol dehydrogenase (or glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase) has been characterized. The enzyme is a typical class III member with enzymatic parameters and substrate specificity closely related to those of already established animal forms. Km values with the pea enzyme are 6.5 microM for NAD+, 2 microM for S-hydroxymethylglutathione, and 840 microM for octanol versus 9, 4, and 1200 microM, respectively, with the human enzyme. Structurally, the pea/human class III enzymes are closely related, exhibiting a residue identity of 69% and with only 3 of 23 residues differing among those often considered in substrate and coenzyme binding. In contrast, the corresponding ethanol-active enzymes, the long-known human liver and pea alcohol dehydrogenases, differ more (47% residue identities) and are also in functionally important active site segments, with 12 of the 23 positions exchanged, including no less than 7 at the usually much conserved coenzyme-binding segment. These differences affect functionally important residues that are often class-distinguishing, such as those at positions 48, 51, and 115, where the plant ethanol-active forms resemble class III (Thr, Tyr, and Arg, respectively) rather than the animal ethanol-active class I forms (typically Ser, His, and Asp, respectively). Calculations of phylogenetic trees support the conclusions from functional residues in subgrouping plant ethanol-active dehydrogenases and the animal ethanol-active enzymes (class I) as separate descendants from the class III line. It appears that the classical plant alcohol dehydrogenases (now called class P) have a duplicatory origin separate from that of the animal class I enzymes and therefore a paralogous relationship with functional convergence of their alcohol substrate specificity. Combined, the results establish the conserved nature of class III also in plants, and contribute to the molecular and functional understanding of alcohol dehydrogenases by

  18. On the role of microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase in metabolism of aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Antonenkov, V D; Pirozhkov, S V; Panchenko, L F

    1987-11-30

    To elucidate a possible role of membrane-bound aldehyde dehydrogenase in the detoxication of aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation, the substrate specificity of the highly purified microsomal enzyme was investigated. The aldehyde dehydrogenase was active with different aliphatic aldehydes including 4-hydroxyalkenals, but did not react with malonic dialdehyde. When Fe/ADP-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation of arachidonic acid was carried out in an in vitro system, the formation of products which react with microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed parallel with malonic dialdehyde accumulation.

  19. Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meany, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to enzyme "substrate" interactions: (i) which form of the substrate system serves as the preferential substrate and (ii) which form acts to inhibit the enzyme? Thus the relative concentrations of the forms of these substrate systems (keto, hydrated, enol) may provide a form of metabolic control. In this light, the present article considers the reduction of pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase in the presence of NADH. This reaction is inhibited by relatively high concentrations of pyruvate and the physiological significance of this inhibition has been a subject of controversy for many years. Summarized in this article are data from the literature pertaining to the interactions of keto, hydrated, and enol pyruvate with lactate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry instructors and their students are invited to review such pertinent articles so that they also may evaluate the possibility that the "substrate" inhibition of the isoenzymes in the heart muscle may be, under certain conditions, relevant as a form of metabolic control.

  20. The conserved Lysine69 residue plays a catalytic role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, but absent in humans. M. tuberculosis aroE-encoded shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the forth reaction in the shikimate pathway. Structural and functional studies indicate that Lysine69 may be involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding in M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Investigation of the kinetic properties of mutant enzymes can bring important insights about the role of amino acid residues for M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Findings We have performed site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, equilibrium binding measurements and molecular modeling for both the wild-type M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase and the K69A mutant enzymes. The apparent steady-state kinetic parameters for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase were determined; the catalytic constant value for the wild-type enzyme (50 s-1) is 68-fold larger than that for the mutant K69A (0.73 s-1). There was a modest increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for DHS (K69A = 76 μM; wild-type = 29 μM) and NADPH (K69A = 30 μM; wild-type = 11 μM). The equilibrium dissociation constants for wild-type and K69A mutant enzymes are 32 (± 4) μM and 134 (± 21), respectively. Conclusion Our results show that the residue Lysine69 plays a catalytic role and is not involved in substrate binding for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. These efforts on M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase catalytic mechanism determination should help the rational design of specific inhibitors, aiming at the development of antitubercular drugs. PMID:19917104

  1. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Taichi; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kondo, Natsuko; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Ohnishi, Ken; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.; Thompson, Larry H.; Helleday, Thomas; Asada, Hideo; and others

    2011-01-07

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-}, FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-}, FANCD2{sup -/-} and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical {gamma}H2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-} and FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-} cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2{sup -/-} cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, {gamma}H2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: {yields} We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). {yields} DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. {yields} This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. {yields} We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  2. Selected dehydrogenases in Yarrowia lipolytica JMY 861: their role in the synthesis of flavor compounds.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Marya; St-Louis, Richard; Husson, Florence; Kermasha, Selim

    2016-09-01

    The presence of selected dehydrogenases, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-YL) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-YL), in Yarrowia lipolytica JMY 861, and their potential role in flavor synthesis were investigated. The experimental findings showed that using reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as cofactor, the ADH-YL activity in vitro was 6-fold higher than that with reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH); however, under the experimental conditions used in this study, an ALDH-YL activity was not detected. The in situ hexanal reduction reaction was found to be instantaneous; however, when the yeast cells suspension was diluted 150 times, the initial relative hexanal concentration was increased by 84.1%. The chromatographic analyses indicated the conversion, in situ, of linoleic acid hydroperoxides (HPODs) into volatile C6-compounds after 60 min of HPODs addition to the yeast cells suspension.

  3. Role of ammonia in the activiation of methanol dehydrogenase/cytochrome C(L) enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunjumon, Ancy

    Recent advancement in enzyme catalysis has opened ways to design efficient biocatalysts, bio-sensors and bio-fuel cells. An in-depth knowledge about the mechanism of the reaction taking place within the enzymes is of great importance to achieve these goals. In this dissertation, various computation methods are applied to investigate the mechanism behind enzyme catalysis in the presence of compounds called activators. Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a well-known bio-catalyst that can oxidize excess of methanol from the environment to formaldehyde. The enzyme works well within the bacterial environment, but under in vitro, it loses activity. Ammonia is used as an activator to restore the activity of MDH. The Monte Carlo search using simulated annealing metaheuristic method is conducted to explore the binding of MDH with its natural electron acceptor Cytochrome cL in varying concentration of ammonia. The main aim behind this is to explore the interaction energy between the enzymes under the influence of its activator. The concentration of ammonia is varied from 0 to 5 ammonia molecules. Moving deeper into the active site of MDH, molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations were performed to investigate the position and effect of ammonia in the active site amino acids of MDH. The concentration of ammonia was varied from 0 to 55.39 mM. It was proposed that ammonia may form a complex conjugate with the cofactor of MDH (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) to assist in the oxidation of methanol. Two of the most debated methanol oxidation mechanisms, Addition-Elimination reaction and Hydride-Transfer mechanism, were used to investigate the role of ammonia in the oxidation of methanol. Density functional theory (DFT) was applied to explore the methanol oxidation mechanism in the presence of ammonia. Models of varying size that best represent the active site of MDH were tested for this purpose. The interaction energy obtained after the docking of MDH and Cytochrome cL (CL) indicate

  4. Key role of succinate dehydrogenase in insulin-induced inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Pomytkin, I A; Kolesova, O E

    2002-06-01

    We studied the role of mitochondria in insulin-induced inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the liver. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is an insulin-sensitive source of H(2)O(2)that acts as a physiological inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Succinate dehydrogenase plays a key role in insulin-stimulated generation of H(2)O(2)and inactivation of liver protein tyrosine phosphatases.

  5. Genome-wide responses to carbonyl electrophiles in Bacillus subtilis: control of the thiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase AdhA and cysteine proteinase YraA by the MerR-family regulator YraB (AdhR).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Huyen; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Mäder, Ulrike; Liebeke, Manuel; Lalk, Michael; Hecker, Michael; Helmann, John D; Antelmann, Haike

    2009-02-01

    Quinones and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls are naturally occurring electrophiles that target cysteine residues via thiol-(S)-alkylation. We analysed the global expression profile of Bacillus subtilis to the toxic carbonyls methylglyoxal (MG) and formaldehyde (FA). Both carbonyl compounds cause a stress response characteristic for thiol-reactive electrophiles as revealed by the induction of the Spx, CtsR, CymR, PerR, ArsR, CzrA, CsoR and SigmaD regulons. MG and FA triggered also a SOS response which indicates DNA damage. Protection against FA is mediated by both the hxlAB operon, encoding the ribulose monophosphate pathway for FA fixation, and a thiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (AdhA) and DJ-1/PfpI-family cysteine proteinase (YraA). The adhA-yraA operon and the yraC gene, encoding a gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase, are positively regulated by the MerR-family regulator, YraB(AdhR). AdhR binds specifically to its target promoters which contain a 7-4-7 inverted repeat (CTTAAAG-N4-CTTTAAG) between the -35 and -10 elements. Activation of adhA-yraA transcription by AdhR requires the conserved Cys52 residue in vivo. We speculate that AdhR is redox-regulated via thiol-(S)-alkylation by aldehydes and that AdhA and YraA are specifically involved in reduction of aldehydes and degradation or repair of damaged thiol-containing proteins respectively.

  6. An update on the role of mitochondrial α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is severely reduced in human pathologies where oxidative stress is traditionally thought to play an important role, such as familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This minireview is focused on substantial data that were accumulated over the last 2 decades to support the concept that KGDHC can be a primary mitochondrial target of oxidative stress and at the same time a key contributor to it by producing reactive oxygen species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Mitochondrial function’. PMID:22820180

  7. An original approach combining aircraft observations and 1D modelling to quantify the role of deep convection on formaldehyde in tropical UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbon, A.; Ruiz, M.; Bechara, J.; Afif, C.; Huntrieser, H.; Mills, G.; Mari, C.; Reeves, C.; Schlager, H.

    2010-12-01

    Deep convection plays a key role in determining global atmospheric composition of the upper troposphere by the fast uplift of HOx radical and ozone precursors to the upper troposphere. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one important gas precursor. It is the most abundant carbonyl compound originating from both primary processes and photooxidation of volatile organic compounds. Thus, determining its source strength to the upper troposphere is important for estimating ozone production. However processes governing its fate are multiple and complex including dynamics (entrainment and detrainment), multiphase chemistry and cloud microphysics. As a result, the flux of formaldehyde to the upper troposphere is still uncertain. The goal of this study is to examine the redistribution of formaldehyde in tropical mesoscale convective systems (MSC) and to estimate its sources and sinks during convective transport to the upper troposphere. The novelty here is to combine 1D modelling (Meso NH model) and formaldehyde aircraft observations. Observations were collected over West Africa during the monsoon period (July-August 2006) of the AMMA experiment. Four aircrafts (English BAe-146, French ATR-42 and Falcon-20 and German Falcon-20) were deployed over a large domain (long.: -8°E-5°W, lat. 4°N-20°N, alt.: 0 12 km) with formaldehyde measuring instruments on board. First, this presentation will point out the construction of a comprehensive and consistent data set of formaldehyde by ensuring data comparability thanks to aircraft intercomparison flights, multiple chemical tracer approach (CO, O3 and relative humidity) and a spatial gridding of the domain. Then formaldehyde spatial variability will be examined under background and convective conditions. Finally, the relative importance of transport (entrainment) and wet scavenging will be discussed from selected AMMA flights. For that purpose, the following equation system has been resolved [HCHO]transported to UT=[HCHO]measured - [HCHO

  8. NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purification, kinetic properties, and physiological roles.

    PubMed

    DeLuna, A; Avendano, A; Riego, L; Gonzalez, A

    2001-11-23

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDHs) encoded by GDH1 and GDH3 catalyze the synthesis of glutamate from ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. The GDH2-encoded NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase degrades glutamate producing ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. Until very recently, it was considered that only one biosynthetic NADP-GDH was present in S. cerevisiae. This fact hindered understanding the physiological role of each isoenzyme and the mechanisms involved in alpha-ketoglutarate channeling for glutamate biosynthesis. In this study, we purified and characterized the GDH1- and GDH3-encoded NADP-GDHs; they showed different allosteric properties and rates of alpha-ketoglutarate utilization. Analysis of the relative levels of these proteins revealed that the expression of GDH1 and GDH3 is differentially regulated and depends on the nature of the carbon source. Moreover, the physiological study of mutants lacking or overexpressing GDH1 or GDH3 suggested that these genes play nonredundant physiological roles. Our results indicate that the coordinated regulation of GDH1-, GDH3-, and GDH2-encoded enzymes results in glutamate biosynthesis and balanced utilization of alpha-ketoglutarate under fermentative and respiratory conditions. The possible relevance of the duplicated NADP-GDH pathway in the adaptation to facultative metabolism is discussed.

  9. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor, proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase in apoptosis and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Becker, Donald F

    2012-01-01

    Flavoproteins catalyze a variety of reactions utilizing flavin mononucleotide or flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactors. The oxidoreductase properties of flavoenzymes implicate them in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress, and various cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Here we explore three critical flavoproteins involved in apoptosis and redox signaling, ie, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase. These proteins have diverse biochemical functions and influence apoptotic signaling by unique mechanisms. The role of AIF in apoptotic signaling is two-fold, with AIF changing intracellular location from the inner mitochondrial membrane space to the nucleus upon exposure of cells to apoptotic stimuli. In the mitochondria, AIF enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics and complex I activity/assembly to help maintain proper cellular redox homeostasis. After translocating to the nucleus, AIF forms a chromatin degrading complex with other proteins, such as cyclophilin A. AIF translocation from the mitochondria to the nucleus is triggered by oxidative stress, implicating AIF as a mitochondrial redox sensor. Proline dehydrogenase is a membrane-associated flavoenzyme in the mitochondrion that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of proline oxidation. Upregulation of proline dehydrogenase by the tumor suppressor, p53, leads to enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species that induce the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. NADPH oxidases are a group of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species for oxidative stress and signaling purposes. Upon activation, NADPH oxidase 2 generates a burst of superoxide in neutrophils that leads to killing of microbes during phagocytosis. NADPH oxidases also participate in redox signaling that involves hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of different pathways regulating cell proliferation and cell death. Potential therapeutic strategies for each enzyme are also highlighted. PMID:22593641

  10. Report of the Federal Panel on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The Federal Panel on Formaldehyde concluded that definitive experiments exist which demonstrate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde under laboratory conditions. Formaldehyde induces both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in a variety of test systems. Inhalation of formaldehyde causes cancer of the nose in rats. The concentrations of formaldehyde in inhaled air that caused nasal cancer in Fisher 344 rats are within the same order of magnitude as those to which humans may be exposed. The data presently available do not permit a direct assessment of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to man. Epidemiologic studies on exposed human populations are in progress and may further clarify the situation. Other experimental and human studies on toxic effects such as teratogenicity and reproductive disorders are as yet inadequate for a health risk assessment. The CIIT 24 month study on animal carcinogenicity has not yet been completely evaluated. Additional data are expected on the effects of prolonged exposure to lower doses of formaldehyde and on the possible carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in the mouse. The panel recommends that, for a comprehensive health risk assessment, further experiments be conducted on the effects of other modes of exposure (ingestion and skin penetration), the effects in humans, and on the pharmacokinetics of formaldehyde in man and animals and the possible role for formaldehyde in reproductive and chronic respiratory disorders. It is the conclusion of the panel that formaldehyde should be presumed to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans. PMID:6977445

  11. The role of fluorine in stabilizing the bioactive conformation of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Silvia; Tosco, Paolo; Giorgis, Marta; Lolli, Marco; Fruttero, Roberta

    2013-03-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an important drug target due to its prominent role in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Leflunomide and brequinar are two well-known DHODH inhibitors, which bind to the enzyme in the same pocket with different binding modes. We have recently realized a series of new inhibitors based on the 4-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazole ring, whose activity profile was found to be closely dependent on the degree of fluorine substitution at the phenyl ring adjacent to the oxadiazole moiety; a positive influence of fluorine on the DHODH inhibitory potency was observed previously [Baumgartner et al. (2006) J Med Chem 49:1239-1247]. Potential energy surface scans showed that fluorine plays an important role in stabilizing the bioactive conformations; additionally, fluorine influences the balance between leflunomide-like and brequinar-like binding modes. These findings may serve as a guide to design more potent DHODH inhibitors.

  12. The role of nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in the supply of reduced nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide phosphate for steroidogenesis in the superovulated rat ovary

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. P. F.; Denton, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    1. Superovulated rat ovary was found to contain high activities of NADP–malate dehydrogenase and NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase. The activity of each enzyme was approximately four times that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and equalled or exceeded the activities reported to be present in other mammalian tissues. Fractionation of a whole tissue homogenate of superovulated rat ovary indicated that both enzymes were exclusively cytoplasmic. The tissue was also found to contain pyruvate carboxylase (exclusively mitochondrial), NAD–malate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase (both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic) and ATP–citrate lyase (exclusively cytoplasmic). 2. The kinetic properties of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP–malate dehydrogenase and NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase were determined and compared with the whole-tissue concentrations of their substrates and NADPH; NADPH is a competitive inhibitor of all three enzymes. The concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate, malate and isocitrate in incubated tissue slices were raised at least tenfold by the addition of glucose to the incubation medium, from the values below to values above the respective Km values of the dehydrogenases. Glucose doubled the tissue concentration of NADPH. 3. Steroidogenesis from acetate is stimulated by glucose in slices of superovulated rat ovary incubated in vitro. It was found that this stimulatory effect of glucose can be mimicked by malate, isocitrate, lactate and pyruvate. 4. It is concluded that NADP–malate dehydrogenase or NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase or both may play an important role in the formation of NADPH in the superovulated rat ovary. It is suggested that the stimulatory effect of glucose on steroidogenesis from acetate results from an increased rate of NADPH formation through one or both dehydrogenases, brought about by the increases in the concentrations of malate, isocitrate or both. Possible pathways involving the two enzymes are discussed

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in oxygen minimum layer fishes: the role of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Joseph J; Grigsby, Michelle D; Clarke, M Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Zones of minimum oxygen form at intermediate depth in all the world's oceans as a result of global circulation patterns that keep the water at oceanic mid-depths out of contact with the atmosphere for hundreds of years. In areas where primary production is very high, the microbial oxidation of sinking organic matter results in very low oxygen concentrations at mid-depths. Such is the case with the Arabian Sea, with O(2) concentrations reaching zero at 200 m and remaining very low (<0.1 ml O(2)l(-1)) for hundreds of meters below this depth, and in the California borderland, where oxygen levels reach 0.2 ml O(2)l(-1) at 700 m with severely hypoxic (<1.0 ml O(2)l(-1)) waters at depths 300 m above and below that. Despite the very low oxygen, mesopelagic fishes (primarily lanternfishes: Mytophidae) inhabiting the Arabian Sea and California borderland perform a daily vertical migration into the low-oxygen layer, spending daylight hours in the oxygen minimum zone and migrating upward into normoxic waters at night. To find out how fishes were able to survive their daily sojourns into the minimum zone, we tested the activity of four enzymes, one (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) that served as a proxy for anaerobic glycolysis with a conventional lactate endpoint, a second (citrate synthase, CS) that is indicative of aerobic metabolism, a third (malate dehydrogenase) that functions in the Krebs' cycle and as a bridge linking mitochondrion and cytosol, and a fourth (alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH) that catalyzes the final reaction in a pathway where pyruvate is reduced to ethanol. Ethanol is a metabolic product easily excreted by fish, preventing lactate accumulation. The ADH pathway is rarely very active in vertebrate muscle; activity has previously been seen only in goldfish and other cyprinids capable of prolonged anaerobiosis. Activity of the enzyme suite in Arabian Sea and California fishes was compared with that of ecological analogs in the same family and with the same

  14. [The role of hepatic and erythrocyte aldehyde dehydrogenase in the development of burn toxemia in rats].

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, A G

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to examine catalytic properties of non-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase from rat liver and erythrocyte as the main markers of endogenous intoxication after burn. Enzymatic activity was assayed from changes in the rate of NADH synthesis during acetaldehyde oxidation. Burn was shown to decrease it both in the liver and in erythrocytes which resulted in the accumulation of toxic aldehydes and the development of intoxication. Simultaneous fall in alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities is supposed to contribute to the decrease of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity as a result of thermal injury.

  15. Fundamental molecular differences between alcohol dehydrogenase classes.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, O; Atrian, S; Luque, T; Hjelmqvist, L; Gonzàlez-Duarte, R; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase in separate protein families are the "medium-chain" zinc enzymes (including the classical liver and yeast forms) and the "short-chain" enzymes (including the insect form). Although the medium-chain family has been characterized in prokaryotes and many eukaryotes (fungi, plants, cephalopods, and vertebrates), insects have seemed to possess only the short-chain enzyme. We have now also characterized a medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase in Drosophila. The enzyme is identical to insect octanol dehydrogenase. It is a typical class III alcohol dehydrogenase, similar to the corresponding human form (70% residue identity), with mostly the same residues involved in substrate and coenzyme interactions. Changes that do occur are conservative, but Phe-51 is of functional interest in relation to decreased coenzyme binding and increased overall activity. Extra residues versus the human enzyme near position 250 affect the coenzyme-binding domain. Enzymatic properties are similar--i.e., very low activity toward ethanol (Km beyond measurement) and high selectivity for formaldehyde/glutathione (S-hydroxymethylglutathione; kcat/Km = 160,000 min-1.mM-1). Between the present class III and the ethanol-active class I enzymes, however, patterns of variability differ greatly, highlighting fundamentally separate molecular properties of these two alcohol dehydrogenases, with class III resembling enzymes in general and class I showing high variation. The gene coding for the Drosophila class III enzyme produces an mRNA of about 1.36 kb that is present at all developmental stages of the fly, compatible with the constitutive nature of the vertebrate enzyme. Taken together, the results bridge a previously apparent gap in the distribution of medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases and establish a strictly conserved class III enzyme, consistent with an important role for this enzyme in cellular metabolism. Images PMID:8197167

  16. Arabidopsis mutant analysis and gene regulation define a nonredundant role for glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation.

    PubMed

    Melo-Oliveira, R; Oliveira, I C; Coruzzi, G M

    1996-05-14

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is ubiquitous to all organisms, yet its role in higher plants remains enigmatic. To better understand the role of GDH in plant nitrogen metabolism, we have characterized an Arabidopsis mutant (gdh1-1) defective in one of two GDH gene products and have studied GDH1 gene expression. GDH1 mRNA accumulates to highest levels in dark-adapted or sucrose-starved plants, and light or sucrose treatment each repress GDH1 mRNA accumulation. These results suggest that the GDH1 gene product functions in the direction of glutamate catabolism under carbon-limiting conditions. Low levels of GDH1 mRNA present in leaves of light-grown plants can be induced by exogenously supplied ammonia. Under such conditions of carbon and ammonia excess, GDH1 may function in the direction of glutamate biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis gdh-deficient mutant allele gdh1-1 cosegregates with the GDH1 gene and behaves as a recessive mutation. The gdh1-1 mutant displays a conditional phenotype in that seedling growth is specifically retarded on media containing exogenously supplied inorganic nitrogen. These results suggest that GDH1 plays a nonredundant role in ammonia assimilation under conditions of inorganic nitrogen excess. This notion is further supported by the fact that the levels of mRNA for GDH1 and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) are reciprocally regulated by light.

  17. Identification and characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 from Lampetra japonica and its protective role against cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Dan; Feng, Bin; Gou, Meng; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-09-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which oxidize aldehyde to corresponding acids, play a major role in the detoxification of various endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. In this study, we cloned and characterized ALDH9 (designated LjALDH9) from Arctic lamprey Lampetra japonica. The open reading frame of LjALDH9 was 1566 bp, encoding 521 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 55.68 kDa. LjALDH9 protein had a signal peptide and Aldedh domain with the active site Cys315. In addition, LjALDH9 shares high sequence homology with ALDH9 of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that LjALDH9 was highly expressed in the buccal gland. A reactive LjALDH9 protein was obtained by prokaryotic expression, two-step-denaturing and refolding and affinity purification. During enzyme activity analysis of recombinant LjALDH9, we found that the most suitable reaction conditions were pH7.0, 16-23 °C and Mn(2+) as the activator. Our study provides theoretical proof that LjALDH9 plays an important role in the parasitic life phase of lamprey.

  18. Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in Vmax, Km and I50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in Km values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23638346

  19. Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Jean; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated lactate when stress conditions are relieved. In this study, the effects on LDH of in vivo freezing and dehydration stresses (both of which impose hypoxia/anoxia stress on tissues) were examined in skeletal muscle of the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. LDH from muscle of control, frozen and dehydrated wood frogs was purified to homogeneity in a two-step process. The kinetic properties and stability of purified LDH were analyzed, revealing no significant differences in V max, K m and I 50 values between control and frozen LDH. However, control and dehydrated LDH differed significantly in K m values for pyruvate, lactate, and NAD, I 50 urea, and in temperature, glucose, and urea effects on these parameters. The possibility that posttranslational modification of LDH was responsible for the stable differences in enzyme behavior between control and dehydrated states was assessed using ProQ diamond staining to detect phosphorylation and immunoblotting to detect acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and nitrosylation of the enzyme. LDH from muscle of dehydrated wood frogs showed significantly lower levels of acetylation, providing one of the first demonstrations of a potential role for protein acetylation in the stress-responsive control of a metabolic enzyme.

  20. Hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome: insights into the regulatory role of glutamate dehydrogenase in ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Charles A

    2004-04-01

    The second most common form of congenital hyperinsulinism, the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA), is associated with dominantly expressed missense mutations of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). GDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate plus ammonia, using NAD or NADP as co-factor. HI/HA mutations impair GDH sensitivity to its allosteric inhibitor, GTP, resulting in a gain of enzyme function and increased sensitivity to its allosteric activator, leucine. The phenotype is dominated by hypoglycemia with post-prandial hypoglycemia following protein meals, as well as fasting hypoglycemia. Plasma ammonia levels are increased 3-5 times normal due to expression of mutant GDH in liver, probably reflecting increased ammonia release from glutamate as well as impaired synthesis of NAG, due to reduction of hepatic glutamate pools. Ammonia levels are unaffected by feeding or fasting and appear to cause no symptoms, perhaps due to a protective effect of increased GDH activity in brain. The clinical consequences of the HI/HA mutations imply that GDH plays a central role in overall control of amino acid catabolism and ammonia metabolism integrating responses to changes in intracellular energy potential and amino acid levels.

  1. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-10-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine.

  2. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  3. A role for the dehydrogenase DHRS7 (SDR34C1) in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Julia K; Quagliata, Luca; Quintavalle, Cristina; Hammond, Thomas G; Terracciano, Luigi; Odermatt, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Several microarray studies of prostate cancer (PCa) samples have suggested altered expression of the “orphan” enzyme short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase DHRS7 (retSDR4, SDR34C1). However, the role of DHRS7 in PCa is largely unknown and the impact of DHRS7 modulation on cancer cell properties has not yet been studied. Here, we investigated DHRS7 expression in normal human prostate and PCa tissue samples at different tumor grade using tissue microarray and immunovisualization. Moreover, we characterized the effects of siRNA-mediated DHRS7 knockdown on the properties of three distinct human prostate cell lines. We found that DHRS7 protein expression decreases alongside tumor grade, as judged by the Gleason level, in PCa tissue samples. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of DHRS7 expression in the human PCa cell lines LNCaP, BPH1, and PC3 significantly increased cell proliferation in LNCaP cells as well as cell migration in all of the investigated cell lines. Furthermore, cell adhesion was decreased upon DHRS7 knockdown in all three cell lines. To begin to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of DHRS7 depletion, we performed a microarray study with samples from LNCaP cells treated with DHRS7-specific siRNA. Several genes involved in cell proliferation and adhesion pathways were found to be altered in DHRS7-depleted LNCaP cells. Additionally, genes of the BRCA1/2 pathway and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition regulator E-cadherin were altered following DHRS7 knockdown. Based on these results, further research is needed to evaluate the potential role of DHRS7 as a tumor suppressor and whether its loss-of-function promotes PCa progression and metastasis. PMID:26311046

  4. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  5. Inactivation of glycerol dehydrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae and the role of divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E A; Levine, R L; Lin, E C

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobically induced NAD-linked glycerol dehydrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae for fermentative glycerol utilization was reported previously to be inactivated in the cell during oxidative metabolism. In vitro inactivation was observed in this study by incubating the purified enzyme in the presence of O2, Fe2+, and ascorbate or dihydroxyfumarate. It appears that O2 and the reducing agent formed H2O2 and that H2O2 reacted with Fe2+ to generate an activated species of oxygen which attacked the enzyme. The in vitro-oxidized enzyme, like the in vivo-inactivated enzyme, showed an increased Km for NAD (but not glycerol) and could no longer be activated by Mn2+ which increased the Vmax of the native enzyme but decreased its apparent affinity for NAD. Ethanol dehydrogenase and 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase, two enzymes with anaerobic function, also lost activity when the cells were incubated aerobically with glucose. However, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP-linked), isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase, expected to function both aerobically and anaerobically, were not inactivated. Thus, oxidative modification of proteins in vivo might provide a mechanism for regulating the activities of some anaerobic enzymes. PMID:3900046

  6. Engineering and analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that uses formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate.

    PubMed

    Baerends, Richard J S; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J A; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J; Pronk, Jack T

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on glucose. Subsequent transcriptome analyses of chemostat cultures of the engineered strain, grown on glucose-formaldehyde mixtures, indicated that the presence of formaldehyde in the feed caused biotin limitations. Further transcriptome analysis demonstrated that this biotin inactivation was prevented by using separate formaldehyde and vitamin feeds. Using this approach, steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures were obtained that coutilized glucose and formaldehyde. Coutilization of formaldehyde under these conditions resulted in an enhanced biomass yield of the glucose-limited cultures. The biomass yield was quantitatively consistent with the use of formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate that generates NADH and subsequently, via oxidative phosphorylation, ATP. On an electron pair basis, the biomass yield increase observed with formaldehyde was larger than that observed previously for formate, which is tentatively explained by different modes of formate and formaldehyde transport in S. cerevisiae.

  7. Role of NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1990-01-01

    We cloned GDH2, the gene that encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by purifying the enzyme, making polyclonal antibodies to it, and using the antibodies to screen a lambda gt11 yeast genomic library. A yeast strain with a deletion-disruption allele of GDH2 which replaced the wild-type gene grew very poorly with glutamate as a nitrogen source, but growth improved significantly when the strain was also provided with adenine or other nitrogenous compounds whose biosynthesis requires glutamine. Our results indicate that the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the major, but not sole, pathway for generation of ammonia from glutamate. We also isolated yeast mutants that lacked glutamate synthase activity and present evidence which shows that normally NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase is not involved in glutamate biosynthesis, but that if the enzyme is overexpressed, it may function reversibly in intact cells. PMID:1975578

  8. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: role in hexadecanol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M E; Finnerty, W R

    1985-01-01

    The role of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism was studied in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N. Two distinct FALDHs were demonstrated in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: a membrane-bound, NADP-dependent FALDH activity induced 5-, 15-, and 9-fold by growth on hexadecanol, dodecyl aldehyde, and hexadecane, respectively, and a constitutive, NAD-dependent, membrane-localized FALDH. The NADP-dependent FALDH exhibited apparent Km and Vmax values for decyl aldehyde of 5.0, 13.0, 18.0, and 18.3 microM and 537.0, 500.0, 25.0, and 38.0 nmol/min in hexadecane-, hexadecanol-, ethanol-, palmitate-grown cells, respectively. FALDH isozymes ald-a, ald-b, and ald-c were demonstrated by gel electrophoresis in extracts of hexadecane- and hexadecanol-grown cells. ald-a, ald-b, and ald-d were present in dodecyl aldehyde-grown cells, while palmitate-grown control cells contained ald-b and ald-d. Dodecyl aldehyde-negative mutants were isolated and grouped into two phenotypic classes based on growth: class 1 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol negative and class 2 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol positive. Specific activity of NADP-dependent FALDH in Ald21 (class 1 mutant) was 85% lower than that of wild-type FALDH, while the specific activity of Ald24 (class 2 mutant) was 55% greater than that of wild-type FALDH. Ald21R, a dodecyl aldehyde-positive revertant able to grow on hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde, exhibited a 100% increase in the specific activity of the NADP-dependent FALDH. The oxidation of [3H]hexadecane byAld21 yielded the accumulation of 61% more fatty aldehyde than the wild type, while Ald24 accumulated 27% more fatty aldehyde, 95% more fatty alcohol, and 65% more wax ester than the wild type. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence for the role of fatty aldehyde as an essential metabolic intermediate and NADP-dependent FALDH as a key enzyme in the dissimilation of hexadecane, hexadecanol

  9. Role of Alanine Dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during Recovery from Hypoxic Nonreplicating Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Giffin, Michelle M.; Shi, Lanbo; Gennaro, Maria L.; Sohaskey, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can maintain a nonreplicating persistent state in the host for decades, but must maintain the ability to efficiently reactivate and produce active disease to survive and spread in a population. Among the enzymes expressed during this dormancy is alanine dehydrogenase, which converts pyruvate to alanine, and glyoxylate to glycine concurrent with the oxidation of NADH to NAD. It is involved in the metabolic remodeling of M. tuberculosis through its possible interactions with both the glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycle. Both mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, and alanine dehydrogenase increased during entry into nonreplicating persistence, while the gene and activity for the second enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, malate synthase were not. This could suggest a shift in carbon flow away from the glyoxylate cycle and instead through alanine dehydrogenase. Expression of ald was also induced in vitro by other persistence-inducing stresses such as nitric oxide, and was expressed at high levels in vivo during the initial lung infection in mice. Enzyme activity was maintained during extended hypoxia even after transcription levels decreased. An ald knockout mutant of M. tuberculosis showed no reduction in anaerobic survival in vitro, but resulted in a significant lag in the resumption of growth after reoxygenation. During reactivation the ald mutant had an altered NADH/NAD ratio, and alanine dehydrogenase is proposed to maintain the optimal NADH/NAD ratio during anaerobiosis in preparation of eventual regrowth, and during the initial response during reoxygenation. PMID:27203084

  10. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Bromberger, Paul David; Nieuwenhuiys, Gavin; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s) in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7) belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and external recycling

  11. Chromotropic acid-formaldehyde reaction in strongly acidic media. The role of dissolved oxygen and replacement of concentrated sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Fagnani, E; Melios, C B; Pezza, L; Pezza, H R

    2003-05-28

    The procedure for formaldehyde analysis recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the Chromotropic acid spectrophotometric method, which is the one that uses concentrated sulphuric acid. In the present study the oxidation step associated with the aforementioned method for formaldehyde determination was investigated. Experimental evidence has been obtained indicating that when concentrated H(2)SO(4) (18 mol l(-1)) is used (as in the NIOSH procedure) that acid is the oxidizing agent. On the other hand, oxidation through dissolved oxygen takes place when concentrated H(2)SO(4) is replaced by concentrated hydrochloric (12 mol l(-1)) and phosphoric (14.7 mol l(-1)) acids as well as by diluted H(2)SO(4) (9.4 mol l(-1)). Based on investigations concerning the oxidation step, a modified procedure was devised, in which the use of the potentially hazardous and corrosive concentrated H(2)SO(4) was eliminated and advantageously replaced by a less harmful mixture of HCl and H(2)O(2).

  12. Differential Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Nitrogen Metabolism of Maize Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Loyola-Vargas, Victor Manuel; de Jimenez, Estela Sanchez

    1984-01-01

    Both calli and plantlets of maize (Zea mays L. var Tuxpeño 1) were exposed to specific nitrogen sources, and the aminative (NADH) and deaminative (NAD+) glutamate dehydrogenase activities were measured at various periods of time in homogenates of calli, roots, and leaves. A differential effect of the nitrogen sources on the tissues tested was observed. In callus tissue, glutamate, ammonium, and urea inhibited glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. The amination and deamination reactions also showed different ratios of activity under different nitrogen sources. In roots, ammonium and glutamine produced an increase in GDH-NADH activity whereas the same metabolites were inhibitory of this activity in leaves. These data suggest the presence of isoenzymes or conformers of GDH, specific for each tissue, whose activities vary depending on the nutritional requirements of the tissue and the state of differentiation. PMID:16663876

  13. The metabolic role and evolution of L-arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase of Hypocrea jecorina.

    PubMed

    Pail, Manuela; Peterbauer, Thomas; Seiboth, Bernhard; Hametner, Christian; Druzhinina, Irina; Kubicek, Christian P

    2004-05-01

    L-Arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase (Lad1) of the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei) has been implicated in the catabolism of L-arabinose, and genetic evidence also shows that it is involved in the catabolism of D-xylose in xylitol dehydrogenase (xdh1) mutants and of D-galactose in galactokinase (gal1) mutants of H. jecorina. In order to identify the substrate specificity of Lad1, we have recombinantly produced the enzyme in Escherichia coli and purified it to physical homogeneity. The resulting enzyme preparation catalyzed the oxidation of pentitols (L-arabinitol) and hexitols (D-allitol, D-sorbitol, L-iditol, L-mannitol) to the same corresponding ketoses as mammalian sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), albeit with different catalytic efficacies, showing highest k(cat)/K(m) for L-arabinitol. However, it oxidized galactitol and D-talitol at C4 exclusively, yielding L-xylo-3-hexulose and D-arabino-3-hexulose, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of Lad1 showed that it is a member of a terminal clade of putative fungal arabinitol dehydrogenase orthologues which separated during evolution of SDHs. Juxtapositioning of the Lad1 3D structure over that of SDH revealed major amino acid exchanges at topologies flanking the binding pocket for d-sorbitol. A lad1 gene disruptant was almost unable to grow on L-arabinose, grew extremely weakly on L-arabinitol, D-talitol and galactitol, showed reduced growth on D-sorbitol and D-galactose and a slightly reduced growth on D-glucose. The weak growth on L-arabinitol was completely eliminated in a mutant in which the xdh1 gene had also been disrupted. These data show not only that Lad1 is indeed essential for the catabolism of L-arabinose, but also that it constitutes an essential step in the catabolism of several hexoses; this emphasizes the importance of such reductive pathways of catabolism in fungi.

  14. Glycerol Dehydrogenase Plays a Dual Role in Glycerol Metabolism and 2,3-Butanediol Formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae *

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) is an important polyol dehydrogenase for glycerol metabolism in diverse microorganisms and for value-added utilization of glycerol in the industry. Two GDHs from Klebsiella pneumoniae, DhaD and GldA, were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized for substrate specificity and kinetic parameters. Both DhaD and GldA could catalyze the interconversion of (3R)-acetoin/(2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol or (3S)-acetoin/meso-2,3-butanediol, in addition to glycerol oxidation. Although purified GldA appeared more active than DhaD, in vivo inactivation and quantitation of their respective mRNAs indicate that dhaD is highly induced by glycerol and plays a dual role in glycerol metabolism and 2,3-butanediol formation. Complementation in K. pneumoniae further confirmed the dual role of DhaD. Promiscuity of DhaD may have vital physiological consequences for K. pneumoniae growing on glycerol, which include balancing the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio, preventing acidification, and storing carbon and energy. According to the kinetic response of DhaD to modified NADH concentrations, DhaD appears to show positive homotropic interaction with NADH, suggesting that the physiological role could be regulated by intracellular NADH levels. The co-existence of two functional GDH enzymes might be due to a gene duplication event. We propose that whereas DhaD is specialized for glycerol utilization, GldA plays a role in backup compensation and can turn into a more proficient catalyst to promote a survival advantage to the organism. Revelation of the dual role of DhaD could further the understanding of mechanisms responsible for enzyme evolution through promiscuity, and guide metabolic engineering methods of glycerol metabolism. PMID:24429283

  15. Insights from retinitis pigmentosa into the roles of isocitrate dehydrogenases in the Krebs cycle.

    PubMed

    Hartong, Dyonne T; Dange, Mayura; McGee, Terri L; Berson, Eliot L; Dryja, Thaddeus P; Colman, Roberta F

    2008-10-01

    Here we describe two families with retinitis pigmentosa, a hereditary neurodegeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. Affected family members were homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in IDH3B, encoding the beta-subunit of NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH, or IDH3), which is believed to catalyze the oxidation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate in the citric acid cycle. Cells from affected individuals had a substantial reduction of NAD-IDH activity, with about a 300-fold increase in the K(m) for NAD. NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH, or IDH2), an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction, was normal in affected individuals, and they had no health problems associated with the enzyme deficiency except for retinitis pigmentosa. These findings support the hypothesis that mitochondrial NADP-IDH, rather than NAD-IDH, serves as the main catalyst for this reaction in the citric acid cycle outside the retina, and that the retina has a particular requirement for NAD-IDH.

  16. Optical Detection of Formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

  17. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepa from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porsity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity.

  18. Formaldehyde risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We would like to comment on the paper by Crump et al. (2008), ‘Sensitivity analysis of biologically motivated model for formaldehyde-induced respiratory cancer in humans’. We are authors of the formaldehyde cancer risk assessment described in Conolly et al. (2003, 2004) that is t...

  19. Formaldehyde in Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; Weeks, Charlie A.

    During the energy crisis of the early 1970s, there was a drive to conserve energy in every segment of society. Citizens were encouraged to insulate their homes and tighten them up to avoid loss of energy. One of the products to emerge from this crisis was urea formaldehyde foam insulation. (Urea formaldehyde is a well-known agent for preserving…

  20. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1992-01-14

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepared from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porosity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity. 3 figs.

  1. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  2. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Paul David; Nieuwenhuiys, Gavin; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s) in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7) belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and external recycling

  3. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barioni, Éric Diego; de Oliveira Duro, Stephanie; Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Anna Carolina; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Marcourakis, Tânia; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days) and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure). Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment. PMID:27293324

  4. A pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid and oxidative stress in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency?

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, A B P; Stroomer, A E M; Abeling, N G G M; van Gennip, A H

    2006-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) constitutes the first step of the pyrimidine degradation pathway in which the pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are catabolised to beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), respectively. The mean concentration of beta-AIB was approximately 5- to 8-fold lower in urine of patients with a DPD deficiency, when compared to age-matched controls. Comparable levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were present in urine from controls and DPD patients at the age <2 year. In contrast, slightly elevated levels of 8-OHdG were detected in urine from DPD patients with an age >2 year, suggesting the presence of increased oxidative stress.

  5. Metabolic basis of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) toxicity: role of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanayem, B.I.; Burka, L.T.; Matthews, H.B.

    1987-07-01

    2-Butoxyethanol (BE) is a massively produced glycol ether of which more than 230 million pounds was produced in the United States in 1983. It is extensively used in aerosols and cleaning agents intended for household use. This creates a high potential for human exposure during its manufacturing and use. A single exposure of rats to BE causes severe hemolytic anemia accompanied by secondary hemoglobinuria as well as liver and kidney damage. Butoxyacetic acid (BAA) was earlier identified as a urinary metabolite of BE. In addition, we have recently identified two additional urinary metabolites of BE, namely, BE-glucuronide and BE-sulfate conjugates. The current studies were undertaken to investigate the metabolic basis of BE-induced hematotoxicity in male F344 rats. Treatment of rats with pyrazole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) protected rats against BE-induced hematotoxicity and inhibited BE metabolism to BAA. Pyrazole inhibition of BE metabolism to BAA was accompanied by increased BE metabolism to BE-glucuronide and BE-sulfate as determined by quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of BE metabolites in urine. There was approximately a 10-fold decrease in the ratio of BAA to BE-glucuronide + BE-sulfate in the urine of rats treated with pyrazole + BE compared to rats treated with BE alone. Pretreatment of rats with cyanamide (aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) also significantly protected rats against BE-induced hematotoxicity and modified BE metabolism in a manner similar to that caused by pyrazole. Administration of equimolar doses of BE, the metabolic intermediate butoxyacetaldehyde, or the ultimate metabolite BAA caused similar hematotoxic effects. Cyanamide also protected rats against butoxyacetaldehyde-induced hematotoxicity.

  6. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  7. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

  8. Glucose regulates enzymatic sources of mitochondrial NADPH in skeletal muscle cells; a novel role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-07-01

    Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) is a functionally important metabolite required to support numerous cellular processes. However, despite the identification of numerous NADPH-producing enzymes, the mechanisms underlying how the organellar pools of NADPH are maintained remain elusive. Here, we have identified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as an important source of NADPH in mitochondria. Activity analysis, submitochondrial fractionation, fluorescence microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays revealed that G6PDH is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. 6-ANAM, a specific G6PDH inhibitor, depleted mitochondrial NADPH pools and increased oxidative stress revealing the importance of G6PDH in NADPH maintenance. We also show that glucose availability and differences in metabolic state modulate the enzymatic sources of NADPH in mitochondria. Indeed, cells cultured in high glucose (HG) not only adopted a glycolytic phenotype but also relied heavily on matrix-associated G6PDH as a source of NADPH. In contrast, cells exposed to low-glucose (LG) concentrations, which displayed increased oxygen consumption, mitochondrial metabolic efficiency, and decreased glycolysis, relied predominantly on isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) as the principal NADPH-producing enzyme in the mitochondria. Culturing glycolytic cells in LG for 48 h decreased G6PDH and increased ICDH protein levels in the mitochondria, further pointing to the regulatory role of glucose. 2-Deoxyglucose treatment also prevented the increase of mitochondrial G6PDH in response to HG. The role of glucose in regulating enzymatic sources of mitochondrial NADPH pool maintenance was confirmed using human myotubes from obese adults with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (post-T2DM). Myotubes from post-T2DM participants failed to increase mitochondrial G6PDH in response to HG in contrast to mitochondria in myotubes from control participants (non-T2DM). Hence, we not only identified a matrix

  9. Pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent carbohydrate dehydrogenase: activity enhancement and the role of artificial electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Kulys, Juozas; Tetianec, Lidija; Bratkovskaja, Irina

    2010-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) offers a variety of opportunities for applications, e.g. in highly sensitive biosensors and electrosynthetic reactions. Here we report on the acceleration (up to 4.9 x 10(4)-fold) of enzymatic ferricyanide reduction by artificial redox mediators (enhancers). The reaction mechanism includes reduction of the PQQ-GDH by glucose followed by oxidation of the reduced PQQ cofactor with either ferricyanide or a redox mediator. A synergistic effect occurs through the oxidation of a reduced mediator by ferricyanide. Using kinetic description of the coupled reaction, the second order rate constant for the reaction of an oxidized mediator with the reduced enzyme cofactor (k(ox)) can be calculated. For different mediators this value is 2.2 x 10(6)-1.6 x 10(8) M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.2 and 25 degrees C. However, no correlation of the rate constant with the midpoint redox potential of the mediator could be established. For low-potential mediators the synergistic effect is proportional to the ratio of k(ox(med))/k(ox(ferricyanide)), whereas for the high-potential mediators the effect depends on both this ratio and the concentration of the oxidized mediator, which can be calculated from the Nernst equation. The described effect can be applied in various ways, e.g. for substrate reactivity determination, electrosynthetic PQQ cofactor regeneration or building of new highly sensitive biosensors.

  10. A possible role for the chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in plant glycolate and glyoxylate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Blume, Christian; Behrens, Christof; Eubel, Holger; Braun, Hans-Peter; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Glyoxylate is a peroxisomal intermediate of photorespiration, the recycling pathway for 2-phosphoglycolate (2-PG) produced by the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Under hot and dry growth conditions, photorespiratory intermediates can accumulate and must be detoxified by alternative pathways, including plastidal reactions. Moreover, there is evidence that chloroplasts are capable of actively producing glyoxylate from glycolate. Further metabolic steps are unknown, but probably include a CO2 release step. Here, we report that CO2 production from glycolate and glyoxylate in isolated tobacco chloroplasts can be inhibited by pyruvate, but not related compounds. We isolated a protein fraction that was enriched for the chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The fraction contained a protein complex of several MDa in size that included all predicted subunits of the chloroplast PDC and a so far unidentified HSP93-V/ClpC1 heat shock protein. Glyoxylate competitively inhibited NADH formation from pyruvate in this fraction. The Km for pyruvate and the Ki for glyoxylate were 330 and 270 μM, respectively. Glyoxylate decarboxylation was also enriched in this fraction and could be in turn inhibited by pyruvate. Based on these data, we suggest that the chloroplast PDC might be part of a pathway for glycolate and/or glyoxylate oxidation in chloroplasts.

