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Sample records for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material

  1. [A standardized AgNOR stain method for formalin fixed and paraffin embedded material].

    PubMed

    Ofner, D; Bankfalvi, A; Riehemann, K; Böcker, W; Schmid, K W

    1994-08-01

    Visualization of proteins associated with nucleolar organizer regions proteins (AgNORs) on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archival tissues is substantially improved after application of wet autoclave pretreatment. Silver staining results are comparable to those obtained on tissues processed in alcohol based fixatives, illustrating AgNORs as substructures of the nucleoli without any staining artefacts. A highly reproducible staining quality was achieved irrespective of tissue origin or duration of formalin fixation. As a result of this novel and simple method, the grounds have been prepared for standardized AgNOR quantification on archival material.

  2. CGH arrays compared for DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material.

    PubMed

    Krijgsman, Oscar; Israeli, Danielle; Haan, Josien C; van Essen, Hendrik F; Smeets, Serge J; Eijk, Paul P; Steenbergen, Renske D M; Kok, Klaas; Tejpar, Sabine; Meijer, Gerrit A; Ylstra, Bauke

    2012-04-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue is an important source of DNA material. The most commonly used technique to identify copy number aberrations from chromosomal DNA in tumorigenesis is array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Although copy number analysis using DNA from FFPE archival tissue is challenging, several research groups have reported high quality and reproducible DNA copy number results using aCGH. Aim of this study is to compare the commercially available aCGH platforms suitable for high-resolution copy number analysis using FFPE-derived DNA. Two dual channel aCGH platforms (Agilent and NimbleGen) and a single channel SNP-based platform (Affymetrix) were evaluated using seven FFPE colon cancer samples, and median absolute deviation (MAD), deflection, signal-to-noise ratio, and DNA input requirements were used as quality criteria. Large differences were observed between platforms; Agilent and NimbleGen showed better MAD values (0.13 for both) compared with Affymetrix (0.22). On the contrary, Affymetrix showed a better deflection of 0.94, followed by 0.71 for Agilent and 0.51 for NimbleGen. This resulted in signal-to-nose ratios that were comparable between the three commercially available platforms. Interestingly, DNA input amounts from FFPE material lower than recommended still yielded high quality profiles on all platforms. Copy number analysis using DNA derived from FFPE archival material is feasible using all three high-resolution copy number platforms and shows reproducible results, also with DNA input amounts lower than recommended.

  3. Extraction and structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Xander M R; Vallen, Myrtille J; van de Westerlo, Els M; Oosterhof, Arie; Hao, Wensi; Versteeg, Elly M; Raben, Julius; Wismans, Ronnie G; Smetsers, Toon F C M; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Schalkwijk, Joost; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2012-12-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, anionic polysaccharides involved in many basic aspects of mammalian physiology and pathology. Here we describe a method to extract GAGs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and found that they are structurally comparable with GAGs extracted from frozen tissues. We employed this method to structurally characterize GAGs in tissues, including laser-dissected layers of skin and pathological specimens. This method enables the use of the archival paraffin-embedded material for detailed (structural) analysis of GAGs.

  4. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing as a Reliable Diagnostic Assay for the Detection of Somatic Mutations in Tumours Using Minimal DNA Amounts from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Material