  11. Probing the Role of Dynamics in Hydride Transfer Catalyzed by Lactate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zhadin, Nickolay; Gulotta, Miriam; Callender, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate as catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is characterized by laser-induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy with a resolution of 20 ns. An equilibrium system of LDH·NADH plus pyruvate and LDH·NAD+ plus lactate is perturbed by a sudden T-jump, and the relaxation of the system is monitored by NADH emission and absorption changes. The substrate binding pathway is observed to be similar, although not identical, to previous work on substrate mimics: an encounter complex is formed between LDH·NADH and pyruvate, which collapses to the active Michaelis complex. The previously unresolved hydride transfer event is characterized and separated from other unimolecular isomerizations of the protein important for the catalytic mechanism, such as loop closure, a slower step, and faster events on the nanosecond-microsecond timescales whose structural basis is not understood. The results of this study show that this approach can be applied quite generally to enzyme systems and report on the dynamic nature of proteins over a very wide time range. PMID:18487309

  12. Probing the role of dynamics in hydride transfer catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zhadin, Nickolay; Gulotta, Miriam; Callender, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The dynamic nature of the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate as catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is characterized by laser-induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy with a resolution of 20 ns. An equilibrium system of LDH.NADH plus pyruvate and LDH.NAD+ plus lactate is perturbed by a sudden T-jump, and the relaxation of the system is monitored by NADH emission and absorption changes. The substrate binding pathway is observed to be similar, although not identical, to previous work on substrate mimics: an encounter complex is formed between LDH.NADH and pyruvate, which collapses to the active Michaelis complex. The previously unresolved hydride transfer event is characterized and separated from other unimolecular isomerizations of the protein important for the catalytic mechanism, such as loop closure, a slower step, and faster events on the nanosecond-microsecond timescales whose structural basis is not understood. The results of this study show that this approach can be applied quite generally to enzyme systems and report on the dynamic nature of proteins over a very wide time range.

  13. The 'Formaldehyde Window'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, A. T.

    1981-09-01

    The characteristics obtained by using the absorption line of formaldehyde as a background for a transmitted signal are examined and compared with the Water Hole concept. It is shown that much greater distance may be accessed for a given transmitter power level and that the narrow band characteristics of the formaldehyde line are ideally suited to the transmission of low frequency coded 'calling' signals. It is further shown that two unique harmonic overtones lie above and below the 4830 MHz formaldehyde line, and by using these further aids, a clear and unambiguous interstellar communication system could be established without the background maser noise that would be expected from the use of the Water Hole. It is concluded that the Formaldehyde Window is a viable alternative to the Water Hole concept, with an advantage of being an easily distinguished artifact of intelligence.

  14. Formaldehyde Workshop Agenda

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the agenda for the Formaldehyde Workshop hosted by the Office of Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessments in cooperation with the IRIS Program. The workshop was held in April 2014

  15. Dihydroxyacetone detoxification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves formaldehyde dissimilation.

    PubMed

    Molin, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders

    2006-05-01

    To investigate Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology during growth on the conditionally toxic triose dihydroxyacetone (DHA), protein expression was studied in strains overexpressing either of the two dihydroxyacetone kinase isogenes, DAK1 or DAK2, that grow well utilizing DHA as a carbon and energy source. DHA metabolism was found mostly similar to ethanol utilization, involving a strong component of glucose derepression, but also involved DHA-specific regulatory changes. A specific and strong (10- to 30-fold induction of formaldehyde dehydrogenase, Fdhlp, indicated activation of the formaldehyde dissimilation pathway in DHA medium. The importance of this pathway was further supported by impaired adaptation to DHA growth and DHA survival in a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (SFA1) deletion mutant. Glutathione synthase (GSH1) deletion led to decreased DHA survival in agreement with the glutathione cofactor requirement for the SFA1-encoded activity. DHA toxicity did, however, not solely appear related to formaldehyde accumulation, because SFA1 overexpression only enhanced formaldehyde but not DHA tolerance. In further agreement with a low DHA-to-formaldehyde flux, GSH supplements in the low microM range also fully suppressed the DHA sensitivity of a gsh1Delta strain. Under growth reduction on high (100 mM) DHA medium we report increased levels of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation on total protein. Under these high-DHA conditions expression of several stress-related proteins, e.g. a heat-shock protein (Hsp104p) and the oxidative stress indicator, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (Ahp1p) was also found induced. However, hallmark determinants of oxidative stress tolerance (e.g. YAP1, SKN7, HYR1/GPX3 and SOD2) were redundant for DHA tolerance, thus indicating mechanisms of DHA toxicity largely independent of central oxidative stress defence mechanisms. We conclude that mechanisms for DHA growth and detoxification appear complex and that the

  16. Structure and function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: role of critical amino acids in co-substrate binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Anupam; Tripathi, Abhai K; Desai, Prashant V; Mukherjee, Prasenjit K; Avery, Mitchell A; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2009-01-01

    The malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal glycine motif, which forms a characteristic Rossman dinucleotide-binding fold in the co-substrate binding pocket, differentiates PfMDH (GlyXGlyXXGly) from other eukaryotic and prokaryotic malate dehydrogenases (GlyXXGlyXXGly). The amino acids lining the co-substrate binding pocket are completely conserved in MDHs from different species of human, primate and rodent malaria parasites. Based on this knowledge and conserved domains among prokaryotic and eukaryotic MDH, the role of critical amino acids lining the co-substrate binding pocket was analyzed in catalytic functions of PfMDH using site-directed mutagenesis. Insertion of Ala at the 9th or 10th position, which converts the N-terminal GlyXGlyXXGly motif (characteristic of malarial MDH and LDH) to GlyXXGlyXXGly (as in bacterial and eukaryotic MDH), uncoupled regulation of the enzyme through substrate inhibition. The dinucleotide fold GlyXGlyXXGly motif seems not to be responsible for the distinct affinity of PfMDH to 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide (APAD, a synthetic analog of NAD), since Ala9 and Ala10 insertion mutants still utilized APADH. The Gln11Met mutation, which converts the signature glycine motif in PfMDH to that of PfLDH, did not change the enzyme function. However, the Gln11Gly mutant showed approximately a 5-fold increase in catalytic activity, and higher susceptibility to inhibition with gossypol. Asn119 and His174 participate in binding of both co-substrate and substrate. The Asn119Gly mutant exhibited approximately a 3-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency, while mutation of His174 to Asn or Ala resulted in an inactive enzyme. These studies provide critical insights into the co

  17. Do dynamic effects play a significant role in enzymatic catalysis? A theoretical analysis of formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Roca, Maite; Oliva, Mónica; Castillo, Raquel; Moliner, Vicente; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2010-10-04

    A theoretical study of the protein dynamic effects on the hydride transfer between the formate anion and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (FDH), is presented in this paper. The analysis of free downhill molecular dynamic trajectories, performed in the enzyme and compared with the reaction in aqueous solution, has allowed the study of the dynamic coupling between the reacting fragments and the protein or the solvent water molecules, as well as an estimation of the dynamic effect contribution to the catalytic effect from calculation of the transmission coefficient in the enzyme and in solution. The obtained transmission coefficients for the enzyme and in solution were 0.46±0.04 and 0.20±0.03, respectively. These values represent a contribution to catalysis of 0.5 kcal mol(-1), which, although small, is not negligible keeping in mind the low efficiency of FDH. The analysis of the reactive trajectories also reveals how the relative movements of some amino acids, mainly His332 and Arg284, precede and promote the chemical reaction. In spite of these movements, the time-dependent evolution of the electric field created by the enzyme on the key atoms of the reaction reveals a permanent field, which reduces the work required to reach the transition state, with a concomitant polarization of the cofactor. Finally, application of Grote-Hynes theory has allowed the identification of the modes responsible for the substrate-environment coupling, showing how some protein motions take place simultaneously with the reaction. Thus, the equilibrium approach would provide, in this case, an overestimation of the catalyzed rate constant.

  18. Relative role of anions and cations in the stabilization of halophilic malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ebel, C; Faou, P; Kernel, B; Zaccai, G

    1999-07-13

    Halophilic malate dehydrogenase unfolds at low salt, and increasing the salt concentration stabilizes, first, the folded form and then, in some cases, destabilizes it. From inactivation and fluorescence measurements performed on the protein after its incubation in the presence of various salts in a large range of concentrations, the apparent effects of anions and cations were found to superimpose. A large range of ions was examined, including conditions that are in general not of physiological relevance, to explore the physical chemistry driving adaptation to extreme environments. The order of efficiency of cations and anions to maintain the folded form is, for the low-salt transition, Ca(2+) approximately Mg(2+) > Li(+) approximately NH(4)(+) approximately Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > Cs(+), and SO(4)(2)(-) approximately OAc(-) approximately F(-) > Cl(-), and for the high-salt transition, NH(4)(+) approximately Na(+) approximately K(+) approximately Cs(+) > Li(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+), and SO(4)(2)(-) approximately OAc(-) approximately F(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) > I(-). If a cation or anion is very stabilizing, the effect of the salt ion of opposite charge is limited. Anions of high charge density are always the most efficient to stabilize the folded form, in accordance with the order found in the Hofmeister series, while cations of high charge density are the most efficient only at the lower salt concentrations and tend to denature the protein at higher salt concentrations. The stabilizing efficiency of cations and anions can be related in a minor way to their effect on the surface tension of the solution, but the interaction of ions with sites only present in the folded protein has also to be taken into account. Unfolding at high salt concentrations corresponds to interactions of anions of low charge density and cations of high charge density with the peptide bond, as found for nonhalophilic proteins.

  19. New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid?

    PubMed

    Van Kuilenburg, André B P; Stroomer, Alida E M; Van Lenthe, Henk; Abeling, Nico G G M; Van Gennip, Albert H

    2004-04-01

    DPD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) constitutes the first step of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, in which the pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are catabolized to beta-alanine and the R-enantiomer of beta-AIB (beta-aminoisobutyric acid) respectively. The S-enantiomer of beta-AIB is predominantly derived from the catabolism of valine. It has been suggested that an altered homoeostasis of beta-alanine underlies some of the clinical abnormalities encountered in patients with a DPD deficiency. In the present study, we demonstrated that only a slightly decreased concentration of beta-alanine was present in the urine and plasma, whereas normal levels of beta-alanine were present in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a DPD deficiency. Therefore the metabolism of beta-alanine-containing peptides, such as carnosine, may be an important factor involved in the homoeostasis of beta-alanine in patients with DPD deficiency. The mean concentration of beta-AIB was approx. 2-3-fold lower in cerebrospinal fluid and urine of patients with a DPD deficiency, when compared with controls. In contrast, strongly decreased levels (10-fold) of beta-AIB were present in the plasma of DPD patients. Our results demonstrate that, under pathological conditions, the catabolism of valine can result in the production of significant amounts of beta-AIB. Furthermore, the observation that the R-enantiomer of beta-AIB is abundantly present in the urine of DPD patients suggests that significant cross-over exists between the thymine and valine catabolic pathways.

  20. Role of Quinones in Electron Transfer of PQQ–Glucose Dehydrogenase Anodes—Mediation or Orientation Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Chavez, Madelaine Seow; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-06-24

    In this study, the influence of two quinones (1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone) on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ–sGDH) anodes has been determined. Benzoquinones were experimentally explored as mediators present in the electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes with and without the mediators was examined and for the first time molecular docking simulations were used to gain a fundamental understanding to explain the role of the mediator molecules in the design and operation of the enzymatic electrodes. It was proposed that the higher performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes in the presence of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones introduced in the solution is due to the shorter distance between these molecules and PQQ in the enzymatic molecule. It was also hypothesized that when 1,4-benzoquinone is adsorbed on a carbon support, it would play the dual role of a mediator and an orienting agent. At the same time, when 1,2-benzoquinone and ubiquinone are adsorbed on the electrode surface, the enzyme would transfer the electrons directly to the support, and these molecules would primarily play the role of an orienting agent.

  1. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menné, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-08-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allergy are reviewed: applications, exposure scenarios, legislation, patch testing problems, frequency of sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers. The frequency of contact allergy to formaldehyde is consistently higher in the USA (8-9%) than in Europe (2-3%). Patch testing with formaldehyde is problematic; the currently used 1% solution may result in both false-positive and false-negative (up to 40%) reactions. Determining the relevance of patch test reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin.

  2. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 - a polymodal nociceptive receptor - plays a crucial role in formaldehyde-induced skin inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Haruki; Endo, Takumi; Shimouchi, Ayumi; Saito, Asaka; Tominaga, Makoto; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Nagai, Hiroichi; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is irritating to the skin and is the main cause of sick building syndrome. However, the cutaneous reaction induced by long-term FA exposure has not been fully investigated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that repeated painting of 2% - 10% FA on mouse ears caused marked ear swelling and increased mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and neurotrophins in the ear. TRPV1 is reported to be involved in neurogenic inflammation; therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in FA-induced skin inflammation using TRPV1 gene-knockout mice. Mice were painted with 5% FA once a week for 5 weeks, and ear swelling and mRNA expression were investigated. Ear swelling and increased expression of neurotrophins mRNA by FA provocation in wild-type mice were attenuated by disruption of the TRPV1 gene. Furthermore, painting with a threshold dose of capsaicin, which does not induce ear swelling in intact mice, caused marked ear swelling after painting the ear 5 times with FA, indicating that inflamed tissues after FA application are hypersensitive to various ligands of TRPV1 in mice. These results demonstrated that neurogenic inflammation via TRPV1 and neurotrophins could be involved in FA-induced dermatitis.

  3. The role of 3-ketosteroid 1(2)-dehydrogenase in the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses the host’s cholesterol as a source of carbon and energy during infection. Strains defective in cholesterol transport or degradation exhibit attenuated growth in activated macrophages and diminished infectivity in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate intracellular replication of a cholesterol degradation-deficient Mtb mutant in human macrophages (MØ) in vitro and assess the functional responses of Mtb mutant-infected MØ. Results A mutant Mtb H37Rv strain containing an inactivated kstD gene (∆kstD), which encodes 3-ketosteroid 1(2)-dehydrogenase (KstD), was previously prepared using the homologous recombination-based gene-replacement technique. A control strain carrying the kstD gene complemented with an intact kstD was also previously constructed. In this study, human resting MØ were obtained after overnight differentiation of the human monocyte-macrophage cell line THP-1. Resting MØ were further activated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The ability of the kstD-defective Mtb mutant strain to replicate intracellularly in human MØ was evaluated using a colony-forming assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by MØ infected with wild-type or ∆kstD strains was detected using Griess reagent and chemiluminescence methods, respectively. The production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 by MØ after infection with wild-type or mutant Mtb was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found that replication of mutant Mtb was attenuated in resting MØ compared to the wild-type or complemented strains. Moreover, the mutant was unable to inhibit the NO and ROS production induced through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling in infected resting MØ. In contrast, mutant and wild-type Mtb behaved similarly in MØ activated with IFN-γ before and during infection. Conclusions The Mtb mutant ∆kstD strain, which is

  4. The Glutamate Dehydrogenase Pathway and Its Roles in Cell and Tissue Biology in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Plaitakis, Andreas; Kalef-Ezra, Ester; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Zaganas, Ioannis; Spanaki, Cleanthe

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production. While most mammals possess a single GDH1 protein (hGDH1 in the human) that is highly expressed in the liver, humans and other primates have acquired, via duplication, an hGDH2 isoenzyme with distinct functional properties and tissue expression profile. The novel hGDH2 underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation, acquiring unique properties that enable enhanced enzyme function under conditions inhibitory to its ancestor hGDH1. These are thought to provide a biological advantage to humans with hGDH2 evolution occurring concomitantly with human brain development. hGDH2 is co-expressed with hGDH1 in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs, but not in the liver. In human cerebral cortex, hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in astrocytes, the cells responsible for removing and metabolizing transmitter glutamate, and for supplying neurons with glutamine and lactate. In human testis, hGDH2 (but not hGDH1) is densely expressed in the Sertoli cells, known to provide the spermatids with lactate and other nutrients. In steroid producing cells, hGDH1/2 is thought to generate reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones. Lastly, up-regulation of hGDH1/2 expression occurs in cancer, permitting neoplastic cells to utilize glutamine/glutamate for their growth. In

  5. The Glutamate Dehydrogenase Pathway and Its Roles in Cell and Tissue Biology in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Plaitakis, Andreas; Kalef-Ezra, Ester; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Zaganas, Ioannis; Spanaki, Cleanthe

    2017-02-08

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)⁺ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production. While most mammals possess a single GDH1 protein (hGDH1 in the human) that is highly expressed in the liver, humans and other primates have acquired, via duplication, an hGDH2 isoenzyme with distinct functional properties and tissue expression profile. The novel hGDH2 underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation, acquiring unique properties that enable enhanced enzyme function under conditions inhibitory to its ancestor hGDH1. These are thought to provide a biological advantage to humans with hGDH2 evolution occurring concomitantly with human brain development. hGDH2 is co-expressed with hGDH1 in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs, but not in the liver. In human cerebral cortex, hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in astrocytes, the cells responsible for removing and metabolizing transmitter glutamate, and for supplying neurons with glutamine and lactate. In human testis, hGDH2 (but not hGDH1) is densely expressed in the Sertoli cells, known to provide the spermatids with lactate and other nutrients. In steroid producing cells, hGDH1/2 is thought to generate reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones. Lastly, up-regulation of hGDH1/2 expression occurs in cancer, permitting neoplastic cells to utilize glutamine/glutamate for their growth. In

  6. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  7. MICROBIAL GROWTH ON C-1 COMPOUNDS. 6. OXIDATION OF METHANOL, FORMALDEHYDE AND FORMATE BY METHANOL-GROWN PSEUDOMONAS AM 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    oxidizing methanol that could be demonstrated was a dehydrogenase that can be linked to phenazine methosulphate and required the presence of NH4(+) ions...An aldehyde dehydrogenase that reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol or phenazine methosulphate in the presence of formaldehyde was found in cell

  8. Development of melamine-formaldehyde resin microcapsules with low formaldehyde emission suited for seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huizhu; Li, Guangxing; Yang, Lijuan; Yan, Xiaojing; Yang, Daibin

    2015-04-01

    To reduce the application frequency and improve the efficacy of insecticides, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin microcapsules suited for seed treatment containing a mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos were prepared by in situ polymerization. A formaldehyde/melamine molar ratio of 4:1 yielded microcapsules with the smallest size and the most narrow size distribution. The level of unreacted formaldehyde in the microcapsule suspension increased proportionally with the F/M molar ratio. When the MF resin microcapsule suspension was used as a seed treatment to coat peanut seeds, the unreacted formaldehyde did not significantly inhibit the seedling emergence, but the ongoing release of formaldehyde generated from the degradation of MF resins played an important role in inhibiting emergence. Melamine was shown to be an effective formaldehyde scavenger that mitigated this inhibition when it was incorporated within the microcapsule wall. Field experiments showed that MF-resin-encapsulated mixtures of fipronil and chlorpyrifos have much greater efficacies against white grubs than the conventional formulation.

  9. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of (14)C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of mutated Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase to illuminate the role of key residues.

    PubMed

    Ling, Baoping; Bi, Siwei; Sun, Min; Jing, Zhihong; Li, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rui

    2014-05-01

    L-Alanine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (L-MtAlaDH) catalyzes the NADH-dependent interconversion of l-alanine and pyruvate, and it is considered to be a potential target for the treatment of tuberculosis. The experiment has verified that amino acid replacement of the conserved active-site residues which have strong stability and no great changes in biological evolutionary process, such as His96 and Asp270, could lead to inactive mutants [Ågren et al., J. Mol. Biol. 377 (2008) 1161-1173]. However, the role of these conserved residues in catalytic reaction still remains unclear. Based on the crystal structures, a series of mutant structures were constructed to investigate the role of the conserved residues in enzymatic reaction by using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that whatever the conserved residues were mutated, the protein can still convert its conformation from open state to closed state as long as NADH is present in active site. Asp270 maintains the stability of nicotinamide ring and ribose of NADH through hydrogen bond interactions, and His96 is helpful to convert the protein conformation by interactions with Gln271, whereas, they would lead to the structural rearrangement in active site and lose the catalytic activity when they were mutated. Additionally, we deduce that Met301 plays a major role in catalytic reaction due to fixing the nicotinamide ring of NADH to prevent its rotation, and we propose that Met301 would be mutated to the hydrophobic residue with large steric hindrance in side chain to test the activity of the protein in future experiment.

  11. A critical role of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the control of plant metabolism and development

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Alaiz, Manuel; Segura, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway that provides energy and generates precursors for the synthesis of primary metabolites such as amino acids and fatty acids.1–3 In plants, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and plastids, which complicates the understanding of this essential process.1 As a result, the contribution of each glycolytic pathway to the specific primary metabolite production and the degree of integration of both pathways is still unresolved. The glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Both cytosolic (GAPCs) and plastidial (GAPCps) GAPDH activities have been described biochemically. But, up to now, little attention had been paid to GAPCps, probably because they have been considered as “minor isoforms” that catalyze a reversible reaction in plastids where it has been assumed that key glycolytic intermediates are in equilibrium with the cytosol. In the associated study,4 we have elucidated the crucial role of Arabidopsis GAPCps in the control of primary metabolism in plants. GAPCps deficiency affects amino acid and sugar metabolism and impairs plant development. Specifically, GAPCp deficiency affects the serine supply to roots, provoking a drastic phenotype of arrested root development. Also, we show that the phosphorylated serine biosynthesis pathway is critical to supply serine to non-photosynthetic organs such as roots. These studies provide new insights of the contribution of plastidial glycolysis to plant metabolism and evidence the complex interactions existing between metabolism and development. PMID:20592814

  12. Differently substituted sulfonated polyanilines: the role of polymer compositions in electron transfer with pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sarauli, David; Xu, Chenggang; Dietzel, Birgit; Schulz, Burkhard; Lisdat, Fred

    2013-09-01

    Sulfonated polyanilines have become promising building blocks in the construction of biosensors, and therefore we use here differently substituted polymer forms to investigate the role of their structural composition and properties in achieving a direct electron transfer with the redox enzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH). To this end, new copolymers containing different ratios of 2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid (MAS), 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) and 3-aminobenzoic acid (AB) units have been chemically synthesized. All polymers have been studied with respect to their ability to react directly with PQQ-GDH. This interaction has been monitored initially in solution, and subsequently on electrode surfaces. The results show that only copolymers with MAS and aniline units can directly react with PQQ-GDH in solution; the background can be mainly ascribed to the emeraldine salt redox state of the polymer, allowing rather easy reduction. However, when polymers and the enzyme are immobilized on the surface of carbon nanotube-containing electrodes, direct bioelectrocatalysis is also feasible in the case of copolymers composed of ABS/AB and MAS/AB units, existing initially in pernigraniline base form. This verifies that a productive interaction of the enzyme with differently substituted polymers is feasible when the electrode potential can be used to drive the reaction towards the oxidation of the substrate-reduced enzyme. These results clearly demonstrate that enzyme electrodes based on sulfonated polyanilines and direct bioelectrocatalysis can be successfully constructed.

  13. The role of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 subunit α in AFB1 induced liver lesion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Fan, Jue; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Fang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Shihua

    2014-01-30

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatocarcinogen that causes carcinogenesis in many animal species. In previous study, we found that isocitrate dehydrogenase 3α subunit (IDH3α) was upregulated in AFB1-induced carcinogenesis process. In this study, the sequences of IDH3α from various species were compared and the protein expression levels in different organs were examined, and the results showed that IDH3α was a widely distributed protein and shared highly conserved sequence in various species. In the same time, IDH3α was demonstrated to accumulate in a dose-dependent manner induced by AFB1 in cells, and was also up-regulated in the process of AFB1-induced liver lesion. Similar results were observed when H2O2 was used to replace AFB1. Over-expression of IDH3α increased the phosphorylation level of Akt (Protein kinase B) and neutralized the cellular toxicity induced by AFB1 or H2O2 and apoptosis induced by AFB1, while the reduced expression of IDH3α by siRNA decreased the phosphorylation, indicating that IDH3α played important roles in oxidative stress-induced PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, the results suggested that AFB1 treatment could increase the expression of IDH3α, and the activated PI3K/Akt pathway by IDH3α eventually neutralized the apoptosis induced by AFB1.

  14. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  15. A ROLE FOR AMPK IN THE INHIBITION OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as β-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:19646964

  16. Role of Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase Supports Mitochondrial Metabolism and Host-Cell Invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi*

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Brian S.; Paes, Lisvane S.; Pral, Elizabeth M. F.; Martil, Daiana E.; Thiemann, Otavio H.; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Bastos, Erick L.; Silber, Ariel M.

    2015-01-01

    Proline is crucial for energizing critical events throughout the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The proline breakdown pathway consists of two oxidation steps, both of which produce reducing equivalents as follows: the conversion of proline to Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and the subsequent conversion of P5C to glutamate. We have identified and characterized the Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from T. cruzi (TcP5CDH) and report here on how this enzyme contributes to a central metabolic pathway in this parasite. Size-exclusion chromatography, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and small angle x-ray scattering analysis of TcP5CDH revealed an oligomeric state composed of two subunits of six protomers. TcP5CDH was found to complement a yeast strain deficient in PUT2 activity, confirming the enzyme's functional role; and the biochemical parameters (Km, kcat, and kcat/Km) of the recombinant TcP5CDH were determined, exhibiting values comparable with those from T. cruzi lysates. In addition, TcP5CDH exhibited mitochondrial staining during the main stages of the T. cruzi life cycle. mRNA and enzymatic activity levels indicated the up-regulation (6-fold change) of TcP5CDH during the infective stages of the parasite. The participation of P5C as an energy source was also demonstrated. Overall, we propose that this enzymatic step is crucial for the viability of both replicative and infective forms of T. cruzi. PMID:25623067

  17. A new class of IMP dehydrogenase with a role in self-resistance of mycophenolic acid producing fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi have potent biological activities, to which the producer organism must be resistant. An example of pharmaceutical interest is mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressant molecule produced by several Penicillium species. The target of MPA is inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides. The recent discovery of the MPA biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium brevicompactum revealed an extra copy of the IMPDH-encoding gene (mpaF) embedded within the cluster. This finding suggests that the key component of MPA self resistance is likely based on the IMPDH encoded by mpaF. Results In accordance with our hypothesis, heterologous expression of mpaF dramatically increased MPA resistance in a model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, which does not produce MPA. The growth of an A. nidulans strain expressing mpaF was only marginally affected by MPA at concentrations as high as 200 μg/ml. To further substantiate the role of mpaF in MPA resistance, we searched for mpaF orthologs in six MPA producer/non-producer strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. All six strains were found to hold two copies of IMPDH. A cladistic analysis based on the corresponding cDNA sequences revealed a novel group constituting mpaF homologs. Interestingly, a conserved tyrosine residue in the original class of IMPDHs is replaced by a phenylalanine residue in the new IMPDH class. Conclusions We identified a novel variant of the IMPDH-encoding gene in six different strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. The novel IMPDH variant from MPA producer P. brevicompactum was shown to confer a high degree of MPA resistance when expressed in a non-producer fungus. Our study provides a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of MPA resistance and has relevance for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21923907

  18. The reductive half-reaction of xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: the role of Glu232 in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, James; Reschke, Stefan; Cao, Hongnan; Leimkühler, Silke; Hille, Russ

    2014-11-14

    The kinetic properties of an E232Q variant of the xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus have been examined to ascertain whether Glu(232) in wild-type enzyme is protonated or unprotonated in the course of catalysis at neutral pH. We find that kred, the limiting rate constant for reduction at high [xanthine], is significantly compromised in the variant, a result that is inconsistent with Glu(232) being neutral in the active site of the wild-type enzyme. A comparison of the pH dependence of both kred and kred/Kd from reductive half-reaction experiments between wild-type and enzyme and the E232Q variant suggests that the ionized Glu(232) of wild-type enzyme plays an important role in catalysis by discriminating against the monoanionic form of substrate, effectively increasing the pKa of substrate by two pH units and ensuring that at physiological pH the neutral form of substrate predominates in the Michaelis complex. A kinetic isotope study of the wild-type R. capsulatus enzyme indicates that, as previously determined for the bovine and chicken enzymes, product release is principally rate-limiting in catalysis. The disparity in rate constants for the chemical step of the reaction and product release, however, is not as great in the bacterial enzyme as compared with the vertebrate forms. The results indicate that the bacterial and bovine enzymes catalyze the chemical step of the reaction to the same degree and that the faster turnover observed with the bacterial enzyme is due to a faster rate constant for product release than is seen with the vertebrate enzyme.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics identifies a key role of isocitrate dehydrogenase in bipolar disorder: evidence in support of mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, N; Futamura, T; Bergen, S E; Iwayama, Y; Ishima, T; Sellgren, C; Ekman, C J; Jakobsson, J; Pålsson, E; Kakumoto, K; Ohgi, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Landén, M; Hashimoto, K

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. In this study, we performed metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from male BD patients (n=54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n=40). Subsequently, post-mortem brain analyses, genetic analyses, metabolomics of CSF samples from rats treated with lithium or valproic acid were also performed. After multivariate logistic regression, isocitric acid (isocitrate) levels were significantly higher in the CSF from BD patients than healthy controls. Furthermore, gene expression of two subtypes (IDH3A and IDH3B) of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from BD patients was significantly lower than that of controls, although the expression of other genes including, aconitase (ACO1, ACO2), IDH1, IDH2 and IDH3G, were not altered. Moreover, protein expression of IDH3A in the cerebellum from BD patients was higher than that of controls. Genetic analyses showed that IDH genes (IDH1, IDH2, IDH3A, IDH3B) and ACO genes (ACO1, ACO2) were not associated with BD. Chronic (4 weeks) treatment with lithium or valproic acid in rats did not alter CSF levels of isocitrate, and mRNA levels of Idh3a, Idh3b, Aco1 and Aco2 genes in the rat brain. These findings suggest that abnormality in the metabolism of isocitrate by IDH3A in the mitochondria plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BD, supporting the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of BD. Therefore, IDH3 in the citric acid cycle could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for BD. PMID:26782057

  20. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  1. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  2. Formaldehyde exposure in nonoccupational environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dally, K.A.; Hanahan, L.P.; Woodbury, M.A.; Kanarek, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Free formaldehyde may be released from wood products and foam insulation where urea-formaldehyde resins have been used. From January, 1978 to November, 1979, 100 structures were investigated by the Wisconsin Division of Health after receiving complaints of health problems from occupants. Air samples were collected in midget impingers and analyzed for formaldehyde content by the chromotropic acid procedure. Health information was obtained from the occupants via questionnaires. Mean formaldehyde concentrations observed ranged from below the limit of detection to 3.68 ppm. Eye irritation, burning eyes, runny nose, dry or sore throat, headache, and cough were the primary symptoms which were reported by the occupants. Statistically significant associations were seen between formaldehyde levels and age of home/building materials. Observations presented suggest nonoccupational, indoor environmental exposure to formaldehyde is significant and may reach levels which exceed occupational exposure standards.

  3. Control of carbon flux to glutamate excretion in Klebsiella pneumoniae: the role of the indigenous plasmid and its encoded isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    El-Mansi, Mansi; Trappey, Francois; Clark, Ewan; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (NCTC, CL687/80) harbors a large indigenous plasmid (p(C3)), which in addition to encoding for citrate utilization, proline synthesis and glutamate excretion, it uniquely carries the structural gene (icd); encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH). Flux analysis revealed that ICDH, despite its role in the generation of NADPH required for glutamate dehydrogenase, is not rate-limiting (controlling) in central metabolism as evidenced by a negative flux control coefficient and an adverse effect of overexpression (14-fold) on glutamate excretion. More significantly, however, this paper presents, for the first time, clear evidence that the accumulation of glutamate and its subsequent excretion is associated with the C3 plasmid-encoded regulatory elements, which trigger a shift-down in the activity of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, both in the K. pneumoniae parental strain as well as in the E. coli exconjugants strains. This finding opens the door for the exploitation of regulatory elements as a tool for manipulating flux in microbial cell factories.

  4. Human acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-9 plays a novel role in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ensenauer, Regina; He, Miao; Willard, Jan-Marie; Goetzman, Eric S; Corydon, Thomas J; Vandahl, Brian B; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Isaya, Grazia; Vockley, Jerry

    2005-09-16

    Unsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the prevention of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, their oxidation in vivo by acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) that catalyze the first step of each cycle of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation is not entirely understood. Recently, a novel ACAD (ACAD-9) of unknown function that is highly homologous to human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was identified by large-scale random sequencing. To characterize its enzymatic role, we have expressed ACAD-9 in Escherichia coli, purified it, and determined its pattern of substrate utilization. The N terminus of the mature form of the enzyme was identified by in vitro mitochondrial import studies of precursor protein. A 37-amino acid leader peptide was cleaved sequentially by two mitochondrial peptidases to yield a predicted molecular mass of 65 kDa for the mature subunit. Submitochondrial fractionation studies found native ACAD-9 to be associated with the mitochondrial membrane. Gel filtration analysis indicated that, like very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ACAD-9 is a dimer, in contrast to the other known ACADs, which are tetramers. Purified mature ACAD-9 had maximal activity with long-chain unsaturated acyl-CoAs as substrates (C16:1-, C18:1-, C18:2-, C22:6-CoA). These results suggest a previously unrecognized role for ACAD-9 in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. Because of the substrate specificity and abundance of ACAD-9 in brain, we speculate that it may play a role in the turnover of lipid membrane unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for membrane integrity and structure.

  5. Separate physiological roles for two isozymes of pyridine nucleotide-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in chicken.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, H. B., III; Kaplan, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The isozymes considered are designated 'liver type' and 'muscle type' based on the tissue of highest concentration. Electrophoretic analysis shows that the liver type is found in small amounts or is undetectable in all tissues studied except liver. The muscle type is found in skeletal muscles and kidney. Presumptive hybrid enzymes occur at low levels in chicken liver and kidney. The tissue distribution of glyceron-3-P dehydrogenase in several birds capable of sustained flight is different than in chicken.

  6. Neurotoxicity effect of formaldehyde on occupational exposure and influence of individual susceptibility to some metabolism parameters.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Fazli, Zohreh; Mazinani, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Over the years, neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction have separately been associated with endogenous formaldehyde and reduction of acetylcholine signals. However, a limited number of studies have shown a relationship between cholinergic neurotransmitter and formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the neurological effect on workers from melamine-dish preparation workshop, who were exposed to formaldehyde. A total of 35 formaldehyde-exposed workers were compared with 32 control employees from the food industry. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was conducted using the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 3500 methods. Using the Ellman method, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker for neurotoxicity was analyzed in blood erythrocyte. The effects of alcohol dehydrogenase III (ADH3) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) polymorphism were used to survey the level of AChE activity. In this study, it was found that exposure to airborne formaldehyde increased from 0.024 to 0.74 ppm and the median personnel exposure was 0.057. Induction of AChE activity was observed in formaldehyde-exposed workers as compared with the control group (p < 0.01), while AChE activity increased in 64 % of the exposed subjects. Spearman's correlation (p < 0.02) was used to evaluate the association between AChE activity and occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Exposed subjects containing ADH32-2 genotype had higher AChE than others. The findings of this study suggest that the neurotoxic effect of formaldehyde depends on the AChE activity, which is affected by metabolism. It can be concluded that cholinergic signal reduction in cases of cognitive dysfunction could be associated with endogenous formaldehyde.

  7. Production of Formaldehyde by Detergent-Treated Cells of a Methanol Yeast, Candida boidinii S2 Mutant Strain AOU-1

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Tani, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of cells of a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii, with the cationic detergent cetyldimethylbenzyl-ammonium chloride (Cation M2) improved the production of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde production was improved twofold with respect to the initial amount of formaldehyde and 1.61-fold with respect to the final amount of formaldehyde after a 12-h reaction under optimized detergent treatment conditions. The treatment caused formaldehyde and formate dehydrogenases to leak out of the cells more rapidly than catalase, but there was no leakage of alcohol oxidase. The improvement in formaldehyde production was considered to be due to the increased permeability of yeast cell membranes and to lower activities of formaldehyde and formate dehydrogenases in Cation M2-treated cells than in intact cells. Changes in the ultrastructure of the cells were observed upon Cation M2 treatment. Several developed peroxisomes were observed in intact cells. After Cation M2 treatment, the cells were obviously damaged, and several peroxisomes seemed to have fused with each other. Images PMID:16347563

  8. Which way does the citric acid cycle turn during hypoxia? The critical role of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-08-01

    The citric acid cycle forms a major metabolic hub and as such it is involved in many disease states involving energetic imbalance. In spite of the fact that it is being branded as a "cycle", during hypoxia, when the electron transport chain does not oxidize reducing equivalents, segments of this metabolic pathway remain operational but exhibit opposing directionalities. This serves the purpose of harnessing high-energy phosphates through matrix substrate-level phosphorylation in the absence of oxidative phosphorylation. In this Mini-Review, these segments are appraised, pointing to the critical importance of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex dictating their directionalities.

  9. Formaldehyde impairs transepithelial sodium transport

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Li, Huiming; Wu, Sihui; Zhao, Runzhen; Du, Deyi; Ding, Yan; Nie, Hongguang; Ji, Hong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Unsaturated oxidative formaldehyde is a noxious aldehyde in cigarette smoke that causes edematous acute lung injury. However, the mechanistic effects of formaldehyde on lung fluid transport are still poorly understood. We examined how formaldehyde regulates human epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in H441 and expressed in Xenopus oocytes and exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed that formaldehyde reduced mouse transalveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Formaldehyde caused a dose-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit Na+ currents in H441 monolayers and of αβγ-ENaC channel activity in oocytes. α-ENaC protein was reduced, whereas phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) increased significantly post exposure. Moreover, both α- and γ-ENaC transcripts were down-regulated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was elevated significantly by formaldehyde in addition to markedly augmented membrane permeability of oocytes. These data suggest that formaldehyde contributes to edematous acute lung injury by reducing transalveolar Na+ transport, through decreased ENaC activity and enhanced membrane depolarization, and by elevating ROS production over long-term exposure. PMID:27762337

  10. Catalytic process for formaldehyde oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); D'Ambrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing formaldehyde to carbon dioxide and water without the addition of energy. A mixture of formaldehyde and an oxidizing agent (e.g., ambient air containing formaldehyde) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  11. Detoxification of Formaldehyde by the Spider Plant (Chlorophytum comosum L.) and by Soybean (Glycine max L.) Cell-Suspension Cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Giese, M.; Bauer-Doranth, U.; Langebartels, C.; Sandermann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of formaldehyde for spider plants (Chlorophytum comosum L.), tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bel B and Bel W3), and soybean (Glycine max L.) cell-suspension cultures was found to be low enough to allow metabolic studies. Spider plant shoots were exposed to 7.1 [mu]L L-1 (8.5 mg m-3) gaseous [14C]-formaldehyde over 24 h. Approximately 88% of the recovered radioactivity was plant associated and was found to be incorporated into organic acids, amino acids, free sugars, and lipids as well as cell-wall components. Similar results were obtained upon feeding [14C]formaldehyde from aqueous solution to aseptic soybean cell-suspension cultures. Serine and phosphatidylcholine were identified as major metabolic products. Spider plant enzyme extracts contained two NAS+-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activities with molecular mass values of about 129 and 79 kD. Only the latter enzyme activity required glutathione as an obligatory second cofactor. It had an apparent Km value of 30 [mu]M for formaldehyde and an isoelectric point at pH 5.4. Total cell-free dehydrogenase activity corresponded to 13 [mu]g formaldehyde oxidized h-1 g-1 leaf fresh weight. Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenases were also isolated from shoots and leaves of Equisetum telmateia and from cell-suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). The results obtained are consistent with the concept of indoor air decontamination with common room plants such as the spider plant. Formaldehyde appears to be efficiently detoxified by oxidation and subsequent C1 metabolism. PMID:12232169

  12. Importance of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adewuyi, Y. G.; Cho, S.-Y.; Tsay, R.-P.; Carmichael, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A physical-chemical model which is an extension of that of Hong and Carmichael (1983) is used to investigate the role of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry. This model takes into account the mass transfer of SO2, O3, NH3, HNO3, H2O2, CO2, HCl, HCHO, O2, OH and HO2 into cloud droplets and their subsequent chemical reactions. The model is used to assess the importance of S(IV)-HCHO adduct formation, the reduction of H2O2 by HCHO, HCHO-free radical interactions, and the formation of HCOOH in the presence of HCHO in cloud droplets. Illustrative calculations indicate that the presence of HCHO inhibits sulfate production rate in cloud droplets. The direct inhibition of sulfate production rate in cloudwater due to nucleophilic addition of HSO3(-) to HCHO(aq) to form hydroxymethanesulfonate is generally low for concentrations of HCHO typical of ambient air. However, inhibition of sulfate production due to formaldehyde-free radical interactions in solution can be important. These formaldehyde-free radical reactions can also generate appreciable quantities of formic acid.

  13. The specific role of plastidial glycolysis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells under scrutiny through the study of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Anoman, Armand Djoro; Flores-Tornero, María; Rosa-Telléz, Sara; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2016-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of metabolic processes is an important feature in plants where the same pathways could be simultaneously active in different compartments. Plant glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and plastids of green and non-green cells in which the requirements of energy and precursors may be completely different. Because of this, the relevance of plastidial glycolysis could be very different depending on the cell type. In the associated study, we investigated the function of plastidial glycolysis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells by specifically driving the expression of plastidial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) in a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double mutant background (gapcp1gapcp2). We showed that GAPCp is not functionally significant in photosynthetic cells, while it plays a crucial function in heterotrophic cells. We also showed that (i) GAPCp activity expression in root tips is necessary for primary root growth, (ii) its expression in heterotrophic cells of aerial parts and roots is necessary for plant growth and development, and (iii) GAPCp is an important metabolic connector of carbon and nitrogen metabolism through the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis (PPSB). We discuss here the role that this pathway could play in the control of plant growth and development.

  14. The separate roles of PQQ and apo-enzyme syntheses in the regulation of glucose dehydrogenase activity in Klebsiella pneumoniae NCTC 418.

    PubMed

    Hommes, R W; Herman, P T; Postma, P W; Tempest, D W; Neijssel, O M

    1989-01-01

    No holoenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and only very low apoenzyme levels could be detected in cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae, growing anaerobically, or carrying out a fumarate or nitrate respiration. Low glucose dehydrogenase activity in some aerobic glucose-excess cultures of K. pneumoniae (ammonia or sulphate limitation) was increased significantly by addition of PQQ, whereas in cells already possessing a high glucose dehydrogenase activity (phosphate or potassium limitation) extra PQQ had almost no effect. These observations indicate that the glucose dehydrogenase activity in K. pneumoniae is modulated by both PQQ synthesis and synthesis of the glucose dehydrogenase apo-enzyme.

  15. Visualization of Molecular Orbitals: Formaldehyde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Richard J.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a computer program that plots a solid" representation of molecular orbital charge density which can be used to analyze wave functions of molecules. Illustrated with diagrams for formaldehyde. (AL)

  16. Formaldehyde Gas Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Po-Ren; Tzeng, Chun-Ta; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Many methods based on spectrophotometric, fluorometric, piezoresistive, amperometric or conductive measurements have been proposed for detecting the concentration of formaldehyde in air. However, conventional formaldehyde measurement systems are bulky and expensive and require the services of highly-trained operators. Accordingly, the emergence of sophisticated technologies in recent years has prompted the development of many microscale gaseous formaldehyde detection systems. Besides their compact size, such devices have many other advantages over their macroscale counterparts, including a real-time response, a more straightforward operation, lower power consumption, and the potential for low-cost batch production. This paper commences by providing a high level overview of the formaldehyde gas sensing field and then describes some of the more significant real-time sensors presented in the literature over the past 10 years or so. PMID:23549368

  17. Analysis of celery (Apium graveolens) mannitol dehydrogenase (Mtd) promoter regulation in Arabidopsis suggests roles for MTD in key environmental and metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Zamski, E; Guo, W W; Yamamoto, Y T; Pharr, D M; Williamson, J D

    2001-11-01

    Of the growing list of promising genes for plant improvement, some of the most versatile appear to be those involved in sugar alcohol metabolism. Mannitol, one of the best characterized sugar alcohols, is a significant photosynthetic product in many higher plants. The roles of mannitol as both a metabolite and an osmoprotectant in celery (Apium graveolens) are well documented. However, there is growing evidence that 'metabolites' can also have key roles in other environmental and developmental responses in plants. For instance, in addition to its other properties, mannitol is an antioxidant and may have significant roles in plant-pathogen interactions. The mannitol catabolic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) is a prime modulator of mannitol accumulation in plants. Because the complex regulation of MTD is central to the balanced integration of mannitol metabolism in celery, its study is crucial in clarifying the physiological role(s) of mannitol metabolism in environmental and metabolic responses. In this study we used transformed Arabidopsis to analyze the multiple environmental and metabolic responses of the Mtd promoter. Our data show that all previously described changes in Mtd RNA accumulation in celery cells mirrored changes in Mtd transcription in Arabidopsis. These include up-regulation by salicylic acid, hexokinase-mediated sugar down-regulation, and down-regulation by salt, osmotic stress and ABA. In contrast, the massive up-regulation of Mtd expression in the vascular tissues of salt-stressed Arabidopsis roots suggests a possible role for MTD in mannitol translocation and unloading and its interrelation with sugar metabolism.

  18. Reconfiguration of N Metabolism upon Hypoxia Stress and Recovery: Roles of Alanine Aminotransferase (AlaAT) and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH)

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Houssein; Limami, Anis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of climatic change, more heavy precipitation and more frequent flooding and waterlogging events threaten the productivity of arable farmland. Furthermore, crops were not selected to cope with flooding- and waterlogging-induced oxygen limitation. In general, low oxygen stress, unlike other abiotic stresses (e.g., cold, high temperature, drought and saline stress), received little interest from the scientific community and less financial support from stakeholders. Accordingly, breeding programs should be developed and agronomical practices should be adapted in order to save plants’ growth and yield—even under conditions of low oxygen availability (e.g., submergence and waterlogging). The prerequisite to the success of such breeding programs and changes in agronomical practices is a good knowledge of how plants adapt to low oxygen stress at the cellular and the whole plant level. In the present paper, we summarized the recent knowledge on metabolic adjustment in general under low oxygen stress and highlighted thereafter the major changes pertaining to the reconfiguration of amino acids syntheses. We propose a model showing (i) how pyruvate derived from active glycolysis upon hypoxia is competitively used by the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate synthase cycle, leading to alanine accumulation and NAD+ regeneration. Carbon is then saved in a nitrogen store instead of being lost through ethanol fermentative pathway. (ii) During the post-hypoxia recovery period, the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate dehydrogenase cycle mobilizes this carbon from alanine store. Pyruvate produced by the reverse reaction of alanine aminotransferase is funneled to the TCA cycle, while deaminating glutamate dehydrogenase regenerates, reducing equivalent (NADH) and 2-oxoglutarate to maintain the cycle function. PMID:27258319

  19. Excessive S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine-Dependent Methylation Increases Levels of Methanol, Formaldehyde and Formic Acid in Rat Brain Striatal Homogenates: Possible role in S-adenosyl-L-methionine-induced Parkinson’s disease-like disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Sook; Chen, Hongtao; Hardman, Chadwick; Simm, Anthony; Charlton, Clivel

    2009-01-01

    Aims Excessive methylation may be a precipitating factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD) since S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the endogenous methyl donor, induces PD-like changes when injected into the rat brain. The hydrolysis of the methyl ester bond of the methylated proteins produces methanol. Since methanol is oxidized into formaldehyde, and formaldehyde into formic acid in the body, we investigated the effects of SAM on the production of methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid in rat brain striatal homogenates and the toxicity of these products in PC12 cells. Main methods radio-enzymatic and colorimetric assays, cell viability, Western blot. Key findings SAM increased the formation of methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Concentrations of [3H-methyl]-SAM at 0.17, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.34 nM produced 3.8, 8.0, 18.3 and 34.4 fmol/mg protein/h of [3H] methanol in rat striatal homogenates, respectively. SAM also significantly generated formaldehyde and formic acid in striatal homogenates. Formaldehyde was the most toxic metabolite to differentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells in cell culture studies, indicating that formaldehyde formed endogenously may contribute to neuronal damage in excessive methylation conditions. Subtoxic concentration of formaldehyde decreased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the limiting factor in dopamine synthesis. Formaldehyde was more toxic to catecholaminergic PC12 cells than C6 glioma cells, indicating that neurons are more vulnerable to formaldehyde than glia cells. Significance We suggest that excessive carboxylmethylation of proteins might be involved in the SAM-induced PD-like changes and in the aging process via the toxic effects of formaldehyde. PMID:18930743

  20. Engineering of the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the cytosolic Mg(2+) and mitochondrial K(+) acetaldehyde dehydrogenases Ald6p and Ald4p in acetate formation during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Remize, F; Andrieu, E; Dequin, S

    2000-08-01

    Acetic acid plays a crucial role in the organoleptic balance of many fermented products. We have investigated the factors controlling the production of acetate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation by metabolic engineering of the enzymatic steps involved in its formation and its utilization. The impact of reduced pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), limited acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH), or increased acetoacetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) levels in a strain derived from a wine yeast strain was studied during alcoholic fermentation. In the strain with the PDC1 gene deleted exhibiting 25% of the PDC activity of the wild type, no significant differences were observed in the acetate yield or in the amounts of secondary metabolites formed. A strain overexpressing ACS2 and displaying a four- to sevenfold increase in ACS activity did not produce reduced acetate levels. In contrast, strains with one or two disrupted copies of ALD6, encoding the cytosolic Mg(2+)-activated NADP-dependent ACDH and exhibiting 60 and 30% of wild-type ACDH activity, showed a substantial decrease in acetate yield (the acetate production was 75 and 40% of wild-type production, respectively). This decrease was associated with a rerouting of carbon flux towards the formation of glycerol, succinate, and butanediol. The deletion of ALD4, encoding the mitochondrial K(+)-activated NAD(P)-linked ACDH, had no effect on the amount of acetate formed. In contrast, a strain lacking both Ald6p and Ald4p exhibited a long delay in growth and acetate production, suggesting that Ald4p can partially replace the Ald6p isoform. Moreover, the ald6 ald4 double mutant was still able to ferment large amounts of sugar and to produce acetate, suggesting the contribution of another member(s) of the ALD family.

  1. Biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for ultrahigh-sensitive gaseous formaldehyde monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Gessei, Tomoko; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2010-10-15

    An ultrahigh-sensitive fiber-optic biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for continuous monitoring of indoor formaldehyde was constructed and tested. The bio-sniffer measures gaseous formaldehyde as fluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is the product of formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) reaction. The bio-sniffer device was constructed by attaching a flow cell with a FALDH immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UV-LED) with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. The excitation light was introduced to an optical fiber probe, and fluorescence emission of neighboring NADH, which was produced by applying formaldehyde vapor to the FALDH membrane, was concentrically measured with a photomultiplier tube. Assessment of the bio-sniffer was carried out using a standard gas generator. Response, calibration range and selectivity to other chemical substances were investigated. Circulating phosphate buffer, which contained NAD+, available for continuous monitoring of formaldehyde vapor. The calibration range of the bio-sniffer was 2.5 ppb to 10 ppm, which covers the guideline value of the World Health Organization (80 ppb). High selectivity to other gaseous substances due to specific activity of FALDH was also confirmed. Considering its high sensitivity, a possible application of the bio-sniffer is continuous indoor formaldehyde monitoring to provide healthy residential atmosphere.

  2. The role of hydrophobic amino acids of K-segments in the cryoprotection of lactate dehydrogenase by dehydrins.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masakazu; Endo, Takuya; Kamiya, Keita; Kameyama, Ayuko

    2017-03-01

    Dehydrins, which are group 2 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, accumulate in plants during the development of the embryo and exposure to abiotic stresses including low temperature. Dehydrins exhibit cryoprotection of freezing-sensitive enzymes, e.g. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Although it has been reported that K-segments conserved in dehydrins are related to their cryoprotection activity, it has not been determined which sequence features of the K-segments contribute to the cryoprotection. A cryoprotection assay using LDH indicated that 13 K-segments including 12 K-segments found in Arabidopsis dehydrins and a typical K-segment (TypK, EKKGIMEKIKEKLPG) derived from the K-segments of many plants showed similar cryoprotective activities. Mutation of the TypK sequence demonstrated that hydrophobic amino acids were clearly involved in preventing the cryoinactivation, cryoaggregation, and cryodenaturation of LDH. We propose that the cryoprotective activities of dehydrins may be made possible by the hydrophobic residues of the K-segments.

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase AdhA plays a role in ethanol tolerance in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rebeca

    2017-02-03

    The protein AdhA from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) has been previously reported to show alcohol dehydrogenase activity towards ethanol and both NAD and NADP. This protein is currently being used in genetically modified strains of Synechocystis capable of synthesizing ethanol showing the highest ethanol productivities. In the present work, mutant strains of Synechocystis lacking AdhA have been constructed and tested for tolerance to ethanol. The lack of AdhA in the wild-type strain reduces survival to externally added ethanol at lethal concentration of 4% (v/v). On the other hand, the lack of AdhA in an ethanologenic strain diminishes tolerance of cells to internally produced ethanol. It is also shown that light-activated heterotrophic growth (LAHG) of the wild-type strain is impaired in the mutant strain lacking AdhA (∆adhA strain). Photoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and photoheterotrophic growth are not affected in the mutant strain. Based on phenotypic characterization of ∆adhA mutants, the possible physiological function of AdhA in Synechocystis is discussed.

  4. Contributory roles of two l-lactate dehydrogenases for l-lactic acid production in thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lifan; Zhang, Caili; Lyu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans is considered to be a more promising producer for bio-chemicals, due to its capacity to withstand harsh conditions. Two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encoding genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and one D-LDH encoding gene (ldhD) were annotated from the B. coagulans DSM1 genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of ldhL2 was undetectable while the ldhL1 transcription level was much higher than that of ldhD at all growth phases. Deletion of the ldhL2 gene revealed no difference in fermentation profile compared to the wild-type strain, while ldhL1 single deletion or ldhL1ldhL2 double deletion completely blocked L-lactic acid production. Complementation of ldhL1 in the above knockout strains restored fermentation profiles to those observed in the wild-type strain. This study demonstrates ldhL1 is crucial for L-lactic acid production and NADH balance in B. coagulans DSM1 and lays the fundamental for engineering the thermotolerant B. coagulans strain as a platform chemicals producer. PMID:27885267

  5. Role of pyruvate transporter in the regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex in perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Zwiebel, F M; Schwabe, U; Olson, M S; Scholz, R

    1982-01-19

    Metabolic substrates such as octanoate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and alpha-ketoisocaproate which produce acetoacetate stimulate the rate of pyruvate decarboxylation in perfused livers from fed rats at perfusate pyruvate concentrations in the physiological range (below 0.2 mM). A quantitative relationship between pyruvate oxidation (14CO2 production from [1-14C]pyruvate) and ketogenesis (production of acetoacetate or total ketone bodies) was observed with all ketogenic substrates when studied over a wide range of concentrations. The ratio of extra pyruvate decarboxylated to extra acetoacetate produced was greater than 1 with octanoate and alpha-ketoisocaproate, but it was less than 1 with beta-hydroxybutyrate. The stimulatory effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate on pyruvate decarboxylation was abolished completely in the presence of 0.1 mM alpha-cyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of the pyruvate transporting system in the mitochondrial membrane. The data suggest that the mechanism by which the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction is stimulated in liver under ketogenic conditions involves an acceleration of the net rate of pyruvate transport into the mitochondria compartment due to an exchange with acetoacetate and/or acetoacetate plus beta-hydroxybutyrate.

  6. Role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibition in the antiproliferative effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Monaco, M.; Pizzini, A.; Gatto, V.; Leonardi, L.; Gallo, M.; Brignardello, E.; Boccuzzi, G.

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exerts a protective effect against breast cancer. It has been proposed that the non-competitive inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) contributes to DHEA antitumor action. We evaluated the effects of DHEA on G6PD activity and on the in vitro proliferation of two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (steroid receptor positive) and MDA-MB-231 (steroid receptor negative), in a serum-free assay. DHEA inhibition of G6PD was only found to occur at concentrations above 10 microM; at these high concentrations, the growth curve was parallel to the enzyme inhibition curve in both cell lines. In contrast, at concentrations in the in vivo breast tissue concentration range, neither cell growth nor enzyme activity was inhibited. The results failed to confirm DHEA's putative anti-tumor action on breast cancer through G6PD inhibition, as the enzyme blockade only becomes apparent at pharmacological concentrations of the steroid. PMID:9052415

  7. Contributory roles of two l-lactate dehydrogenases for l-lactic acid production in thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifan; Zhang, Caili; Lyu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo

    2016-11-25

    Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans is considered to be a more promising producer for bio-chemicals, due to its capacity to withstand harsh conditions. Two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encoding genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and one D-LDH encoding gene (ldhD) were annotated from the B. coagulans DSM1 genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of ldhL2 was undetectable while the ldhL1 transcription level was much higher than that of ldhD at all growth phases. Deletion of the ldhL2 gene revealed no difference in fermentation profile compared to the wild-type strain, while ldhL1 single deletion or ldhL1ldhL2 double deletion completely blocked L-lactic acid production. Complementation of ldhL1 in the above knockout strains restored fermentation profiles to those observed in the wild-type strain. This study demonstrates ldhL1 is crucial for L-lactic acid production and NADH balance in B. coagulans DSM1 and lays the fundamental for engineering the thermotolerant B. coagulans strain as a platform chemicals producer.

  8. Crystal structure of eta-crystallin: adaptation of a class 1 aldehyde dehydrogenase for a new role in the eye lens.

    PubMed

    Bateman, O A; Purkiss, A G; van Montfort, R; Slingsby, C; Graham, C; Wistow, G

    2003-04-22

    Eta-crystallin is a retinal dehydrogenase that has acquired a role as a structural protein in the eye lens of elephant shrews, members of an ancient order of mammals. While it retains some activity toward retinal, which is oxidized to retinoic acid, the protein has acquired a number of specific sequence changes that have presumably been selected to enhance the lens role. The crystal structure of eta-crystallin, in common with class 1 and 2 ALDHs, is a dimer of dimers. It has a better-defined NAD binding site than those of related mammalian ALDH1 enzymes with the cofactor bound in the "hydride transfer" position in all four monomers with small differences about the dimer dyads. Although the active site is well conserved, the substrate-binding site is larger in eta-crystallin, and there are some mutations to the substrate access tunnel that might affect binding or release of substrate and product. It is possible that eta-crystallin has lost flexibility to improve its role in the lens. Enhanced binding of cofactor could enable it to act as a UV/blue light filter in the lens, improving visual acuity. The structure not only gives a view of a "natural mutant" of ALDH1 illustrating the adaptive conflict that can arise in multifunctional proteins, but also provides a well-ordered NAD binding site structure for this class of enzymes with important roles in development and health.

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  10. Thermal adaptation of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases of eastern Pacific barracuda (Sphyraena spp): the role of differential isoenzyme expression

    PubMed

    Lin; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic properties, electrophoretic patterns and thermal stabilities of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases (cMDHs) were compared in Eastern Pacific barracuda (Sphyraena spp) from different latitudes. All tissues of the tropical species S. ensis contained only a single, thermostable form of cMDH. Subtropical (S. lucasana) as well as north (S. argentea) and south (S. idiastes) temperate barracuda contained both thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs, the pattern characteristic of most teleosts. Kinetic studies using unfractioned cMDHs showed that the apparent Michaelis­Menten constant (Km) of cofactor (NADH) increased with temperature, but at the physiological temperatures of the four species, Km of NADH was conserved within a narrow range (20­23 µmol l-1). Thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs were chromatographically separated and compared. Thermolabile cMDHs had higher Km values for NADH at all measurement temperatures than did thermostable cMDHs. Thermolabile cMDHs isolated from congeneric barracuda exhibited similar kinetic properties (Km versus temperature, optimal pH, optimal substrate and cofactor concentrations). Thermostable cMDHs, likewise, were similar among the barracuda. Conservation of Km in the differently thermally adapted barracudas is, therefore, apparently due to adjustments in the ratio of expression of the thermostable and thermolabile isoforms, rather than to temperature-adaptive differences among orthologous homologues, as is commonly found for enzymes encoded by a single gene locus. The effects of temperature on the Km of NADH for isolated thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs of a eurythermal goby, Gillichthys mirabilis, however, were consistent with adaptive change in orthologous homologues of cMDH. The selective basis for the absence of thermolabile cMDH in warm-adapted ectotherms, mammals and birds is discussed.

  11. Resolving the role of plant glutamate dehydrogenase: II. Physiological characterization of plants overexpressing the two enzyme subunits individually or simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Bedu, Magali; Dargel-Grafin, Céline; Dubois, Frédéric; Gibon, Yves; Restivo, Francesco M; Hirel, Bertrand

    2013-10-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is able to carry out the deamination of glutamate in higher plants. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physiological function of GDH in leaves, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were constructed that overexpress two genes from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (GDHA and GDHB under the control of the Cauliflower mosiac virus 35S promoter), which encode the α- and β-subunits of GDH individually or simultaneously. In the transgenic plants, the GDH protein accumulated in the mitochondria of mesophyll cells and in the mitochondria of the phloem companion cells (CCs), where the native enzyme is normally expressed. Such a shift in the cellular location of the GDH enzyme induced major changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolite accumulation and a reduction in growth. These changes were mainly characterized by a decrease in the amount of sucrose, starch and glutamine in the leaves, which was accompanied by an increase in the amount of nitrate and Chl. In addition, there was an increase in the content of asparagine and a decrease in proline. Such changes may explain the lower plant biomass determined in the GDH-overexpressing lines. Overexpressing the two genes GDHA and GDHB individually or simultaneously induced a differential accumulation of glutamate and glutamine and a modification of the glutamate to glutamine ratio. The impact of the metabolic changes occurring in the different types of GDH-overexpressing plants is discussed in relation to the possible physiological function of each subunit when present in the form of homohexamers or heterohexamers.

  12. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in human osteosarcoma: potential role in pathogenesis and as targets for treatments.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pushpa; Hardy, Rowan; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri; Bartle, Gillian; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar; Grimer, Robert; Bujalska, Iwona; Stewart, Paul M; Rabbitt, Elizabeth; Gittoes, Neil J L; Cooper, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumour of bone occurring predominantly in children and young adults. Despite chemotherapy, relapse is common and mortality remains high. Non-transformed osteoblasts are highly sensitive to glucocorticoids, which reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis. Previously, we observed that OS cells, but not normal osteoblasts, express 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2). This enzyme inactivates cortisol (active) to cortisone (inactive) and expression of 11β-HSD2 renders OS cells resistant to glucocorticoids. By contrast, the related enzyme 11β-HSD1 converts cortisone to cortisol and reduces OS cell proliferation in vitro. Some synthetic glucocorticoids (e.g. dehydrodexamethasone (DHD), inactive counterpart of dexamethasone (DEX)) have been reported to be activated by 11β-HSD2. We therefore investigated expression and enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD isozymes in human OS tissue, determined whether 11β-HSD expression has prognostic value in the response to therapy, and evaluated the potential use of synthetic glucocorticoids to selectively target OS cells. OS samples expressed both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2. 11β-HSD1 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens positively correlated with primary tumour size. Expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in post-treatment biopsies were unrelated to the degree of tumour necrosis following chemotherapy. However, high 11β-HSD2 expression in post-treatment biopsies correlated with a poor response to therapy. OS cells that expressed 11β-HSD2 inactivated endogenous glucocorticoids; but these cells were also able to generate DEX from DHD. These results suggest that OS treatment response is related to 11β-HSD2 enzyme expression. Furthermore, OS cells expressing this enzyme could be targeted by treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids that are selectively reactivated by the enzyme.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and accessways with signs bearing the following information: DANGER FORMALDEHYDE IRRITANT AND... shield is worn, chemical safety goggles are also required if there is a danger of formaldehyde reaching... areas shall have labels and signs containing the following information: DANGER...

  14. Formaldehyde Stress Responses in Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nathan H.; Djoko, Karrera Y.; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the simplest of all aldehydes and is highly cytotoxic. Its use and associated dangers from environmental exposure have been well documented. Detoxification systems for formaldehyde are found throughout the biological world and they are especially important in methylotrophic bacteria, which generate this compound as part of their metabolism of methanol. Formaldehyde metabolizing systems can be divided into those dependent upon pterin cofactors, sugar phosphates and those dependent upon glutathione. The more prevalent thiol-dependent formaldehyde detoxification system is found in many bacterial pathogens, almost all of which do not metabolize methane or methanol. This review describes the endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde, its toxic effects and mechanisms of detoxification. The methods of formaldehyde sensing are also described with a focus on the formaldehyde responsive transcription factors HxlR, FrmR, and NmlR. Finally, the physiological relevance of detoxification systems for formaldehyde in bacterial pathogens is discussed. PMID:26973631

  15. The Mechanism of the Formaldehyde Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and problems with the formaldehyde clock reaction, including comparisons of experimental clock times reported in the literature and conditions for the reliable use of the formaldehyde clock based on a method discussed. (JN)

  16. Overcompensation in Response to Herbivory in Arabidopsis thaliana: The Role of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and the Oxidative Pentose-Phosphate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Siddappaji, Madhura H.; Scholes, Daniel R.; Bohn, Martin; Paige, Ken N.

    2013-01-01

    That some plants benefit from being eaten is counterintuitive, yet there is now considerable evidence demonstrating enhanced fitness following herbivory (i.e., plants can overcompensate). Although there is evidence that genetic variation for compensation exists, little is known about the genetic mechanisms leading to enhanced growth and reproduction following herbivory. We took advantage of the compensatory variation in recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with microarray and QTL analyses to assess the molecular basis of overcompensation. We found three QTL explaining 11.4, 10.1, and 26.7% of the variation in fitness compensation, respectively, and 109 differentially expressed genes between clipped and unclipped plants of the overcompensating ecotype Columbia. From the QTL/microarray screen we uncovered one gene that plays a significant role in overcompensation: glucose-6-phosphate-1-dehydrogenase (G6PDH1). Knockout studies of Transfer-DNA (T-DNA) insertion lines and complementation studies of G6PDH1 verify its role in compensation. G6PDH1 is a key enzyme in the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway that plays a central role in plant metabolism. We propose that plants capable of overcompensating reprogram their transcriptional activity by up-regulating defensive genes and genes involved in energy metabolism and by increasing DNA content (via endoreduplication) with the increase in DNA content feeding back on pathways involved in defense and metabolism through increased gene expression. PMID:23934891

  17. The β and γ subunits play distinct functional roles in the α2βγ heterotetramer of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Peng, Yingjie; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yabing; Ding, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase existing as the α2βγ heterotetramer, catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, and is allosterically regulated by citrate, ADP and ATP. To explore the functional roles of the regulatory β and γ subunits, we systematically characterized the enzymatic properties of the holoenzyme and the composing αβ and αγ heterodimers in the absence and presence of regulators. The biochemical and mutagenesis data show that αβ and αγ alone have considerable basal activity but the full activity of α2βγ requires the assembly and cooperative function of both heterodimers. α2βγ and αγ can be activated by citrate or/and ADP, whereas αβ cannot. The binding of citrate or/and ADP decreases the S0.5,isocitrate and thus enhances the catalytic efficiencies of the enzymes, and the two activators can act independently or synergistically. Moreover, ATP can activate α2βγ and αγ at low concentration and inhibit the enzymes at high concentration, but has only inhibitory effect on αβ. Furthermore, the allosteric activation of α2βγ is through the γ subunit not the β subunit. These results demonstrate that the γ subunit plays regulatory role to activate the holoenzyme, and the β subunit the structural role to facilitate the assembly of the holoenzyme.

  18. Comparison of the regulation, metabolic functions, and roles in virulence of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homologues gapA and gapB in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Purves, Joanne; Cockayne, Alan; Moody, Peter C E; Morrissey, Julie A

    2010-12-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus contains two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) homologues known as GapA and GapB. GapA has been characterized as a functional GAPDH protein, but currently there is no biological evidence for the role of GapB in metabolism in S. aureus. In this study we show through a number of complementary methods that S. aureus GapA is essential for glycolysis while GapB is essential in gluconeogenesis. These proteins are reciprocally regulated in response to glucose concentrations, and both are influenced by the glycolysis regulator protein GapR, which is the first demonstration of the role of this regulator in S. aureus and the first indication that GapR homologues control genes other than those within the glycolytic operon. Furthermore, we show that both GapA and GapB are important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus in a Galleria mellonella model of infection, showing for the first time in any bacteria that both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis have important roles in virulence.

  19. Metabolomic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway identifies the central role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in clear cell-renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cagiano, Simona; Bufo, Pantaleo; Lastilla, Gaetano; Maiorano, Eugenio; Ribatti, Domenico; Giglio, Andrea; Serino, Grazia; Vavallo, Antonio; Bettocchi, Carlo; Selvaggi, Francesco Paolo; Battaglia, Michele; Ditonno, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of cancer metabolome has shown that proliferating tumor cells require a large quantities of different nutrients in order to support their high rate of proliferation. In this study we analyzed the metabolic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in human clear cell-renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and evaluate the role of these pathways in sustaining cell proliferation, maintenance of NADPH levels, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolomic analysis showed a clear signature of increased glucose uptake and utilization in ccRCC tumor samples. Elevated levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in association with higher levels of PPP-derived metabolites, suggested a prominent role of this pathway in RCC-associated metabolic alterations. G6PDH inhibition, caused a significant decrease in cancer cell survival, a decrease in NADPH levels, and an increased production of ROS, suggesting that the PPP plays an important role in the regulation of ccRCC redox homeostasis. Patients with high levels of glycolytic enzymes had reduced progression-free and cancer-specific survivals as compared to subjects with low levels. Our data suggest that oncogenic signaling pathways may promote ccRCC through rerouting the sugar metabolism. Blocking the flux through this pathway may serve as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25945836

  20. The β and γ subunits play distinct functional roles in the α2βγ heterotetramer of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tengfei; Peng, Yingjie; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yabing; Ding, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase existing as the α2βγ heterotetramer, catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, and is allosterically regulated by citrate, ADP and ATP. To explore the functional roles of the regulatory β and γ subunits, we systematically characterized the enzymatic properties of the holoenzyme and the composing αβ and αγ heterodimers in the absence and presence of regulators. The biochemical and mutagenesis data show that αβ and αγ alone have considerable basal activity but the full activity of α2βγ requires the assembly and cooperative function of both heterodimers. α2βγ and αγ can be activated by citrate or/and ADP, whereas αβ cannot. The binding of citrate or/and ADP decreases the S0.5,isocitrate and thus enhances the catalytic efficiencies of the enzymes, and the two activators can act independently or synergistically. Moreover, ATP can activate α2βγ and αγ at low concentration and inhibit the enzymes at high concentration, but has only inhibitory effect on αβ. Furthermore, the allosteric activation of α2βγ is through the γ subunit not the β subunit. These results demonstrate that the γ subunit plays regulatory role to activate the holoenzyme, and the β subunit the structural role to facilitate the assembly of the holoenzyme. PMID:28139779

  1. Metabolomic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway identifies the central role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in clear cell-renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Galleggiante, Vanessa; Rutigliano, Monica; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cagiano, Simona; Bufo, Pantaleo; Lastilla, Gaetano; Maiorano, Eugenio; Ribatti, Domenico; Giglio, Andrea; Serino, Grazia; Vavallo, Antonio; Bettocchi, Carlo; Selvaggi, Francesco Paolo; Battaglia, Michele; Ditonno, Pasquale

    2015-05-30

    The analysis of cancer metabolome has shown that proliferating tumor cells require a large quantities of different nutrients in order to support their high rate of proliferation. In this study we analyzed the metabolic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in human clear cell-renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and evaluate the role of these pathways in sustaining cell proliferation, maintenance of NADPH levels, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolomic analysis showed a clear signature of increased glucose uptake and utilization in ccRCC tumor samples. Elevated levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in association with higher levels of PPP-derived metabolites, suggested a prominent role of this pathway in RCC-associated metabolic alterations. G6PDH inhibition, caused a significant decrease in cancer cell survival, a decrease in NADPH levels, and an increased production of ROS, suggesting that the PPP plays an important role in the regulation of ccRCC redox homeostasis. Patients with high levels of glycolytic enzymes had reduced progression-free and cancer-specific survivals as compared to subjects with low levels. Our data suggest that oncogenic signaling pathways may promote ccRCC through rerouting the sugar metabolism. Blocking the flux through this pathway may serve as a novel therapeutic target.

  2. A Short Review on Photocatalytic Degradation of Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Tasbihi, Minoo; Bendyna, Joanna K; Notten, Peter H L; Hintzen, H T

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, it is a great challenge to eliminate toxic and harmful organic pollutants from air and water. This paper reviews the role of TiO2 as a photocatalyst, light source and photoreactor in the particular case of removal of formaldehyde using the photocatalytic reaction by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous and gaseous systems. The reaction mechanisms of the photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous formaldehyde are given. We also present a detailed review of published articles on photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde by modified titanium dioxide doped with foreign species such as metal and non-metal components. We point out the most prospective developments of the photocatalyst compositions for the future potential commercial applications.

  3. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Godish, T

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. PMID:2665532

  4. Formaldehyde reactions in dark clouds.

    PubMed

    Sen, A D; Anicich, V G; Federman, S R

    1992-05-20

    The low-pressure reactions of formaldehyde (H2CO) with D+, D2+, D3+, and He+ have been studied by the ion cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potential loss processes for formaldehyde in cores of dark interstellar clouds. The deuterated reactants, which are easier to study experimentally, represent direct analogs for protons. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels have been measured. Charge transfer is observed to be the dominant reaction of H2CO with D+, D2+, and He+ ions. Only the D3+ reaction exhibits a proton transfer channel. All reactions proceed at rate coefficients near the collision limit. Proton-deuteron exchange reactions were found to be inefficient processes in the formaldehyde system.

  5. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde resin dust with and without reaction to formaldehyde gas.

    PubMed

    Lemière, C; Desjardins, A; Cloutier, Y; Drolet, D; Perrault, G; Cartier, A; Malo, J L

    1995-05-01

    We report the cases of three subjects who developed asthma after being exposed to formaldehyde dust or gas. For two subjects, specific bronchial provocation tests with formaldehyde gas did not cause significant bronchoconstriction, whereas exposure to formaldehyde resin dust did. One subject experienced asthmatic reaction after being exposed to formaldehyde resin dust and gas. These findings suggest that the physical and chemical properties of formaldehyde are relevant to its likelihood of causing asthma.

  6. Woodstoves, formaldehyde, and respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tuthill, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Telephone interviews were completed in Western Massachusetts in April 1983 for 399 households (91.5 percent) in a random sample of households with elementary school children. Woodstoves were used in 64.7 percent of the homes, but such use was not associated with acute respiratory illness. However, formaldehyde exposure was significantly related, with a risk ratio of 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.7-3.4). New construction/remodeling and new upholstered furniture had additive effects. Neither woodstove use nor formaldehyde exposure were significantly associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or allergies.

  7. [Studies on the remote measurement of the emission of formaldehyde by mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Cheng; Xie, Pin-Hua; Li, Ang; Si, Fu-Qi; Dou, Ke; Liu, Yu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Jie

    2011-11-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant carbonyl compounds that play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions. Formaldehyde is an important indicator of atmospheric reactivity and urban atmospheric aerosol precursors. In the present paper, the emission of formaldehyde from chemical area was measured using the mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). This instrument uses the zenith scattered sunlight as the light source with successful sampling in the area loop. Vertical column density was retrieved by this system, combined with the meteorological wind field and car speed information, the emission of formaldehyde in the area was estimated. The authors carried out the measuring experiment in one chemical plant in Beijing using this technology. The result showed that the average value of the flux of formaldehyde in this area was 605 kg x h(-1) during the measuring period.

  8. Metabolism of Androstenone, 17β-Estradiol and Dihydrotestosterone in Primary Cultured Pig Hepatocytes and the Role of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase in This Process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Bai, Ying; Ren, Li; Zhu, Dan; Li, Yanhua; Fang, Meiying; Al-Kateb, Huda; Doran, Olena

    2015-01-01

    Steroids metabolism plays an important role in mammals and contributes to quality of pig meat. The main objective of this study was to identify metabolites of androstenone, 17β-estradiol and dihydrotestosterone using primary cultured pig hepatocytes as a model system. The role of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) in regulation of steroid metabolism was also validated using trilostane, a specific 3βHSD inhibitor. Steroid glucuronide conjugated metabolites were detected by liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). 3βHSD enzyme was essential for metabolism of androstenone to 5α-androst-16-en-3β-ol, which then formed androstenone glucuronide conjugate. Metabolism of 17β-estradiol was accompanied by formation of glucuronide-conjugated estrone and glucuronide-conjugated estradiol. The ratio of the two metabolites was around 5∶1. 3βHSD enzyme was not involved in 17β-estradiol metabolism. 5α-Dihydrotestosterone-17β-glucuronide was identified as a dihydrotestosterone metabolite, and this metabolism was related to 3βHSD enzyme activity as demonstrated by inhibition study. PMID:25590624

  9. Characterization of the Rana grylio virus 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and its novel role in suppressing virus-induced cytopathic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Wei; Huang Youhua; Zhao Zhe; Gui Jianfang; Zhang Qiya . E-mail: zhangqy@ihb.ac.cn

    2006-12-08

    The 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) isoenzymes play a key role in cellular steroid hormone synthesis. Here, a 3{beta}-HSD gene homolog was cloned from Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of family Iridoviridae. RGV 3{beta}-HSD gene has 1068 bp, encoding a 355 aa predicted protein. Transcription analyses showed that RGV 3{beta}-HSD gene was transcribed immediate-early during infection from an initiation site 19 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site. Confocal microscopy revealed that the 3{beta}-HSD-EGFP fusion protein was exclusively colocalized with the mitochondria marker (pDsRed2-Mito) in EPC cells. Upon morphological observation and MTT assay, it was revealed that overexpression of RGV 3{beta}-HSD in EPC cells could apparently suppress RGV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). The present studies indicate that the RGV immediate-early 3{beta}-HSD gene encodes a mitochondria-localized protein, which has a novel role in suppressing virus-induced CPE. All these suggest that RGV 3{beta}-HSD might be a protein involved in host-virus interaction.

  10. Cells deficient in the FANC/BRCA pathway are hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, John R; Nakamura, Ayumi; Tano, Keizo; Luke, April M; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Gillespie, David A F; Sale, Julian E; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Bishop, Douglas K; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an aliphatic monoaldehyde and is a highly reactive environmental human carcinogen. Whereas humans are continuously exposed to exogenous formaldehyde, this reactive aldehyde is a naturally occurring biological compound that is present in human plasma at concentrations ranging from 13 to 97 micromol/L. It has been well documented that DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) likely play an important role with regard to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde. However, little is known about which DNA damage response pathways are essential for cells to counteract formaldehyde. In the present study, we first assessed the DNA damage response to plasma levels of formaldehyde using chicken DT40 cells with targeted mutations in various DNA repair genes. Here, we show that the hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is detected in DT40 mutants deficient in the BRCA/FANC pathway, homologous recombination, or translesion DNA synthesis. In addition, FANCD2-deficient DT40 cells are hypersensitive to acetaldehyde, but not to acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. Human cells deficient in FANCC and FANCG are also hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde. These results indicate that the BRCA/FANC pathway is essential to counteract DPCs caused by aliphatic monoaldehydes. Based on the results obtained in the present study, we are currently proposing that endogenous formaldehyde might have an effect on highly proliferating cells, such as bone marrow cells, as well as an etiology of cancer in Fanconi anemia patients.

  11. Formaldehyde Reactions with Amines and Ammonia: Particle Formation and Product Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M. M.; Millage, K. D.; Rodriguez, A.; Sedehi, N.; Powelson, M. H.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    Aqueous phase reactions between carbonyls and amines or ammonium salts have recently been implicated in secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon formation processes. Formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and is present in both the gas and aqueous phases. However, the reactions of formaldehyde in the aqueous phase have not been completely characterized. This study aims to determine the interactions between formaldehyde and amines or ammonium salts present in atmospheric droplets. Bulk phase reactions of formaldehyde with these reactive nitrogen-containing compounds were monitored with ESI-MS and NMR to determine reaction kinetics and for product characterization, while UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in light absorption over time. Hexamethylenetetramine was found to be a major product of the formaldehyde/ammonium sulfate reaction, appearing within minutes of mixing. No products were formed that absorbed light beyond 225 nm. Mono-disperse particles containing mixtures of formaldehyde and ammonium sulfate or an amine were dried and analyzed via SMPS to determine the non-volatile fraction of the reaction products. Similarly, aqueous droplets were dried in a humid atmosphere to determine residual aerosol sizes over time as a function of formaldehyde concentration. This work indicates that formaldehyde plays a key role in aqueous-phase organic processing, as it has been observed to contribute to both an increase and reduction in the diameter and volume of residual aerosol particles.

  12. Role of convection in redistributing formaldehyde to the upper troposphere over North America and the North Atlantic during the summer 2004 INTEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Olson, Jennifer R.; Walega, James G.; Crawford, Jim H.; Chen, Gao; Weibring, Petter; Richter, Dirk; Roller, Chad; Tittel, Frank; Porter, Michael; Fuelberg, Henry; Halland, Jeremy; Bertram, Timothy H.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Pickering, Kenneth; Heikes, Brian G.; Snow, Julie A.; Shen, Haiwei; O'Sullivan, Daniel W.; Brune, William H.; Ren, Xinrong; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola; Sachse, Glen; Diskin, Glenn S.; Podolske, James; Vay, Stephanie A.; Shetter, Richard E.; Hall, Samuel R.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Thornhill, Lee; Clarke, Antony D.; McNaughton, Cameron S.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Avery, Melody A.; Huey, Gregory; Kim, Saewung; Millet, Dylan B.

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O) from a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) were acquired onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the summer 2004 INTEX-NA campaign to test our understanding of convection and CH2O production mechanisms in the upper troposphere (UT, 6-12 km) over continental North America and the North Atlantic Ocean. The present study utilizes these TDLAS measurements and results from a box model to (1) establish sets of conditions by which to distinguish "background" UT CH2O levels from those perturbed by convection and other causes; (2) quantify the CH2O precursor budgets for both air mass types; (3) quantify the fraction of time that the UT CH2O measurements over North America and North Atlantic are perturbed during the summer of 2004; (4) provide estimates for the fraction of time that such perturbed CH2O levels are caused by direct convection of boundary layer CH2O and/or convection of CH2O precursors; (5) assess the ability of box models to reproduce the CH2O measurements; and (6) examine CH2O and HO2 relationships in the presence of enhanced NO. Multiple tracers were used to arrive at a set of UT CH2O background and perturbed air mass periods, and 46% of the TDLAS measurements fell within the latter category. In general, production of CH2O from CH4 was found to be the dominant source term, even in perturbed air masses. This was followed by production from methyl hydroperoxide, methanol, PAN-type compounds, and ketones, in descending order of their contribution. At least 70% to 73% of the elevated UT observations were caused by enhanced production from CH2O precursors rather than direct transport of CH2O from the boundary layer. In the presence of elevated NO, there was a definite trend in the CH2O measurement-model discrepancy, and this was highly correlated with HO2 measurement-model discrepancies in the UT.

  13. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  14. Formaldehyde in Insulation: Villain or Innocent Bystander?

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1983-01-01

    When urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) deteriorates, it produces an off-gas mixture whose major constituent is formaldehyde. Most investigative studies of UFFI have concentrated on formaldehyde. Health concerns fall into three groups: irritant characteristics, allergenic capabilities and potential carcinogenicity. Except for the first of these, formaldehyde's hazard potential is not clear. The extent to which formaldehyde may be responsible for UFFI's evil reputation is explored in this paper but the degree to which either substance is a real threat to health still appears to open to debate. PMID:21283296

  15. Formaldehyde monitor for automobile exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Device makes use of microwave spectral absorption in low-Q resonant Stark cell, and indications are that ultimate sensitivity of instrument is within 100 parts per billion of formaldehyde. Microwave source is very small and requires only six-volt dc bias for operation. Coarse tuning is accomplished mechanically and fine tuning by adjusting dc-bias voltage.

  16. Endogenous Formaldehyde Is a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Genotoxin and Metabolic Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Pontel, Lucas B.; Rosado, Ivan V.; Burgos-Barragan, Guillermo; Garaycoechea, Juan I.; Yu, Rui; Arends, Mark J.; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Broecker, Verena; Wei, Wei; Liu, Limin; Swenberg, James A.; Crossan, Gerry P.; Patel, Ketan J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Endogenous formaldehyde is produced by numerous biochemical pathways fundamental to life, and it can crosslink both DNA and proteins. However, the consequences of its accumulation are unclear. Here we show that endogenous formaldehyde is removed by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5/GSNOR), and Adh5−/− mice therefore accumulate formaldehyde adducts in DNA. The repair of this damage is mediated by FANCD2, a DNA crosslink repair protein. Adh5−/−Fancd2−/− mice reveal an essential requirement for these protection mechanisms in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), leading to their depletion and precipitating bone marrow failure. More widespread formaldehyde-induced DNA damage also causes karyomegaly and dysfunction of hepatocytes and nephrons. Bone marrow transplantation not only rescued hematopoiesis but, surprisingly, also preserved nephron function. Nevertheless, all of these animals eventually developed fatal malignancies. Formaldehyde is therefore an important source of endogenous DNA damage that is counteracted in mammals by a conserved protection mechanism. PMID:26412304

  17. Role of quinones in electron transfer of PQQ–glucose dehydrogenase anodes—mediation or orientation effect

    DOE PAGES

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Chavez, Madelaine Seow; ...

    2015-06-16

    In this study, the influence of two quinones (1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone) on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in PQQ-sGDH anodes has been determined. Benzoquinones were experimentally explored as mediators present in the electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes with and without the mediators was examined and for the first time molecular docking simulations were used to gain a fundamental understanding to explain the role of the mediator molecules in the design and operation of the enzymatic electrodes. It was proposed that the higher performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes in the presence of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones introducedmore » in the solution is due to the shorter distance between these molecules and PQQ in the enzymatic molecule. It was also hypothesized that when 1,4-benzoquinone is adsorbed on a carbon support, it would play the dual role of a mediator and an orienting agent. At the same time, when 1,2-benzoquinone and ubiquinone are adsorbed on the electrode surface, the enzyme would transfer the electrons directly to the support, and these molecules would primarily play the role of an orienting agent.« less

  18. Role of quinones in electron transfer of PQQ–glucose dehydrogenase anodes—mediation or orientation effect

    SciTech Connect

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Chavez, Madelaine Seow; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-06-16

    In this study, the influence of two quinones (1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone) on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in PQQ-sGDH anodes has been determined. Benzoquinones were experimentally explored as mediators present in the electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes with and without the mediators was examined and for the first time molecular docking simulations were used to gain a fundamental understanding to explain the role of the mediator molecules in the design and operation of the enzymatic electrodes. It was proposed that the higher performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes in the presence of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones introduced in the solution is due to the shorter distance between these molecules and PQQ in the enzymatic molecule. It was also hypothesized that when 1,4-benzoquinone is adsorbed on a carbon support, it would play the dual role of a mediator and an orienting agent. At the same time, when 1,2-benzoquinone and ubiquinone are adsorbed on the electrode surface, the enzyme would transfer the electrons directly to the support, and these molecules would primarily play the role of an orienting agent.

  19. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) mutations in pituitary tumors: could this be a new role for mitochondrial complex II and/or Krebs cycle defects?

    PubMed

    Xekouki, Paraskevi; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-12-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or mitochondrial complex II is a multimeric enzyme that is bound to the inner membrane of mitochondria and has a dual role as it serves both as a critical step of the tricarboxylic acid or Krebs cycle and as a member of the respiratory chain that transfers electrons directly to the ubiquinone pool. Mutations in SDH subunits have been implicated in the formation of familial paragangliomas (PGLs) and/or pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and in Carney-Stratakis syndrome. More recently, SDH defects were associated with predisposition to a Cowden disease phenotype, renal, and thyroid cancer. We recently described a kindred with the coexistence of familial PGLs and an aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, harboring an SDHD mutation. The pituitary tumor showed loss of heterozygosity at the SDHD locus, indicating the possibility that SDHD's loss was causatively linked to the development of the neoplasm. In total, 29 cases of pituitary adenomas presenting in association with PHEOs and/or extra-adrenal PGLs have been reported in the literature since 1952. Although a number of other genetic defects are possible in these cases, we speculate that the association of PHEOs and/or PGLs with pituitary tumors is a new syndromic association and a novel phenotype for SDH defects.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a central role in the response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to short and long-term drought.

    PubMed

    Landi, Simone; Nurcato, Roberta; De Lillo, Alessia; Lentini, Marco; Grillo, Stefania; Esposito, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression, occurrence and activity of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH - EC 1.1.1.49), the key-enzyme of the Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway (OPPP), in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Red Setter) exposed to short- and long-term drought stress. For the first time, drought effects have been evaluated in plants under different growth conditions: in hydroponic laboratory system, and in greenhouse pots under controlled conditions; and in open field, in order to evaluate drought response in a representative agricultural environment. Interestingly, changes observed appear strictly associated to the induction of well known stress response mechanisms, such as the increase of proline synthesis, accumulation of chaperone Hsp70, and ascorbate peroxidase. Results show significant increase in total activity of G6PDH, and specifically in expression and occurrence of cytosolic isoform (cy-G6PDH) in plants grown in any cultivation system upon drought. Intriguingly, the results clearly suggest that abscissic acid (ABA) pathway and signaling cascade (protein phosphatase 2C PP2C) could be strictly related to increased G6PDH expression, occurrence and activities. We hypothesized for G6PDH a specific role as one of the main reductants' suppliers to counteract the effects of drought stress, in the light of converging evidences given by young and adult tomato plants under stress of different duration and intensity.

  1. Photosystem I cyclic electron flow via chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex performs a physiological role for photosynthesis at low light

    PubMed Central

    Yamori, Wataru; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Makino, Amane

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (PS I) was discovered more than a half-century ago and two pathways have been identified in angiosperms. Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the structure of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex, which mediates one route of the cyclic electron transport pathways, its physiological function is not well understood. Most studies focused on the role of the NDH-dependent PS I cyclic electron transport in alleviation of oxidative damage in strong light. In contrast, here it is shown that impairment of NDH-dependent cyclic electron flow in rice specifically causes a reduction in the electron transport rate through PS I (ETR I) at low light intensity with a concomitant reduction in CO2 assimilation rate, plant biomass and importantly, grain production. There was no effect on PS II function at low or high light intensity. We propose a significant physiological function for the chloroplast NDH at low light intensities commonly experienced during the reproductive and ripening stages of rice cultivation that have adverse effects crop yield. PMID:26358849

  2. Effects of dietary fat on alcohol-pyrazole hepatitis in rats: the pathogenetic role of the nonalcohol dehydrogenase pathway in alcohol-induced hepatic cell injury.

    PubMed

    Takada, A; Matsuda, Y; Takase, S

    1986-08-01

    Rats were fed with two different alcohol-containing (36% of total calories) liquid diets of high fat and low fat (35% and 15% of total calories) with or without 2 mM of pyrazole for 12 weeks. At the 12th week, the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase level was significantly elevated in the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group, but not in the low fat group. Ballooning and necrotic changes of the hepatocytes in the centrolobular area were more prominent in the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group than in the low fat group and alcohol alone groups, indicating that high fat diet accelerates the development of alcohol-pyrazole hepatitis. In the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group, a decrease of hepatic microtubules content and an accumulation of hepatic export proteins in the hepatocytes were found. The protein accumulation was prominent only in the ballooned hepatocytes. Hepatic acetaldehyde levels were significantly higher in the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group than in the alcohol-pyrazole low fat group. These results suggest that the accelerated ethanol metabolism in the nonalcohol dehydrogenase pathway by a high fat diet may play an important role in the development of hepatocytic injuries, by impairing the microtubular function of the hepatocytes.

  3. Role of NAD+-Dependent Malate Dehydrogenase in the Metabolism of Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    PubMed Central

    Rozova, Olga N.; Khmelenina, Valentina N.; Bocharova, Ksenia A.; Mustakhimov, Ildar I.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    We have expressed the l-malate dehydrogenase (MDH) genes from aerobic methanotrophs Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as his-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli. The substrate specificities, enzymatic kinetics and oligomeric states of the MDHs have been characterized. Both MDHs were NAD+-specific and thermostable enzymes not affected by metal ions or various organic metabolites. The MDH from M. alcaliphilum 20Z was a homodimeric (2 × 35 kDa) enzyme displaying nearly equal reductive (malate formation) and oxidative (oxaloacetate formation) activities and higher affinity to malate (Km = 0.11 mM) than to oxaloacetate (Km = 0.34 mM). The MDH from M. trichosporium OB3b was homotetrameric (4 × 35 kDa), two-fold more active in the reaction of oxaloacetate reduction compared to malate oxidation and exhibiting higher affinity to oxaloacetate (Km = 0.059 mM) than to malate (Km = 1.28 mM). The kcat/Km ratios indicated that the enzyme from M. alcaliphilum 20Z had a remarkably high catalytic efficiency for malate oxidation, while the MDH of M. trichosporium OB3b was preferable for oxaloacetate reduction. The metabolic roles of the enzymes in the specific metabolism of the two methanotrophs are discussed. PMID:27682078

  4. Characterization of a NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase mutant of Arabidopsis demonstrates the key role of this enzyme in root carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Armengaud, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Sandra; Catterou, Manuella; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gibon, Yves; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric

    2012-10-01

    The role of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated by studying the physiological impact of a complete lack of enzyme activity in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant deficient in three genes encoding the enzyme. This study was conducted following the discovery that a third GDH gene is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, where all three active GDH enzyme proteins were shown to be present. A gdh1-2-3 triple mutant was constructed and exhibited major differences from the wild type in gene transcription and metabolite concentrations, and these differences appeared to originate in the roots. By placing the gdh triple mutant under continuous darkness for several days and comparing it to the wild type, the evidence strongly suggested that the main physiological function of NADH-GDH is to provide 2-oxoglutarate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The differences in key metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the triple mutant versus the wild type indicated that, through metabolic processes operating mainly in roots, there was a strong impact on amino acid accumulation, in particular alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and aspartate in both roots and leaves. These results are discussed in relation to the possible signaling and physiological functions of the enzyme at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

  5. The role of reduced glutathione during the course of acute haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients: clinical and pharmacodynamic aspects.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G

    1990-01-01

    Tissue hypoperfusion leads to cellular oxidative and peroxidative damage due to biochemical disorders in the oxygen and substrate metabolism. The metabolic turnover of glutathione (GSH) represents one the main cytoprotective systems against the peroxide attack and the depletion or defect in resynthesis of this compound is accompanied by pathological consequences. In the present study the clinical effects of glutathione depletion were investigated in conditions of acute tissue hypoxia due to marked haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients (favism syndrome). In these subjects a significant marker of the tissue oxidative damage was represented by the uric acid blood levels, presumably linked to xanthine-hypoxanthine altered metabolism. To antagonize the effects of oxyradical pathology, reduced glutathione was administered to a group of patients and the results confirmed the cytoprotective role played by the GSH supplementation. The GSH action was evident on the tissue metabolism and this supports the opinion that reduced glutathione could represent a new and interesting therapeutic approach in marked and acute hypoxic conditions.