    PubMed Central

    Koudijs, Marco J.; Nijman, Ies; Hinrichs, John W. J.; Cuppen, Edwin; van Lieshout, Stef; Loberg, Robert D.; de Jonge, Maja; Voest, Emile E.; de Weger, Roel A.; Steeghs, Neeltje; Langenberg, Marlies H. G.; Sleijfer, Stefan; Willems, Stefan M.; Lolkema, Martijn P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers a way to implement testing of multiple genetic aberrations in diagnostic pathology practice, which is necessary for personalized cancer treatment. However, no standards regarding input material have been defined. This study therefore aimed to determine the effect of the type of input material (e.g. formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) versus fresh frozen (FF) tissue) on NGS derived results. Moreover, this study aimed to explore a standardized analysis pipeline to support consistent clinical decision-making. Method We used the Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform in combination with the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to sequence frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes, and validated the NGS detected variants in 250 FFPE samples using standard diagnostic assays. Next, 386 tumour samples were sequenced to explore the effect of input material on variant detection variables. For variant calling, Ion Torrent analysis software was supplemented with additional variant annotation and filtering. Results Both FFPE and FF tissue could be sequenced reliably with a sensitivity of 99.1%. Validation showed a 98.5% concordance between NGS and conventional sequencing techniques, where NGS provided both the advantage of low input DNA concentration and the detection of low-frequency variants. The reliability of mutation analysis could be further improved with manual inspection of sequence data. Conclusion Targeted NGS can be reliably implemented in cancer diagnostics using both FFPE and FF tissue when using appropriate analysis settings, even with low input DNA. PMID:26919633

  5. Isolation of high quality protein samples from punches of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Becker, K F; Kuphal, S; Hein, R; Hofstädter, F; Bosserhoff, A K

    2008-04-01

    In general, it is believed that the extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples is not feasible. However, recently a new technique was developed, presenting the extraction of non-degraded, full length proteins from formalin fixed tissues, usable for western blotting and protein arrays. In the study presented here, we applied this technique to punch biopsies of formalin fixed tissues embedded in paraffin to reduce heterogeneity of the tissue represented in sections, and to ensure analysing mainly defined cellular material. Successful extraction was achieved even from very small samples (0.7 mm(3)). Additionally, we were able to detect highly glycosylated proteins and protein modification, such as phosphorylation. Interestingly, with this technique it is feasible to extract high quality proteins from 14 year old samples. In summary, the new technique makes a great pool of material now usable for molecular analysis with high throughput tools. PMID:18228195

  6. Studies on immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pathology specimens.

    PubMed

    Dubeau, L; Weinberg, K; Jones, P A; Nichols, P W

    1988-03-01

    Studies on immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in lymphoid lesions are an increasingly important application of molecular biology in diagnostic medicine. The authors have therefore examined the possibility of detecting such rearrangements in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pathology specimens. Southern blots of DNA obtained from optimally fixed tissues were very similar to blots of unfixed material, except that the electrophoretic mobility of the fixed DNA fragments was sometimes slightly reduced. High-molecular-weight DNA was not recovered from suboptimally fixed partially autolysed samples. Increasing the time of exposure to formalin resulted in loss of hybridizable DNA. Monoclonal rearrangements of heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes could be detected in formalin-fixed specimens provided that these fixation artifacts were taken into consideration. This technique expands the pool of material available for studies on gene rearrangement and should facilitate the use of such studies in clinical medicine.

  7. Quantitative gene expression analysis in microdissected archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Specht, K; Richter, T; Müller, U; Walch, A; Werner, M; Höfler, H

    2001-02-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is the most widely available material for retrospective clinical studies. In combination with the potential of genomics, these tissues represent an invaluable resource for the elucidation of disease mechanisms and validation of differentially expressed genes as novel therapeutic targets or prognostic indicators. We describe here an approach that, in combination with laser-assisted microdissection allows quantitative gene expression analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue. Using an optimized RNA microscale extraction procedure in conjunction with real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction based on fluorogenic TaqMan methodology, we analyzed the expression of a panel of cancer-relevant genes, EGF-R, HER-2/neu, FGF-R4, p21/WAF1/Cip1, MDM2, and HPRT and PGK as controls. We demonstrate that expression level determinations from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are accurate and reproducible. Measurements were comparable to those obtained with matching fresh-frozen tissue and neither fixation grade nor time significantly affected the results. Laser microdissection studies with 5-microm thick sections and defined numbers of tumor cells demonstrated that reproducible quantitation of specific mRNAs can be achieved with only 50 cells. We applied our approach to HER-2/neu quantitative gene expression analysis in 54 microdissected tumor and nonneoplastic archival samples from patients with Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma and showed that the results matched those obtained in parallel by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Thus, the combination of laser-assisted microdissection and real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction opens new avenues for the investigation and clinical validation of gene expression changes in archival tissue specimens.