  6. A tungsten supplemented diet attenuates bacterial translocation in chronic portal hypertensive and cholestatic rats: role of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Schimpl, G; Pabst, M; Feierl, G; Kuesz, A; Ozbey, H; Takahashi, S; Hollwarth, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Bacterial translocation (BT) plays a major role in the pathophysiological process of spontaneous infections in portal hypertension (PH) and cholestatic jaundice. The major mechanisms promoting BT in experimental animal models are the disruption of the intestinal ecological equilibrium and disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier. The enzymes xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are often implicated as a significant source of oxidants which have a major impact on the impairment of intestinal barrier function.
AIM—To investigate the incidence of BT in rats with PH and obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the impact of XD and XO.
METHODS—Animals were subjected to sham laparotomy (SL), PH by calibrated stenosis of the portal vein, and common bile duct ligation (CBDL). They were fed either a standard pellet diet or a tungsten supplemented molybdenum-free diet. Four weeks after the operative procedure, intestinal colonisation and BT to portal vein, vena cava, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were determined. Intestinal XD and XO activity were measured enzymatically and histochemically.
RESULTS—Significant (p<0.01) intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in all PH and CBDL groups compared with the SL group. In normally fed animals after SL, BT occurred in 12%. In PH and after CBDL, the rate of BT increased significantly (p<0.05) to 28% and 54% respectively. In the jejunum of normally fed animals subjected to PH or CBDL, a significant increase in XO was observed (p<0.01). Animals fed a tungsten supplemented diet showed a significant attenuation of BT to 14% in PH and 22% after CBDL (p<0.05). Tungsten treatment completely suppressed jejunal XD and XO activities.
CONCLUSIONS—Significant intestinal bacterial overgrowth, BT, and XD to XO conversion occurred in PH and after CBDL. XD and XO inactivation by a tungsten supplemented molybdenum-free diet significantly reduced the incidence of BT without affecting

  7. 78 FR 51696 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Environmental protection, Composite wood products, Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping, Third-party... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

  8. The role of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in restoring growth on glucose of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoglucose isomerase mutant.

    PubMed

    Boles, E; Lehnert, W; Zimmermann, F K

    1993-10-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase pgi1-deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot grow on glucose as the sole carbon source and are even inhibited by glucose. These growth defects could be suppressed by an over-expression on a multi-copy plasmid of the structural gene GDH2 coding for the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. GDH2 codes for a protein with 1092 amino acids which is located on chromosome XII and shows high sequence similarity to the Neurospora crassa NAD-glutamate dehydrogenase. Suppression of the pgi1 deletion by over-expression of GDH2 was abolished in strains with a deletion of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ZWF1 or gene GDH1 coding for the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. Moreover, this suppression required functional mitochondria. It is proposed that the growth defect of pgi1 deletion mutants on glucose is due to a rapid depletion of NADP which is needed as a cofactor in the oxidative reactions of the pentose phosphate pathway. Over-expression of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase leads to a very efficient conversion of glutamate with NADH generation to 2-oxoglutarate which can be converted back to glutamate by the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase with the consumption of NADPH. Consequently, over-expression of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase causes a substrate cycling between 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate which restores NADP from NADPH through the coupled conversion of NAD to NADH which can be oxidized in the mitochondria. Furthermore, the requirement for an increase in NADPH consumption for the suppression of the phosphoglucose isomerase defect could be met by addition of oxidizing agents which are known to reduce the level of NADPH.

  9. Assimilation, dissimilation, and detoxification of formaldehyde, a central metabolic intermediate of methylotrophic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Methanol is a valuable raw material used in the manufacture of useful chemicals as well as a potential source of energy to replace coal and petroleum. Biotechnological interest in the microbial utilization of methanol has increased because it is an ideal carbon source and can be produced from renewable biomass. Formaldehyde, a cytotoxic compound, is a central metabolic intermediate in methanol metabolism. Therefore, microorganisms utilizing methanol have adopted several metabolic strategies to cope with the toxicity of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is initially detoxified through trapping by some cofactors, such as glutathione, mycothiol, tetrahydrofolate, and tetrahydromethanopterin, before being oxidized to CO2. Alternatively, free formaldehyde can be trapped by sugar phosphates as the first reaction in the C1 assimilation pathways: the xylulose monophosphate pathway for yeasts and the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway for bacteria. In yeasts, although formaldehyde generation and consumption takes place in the peroxisome, the cytosolic formaldehyde oxidation pathway also plays a role in formaldehyde detoxification as well as energy formation. The key enzymes of the RuMP pathway are found in a variety of microorganisms including bacteria and archaea. Regulation of the genes encoding these enzymes and their catalytic mechanisms depend on the physiological traits of these organisms during evolution.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  11. Gaseous reference standards of formaldehyde from trioxane.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul J; di Meane, Elena Amico; Vargha, Gergely M; Brown, Richard J C; Milton, Martin J T

    2013-04-15

    We have developed a dynamic reference standard of gaseous formaldehyde based on diffusion of the sublimate of trioxane and thermal conversion to formaldehyde in the gas phase. We have also produced a gravimetric standard for formaldehyde in a nitrogen matrix, also by thermal conversion of the sublimate of trioxane. Analysis of the gravimetric standard with respect to the dynamic standard has confirmed the comparability of the static and dynamic gravimetric values.

  12. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... June 10, 2013 Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 770 Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products; Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 111 /...

  13. Expression profiles of cortisol-inactivating enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2, in human epidermal tumors and its role in keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mika; Itoi, Saori; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion between hormonally active cortisol and inactive cortisone within cells. There are two isozymes: 11β-HSD1 activates cortisol from cortisone and 11β-HSD2 inactivates cortisol to cortisone. 11β-HSD1 was recently discovered in skin, and we subsequently found that the enzyme negatively regulates keratinocyte proliferation. We verified 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 expression in benign and malignant skin tumors and investigated the role of 11β-HSD in skin tumor pathogenesis. Randomly selected formalin-fixed sections of skin lesions of seborrheic keratosis (SK), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were stained with 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 antibodies, and 11β-HSD expression was also evaluated in murine epidermis in which hyperproliferation was induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). We observed that 11β-HSD1 expression was decreased in all SK, SCC, and BCC lesions compared with unaffected skin. Conversely, 11β-HSD2 expression was increased in SK and BCC but not in SCC. Overexpression of 11β-HSD2 in keratinocytes increased cell proliferation. In the murine model, 11β-HSD1 expression was decreased in TPA-treated hyperproliferative skin. Our findings suggest that 11β-HSD1 expression is decreased in keratinocyte proliferative conditions, and 11β-HSD2 expression is increased in basal cell proliferating conditions, such as BCC and SK. Assessing 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 expression could be a useful tool for diagnosing and characterizing skin tumors.

  14. Metabolic Control of Anaerobic Glycolysis (Overexpression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Tomato Roots Supports the Davies-Roberts Hypothesis and Points to a Critical Role for Lactate Secretion.

    PubMed

    Rivoal, J.; Hanson, A. D.

    1994-11-01

    Roots of all plants examined so far have the potential for both ethanol and lactate fermentation. A short burst of lactate fermentation usually occurs when plant tissues are transferred from normoxic to anoxic conditions. According to the Davies-Roberts hypothesis, the consequent pH drop both initiates ethanol fermentation and blocks further production of lactate by inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, the role of LDH in this pH control mechanism is still a matter of debate. To perturb the control system in a defined way, a barley LDH cDNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFMT) using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The transgenic root clones expressed up to 50 times the LDH activity of controls. The fermentative metabolism of these clones was compared using roots grown previously in normoxic conditions or roots given a 3-d hypoxic pretreatment. During the transition from normoxia to anoxia, lactate accumulation was no faster and no more extensive in transgenic roots than in controls. Similarly, during prolonged anoxia the flux of 14C from [U-14C] glucose to lactate and ethanol was not modified by the expression of the transgene. However, in both transgenic and control roots, hypoxic pretreatment increased the flux to lactate and promoted lactate export to the medium. These results show that LDH has a very low flux control coefficient for lactate fermentation, consistent with the Davies-Roberts hypothesis. Moreover, they suggest that lactate secretion exerts major control over long-term lactate glycolysis in vivo.

  15. Expression and regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms in the developing rat heart and in adulthood: role of thyroid hormone status and lipid supply.

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, M C; Langdown, M L; Harris, R A; Holness, M J

    2000-01-01

    Activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex (PDHC) promotes glucose disposal, whereas inactivation conserves glucose. The PDH kinases (PDHKs) regulate glucose oxidation through inhibitory phosphorylation of PDHC. The adult rat heart contains three PDHK isoforms PDHK1, PDHK2 and PDHK4. Using Western-blot analysis, with specific antibodies raised against individual recombinant PDHK1, PDHK2 and PDHK4, the present study investigated PDHK isoform expression in the developing rat heart and adulthood. We identified clear differences in the patterns of protein expression of each of these PDHK isoforms during the first 3 weeks of post-natal development, with most marked up-regulation of isoforms PDHK1 and PDHK4. Distinctions between the three cardiac PDHK isoforms were also demonstrated with respect to post-neonatal maturational up-regulation; with greatest up-regulation of PDHK1 and least up-regulation of PDHK4 from the post-neonatal period until maturity. The study also examined the role of thyroid hormone status and lipid supply on PDHK isoform expression. We observed marked selective increases in the amount of PDHK4 protein present relative to total cardiac protein in both hyperthyroidism and high-fat feeding. Overall, our data identify PDHK isoform PDHK1 as being of more potential regulatory importance for glucose oxidation in the adult compared with the neonatal heart, and cardiac PDHK4 as a PDHK isoform whose expression is specifically responsive to changes in lipid supply, suggesting that its up-regulation during early post-natal life may be the perinatal switch to use fatty acids as the energy source. We also identify regulation of pyruvate sensitivity of cardiac PDHK as a physiological variable, a change in which requires factors in addition to a change in lipid supply. PMID:11104680

  16. Chemical modification of lysozyme, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and bovine eye lens proteins induced by peroxyl radicals: role of oxidizable amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Andrea; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Kogan, Marcelo; Lissi, Eduardo; Davies, Michael J; Silva, Eduardo

    2013-01-18

    Chemical and structural alterations to lysozyme (LYSO), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and bovine eye lens proteins (BLP) promoted by peroxyl radicals generated by the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) under aerobic conditions were investigated. SDS-PAGE analysis of the AAPH-treated proteins revealed the occurrence of protein aggregation, cross-linking, and fragmentation; BLP, which are naturally organized in globular assemblies, were the most affected proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of BLP shows the formation of complex protein aggregates after treatment with AAPH. These structural modifications were accompanied by the formation of protein carbonyl groups and protein hydroperoxides. The yield of carbonyls was lower than that for protein hydroperoxide generation and was unrelated to protein fragmentation. The oxidized proteins were also characterized by significant oxidation of Met, Trp, and Tyr (but not other) residues, and low levels of dityrosine. As the dityrosine yield is too low to account for the observed cross-linking, we propose that aggregation is associated with tryptophan oxidation and Trp-derived cross-links. It is also proposed that Trp oxidation products play a fundamental role in nonrandom fragmentation and carbonyl group formation particularly for LYSO and G6PD. These data point to a complex mechanism of peroxyl-radical mediated modification of proteins with monomeric (LYSO), dimeric (G6PD), and multimeric (BLP) structural organization, which not only results in oxidation of protein side chains but also gives rise to radical-mediated protein cross-links and fragmentation, with Trp species being critical intermediates.

  17. Role of S114 in the NADH-induced conformational change and catalysis of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase from Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Hsun; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Hwang, Chi-Ching

    2009-10-01

    3alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of androsterone with NAD(+) to form androstanedione and NADH. In this study, we characterize the role of the conserved residue S114 in cofactor binding and catalysis, using site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, fluorescence quenching and anisotropy measurements. The catalytic efficiency of V/K(NADH)Et for wild-type and S114A is 1.5 x10(7) and 3.8 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, suggesting that NADH association to wild-type and S114A mutant enzymes involves two steps, a bimolecular binding step and isomerization. The binding of NADH into a hydrophobic pocket in the active site of wild-type and S114A mutant enzymes restricts its motion and shields the fluorescence quenching from solvent, with an increase in the fluorescence intensity and a blue shift at the maximum wavelength. Furthermore, the binding of NADH leads to the protein fluorescence quenching, mainly due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer to NADH. S114A mutant enzyme decreases 3100-fold in V/Et with no apparent change in K(m) for substrates. Addition of NADH to S114A mutant enzyme induces a secondary structural change. These results suggest that S114 is important to maintain the correct conformation for the nucleotide binding and facilitate the reaction. Substitution of alanine for S114 eliminates the hydrogen bonding interaction with P185, causing a conformational change in a nonproductive binding of NADH and a significant loss of activity.

  18. Daidzin: a potent, selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-02-15

    Human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-I) is potently, reversibly, and selectively inhibited by an isoflavone isolated from Radix puerariae and identified as daidzin, the 7-glucoside of 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone. Kinetic analysis with formaldehyde as substrate reveals that daidzin inhibits ALDH-I competitively with respect to formaldehyde with a Ki of 40 nM, and uncompetitively with respect to the coenzyme NAD+. The human cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme (ALDH-II) is nearly 3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to daidzin inhibition. Daidzin does not inhibit human class I, II, or III alcohol dehydrogenases, nor does it have any significant effect on biological systems that are known to be affected by other isoflavones. Among more than 40 structurally related compounds surveyed, 12 inhibit ALDH-I, but only prunetin and 5-hydroxydaidzin (genistin) combine high selectivity and potency, although they are 7- to 15-fold less potent than daidzin. Structure-function relationships have established a basis for the design and synthesis of additional ALDH inhibitors that could both be yet more potent and specific.

  19. Characterization of succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, S; Panten, U

    1983-12-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase activities in homogenates of rat and ob/ob mouse pancreatic islets were only 13% of the activities in homogenates of liver and were also several times lower than in homogenates of pancreatic acinar tissue. This indicates that the content of mitochondria in pancreatic islet cells is very low. The very low activity of succinate dehydrogenase is in agreement with the low mitochondrial volume in the cytoplasmic ground substance of pancreatic islet cells as observed in morphometric studies. This may represent the poor equipment of pancreatic islet cells with electron transport chains and thus provide a regulatory role for the generation of reducing equivalents and chemical energy for the regulation of insulin secretion. The activities of succinate dehydrogenase in tissue homogenates of pancreatic islets, pancreatic acinar tissue, and liver were significantly inhibited by malonate and diazoxide but not by glucose, mannoheptulose, streptozotocin, or verapamil. Tolbutamide inhibited only pancreatic islet succinate dehydrogenase significantly, providing evidence for a different behavior of pancreatic islet cell mitochondria. Therefore diazoxide and tolbutamide may affect pancreatic islet function through their effects on succinate dehydrogenase activity. The activities of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in homogenates of pancreatic islets and liver from rats and ob/ob mice were in the same range, while activities in homogenates of pancreatic acinar tissue were lower. None of the test agents affected alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity. Thus the results provide no support for the recent contention that alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity may be critical for the regulation of insulin secretion.

  20. The effect of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst MnTBAP on aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 nitration by organic nitrates: role in nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Muscoli, Carolina; Dagostino, Concetta; Giancotti, Luigino Antonio; Gliozzi, Micaela; Sacco, Iolanda; Visalli, Valeria; Gratteri, Santo; Palma, Ernesto; Malara, Natalia; Musolino, Vincenzo; Carresi, Cristina; Muscoli, Saverio; Vitale, Cristiana; Salvemini, Daniela; Romeo, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Bioconversion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) into nitric oxide (NO) by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) is a crucial mechanism which drives vasodilatory and antiplatelet effect of organic nitrates in vitro and in vivo. Oxidative stress generated by overproduction of free radical species, mostly superoxide anions and NO-derived peroxynitrite, has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of nitrate tolerance, though the mechanism still remains unclear. Here we studied the free radical-dependent impairment of ALDH-2 in platelets as well as vascular tissues undergoing organic nitrate ester tolerance and potential benefit when using the selective peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Mn(III) tetrakis (4-Benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP). Washed human platelets were made tolerant to nitrates via incubation with GTN for 4h. This was expressed by attenuation of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin (40U/mL), an effect accompanied by GTN-related induction of cGMP levels in platelets undergoing thrombin-induced aggregation. Both effects were associated to attenuated GTN-induced nitrite formation in platelets supernatants and to prominent nitration of ALDH-2, the GTN to NO metabolizing enzyme, suggesting that GTN tolerance was associated to reduced NO formation via impairment of ALDH-2. These effects were all antagonized by co-incubation of platelets with MnTBAP, which restored GTN-induced responses in tolerant platelets. Comparable effect was found under in in vivo settings. Indeed, MnTBAP (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly restored the hypotensive effect of bolus injection of GTN in rats made tolerants to organic nitrates via chronic administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN), thus confirming the role of peroxynitrite overproduction in the development of tolerance to vascular responses induced by organic nitrates. In conclusion, oxidative stress subsequent to prolonged use of organic nitrates, which occurs via nitration of ALDH-2, represents a key event

  1. Formaldehyde, aspartame, and migraines: a possible connection.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Stechschulte, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener that has been linked to pediatric and adolescent migraines. Upon ingestion, aspartame is broken, converted, and oxidized into formaldehyde in various tissues. We present the first case series of aspartame-associated migraines related to clinically relevant positive reactions to formaldehyde on patch testing.

  2. Mechanistic study on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Younes, M; Pentz, R; Kühnel, W

    1989-01-01

    In isolated, hemoglobin-free perfused livers of fasted rats, formaldehyde at an initial concentration of 10 mmol/l produced toxicity as evidenced by a release of enzymes (GPT, SDH) and of glutathione (mainly GSSG) into the perfusate, an accumulation of calcium in the liver, and a depletion of hepatic glutathione. Formaldehyde also led to an enhanced release of malondialdehyde into the perfusate, indicating peroxidative processes and decreased hepatic oxygen consumption by about 50-70%. The electron microscopic investigation of formaldehyde-exposed livers showed a destruction of the mitochondria (ruptured membranes, loss of the cristae) and some damage of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Feeding the rats prior to surgery attenuated the hepatotoxic effects of 10 mmol/l formaldehyde. At an initial concentration of 3 mmol/l, formaldehyde did not release enzymes from livers of fed or fasted rats but only from those whose glutathione content had been depleted by treatment with phorone (250 mg/kg ip 2 h earlier). Formaldehyde liberated glucose and lactate from the livers of fed but not from those of fasted rats, indicating anaerobic energy supply in the fed state. The hepatotoxic action of formaldehyde is not due to its metabolism to formate or to the 10% methanol added as a stabilizing agent to the commercially available 37% solution named formalin. In conclusion, by destruction of mitochondria, formaldehyde inhibits aerobic energy supply and thereby presumably produces hepatocellular damage.

  3. Formaldehyde concentrations in biology department teaching facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Korky, J.K.; Schwarz, S.R.; Lustigman, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    As students and faculty in the biological sciences can attest, low grade exposure to formaldehyde by skin contact and inhalation during dissection is quite irritating. Health effects noted upon exposure to formaldehyde at concentrations of 0.1 to 5 ppm are burning of the eyes, lacrimation, and general irritation to the upper respiratory passages. Symptoms reported for higher exposures, 10 to 20 ppm, include coughing, tightening of the chest, headache and palpitation of the heart. Long exposures at 50 to 100 ppm or more might result in pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and even death. There is also concern with regard to potential long term detrimental effects. Formaldehyde has been cited as a possible carcinogen in animals. It is a known mutagen in laboratory experimental systems involving Drosophilia, grasshoppers, flowering plants, fungi and bacteria. Animal testing has led investigators to postulate that the primary damage resulting from formaldehyde exposure may involve DNA synthesis and ribosomal RNA transcription. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (NIOSH) investigators have been studying occupational exposure to formaldehyde for over a decade in a variety of industries. This study was undertaken to assess formaldehyde concentrations in biology department dissecting facilities in the 1982-1983 academic year in order if routine dissection produces levels of formaldehyde which were unsafe according to NIOSH and OSHA standards. Chronic formaldehyde exposure is cause for greater concern than incidental exposure.

  4. Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

    1988-04-01

    We have measured formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) absorption toward the HII region complex W51A (G49.5-0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions with angular resolution of approximately 4 inch. The continuum HII region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. We observe no H{sub 2}CO emission in regions of low continuum intensity. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping than previous maps at lower resolution. The good S/N of the maps allows accurate estimation of the complicated line profiles, showing some of the absorbing clouds to be quite patchy. We list the properties of the opacity spectra for a number of positions both in the clumps and in the more diffuse regions of the absorbing clouds, and derive column densities for the 1{sub 11} and 2{sub 12} rotational levels of ortho-formaldehyde.

  5. Use of LC-MS/MS and stable isotopes to differentiate hydroxymethyl and methyl DNA adducts from formaldehyde and nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Craft, Sessaly; Nakamura, Jun; Moeller, Benjamin C; Swenberg, James A

    2012-03-19

    Formaldehyde is a known human and animal carcinogen that forms DNA adducts, and causes mutations. While there is widespread exposure to formaldehyde in the environment, formaldehyde is also an essential biochemical in all living cells. The presence of both endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde makes it difficult to develop exposure-specific DNA biomarkers. Furthermore, chemicals such as nitrosodimethylamine form one mole of formaldehyde for every mole of methylating agent, raising questions about potential cocarcinogenesis. Formaldehyde-induced hydroxymethyl DNA adducts are not stable and need to be reduced to stable methyl adducts for detection, which adds another layer of complexity to identifying the origins of these adducts. In this study, highly sensitive mass spectrometry methods and isotope labeled compounds were used to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous hydroxymethyl and methyl DNA adducts. We demonstrate that N(2)-hydroxymethyl-dG is the primary DNA adduct formed in cells following formaldehyde exposure. In addition, we show that alkylating agents induce methyl adducts at N(2)-dG and N(6)-dA positions, which are identical to the reduced forms of hydroxymethyl adducts arising from formaldehyde. The use of highly sensitive LC-MS/MS and isotope labeled compounds for exposure solves these challenges and provides mechanistic insights on the formation and role of these DNA adducts.

  6. Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    1996-10-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Inhalation) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing the risks from chronic inhalation exposure to formaldehyde. To facilitate discussion of several scientific issues pertinent to the assessment, EPA convened a state-of-the-science workshop on April 30 and May 1, 2014. This workshop focused on the following three themes: Evidence pertaining to the influence of formaldehyde that is produced endogenously (by the body during normal biological processes) on the toxicity of inhaled formaldehyde, and implications for the health assessment; Mechanistic evidence relevant to formaldehyde inhalation exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas); and Epidemiological research examining the potential association between formaldehyde exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas). June 2010: EPA is conducting an independent expert peer review by the National Academy of Sciences and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Formaldehyde-Inhalation that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that may result from chronic inhal

  8. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  9. Mechanistic study on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Strubelt, O.; Younes, M.; Pentz, R.; Kuehnel, W. )

    1989-01-01

    In isolated, hemoglobin-free perfused livers of fasted rats, formaldehyde at an initial concentration of 10 mmol/l produced toxicity as evidenced by a release of enzymes (GPT, SDH) and of glutathione (mainly GSSG) into the perfusate, an accumulation of calcium in the liver, and a depletion of hepatic glatathione. Formaldehyde also led to an enhanced release of malondialdehyde into the perfusate, indicating peroxidative processes and decreased hepatic oxygen consumption by about 50-70%. The electron microscopic investigation of formaldehyde-exposed livers showed a destruction of the mitochondria (ruptured membranes, loss of the cristae) and some damage of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Feeding the rats prior to surgery attenuated the hepatotoxic effects of 10 mmol/l formaldehyde. At an initial concentration of 3 mmol/l, formaldehyde did not release enzymes from livers of fed or fasted rats but only from whose glutathione content had been depleted by treatment with phorone (250 mg/kg ip 2 h earlier). Formaldehyde liberated glucose and lactate from the livers of fed but not from those of fasted rats, indicating anaerobic energy supply in the fed state. The hepatotoxic action of formaldehyde is not due to its metabolism to formate or to the 10% methanol added as a stabilizing agent to the commercially available 37% solution named formalin.

  10. Toxic Neuronal Death by Glyeraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Mitochondria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Neuroreport, 10(5), 1149-1153. Sioud, M., & Jespersen, L. (1996). Enhancement of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...1996) Enhancemen t of hammerhead r ibozyme cata lysis by glycera ldehyde-3- phospha te dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol 257:775–789. Sirover MA (1997) Role of

  11. Urea formaldehyde foam: a dangerous insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Keough, C.

    1980-12-01

    Insulating a home with urea formaldehyde foam can lead to severe health problems due to poisoning from formaldehyde gas. Respiratory problems, allergies, memory loss, and mental problems can result from exposure to foam insulation fumes. Research is now under way at the Chemical Industry Inst., Univ. of Washington, and other institutions to learn more about the health effects of formaldehyde foam and to develop possible remedies to these problems. Several states are either banning or controlling the use of this type of home insulation.

  12. Hexapole transmission spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeterdink, W. G.; Bulthuis, J.; Lee, E. P. F.; Ding, D.; Taatjes, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    In this theoretical study we explore the feasibility to obtain molecular properties of the Criegee intermediate formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) with hexapole state selection. Ab-initio calculations yielding the rotational constants and dipole moments of formaldehyde oxide are used as input for the simulations. Subsequently the hexapole focusing spectra are simulated for the low field seeking states. The focusing curves are sensitive to the details of the dipole moment, suggesting that the hexapole can be a useful tool to study the molecular properties of formaldehyde oxide, or potentially to select CH2OO for molecular beam scattering or photodissociation measurements.

  13. Conversion and toxicity characteristics of formaldehyde in acetoclastic methanogenic sludge.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, G; Kleerebezem, R; Lettinga, G

    2002-08-05

    An unadapted mixed methanogenic sludge transformed formaldehyde into methanol and formate. The methanol to formate ratio obtained was 1:1. Formaldehyde conversion proceeded without any lag phase, suggesting the constitutive character of the formaldehyde conversion enzymes involved. Because the rate of formaldehyde conversion declined at increased formaldehyde additions, we hypothesized that some enzymes and/or cofactors might become denatured as a result of the excess of formaldehyde. Furthermore, formaldehyde was found to be toxic to acetoclastic methanogenesis in a dual character. Formaldehyde toxicity was partly reversible because once the formaldehyde concentration was extremely low or virtually removed from the system, the methane production rate was partially recovered. Because the degree of this recovery was not complete, we conclude that formaldehyde toxicity was partly irreversible as well. The irreversible toxicity likely can be attributed to biomass formaldehyde-related decay. Independent of the mode of formaldehyde addition (i.e., slug or continuous), the irreversible toxicity was dependent on the total amount of formaldehyde added to the system. This finding suggests that to treat formaldehyde-containing waste streams, a balance between formaldehyde-related decay and biomass growth should be attained.

  14. [Formaldehyde exposure and multiple chemical sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Kunugita, Naoki

    2003-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by various somatic symptoms which cannot be explained organically and by sensitivity to extremely low concentrations of chemicals including formaldehyde. In the absence of a widely accepted definition of MCS, contradictory etiological hypotheses and therapeutic suggestions are discussed. Formaldehyde is a flammable, colorless and readily polymerized gas at ambient temperature. It is present in the environment as a result of natural processes and from man-made sources, including motor vehicle exhaust, residues, emissions, or wastes produced during the manufacture of formaldehyde, and cigarette smoke. Formaldehyde exposure is considered to be one of the causes of MCS. This review describes the current knowledge about MCS and preventive measures of the administration.

  15. Contribution of formaldehyde to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, N; Levine, R J; Albert, R E; Blair, A E; Griesemer, R A; Landrigan, P J; Stayner, L T; Swenberg, J A

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the available data on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde from experimental and epidemiologic studies and makes recommendations for further research. Two definitive chronic inhalation bioassays on rodents have demonstrated that formaldehyde produces nasal cancer in rats and mice at 14 ppm and in rats at 6 ppm, which is within the domain of present permissible human exposure (8-hr time-weighted average of 3 ppm, a 5 ppm ceiling, and a 10 ppm short-term exposure limit). Biochemical and physiologic studies in rats have shown that inhaled formaldehyde can depress respiration, inhibit mucociliary clearance, stimulate cell proliferation, and crosslink DNA and protein in the nasal mucosa. No deaths from nasal cancer have been reported in epidemiologic studies of cohorts exposed to formaldehyde, but three case-control studies suggest the possibility of increased risk. Although excesses of lung cancer deaths have been observed in some studies at industrial plants with formaldehyde exposure, uncertainties in interpretation limit the evaluation of these findings. Excess cancers of the brain and of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues have been reported in certain studies of industrial groups and in most studies of formaldehyde-exposed professionals, but whether these excesses are related to formaldehyde exposure is not known. Several properties of formaldehyde pose unique problems for future research: the mechanisms responsible for its nonlinear response; its probable mechanism of carcinogenic action as a cross-linking agent; its formation in tissues as a normal metabolite; its possible action as a promoter and/or a cocarcinogen; and the importance of glutathione as a host defense at low exposure. PMID:3830109

  16. The synthesis of ethylene glycol from formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneeva, G. A.; Loktev, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    The literature and patent data on the hydroformylation of formaldehyde to glycolaldehyde — an intermediate in the synthesis of ethylene glycol — are surveyed. The principal types of catalytic systems based on rhodium and cobalt carbonyl complexes and the characteristic features of the reaction are examined and compared with the hydroformylation of olefins. The reaction mechanism is discussed in the light of the reactions of the formaldehyde complexes of transition metals. The bibliography includes 116 references.

  17. Structure of Burkholderia cepacia UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase (UGD) BceC and Role of Tyr10 in Final Hydrolysis of UGD Thioester Intermediate ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana; Popescu, Alma O.; Borges, Patrícia; Mil-Homens, Dalila; Moreira, Leonilde M.; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Fialho, Arsénio M.; Frazão, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) are serious respiratory pathogens in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). They are exceptionally resistant to many antimicrobial agents and have the capacity to spread between patients, leading to a decline in lung function and necrotizing pneumonia. BCC members often express a mucoid phenotype associated with the secretion of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) cepacian. There is much evidence supporting the fact that cepacian is a major virulence factor of BCC. UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGD) is responsible for the NAD-dependent 2-fold oxidation of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) to UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA), which is a key step in cepacian biosynthesis. Here, we report the structure of BceC, determined at 1.75-Å resolution. Mutagenic studies were performed on the active sites of UGDs, and together with the crystallographic structures, they elucidate the molecular mechanism of this family of sugar nucleotide-modifying enzymes. Superposition with the structures of human and other bacterial UGDs showed an active site with high structural homology. This family contains a strictly conserved tyrosine residue (Y10 in BceC; shown in italics) within the glycine-rich motif (GXGYXG) of its N-terminal Rossmann-like domain. We constructed several BceC Y10 mutants, revealing only residual dehydrogenase activity and thus highlighting the importance of this conserved residue in the catalytic activity of BceC. Based on the literature of the UGD/GMD nucleotide sugar 6-dehydrogenase family and the kinetic and structural data we obtained for BceC, we determined Y10 as a key catalytic residue in a UGD rate-determining step, the final hydrolysis of the enzymatic thioester intermediate. PMID:21602353

  18. Report on the consensus workshop on formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.; Hart, R.; Karrh, B.W.; Koestner, A.; Neal, R.; Parkinson, D.; Perera, F.; Powell, K.E.; Rosenkranz, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde consisted of bringing together scientists from academia, government, industry and public interest groups to address some important toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. The participants in the workshop, the Executive Panel which coordinated the meeting, and the questions posed, all were chosen through a broadly based nomination process in order to achieve as comprehensive a consensus as possible. The subcommittees considered the toxicological problems associated with formaldehyde in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, carcinogenicity/histology/genotoxicity, immunology/sensitization/irritation, structure activity/biochemistry metabolism, reproduction/teratology, behavior/neurotoxicity/psychology and risk estimation. Some questions considered included the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, as well as other human health effects, and the interpretation of pathology induced by formaldehyde. These reports, plus introductory material on the procedures used in setting up the Consensus Workshop are presented here. Additionally, there is included a listing of the data base that was made available to the panel chairmen prior to the meeting and was readily accessible to the participants during their deliberations in the meeting. This data base, since it was computerized, was also capable of being searched for important terms. These materials were supplemented by information brought by the panelists. The workshop has defined the consensus concerning a number of major points in formaldehyde toxicology and has identified a number of major deficits in understanding which are important guides to future research. 264 references.

  19. Report on the Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde consisted of bringing together scientists from academia, government, industry and public interest groups to address some important toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. The participants in the workshop, the Executive Panel which coordinated the meeting, and the questions posed, all were chosen through a broadly based nomination process in order to achieve as comprehensive a consensus as possible. The subcommittees considered the toxicological problems associated with formaldehyde in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, carcinogenicity/histology/genotoxicity, immunology/sensitization/irritation, structure activity/biochemistry/metabolism, reproduction/teratology, behavior/neurotoxicity/psychology and risk estimation. Some questions considered included the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, as well as other human health effects, and the interpretation of pathology induced by formaldehyde. These reports, plus introductory material on the procedures used in setting up the Consensus Workshop are presented here. Additionally, there is included a listing of the data base that was made available to the panel chairmen prior to the meeting and was readily accessible to the participants during their deliberations in the meeting. This data base, since it was computerized, was also capable of being searched for important terms. These materials were supplemented by information brought by the panelists. The workshop has defined the consensus concerning a number of major points in formaldehyde toxicology and has identified a number of major deficits in understanding which are important guides to future research. PMID:6525992

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 42. Read More Enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Hemoglobin Review Date 2/11/2016 Updated by: ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics G6PD Deficiency Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  1. Role of the complex upstream region of the GDH2 gene in nitrogen regulation of the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the upstream region of the GDH2 gene, which encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for elements important for the regulation of the gene by the nitrogen source. The levels of this enzyme are high in cells grown with glutamate as the sole source of nitrogen and low in cells grown with glutamine or ammonium. We found that this regulation occurs at the level of transcription and that a total of six sites are required to cause a CYC1-lacZ fusion to the GDH2 gene to be regulated in the same manner as the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase. Two sites behaved as upstream activation sites (UASs). The remaining four sites were found to block the effects of the two UASs in such a way that the GDH2-CYC1-lacZ fusion was not expressed unless the cells containing it were grown under conditions favorable for the activity of both UASs. This complex regulatory system appears to account for the fact that GDH2 expression is exquisitely sensitive to glutamine, whereas the expression of GLN1, coding for glutamine synthetase, is not nearly as sensitive. Images PMID:1682801

  2. Solubilization, partial purification and properties of N-methylglutamate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aminovorans.

    PubMed Central

    Bamforth, C W; Large, P J

    1977-01-01

    1. Extracts of amine-grown Pseudomonas aminovorans contained a particle-bound N-methylglutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.5). The enzyme was not present in succinate-grown cells, and activity appeared before growth began in succinate-grown cells which had been transferred to methylamine growth medium. 2. Membrane-containing preparations from methylamine-grown cells catalysed an N-methylglutamate-dependent uptake of O2 or reduction of cytochrome c, which was sensitive to inhibitors of the electron-transport chain. 3. N-Methylglutamate dehydrogenase activity with phenazine methosulphate or 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol as electron acceptor could be solubilized with 1% (w/v) Triton X-100. The solubilized enzyme was much less active with cytochrome c as electron acceptor and did not sediment in 1 h at 150000g. Solubilization was accompanied by a change in the pH optimum for activity. 4. The solubilized enzyme was partially purified by Sepharose 4B and hydroxyapatite chromatograpy to yield a preparation 22-fold increased in specific activity over the crude extract. 5. The partially-purified enzyme was active with sarcosine, N-methylalanine and N-methylaspartate as well as with N-methylglutamate. Evidence suggesting activity with N-methyl D-amino acids as well as with the L-forms was obtained. 6. The enzyme was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, iodoacetamide and by both ionic and non-ionic detergents. 2-Oxoglutarate and formaldehyde were also inhibitors. 7. Kinetic analysis confirmed previous workers' observations of a group transfer (Ping Pong) mechanism. 8. Spectral observations suggested that the partially purified preparation contained flavoprotein and a b-type cytochrome. 9. The role of the enzyme in the oxidation of methylamine is discussed. PMID:15545

  3. Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (<100 μM) formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

  4. Formaldehyde As A Tracer of Photooxidation In The Troposphere: The Format Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, G.; Pundt, I.; Junkermann, W.; Wittrock, F.; Prevot, A.; Sundet, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Larsen, B.; Neininger, B.; Astorga-Llorens, C.

    Scientific objectives and approach Formaldehyde is a good indicator for photochemical smog. It is therefore important that we are able to measure this compound in an accurate way. The single most im- portant objective of the FORMAT project is to improve the measurement techniques that are used to measure this compound. More specifically the objectives are: 1. To intercompare the various techniques for measurement of atmospheric formalde- hyde, 2. To obtain a better knowledge of the concentrations and distribution of formaldehyde in the troposphere over Europe and globally, 3. To validate satellite measurements (GOME, SCIAMACHY) of formaldehyde, 4. To compare measured and modelled formaldehyde, 5. To use this improved knowledge to strengthen the capability of atmospheric chem- istry models to calculate formaldehyde and thereby predict smog episodes in Europe, 6. To use global models together with satellite measurements to obtain a better knowl- edge of the global distribution and role of HCHO as a tracer of fossil fuel and biomass burning, 7. To assess the socio-economic impact of knowledge gained through the project Expected impacts The project will lead to a better overview of the formaldehyde distribution both re- gionally in the Po valley (chosen as a typical polluted area) and on a global scale through analysis of satellite data. This will again give us better insight in the extent of fossil fuel and biomass burning, both in Europe and globally. The various methods for measuring formaldehyde will be intercompared, and it is the aim to arrive at a better agreement between the various techniques. Atmospheric chemistry models will be compared to field measurements. It is the aim that the tools used to warn authorities and the public in the case of smog episodes will be improved.

  5. Health effects of urea formaldehyde foam insulation: evidence of causation.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, G R; Newhouse, M T

    1986-01-01

    Studies of health effects of urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) were critically reviewed by means of accepted rules for evidence of causation. Three categories of health effects were examined: reported symptoms, primarily of the upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract disease and cancer. Most of the studies purporting to demonstrate health effects of UFFI failed to meet minimal methodologic criteria for evidence of causation. Evidence from the adequate studies provides little support for the hypothesis of a causative role of UFFI in health problems. PMID:3512066

  6. TGL-mediated lipolysis in Manduca sexta fat body: possible roles for lipoamide-dehydrogenase (LipDH) and high-density lipophorin (HDLp)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zengying; Soulages, Jose L; Joshi, Bharat D.; Daniel, Stuart M.; Hager, Zachary J.; Arrese, Estela L

    2014-01-01

    Triglyceride-lipase (TGL) is a major fat body lipase in Manduca sexta. The knowledge of how TGL activity is regulated is very limited. A WWE domain, presumably involved in protein-protein interactions, has been previously identified in the N-terminal region of TGL. In this study, we searched for proteins partners that interact with the N-terminal region of TGL. Thirteen proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and the interaction with four of these proteins was confirmed by immunoblot. The oxidoreductase lipoamide-dehydrogenase (LipDH) and the apolipoprotein components of the lipid transporter, HDLp, were among these proteins. LipDH is the common component of the mitochondrial α-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes whereas HDLp occurs in the hemolymph. However, subcellular fractionation demonstrated that these two proteins are relatively abundant in the soluble fraction of fat body adipocytes. The cofactor lipoate found in typical LipDH substrates was not detected in TGL. However, TGL proved to have critical thiol groups. Additional studies with inhibitors are consistent with the notion that LipDH acting as a diaphorase could preserve the activity of TGL by controlling the redox state of thiol groups. On the other hand, when TG hydrolase activity of TGL was assayed in the presence of HDLp, the production of diacylglycerol (DG) increased. TGL-HDLp interaction could drive the intracellular transport of DG. TGL may be directly involved in the lipoprotein assembly and loading with DG, a process that occurs in the fat body and is essential for insects to mobilize fatty acids. Overall the study suggests that TGL occurs as a multi-protein complex supported by interactions through the WWE domain. PMID:24333838

  7. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6.

  8. Characterization of the functional role of allosteric site residue Asp102 in the regulatory mechanism of human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malate dehydrogenase (malic enzyme).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hui-Chih; Kuo, Meng-Wei; Chang, Gu-Gang; Liu, Guang-Yaw

    2005-11-15

    Human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) (malic enzyme) can be specifically and allosterically activated by fumarate. X-ray crystal structures have revealed conformational changes in the enzyme in the absence and in the presence of fumarate. Previous studies have indicated that fumarate is bound to the allosteric pocket via Arg67 and Arg91. Mutation of these residues almost abolishes the activating effect of fumarate. However, these amino acid residues are conserved in some enzymes that are not activated by fumarate, suggesting that there may be additional factors controlling the activation mechanism. In the present study, we tried to delineate the detailed molecular mechanism of activation of the enzyme by fumarate. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace Asp102, which is one of the charged amino acids in the fumarate binding pocket and is not conserved in other decarboxylating malate dehydrogenases. In order to explore the charge effect of this residue, Asp102 was replaced by alanine, glutamate or lysine. Our experimental data clearly indicate the importance of Asp102 for activation by fumarate. Mutation of Asp102 to Ala or Lys significantly attenuated the activating effect of fumarate on the enzyme. Kinetic parameters indicate that the effect of fumarate was mainly to decrease the K(m) values for malate, Mg2+ and NAD+, but it did not notably elevate kcat. The apparent substrate K(m) values were reduced by increasing concentrations of fumarate. Furthermore, the greatest effect of fumarate activation was apparent at low malate, Mg2+ or NAD+ concentrations. The K(act) values were reduced with increasing concentrations of malate, Mg2+ and NAD+. The Asp102 mutants, however, are much less sensitive to regulation by fumarate. Mutation of Asp102 leads to the desensitization of the co-operative effect between fumarate and substrates of the enzyme.

  9. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and {open_quote}{open_quote}annihilation{close_quote}{close_quote} of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA {open_quote}{open_quote}trimers{close_quote}{close_quote} (i.e. C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 3} compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means {open_quote}{open_quote}achirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (a=CH{sub n}, n{ge}2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean {open_quote}{open_quote}prochirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (p=HC{asterisk}OM, M=H,C). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. 24 CFR 3280.309 - Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Notice Some of the building materials used in this home emit formaldehyde. Eye, nose, and throat... efficiency standards may allow formaldehyde and other contaminants to accumulate in the indoor...

  11. Production of Melamine-Formaldehyde PCM Microcapsules with Ammonia Scavenger used for Residual Formaldehyde Reduction.

    PubMed

    Sumiga, Boštjan; Knez, Emil; Vrtačnik, Margareta; Ferk-Savec, Vesna; Starešinič, Marica; Boh, Bojana

    2011-03-01

    Paraffinic phase change materials (PCM) were microencapsulated by in situ polymerization of melamine-formaldehyde prepolymers. Partly methylated trimethylolmelamine was used as an aminoaldehyde prepolymer for the microcapsule wall, a styrene-maleic acid anhydride copolymer as an emulsifier and modifying agent, and ammonia as a scavenger for reducing residual formaldehyde. For the determination of residual formaldehyde in a ppm concentration range, EDANA and malachite green analytical methods were studied, and the EDANA 210.1-99 was applied for the determination of residual formaldehyde in 25 samples of microcapsules, produced in a 200-L reactor. A linear correlation was observed between the added ammonia scavenger concentration and the reduction of residual formaldehyde concentration. Compared with 0.45% (4500 ppm) formaldehyde in a non-treated microcapsule suspension, with ammonia scavenger concentrations 0.80, 0.90 and 1.35%, the concentration of residual formaldehyde dropped to 0.27, 0.20 and 0.09% (i.e. 2700, 2000 and 900 ppm), respectively. Morphological characterisation of microcapsules by SEM and microcapsule wall permeability measurements by gravimetry / mass loss at an elevated temperature (135 °C) suggested that ammonia positively contributed to the wall elasticity / durability, while microcapsules with no ammonia scavenger added tended to have more brittle walls, and were more prone to cracking.

  12. Evaluation of formaldehyde emission from test panels of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    One important potential source of formaldehyde in the home is urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI). Measurements of the formaldehyde emission from test panels simulating a section of a house wall were made approximately 16 months after initial foaming. The test panels are approximately 16'' wide and 8' tall with a latex-painted gypsum board interior wall and an exterior wall consisting of cellulose sheathing with aluminum or cedar siding. Nine different commercially available foams were tested. Three types of measurements were conducted. The first type was designed to simulate the conditions in a corner room of a house with an air exchange rate of approximately 0.7 h/sup -1/. Clean air was flowed over the face of the interior wall and the emitted concentration of formaldehyde measured. Based on these measurements, projected room concentrations for the nine UFFI panels ranged from 0.03 to 0.4 ppM with an average of 0.13 +- 0.11 ppM. A second type of measurement was taken of air from within the foamed cavity. Formaldehyde concentrations of several ppM were observed. The final type of experiment simulated a near-zero air exchange rate. The test chambers were sealed and the formaldehyde concentration was allowed to equilibrate. The formaldehyde concentration measured ranged from 2.2 to 6.6 ppM. These concentrations could build up in poorly ventilated air volumes such as inside closets next to walls with UFFI.

  13. Mechanistic and dose considerations for supporting adverse pulmonary physiology in response to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Chad M. Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Grafstroem, Roland C.

    2008-12-15

    Induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma from formaldehyde inhalation exposure remains a debated and controversial issue. Yet, recent evidences on pulmonary biology and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of formaldehyde lend support for such adverse effects. Specifically, altered thiol biology from accelerated enzymatic reduction of the endogenous bronchodilator S-nitrosoglutathione and pulmonary inflammation from involvement of Th2-mediated immune responses might serve as key events and cooperate in airway pathophysiology. Understanding what role these mechanisms play in various species and lifestages (e.g., child vs. adult) could be crucial for making more meaningful inter- and intra-species dosimetric extrapolations in human health risk assessment.

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  15. Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindemir, U.; Topalian, Z.; Österlund, L.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 °C.

  16. Degradation of formaldehyde by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José Roberto; Farah, Carolina Rittes Turato; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Fadini, Pedro Sérgio

    2012-09-30

    The degradation of formaldehyde in an aqueous solution (400 mg L(-1)) was studied using photolysis, peroxidation and advanced oxidation processes (UV/H(2)O(2), Fenton and photo-Fenton). Photolysis was the only process tested that did not reduce formaldehyde concentration; however, only advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) significantly decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC). UV/H(2)O(2) and photo-Fenton AOPs were used to degrade formaldehyde at the highest concentrations (1200-12,000 mg L(-1)); the processes were able to reduce CH(2)O by 98% and DOC by 65%. Peroxidation with ultraviolet light (UV/H(2)O(2)) improved the efficiency of treatment of effluent from an anatomy laboratory. The effluent's CH(2)O content was reduced by 91%, DOC by 48%, COD by 46% and BOD by 53% in 420 min of testing.

  17. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with MBS scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, P.R.

    1998-12-31

    Sodium metabisulfite (MBS)-assisted water scrubbing was selected as the most cost-effective and reliable technology for removal of dilute formaldehyde emissions from a resin manufacturing plant. Dilute formaldehyde emission streams (e.g., from process hoods, sample hoods, and other miscellaneous captured sources) required treatment in order to meet the anticipated Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards and state air toxic requirements. Other conventional technologies (e.g., thermal oxidation, carbon adsorption, and biofiltration) were considered, but later discarded because they were cost prohibitive or technically impractical. Segregation of dilute volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from other more concentrated VOC and HAP emissions facilitated the use of technologies tailored to the characteristics of each stream type, and thereby provided significant cost savings. While past experience has shown that simple water scrubbing of dilute formaldehyde emissions would not meet generally accepted treatment performance (90+% control), removals in excess of 95% can be readily achieved with the addition of a reactant like MBS to the scrubbing liquor. MBS in solution reacts with formaldehyde absorbed by the scrubber water to form a bisulfite salt, rendering the reacted formaldehyde non-volatile. The reaction accelerates mass transfer of formaldehyde into the scrubbing liquid, thereby decreasing the size and cost of emission control equipment. Design of such systems should also consider the chemistry of the make-up water (and scrubber water) used in the process. Recirculating water scrubbers can be susceptible to carbonate scaling and other inorganic fouling experienced in similar water treatment systems (e.g., air strippers). The addition of salts to the recirculating scrubber solutions can be controlled to limit potential sulfur dioxide emissions and deposits.

  18. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content.

    PubMed

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J

    2013-01-01

    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals.

  19. 24 CFR 3280.309 - Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health Notice on formaldehyde... Construction Requirements § 3280.309 Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions. (a) Each manufactured home shall have a Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions prominently displayed in a temporary manner in...

  20. Developing a Reference Material for Formaldehyde Emissions Testing; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to formaldehyde has been shown to produce broad and potentially severe adverse human health effects. With ubiquitous formaldehyde sources in the indoor environment, formaldehyde concentrations in indoor air are usually higher than outdoors, ranging from 10 to 4000 μg/m3....

  1. Chemical Characterization of Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayden, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses tests of commercial phenol/formaldehyde resins to establish relationships among composition before use, behavior during curing, and strength after curing. Resin used in carbon/carbon laminates. In curing process, two molecules of phenol joined together in sequence of reactions involving molecule of formaldehyde. Last step of sequence, molecule of water released. Sequence repeats until one of ingredients used up, leaving solidified thermoset plastic. Issues to be resolved: number and relative abundances of ingredients, presence of certain chemical groups, heat-producing ability of resin, and range of molecular weights present.

  2. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  3. Dissociation of formaldehyde in nanostructured carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Aaron; Santiso, Erik; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Gubbins, K. E.

    2004-11-01

    Chemical reactions are frequently carried out in nano-structured media, such as micellar or colloidal solutions, nano-porous media, hydrogels or organogels, or in systems involving nano-particles. Nanostructured environments have been shown to enhance reaction rates through a variety of catalytic effects, such as high surface area, interactions with the nano-structure or confinement. However, at present there is little understanding of the role of the nano-structured material in such reactions and the mechanisms involved are subject of ongoing scientific debate. In this work, we have used state-of-the-art electronic structure techniques to study the prototypical example of the reaction of formaldehyde dissociation (H_2CO arrow H2 + CO) within various configurations of a graphitic pore. Using the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method for transition states analysis, we have found that the activation en ergy of the dissociation can be influenced by the presence of a graphitic pore. In particular, while a graphene surface reduces the activation barrier for the reaction, this catalytic effect is enhanced by the presence of two planar sheets, which mimic the geometry of a nano-pore. This can likewise induce a decrease of the activation energy, thus making the reaction more energetically favor able. The reaction activation energy has a dependence on the width of the pore (distance between sheets). A decrease is seen to a point of decreasing width, then a change in the favorable reaction path occurs. It is also found the presence of a vacancy can drastically change the reaction path. These conclusions will be discussed in terms of the charge transfer mechanism seen in the catalytic process.

  4. Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J; Bell, Ryan A V; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD(+), which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24 h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in V max (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves.

  5. Two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isogenes from Candida versatilis SN-18 play an important role in glycerol biosynthesis under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Daiki; Iwata, Hisashi; Ishimaki, Yuki; Ogihara, Jun; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2016-05-01

    Two isogenes of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) from Candida versatilis SN-18 were cloned and sequenced. These intronless genes (Cagpd1 and Cagpd2) were both predicted to encode a 378 amino acid polypeptide, and the deduced amino acid sequences mutually showed 76% identity. Interestingly, Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 were located tandemly in a locus of genomic DNA within a 262 bp interval. To our knowledge, this represents a novel instance of isogenic genes relating to glucose metabolism. The stress response element (STRE) was found respectively at -93 to -89 bp upstream of the 5'end of Cagpd1 and -707 to -703 bp upstream of Cagpd2, indicating that these genes are involved in osmotic stress response. In heterologous expression using a gpd1Δgpd2Δ double deletion mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 transformants complemented the function of GPD, with Cagpd2 being much more effective than Cagpd1 in promoting growth and glycerol synthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that Cagpd1p and Cagpd2p are NADP(+)-dependent GPDs (EC 1.1.1.94). However, crude enzyme extract from Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 transformants showed GPD activity with only NAD(+) as cofactor. Hence, both Cagpd1p and Cagpd2p are likely NAD(+)-dependent GPDs (EC 1.1.1.8), similar to GPDs from S. cerevisiae and Candida magnoliae.

  6. Stable Suppression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity during Anoxia in the Foot Muscle of Littorina littorea and the Potential Role of Acetylation as a Novel Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Ali; Dawson, Neal J.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The intertidal marine snail, Littorina littorea, has evolved to withstand extended bouts of oxygen deprivation brought about by changing tides or other potentially harmful environmental conditions. Survival is dependent on a strong suppression of its metabolic rate and a drastic reorganization of its cellular biochemistry in order to maintain energy balance under fixed fuel reserves. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a crucial enzyme of anaerobic metabolism as it is typically responsible for the regeneration of NAD+, which allows for the continued functioning of glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. This study compared the kinetic and structural characteristics of the D-lactate specific LDH (E.C. 1.1.1.28) from foot muscle of aerobic control versus 24 h anoxia-exposed L. littorea. Anoxic LDH displayed a near 50% decrease in Vmax (pyruvate-reducing direction) as compared to control LDH. These kinetic differences suggest that there may be a stable modification and regulation of LDH during anoxia, and indeed, subsequent dot-blot analyses identified anoxic LDH as being significantly less acetylated than the corresponding control enzyme. Therefore, acetylation may be the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the suppression of LDH activity during anoxia, which could allow for the production of alternative glycolytic end products that in turn would increase the ATP yield under fixed fuel reserves. PMID:24233354

  7. 78 FR 44090 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... CONTACT. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 770 Environmental protection, Composite wood products... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

  8. Unusual formaldehyde-induced hypersensitivity in two schoolgirls

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B. ); Hanna, W.T.; Painter, P.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Two schoolgirls developed a syndrome resembling Henoch-Schonlein purpura while attending a recently opened school insulated with urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI). Skin rashes and swellings were accompanied by bizarre, blue-green discoloration of the skin. Subsequent investigations by county, state and federal authorities, and low measured concentrations of formaldehyde, prompted initial conclusions that in-school formaldehyde exposures were not responsible for the girls' problems. Subsequent controlled exposures to UFFI and formaldehyde while in hospital elicited the whole cascade of symptoms. The chronology of the onset and amplification of systems make it probable that the formaldehyde exposures precipitating the girls' hypersensitivity, occurred in the school. 3 refs.

  9. Gypsum Wallboard as a sink for formaldehyde

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been of special concern as an indoor air pollutant because of its presence in a wide range of consumer products and its adverse health effects. Materials acting as HCHO sinks, such as painted gypsum wallboard, can become emission sources. However, adsorpti...

  10. Electrospinning formaldehyde cross-linked zein solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop zein fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance, formaldehyde was used as the cross-linking reagent before spinning. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in either acetic acid or ethanolic-HCl where the amount of cross-linking reagent was between 1 and...

  11. Formaldehyde and hydroperoxides at Mauna Loa Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikes, Brian G.

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and a measure of organic hydroperoxides are presented. Modifications are described for the dual-enzyme H2O2 technique. These modifications facilitate the quantification of soluble ROOH and H2O2, the analysis of O3-H2O2 artifact, and catalase H2O2 residual.

  12. Edible carbohydrates from formaldehyde in a spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The autocatalytic nature of the base catalyzed condensation of formaldehyde to formose sugars is eliminated by using as a cocatalyst, an aldose, or ketose having an alpha-hydrogen. This is more strongly complexed by base than is formaldehyde and the cocatalyst and sugar products accumulate as catalyst complexes instead of formaldehyde. Because of the presence of alpha-hydrogen atoms in cocatalysts and formose sugars, their removal by cross Cannizzaro reaction of complexed sugars does not occur, so the formose reaction behaves autocatalytically due to this accumulation. It is believed that a given catalytic formose complex is not a discrete complexed sugar, but rather, a scrambled dynamic mixture of sugars having weakened structures. The sugar complexes derive from a common salt-like formaldehyde complex, which, because of the absence of alpha-hydrogen, has a greater tendency to undergo Cannizzaro reaction, rather than formose condensation. Because of this, the Cannizzaro reaction can proceed without measurable formose condensation. The reverse is not possible.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... examination with emphasis on evidence of irritation or sensitization of the skin and respiratory system... symptoms of respiratory or dermal conditions associated with formaldehyde exposure, the employer shall... CAUSES SKIN, EYE, AND RESPIRATORY IRRITATION AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii) Prior to June 1,...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... examination with emphasis on evidence of irritation or sensitization of the skin and respiratory system... symptoms of respiratory or dermal conditions associated with formaldehyde exposure, the employer shall... CAUSES SKIN, EYE, AND RESPIRATORY IRRITATION AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii) Prior to June 1,...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exposed to heat or flame. The flash point of 37% formaldehyde solutions is above normal room temperature...% Autoignition Temperature: 806 °F (430 °C) Flammability Class (OSHA): III A Extinguishing Media: Use dry... sound from venting safety device or any discoloration of storage tank due to fire. Spill, Leak,...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exposed to heat or flame. The flash point of 37% formaldehyde solutions is above normal room temperature...% Autoignition Temperature: 806 °F (430 °C) Flammability (OSHA): Category 4 flammable liquid Extinguishing Media... sound from venting safety device or any discoloration of storage tank due to fire. Spill, Leak,...

  17. Structural and functional consequences of coenzyme binding to the inactive asian variant of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: roles of residues 475 and 487.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heather N; Zhou, Jianzhong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Stamler, Jonathan S; Weiner, Henry; Hurley, Thomas D

    2007-04-27

    The common mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) ALDH2(*)2 polymorphism is associated with impaired ethanol metabolism and decreased efficacy of nitroglycerin treatment. These physiological effects are due to the substitution of Lys for Glu-487 that reduces the k(cat) for these processes and increases the K(m) for NAD(+), as compared with ALDH2. In this study, we sought to understand the nature of the interactions that give rise to the loss of structural integrity and low activity in ALDH2(*)2 even when complexed with coenzyme. Consequently, we have solved the crystal structure of ALDH2(*)2 complexed with coenzyme to 2.5A(.) We have also solved the structures of a mutated form of ALDH2 where Arg-475 is replaced by Gln (R475Q). The structural and functional properties of the R475Q enzyme are intermediate between those of wild-type and the ALDH2(*)2 enzymes. In both cases, the binding of coenzyme restores most of the structural deficits observed in the apoenzyme structures. The binding of coenzyme to the R475Q enzyme restores its structure and catalytic properties to near wild-type levels. In contrast, the disordered helix within the coenzyme binding pocket of ALDH2(*)2 is reordered, but the active site is only partially reordered. Consistent with the structural data, ALDH2(*)2 showed a concentration-dependent increase in esterase activity and nitroglycerin reductase activity upon addition of coenzyme, but the levels of activity do not approach those of the wild-type enzyme or that of the R475Q enzyme. The data presented shows that Glu-487 maintains a critical function in linking the structure of the coenzyme-binding site to that of the active site through its interactions with Arg-264 and Arg-475, and in doing so, creates the stable structural scaffold conducive to catalysis.

  18. Structural and Functional Consequences of Coenzyme Binding to the Inactive Asian Variant of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Roles of Residues 475 and 487

    SciTech Connect

    Larson,H.; Zhou, J.; Chen, Z.; Stamler, J.; Weiner, H.; Hurley, T.

    2007-01-01

    The common mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) ALDH2*2 polymorphism is associated with impaired ethanol metabolism and decreased efficacy of nitroglycerin treatment. These physiological effects are due to the substitution of Lys for Glu-487 that reduces the k{sub cat} for these processes and increases the K{sub m} for NAD{sup +}, as compared with ALDH2. In this study, we sought to understand the nature of the interactions that give rise to the loss of structural integrity and low activity in ALDH2*2 even when complexed with coenzyme. Consequently, we have solved the crystal structure of ALDH2*2 complexed with coenzyme to 2.5 {angstrom}. We have also solved the structures of a mutated form of ALDH2 where Arg-475 is replaced by Gln (R475Q). The structural and functional properties of the R475Q enzyme are intermediate between those of wild-type and the ALDH2*2 enzymes. In both cases, the binding of coenzyme restores most of the structural deficits observed in the apoenzyme structures. The binding of coenzyme to the R475Q enzyme restores its structure and catalytic properties to near wild-type levels. In contrast, the disordered helix within the coenzyme binding pocket of ALDH2*2 is reordered, but the active site is only partially reordered. Consistent with the structural data, ALDH2*2 showed a concentration-dependent increase in esterase activity and nitroglycerin reductase activity upon addition of coenzyme, but the levels of activity do not approach those of the wild-type enzyme or that of the R475Q enzyme. The data presented shows that Glu-487 maintains a critical function in linking the structure of the coenzyme binding site to that of the active site through its interactions with Arg-264 and Arg-475, and in doing so, creates the stable structural scaffold conducive to catalysis.

  19. Reversible phosphorylation regulation of NADPH-linked polyol dehydrogenase in the freeze-avoiding gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana: role in glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Holden, Helen A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2011-05-01

    Larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, use a freeze avoidance strategy of cold hardiness to survive the winter. A key metabolic adaption that supports subzero survival is the accumulation of large amounts of glycerol as a colligative antifreeze. Production of glycerol relies on polyol dehydrogenase (PDH) which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent conversion of glyceraldehyde into glycerol. Kinetic analysis of PDH from E. scudderiana revealed significant changes in properties as a result of subzero temperature acclimation; the K(m) for glyceraldehyde in 5°C-acclimated larvae was 7.0 mM and doubled in - 15°C-exposed larvae. This change suggested that PDH is regulated by a state-dependent covalent modification. Indeed, high and low K(m) forms could be interconverted by incubating larval extracts in vitro under conditions that stimulated either endogenous protein kinases or protein phosphatases. Protein kinase incubations doubled the K(m) glyceraldehyde of the 5°C enzyme, whereas protein phosphatase incubations decreased the K(m) of the - 15°C enzyme by about 50%. PDH was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography steps and then subjected to electrophoresis. Staining with ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein stain showed a much higher phosphate content of PDH from - 15°C-acclimated larvae, a result that was further confirmed by immunoblotting that showed a much greater phosphoserine content on the - 15°C enzyme. These experiments established that PDH is regulated by state-dependent reversible phosphorylation in E. scudderiana and suggest that this regulatory mechanism makes a significant contribution to controlling the synthesis, maintenance, and degradation of glycerol pools over the winter months.

  20. Prolactin receptor-associated protein/17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 gene (Hsd17b7) plays a crucial role in embryonic development and fetal survival.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Aurora; Mao, Jifang; Gibori, Gil B; Halperin, Julia; Le, Jamie; Devi, Y Sangeeta; Merrill, Bradley; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Gibori, Geula

    2008-10-01

    Our laboratory has previously cloned and purified a protein named PRAP (prolactin receptor-associated protein) that was shown to be a novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) enzyme with dual activity. This enzyme, renamed HSD17B7 or PRAP/17beta-HSD7, converts estrone to estradiol and is also involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. The major site of its expression is the corpus luteum of a great number of species including rodents and humans. To examine the functional significance of HSD17B7 in pregnancy, we generated a knockout mouse model with targeted deletions of exons 1-4 of this gene. We anticipated a mouse with a severe fertility defect due to its inability to regulate estrogen levels during pregnancy. The heterozygous mutant mice are normal in their development and gross anatomy. The females cycle normally, and both male and female are fertile with normal litter size. To our surprise, the breeding of heterozygous mice yielded no viable HSD17B7 null mice. However, we found HSD17B7 null embryo alive in utero on d 8.5 and d 9.5. By d 10.5, the fetuses grow and suffer from severe brain malformation and heart defect. Because the brain depends on in situ cholesterol biosynthesis for its development beginning at d 10, the major cause of fetal death appears to be due to the cholesterol synthetic activity of this enzyme. By ablating HSD17B7 function, we have uncovered, in vivo, an important requirement for this enzyme during fetal development.

  1. Stress-induced changes in glutamate dehydrogenase activity imply its role in adaptation to C and N metabolism in lupine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Skrok, Albert; Dabert, Mirosława

    2010-01-01

    The modifying effect of sucrose on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity and isoenzyme pattern was investigated in isolated embryos of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cultured in vitro in a medium with sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S) and exposed to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) stress. Sucrose starvation of lupine embryos led to a rapid increase in the specific activity of GDH, immunoreactive beta-polypeptide and it was accompanied by appearance of new cathodal isoforms of enzyme. This suggests that isoenzymes induced in lupine embryos by sucrose starvation combine into GDH hexamers with the predominance of beta-GDH subunits synthetized under GDH1 gene control. The addition of sucrose to the medium caused an opposite effect. Along with upregulation of catabolic activity of GDH by sucrose starvation, activity of proteolytic enzymes was also induced. These data can point to regulatory mechanism implying a sucrose dependent repression of the GDH1 gene according to the mechanism of catabolic repression. Treatment of embryos with Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) resulted in ammonium accumulation in the tissues, accompanied by an increase in anabolic activity of GDH and activity of anodal isoenzymes, in both (+S) and (-S) embryos without new de novo synthesis of alpha subunit proteins. Thus, GDH isoenzyme profiles may reflect the physiological function of GDH, which appears to be an important link of metabolic adaptation in cells, aimed at using carbon sources other than sugar during carbohydrate starvation (catabolic activity of GDH) and protecting plant tissues against ammonium accumulated because of heavy metal stress (anabolic activity of GDH).

  2. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  3. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde Over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette Elizabeth; Saint Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  4. Formaldehyde may be found in cosmetic products even when unlabelled

    PubMed Central

    Blaziene, Audra; Chomiciene, Anzelika; Isaksson, Marléne

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers remains common among patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Concentration of free formaldehyde in cosmetic products within allowed limits have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the formaldehyde content of cosmetic products made in Lithuania. 42 samples were analysed with the chromotropic acid (CA) method for semi-quantitative formaldehyde determination. These included 24 leave-on (e.g., creams, lotions) and 18 rinse-off (e.g., shampoos, soaps) products. Formaldehyde releasers were declared on the labels of 10 products. No formaldehyde releaser was declared on the label of the only face cream investigated, but levels of free formaldehyde with the CA method was >40 mg/ml and when analysed with a high-performance liquid chromatographic method – 532 ppm. According to the EU Cosmetic directive, if the concentration of formaldehyde is above 0.05% a cosmetic product must be labelled “contains formaldehyde“. It could be difficult for patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid contact with products containing it as its presence cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling with certainty. The CA method is a simple and reliable method for detecting formaldehyde presence in cosmetic products.

  5. Imaging DOAS detection of primary formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide emissions from petrochemical flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikelnaya, Olga; Flynn, James H.; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

    2013-08-01

    areas with a high number of petrochemical facilities are often struggling to meet current and future air quality standards. The Houston-Galveston area, for example, continues to be in noncompliance with the U.S. federal air quality standard of ozone, despite significant progress in mitigating air pollution. In recent years, the magnitude and role of primary emissions of ozone-forming chemicals, and in particular formaldehyde, from flares in petrochemical facilities have been discussed as a potential factor contributing to ozone formation. However, no direct observations of flare emissions of formaldehyde have thus far been reported. Here we present observations of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide emissions from petrochemical flares in the Houston-Galveston area during the 2009 Formaldehyde and Olefin from Large Industrial Sources campaign using a new imaging differential optical absorption spectrometer (I-DOAS). Formaldehyde emissions from burning flares were observed directly above the flare stack and ranged from 0.2 to 8.5 kg/h. Unlit flares were found not to emit formaldehyde. SO2 emission rates from a burning acid gas flare ranged between 2 and 4 kg/h. None of the sampled flares coemitted HCHO and SO2. Comparison of the emission fluxes measured by the I-DOAS instrument with those from emission inventories and with fluxes calculated from plumes detected by the long-path DOAS over downtown Houston shows that the flares observed by the I-DOAS were relatively small. While burning flares clearly emit HCHO, a larger observational database is needed to assess the importance of flare emissions for ozone formation.

  6. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.

  7. Characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Debaryomyces hansenii

    SciTech Connect

    Girio, F.M.; Amaral-Collaco, M.T.; Pelica, F.

    1996-01-01

    The xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) from xylose-grown cells of Debaryomyces hansenii was partially purified in two chromatographic steps, and characterization studies were carried out in order to investigate the role of the xylitol dehydrogenase-catalyzed step in the regulation of D-xylose metabolism. The enzyme was most active at pH 9.0-9.5, and exhibited a broad polyol specificity. The Michaelis constants for xylitol and NAD{sup +} were 16.5 and 0.55 mM, respectively. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} did not affect the enzyme activity. Conversely, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. It was concluded that NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase from D. hansenii has similarities with other xylose-fermenting yeasts in respect to optimal pH, substrate specificity, and K{sub m} value for xylitol, and therefore should be named L-iditol:NAD{sup +}-5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.14). The reason D. hansenii is a good xylitol producer is not because of its value of K for xylitol, which is low enough to assure its fast oxidation by NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase. However, a higher K{sub m} value of xylitol dehydrogenase for NAD{sup +} compared to the K{sub m} values of other xylose-fermenting yeasts may be responsible for the higher xylitol yields. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Formaldehyde decomposition and oxidation on Pt(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, G. A.; Ebert, H. D.; Parsons, R.

    1990-12-01

    The decomposition reactions of formaldehyde on clean and oxygen dosed Pt(110) have been studied by LEED, XPS and TPRS. Formaldehyde is adsorbed in two states, a monolayer phase and a multilayer phase which were distinguishable by both TPRS and XPS. The saturated monolayer (corresponding to 8.06 × 10 14 molecules cm -2) desorbed at 134 K and the multilayer phase (which could not be saturated) desorbed at 112 K. The only other reaction products observed at higher temperatures were CO and H 2 produced in desorption limited processes and these reached a maximum upon saturation of the formaldehyde monolayer. The desorption spectrum of hydrogen was found to be perturbed by the presence of CO as reported by Weinberg and coworkers. It is proposed that local lifting of the clean surface (1 × 2) reconstruction is responsible for this behaviour. Analysis of the TPRS and XPS peak areas demonstrated that on the clean surface approximately 50% of the adsorbed monolayer dissociated with the remainder desorbing intact. Reaction of formaldehyde with preadsorbed oxygen resulted in the formation of H 2O (hydroxyl recombination) and CO 2 (decomposition of formate) desorbing at 200 and 262 K, respectively. The CO and H 2 desorption peaks were both smaller relative to formaldehyde decomposition on the clean surface and in particular, H 2 desorbed in a reaction limited process associated with decomposition of the formate species. No evidence was found for methane or hydrocarbon evolution in the present study under any circumstances. The results of this investigation are discussed in the light of our earlier work on the decomposition of methanol on the same platinum surface.

  9. Fabricating polystyrene fiber-dehydrogenase assemble as a functional biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization of the enzymes on nano-structured materials is a promising approach to enhance enzyme stabilization, activation and reusability. This study aimed to develop polystyrene fiber-enzyme assembles to catalyze model formaldehyde to methanol dehydrogenation reaction, which is an essential step for bioconversion of CO2 to a renewable bioenergy. We fabricated and modified electrospun polystyrene fibers, which showed high capability to immobilize dehydrogenase for the fiber-enzyme assembles. Results from evaluation of biochemical activities of the fiber-enzyme assemble showed that nitriation with the nitric/sulfuric acid ratio (v/v, 10:1) and silanization treatment delivered desirable enzyme activity and long-term storage stability, showing great promising toward future large-scale applications.

  10. Microbial Oxidation of Methane and Methanol: Crystallization of Methanol Dehydrogenase and Properties of Holo- and Apo-Methanol Dehydrogenase from Methylomonas methanica

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramesh N.; Hou, Ching T.; Felix, Andre

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the purification and crystallization of methanol dehydrogenase from the soluble fraction of the type I obligate methylotroph Methylomonas methanica strain S1. The crystallized enzyme is homogeneous as judged by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. The enzyme had a high pH optimum (9.5) and required ammonium salt as an activator. In the presence of phenazine methosulfate as an electron acceptor, the enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of primary alcohols and formaldehyde. Secondary, tertiary, and aromatic alcohols were not oxidized. The molecular weight as well as subunit size of methanol dehydrogenase was 60,000, indicating that it is monomeric. The sedimentation constant (s20,w) was 3.1S. The amino acid composition of the crystallized enzyme is also presented. Antisera prepared against the crystalline enzyme were nonspecific; they cross-reacted with and inhibited the isofunctional enzyme from other obligate methylotrophic bacteria. The crystalline methanol dehydrogenase had an absorption peak at 350 nm in the visible region and weak fluorescence peaks at 440 and 470 nm due to the presence of a pteridine derivative as the prosthetic group. A procedure was developed for the preparation of apo-methanol dehydrogenase. The molecular weights, sedimentation constants, electrophoretic mobilities, and immunological properties of apo- and holo-methanol dehydrogenases are identical. Apo-methanol dehydrogenase lacked the absorption peak at 350 nm and the fluorescence peaks at 440 and 470 nm and was catalytically inactive. All attempts to reconstitute an active enzyme from apo-methanol dehydrogenase, using various pteridine derivatives, were unsuccessful. Images PMID:415046

  11. An S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase is involved in conidiation and full virulence in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jiaoyu; Chai, Rongyao; Qiu, Haiping; Jiang, Hua; Mao, Xueqin; Wang, Yanli; Liu, Fengquan; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes rice blast disease. A compatible interaction requires overcoming plant defense responses to initiate colonization during the early infection process. Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in defense responses during host-pathogen interactions. Microbes generally protect themselves against NO-induced damage by using enzymes. Here, we characterized an S-(hydroxymethyl)-glutathione dehydrogenase gene in M. oryzae, MoSFA1, the homologs of which are involved in NO metabolism by specifically catalyzing the reduction of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in yeasts and plants. As expected from the activities of S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase in formaldehyde detoxification and GSNO reduction, MoSFA1 deletion mutants were lethal in formaldehyde containing medium, sensitive to exogenous NO and exhibited a higher level of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) than that of the wild type. Notably, the mutants showed severe reduction of conidiation and appressoria turgor pressure, as well as significantly attenuated the virulence on rice cultivar CO-39. However, the virulence of MoSFA1 deletion mutants on wounded rice leaf was not affected. An infection assay on barley leaf further revealed that MoSFA1 deletion mutants exhibited a lower infection rate, and growth of infectious hyphae of the mutants was retarded not only in primary infected cells but also in expansion from cell to cell. Furthermore, barley leaf cell infected by MoSFA1 deletion mutants exhibited a stronger accumulation of H2O2 at 24 and 36 hpi. MoSFA1 deletion mutants displayed hypersensitivity to different oxidants, reduced activities of superoxide dismutases and peroxidases, and lower glutathione content in cells, compared with the wild type. These results imply that MoSFA1-mediated NO metabolism is important in redox homeostasis in response to development and host infection of M. oryzae. Taken together, this work identifies that MoSFA1 is required for

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... formaldehyde standard solution test should be carried out. 3.1Preparation and Standardization of a 1 Percent... for standardization of Formaldehyde Standard Solution). Quantitatively transfer, using distilled...

  13. A novel protective mechanism for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) in type i diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction: role of AMPK-regulated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuli; Yu, Wenjun; Sun, Dongdong; Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Congye; Zhang, Rongqing; Babcock, Sara A; Li, Yan; Liu, Min; Ma, Meijuan; Shen, Mingzhi; Zeng, Chao; Li, Na; He, Wei; Zou, Qian; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Haichang

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is known to offer myocardial protection against stress conditions including ischemia-reperfusion injury, alcoholism and diabetes mellitus although the precise mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on diabetes-induced myocardial injury with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 transgenic mice were challenged with streptozotozin (STZ, 200mg/kg, i.p.) for 3months to induce experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes triggered cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction as evidenced by cardiac hypertrophy, decreased cell shortening and prolonged relengthening duration, the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2. Lectin staining displayed that diabetes promoted cardiac hypertrophy, the effect of which was alleviated by ALDH2. Western blot analysis revealed dampened autophagy protein markers including LC3B ratio and Atg7 along with upregulated p62 following experimental diabetes, the effect of which was reconciled by ALDH2. Phosphorylation level of AMPK was decreased and its downstream signaling molecule FOXO3a was upregulated in both diabetic cardiac tissue and in H9C2 cells with high glucose exposure. All these effect were partly abolished by ALDH2 overexpression and ALDH2 agonist Alda1. High glucose challenge dampened autophagy in H9C2 cells as evidenced by enhanced p62 levels and decreased levels of Atg7 and LC3B, the effect of which was alleviated by the ALDH2 activator Alda-1. High glucose-induced cell death and apoptosis were reversed by Alda-1. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and the AMPK inhibitor compound C mitigated Alda-1-offered beneficial effect whereas the autophagy inducer rapamycin mimicked or exacerbated high glucose-induced cell injury. Moreover, compound C nullified Alda-1-induced protection against STZ-induced changes in autophagy and function. Our results suggested that ALDH2 protects against diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction possibly through an

  14. Cytokinins in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens: analyses of activity, distribution, and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase overexpression reveal the role of extracellular cytokinins.

    PubMed

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Núñez, Marta Fernández; Blaschke, Hanna; Dobrev, Petre I; Novák, Ondrej; Motyka, Václav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2007-11-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to establish the cytokinin profile of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G.; of 40 analyzed cytokinins, 20 were detected. cis-Zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside, N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenosine-5'-monophosphate (iPRMP), and trans-zeatin-riboside-O-glucoside were the most abundant intracellular cytokinins. In addition, the aromatic cytokinins N(6)-benzyladenosine (BAR), N(6)-benzyladenine, meta-, and ortho-topolin were detected. Unexpectedly, the most abundant extracellular cytokinin was the nucleotide iPRMP, and its identity was confirmed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The effects of overexpressing a heterologous cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX; EC 1.4.3.18/1.5.99.12) gene (AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) on the intracellular and extracellular distribution of cytokinins was assessed. In cultures of CKX-transformed plants, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurements showed that there were pronounced reductions in the extracellular concentrations of N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), but their intracellular cytokinin concentrations were only slightly affected. In vitro and in vivo measured CKX activity was shown to be strongly increased in the transformants. Major phenotypic changes observed in the CKX-overexpressing plants included reduced and retarded budding, absence of sexual reproduction, and abnormal protonema cells. In bud-induction bioassays with wild-type Physcomitrella, the nucleotides iPRMP, trans-zeatin-riboside-5'-monophosphate, BAR monophosphate, and the cis-zeatin forms cZ and cZR had no detectable effects, while the activities displayed by other selected cytokinins were in the following order: iP > tZ > N(6)-benzyladenine > BAR > iPR > tZR > meta-topolin > dihydrozeatin > ortho-topolin. The results on wild type and CKX transgenics suggest that

  15. Improved DET communication between cellobiose dehydrogenase and a gold electrode modified with a rigid self-assembled monolayer and green metal nanoparticles: The role of an ordered nanostructuration.

    PubMed

    Bollella, P; Mazzei, F; Favero, G; Fusco, G; Ludwig, R; Gorton, L; Antiochia, R

    2017-02-15

    Efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH) and a novel gold electrode platform, obtained by covalent linking of green AuNPs and AgNPs modified with a dithiol self-assembled monolayer, consisting of biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol (BPDT), was presented. The green AuNPs and AgNPs were synthesized using quercetin as reducing agent at room temperature. TEM experiments showed that the AuNPs and AgNPs were circular in shape with an average diameter of 5 and 8nm, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry of CtCDH immobilized onto the AuNPs/BPDT/AuE and the AgNPs/BPDT/AuE electrode platforms were carried out and compared with naked AuE, BPDT/AuE, AuNPs/AuE, and AgNPs/AuE. A pair of well-defined redox waves in neutral pH solution due to efficient DET of CtCDH was present with both MNPs/BPDT/AuE platforms. No DET communication was found with platforms without MNPs linked to BPDT. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (kS) of CtCDH were calculated to be 21.5±0.8s(-1) and 10.3±0.7s(-1), for the AuNPs/BPDT/AuE and the AgNPs/BPDT/AuE platforms, respectively. The modified electrodes were successively used to develop an eco-friendly biosensor for lactose detection. The CtCDH/AuNPs/BPDT/AuE based biosensor showed the best analytical performances with an excellent stability, a detection limit of 3µM, a linear range between 5 and 400µM and a sensitivity of 27.5±2.5µAcm(-2)mM(-1). Such performances were favorably compared with other lactose biosensors reported in literature. The biosensor was successively tested to quantify lactose content in real milk and cream samples. No significant interference present in the sample matrices was observed.

  16. Characterization of the galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase from pepper fruits and its modulation in the ascorbate biosynthesis. Role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Mateos, Rosa M; Codesido, Verónica; Corpas, Francisco J; Palma, José M

    2017-02-20

    Pepper fruit is one of the highest vitamin C sources of plant origin for our diet. In plants, ascorbic acid is mainly synthesized through the L-galactose pathway, being the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH) the last step. Using pepper fruits, the full GalLDH gene was cloned and the protein molecular characterization accomplished. GalLDH protein sequence (586 residues) showed a 37 amino acids signal peptide at the N-terminus, characteristic of mitochondria. The hydrophobic analysis of the mature protein displayed one transmembrane helix comprising 20 amino acids at the N-terminus. By using a polyclonal antibody raised against a GalLDH internal sequence and immunoblotting analysis, a 56kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with pepper fruit samples. Using leaves, flowers, stems and fruits, the expression of GalLDH by qRT-PCR and the enzyme activity were analyzed, and results indicate that GalLDH is a key player in the physiology of pepper plants, being possibly involved in the processes which undertake the transport of ascorbate among different organs. We also report that an NO (nitric oxide)-enriched atmosphere enhanced ascorbate content in pepper fruits about 40% parallel to increased GalLDH gene expression and enzyme activity. This is the first report on the stimulating effect of NO treatment on the vitamin C concentration in plants. Accordingly, the modulation by NO of GalLDH was addressed. In vitro enzymatic assays of GalLDH were performed in the presence of SIN-1 (peroxynitrite donor) and S-nitrosoglutahione (NO donor). Combined results of in vivo NO treatment and in vitro assays showed that NO provoked the regulation of GalLDH at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but not post-translational modifications through nitration or S-nitrosylation events promoted by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) took place. These results suggest that this modulation point of the ascorbate biosynthesis could be potentially used for biotechnological purposes to

  17. Effectiveness of various methods of formaldehyde neutralization using monoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Coskey, Andrew; Gest, Thomas R

    2015-05-01

    Formaldehyde is the most commonly used fixative chemical for the preservation of human cadavers used for educational purposes in the United States. Formaldehyde is also a known carcinogenic agent whose exposure level is regulated by guidelines of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Various methods for formaldehyde neutralization exist, yet many donations programs do not take any steps to neutralize the formaldehyde in embalmed donor bodies. The effectiveness of monoethanolamine (MEA) in neutralizing formaldehyde is well documented when used as a final injection during embalming. The purpose of this study is to report the effectiveness of several post-embalming techniques of formaldehyde neutralization. Twenty-four donor bodies were assigned to four experimental groups of six. For the three experimental groups, the techniques tested involve delivery of a 20:1 dilution of deionized water:MEA via recannulization and gravity flow infusion, compartment injection, and alternate wetting solution containing four percent MEA. Our results indicated that spray bottle delivery was not effective in neutralization of formaldehyde compared to the control group, but that formaldehyde levels decreased when recannulization or compartment injection were used. The most effective method of formaldehyde neutralization was compartment injection of MEA solution (P < 0.01). The results of this study indicate that, in situations where MEA is not used as a final infusion during embalming, compartment injection of MEA solution is an effective method of formaldehyde neutralization.

  18. Determination of formaldehyde levels in 100 furniture workshops in Ankara.

    PubMed

    Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Aycan, Sefer; Akin, Levent; Koçdor, Pelin; Pamukçu, Gül; Muhsinoğlu, Orkun; Ozer, Feyza; Evci, E Didem; Güler, Cağatay

    2005-10-01

    One of the airborne pollutants in wood products industry is formaldehyde, which may pose some health effects. Therefore this study is conducted to determine formaldehyde levels in 100 furniture-manufacturing workshops in Ankara and also to determine the symptoms, which may be related with formaldehyde exposure among the workers. Indoor formaldehyde levels ranged from 0.02 ppm to 2.22 ppm with a mean of 0.6 +/- 0.3 ppm. Outdoor formaldehyde levels also ranged from 0.0 ppm to 0.08 ppm with a mean of 0.03 +/- 0.03 ppm. Formaldehyde levels were higher in workplaces located at basement than in workplaces located at or above ground level (p < 0.01). An association was found between indoor formaldehyde levels and the types of fuel used (p < 0.05). The levels were higher in workplaces where only sawdust was used for heating, than in workplaces where wood, coal, and sawdust are used (p = 0.02). An association was found between runny nose and indoor formaldehyde levels (p = 0.03). Formaldehyde levels were lower in workplaces where employees had no symptoms than in those where employees had 4 or more symptoms (p = 0.02). Of 229 employees 57 subjects (24.9%) work under the formaldehyde levels of 0.75 ppm and above. Thus, approximately one fourth of the employees in workplaces are working in environments with formaldehyde levels exceeding those permitted by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The employees working in small-scale furniture workshops are at risk of formaldehyde exposure. Measures, such as improved ventilation, have to be taken in these workplaces, in order to decrease the formaldehyde levels.

  19. The microcapsule-type formaldehyde scavenger: the preparation and the application in urea-formaldehyde adhesives.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongyun; Qiu, Teng; Guo, Longhai; Ye, Jun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-15

    The limitation and regulation of formaldehyde emissions (FE) now shows great importance in wood-based materials such as plywood and particle board manufactured for building and furnishing materials. The widely used formaldehyde-based adhesives are one of the main sources of FE from the wood products. In this work, a new kind of long-term effective formaldehyde scavenger in the microcapsule form was prepared by using an intra-liquid desiccation method. The characterizations of the capsule (UC) were performed including the morphologies, the yields, the loading efficiency as well as its sustained-release of urea in aqueous conditions. The prepared UC could be integrated in urea-formaldehyde resins by simply physical blending, and the mixtures were available to be applied as the adhesives for the manufacture of plywood. The bonding strength (BS) and the FE of the bonded plywood in both short (3h) and long (12 week) period were evaluated in detail. It was found that the FE profile of the plywood behaved following a duple exponential law within 12 week. The addition of UC in the adhesive can effectively depress the FE of the plywood not only in a short period after preparation but also in a long-term period during its practical application. The slow released urea would continuously suppress the emission of toxic formaldehyde in a sustained manner without obviously deteriorating on the BS of the adhesives.

  20. Room-Temperature Oxidation of Formaldehyde by Layered Manganese Oxide: Effect of Water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinlong; Zhang, Pengyi; Li, Jinge; Jiang, Chuanjia; Yunus, Rizwangul; Kim, Jeonghyun

    2015-10-20

    Layered manganese oxide, i.e., birnessite was prepared via the reaction of potassium permanganate with ammonium oxalate. The water content in the birnessite was adjusted by drying/calcining the samples at various temperatures (30 °C, 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, and 500 °C). Thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy showed three types of water released from birnessite, which can be ascribed to physically adsorbed H2O, interlayer H2O and hydroxyl, respectively. The activity of birnessite for formaldehyde oxidation was positively associated with its water content, i.e., the higher the water content, the better activity it has. In-situ DRIFTS and step scanning XRD analysis indicate that adsorbed formaldehyde, which is promoted by bonded water via hydrogen bonding, is transformed into formate and carbonate with the consumption of hydroxyl and bonded water. Both bonded water and water in air can compensate the consumed hydroxyl groups to sustain the mineralization of formaldehyde at room temperature. In addition, water in air stimulates the desorption of carbonate via water competitive adsorption, and accordingly the birnessite recovers its activity. This investigation elucidated the role of water in oxidizing formaldehyde by layered manganese oxides at room temperature, which may be helpful for the development of more efficient materials.

  1. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    SciTech Connect

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01

    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  2. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.G.; Madore, M. ); Bytnerowicz, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design and build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Isotopic composition of formaldehyde in urban air.

    PubMed

    Rice, Andrew L; Quay, Paul

    2009-12-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric formaldehyde was measured in air samples collected in urban Seattle, Washington. A recently developed gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry analytical technique was used to extract formaldehyde directly from whole air, separate it from other volatile organic compounds, and measure its (13)C/(12)C and D/H ratio. Measurements of formaldehyde concentration were also made concomitant with isotope ratio. Results of the analysis of nine discrete air samples for delta(13)C-HCHO have a relatively small range in isotopic composition (-31 to -25 per thousand versus VPDB [+/-1.3 per thousand]) over a considerable concentration range (0.8-4.4 ppb [+/-15%]). In contrast, analyses of 17 air samples for deltaD-HCHO show a large range (-296 to +210 per thousand versus VSMOW [+/-50 per thousand]) over the concentrations measured (0.5-2.9 ppb). Observations of deltaD are weakly anticorrelated with concentration. Isotopic data are interpreted using both source- and sink-based approaches. Results of delta(13)C-HCHO are similar to those observed previously for a number of nonmethane hydrocarbons in urban environments and variability can be reconciled with a simple sink-based model. The large variability observed in deltaD-HCHO favors a source-based interpretation with HCHO depleted in deuterium from primary sources of HCHO (i.e., combustion) and HCHO enriched in deuterium from secondary photochemical sources (i.e., hydrocarbon oxidation).

  4. Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A.

    1997-09-01

    Formaldehdye is considered a hazardous air pollutant with numerous sources that include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). With the increasing interest regarding ETS and public health the measurement of formaldehyde readily lends itself to a laboratory experiment comparing methods of analysis. This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode). Reasonable agreement among the methods was obtained by lab demonstrators with spike recoveries yielding 94.7 + 6.8 (n=5) and 89.2 (n = 4) % for NPD and FPD, respectively while HPLC spiked recoveries were 83.6 + 3.2 (n = 5) %; mean class spike recoveries ranged from 80-100%. Student results (in mg/cigarette) from smoke samples were similar to literature values with 163.2 + 69.2 (n = 7) and 149.4 (n = 7) % for NPD and FPD, respectively; the HPLC result was significantly lower at 45.1 + 23.7(n = 7) with losses presumably due to hydrazone precipitating from the smoke extracted solution. Students particularly benefited from the "real world" nature of the analysis and the experience evaluating disparate methods of determining a common analyte.

  5. Formaldehyde production promoted by rat nasal cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases with nasal decongestants, essences, solvents, air pollutants, nicotine, and cocaine as substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Hadley, W.M.

    1983-02-01

    To identify compounds which might be metabolized to formaldehyde in the nasal cavity, 32 potential substrates for cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases were screened with rat nasal and, for comparison, liver microsomes. Tested substrates included 6 nasal decongestants, cocaine, nicotine, 9 essences, 3 potential air pollutants, and 12 solvents. Each test substrate, with the possible exception of the air pollutants, contained one or more N-methyl, O-methyl, or S-methyl groups. Eighteen of the tested materials were metabolized to produce formaldehyde by nasal microsomes. Five substrates, namely, the solvents HMPA and dimethylaniline, cocaine, and the essences dimethyl anthranilate and p-methoxyacetophenone, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates exceeding 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min by nasal microsomes. Eight substrates, including four nasal decongestants, nicotine, and an extract of diesel exhaust particles, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates of 200 to 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min. Five other substrates were metabolized to formaldehyde at detectable rates. The results indicate that a variety of materials which often come in contact with the nasal mucosa can be metabolized to formaldehyde by nasal enzymes. The released formaldehyde may influence the irritancy of inhaled compounds and has been suggested to play a role in the tumorigenicity of some compounds.

  6. CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF TWO GLYCOLYTIC DEHYDROGENASES IN WHITE SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush; Karnovsky, Morris J.

    1966-01-01

    The cytochemical localization, by conventional methods, of lactate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases is limited, firstly, by the solubility of these enzymes in aqueous media and, secondly, by the dependence of the final electron flow from reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to the tetrazolium on tissue diaphorase activity: localization is therefore that of the diaphorase, which in rabbit adductor magnus is mitochondrial. NADH has been found to have great affinity to bind in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and, therefore, if it is generated freely in the incubation media containing 2,2',5,5'-tetra-p-nitrophenyl-3,3'-(3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-phenylene)-ditetrazolium chloride (TNBT) and N-methyl phenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS), it can bind there and cause a false staining. Since such a production of NADH can readily occur in the incubation media for glycolytic dehydrogenases due to diffusion of these soluble enzymes from tissue sections, the prevention of enzyme solubilization is extremely important. Fixation in formaldehyde prevented such enzyme diffusion, while at the same time sufficient activity persisted to allow for adequate staining. The incubation media contained PMS, so that the staining system was largely independent of tissue diaphorase activity. Application of these methods to adductor magnus of rabbit revealed by light microscopy, for both enzymes, a fine network which was shown by electron microscopy to represent staining of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria also reacted. These findings add further support for the notion that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is probably involved in glycolytic activity. PMID:4288329

  7. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. The Role of the ydiB Gene, Which Encodes Quinate/Shikimate Dehydrogenase, in the Production of Quinic, Dehydroshikimic and Shikimic Acids in a PTS- Strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García, Sofía; Flores, Noemí; De Anda, Ramón; Hernández, Georgina; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2017-01-01

    The culture of engineered Escherichia coli for shikimic acid (SA) production results in the synthesis of quinic acid (QA) and dehydroshikimic acid (DHS), reducing SA yield and impairing downstream processes. The synthesis of QA by quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase (YdiB, ydiB) has been previously proposed; however, the precise role for this enzyme in the production of QA in engineered strains of E. coli for SA production remains unclear. We report the effect of the inactivation or the overexpression of ydiB in E. coli strain PB12.SA22 on SA, QA, and DHS production in batch fermentor cultures. The results showed that the inactivation of ydiB resulted in a 75% decrease in the molar yield of QA and a 6.17% reduction in the yield of QA (mol/mol) relative to SA with respect to the parental strain. The overexpression of ydiB caused a 500% increase in the molar yield of QA and resulted in a 152% increase in QA (mol/mol) relative to SA, with a sharp decrease in SA production. Production of SA, QA, and DHS in parental and derivative ydiB strains suggests that the synthesis of QA results from the reduction of 3-dehydroquinate by YdiB before its conversion to DHS.

  9. RNAi knock-downs support roles for the mucin-like (AeIMUC1) gene and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) gene in Aedes aegypti susceptibility to Plasmodium gallinaceum.

    PubMed

    Berois, M; Romero-Severson, J; Severson, D W

    2012-03-01

    The mosquito midgut represents the first barrier encountered by the Plasmodium parasite (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) when it is ingested in blood from an infected vertebrate. Previous studies identified the Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mucin-like (AeIMUC1) and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) genes as midgut-expressed candidate genes influencing susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum (Brumpt). We used RNA inference (RNAi) by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injections to examine ookinete survival to the oocyst stage following individual gene knock-downs. Double-stranded RNA gene knock-downs were performed 3 days prior to P. gallinaceum infection and oocyst development was evaluated at 7 days post-infection. Mean numbers of parasites developing to the oocyst stage were significantly reduced by 52.3% in dsAeIMUC1-injected females and by 36.5% in dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with a dsβ-gal control. The prevalence of infection was significantly reduced in dsAeIMUC1- and dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with dsβ-gal; these reductions resulted in a two- and three-fold increase in the number of uninfected individuals, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that both AeIMUC1 and SDR play a role in Ae. aegypti vector competence to P. gallinaceum.

  10. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  11. Formaldehyde and LeukemiA: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging ...