  8. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed material.

    PubMed

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    The principal challenges facing PCR-based analyses of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed materials are fragmentation of the DNA and cross-linked protein-DNA complexes. Here, we present an efficient protocol to extract DNA from formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). In this protocol, protein-DNA cross-links are reversed using heat and alkali treatment, yielding significantly longer fragments and larger amounts of PCR-amplifiable DNA than standard DNA extraction protocols.

  9. Formalin fixing and paraffin embedding may lead to extra band development in PCR.

    PubMed

    Cataloluk, O; Cakmak, E A; Buyukberber, N; Barlas, O

    2003-04-01

    The molecular biological analysis of infectious agents requires the availability of a reliable source of microorganisms to be used to recover DNA. Clinical samples can be obtained directly from infected patients or can be propagated using in vitro or in vivo systems. However, repeated sampling from patients is not always possible as the procedure may be invasive or unpleasant, or it is not possible to catch the same agent at the time of second sampling. Moreover, the techniques used may also produce false-positive and false-negative results. We therefore studied the impact of formalin-fixing and paraffin embedding on tissue sampling, and the methodologies such as DNA isolation and PCR amplification of DNAs from archival materials in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PCR analyses were done according to standard methods with some modifications. Demonstration of mycobacteria was successful both in tissue sections of the formalin-fixed lymph nodes and in stained fresh materials from patients. However, the results showed the presence of two extra bands in the gel. We accounted for extra band development due to the harshness of the methodology used to isolate nucleic acids from formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples or the nature of the fixation procedure, or because of the time passed during storage in which alteration in the chromosomal DNA would take place. Thus, if disease- and tissue specific morphological features, such as sample size, type of fixation, and intralesional heterogeneity are ignored, errors because of sampling and methodologies used may lead to false-positive and false-negative results.

  10. PrPSc detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is regularly employed in the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), the standard by which all other TSE diagnostic protocols are judged. While IHC affords advantages over diagnostic approaches that typically...

  11. Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue as a Starting Point for PrPSc Detection by ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue are regularly employed in TSE diagnosis by IHC, the standard by which all other diagnostic protocols are currently judged. While IHC affords advantages over diagnostic approaches that typically utilize fresh or frozen tissue, such as Western blot...

  12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues, including tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Summersgill, Brenda M; Shipley, Janet M

    2010-01-01

    Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) material is frequently the most convenient readily available source of diseased tissue, including tumors. Multiple cores of FFPE material are being used increasingly to construct tissue microarrays (TMAs) that enable simultaneous analyses of many archival samples. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important approach to analyze FFPE material for specific genetic aberrations that may be associated with tumor types or subtypes, cellular morphology, and disease prognosis. Annealing, or hybridization of labeled nucleic acid sequences, or probes, to detect and locate one or more complementary nucleic acid sequences within fixed tissue sections allows the detection of structural (translocation/inversion) and numerical (deletion/gain) aberrations and their localization within tissues. The robust protocols described include probe preparation, hybridization, and detection and take 2-3 days to complete. A protocol is also described for the stripping of probes for repeat FISH in order to maximize the use of scarce tissue resources.

  13. Making the most of pathological specimens: molecular diagnosis in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Jennifer A; Gilmour, Katelyn; Walsh, Kathy

    2012-11-01

    The development of commercial reagents designed specifically for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue has unlocked the diagnostic potential of this prolific resource. The availability of archival FFPE tissue and tissue from current patients make it an ideal resource for molecular testing. Despite its stability and ability to preserve morphological information, FFPE provides a number of technical challenges to the study of biomolecules. In particular, the cross-linking and processing present problems in the extraction and isolation of DNA, RNA and protein and affect their use in downstream analysis. Here we will discuss some of the problems of FFPE tissue, how they can be overcome and how FFPE material can be used within clinical molecular diagnostics.