  12. Effect of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erica; Kitao, Nahoko; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori; Otsubo, Yasufumi

    The effects of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood were investigated. Urea, catechin and vanillin were examined as the natural formaldehyde reducers. The microemission cell, with an internal volume of 35 ml, the maximum exposed test surface area of 177 cm 2 and an air purge flow rate of 50 ml min -1, was used to measure specific emission rate (SER). In the case of no reducer treatment, formaldehyde emission from plywood was fast and SERs were 4.4 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 15 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When this plywood was treated with the natural compounds, the SERs of formaldehyde were decreased at all temperatures. In the case of urea treatment, the SERs of formaldehyde decreased to 0.30 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 0.65 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When the urea treatment was applied to the inside of kitchen cabinet (made from plywood; 270 cm wide, 60 cm deep, 250 cm high), the concentration of formaldehyde was reduced substantially from 1600 to 130 μg m -3. The reducing effect of formaldehyde continued during the observation period (6 months), with a mean concentration of 100 μg m -3. Reducers in the plywood would react with released formaldehyde. Application of natural compounds such as urea, catechin and vanillin could provide a simple and effective approach for suppressing formaldehyde emission from plywood.

  13. Formaldehyde Crosslinking: A Tool for the Study of Chromatin Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.; Frey, Brian L.; Smith, Lloyd M.; Auble, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. PMID:26354429

  14. A New View of Alcohol Metabolism and Alcoholism—Role of the High-Km Class III Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH3)

    PubMed Central

    Haseba, Takeshi; Ohno, Youkichi

    2010-01-01

    The conventional view is that alcohol metabolism is carried out by ADH1 (Class I) in the liver. However, it has been suggested that another pathway plays an important role in alcohol metabolism, especially when the level of blood ethanol is high or when drinking is chronic. Over the past three decades, vigorous attempts to identify the enzyme responsible for the non-ADH1 pathway have focused on the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) and catalase, but have failed to clarify their roles in systemic alcohol metabolism. Recently, using ADH3-null mutant mice, we demonstrated that ADH3 (Class III), which has a high Km and is a ubiquitous enzyme of ancient origin, contributes to systemic alcohol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner, thereby diminishing acute alcohol intoxication. Although the activity of ADH3 toward ethanol is usually low in vitro due to its very high Km, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is markedly enhanced when the solution hydrophobicity of the reaction medium increases. Activation of ADH3 by increasing hydrophobicity should also occur in liver cells; a cytoplasmic solution of mouse liver cells was shown to be much more hydrophobic than a buffer solution when using Nile red as a hydrophobicity probe. When various doses of ethanol are administered to mice, liver ADH3 activity is dynamically regulated through induction or kinetic activation, while ADH1 activity is markedly lower at high doses (3–5 g/kg). These data suggest that ADH3 plays a dynamic role in alcohol metabolism, either collaborating with ADH1 or compensating for the reduced role of ADH1. A complex two-ADH model that ascribes total liver ADH activity to both ADH1 and ADH3 explains the dose-dependent changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters (β, CLT, AUC) of blood ethanol very well, suggesting that alcohol metabolism in mice is primarily governed by these two ADHs. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, liver ADH3 activity increases, while ADH1 activity decreases, as alcohol

  15. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH), designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into three groups respectively, namely long-, medium-, and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into six medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed. PMID:27242871

  16. Evidence for a role for AtMYB2 in the induction of the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) by low oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeren, F U; Dolferus, R; Wu, Y; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1998-01-01

    The transcription factor AtMYB2 binds to two sequence motifs in the promoter of the Arabidopsis ADH1 gene. The binding to the GT-motif (5'-TGGTTT-3') is essential for induction of ADH1 by low oxygen, while binding to the second motif, MBS-2, is not essential for induction. We show that AtMYB2 is induced by hypoxia with kinetics compatible with a role in the regulation of ADH1. Like ADH1, AtMYB2 has root-limited expression. When driven by a constitutive promoter, AtMYB2 is able to transactivate ADH1 expression in transient assays in both Arabidopsis and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts, and in particle bombardment of Pisum sativum leaves. Mutation of the GT-motif abolished binding of AtMYB2 and caused loss of activity of the ADH1 promoter in both transient assays and transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These results are consistent with AtMYB2 being a key regulatory factor in the induction of the ADH1 promoter by low oxygen. PMID:9611167

  17. Respiratory response to formaldehyde and off-gas of urea formaldehyde foam insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J H; Lees, R E; Clark, R H; Pattee, P L

    1984-01-01

    In 18 subjects, 9 of whom had previously complained of various nonrespiratory adverse effects from the urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) in their homes, pulmonary function was assessed before and after exposure in a laboratory. On separate occasions formaldehyde, 1 part per million (ppm), and UFFI off-gas yielding a formaldehyde concentration of 1.2 ppm, were delivered to each subject in an environmental chamber for 90 minutes and a fume hood for 30 minutes respectively. None of the measures of pulmonary function used (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second or maximal midexpiratory flow rate) showed any clinically or statistically significant response to the exposure either immediately after or 8 hours after its beginning. There were no statistically significant differences between the responses of the group that had previously complained of adverse effects and of the group that had not. There was no evidence that either formaldehyde or UFFI off-gas operates as a lower airway allergen or important bronchospastic irritant in this heterogeneous population. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6388780

  18. Ratiometric Imaging of Tissue by Two-Photon Microscopy: Observation of a High Level of Formaldehyde around Mouse Intestinal Crypts.

    PubMed

    Singha, Subhankar; Jun, Yong Woong; Bae, Juryang; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2017-03-21

    Ratiometric imaging by two-photon microscopy can offer a viable tool for the relative quantification of biological analytes inside tissue with minimal influence from environmental factors that affect fluorescence signal. We demonstrate the ratiometric imaging of formaldehyde at the suborgan level using a two-photon fluorescent probe, which involves pixel-to-pixel ratiometric data transformation. This study reveals for the first time a high level of formaldehyde around the crypts of mouse small intestine, implicating its possible protective role along with the released antimicrobials from the Paneth cells.

  19. The different roles of molecular classification according to upfront autologous stem cell transplantation in advanced-stage diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheong, June-Won; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Sung, Yong Oh; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Won-Sik; Park, Yong; Yang, Woo-Ick; Min, Yoo Hong; Kim, Jin Seok

    2016-09-01

    The non-germinal center B cell (non-GCB) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is more related to poor prognosis than the GCB subtype. To investigate the role of molecular classification according to upfront autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), we retrospectively evaluated 219 newly diagnosed high-risk DLBCL patients. Eighty-one patients were in the ASCT group, and 138 patients were in the non-ASCT group. The ASCT group yielded significantly better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than the non-ASCT group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.007), and patients with the non-GCB subtype were more related to inferior PFS than those with the GCB subtype (p = 0.020). After performing age-matching by using propensity scores, upfront ASCT continued to show better OS and PFS than non-ASCT (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026). In the non-ASCT group, the non-GCB subtype showed worse OS and PFS than the GCB subtype (p = 0.039 and p = 0.007). Patients who achieved complete response showed differences in OS and PFS according to molecular subtype (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002). In the ASCT group, there were no significant differences in OS and PFS according to molecular classification (p = 0.277 and p = 0.892). In conclusion, non-GCB subtype DLBCL patients showed poor OS and PFS in the non-ASCT group while they did not show clinical significance in the ASCT group. This suggests the possibility that upfront ASCT may improve the poor prognosis of non-GCB subtype in high-risk DLBCL.

  20. Effect of molecular structure of aniline-formaldehyde copolymers on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Nie, Mengyan; Wang, Xiutong; Zhu, Yukun; Shi, Fuhua; Yu, Jianqiang; Hou, Baorong

    2015-05-30

    Aniline-formaldehyde copolymers with different molecular structures have been prepared and investigated for the purpose of corrosion control of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The copolymers were synthesized by a condensation polymerization process with different ratios of aniline to formaldehyde in acidic precursor solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of as-synthesized copolymers for Q235 mild steel was investigated in 1.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. All the results demonstrate that as-prepared aniline-formaldehyde copolymers are efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitors for mild steels in hydrochloric acid. The corrosion inhibition mechanism is discussed in terms of the role of molecular structure on adsorption of the copolymers onto the steel surface in acid solution.

  1. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "Clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density.ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100.circle.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  2. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density .ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 .ANG.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  3. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1989-10-10

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer clusters. The covalent crosslinking of these clusters produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density [<=]100 mg/cc; cell size [<=]0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 [angstrom]. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  4. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1988-05-26

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer ''clusters''. The covalent crosslinking of these ''clusters'' produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density less than or equal to100 mg/cc; cell size less than or equal to0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent,dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 A/degree/. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265

  6. Chromogenic Detection of Aqueous Formaldehyde Using Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Sameh; Pascual, Lluı́s; Licchelli, Maurizio; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Gil, Salvador; Costero, Ana M; Sancenón, Félix

    2016-06-15

    Silica nanoparticles functionalized with thiol reactive units and bulky polar polyamines were used for the selective colorimetric detection of formaldehyde. The reaction of thiols groups in the nanoparticles surface with a squaraine dye resulted in loss of the π-conjugation of the chromophores, and the subsequent bleaching of the solution. However, when formaldehyde was present in the suspension, the thiol-squaraine reaction was inhibited and a chromogenic response was observed. A selective response to formaldehyde was observed only when the thiol and polyamine groups were anchored to the silica surface. The observed selective response was ascribed to the fact that bulky polyamines generate a highly polar environment around thiols, which were only able to react with the small and polar formaldehyde, but not with other aldehydes. The sensing nanoparticles showed a limit of detection (LOD) for formaldehyde of 36 ppb in water.

  7. Potential health risks from exposure to indoor formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lemus, R; Abdelghani, A A; Akers, T G; Horner, W E

    1998-01-01

    An indoor air quality survey was conducted in Southern Louisiana to determine levels of airborne formaldehyde. Gas chromatography analyses of 419 air samples collected from 53 houses revealed levels of formaldehyde ranging from non-detectable to 6.60 mg/m3. Seventy four percent (312/419) of the samples had detectable amounts of airborne formaldehyde. Of the 312 positive samples, approximately 60% exceeded the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) guideline of 0.123 mg/m3. The highest number of samples exceeding the formaldehyde benchmark were collected in winter. It would appear that in some Southern Louisiana houses, a high level of formaldehyde could serve as a potential upper respiratory irritant.

  8. Associated species in vaporized methanol-formaldehyde solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.C.; Freeman, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    Analysis of vaporized methanolic formaldehyde (50 mol % methanol) by gas chromatography revealed a sum of mole percents of formaldehyde, water, and methanol greater than 100%. This inconsistency was not found with vaporized solutions containing 1 or 10 mol % methanol. Direct evidence for an adduct of methanol and formaldehyde (CH/sub 3/OCH/sub 2/OH) in the vapor phase was found by use of infrared spectroscopy. The spectrum exhibited an absorption at 1140 cm/sup -1/ corresponding to a C-O-C stretch. Reasonable agreement was found between the C-O-C mole percent estimated from infrared spectroscopy, the increased amount of material detected by gas chromatography, and the estimated equilibrium mole percent of the adduct CH/sub 3/OCH/sub 2/OH. These results confirm that in completely vaporized methanolic formaldehyde at 373 to 423 K, one type of adduct predominates. It contains one molecule each of formaldehyde and methanol.

  9. Alterations in Energy/Redox Metabolism Induced by Mitochondrial and Environmental Toxins: A Specific Role for Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Paraquat Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder with a complex etiology including genetic risk factors, environmental exposures, and aging. While energy failure and oxidative stress have largely been associated with the loss of dopaminergic cells in PD and the toxicity induced by mitochondrial/environmental toxins, very little is known regarding the alterations in energy metabolism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and their causative role in cell death progression. In this study, we investigated the alterations in the energy/redox-metabolome in dopaminergic cells exposed to environmental/mitochondrial toxins (paraquat, rotenone, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium [MPP+], and 6-hydroxydopamine [6-OHDA]) in order to identify common and/or different mechanisms of toxicity. A combined metabolomics approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and direct-infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) was used to identify unique metabolic profile changes in response to these neurotoxins. Paraquat exposure induced the most profound alterations in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) metabolome. 13C-glucose flux analysis corroborated that PPP metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, glucono-1,5-lactone, and erythrose-4-phosphate were increased by paraquat treatment, which was paralleled by inhibition of glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Proteomic analysis also found an increase in the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which supplies reducing equivalents by regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels. Overexpression of G6PD selectively increased paraquat toxicity, while its inhibition with 6-aminonicotinamide inhibited paraquat-induced oxidative stress and cell death. These results suggest that paraquat “hijacks” the PPP to increase NADPH reducing equivalents and stimulate paraquat redox cycling, oxidative stress, and cell death. Our study clearly demonstrates that alterations

  10. Alterations in energy/redox metabolism induced by mitochondrial and environmental toxins: a specific role for glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase and the pentose phosphate pathway in paraquat toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shulei; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Nandakumar, Renu; Huang, Yuting; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Stanton, Robert C; Dodds, Eric D; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2014-09-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder with a complex etiology including genetic risk factors, environmental exposures, and aging. While energy failure and oxidative stress have largely been associated with the loss of dopaminergic cells in PD and the toxicity induced by mitochondrial/environmental toxins, very little is known regarding the alterations in energy metabolism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and their causative role in cell death progression. In this study, we investigated the alterations in the energy/redox-metabolome in dopaminergic cells exposed to environmental/mitochondrial toxins (paraquat, rotenone, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium [MPP+], and 6-hydroxydopamine [6-OHDA]) in order to identify common and/or different mechanisms of toxicity. A combined metabolomics approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and direct-infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) was used to identify unique metabolic profile changes in response to these neurotoxins. Paraquat exposure induced the most profound alterations in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) metabolome. 13C-glucose flux analysis corroborated that PPP metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, glucono-1,5-lactone, and erythrose-4-phosphate were increased by paraquat treatment, which was paralleled by inhibition of glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Proteomic analysis also found an increase in the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which supplies reducing equivalents by regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels. Overexpression of G6PD selectively increased paraquat toxicity, while its inhibition with 6-aminonicotinamide inhibited paraquat-induced oxidative stress and cell death. These results suggest that paraquat "hijacks" the PPP to increase NADPH reducing equivalents and stimulate paraquat redox cycling, oxidative stress, and cell death. Our study clearly demonstrates that alterations in

  11. Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Su, Tao; He, Yingge; Lu, Jihui; Mo, Weichuan; Wei, Yan; He, Rongqiao

    2016-10-01

    A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

  12. Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Su, Tao; He, Yingge; Lu, Jihui; Mo, Weichuan; Wei, Yan; He, Rongqiao

    2016-01-01

    A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease. PMID:27699080

  13. Stringency of substrate specificity of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase.

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W. E.; Millard, C. S.; Stevens, P. W.; Kakar, S. N.; Stevens, F. J.; Donnelly, M. I.; Nebraska Wesleyan Univ.

    1995-09-10

    Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase are members of the structurally and functionally homologous family of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Both enzymes display high specificity for their respective keto substrates, oxaloacetate and pyruvate. Closer analysis of their specificity, however, reveals that the specificity of malate dehydrogenase is much stricter and less malleable than that of lactate dehydrogenase. Site-specific mutagenesis of the two enzymes in an attempt to reverse their specificity has met with contrary results. Conversion of a specific active-site glutamine to arginine in lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus generated an enzyme that displayed activity toward oxaloacetate equal to that of the native enzyme toward pyruvate (H. M. Wilks et al. (1988) Science 242, 1541-1544). We have constructed a series of mutants in the mobile, active site loop of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase that incorporate the complementary change, conversion of arginine 81 to glutamine, to evaluate the role of charge distribution and conformational flexibility within this loop in defining the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Mutants incorporating the change R81Q all had reversed specificity, displaying much higher activity toward pyruvate than to the natural substrate, oxaloacetate. In contrast to the mutated lactate dehydrogenase, these reversed-specificity mutants were much less active than the native enzyme. Secondary mutations within the loop of the E. coli enzyme (A80N, A80P, A80P/M85E/D86T) had either no or only moderately beneficial effects on the activity of the mutant enzyme toward pyruvate. The mutation A80P, which can be expected to reduce the overall flexibility of the loop, modestly improved activity toward pyruvate. The possible physiological relevance of the stringent specificity of malate dehydrogenase was investigated. In normal strains of E. coli, fermentative metabolism was not affected by expression of the mutant

  14. The roaming atom pathway in formaldehyde decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahankar, Sridhar A.; Chambreau, Steven D.; Townsend, Dave; Suits, Frank; Farnum, John; Zhang, Xiubin; Bowman, Joel M.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2006-07-01

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of formaldehyde photodissociation to H2 and CO following excitation to the 2141 and 2143 transitions in S1. The CO velocity distributions were obtained using dc slice imaging of single CO rotational states (v =0, jCO=5-45). These high-resolution measurements reveal the correlated internal state distribution in the H2 cofragments. The results show that rotationally hot CO (jCO˜45) is produced in conjunction with vibrationally "cold" H2 fragments (v =0-5): these products are formed through the well-known skewed transition state and described in detail in the accompanying paper. After excitation of formaldehyde above the threshold for the radical channel (H2CO→H+HCO) we also find formation of rotationally cold CO (jCO=5-28) correlated to highly vibrationally excited H2 (v =6-8). These products are formed through a novel mechanism that involves near dissociation followed by intramolecular H abstraction [D. Townsend et al., Science 306, 1158 (2004)], and that avoids the region of the transition state entirely. The dynamics of this "roaming" mechanism are the focus of this paper. The correlations between the vibrational states of H2 and rotational states of CO formed following excitation on the 2143 transition allow us to determine the relative contribution to molecular products from the roaming atom channel versus the conventional molecular channel.

  15. Phanerochaete chrysosporium Cellobiohydrolase and Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Transcripts in Wood

    PubMed Central

    Vallim, Marcelo A.; Janse, Bernard J. H.; Gaskell, Jill; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A.; Cullen, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    The transcripts of structurally related cellobiohydrolase genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium-colonized wood chips were quantified. The transcript patterns obtained were dramatically different from the transcript patterns obtained previously in defined media. Cellobiose dehydrogenase transcripts were also detected, which is consistent with the hypothesis that such transcripts play an important role in cellulose degradation. PMID:9572973

  16. The α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in cancer metabolic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Vatrinet, Renaud; Leone, Giulia; De Luise, Monica; Girolimetti, Giulia; Vidone, Michele; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Porcelli, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated metabolism is a well-established hallmark of cancer. At the hub of various metabolic pathways deeply integrated within mitochondrial functions, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex represents a major modulator of electron transport chain activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux, and is a pivotal enzyme in the metabolic reprogramming following a cancer cell's change in bioenergetic requirements. By contributing to the control of α-ketoglutarate levels, dynamics, and oxidation state, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is also essential in modulating the epigenetic landscape of cancer cells. In this review, we will discuss the manifold roles that this TCA enzyme and its substrate play in cancer.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  18. Origin of the human alcohol dehydrogenase system: implications from the structure and properties of the octopus protein.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R; Fernández, M R; Parés, X; Jörnvall, H

    1993-12-01

    In contrast to the multiplicity of alcohol dehydrogenase in vertebrates, a class III type of the enzyme [i.e., a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase; formaldehyde; NAD+ oxidoreductase (glutathione-formylating), EC 1.2.1.1.] is the only form detectable in appreciable yield in octopus. It is enzymatically and structurally highly similar to the human class III enzyme, with limited overall residue differences (26%) and only a few conservative residue exchanges at the substrate and coenzyme pockets, reflecting "constant" characteristics of this class over wide time periods. It is distinct from the ethanol-active "variable" class I type of the enzyme (i.e., classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1). The residue conservation of class III is also spaced differently from that of class I but is typical of that of proteins in general, emphasizing that class I, with divergence at three functional segments, is the form with deviating properties. In spite of the conservation in class III, surface charges differ considerably. The apparent absence of a class I enzyme in octopus and the constant nature of the class III enzyme support the concept of a duplicative origin of the class I line from the ancient class III form. Still more distant relationships define further enzyme lines that have subunits with other properties.

  19. Origin of the human alcohol dehydrogenase system: implications from the structure and properties of the octopus protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, R; Fernández, M R; Parés, X; Jörnvall, H

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to the multiplicity of alcohol dehydrogenase in vertebrates, a class III type of the enzyme [i.e., a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase; formaldehyde; NAD+ oxidoreductase (glutathione-formylating), EC 1.2.1.1.] is the only form detectable in appreciable yield in octopus. It is enzymatically and structurally highly similar to the human class III enzyme, with limited overall residue differences (26%) and only a few conservative residue exchanges at the substrate and coenzyme pockets, reflecting "constant" characteristics of this class over wide time periods. It is distinct from the ethanol-active "variable" class I type of the enzyme (i.e., classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1). The residue conservation of class III is also spaced differently from that of class I but is typical of that of proteins in general, emphasizing that class I, with divergence at three functional segments, is the form with deviating properties. In spite of the conservation in class III, surface charges differ considerably. The apparent absence of a class I enzyme in octopus and the constant nature of the class III enzyme support the concept of a duplicative origin of the class I line from the ancient class III form. Still more distant relationships define further enzyme lines that have subunits with other properties. PMID:8248232

  20. Toxicology of urea formaldehyde and polyurethane foam insulation.

    PubMed

    Harris, J C; Rumack, B H; Aldrich, F D

    1981-01-16

    Two types of foam insulation are in wide use. Urea formaldehyde foam is a relatively inexpensive, easily installed, and efficient insulation. Toxicity from this insulation is related to release of free formaldehyde into the home. Mild to incapacitating symptoms have been reported in occupants of urea formaldehyde-insulated homes. Airborne formaldehyde levels frequently have exceeded standards set for occupational exposure. The long-term consequences of such exposure are unknown. Because of publicity over the toxicity of urea formaldehyde foam, many physicians and patients have confused urea formaldehyde and polyurethane foam. Unlike urea formaldehyde, polyurethane foam is fully cured before construction. Toxicity occurs only during manufacture and curing. To date, there have been no reports to our knowledge of toxicity in occupants of polyurethane-insulated homes. However, toxicity caused by pyrolysis products may occur during combustion in homes insulated with either type of insulation. This report details 48 patients in whom complete medical data were obtained out of the first 100 patients contacting the Rocky Mountain Poison Center.

  1. PPM mixtures of formaldehyde in gas cylinders: Stability and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.C.; Miller, S.B.; Patterson, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Scott Specialty Gases has been successful in producing stable calibration gases of formaldehyde at low concentration. Critical to this success has been the development of a treatment process for high pressure aluminum cylinders. Formaldehyde cylinders having concentrations of 20ppm and 4ppm were found to show only small decline in concentrations over a period of approximately 12 months. Since no NIST traceable formaldehyde standards (or Standard Reference Material) are available, all Scott's formaldehyde cylinders were originally certified by traditional impinger method. This method involves an extremely tedious purification procedure for 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). A modified version of the impinger method has been developed and does not require extensive reagent purification for formaldehyde analysis. Extremely low formaldehyde blanks have been obtained with the modified method. The HPLC conditions in the original method were used for chromatographic separations. The modified method results in a lower analytical uncertainty for the formaldehyde standard mixtures. Consequently, it is possible to discern small differences between analytical results that are important for stability study.

  2. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Revisited

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Jerome T.; Henderson, Alfred R.

    1984-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases associated with drugs have been recognized since antiquity. Many of these anemias have been associated with oxidizing agents and deficiencies in the intraerythrocytic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This paper outlines the discovery, prevalence, and variants of this enzyme. Methods of diagnosis of associated anemias are offered. PMID:6502728

  3. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  4. [Formaldehyde emissions from wooden products and office furniture].

    PubMed

    Pecka, I; Wiglusz, R; Madeja-Grzyb, A; Dziewanowska-Pudliszak, A

    2001-01-01

    The formaldehyde emission from wood-products (particleboards, particleboards veneered with artificial veneer, laminated particleboard, hard fibreboards, plywood) and office furniture was measured with the use of environmental chamber (0.2 m3, 0.6 m3, 1.0 m3 capacity) in the following conditions: temperature 23 degrees C, relative humidity 45%, 1 air exchange/hour and factor loading 1 m2/m3. Formaldehyde was determined by using colorimetric methods. Among the tested products, hard fibreboards, plywood and almost all of the enriched particleboards should not contaminate indoor air with formaldehyde over its threshold limit values. The tested office furniture fulfill of the hygienic requirements.

  5. Photochemical production of formaldehyde in earth's primitive atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Gladstone, G. R.; Yung, Y. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formaldehyde could have been produced by photochemical reactions in the earth's primitive atmosphere, at a time when it consisted mainly of molecular nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Removal of formaldehyde from the atmosphere by precipitation can provide a source of organic carbon to the oceans at the rate of 100 billion moles per year. Subsequent reactions of formaldehyde in primeval aquatic environments would have implications for the abiotic synthesis of complex organic molecules and the origin of life.

  6. [Effects of formaldehyde on germ cells of male mice].

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingde; Xie, Ying; Yi, Yizhen; Wang, Wei

    2003-11-01

    General toxicity and genetic materials damage of formaldehyde on germ cells in different stages was studied. In order to discover the toxicity mechanism of formaldehyde on germ cells and the biomarkers of effect after the presence of damage in germ cells and the estimation index, the relationships between the damage of germ cells and the MDA, SDH activity and Cu and Zn. in testicle tissue were investigated. Male mice exposed to formaldehyde by i.p. for 5 days. Formaldehyde doses were: 0.20 mg/kg, 2.00 mg/kg, 20.00 mg/kg. Mice were killed at the 6th day and the 14th day. HE staining was used to study the pathological changes happened in testicle tissue. In order to study the changes in sperm, the sperms and the abnormality of the sperm's heads were observed. In order to study the damage of the genetic material in the germ cells, the frequencies of sister chromosome exchanges and the frequencies of MN cells were studied. MDA was measured by MDA diagnosis box. Copper and zinc were determined by FAAS. US was used to determine the SDH activity in serum and testicle tissue. The results showed that: The main pathological changes in testicle tissue of formaldehyde groups were degeneration; The sperm quantity was decreased and the sperm heads deformation ratio was increased in all formaldehyde groups; There were a significant increase of MN ratio in early spermatogenic cells and SCE ratio in medial and high dose groups; The MDA in testicle tissue significant increased in high dose group. The SDH activity in testicle tissue was declined in all formaldehyde groups; There were a significant decline of copper and zinc in testicle tissue in high dose group. It is suggested that: Formaldehyde could induce genetic materials in spermatogone, primary spermatocyte and caused degeneration and necrosis in secondary spermatocyte, spermatogenic cell, sperm; The damage of LPO, decline of copper and zinc and SDH activity in mice's testicle tissue could be caused by formaldehyde; The effect

  7. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR linearly decreased with HCHO exposure, with estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children.

  8. Measurement of formaldehyde in clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzert, V.; Seiler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the measurement of small amounts of formaldehyde in air has been developed. The method is based on the derivatization of HCHO with 2.4-Denetrophenylhydragine, forming 2.4-Dentrophylhydragine, measured with GC-ECD-technique. HCHO is preconcentrated using a cryogenic sampling technique. The detection limit is 0.05 ppbv for a sampling volume of 200 liter. The method has been applied for measurements in continental and marine air masses showing HCHO mixing ratios of 0.4--5.0 ppbv and 0.2--1.0 ppbv, respectively. HCHO mixing ratios show diurnal variations with maximum values during the early afternoon and minimum values during the early morning. In continental air, HCHO mixing ratios are positively correlated with CO and SO/sub 2/, indicating anthropogenic HCHO sources which are estimated to be 6--11 x 10/sup 12/g/year/sup -1/ on a global scale.

  9. Interpreting satellite column observations of formaldehyde over tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Paul I; Barkley, Michael P; Kurosu, Thomas P; Lewis, Alastair C; Saxton, Julie E; Chance, Kelly; Gatti, Luciana V

    2007-07-15

    Space-borne column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), a high-yield oxidation product of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), represent important constraints for quantifying net regional fluxes of VOCs. Here, we interpret observed distributions of HCHO columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) over tropical South America during 1997-2001. We present the first comparison of year-long in situ isoprene concentrations and fire-free GOME HCHO columns over a tropical ecosystem. GOME HCHO columns and in situ isoprene concentrations are elevated in the wet and dry seasons, with the highest values in the dry season. Previous analysis of the in situ data highlighted the possible role of drought in determining the elevated concentrations during the dry season, inferring the potential of HCHO columns to provide regional-scale constraints for estimating the role of drought on isoprene emissions. The agreement between the observed annual cycles of GOME HCHO columns and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer firecount data over the Amazon basin (correlations typically greater than 0.75 for a particular year) illustrates the potential of HCHO column to provide quantitative information about biomass burning emissions.

  10. Probing the dynamic interface between trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH) and electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) in the TMADH-2ETF complex: role of the Arg-alpha237 (ETF) and Tyr-442 (TMADH) residue pair.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Selena G; Messiha, Hanan Latif; Katona, Gergely; Rigby, Stephen E J; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2008-05-06

    We have used multiple solution state techniques and crystallographic analysis to investigate the importance of a putative transient interaction formed between Arg-alpha237 in electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) and Tyr-442 in trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH) in complex assembly, electron transfer, and structural imprinting of ETF by TMADH. We have isolated four mutant forms of ETF altered in the identity of the residue at position 237 (alphaR237A, alphaR237K, alphaR237C, and alphaR237E) and with each form studied electron transfer from TMADH to ETF, investigated the reduction potentials of the bound ETF cofactor, and analyzed complex formation. We show that mutation of Arg-alpha237 substantially destabilizes the semiquinone couple of the bound FAD and impedes electron transfer from TMADH to ETF. Crystallographic structures of the mutant ETF proteins indicate that mutation does not perturb the overall structure of ETF, but leads to disruption of an electrostatic network at an ETF domain boundary that likely affects the dynamic properties of ETF in the crystal and in solution. We show that Arg-alpha237 is required for TMADH to structurally imprint the as-purified semiquinone form of wild-type ETF and that the ability of TMADH to facilitate this structural reorganization is lost following (i) redox cycling of ETF, or simple conversion to the oxidized form, and (ii) mutagenesis of Arg-alpha237. We discuss this result in light of recent apparent conflict in the literature relating to the structural imprinting of wild-type ETF. Our studies support a mechanism of electron transfer by conformational sampling as advanced from our previous analysis of the crystal structure of the TMADH-2ETF complex [Leys, D. , Basran, J. , Sutcliffe, M. J., and Scrutton, N. S. (2003) Nature Struct. Biol. 10, 219-225] and point to a key role for the Tyr-442 (TMADH) and Arg-alpha237 (ETF) residue pair in transiently stabilizing productive electron transfer configurations. Our work

  11. Water co-catalyzed selective dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Junjun; Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; El-Soda, Mostafa; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Sykes, E. Charles H.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The non-oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde is considered a promising method to produce formaldehyde and clean hydrogen gas. Although Cu-based catalysts have an excellent catalytic activity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol, metallic Cu is commonly believed to be unreactive for the dehydrogenation of methanol in the absence of oxygen adatoms or oxidized copper. Herein we show that metallic Cu can catalyze the dehydrogenation of methanol in the absence of oxygen adatoms by using water as a co-catalyst both under realistic reaction conditions using silica-supported PtCu nanoparticles in a flow reactor system at temperatures below 250 °C, and in ultra-high vacuum using model PtCu(111) catalysts. Adding small amounts of isolated Pt atoms into the Cu surface to form PtCu single atom alloys (SAAs) greatly enhances the dehydrogenation activity of Cu. Under the same reaction conditions, the yields of formaldehyde from PtCu SAA nanoparticles are more than one order of magnitude higher than on the Cu nanoparticles, indicating a significant promotional effect of individual, isolated Pt atoms. Moreover, this study also shows the unexpected role of water in the activation of methanol. Water, a catalyst for methanol dehydrogenation at low temperatures, becomes a reactant in the methanol steam reforming reactions only at higher temperatures over the same metal catalyst.

  12. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the COFFEE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma; Swanson, Andrew; Gore, Warren; Iraci, Laura; Hanisco, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. We will present results from flights performed over the Central Valley of California, including boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. These results will be presented in conjunction with formaldehyde. Targets in the Central Valley consist of an oil field, agricultural areas, and highways, each of which can emit HCHO primarily and generate HCHO through secondary production. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  13. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  14. ETV REPORT: CERTEK, INC. 1414RH FORMALDEHYDE GENERATOR/NEUTRALIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the 1414RH Formaldehyde Generator/Neuralizer, a biological decontamination device manufactured by CERTEK, Inc. The unit was tested by evaluating its ability to decontaminate seven types ...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Inhalation) (External Review Draft 2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing ...

  16. Formaldehyde generators: relationship between stability, lipophilicity and carcinogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Lefevre, P A

    1982-01-01

    The rate of hydrolysis to formaldehyde of methylenedimorpholine (MDM), hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine (DNPT) have been compared with the enzyme-mediated formation of formaldehyde from hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The bio-distribution of [14C]HMPA following nasal instillation in rats has also been studied and compared with that of [14C]methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). These data are used to relate the several carcinogenic/genotoxic properties of the chemicals named above. It is concluded from these data and related considerations that three classes of formaldehyde-generators should be recognized (a) labile agents such as MDM (and formaldehyde) which are likely to be locally active as carcinogens, (b) lipophilic and relatively stable agents such as HMPA which may be both locally active (if bio-accumulated) and systemically active as carcinogens, and (c) agents such as HMT and DNPT, of intermediate stability, which are unlikely to be systemically active and to be of low or zero activity locally.

  17. Ion laser isotope enrichment by photo-predissociation of formaldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1977-06-17

    Enrichment of carbon, hydrogen and/or oxygen isotopes by means of isotopically selective photo-predissociation of formaldehyde is achieved by irradiation with a fixed frequency ion laser, specifically, a neon, cadmium, or xenon ion laser.

  18. Formaldehyde Five-Day Passive Chemical Dosimeter Badge Validation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-30

    DNPH-cartridges. ............................... 7 Figure 8 Example of commercially available packed granular potassium iodide (KI) ozone scrubber...Example of commercially available packed granular potassium iodide (KI) ozone scrubber. Figure 9 Example of configuration of a single-port carbonyl...formaldehyde vapor stream. Formaldehyde-DNPH at 500 µg/mL (as aldehyde) in acetonitrile was purchased from Cerilliant Corporation, Round Rock, TX. Potassium

  19. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.; Huberman, E.

    1992-07-10

    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results are consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.

  20. The mechanism of a formaldehyde-sensing transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Denby, Katie J.; Iwig, Jeffrey; Bisson, Claudine; Westwood, Jodie; Rolfe, Matthew D.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Higgins, Khadine; Maroney, Michael J.; Baker, Patrick J.; Chivers, Peter T.; Green, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Most organisms are exposed to the genotoxic chemical formaldehyde, either from endogenous or environmental sources. Therefore, biology has evolved systems to perceive and detoxify formaldehyde. The frmRA(B) operon that is present in many bacteria represents one such system. The FrmR protein is a transcriptional repressor that is specifically inactivated in the presence of formaldehyde, permitting expression of the formaldehyde detoxification machinery (FrmA and FrmB, when the latter is present). The X-ray structure of the formaldehyde-treated Escherichia coli FrmR (EcFrmR) protein reveals the formation of methylene bridges that link adjacent Pro2 and Cys35 residues in the EcFrmR tetramer. Methylene bridge formation has profound effects on the pattern of surface charge of EcFrmR and combined with biochemical/biophysical data suggests a mechanistic model for formaldehyde-sensing and derepression of frmRA(B) expression in numerous bacterial species. PMID:27934966

  1. Histomorphometric comparison after fixation with formaldehyde or glyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YN; Lee, K; Pai, S; Ledoux, WR

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde has long been the fixative of choice for histological examination of tissue. The use of alternatives to formaldehyde has grown, however, owing to the serious hazards associated with its use. Companies have striven to maintain the morphological characteristics of formaldehyde-fixed tissue when developing alternatives. Glyoxal-based fixatives now are among the most popular formaldehyde alternatives. Although there are many studies that compare staining quality and immunoreactivity, there have been no studies that quantify possible structural differences. Histomorphometric analysis commonly is used to evaluate diseased tissue. We compared fixation with formaldehyde and glyoxal with regard to the histomorphological properties of plantar foot tissue using a combination of stereological methods and quantitative morphology. We measured skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septa thickness, and adipocyte area and diameter. No significant differences were observed between formaldehyde and glyoxal fixation for any feature measured. The glyoxal-based fixative used therefore is a suitable fixative for structural evaluation of plantar soft tissue. Measurements obtained from the glyoxal-fixed tissue can be combined with data obtained from formalin-fixed for analysis. PMID:20854226

  2. Evaluation of a passive air sampler for measuring indoor formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Tae; Yim, Bongbeen; Jeong, Jaeho

    2007-04-01

    A passive air sampler, using 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole, was evaluated for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor environments. Chromatography paper cleaned using a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution was experimentally determined as being the optimum absorption filter for the collection of formaldehyde (0.05 microg cm(-2) formaldehyde). From a linear-regression analysis between the mass of formaldehyde time-collected on a passive air sampler and the formaldehyde concentration measured by an active sampler, the sampling rate of the passive air sampler was 1.52 L h(-1). The sampling rate, determined for the passive air sampler in relation to the temperature (19 - 28 degrees C) and the relative humidity (30 - 90%), were 1.56 +/- 0.04 and 1.58 +/- 0.07 L h(-1), respectively. The relationship between the sampling rate and the air velocity was a linear-regression within the observed range. In the case of exposed samplers, the stability of the collected formaldehyde decreased with increasing storage time (decrease of ca. 25% after 22 days); but with the unexposed samplers the stability of the blank remained relatively unchanged for 7 days (decrease of ca. 37% after 22 days). The detection limits for the passive air sampler with an exposure time of 1 day and 7 days were 10.4 and 1.48 microg m(-3), respectively.

  3. Formaldehyde in dentistry: a review of mutagenic and carcinogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.B.; Chestner, S.B.

    1981-09-01

    For many years there has been controversy over the value of antimicrobial drugs for intracanal dressings in endodontics. Formocresol, a formaldehyde compound, has evolved as the preferred drug for routine endodontic procedures, as well as pediatric endodontics. The increase in the use of formaldehyde has been complicated by the introduction of paraformaldehyde pastes for filling root canals. Neither of these formulas has ever been standardized. The doses are arbitrary, and the common dose of formocresol has been shown to be many times greater than the minimum dose needed for effect. The efficacy of paraformaldehyde pastes is questionable and remains clouded by inconclusive evidence, conflicting research, inadequate terminology, and a lack of convincing statistical evidence. The clinical use and delivery of formocresol and paraformaldehyde pastes remain arbitrary and unscientific. Formaldehyde has a known toxic mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Many investigations have been conducted to measure the risk of exposure to formaldehyde; it is clear that formaldehyde poses a carcinogenic risk in humans. There is a need to reevaluate the rationale underlying the use of formaldehyde in dentistry particularly in light of its deleterious effects.

  4. Clinical evaluation of patients with complaints related to formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Imbus, H.R.

    1985-12-01

    Formaldehyde is a very widely used chemical in our present society and one with which every physician has had a first-hand experience in his early days of training in the anatomy laboratory. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lists 52 occupations that expose people to formaldehyde. In recent years, however, the increasing use of formaldehyde resins in the production of building materials such as particleboard and urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has resulted in exposures of large numbers of people in nonoccupational settings. Consumer products such as cosmetics, cigarettes, textiles, furniture, draperies, and preservatives release formaldehyde. It is present in the outdoor atmosphere from products of combustion and automobile exhaust and likewise in the home from such things as gas cooking. These more widespread and increased exposures have resulted in concern regarding potential health effects. Therefore, it is likely that physicians have or will encounter patients who wish evaluations of a present or potential health effect from formaldehyde. This article is for the purpose of providing assistance in such evaluation.110 references.

  5. Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

    1986-10-01

    Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

  6. Formaldehyde levels in traditional and portable classrooms: A pilot investigation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study assessed formaldehyde levels in portable classrooms (PCs) and traditional classrooms (TCs) and explored factors influencing indoor air quality (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, and relative humidity). In a cross-sectional design, we evaluated formaldehyde levels in day and overnight indoor air samples from nine PCs renovated within three years previously and three TCs in a school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Formaldehyde levels ranged from 0.0068 to 0.038 ppm. In both type of classrooms, overnight formaldehyde median levels (PCs = 0.018 ppm; TCs = 0.019 ppm) were higher than day formaldehyde median levels (PCs = 0.011 ppm; TCs = 0.016 ppm). CO2 levels measured 470–790 parts per million (ppm) at 7AM and 470–1800 ppm at 4PM. Afternoon medians were higher in TCs (1,400 ppm ) than in PCs (780 ppm). Consistent with previous studies, formaldehyde levels were similar among PCs and TCs. Reducing CO2 levels by improving ventilation is recommended for classrooms. PMID:27197349

  7. Glutamate dehydrogenases: the why and how of coenzyme specificity.

    PubMed

    Engel, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    NAD(+) and NADP(+), chemically similar and with almost identical standard oxidation-reduction potentials, nevertheless have distinct roles, NAD(+) serving catabolism and ATP generation whereas NADPH is the biosynthetic reductant. Separating these roles requires strict specificity for one or the other coenzyme for most dehydrogenases. In many organisms this holds also for glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH), NAD(+)-dependent for glutamate oxidation, NADP(+)-dependent for fixing ammonia. In higher animals, however, GDH has dual specificity. It has been suggested that GDH in mitochondria reacts only with NADP(H), the NAD(+) reaction being an in vitro artefact. However, contrary evidence suggests mitochondrial GDH not only reacts with NAD(+) but maintains equilibrium using the same pool as accessed by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. Another complication is the presence of an energy-linked dehydrogenase driving NADP(+) reduction by NADH, maintaining the coenzyme pools at different oxidation-reduction potentials. Its coexistence with GDH makes possible a futile cycle, control of which is not yet properly explained. Structural studies show NAD(+)-dependent, NADP(+)-dependent and dual-specificity GDHs are closely related and a few site-directed mutations can reverse specificity. Specificity for NAD(+) or for NADP(+) has probably emerged repeatedly during evolution, using different structural solutions on different occasions. In various GDHs the P7 position in the coenzyme-binding domain plays a key role. However, whereas in other dehydrogenases an acidic P7 residue usually hydrogen bonds to the 2'- and 3'-hydroxyls, dictating NAD(+) specificity, among GDHs, depending on detailed conformation of surrounding residues, an acidic P7 may permit binding of NAD(+) only, NADP(+) only, or in higher animals both.

  8. A role for glutathione, independent of oxidative stress, in the developmental toxicity of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Michelle T.; Shapiro, Aaron M.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wells, Peter G.

    2013-12-15

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, both in vivo and in embryo culture. We explored the ROS hypothesis further in vivo in pregnant C57BL/6J mice. Following maternal treatment with a teratogenic dose of MeOH, 4 g/kg via intraperitoneal (ip) injection on gestational day (GD) 12, there was no increase 6 h later in embryonic ROS formation, measured by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence, despite an increase observed with the positive control ethanol (EtOH), nor was there an increase in embryonic oxidatively damaged DNA, quantified as 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation. MeOH teratogenicity (primarily ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) also was not altered by pre- and post-treatment with varying doses of the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). In contrast, pretreatment with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, depleted maternal hepatic and embryonic GSH, and enhanced some new anomalies (micrognathia, agnathia, short snout, fused digits, cleft lip, low set ears), but not the most common teratogenic effects of MeOH (ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) in this strain. These results suggest that ROS did not contribute to the teratogenic effects of MeOH in this in vivo mouse model, in contrast to results in embryo culture from our laboratory, and that the protective effect of GSH in this model may arise from its role as a cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase in the detoxification of formaldehyde. - Highlights: • In vivo, a free radical scavenger did not block methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis. • MeOH did not increase embryonic reactive oxygen species formation or DNA oxidation. • MeOH teratogenesis was enhanced by glutathione (GSH) depletion. • GSH may protect as the cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH3). • Formaldehyde may be a ROS

  9. Activity of select dehydrogenases with Sepharose-immobilized N6-carboxymethyl-NAD

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N6-carboxymethyl-NAD (N6-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N6-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N6-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N6-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N6-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N6-amine group on NAD. PMID:25611453

  10. Activity of select dehydrogenases with sepharose-immobilized N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD (N(6)-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N(6)-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N(6)-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N(6)-amine group on NAD.

  11. Deuteration of formaldehyde on an interstellar dust surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, H.; Watanabe, N.; Kouchi, A.

    Recently, the formaldehyde (H2CO) and methanol (CH3OH) were observed abundantly in ice toward various molecular clouds. It has been expected that these organic molecules were produced by the hydrogenation reaction of CO on the surface of interstellar ice. Watanabe & Kouchi (2002) observed experimentally the successive production of these molecules by the hydrogenation of CO on the ice surface, indicating that the surface hydrogenation reactions at low temperatures play an important role in evolution of molecules on the interstellar ice. The high gas-phase abundance of deuterated molecules, which include H2CO-d1,2 and CH3OH-d1-3, have observed in molecular clouds (Loinard et al. 2000, Parise et al. 2002, Parise et al. 2004) and comet (Crovisier et al. 2004) compared to the ratio of D/H ratio in space. This deuterium fractionation in interstellar molecules has been an interesting topic in interstellar chemistry. There have been several studies on the mechanism of the deuterium fractionation. The pure gas-phase models are difficult to reproduce the high D/H ratio observed. We deduce that the surface reaction on interstellar ice is a key process not only for the production of H2CO and CH3OH but also for that of H2CO-d1,2 and CH3OH-d1-3. In fact, Nagaoka, Watanabe & Kouchi (2005) indicated the validity of deuterium fractionation by surface reaction in methanol, including multiple deuterations. In the present work, we investigated the formation of deuterated formaldehyde experimentally. Below 20 K, solid H2CO and D2CO were exposed to cold (30 K) D and H atoms, respectively. The variations of IR absorption spectra for the solid samples were measured by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer during the exposure to atoms. The rates of H-D substitution in those molecules were measured. H2CO was converted to HDCO and D2CO by the reaction with D atom. The conversions to HDCO and H2CO also occur in exposure of D2CO to H atom. In the case of methanol, this substitution

  12. Differential energetic metabolism during Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation. I. Citrate synthase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Osuna, A; Lupiañez, J A

    1988-11-15

    The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes citrate synthase (citrate oxaloacetatelyase, EC 4.1.3.7), NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (threo-Ds-isocitrate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating), EC 1.1.1.42), and succinate dehydrogenase (succinate: FAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.1) as well as their kinetic behavior in the two developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi at insect vector stage, epimastigotes and infective metacyclic trypomastigotes, were studied. The results presented in this work clearly demonstrate a higher mitochondrial metabolism in the metacyclic forms as is shown by the extraordinary enhanced activities of metacyclic citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. In epimastigotes, the specific activities of citrate synthase at variable concentrations of oxalacetate and acetyl-CoA were 24.6 and 26.6 mU/mg of protein, respectively, and the Michaelis constants were 7.88 and 6.84 microM for both substrates. The metacyclic enzyme exhibited the following kinetic parameters: a specific activity of 228.4 mU/mg and Km of 3.18 microM for oxalacetate and 248.5 mU/mg and 2.75 microM, respectively, for acetyl-CoA. NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase specific activities for epimastigotes and metacyclics were 110.2 and 210.3 mU/mg, whereas the apparent Km's were 47.9 and 12.5 microM, respectively. No activity for the NAD-dependent isozyme was found in any form of T. cruzi differentiation. The particulated succinate dehydrogenase showed specific activities of 8.2 and 39.1 mU/mg for epimastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes, respectively, although no significant changes in the Km (0.46 and 0.48 mM) were found. The cellular role and the molecular mechanism that probably take place during this significant shift in the mitochondrial metabolism during the T. cruzi differentiation have been discussed.

  13. ATM and KAT5 safeguard replicating chromatin against formaldehyde damage.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Wong, Victor C; DeLoughery, Zachary; Luczak, Michal W; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-08

    Many carcinogens damage both DNA and protein constituents of chromatin, and it is unclear how cells respond to this compound injury. We examined activation of the main DNA damage-responsive kinase ATM and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by formaldehyde (FA) that forms histone adducts and replication-blocking DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC). We found that low FA doses caused a strong and rapid activation of ATM signaling in human cells, which was ATR-independent and restricted to S-phase. High FA doses inactivated ATM via its covalent dimerization and formation of larger crosslinks. FA-induced ATM signaling showed higher CHK2 phosphorylation but much lower phospho-KAP1 relative to DSB inducers. Replication blockage by DPC did not produce damaged forks or detectable amounts of DSB during the main wave of ATM activation, which did not require MRE11. Chromatin-monitoring KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase was responsible for acetylation and activation of ATM by FA. KAT5 and ATM were equally important for triggering of intra-S-phase checkpoint and ATM signaling promoted recovery of normal human cells after low-dose FA. Our results revealed a major role of the KAT5-ATM axis in protection of replicating chromatin against damage by the endogenous carcinogen FA.

  14. Deuterated formaldehyde in ρ Ophiuchi A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, P.; Parise, B.; Liseau, R.; Larsson, B.

    2011-03-01

    Context. Formaldehyde is an organic molecule that is abundant in the interstellar medium. High deuterium fractionation is a common feature in low-mass star-forming regions. Observing several isotopologues of molecules is an excellent tool for understanding the formation paths of the molecules. Aims: We seek an understanding of how the various deuterated isotopologues of formaldehyde are formed in the dense regions of low-mass star formation. More specifically, we adress the question of how the very high deuteration levels (several orders of magnitude above the cosmic D/H ratio) can occur using H2CO data of the nearby ρ Oph A molecular cloud. Methods: From mapping observations of H2CO, HDCO, and D2CO, we have determined how the degree of deuterium fractionation changes over the central 3' × 3' region of ρ Oph A. The multi-transition data of the various H2CO isotopologues, as well as from other molecules (e.g., CH3OH and N2D + ) present in the observed bands, were analysed using both the standard type rotation diagram analysis and, in selected cases, a more elaborate method of solving the radiative transfer for optically thick emission. In addition to molecular column densities, the analysis also estimates the kinetic temperature and H2 density. Results: Toward the SM1 core in ρ Oph A, the H2CO deuterium fractionation is very high. In fact, the observed D2CO/HDCO ratio is 1.34 ± 0.19, while the HDCO/H2CO ratio is 0.107 ± 0.015. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the D2CO/HDCO abundance ratio is observed to be greater than 1. The kinetic temperature is in the range 20-30 K in the cores of ρ Oph A, and the H2 density is (6-10) × 105 cm-3. We estimate that the total H2 column density toward the deuterium peak is (1-4) × 1023 cm-2. As depleted gas-phase chemistry is not adequate, we suggest that grain chemistry, possibly due to abstraction and exchange reactions along the reaction chain H2CO → HDCO → D2CO, is at work to produce the very high

  15. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1990-08-01

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR decreased linearly with HCHO exposure, with the estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to HCHO below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: decrements in PEFR due to HCHO over 40 ppb were seen only in the morning, and mainly in smokers.

  16. THE PHOTODISSOCIATION OF FORMALDEHYDE IN COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Paul D.

    2015-10-20

    Observations of comets in the 905–1180 Å spectral band made with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer in 2001 and 2004 show unusual features in the fluorescent emissions of CO and H{sub 2}. These include emission from a non-thermal high-J rotational population of CO and solar Lyα induced fluorescence from excited vibrational levels of H{sub 2}, both of which are attributed to the photodissociation of formaldehyde. In this paper we model the large number of observed H{sub 2} lines and demonstrate the dependence of the pumping on the heliocentric velocity of the comet and the solar line profiles. We also derive the rotational and vibrational populations of H{sub 2} and show that they are consistent with the results of laboratory studies of the photodissociation of H{sub 2}CO. In addition to the principal series of H i and O i, the residual spectrum is found to consist mainly of the Rydberg series of C i multiplets from which we derive the mean carbon column abundance in the coma. Fluorescent emissions from N i and N{sub 2} are also searched for.

  17. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-09-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as rad OH and ONOO -. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  18. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline E.; Brocklehurst, Keith; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Warren, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations. The major recognition determinant of an RALDH3 substrate was shown to be an eight-carbon chain bonded to the aldehyde group whose kinetic influence (kcat/Km at pH 8.5) decreases when shortened or lengthened. Surprisingly, the β-ionone ring of all-trans-retinal is not a major recognition site. The dissociation constants (Kd) of the complexes of RALDH3 with octanal, NAD+ and NADH were determined by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The similarity of the Kd values for the complexes with NAD+ and with octanal suggests a random kinetic mechanism for RALDH3, in contrast with the ordered sequential mechanism often associated with aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Inhibition of RALDH3 by tri-iodothyronine binding in competition with NAD+, predicted by the modelling, was established kinetically and by immunoprecipitation. Mechanistic implications of the kinetically influential ionizations with macroscopic pKa values of 5.0 and 7.5 revealed by the pH-dependence of kcat are discussed. Analogies with data for non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans, together with the present modelled structure of the thioacyl RALDH3, suggest (a) that kcat characterizes deacylation of this intermediate for specific substrates and (b) the assignment of the pKa of the major ionization (approximating to 7.5) to the perturbed carboxy group of Glu280 whose conjugate base is envisaged as supplying general base catalysis to attack of a water molecule. The macroscopic pKa of the minor ionization (5.0) is considered to approximate to that of the carboxy group of Glu488. PMID:16241904

  19. Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Smilda, T; Kamminga, A H; Reinders, P; Baron, W; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E; Beintema, J J

    2001-05-01

    Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenases and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) are presented. Like alcohol dehydrogenases from other Drosophila species, the enzyme from D. simulans is more active on secondary than on primary alcohols, although ethanol is its only known physiological substrate. Several secondary alcohols were used to determine the kinetic parameters kcat and Km. The results of these experiments indicate that the substrate-binding region of the enzyme allows optimal binding of a short ethyl side-chain in a small binding pocket, and of a propyl or butyl side-chain in large binding pocket, with stereospecificity for R(-) alcohols. At a high concentration of R(-) alcohols substrate activation occurs. The kcat and Km values determined under these conditions are about two-fold, and two orders of magnitude, respectively, higher than those at low substrate concentrations. Sequence alignment of several SDRs of known, and unknown three-dimensional structures, indicate the presence of several conserved residues in addition to those involved in the catalyzed reactions. Structural roles of these conserved residues could be derived from observations made on superpositioned structures of several SDRs with known structures. Several residues are conserved in tetrameric SDRs, but not in dimeric ones. Two halohydrin-halide-lyases show significant homology with SDRs in the catalytic domains of these enzymes, but they do not have the structural features required for binding NAD+. Probably these lyases descend from an SDR, which has lost the capability to bind NAD+, but the enzyme reaction mechanisms may still be similar.

  20. Formaldehyde emission—Comparison of different standard methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm-Sundman, Maria; Larsen, Annelise; Vestin, Ewa; Weibull, Anders

    The emission of formaldehyde is an important factor in the evaluation of the environmental and health effects of wood-based board materials. This article gives a comparison between commonly used European test methods: chamber method [EN 717-1, 2004. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. European Standard, October 2004], gas analysis method [EN 717-2, 1994. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 2: formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method, European Standard, November 1994], flask method [EN 717-3, 1996. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 3: formaldehyde release by the flask method, European Standard, March 1996], perforator method [EN 120, 1993. Wood based panels—determination of formaldehyde content—extraction method called perforator method, European Standard, September 1993], Japanese test methods: desiccator methods [JIS A 1460, 2001. Building boards. Determination of formaldehyde emission—desiccator method, Japanese Industrial Standard, March 2001 and JAS MAFF 233, 2001] and small chamber method [JIS A 1901, 2003. Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes for building products—small chamber method, Japanese Industrial Standard, January 2003], for solid wood, particleboard, plywood and medium density fiberboard. The variations between the results from different methods can partly be explained by differences in test conditions. Factors like edge sealing, conditioning of the sample before the test and test temperature have a large effect on the final emission result. The Japanese limit for F **** of 0.3 mg l -1 (in desiccator) for particleboards was found to be equivalent to 0.04 mg m -3 in the European chamber test and 2.8 mg per 100 g in the perforator test. The variations in inter-laboratory tests are much larger than in intra-laboratory tests; the coefficient of variation is 16% and 6

  1. Inducible UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) locates to vascular tissue and has alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D; Smith, C; Bolwell, G P

    1996-01-01

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is responsible for channelling UDP-glucose into the pool of UDP-sugars utilized in the synthesis of wall matrix polysaccharides and glycoproteins. It has been purified to homogeneity from suspension-cultured cells of French bean by a combination of hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, gel filtration and dye-ligand chromatography. The enzyme had a subunit of Mr 40,000. Km values were measured for UDP-glucose as 5.5 +/- 1.4 mM and for NAD+ as 20 +/- 3 microM. It was subject to inhibition by UDP-xylose. UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activity co-purified with alcohol dehydrogenase activity from suspension-cultured cells, elicitor-treated cells and elongating hypocotyls, even when many additional chromatographic steps were employed subsequently. The protein from each source was resolved into virtually identical patterns of isoforms on two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/PAGE. However, a combination of peptide mapping and sequence analysis, gel analysis using activity staining and kinetic analysis suggests that both activities are a function of the same protein. An antibody was raised and used to immunolocalize UDP-glucose dehydrogenase to developing xylem and phloem of French bean hypocotyl. Together with data published previously, these results are consistent with an important role in the regulation of carbon flux into wall matrix polysaccharides.

  2. Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

    2002-04-28

    Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

  3. Comparison of ozone and formaldehyde as poultry hatchery disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Whistler, P.E.; Sheldon, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Ozone and formaldehyde were compared as poultry hatchery disinfectants in a poultry setter, and evaluated for effectiveness. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus spp. were inoculated onto open petri plates and exposed to ozone or onto filter paper strips and exposed to ozone or formaldehyde in a poultry setter. Ozone (1.41 to 1.68% by weight) resulted in significant bacterial reductions of greater than 4 log10 on the open plates and greater than 3 log10 on filter paper strips, whereas formaldehyde (triple strength) resulted in greater than 7 log10 reduction on filter paper strips. Ozone was similarly lethal to organisms on filter paper strips at 90% relative humidity (RH) and 13.9 C, and at 50% RH and 37.7 C. Although under the conditions of this study formaldehyde (triple strength) was more lethal than ozone, ozone killed greater than 99.9% of the starting microbial populations. In the event that formaldehyde can no longer be used in the hatchery, an effective alternative may be ozone.

  4. BioArena studies: unique function of endogenous formaldehyde and ozone in the antibiotic effect--a review.

    PubMed

    Tyihák, Erno; Móricz, Agnes M; Ott, Péter G

    2012-01-01

    The investigations demonstrated clearly a unique function and role of endogenous formaldehyde (HCHO) and ozone (O3) in the antibiotic effect of diverse molecules having different chemical structure. Elimination of HCHO and/or O3 from the layer chromatographic spots resulted in a decrease in the antimicrobial activity. On the basis of detection and measure of endogenous HCHO and O3 BioArena enables to both direct isolation and biological evaluation of new bioactive compounds.

  5. Resources, Guidance Materials for the Formaldehyde Emission Standards for Composite Wood Products Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides guidance documents and resources pertaining to formaldehyde including guidance materials pertaining to the Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products final rule at 40 CFR part 770.

  6. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  7. Formaldehyde quantitation in air samples by thiazolidine derivatization: Factors affecting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, A.; Shibamoto, T. )

    1989-11-01

    A new method for the determination of trace levels of formaldehyde in air was developed and validated. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with cysteamine to form thiazolidine. Air samples containing trace levels of formaldehyde were prepared from paraformaldehyde. The percent yield of formaldehyde from paraformaldehyde was 85.1 +/- 1.14%. Air samples were bubbled into an aqueous cysteamine trap. Thiazolidine formed from formaldehyde and cysteamine in the trap was determined by gas chromatography with a fused silica capillary column and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). The lowest detection level for thiazolidine was 17.2 pg, equivalent to 5.80 pg formaldehyde. The recovery efficiency of trace gas phase formaldehyde in air was greater than 90%. Formaldehyde levels in ambient laboratory air were 48.9-56.2 ppb (v/v).

  8. Factsheet -- EPA’s Rule to Implement the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This factsheet explains EPA's final rule to implement the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act and reduce exposure to formaldehyde vapors from certain wood products produced domestically or imported into the United States.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10286 - Formaldehyde, polymer with .alpha.- (2-aminomethylethyl)- .omega. - (2 - aminomethylethoxy)poly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-aminomethylethyl)- .omega. - (2 - aminomethylethoxy)poly and 4 - (1,1 -dimethylethyl) phenol. 721.10286 Section 721... Formaldehyde, polymer with .alpha.- (2-aminomethylethyl)- .omega. - (2 - aminomethylethoxy)poly and 4 - (1,1... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with...

  10. Formaldehyde and hydroperoxides at Mauna Loa Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Heikes, B.G. )

    1992-11-20

    Hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and a measure of organic hydroperoxides are presented from the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX). MLOPEX was conducted from May 1 to June 4, 1988, at the Mauna Loa Observatory on the island of Hawaii. A modified dual-enzyme serial-coil H[sub 2]O[sub 2]/ROOH method was used to quantify these species. A second enzyme method was used to measure CH[sub 2]O. The location and meteorology at the Mauna Loa Observatory site permitted 35 days of measurements to be made in free tropospheric air and in modified marine boundary layer air. Average concentrations of H[sub 2]O[sub 2], ROOH, and CH[sub 2]O were 1050, 140, and 100 pptv in free tropospheric, or down-slope air. In upslope air, or modified marine boundary layer air, average concentrations were 900, 150, and 190 pptv. Maximum concentrations for all three species were experienced during a two day photochemical haze episode and were 3230, 440, and 450 pptv for H[sub 2]O[sub 2], ROOH, and CH[sub 2]O. H[sub 2]O[sub 2] was depleted in air which had recently been processed by cloud or precipitation. The measured concentrations of these three species were comparable to prior measurements in well- aged air, but were lower than previous models have predicted. Part of this discrepancy may be due to the treatment of heterogeneous removal processes, dry and wet deposition, in these models. The measured ratio of ROOH to H[sub 2]O[sub 2] is significantly different than present theory predicts, with ROOH as measured being approximately a factor of 5 too low. 61 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Formaldehyde Concentration Dynamics of the International Space Station Cabin Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Formaldehyde presents a significant challenge to maintaining cabin air quality on board crewed spacecraft. Generation sources include offgassing from a variety of non-metallic materials as well as human metabolism. Because generation sources are pervasive and human health can be affected by continual exposure to low concentrations, toxicology and air quality control engineering experts jointly identified formaldehyde as a key compound to be monitored as part the International Space Station's (ISS) environmental health monitoring and maintenance program. Data acquired from in-flight air quality monitoring methods are the basis for assessing the cabin environment's suitability for long-term habitation and monitoring the performance of passive and active controls that are in place to minimize crew exposure. Formaldehyde concentration trends and dynamics served in the ISS cabin atmosphere are reviewed implications to present and future flight operations discussed.

  12. THE DISTRIBUTION OF DEUTERATED FORMALDEHYDE WITHIN ORION-KL

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neill, Justin L.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Zhang, Qizhou; Lis, Dariusz C.

    2015-08-01

    We report the first high angular resolution imaging (3.″4 × 3.″0) of deuterated formaldehyde (HDCO) toward Orion-KL, carried out with the Submillimeter Array. We find that the spatial distribution of the formaldehyde emission systematically differs from that of methanol: while methanol is found toward the inner part of the region, HDCO is found in colder gas that wraps around the methanol emission on four sides. The HDCO/H{sub 2}CO ratios are determined to be 0.003–0.009 within the region, up to an order of magnitude higher than the D/H measured for methanol. These findings strengthen the previously suggested hypothesis that there are differences in the chemical pathways leading to HDCO (via deuterated gas-phase chemistry) and deuterated methanol (through conversion of formaldehyde into methanol on the surface of icy grain mantles)

  13. Formaldehyde: catalytic oxidation as a promising soft way of elimination.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Torres, Jhon; Royer, Sébastien; Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; Lamonier, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    Compared to other molecules such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and chlorinated compounds, the catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde has been studied rarely. However, standards for the emission level of this pollutant will become more restrictive because of its extreme toxicity even at very low concentrations in air. As a consequence, the development of a highly efficient process for its selective elimination is needed. Complete catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde into CO2 and H2 O using noble-metal-based catalysts is a promising method to convert this pollutant at room temperature, making this process energetically attractive from an industrial point of view. However, the development of a less expensive active phase is required for a large-scale industrial development. Nanomaterials based on oxides of manganese are described as the most promising catalysts. The objective of this Minireview is to present promising recent studies on the removal of formaldehyde through heterogeneous catalysis to stimulate future research in this topic.

  14. Studies on adsorption of formaldehyde in zirconium phosphate-glyphosates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuejuan; Yi, Jianjun; Xu, Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    In our previous work [22], a kind of layered compound of zirconium phosphate-glyphosate (ZrGP) was synthesized. Its large surface area (445 m 2/g) indicates this compound has possible application in adsorptions. In this paper, adsorption to formaldehyde in ZrGP and mechanisms of the adsorption were studied carefully. Balance time of adsorption (about 6 h) and largest adsorbed amount (7.8%) were found when adsorption temperature was at 40 °C and pH value of adsorption environment was about 3.0. H-bonds were found existing between molecules of formaldehyde and ZrGP, and formaldehyde molecules could exist in ZrGP stably.

  15. Comparison of standard methods and gas chromatography method in determination of formaldehyde emission from MDF bonded with formaldehyde-based resins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2005-09-01

    Formaldehyde emissions from MDF bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin (UF), melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) and the co-polycondensation resin of urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) and melamine-formaldehyde, measured by the Japanese standard method of determining formaldehyde emission with a desiccator (JIS A 5908) and the DIN EN 120 (European Committee For Standardization, 1991) method using the perforator value, were used as the typical standard methods. While the UF resin showed a desiccator value of 7.05 ppm and a perforator value of 12.1 mg/100 g panel, the MF resin exhibited a desiccator value of 0.6 ppm and a perforator value of 2.88 mg/100 g panel. According to the Japanese industrial standard and the European standard, the formaldehyde emission level of the MDF panels made with UF resin in this study was E(2) grade. The formaldehyde emission level was dramatically reduced by the addition of MF resin. This is because the addition of formaldehyde to melamine occurs more easily and completely than its addition to urea, even though the condensation reaction of melamine with formaldehyde is similar to that between urea and formaldehyde. These two methods, the desiccator method and the perforator method, produced proportionally equivalent results. Gas chromatography, a more sensitive and advanced method, was also used. The samples used for gas chromatography were gathered during the experiment involving the perforator method. The formaldehyde emission levels obtained from gas chromatography were similar to those obtained from the perforator method. The formaldehyde contents measured by gas chromatography were directly proportional to the perforator values.

  16. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Anh; Steinmaus, Craig; McHale, Cliona M.; Vaughan, Charles P.; Zhang, Luoping

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde, the recently classified carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has long been suspected of causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects, but previous reviews were inconclusive, due in part, to limitations in the design of many of the human population studies. In the current review, we systematically evaluated evidence of an association between formaldehyde exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in human populations and in vivo animal studies, in the peer-reviewed literature. The mostly retrospective human studies provided evidence of an association of maternal exposure with adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Further assessment of this association by meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (1.76, 95% CI 1.20–2.59, p=0.002) and of all adverse pregnancy outcomes combined (1.54, 95% CI 1.27–1.88, p<0.001), in formaldehyde-exposed women, although differential recall, selection bias, or confounding cannot be ruled out. Evaluation of the animal studies including all routes of exposure, doses and dosing regimens studied, suggested positive associations between formaldehyde exposure and reproductive toxicity, mostly in males. Potential mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced reproductive and developmental toxicities, including chromosome and DNA damage (genotoxicity), oxidative stress, altered level and/or function of enzymes, hormones and proteins, apoptosis, toxicogenomic and epigenomic effects (such as DNA methylation), were identified. To clarify these associations, well-designed molecular epidemiologic studies, that include quantitative exposure assessment and diminish confounding factors, should examine both reproductive and developmental outcomes associated with exposure in males and females. Together with mechanistic and animal studies, this will allow us to better understand the systemic effect of formaldehyde exposure. PMID:21787879

  17. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea... section, urea-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of urea is made to react with not...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  6. Maximum exposure levels for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in cars.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Thomas; Bolt, Hermann M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2005-01-31

    Although millions of individuals are exposed to emissions from articles inside cars, relatively little has been published about possible adverse health effects and about exposure levels that can be considered safe or "acceptable". Xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde represent typical examples of relevant volatile organic substances (VOC) released from articles inside cars. Recently, a concept for derivation of maximum exposure levels for volatile organic substances in cars has been published. In the present study we applied this concept to derive maximum exposure levels for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and compared the resulting concentrations to exposure levels usually found inside of cars. We derived Short Term Exposure Levels Inside Automotive Vehicles (STELIA) of 29, 0.125 and 15.3 mg/m(3) for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively. These STELIAs should not be exceeded during short-term exposures, for instance when starting a car that had been heated up during parking in the sun. Exposure Levels Inside Automotive Vehicles (ELIA, chronic) for chronic exposure to non-genotoxic substances were 8.8, 0.125 and 0.635 mg/m(3) for systemic as well as 17.6, 0.125 and 1.7 mg/m(3) for local exposure to xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively. Although, it is known that exposure limits for carcinogenic substances should be treated with caution, encouraged by the well documented threshold mechanisms we nevertheless derived ELIAs for Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Substances (ELIA, cm) resulting in 0.125 and 0.635 mg/m(3) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. If these ELIAs are matched against average concentrations of xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde found in cars at 23 degrees C (1.22, 0.048 and 0.042 mg/m(3)), there is no reason for concern. With respect to STELIAs and extrapolated concentrations at 65 degrees C (14.7, 1.47 and 1.68 mg/m(3), for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively), however, a reduction of the

  7. Physicochemical studies on the reaction between formaldehyde and DNA.

    PubMed

    FREIFELDER, D; DAVISON, P F

    1963-01-01

    The reaction between formaldehyde and phage T7 DNA has been studied by optical absorbance and sedimentation measurements. Through the course of denaturation, OD(200) and s(20, w) rise; after the attainment of full hyperchromicity the s(20, w) falls sharply, suggesting a decrease in molecular weight. Conditions in which formaldehyde causes cross-linking are defined. Some experimental applications of the denaturation technique are given. Evidence which suggests that preformed single-strand interruptions may exist in phage DNA is briefly discussed.

  8. Physicochemical Studies on the Reaction between Formaldehyde and DNA

    PubMed Central

    Freifelder, David; Davison, Peter F.

    1963-01-01

    The reaction between formaldehyde and phage T7 DNA has been studied by optical absorbance and sedimentation measurements. Through the course of denaturation, OD200 and s20, w rise; after the attainment of full hyperchromicity the s20, w falls sharply, suggesting a decrease in molecular weight. Conditions in which formaldehyde causes cross-linking are defined. Some experimental applications of the denaturation technique are given. Evidence which suggests that preformed single-strand interruptions may exist in phage DNA is briefly discussed. PMID:13959526

  9. Synthesis and thermal degradation studies of melamine formaldehyde resins.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M A; Nadeem, M; Naz, M Y; Tan, W L; Shariff, A M

    2014-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7%) was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125 wt.% was obtained with sample 10.

  10. Synthesis and Thermal Degradation Studies of Melamine Formaldehyde Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M. A.; Nadeem, M.; Tan, W. L.; Shariff, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7%) was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125 wt.% was obtained with sample 10. PMID:25436237

  11. Separation of long RNA by agarose-formaldehyde gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Farrah H; Pestov, Dimitri G

    2013-10-01

    We describe a method to facilitate electrophoretic separation of high-molecular-weight RNA species, such as ribosomal RNAs and their precursors, on agarose-formaldehyde gels. Two alternative "pK-matched" buffer systems were substituted for the traditionally used Mops-based conductive medium. The key advantages include shortened run times, a 5-fold reduction in formaldehyde concentration, a significantly improved resolution of long RNAs, and consistency in separation. The new procedure has a streamlined work flow that helps to minimize errors and is broadly applicable to agarose gel electrophoresis of RNA samples and their subsequent analysis by Northern blotting.

  12. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  13. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  17. Opine dehydrogenases in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Harcet, Matija; Perina, Drago; Pleše, Bruna

    2013-10-01

    It is well known today that opine production anaerobic pathways are analogs to the classical glycolytic pathway (lactate production pathway). These pathways, catalyzed by a group of enzymes called opine dehydrogenases (OpDHs), ensure continuous flux of glycolysis and a constant supply of ATP by maintaining the NADH/NAD(+) ratio during exercise and hypoxia, thus regulating the cytosolic redox balance in glycolysis under anoxia. OpDHs are distributed in a wide range of marine invertebrate phyla, including sponges (Porifera). Phylogenetic analyses supported with enzymatic assays strongly indicate that sponge OpDHs constitute an enzyme class unrelated to other OpDHs. Therefore, OpDHs in marine invertebrates are divided into two groups, a mollusk/annelid type and a sponge type, which belongs to the OCD/mu-crystallin family.

  18. Radical-induced chemistry from VUV photolysis of interstellar ice analogues containing formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butscher, Teddy; Duvernay, Fabrice; Danger, Grégoire; Chiavassa, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Surface processes and radical chemistry within interstellar ices are increasingly suspected to play an important role in the formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) observed in several astrophysical regions and cometary environments. We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of complex organic molecules - glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol, and polyoxymethylene - through radical-induced reactivity from VUV photolysis of formaldehyde in water-free and water-dominated ices. Radical reactivity and endogenous formation of COMs were monitored in situ via infrared spectroscopy in the solid state and post photolysis with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) using a quadripole mass spectrometer. We show the ability of free radicals to be stored when formed at low temperature in water-dominated ices, and to react with other radicals or on double bonds of unsaturated molecules when the temperature increases. It experimentally confirms the role of thermal diffusion in radical reactivity. We propose a new pathway for formaldehyde polymerisation induced by HCO radicals that might explain some observations made by the Ptolemy instrument on board the Rosetta lander Philae. In addition, our results seem to indicate that H-atom additions on H2CO proceed preferentially through CH2OH intermediate radicals rather than the CH3O radical.

  19. In-situ Ground-Based and Airborne Formaldehyde Measurements in the Houston Area During TexAQS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglueck, B.; Byun, D.; Alvarez, S.; Buhr, M.; Coarfa, V.; Czader, B.; Dasgupta, P.; Estes, M.; Kim, S.; Leuchner, M.; Luke, W.; Shauck, M.; Zanin, G.

    2007-12-01

    Formaldehyde is considered to play a significant role in summertime photochemistry in the Houston area, in particular it is considered an important source for radicals. Secondary formation seems to be the most important fraction of ambient HCHO. Enhanced nighttime values may indicate primary sources. Potential sources may include mobile sources such as traffic exhaust, in particular not well maintained Diesel engines. Other possible sources may include point sources such as coffee roasting and flares from refineries. In this study we focused on the TexAQS-II continuous in-situ formaldehyde data set based on Hantzsch reaction which was obtained in the Ship Channel area (HRM3 and Lynchburg Ferry site) and at the Moody Tower for several weeks. We also include in-situ HCHO measurements obtained with the same technique aboard the Baylor aircraft during TexAQS-II flight missions. Formaldehyde data was compared to several trace gases that are supposed to be coemitted including CO (traffic), ethylene (flares), and SO2 (industry). In order to keep photochemical processes at a minimum special focus was on nighttime data. Case studies will be discussed where meteorological conditions including recirculation and boundary layer developments seem to play a major role in the redistribution of HCHO. Observations will be compared to CMAQ model studies.

  20. Heterozygosity of the sheep: Polymorphism of 'malic enzyme', isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+), catalase and esterase.

    PubMed

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1977-04-01

    In contrast to other reports, it is found that the sheep has approximately as much enzyme variation as man. Most of the genetically interpretable enzyme variation in heart, liver, kidney and muscle from 52 sheep (Merinos or Merino crosses) is in the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases [two 'malic enzymes' and the supernatant isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)] and in the esterases. Ten different loci for NAD-dependent dehydrogenases are electrophoretically monomorphic, as are five different NADH diaphorases from heart muscle and 15 different major proteins from skeletal muscle. It is highly statistically significant that NADP-dependent dehydrogenases and esterases are polymorphic but representatives of several other major classes of enzymes are not. The physiological significance of this polymorphism may be related to the role of these enzymes in growth and detoxication, sheep having been selected by man for faster growth, of wool or of carcass, and for grazing a wide variety of plants.

  1. High substrate specificity of ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH), a short-chain dehydrogenase from Ips pini bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Pak, Heidi; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Ips spp. bark beetles use ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsdienone and ipsenone as aggregation pheromone components and pheromone precursors. For Ips pini, the short-chain oxidoreductase ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) converts (-)-ipsdienol to ipsdienone, and thus likely plays a role in determining pheromone composition. In order to further understand the role of IDOLDH in pheromone biosynthesis, we compared IDOLDH to its nearest functionally characterized ortholog with a solved structure: human L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II/ amyloid-β binding alcohol dehydrogenase (hHADH II/ABAD), and conducted functional assays of recombinant IDOLDH to determine substrate and product ranges and structural characteristics. Although IDOLDH and hHADH II/ABAD had only 35% sequence identity, their predicted tertiary structures had high identity. We found IDOLDH is a functional homo-tetramer. In addition to oxidizing (-)-ipsdienol, IDOLDH readily converted racemic ipsenol to ipsenone, and stereo-specifically reduced both ketones to their corresponding (-)-alcohols. The (+)-enantiomers were never observed as products. Assays with various substrate analogs showed IDOLDH had high substrate specificity for (-)-ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsenone and ipsdienone, supporting that IDOLDH functions as a pheromone-biosynthetic enzyme. These results suggest that different IDOLDH orthologs and or activity levels contribute to differences in Ips spp. pheromone composition.

  2. Molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Robertson, A G; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of xylB and xylC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, were determined. The complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II is a 51654 Da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase has a subunit Mr of 38923 consisting of 370 amino acids, it stereospecifically transfers the proR hydride of NADH, and it is a member of the family of zinc-dependent long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme appears to be more similar to animal and higher-plant alcohol dehydrogenases than it is to most other microbial alcohol dehydrogenases. Residue His-51 of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases is thought to be necessary as a general base for catalysis in this category of alcohol dehydrogenases. However, this residue was found to be replaced in benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus by an isoleucine, and the introduction of a histidine residue in this position did not alter the kinetic coefficients, pH optimum or substrate specificity of the enzyme. Other workers have shown that His-51 is also absent from the TOL-plasmid-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas putida and so these two closely related enzymes presumably have a catalytic mechanism that differs from that of the archetypal zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:9494109

  3. BIOGENIC SOURCES FOR FORMALDEHYDE AND ACETALDEHYDE DURING SUMMER MONTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photochemical modeling estimated contributions to ambient concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde from biogenic emissions over the continental United States during January 2001 (Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract A52B-0117). Results showed that maximum co...

  4. The methods of formaldehyde emission testing of engine: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Geng, Peng; Cao, Erming; Wei, Lijiang

    2015-12-01

    A number of measurements have been provided to detect formaldehyde in the atmosphere, but there are no clear unified standards in engine exhaust. Nowadays, formaldehyde, an unregulated emission from methanol engine, has been attracting increasing attention by researchers. This paper presents the detection techniques for formaldehyde emitted from the engines applied in recent market, introducing the approaches in terms of unregulated emission tests of formaldehyde, which involved gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, chromatography-spectrum, Fourier infrared spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The author also introduces the comparison regarding to the advantages of the existing detection techniques based on the principle, to compare with engine exhaust sampling method, the treatment in advance of detection, obtaining approaches accessing to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromatograms or spectra. The accuratest result obtained was chromatography though it cannot be used continuously. It also can be utilized to develop high requirements of emissions and other regulations. Fourier infrared spectroscopy has the advantage of continuous detection for a variety of unregulated emissions and can be applied to the bench in variable condition. However, its accuracy is not as good as chromatography. As the conclusion, a detection technique is chosen based on different requirements.

  5. An Alternative to Formaldehyde. Avoiding the Carcinogenic Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrations in which glyoxal may be substituted for formaldehyde, a known carcinogen, are presented. An acid-base clock reaction and a copper mirror on the inside of a test tube are described. Directions for the demonstrations and safety precautions are included. (KR)

  6. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing new requirements...

  7. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 2, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices...

  9. A mathematical model for the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde vapour by humans

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.J. . E-mail: Susan.Franks@hsl.gov.uk

    2005-08-15

    Epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to formaldehyde gas (HCHO) have suggested possible links between concentration and duration of exposure, and elevated risks of leukaemia and other cancers at sites distant from the site of contact. Formaldehyde is a highly water soluble gas which, when inhaled, reacts rapidly at the site of contact and is quickly metabolised by enzymes in the respiratory tissue. Inhaled formaldehyde is almost entirely absorbed in the respiratory tract and, for formaldehyde induced toxicity to occur at distant sites, HCHO must enter the blood and be transported to systemic tissues via the circulatory system. A mathematical model describing the absorption and removal of inhaled formaldehyde in the nasal tissue is therefore formulated to predict the proportion of formaldehyde entering into the blood. Accounting for the spatial distribution of the formaldehyde concentration and the metabolic activity within the mucosa, the concentration of formaldehyde in the mucus, the epithelium and the blood has been determined and was found to attain a steady-state profile within a few seconds of exposure. The increase of the formaldehyde concentration in the blood was predicted to be insignificant compared with the existing pre-exposure levels in the body, indicating that formaldehyde is rapidly removed in the nasal tissue. The results of the model thus suggest that it is highly unlikely that following inhalation by the nose, formaldehyde itself will cause toxicity at sites other than the initial site of contact in the respiratory tract.

  10. Lack of bronchomotor response to up to 3 ppm formaldehyde in subjects with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, D.; Eschenbacher, W.L.; Epstein, J.

    1984-10-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether exposure to concentrations of formaldehyde occasionally encountered in polluted indoor air would cause bronchoconstriction in subjects with mild asthma. In seven subjects the increase in specific airways resistance (SR/sub aw/) caused by inhalation of 1 ppm formaldehyde for 10 min was compared with the response caused by inhalation of formaldehyde-free air. Also, the increase in SR/sub aw/ caused by inhalation of 1 and 3 ppm formaldehyde during moderate exercise for 10 min was compared with the response caused by inhalation of formaldehyde-free air during exercise for 10 min. Inhalation of formaldehyde at rest and during exercise did not cause a signficant increase in SR/aw/ in the subjects. It is concluded that brief exposure to these concentrations of formaldehyde, even in association with moderate exercise, is unlikely by itself to cause significant bronchoconstriction in most subjects with mild asthma.

  11. Anthracycline-Formaldehyde Conjugates and Their Targeted Prodrugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Tad H.; Barthel, Benjamin L.; Kalet, Brian T.; Rudnicki, Daniel L.; Post, Glen C.; Burkhart, David J.

    The sequence of research leading to a proposal for anthracycline cross-linking of DNA is presented. The clinical anthracycline antitumor drugs are anthraquinones, and as such are redox active. Their redox chemistry leads to induction of oxidative stress and drug metabolites. An intermediate in reductive glycosidic cleavage is a quinone methide, once proposed as an alkylating agent of DNA. Subsequent research now implicates formaldehyde as a mediator of anthracycline-DNA cross-linking. The cross-link at 5'-GC-3' sites consists of a covalent linkage from the amino group of the anthracycline to the 2-amino group of the G-base through a methylene from formaldehyde, hydrogen bonding from the 9-OH to the G-base on the opposing strand, and hydrophobic interactions through intercalation of the anthraquinone. The combination of these interactions has been described as a virtual cross-link of DNA. The origin of the formaldehyde in vivo remains a mystery. In vitro, doxorubicin reacts with formaldehyde to give firstly a monomeric oxazolidine, doxazolidine, and secondly a dimeric oxazolidine, doxoform. Doxorubicin reacts with formaldehyde in the presence of salicylamide to give the N-Mannich base conjugate, doxsaliform. Doxsaliform is several fold more active in tumor cell growth inhibition than doxorubicin, but doxazolidine and doxoform are orders of magnitude more active than doxorubicin. Exploratory research on the potential for doxsaliform and doxazolidine as targeted cytotoxins is presented. A promising lead design is pentyl PABC-Doxaz, targeted to a carboxylesterase enzyme overexpressed in liver cancer cells and/or colon cancer cells.

  12. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Hao, Zhenyue; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hua, Ming; Ji, Zhiying; Li, Senhua; Xiong, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Liu, Songwang; Xin, Kerry X.; Azuma, Mariko; Xie, Yuxuan; Freeman, Laura Beane; Ruan, Xiaolin; Guo, Weihong; Galvan, Noe; Blair, Aaron; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde is used in many occupational settings, most notably in manufacturing, health care, and embalming. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human carcinogen, but its mechanism of action remains uncertain. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde exposed-workers and 51 unexposed age and sex-matched controls in Guangdong, China to study formaldehyde’s early biologic effects. To follow-up our previous report that the total lymphocyte count was decreased in formaldehyde-exposed workers compared to controls, we evaluated each major lymphocyte subset (i.e., CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and B cells) and T cell lymphocyte subset (CD4+ naïve and memory T cells, CD8+ naïve and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells). Linear regression of each subset was used to test for differences between exposed workers and controls, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Total NK cell and T cell counts were about 24% (p=0.037) and 16% (p=0.0042) lower, respectively, among exposed workers. Among certain T cell subsets, decreased counts among exposed workers were observed for CD8+ T cells (p=0.026), CD8+ effector memory T cells (p=0.018), and regulatory T cells (CD4+FoxP3+: p=0.04; CD25+FoxP3+: p=0.008). Conclusions Formaldehyde exposed-workers experienced decreased counts of NK cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8+ effector memory T cells; however, due to the small sample size these findings need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:22767408

  13. A Cluster of Four Homologous Small RNAs Modulates C1 Metabolism and the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Rhodobacter sphaeroides under Various Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Billenkamp, Fabian; Peng, Tao; Berghoff, Bork A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, regulatory RNAs play an important role in the regulation and balancing of many cellular processes and stress responses. Among these regulatory RNAs, trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNAs) are of particular interest since one sRNA can lead to the regulation of multiple target mRNAs. In the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, several sRNAs are induced by oxidative stress. In this study, we focused on the functional characterization of four homologous sRNAs that are cotranscribed with the gene for the conserved hypothetical protein RSP_6037, a genetic arrangement described for only a few sRNAs until now. Each of the four sRNAs is characterized by two stem-loops that carry CCUCCUCCC motifs in their loops. They are induced under oxidative stress, as well as by various other stress conditions, and were therefore renamed here sRNAs CcsR1 to CcsR4 (CcsR1–4) for conserved CCUCCUCCC motif stress-induced RNAs 1 to 4. Increased CcsR1–4 expression decreases the expression of genes involved in C1 metabolism or encoding components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex either directly by binding to their target mRNAs or indirectly. One of the CcsR1–4 target mRNAs encodes the transcriptional regulator FlhR, an activator of glutathione-dependent methanol/formaldehyde metabolism. Downregulation of this glutathione-dependent pathway increases the pool of glutathione, which helps to counteract oxidative stress. The FlhR-dependent downregulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reduces a primary target of reactive oxygen species and reduces aerobic electron transport, a main source of reactive oxygen species. Our findings reveal a previously unknown strategy used by bacteria to counteract oxidative stress. IMPORTANCE Phototrophic organisms have to cope with photo-oxidative stress due to the function of chlorophylls as photosensitizers for the formation of singlet oxygen. Our study assigns an important role in photo-oxidative stress resistance to a

  14. Targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeo; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; DiNardo, Courtney D; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip

    2016-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG. High levels of 2-HG have been shown to inhibit α-KG dependent dioxygenases, including histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Current targeted inhibitors of IDH1 (AG120, IDH305), IDH2 (AG221), and pan-IDH1/2 (AG881) selectively inhibit mutant IDH protein and induce cell differentiation in in vitro and in vivo models. Preliminary results from phase I clinical trials with IDH inhibitors in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated an objective response rate ranging from 31% to 40% with durable responses (>1 year) observed. Furthermore, the IDH inhibitors have demonstrated early signals of activity in solid tumors with IDH mutations, including cholangiocarcinomas and low grade gliomas.

  15. Functional Analysis of a Mosquito Short Chain Dehydrogenase Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Jaime G.; Leonard, Kate T.; Defelipe, Lucas A.; Turjansksi, Adrian G.; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriegal, Fernando G.

    2013-01-01

    The short chain dehydrogenases (SDR) constitute one the oldest and largest families of enzymes with over 46,000 members in sequence databases. About 25% of all known dehydrogenases belong to the SDR family. SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. This family is present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota, emphasizing their versatility and fundamental importance for metabolic processes. We identified a cluster of eight SDRs in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AaSDRs). Members of the cluster differ in tissue specificity and developmental expression. Heterologous expression produced recombinant proteins that had diverse substrate specificities, but distinct from the conventional insect alcohol (ethanol) dehydrogenases. They are all NADP+-dependent and they have S-enantioselectivity and preference for secondary alcohols with 8–15 carbons. Homology modeling was used to build the structure of AaSDR1 and two additional cluster members. The computational study helped explain the selectivity towards the (10S)-isomers as well as the reduced activity of AaSDR4 and AaSDR9 for longer isoprenoid substrates. Similar clusters of SDRs are present in other species of insects, suggesting similar selection mechanisms causing duplication and diversification of this family of enzymes. PMID:23238893

  16. Characterization of two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenases from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kento; Nakanishi, Fumika; Tomita, Takeo; Akiyama, Nagisa; Lassak, Kerstin; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon, possesses two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenase genes, saci_0600 and saci_2375, in its genome, which suggests that it uses these enzymes for three similar reactions in lysine biosynthesis through 2-aminoadipate, leucine biosynthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To elucidate their roles, these two genes were expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study and their gene products were characterized. Saci_0600 recognized 3-isopropylmalate as a substrate, but exhibited slight and no activity for homoisocitrate and isocitrate, respectively. Saci_2375 exhibited distinct and similar activities for isocitrate and homoisocitrate, but no detectable activity for 3-isopropylmalate. These results suggest that Saci_0600 is a 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase for leucine biosynthesis and Saci_2375 is a dual function enzyme serving as isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. The crystal structure of Saci_0600 was determined as a closed-form complex that binds 3-isopropylmalate and Mg(2+), thereby revealing the structural basis for the extreme thermostability and novel-type recognition of the 3-isopropyl moiety of the substrate.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... conversion is essential to begin the series of chemical reactions that produce energy for cells. The pyruvate dehydrogenase ... E3, each of which performs part of the chemical reaction that converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. In addition, ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skin on the palms and soles (hand-foot syndrome); shortness of breath; and hair loss may also ... dehydrogenase deficiency , with its early-onset neurological symptoms, is a rare disorder. Its prevalence is ...

  19. Growth of Bacillus methanolicus in 2 M methanol at 50 °C: the effect of high methanol concentration on gene regulation of enzymes involved in formaldehyde detoxification by the ribulose monophosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Ahmet; Komives, Claire; Flickinger, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 is a Gram-positive aerobic methylotroph growing optimally at 50-53°C. Methylotrophy in B. methanolicus is encoded on pBM19 and by two chromosomal copies of the methanol dehydrogenase (mdh), hexulose phosphate synthase (hps) and phosphohexuloisomerase (phi) genes. However, there are no published studies on the regulation of methylotrophy or the dominant mechanism of detoxification of intracellular formaldehyde in response to high methanol concentration. The µ max of B. methanolicus MGA3 was assessed on methanol, mannitol and glucose. B. methanolicus achieved a µ max at 25 mM initial methanol of 0.65 ± 0.007 h(-1), which decreased to 0.231 ± 0.004 h(-1) at 2 M initial methanol. Slow growth was also observed with initial methanol concentrations of >2 M. The µ max on mannitol and glucose are 0.532 ± 0.002 and 0.336 ± 0.003 h(-1), respectively. Spiking cultures with additional methanol (100 mM) did not disturb the growth rate of methanol-grown cells, whereas, a 50 mM methanol spike halted the growth in mannitol. Surprisingly, growth in methanol was inhibited by 1 mM formaldehyde, while mannitol-grown cells tolerated 2 mM. Moreover, mannitol-grown cells removed formaldehyde faster than methanol-grown cells. Further, we show that methanol oxidation in B. methanolicus MGA3 is mainly carried out by the pBM19-encoded mdh. Formaldehyde and formate addition down-regulate the mdh and hps genes in methanol-grown cells. Similarly, they down-regulate mdh genes in mannitol-grown cells, but up-regulate hps. Phosphofructokinase (pfk) is up-regulated in both methanol and mannitol-grown cells, which suggests that pfk may be a possible synthetic methylotrophy target to reduce formaldehyde growth toxicity at high methanol concentrations.

  20. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  1. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) in bacteria: a bioinformatic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kisiela, Michael; Skarka, Adam; Ebert, Bettina; Maser, Edmund

    2012-03-01

    Steroidal compounds including cholesterol, bile acids and steroid hormones play a central role in various physiological processes such as cell signaling, growth, reproduction, and energy homeostasis. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), which belong to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) or aldo-keto reductases (AKR), are important enzymes involved in the steroid hormone metabolism. HSDs function as an enzymatic switch that controls the access of receptor-active steroids to nuclear hormone receptors and thereby mediate a fine-tuning of the steroid response. The aim of this study was the identification of classified functional HSDs and the bioinformatic annotation of these proteins in all complete sequenced bacterial genomes followed by a phylogenetic analysis. For the bioinformatic annotation we constructed specific hidden Markov models in an iterative approach to provide a reliable identification for the specific catalytic groups of HSDs. Here, we show a detailed phylogenetic analysis of 3α-, 7α-, 12α-HSDs and two further functional related enzymes (3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenase, 3-ketosteroid-Δ(4)(5α)-dehydrogenase) from the superfamily of SDRs. For some bacteria that have been previously reported to posses a specific HSD activity, we could annotate the corresponding HSD protein. The dominating phyla that were identified to express HSDs were that of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Moreover, some evolutionarily more ancient microorganisms (e.g., Cyanobacteria and Euryachaeota) were found as well. A large number of HSD-expressing bacteria constitute the normal human gastro-intestinal flora. Another group of bacteria were originally isolated from natural habitats like seawater, soil, marine and permafrost sediments. These bacteria include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus. In conclusion, HSDs are found in a wide variety of microorganisms including

  2. Role of intragenic binding of cAMP responsive protein (CRP) in regulation of the succinate dehydrogenase genes Rv0249c-Rv0247c in TB complex mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Gwendowlyn S; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Peterson, Matthew W; Gomes, Antonio L C; Ma, Zhuo; Galagan, James E; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2015-06-23

    Bacterial pathogens adapt to changing environments within their hosts, and the signaling molecule adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) facilitates this process. In this study, we characterized in vivo DNA binding and gene regulation by the cAMP-responsive protein CRP in M. bovis BCG as a model for tuberculosis (TB)-complex bacteria. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep-sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed that CRP associates with ∼900 DNA binding regions, most of which occur within genes. The most highly enriched binding region was upstream of a putative copper transporter gene (ctpB), and crp-deleted bacteria showed increased sensitivity to copper toxicity. Detailed mutational analysis of four CRP binding sites upstream of the virulence-associated Rv0249c-Rv0247c succinate dehydrogenase genes demonstrated that CRP directly regulates Rv0249c-Rv0247c expression from two promoters, one of which requires sequences intragenic to Rv0250c for maximum expression. The high percentage of intragenic CRP binding sites and our demonstration that these intragenic DNA sequences significantly contribute to biologically relevant gene expression greatly expand the genome space that must be considered for gene regulatory analyses in mycobacteria. These findings also have practical implications for an important bacterial pathogen in which identification of mutations that affect expression of drug target-related genes is widely used for rapid drug resistance screening.