  14. An Optimized Method of Metabolite Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for GC/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowska, Anna; Marczak, Łukasz; Jelonek, Karol; Polanski, Krzysztof; Widlak, Piotr; Pietrowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens constitute a highly valuable source of clinical material for retrospective molecular studies. However, metabolomic assessment of such archival material remains still in its infancy. Hence, there is an urgent need for efficient methods enabling extraction and profiling of metabolites present in FFPE tissue specimens. Here we demonstrate the methodology for isolation of primary metabolites from archival tissues; either fresh-frozen, formalin-fixed or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of mouse kidney were analysed and compared in this work. We used gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS approach) to identify about 80 metabolites (including amino acids, saccharides, carboxylic acids, fatty acids) present in such archive material. Importantly, about 75% of identified compounds were detected in all three types of specimens. Moreover, we observed that fixation with formalin itself (and their duration) did not affect markedly the presence of particular metabolites in tissue-extracted material, yet fixation for 24h could be recommended as a practical standard. Paraffin embedding influenced efficiency of extraction, which resulted in reduced quantities of several compounds. Nevertheless, we proved applicability of FFPE specimens for non-targeted GS/MS-based profiling of tissue metabolome, which is of great importance for feasibility of metabolomics studies using retrospective clinical material. PMID:26348873

  15. An Optimized Method of Metabolite Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for GC/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojakowska, Anna; Marczak, Łukasz; Jelonek, Karol; Polanski, Krzysztof; Widlak, Piotr; Pietrowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens constitute a highly valuable source of clinical material for retrospective molecular studies. However, metabolomic assessment of such archival material remains still in its infancy. Hence, there is an urgent need for efficient methods enabling extraction and profiling of metabolites present in FFPE tissue specimens. Here we demonstrate the methodology for isolation of primary metabolites from archival tissues; either fresh-frozen, formalin-fixed or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of mouse kidney were analysed and compared in this work. We used gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS approach) to identify about 80 metabolites (including amino acids, saccharides, carboxylic acids, fatty acids) present in such archive material. Importantly, about 75% of identified compounds were detected in all three types of specimens. Moreover, we observed that fixation with formalin itself (and their duration) did not affect markedly the presence of particular metabolites in tissue-extracted material, yet fixation for 24h could be recommended as a practical standard. Paraffin embedding influenced efficiency of extraction, which resulted in reduced quantities of several compounds. Nevertheless, we proved applicability of FFPE specimens for non-targeted GS/MS-based profiling of tissue metabolome, which is of great importance for feasibility of metabolomics studies using retrospective clinical material.

  16. An Optimized Method of Metabolite Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for GC/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojakowska, Anna; Marczak, Łukasz; Jelonek, Karol; Polanski, Krzysztof; Widlak, Piotr; Pietrowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens constitute a highly valuable source of clinical material for retrospective molecular studies. However, metabolomic assessment of such archival material remains still in its infancy. Hence, there is an urgent need for efficient methods enabling extraction and profiling of metabolites present in FFPE tissue specimens. Here we demonstrate the methodology for isolation of primary metabolites from archival tissues; either fresh-frozen, formalin-fixed or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of mouse kidney were analysed and compared in this work. We used gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS approach) to identify about 80 metabolites (including amino acids, saccharides, carboxylic acids, fatty acids) present in such archive material. Importantly, about 75% of identified compounds were detected in all three types of specimens. Moreover, we observed that fixation with formalin itself (and their duration) did not affect markedly the presence of particular metabolites in tissue-extracted material, yet fixation for 24h could be recommended as a practical standard. Paraffin embedding influenced efficiency of extraction, which resulted in reduced quantities of several compounds. Nevertheless, we proved applicability of FFPE specimens for non-targeted GS/MS-based profiling of tissue metabolome, which is of great importance for feasibility of metabolomics studies using retrospective clinical material. PMID:26348873

  17. The paraffin-embedded RNA metric (PERM) for RNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Cho, Hanbyoul; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    RNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is commonly evaluated in both investigative and diagnostic pathology. However, the quality of the data is directly impacted by RNA quality. The RNA integrity number (RIN), an algorithm based on a combination of electrophoretic features, is widely applied to RNA isolated from paraffin-embedded tissue, but it is a poor indicator of the quality of that RNA. Here we describe the novel paraffin-embedded RNA metric (PERM) for quantifying the quality of RNA from FFPE tissue. The PERM is based on a formula that approximates a weighted area-under-the-curve analysis of an electropherogram of the extracted RNA. Using biochemically degraded RNAs prepared from experimentally fixed mouse kidney specimens, we demonstrate that PERM values correlate with mRNA transcript measurements determined using the QuantiGene system. Furthermore, PERM values correlate with real-time PCR data. Our results demonstrate that the PERM can be used to qualify RNA for different end-point studies and may be a valuable tool for molecular studies using RNA extracted from FFPE tissue.

  18. Amplification of human beta-actin gene by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: implications for assessment of RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material.

    PubMed

    Dakhama, A; Macek, V; Hogg, J C; Hegele, R G

    1996-10-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful method that allows enzymatic amplification of rate target nucleic acid sequences. It has been applied to the amplification of viral genomes from paraffin-embedded pathology specimens. However, interpretation of negative results requires amplification of a housekeeping gene such as beta-actin. In the present study we used specific oligonucleotide primers previously designed to amplify both the genomic DNA and the mRNA transcript from paraffin-embedded tissue. These products have predicted sizes of 250 BP and 154 BP, respectively, but our results showed that PCR amplification only (without reverse transcription) unexpectedly generated the 154-BP product. Further investigation of the nature of this product demonstrated that it originated from the amplification of DNA, not RNA. We conclude that the 154-BP product generated by these primers cannot be exclusively considered as beta-actin RNA product and should not be used to assess successful extraction of RNA, to ascertain its integrity, or to normalize for the total amount of RNA assayed by RT-PCR from paraffin-embedded tissue.

  19. Oligonucleotide array outperforms SNP array on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soroush; Anjomshoaa, Ahmad; Song, Sarah; Guilford, Parry; McNoe, Les; Black, Michael; Phillips, Vicky; Reeve, Anthony; Humar, Bostjan

    2010-04-01

    Compromised quality of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE)-derived DNA has compounded the use of archival specimens for array-based genomic studies. Recent technological advances have led to first successes in this field; however, there is currently no general agreement on the most suitable platform for the array-based analysis of FFPE DNA. In this study, FFPE and matched fresh-frozen (FF) specimens were separately analyzed with Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 and Agilent 4x44K oligonucleotide arrays to compare the genomic profiles from the two tissue sources and to assess the relative performance of the two platforms on FFPE material. Genomic DNA was extracted from matched FFPE-FF pairs of normal intestinal epithelium from four patients and were applied to the SNP and oligonucleotide platforms according to the manufacturer-recommended protocols. On the Affymetrix platform, a substantial increase in apparent copy number alterations was observed in all FFPE tissues relative to their matched FF counterparts. In contrast, FFPE and matched FF genomic profiles obtained via the Agilent platform were very similar. Both the SNP and the oligonucleotide platform performed comparably on FF material. This study demonstrates that Agilent oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization generates reliable results from FFPE extracted DNA, whereas the Affymetrix SNP-based array seems less suitable for the analysis of FFPE material.