  3. Structural Basis for "Flip-Flop" Action of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand

    2003-01-01

    The derivative of vitamin B1, thiamin pyrophosphate is a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a component enzyme of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex that plays a major role in directing energy metabolism in the cell. This cofactor is used to cleave the C(sup alpha)-C(=O) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. In alpha(sub 2)beta(sub 2)-tetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, there are two cofactor binding sites, each of them being a center of independently conducted, although highly coordinated enzymatic reactions. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites can now be understood based on the recently determined crystal structure of the holo-form of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.95A resolution. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase was determined using a combination of MAD phasing and molecular replacement followed by rounds of torsion-angles molecular-dynamics simulated-annealing refinement. The final pyruvate dehydrogenase structure included coordinates for all protein amino acids two cofactor molecules, two magnesium and two potassium ions, and 742 water molecules. The structure was refined to R = 0.202 and R(sub free) = 0.244. Our structural analysis of the enzyme folding and domain assembly identified a simple mechanism of this protein motion required for the conduct of catalytic action.

  4. Decrease in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase is related to skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Mitsuo; Murakami, Yuhko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru

    2012-03-01

    Skin pigmentation is caused by various physical and chemical factors. It might also be influenced by changes in the physiological function of skin with aging. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase is an enzyme related to the mitochondrial electron transport system and plays a key role in cellular energy production. It has been reported that the functional decrease in this system causes Parkinson's disease. Another study reports that the amount of NADH dehydrogenase in heart and skeletal muscle decreases with aging. A similar decrease in the skin would probably affect its physiological function. However, no reports have examined the age-related change in levels of NADH dehydrogenase in human skin. In this study, we investigated this change and its effect on skin pigmentation using cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The mRNA expression of NDUFA1, NDUFB7, and NDUFS2, subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, and its activity were significantly decreased in late passage keratinocytes compared to early passage cells. Conversely, the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha and endothelin 1, was increased in late passage cells. On the other hand, the inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase upregulated the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines. Moreover, the level of NDUFB7 mRNA was lower in pigmented than in nonpigmented regions of skin in vivo. These results suggest the decrease in NADH dehydrogenase with aging to be involved in skin pigmentation.

  5. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  6. Gene silencing in phlebotomine sand flies: Xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjections.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Mauricio R; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A; Dillon, Rod J

    2008-06-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis are vectors of medically important visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Blood-fed adult females digest large amounts of protein, and xanthine dehydrogenase is thought to be a key enzyme involved in protein catabolism through the production of urate. Large amounts of heme are also released during digestion with potentially damaging consequences, as heme can generate oxygen radicals that damage lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. However, urate is an antioxidant that may prevent such oxidative damage produced by heme. We investigated xanthine dehydrogenase by developing the RNAi technique for sand flies and used this technique to knock down the Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase gene to evaluate its role in survival of adult females after blood feeding. The gene sequence of Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase is described together with expression in different life cycle stages and RNAi knock down. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR of xanthine dehydrogenase expression showed a significant increase in expression after bloodmeal ingestion. Microinjection of dsRNA via the thorax of 1-day-old adult female sand flies resulted in approximately 40% reduction of xanthine dehydrogenase gene expression in comparison to flies injected with a control dsRNA. A significant reduction of urate in the whole body and excretions of Lu. longipalpis was observed after dsRNA xanthine dehydrogenase microinjection and feeding 96h later on rabbit blood. Sand flies injected with XDH dsRNA also exhibit significantly reduced life span in comparison with the mock-injected group when fed on sucrose or when rabbit blood fed, showing that urate could be indeed an important free radical scavenger in Lu. longipalpis. The demonstration of xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjection, low mortality of microinjected insects and the successful bloodfeeding of injected insects demonstrated the utility of RNAi as a tool for functional analysis of genes in phlebotomine

  7. Comparative occupational exposures to formaldehyde released from inhaled wood product dusts versus that in vapor form.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Nathalie H; Brunet, Robert C; Carrier, Gaétan

    2003-05-01

    Particle boards and other wood boards are usually made with formaldehyde-based resins. Woodworkers are thus exposed to formaldehyde in vapor form as well as from airborne dust once it enters their respiratory tract. These workers remain exposed to formaldehyde released from the dust still present in their upper respiratory tract, even after their work shift. In assessing the risk associated with formaldehyde exposure, one needs to consider the relative importance of these two sources of exposure. This study proposes two kinetic models to estimate and compare the exposures. For various exposure scenarios, one model predicts the amount of formaldehyde absorbed from the ambient vapor form and the other predicts the amount absorbed by the respiratory tract upon its release from wood product dust. Model parameters are determined using data from published studies. Based on a daily work shift of 8 hr, with a dust concentration in air of 5 mg/m(3) and a formaldehyde concentration bound to dust of 9 microg/mg, model simulations predict that the amount of absorbed formaldehyde released from wood dust is approximately 1/100 of the amount absorbed from the ambient vapor form at a concentration level of 0.38 mg/m(3) (0.3 ppm). Since the formaldehyde concentration in wood dust used above is much higher than usually observed while the dust and vapor form formaldehyde concentrations are of the order of acceptable upper values, these results indicate that the formaldehyde exposure from wood dust is comparatively negligible.

  8. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  9. Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-04-01

    The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment.

  10. Regulation of heart muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.; Denton, Richard M.

    1974-01-01

    1. The activity of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was assayed by the incorporation of [32P]phosphate from [γ-32P]ATP into the dehydrogenase complex. There was a very close correlation between this incorporation and the loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity with all preparations studied. 2. Nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (at 100μm) and cyclic 3′:5′-nucleotides (at 10μm) had no significant effect on kinase activity. 3. The Km for thiamin pyrophosphate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 0.76μm. Sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate, ADP and GTP were competitive inhibitors against thiamin pyrophosphate in the dehydrogenase reaction. 4. The Km for ATP of the intrinsic kinase assayed in three preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 13.9–25.4μm. Inhibition by ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate was predominantly competitive, but there was nevertheless a definite non-competitive element. Thiamin pyrophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate were uncompetitive inhibitors against ATP. It is suggested that ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate inhibit the kinase mainly by binding to the ATP site and that the adenosine moiety may be involved in this binding. It is suggested that thiamin pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and ADP may inhibit the kinase by binding through pyrophosphate or imidodiphosphate moieties at some site other than the ATP site. It is not known whether this is the coenzyme-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. 5. The Km for pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 35.5μm. 2-Oxobutyrate and 3-hydroxypyruvate but not glyoxylate were also substrates; all three compounds inhibited pyruvate oxidation. 6. In preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate, pyruvate inhibited the kinase reaction at all concentrations in the range 25–500μm. The inhibition was uncompetitive. In the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate

  11. Role of glucocorticoid receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in the feed-forward induction of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Guo, Chunming; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Myatt, Leslie; Sun, Kang

    2007-11-01

    The amount of cortisol available to its receptors is increased by the pre-receptor enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) which converts cortisone to cortisol. We examined the molecular mechanisms of the feedback effect of cortisol on 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in human amnion fibroblasts. Our data showed that cortisol-induced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression dose dependently in amnion fibroblasts, which could be completely blocked both by the mRNA transcription inhibitor 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside and by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486, and partially blocked by global inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) with transfection of C/EBP-specific dominant-negative expression CMV500 plasmid (AC/EBP) into the cells. Likewise, the induction of the promoter activity by cortisol could also be completely blocked by RU486 and partially by AC/EBP transfection. Progressive 5' deletion of the 11beta-HSD1promoter located the region responsible for cortisol's induction within -204 bp upstream to the transcription start site. Specific nucleotide mutations of the putative glucocorticoid responsive element or CCAAT in this promoter region attenuated the induction by cortisol. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that GR and C/EBPalpha but not C/EBPbeta could bind this promoter region upon cortisol stimulation of amnion fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GR and C/EBPalpha were involved in cortisol-induced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression via binding to 11beta-HSD1 promoter in amnion fibroblasts, which may cast a feed-forward production of cortisol in the fetal membranes at the end of gestation.

  12. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Lin-Ying; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.8%), compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7%) and positive predictive value (97.2%), but low sensitivity (45.0%) and negative predictive value (88.3%), compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing.

  13. Rotational Spectra of Adducts of Formaldehyde with Freons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Gou; Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, W.; Lopez, Montserrat Vallejo; Lesarri, Alberto; Cocinero, Emilio

    2013-06-01

    The rotational spectra of three 1:1 complexes of formaldehyde (H_{2}CO) with freons, i.e. difluoromethane (CH_{2}F_{2}), fluorochloromethane (CH_{2}FCl) and trifluorochloromethane (CF_{3}Cl), have been observed and assigned using pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave technique. Several isotopologues (including some ^{13}C species) have been measured in natural abundance. The tunnelling splittings have been measured in the first two adducts with relative intensity 1:3, due to the internal rotation of the formaldehyde moity along its symmetry axis. The barriers to this motion have been estimated by using a flexible model. For the latter two complexes, each of transition displays the hyperfine structures due to the quadrupolar effects of ^{35}Cl (^{37}Cl) nucleus. The dissociation energy has been estimated within the pseudo-diatomic approximation for all three complexes.

  14. Enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Slegers, G.; Lambrecht, R.H.D.; Vandewalle, T.; Meulewaeter, L.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1984-03-01

    An enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde from C-11 methanol is presented, with immobilized alcohol oxidase and catalase: a rapid, simple procedure, with a high and reproducible yield. Carbon-11 methanol is oxidized to C-11 formaldehyde by passage over a column on which the enzymes alcohol oxidase and catalase are immobilized. The catalase increases reaction velocity by recycling the oxygen, and prevents destruction of the alcohol oxidase by eliminating the excess of hydrogen peroxide. The yield of the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation was 80-95%. A specific activity of 400-450 mCi/..mu..mole was obtained at EOB + 20 min. Various immobilization techniques and the optimal reaction conditions of the immobilized enzymes are investigated.

  15. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal: New Products in the SCIAMACHY Operational Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrechanyy, Serhiy; de Smedt, Isabelle; Kretschel, Klaus; Lichtenberg, Günter; Meringer, Markus; Wittrock, Folkard

    In sommer of 2010 version 6 of the SCIAMACHY operational processor is planned to be deliv-ered to ESA. The SCIAMACHY Quality Working Group recommended an implementation of the formalde-hyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) vertical columns into version 6 of the off-line processor. They are formed during the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants, anthropogenic activities, and biomass burning. Due to a rather short lifetime of formaldehyde and glyoxal, their distribution maps, obtained by the SCIAMACHY, represent the emission fields of their precursors, VOCs. The descriptions of reference algorithm as well as all the cross-sections for formaldehyde and glyoxal retrievals were delivered to DLR by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA) (I. De Smedt, 2008) and by the IUP (F. Wittrock, 2006), respectively. Both retrievals are based on the DOAS technique. For the formaldehyde retrieval the spectral region of 328.5-346 nm was recommended. The absorption cross-sections of HCHO, O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, a Ring spectrum and a polynomial of the fifth order are included into the fitting procedure. Before conversion to the vertical columns, the slant columns have to be normal-ized by subtracting the slant columns measured over Pacific ocean, where the only source of formaldehyde is methane oxidation. After the conversion to the vertical columns, part of HCHO removed during the previous procedure has to be re-added to the final vertical column by adding of the mean vertical column calculated by the tropospheric chemistry model IMAGES (J.-F. Müller, 1995). This normalization is necessary to compensate for the offset introduced by the solar reference measurements and interferences by other absorbers. For the determination of glyoxal columns, the spectral region 435-457 nm was selected. In this case, the absorption cross-sections of CHOCHO, O3, NO2, H2O, O4, a Ring spectrum and a cubic polynomial are included in the fitting procedure. The normalization of

  16. Intercomparison of Formaldehyde Measurements during BEACHON ROCS 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaser, L.; Digangi, J. P.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Herdlinger-Blatt, I. S.; Karl, T.; Graus, M.; Turnipseed, A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Hansel, A.; Beachon-Rocs Science Team

    2011-12-01

    The BEACHON (Biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere-interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen) long term research initiative was established to shed light on sources, sinks and the atmospheric fate of organic aerosol and precursor gases. The BEACHON-Rocky mountain Organic Carbon Study (BEACHON-ROCS) focused on the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of reactive organic gases in a rural coniferous forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO, during August 2010. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important tracer of VOC oxidation as it is formed during atmospheric oxidation of biogenic VOCs such as isoprene and other terpenes. Here we present measurements of formaldehyde conducted by two independent instruments, the Madison Fiber Laser Induced Flourescence (FILIF) Instrument and a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). Both instruments simultaneously measured HCHO concentrations at high temporal resolution potentially allowing for eddy covariance flux calculations. The comparison between FILIF and PTR-TOF-MS suggests generally good agreement.

  17. Phase Space Structures Explain Hydrogen Atom Roaming in Formaldehyde Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Mauguière, Frédéric A L; Collins, Peter; Kramer, Zeb C; Carpenter, Barry K; Ezra, Gregory S; Farantos, Stavros C; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-10-15

    We re-examine the prototypical roaming reaction--hydrogen atom roaming in formaldehyde decomposition--from a phase space perspective. Specifically, we address the question "why do trajectories roam, rather than dissociate through the radical channel?" We describe and compute the phase space structures that define and control all possible reactive events for this reaction, as well as provide a dynamically exact description of the roaming region in phase space. Using these phase space constructs, we show that in the roaming region, there is an unstable periodic orbit whose stable and unstable manifolds define a conduit that both encompasses all roaming trajectories exiting the formaldehyde well and shepherds them toward the H2···CO well.

  18. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew; Schonberger, Matthias; Schieferstein, Hanno; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-10-04

    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  19. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Formaldehyde Sensing with QCM.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Munawar; Kotova, Kira; Lieberzeit, Peter A

    2016-06-30

    Herein, we report on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for detecting formaldehyde vapors in air streams. A copolymer thin film consisting of styrene, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) yielded a detection limit of 500 ppb formaldehyde in dry air. Surprisingly, these MIPs showed specific behavior when tested against a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as acetaldehyde, methanol, formic acid, and dichloromethane. Despite thus being a suitable receptor in principle, the MIPs were not useful for measurements at 50% humidity due to surface saturation by water. This was overcome by introducing primary amino groups into the polymer via allyl amine and by changing the coating morphology from thin film to nanoparticles. This led to the same limit of detection (500 ppb) and selectivity as before, but at the real-life conditions of 50% relative humidity.

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Formaldehyde Sensing with QCM

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Munawar; Kotova, Kira; Lieberzeit, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for detecting formaldehyde vapors in air streams. A copolymer thin film consisting of styrene, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) yielded a detection limit of 500 ppb formaldehyde in dry air. Surprisingly, these MIPs showed specific behavior when tested against a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as acetaldehyde, methanol, formic acid, and dichloromethane. Despite thus being a suitable receptor in principle, the MIPs were not useful for measurements at 50% humidity due to surface saturation by water. This was overcome by introducing primary amino groups into the polymer via allyl amine and by changing the coating morphology from thin film to nanoparticles. This led to the same limit of detection (500 ppb) and selectivity as before, but at the real-life conditions of 50% relative humidity. PMID:27376287

  1. Formaldehyde monitoring program: development of sampling and analysis procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. G.; Hawthorne, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    This report outlines the scope and goals of the formaldehyde analysis program being carried out in Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. The outline of the sampling and analysis techniques under consideration, with reference to a time frame for developmental work and field application, is discussed. The complexity of the different techniques is addressed in instances where technical staff would be requird for accurate operation of the instrumentation.

  2. SONEX-Hydrogen Peroxide, Methylhydroperoxide and Formaldehyde Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikes, Brian

    1999-01-01

    We measured gas phase H2O2, CH3OOH, and CH2O on board the NASA DC-8 during the SONEX field mission, presented preliminary results at three scientific meetings, participated in two data workshops and contributed to joint publications of final results. The observations of peroxides and formaldehyde were instrumental in assessing odd-hydrogen radical chemistry, ozone chemistry, and in tracing meteorological transport paths.

  3. Thiomethylation of ketones by sulphide-alkaline solutions and formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Ulendeyeva, A.D.; Samigullin, I.I.; Nasteka, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    An investigation has been made of the thiomethylation of ketones by formaldehyde with mercaptides, sodium sulphide and their mixture. It is possible to regenerate 78-100 rel.% of the sulphide-alkaline solutions under mild conditions (20-50{degrees}C, atmospheric pressure) without feeding a catalyst, with the simultaneous production of ketosulphide concentrate - a less toxic product with properties of practical benefit. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. MCSCF potential energy surface for photodissociation of formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.; Morokuma, K.

    1976-01-01

    The ground state potential energy surface for the dissociation of formaldehyde (H2CO to H2 and CO) is calculated with the ab initio MCSCF method with an extended (4-31G) basis set. The location, barrier height, and force constants of the transition state are determined, and the normal coordinate analysis is carried out. The calculated barrier height is 4.5 eV. Based on the calculated quantities, the detailed mechanism of the photochemical dissociation is discussed.

  5. Formaldehyde Distribution over North America: Implications for Satellite Retrievals of Formaldehyde Columns and Isoprene Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millet, Dylan B.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Turquety, Solene; Hudman, Rynda C.; Wu, Shiliang; Anderson, Bruce E.; Fried, Alan; Walega, James; Heikes, Brian G.; Blake, Donald R.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Clarke, Antony D.

    2006-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured from space provide constraints on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Quantitative interpretation requires characterization of errors in HCHO column retrievals and relating these columns to VOC emissions. Retrieval error is mainly in the air mass factor (AMF) which relates fitted backscattered radiances to vertical columns and requires external information on HCHO, aerosols, and clouds. Here we use aircraft data collected over North America and the Atlantic to determine the local relationships between HCHO columns and VOC emissions, calculate AMFs for HCHO retrievals, assess the errors in deriving AMFs with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), and draw conclusions regarding space-based mapping of VOC emissions. We show that isoprene drives observed HCHO column variability over North America; HCHO column data from space can thus be used effectively as a proxy for isoprene emission. From observed HCHO and isoprene profiles we find an HCHO molar yield from isoprene oxidation of 1.6 +/- 0.5, consistent with current chemical mechanisms. Clouds are the primary error source in the AMF calculation; errors in the HCHO vertical profile and aerosols have comparatively little effect. The mean bias and 1Q uncertainty in the GEOS-Chem AMF calculation increase from <1% and 15% for clear skies to 17% and 24% for half-cloudy scenes. With fitting errors, this gives an overall 1 Q error in HCHO satellite measurements of 25-31%. Retrieval errors, combined with uncertainties in the HCHO yield from isoprene oxidation, result in a 40% (1sigma) error in inferring isoprene emissions from HCHO satellite measurements.

  6. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  7. A brief review of control measures for indoor formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor environments contain a variety of consumer and construction products that emit formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) vapor. The strongest CH/sub 2/O emitters are typically particleboard underlayment and industrial particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and medium density fiberboard, all of which contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. The contribution of individual products to indoor CH/sub 2/O levels depends on several parameters, including the quantity and age of the product, building ventilation rate, presence of permeation barriers, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration resulting from all of the CH/sub 2/O emitters (1,3-8). Combustion sources (e.g., kerosene heaters, gas stoves and cigarettes), carpet and carpet padding, resilient flooring (e.g., linoleum), gypsum board, non-apparel and apparel textiles, ceiling tiles, fibrous glass insulation and softwood plywood subflooring are generally weak emitters that do not contribute significantly to steady-state, indoor CH/sub 2/O levels. Control measures exist to reduce CH/sub 2/O emissions from consumer and construction products during their manufacturer and in post-installation applications. This note summarized the effectiveness of the following subset of post-installation control measures: product aging, installations of permeation barriers (i.e., flooring) and increased building ventilation. 14 refs.

  8. Benzene toxicity: emphasis on cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcsak, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Blood dyscrasias such as leukopenia and anemia have been clearly identified as consequences of chronic benzene exposure. The metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone produced inhibition of /sup 59/Fe uptake in mice which followed the same time course as that produced by benzene. The inhibitor of benzene oxidation, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, mitigated the inhibitory effects of benzene and phenol only. These data support the contention that benzene toxicity is mediated by a metabolite and suggest that the toxicity of phenol is a consequence of its metabolism to hydroquinone and that the route of metabolism to catechol may also contribute to the production of toxic metabolite(s). The properties of mouse liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases were examined. These enzymes catalyze the NADP/sup +/-dependent oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (BDD) to catechol, a possible toxic metabolite of benzene produced via this metabolic route. Four distinct dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1, DD2, DD3, and DD4) were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. DD1 appeared to be identical to the major ketone reductase and 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the liver. DD2 exhibited aldehyde reductase activity. DD3 and DD4 oxidized 17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, but no carbonyl reductase activity was detected. These relationships between BDD dehydrogenases and carbonyl reductase and/or 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were supported by several lines of evidence.

  9. Sorbitol dehydrogenase: structure, function and ligand design.

    PubMed

    El-Kabbani, O; Darmanin, C; Chung, R P-T

    2004-02-01

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), a member of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family and the second enzyme of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, converts sorbitol to fructose strictly using NAD(+) as coenzyme. SDH is expressed almost ubiquitously in all mammalian tissues. The enzyme has attracted considerable interest due to its implication in the development of diabetic complications and thus its tertiary structure may facilitate the development of drugs for the treatment of diabetes sufferers. Modelling studies suggest that SDH is structurally homologous to mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase with respect to conserved zinc binding motif and a hydrophobic substrate-binding pocket. Recently, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a mammalian SDH was solved, and it was found that while the overall 3-D structures of SDH and alcohol dehydrogenase are similar, the zinc coordination in the active sites of the two enzymes is different. The available structural and biochemical information of SDH are currently being utilized in a structure-based approach to develop drugs for the treatment or prevention of the complications of diabetes. This review provides an overview of the recent advances in the structure, function and drug development fields of sorbitol dehydrogenase.

  10. The Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Saïd, Jessica; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Léger, Christophe; Fourmond, Vincent; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Ni-containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases (CODHs) catalyze the reversible conversion between CO and CO₂and are involved in energy conservation and carbon fixation. These homodimeric enzymes house two NiFeS active sites (C-clusters) and three accessory [4Fe-4S] clusters. The Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) genome contains a two-gene CODH operon coding for a CODH (cooS) and a maturation protein (cooC) involved in nickel insertion in the active site. According to the literature, the question of the precise function of CooC as a chaperone folding the C-cluster in a form which accommodates free nickel or as a mere nickel donor is not resolved. Here, we report the biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of two recombinant forms of the CODH, produced in the absence and in the presence of CooC, designated CooS and CooS(C), respectively. CooS contains no nickel and cannot be activated, supporting the idea that the role of CooC is to fold the C-cluster so that it can bind nickel. As expected, CooS(C) is Ni-loaded, reversibly converts CO and CO₂, displays the typical Cred1 and Cred2 EPR signatures of the C-cluster and activates in the presence of methyl viologen and CO in an autocatalytic process. However, Ni-loaded CooS(C) reaches maximum activity only upon reductive treatment in the presence of exogenous nickel, a phenomenon that had not been observed before. Surprisingly, the enzyme displays the Cred1 and Cred2 signatures whether it has been activated or not, showing that this activation process of the Ni-loaded Dv CODH is not associated with structural changes at the active site.

  11. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Rafalowski, Meirav; Federman-Gross, Aya; Pick, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O2.- generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: 1. Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; 2. Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; 3. Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; 4. Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; 5. A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; 6. p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

  12. Protection against avian necrotic enteritis after immunisation with NetB genetic or formaldehyde toxoids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P; Mot, Dorien; Bokori-Brown, Monika; Savva, Christos G; Basak, Ajit K; Van Immerseel, Filip; Titball, Richard W

    2013-08-20

    NetB (necrotic enteritis toxin B) is a recently identified β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens. This toxin has been shown to play a major role in avian necrotic enteritis. In recent years, a dramatic increase in necrotic enteritis has been observed, especially in countries where the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feedstuffs has been banned. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunisation with a NetB toxoid would provide protection against necrotic enteritis. The immunisation of poultry with a formaldehyde NetB toxoid or with a NetB genetic toxoid (W262A) resulted in the induction of antibody responses against NetB and provided partial protection against disease.

  13. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  14. Orchestration of enzymatic processing by thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Melby, Joel O; Li, Xiangpo; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2014-01-21

    Thiazole/oxazole-modified microcins (TOMMs) comprise a structurally diverse family of natural products with varied bioactivities linked by the presence of posttranslationally installed thiazol(in)e and oxazol(in)e heterocycles. The detailed investigation of the TOMM biosynthetic enzymes from Bacillus sp. Al Hakam (Balh) has provided significant insight into heterocycle biosynthesis. Thiazoles and oxazoles are installed by the successive action of an ATP-dependent cyclodehydratase (C- and D-protein) and a FMN-dependent dehydrogenase (B-protein), which are responsible for azoline formation and azoline oxidation, respectively. Although several studies have focused on the mechanism of azoline formation, many details regarding the role of the dehydrogenase (B-protein) in overall substrate processing remain unknown. In this work, we evaluated the involvement of the dehydrogenase in determining the order of ring formation as well as the promiscuity of the Balh and microcin B17 cyclodehydratases to accept a panel of noncognate dehydrogenases. In support of the observed promiscuity, a fluorescence polarization assay was utilized to measure binding of the dehydrogenase to the cyclodehydratase using the intrinsic fluorescence of the FMN cofactor. Ultimately, the noncognate dehydrogenases were shown to possess cyclodehydratase-independent activity. A previous study identified a conserved Lys-Tyr motif to be important for dehydrogenase activity. Using the tools developed in this study, the Lys-Tyr motif was shown neither to alter complex formation with the cyclodehydratase nor the reduction potential. Taken together with the known crystal structure of a homologue, our data suggest that the Lys-Tyr motif is of catalytic importance. Overall, this study provides a greater level of insight into the complex orchestration of enzymatic activity during TOMM biosynthesis.

  15. Orchestration of Enzymatic Processing by Thiazole/Oxazole-Modified Microcin Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Joel O.; Li, Xiangpo; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Thiazole/oxazole-modified microcins (TOMMs) comprise a structurally diverse family of natural products with varied bioactivities linked by the presence of posttranslationally installed thiazol(in)e and oxazol(in)e heterocycles. The detailed investigation of the TOMM biosynthetic enzymes from Bacillus sp. Al Hakam (Balh) has provided significant insight into heterocycle biosynthesis. Thiazoles and oxazoles are installed by the successive action of an ATP-dependent cyclodehydratase (C- and D-protein) and a FMN-dependent dehydrogenase (B-protein), which are responsible for azoline formation and azoline oxidation, respectively. Although several studies have focused on the mechanism of azoline formation, many details regarding the role of the dehydrogenase (B-protein) in overall substrate processing remain unknown. In this work, we evaluated the involvement of the dehydrogenase in determining the order of ring formation, as well as the promiscuity of the Balh and microcin B17 cyclodehydratases to accept a panel of noncognate dehydrogenases. In support of the observed promiscuity, a fluorescence polarization assay was utilized to measure binding of the dehydrogenase to the cyclodehydratase using the intrinsic fluorescence of the FMN cofactor. Ultimately, the noncognate dehydrogenases were shown to possess cyclodehydratase-independent activity. A previous study identified a conserved Lys-Tyr motif to be important for dehydrogenase activity. Using the tools developed in this study, the Lys-Tyr motif was shown to not alter complex formation with the cyclodehydratase nor the reduction potential. Taken with the known crystal structure of a homolog, our data suggest that the Lys-Tyr motif is of catalytic importance. Overall, this study provides a greater level of insight into the complex orchestration of enzymatic activity during TOMM biosynthesis. PMID:24364559

  16. Assessment of formaldehyde levels in local and imported fresh fish in Ghana: a case study in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption.

  17. Effects of a 3β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Inhibitor, Trilostane, on the Fathead Minnow Reproductive Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of environmental contaminants and plant flavonoid compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD). Because 3β-HSD plays a critical role in steroid hormone synthesis, inhibition of 3β-HSD represents a potentia...

  18. Coupled BAS and anoxic USB system to remove urea and formaldehyde from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Campos, J L; Sánchez, M; Mosquera-Corral, A; Méndez, R; Lema, J M

    2003-08-01

    Wastewater containing formaldehyde and urea was treated using a coupled system consisting of a biofilm airlift suspension (BAS) reactor and an anoxic upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor. The anoxic USB reactor was used to carry out denitrification and urea hydrolysis, while the BAS reactor was used to carry out nitrification. In a first step, individual experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of both compounds on the nitrifying and denitrifying biomass. The BAS reactor was fed with a synthetic medium containing 500 mg N-NH4(+)l(-1) and 100mg N-urea l(-1), that were added continuously to this medium. Neither urea hydrolysis nor inhibition of nitrification was observed. Nitrification efficiency decreased when formaldehyde was fed during shocks at concentrations of 40, 80 and 120 mg C-formaldehyde l(-1). The anoxic USB reactor was fed with a synthetic medium containing nitrate, formaldehyde and urea. Concentrations of formaldehyde in the reactor of 100-120 mg C-formaldehyde l(-1) caused a decrease in the denitrification and urea hydrolysis rates. In a second step, the coupled system was operated at recycling ratios (R) of 3 and 9. Fed C/N ratios of 0.58, 1.0 and 1.5 g C-formaldehyde g(-1) N-NH4(+) were used for every recycling ratio. The maximum nitrogen removal percentages were achieved at a C/N ratio of 1.0 g C-formaldehyde g(-1) N-NH4(+) for both recycling ratios. A fed C/N ratio of 1.5 g C-formaldehyde g(-1) N-NH4(+) caused a decrease in the efficiency of the system with respect to nitrogen removal, due to the presence of formaldehyde in the BAS reactor, which decreased the nitrification. Formaldehyde was completely removed in the BAS reactor and a heterotrophic layer formed around the nitrifying biofilm.

  19. Search for reaction conditions and catalyst for selective prebiotic formation of Aldopentoses from Glycolaldehyde and Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, Irina; Taran, Oxana; Parmon, Valentin; Gromov, Nikolay

    2012-07-01

    Formation of organic compounds from simple precursors appears to have been one of the first steps from geochemistry towards modern biochemistry. The Earth lagoons, hydrothermal springs, cosmic dust, meteorites, protoplanetary disk, etc. has been considered as the possible ``reactors'' in which the prebiotic synthesis could have taken place. The finding of reactions and reaction conditions which allow to produce the high yields of the biologically relevant substances from simple compounds could help us to verify different hypothesis of plausible prebotic conditions. In this work we have studied the formation of vitally important sugars, namely aldopentoses (ribose, xylose, lyxose and arabinose), from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde over catalysts. Aldopentoses nowadays play the important roles as the components of polysaccharides, glycosides, nucleic acids and ATP. Glycolaldehyde is the simplest monosaccharide, which was found in the interstellar space [1], where it could be generated as a result of several processes, for instance, condensation of formaldehyde under UV-radiation [2]. In this work the peculiarities of interaction between glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde in the presence of soluble (phosphate and borate buffers) and solid (minerals apatite and montmorillonites) catalysts were studied. The dependences of composition of the reaction products on the catalyst nature, molar ratio of substrates, pH value of reaction mixture were revealed. The yields of aldopentoses amount to ca. 60-65% in the presence of borate catalyst under optimized reaction conditions. Borate acts not only as a catalyst, but also as the stabilizer of active intermediates and aldopentoses from side reactions [3]. Borates are present in some mineral and clays (serpentine, montmorillonite etc.) and in water of Cityhot springs (Geyser valley, placeKamchatka) in rather high concentrations. Therefore catalysis by borates could be considered as plausible prebotic condition. Acknowledgements. We

  20. Isolated tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase can synthesize acetoin which inhibits pyruvate oxidation as well as other aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-05-29

    Oxidation of 1 mM pyruvate by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria is inhibited by acetoin, an unusual and important metabolite of pyruvate utilization by cancer cells, by acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal and excess pyruvate. The respiratory inhibition is reversed by other substrates added to pyruvate and also by 0.5 mM ATP. Kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from these tumor mitochondria have been studied. This complex appears to be able to synthesize acetoin from acetaldehyde plus pyruvate and is competitively inhibited by acetoin. The role of a new regulatory pattern for tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase is presented.

  1. A BIOGENIC ROLE IN EXPOSURE TO TWO TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic sources play an important role in ozone and particulate concentrations through emissions of volatile organic compounds. The same emissions also contribute to chronic toxic exposures from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde because each compound arises through primary and se...

  2. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    PubMed

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6 PGD) in serum and erythrocytes. Measurements of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (such as hepatitis) and anemias....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine, propylene glycol diamine and aliphatic polyamine, N... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  7. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  8. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F.; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants. PMID:26376297

  9. Malate Dehydrogenases of Pisum sativum: Tissue Distribution and Properties of the Particulate Forms.

    PubMed

    Zschoche, W C; Ting, I P

    1973-06-01

    Mitochondria and leaf microbodies isolated from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) by sucrose density gradient centrifugation were each shown to have a unique form (isoenzyme) of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) based on chromatographic and kinetic properties. Root organelle preparations were shown to contain only a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase with physical and kinetic properties similar to the leaf form. The absence of a detectable root microbody malate dehydrogenase similar to the leaf enzyme, which is intermediate in electrophoretic and chromatographic properties between the mitochondrial and soluble isoenzymes, was confirmed by diethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography and starch-gel electrophoresis of total homogenates from leaf and root tissue. These findings tend to support the role of the leaf microbody isoenzyme in a pathway unique to photosynthetic tissue.

  10. Experimental investigation of the formaldehyde removal mechanisms in a dynamic botanical filtration system for indoor air purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Jingjing; Zhang, Jensen S

    2014-09-15

    Botanical filtration has been proved to be effective for indoor gas pollutant removal. To understand the roles of different transport, storage and removal mechanism by a dynamic botanical air filter, a series of experimental investigations were designed and conducted in this paper. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) plants was selected for test, and its original soil or activated/pebbles root bed was used in different test cases. It was found that flowing air through the root bed with microbes dynamically was essential to obtain meaningful formaldehyde removal efficiency. For static potted plant as normally place in rooms, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), which is often used to quantify the air cleaning ability of portable air cleaners, was only ∼ 5.1m(3)/h per m(2) bed, while when dynamically with air flow through the bed, the CADR increased to ∼ 233 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. The calculated CADR due to microbial activity is ∼ 108 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. Moisture in the root bed also played an important role, both for maintaining a favorable living condition for microbes and for absorbing water-soluble compounds such as formaldehyde. The role of the plant was to introduce and maintain a favorable microbe community which effectively degraded the volatile organic compounds adsorbed or absorbed by the root bed. The presence of the plant increased the removal efficiency by a factor of two based on the results from the bench-scale root bed experiments.

  11. [Interaction of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate].

    PubMed

    Kotliar, A B; Vinogradov, A D

    1984-04-01

    The equilibrium and rate constants for interaction of the reduced and oxidized membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1) with oxaloacetate were determined. The 10-fold decrease in the oxaloacetate affinity for the reduced enzyme was shown to be due to the 10-fold increase of the enzyme-inhibitor complex dissociation rate, which occurs upon its reduction. The rate of dissociation induced by succinate is 10 times higher than that induced by malonate in the submitochondrial particles, being equal in the soluble enzyme preparations. The rates of dissociation induced by malonate excess, or by the enzyme irreversibly utilizing oxaloacetate (transaminase in the presence of glutamate) are also equal. The data obtained suggest that succinate dehydrogenase interaction with succinate and oxaloacetate results from the competition for a single dicarboxylate-specific site. In submitochondrial particles all succinate dehydrogenase molecules are in redox equilibrium provided for by endogenous ubiquinone. No electronic equilibrium between the individual enzyme molecules exists, when succinate dehydrogenase is solubilized.

  12. Hot H2CO: Observations of Formaldehyde at 650GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, A.; Mangum, J.; Barsony, M.

    1996-12-01

    We determine the physical conditions in warm dense cores in molecular clouds via observations of the submillimeter wavelength transitions of formaldehyde (H_2CO). H_2CO is the ideal molecule for this purpose, since its numerous transitions in the submillimeter spectrum allow independent temperature and density determination of the emitting gas. The transitions in the 650 GHz atmospheric window arise from gas which is too warm for depletion onto grains to have hidden it from view. The lowest energy transitions lie at levels 160 K above ground, while the highest energy transitions in the window are the K=8 transitions arising from levels more than 1000 K above the ground state. Since formaldehyde is destroyed at temperatures by chemical reactions at moderate temperatures, little emission is expected from the most highly excited transitions. However, Schilke (private communication) reports the detection of the K=7 transitions at 654 GHz toward IRc2 in OMC1. These lines, which arise from levels 800 K above ground may occur in a transient chemistry, and provide information on conditions in shocked or ablated material quite close to the young star(s) buried in the dense core (Wootten, Loren and Bally 1984 Ap. J. 277, 189). We report observations of several highly excited lines of formaldehyde towards warm HII regions made with the Caltech Submillimeter Telescope (CSO). Our attempt to understand the conditions under which its emission is excited in star-forming molecular clouds confirms that denser, hotter regions give rise to more highly excited submillimeter transitions than heretofore found. In DR21(OH)MM1, for example, densities a factor of four higher than suggested by Mangum and Wootten (1993, Ap. J. Supp. 89, 123) are required to reproduce the strength of the 919 ->818 transition observed at 632 GHz. The CSO is operated by the California Institute of Technology under funding from the National Science Foundation, Contract No. AST-93-13929.

  13. Effects of formaldehyde on normal xenotransplanted human tracheobronchial epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Ura, H.; Nowak, P.; Litwin, S.; Watts, P.; Bonfil, R. D.; Klein-Szanto, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Epithelial cells obtained from autopsies of full-term fetuses or infants less than 1 year old were isolated, amplified in primary cultures and inoculated in deepithelialized rat tracheas. These tracheas were then sealed and transplanted subcutaneously into irradiated athymic nude mice. Four weeks after transplantation the tracheal lumen was completely covered by epithelium, most of which was of mucociliary respiratory type. At this stage, tracheal transplants containing tracheobronchial epithelium from 20 different donors were exposed to silastic devices containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg paraformaldehyde. The tracheal transplants were examined histologically at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after transplantation. Before sacrifice, all animals were injected with a single pulse of tritiated thymidine. Important epithelial alterations could be seen in the formaldehyde treated transplants with a maximum effect visible at 2 weeks after exposure. The highest dose of 2 mg produced, in most cases, numerous areas of epithelial erosion and inflammation whereas this effect was not as evident with the lower doses. All doses produced areas of hyperplastic epithelium alternating with areas of pleomorphic-atrophic epithelium. Although the differences in predominance of different types of epithelium was not clearly dose-dependent, the labeling index (LI) showed dose dependence between 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of exposure. The maximum mean LI was three to four times higher than normal, although in some focal hyperplastic-metaplastic lesions the LI was increased up to 20 times. These studies show that formaldehyde, although toxic at higher doses, is able to elicit at lower doses a proliferative response of the human respiratory epithelium that is not preceded by a massive toxic effect. This response is similar, although less intense than that of the rat respiratory epithelium in which formaldehyde proved to be a carcinogen. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:2913828

  14. Formaldehyde: a comparative evaluation of four monitoring methods

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, L.B.; Cook, R.E.; Mann, J.R.; Bouyoucos, S.; McDonald, O.F.; Baldwin, C.L.

    1985-10-01

    The performances of four formaldehyde monitoring devices were compared in a series of laboratory and field experiments. The devices evaluated included the DuPont C-60 formaldehyde badge, the SKC impregnated charcoal tube, an impinger/polarographic method and the MDA Lion formaldemeter. The major evaluation parameters included: concentration range, effects of humidity, sample storage, air velocity, accuracy, precision, interferences from methanol, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, sulfur dioxide and dimethylamine. Based on favorable performances in the laboratory and field, each device was useful for monitoring formaldehyde in the industrial work environment; however, these devices were not evaluated for residential exposure assessment. The impinger/polarographic method had a sensitivity of 0.06 ppm, based on a 20-liter air sample volume, and accurately determined the short-term excursion limit (STEL). It was useful for area monitoring but was not very practical for time-weighted average (TWA) personal monitoring measurements. The DuPont badge had a sensitivity of 2.8 ppm-hr and accurately and simply determined TWA exposures. It was not sensitive enough to measure STEL exposures, however, and positive interferences resulted if 1,3-butadiene was present. The SKC impregnated charcoal tube measured both TWA and STEL concentrations and had a sensitivity of 0.06 ppm based on a 25-liter air sample volume. Lightweight and simple to use, the MDA Lion formaldemeter had a sensitivity of 0.2 ppm. It had the advantage of giving an instantaneous reading in the field; however, it must be used with caution because it responded to many interferences. The method of choice depended on the type of sampling required, field conditions encountered during sampling and an understanding of the limitations of each monitoring device.

  15. New reactions of paraformaldehyde and formaldehyde with inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. S.; Bercovici, T.; Hong, K.

    1974-01-01

    Both paraformaldehyde and formaldehyde undergo reactions in the presence of several inorganic compounds to generate a variety of interesting organic products that can be important in chemical evolutionary processes. Some examples are acrolein, acetaldehyde, methyl formate, methanol, glycolaldehyde and formic acid. The organic compounds are produced at temperatures as low as 56 C and in high yield (up to 75%). The quantity produced depends principally on the nature of the inorganic compound, the ratio of the inorganic compound to paraformaldehyde, temperature and reaction time. The percent distribution of product depends on some of the foregoing factors.

  16. Oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde catalyzed by a bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Haim Cohen; Uri Green

    2009-05-15

    It has been observed that molecular hydrogen is formed during long-term storage of bituminous coals via oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde by coal surface peroxides. This study has investigated the effects of coal quantity, temperature, and water content on the molecular hydrogen formation with a typical American coal (Pittsburgh No. 6). The results indicate that the coal's surface serves as a catalyst in the formation processes of molecular hydrogen. Furthermore, the results also indicate that low temperature emission of molecular hydrogen may possibly be the cause of unexplained explosions in confined spaces containing bituminous coals, for example, underground mines or ship holds. 20 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Development of an amine dehydrogenase for synthesis of chiral amines.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Michael J; Vázquez-Figueroa, Eduardo; Woodall, Nicholas B; Moore, Jeffrey C; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2012-04-16

    A leucine dehydrogenase has been successfully altered through several rounds of protein engineering to an enantioselective amine dehydrogenase. Instead of the wild-type α-keto acid, the new amine dehydrogenase now accepts the analogous ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), which corresponds to exchange of the carboxy group by a methyl group to produce chiral (R)-1,3-dimethylbutylamine.

  18. An automatic monitor of formaldehyde in air by a monitoring tape method.

    PubMed

    Nakano, N; Nagashima, K

    1999-06-01

    An automatic monitor has been developed for measuring formaldehyde in air using a sensitive tape for formaldehyde. It is based on the color change of the tape on reaction with formaldehyde. The porous cellulose tape, containing silica gel as an absorbent and impregnated with the processing solution containing hydroxylamine sulfate, Methyl Yellow (pH indicator; pH 2.9-4.0, red-yellow), glycerin and methanol, was found to be a highly sensitive means of detecting formaldehyde and maintains a stable sensitivity. When the tape was exposed to a sample of air containing formaldehyde, the color of the tape changed from yellow to red. The degree of color change was proportional to the concentration of formaldehyde at a constant sampling time and flow rate, and it could be recorded by measuring the intensity of reflected light (555 nm). The tape could be used to detect down to 0.08 ppm (World Health Organization standard) of formaldehyde with a sampling time of 30 min and a flow rate of 100 mL min-1. Reproducibility tests showed that the relative standard deviation of response (n = 10) was 3.8% for 0.1 ppm formaldehyde. The monitor is simple, specific, capable of unattended operation and is recommended for both laboratory and field operation.

  19. FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN F344 RAT NASAL RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde-induced gene expression in F344 rat nasal respiratory epithelium

    ABSTRACT

    Formaldehyde, an occupational and environmental toxicant used extensively in the manufacturing of many household and personal use products, is known to induce squamous cell carci...

  20. 40 CFR 80.56 - Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and acetaldehyde. 80.56 Section 80.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. (a) Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde will be measured by... acetaldehyde are used to determine the response, repeatability, and limit of quantitation of the HPLC...

  1. Thin films exhibiting multicolor changes induced by formaldehyde-responsive release of anionic dyes.

    PubMed

    Denda, Takuya; Mizutani, Ryo; Iijima, Mizuki; Nakahashi, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kanekiyo, Yasumasa

    2015-11-01

    A novel methodology for the sensing of formaldehyde that displays a response using distinct and diverse color changes is reported. Through copolymerization of a primary amine monomer with additional co-monomers on a pattern-printed microscope slide, primary amine-containing thin films were obtained. After the absorption of a range of colors of anionic dyes, the thin films were immersed in aqueous formaldehyde solutions. It was demonstrated that the color of the thin films changed depending on the formaldehyde concentration in the solution. As the anionic dyes were released from the thin films at varying formaldehyde concentrations, a set of thin films exhibiting a range of color-change patterns was observed. The response selectivity of the thin films towards carbonyl compounds was examined, and sensitivity in the order of formaldehyde»acetaldehyde>acetone was observed. In addition, the effect of amine structure was examined, and it was found that thin films bearing tertiary amino groups show virtually no formaldehyde response. These observations clearly indicate that the existence of primary amino groups is essential for color changes to be observed, and that the formation of an imine is the crucial step in generating a response against formaldehyde. The formaldehyde-responsive system presented herein is advantageous, as its preparation is relatively simple and does not require complex organic synthesis. In addition, a wide range of anionic dyes is compatible with the system, and can be selected in terms of color, charge, toxicology profile, and cost, for example.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10232 - N-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... condensate (generic). 721.10232 Section 721.10232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10232 N-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as n-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (PMN P-08-694) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10232 - N-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... condensate (generic). 721.10232 Section 721.10232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10232 N-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as n-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (PMN P-08-694) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10232 - N-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... condensate (generic). 721.10232 Section 721.10232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10232 N-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as n-arylamino-phenol-formaldehyde condensate (PMN P-08-694) is subject to reporting under...

  5. Solid phase microextraction method development for measuring Henry's Law constants of formaldehyde in aqueous solutions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been of special concern as an indoor air pollutant because of its existence in a wide range of products and its adverse health effects. The air-water partitioning behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde is an important process th...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND REDUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS FROM A LOW-VOC LATEX PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the measurment and analysis of the patterns of formaldehyde emission from a low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex paint applied to gypsum board, using small environmental chamber tests. The formaldehyde emissions resulted in sharp increase of chamber air...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION AND REDUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS FROM A LOW-VOC LATEX PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The patterns of formaldehyde emission from a low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex paint applied to gypsum board were measured and analyzed by small environmental chamber tests. It was found that the formaldehyde emissions resulted in sharp increase of chamber air formaldehy...

  8. Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde concentrations in homes in residential areas in Greater Cairo.

    PubMed

    Khoder, M I; Shakour, A A; Farag, S A; Abdel Hameed, A A

    2000-04-01

    Indoor and outdoor measurements of formaldehyde were conducted at seven flats located in residential areas in Greater Cairo, during spring and summer seasons 1999. The mean daytime formaldehyde concentrations in kitchens, bedrooms and living rooms were 89, 100 and 100 ppb, respectively, in the seven flats. Significant positive correlations were found between the concentrations of formaldehyde found in these three rooms. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between the mean formaldehyde concentrations in these three rooms. The maximum mean concentration of formaldehyde (147 ppb) was recorded in a new flat, while the minimum concentration (43 ppb) was observed in an old flat. The maximum hourly and daytime concentrations were 350 and 225 ppb, respectively. Air temperature, relative humidity and the age of the flat are factors affecting the emission and concentration of formaldehyde. The maximum indoor and outdoor formaldehyde concentrations were recorded during the summer season. During the spring, 38% of the samples indicated that the concentration of formaldehyde in the seven flats exceeded 0.1 ppm, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard; in the summer, this figure increased to 53%.

  9. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  14. Interaction of formaldehyde with a water-tolerant frustrated Lewis pair.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Ghazi; Bizzarri, Claudia; Hölscher, Markus; Langanke, Jens; Gürtler, Christoph; Leitner, Walter; Subhani, Muhammad Afzal

    2017-03-02

    A facile complexation of formaldehyde with the water-tolerant frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) B(C6F5)3/PtBu3 and its Al-analog under ambient conditions is reported. Unprecedented formaldehyde adducts 1, 2 and 4 have been identified and crystallographically characterized.

  15. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...