  20. Comparing Platforms for Messenger RNA Expression Profiling of Archival Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Martin, Neil E; Stack, Edward C; Wei, Wei; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Waldron, Levi; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Lis, Rosina T; Stampfer, Meir J; Loda, Massimo; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Mucci, Lorelei A; Birrer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a readily available but largely untapped resource for gene expression profiling-based biomarker discovery. Several technologies have been proposed to cope with the bias from RNA cross-linking and degradation associated with archival specimens to generate data comparable with RNA from fresh-frozen materials. Direct comparison studies of these RNA expression platforms remain rare. We compared two commercially available platforms for RNA expression profiling of archival FFPE specimens from clinical studies of prostate and ovarian cancer: the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0ST Array following whole-transcriptome amplification using the NuGen WT-Ovation FFPE System V2, and the NanoString nCounter without amplification. For each assay, we profiled 7 prostate and 11 ovarian cancer specimens, with a block age of 4 to 21 years. Both platforms produced gene expression profiles with high sensitivity and reproducibility through technical repeats from FFPE materials. Sensitivity and reproducibility remained high across block age within each cohort. A strong concordance was shown for the transcript expression values for genes detected by both platforms. We showed the biological validity of specific gene signatures generated by both platforms for both cohorts. Our study supports the feasibility of gene expression profiling and large-scale signature validation on archival prostate and ovarian tumor specimens using commercial platforms. These approaches have the potential to aid precision medicine with biomarker discovery and validation.

  1. Exome enrichment and SOLiD sequencing of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Menon, Roopika; Deng, Mario; Boehm, Diana; Braun, Martin; Fend, Falko; Boehm, Detlef; Biskup, Saskia; Perner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized cancer research allowing the comprehensive study of cancer using high throughput deep sequencing methodologies. These methods detect genomic alterations, nucleotide substitutions, insertions, deletions and copy number alterations. SOLiD (Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection, Life Technologies) is a promising technology generating billions of 50 bp sequencing reads. This robust technique, successfully applied in gene identification, might be helpful in detecting novel genes associated with cancer initiation and progression using formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. This study's aim was to compare the validity of whole exome sequencing of fresh-frozen vs. FFPE tumor tissue by normalization to normal prostatic FFPE tissue, obtained from the same patient. One primary fresh-frozen sample, corresponding FFPE prostate cancer sample and matched adjacent normal prostatic tissue was subjected to exome sequencing. The sequenced reads were mapped and compared. Our study was the first to show comparable exome sequencing results between FFPE and corresponding fresh-frozen cancer tissues using SOLiD sequencing. A prior study has been conducted comparing the validity of sequencing of FFPE vs. fresh frozen samples using other NGS platforms. Our validation further proves that FFPE material is a reliable source of material for whole exome sequencing.

  2. Comparing Platforms for Messenger RNA Expression Profiling of Archival Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Martin, Neil E; Stack, Edward C; Wei, Wei; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Waldron, Levi; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Lis, Rosina T; Stampfer, Meir J; Loda, Massimo; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Mucci, Lorelei A; Birrer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a readily available but largely untapped resource for gene expression profiling-based biomarker discovery. Several technologies have been proposed to cope with the bias from RNA cross-linking and degradation associated with archival specimens to generate data comparable with RNA from fresh-frozen materials. Direct comparison studies of these RNA expression platforms remain rare. We compared two commercially available platforms for RNA expression profiling of archival FFPE specimens from clinical studies of prostate and ovarian cancer: the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0ST Array following whole-transcriptome amplification using the NuGen WT-Ovation FFPE System V2, and the NanoString nCounter without amplification. For each assay, we profiled 7 prostate and 11 ovarian cancer specimens, with a block age of 4 to 21 years. Both platforms produced gene expression profiles with high sensitivity and reproducibility through technical repeats from FFPE materials. Sensitivity and reproducibility remained high across block age within each cohort. A strong concordance was shown for the transcript expression values for genes detected by both platforms. We showed the biological validity of specific gene signatures generated by both platforms for both cohorts. Our study supports the feasibility of gene expression profiling and large-scale signature validation on archival prostate and ovarian tumor specimens using commercial platforms. These approaches have the potential to aid precision medicine with biomarker discovery and validation. PMID:25937617

  3. Molecular profiling of signalling pathways in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Berg, Daniela; Hipp, Susanne; Malinowsky, Katharina; Böllner, Claudia; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    In most hospitals word-wide, histopathological cancer diagnosis is currently based on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. In the last few years new approaches and developments in patient-tailored cancer therapy have raised the need to select more precisely those patients, who will respond to personalised treatments. The most efficient way for optimal therapy and patient selection is probably to provide a tumour-specific protein network portrait prior to treatment. The discovery and characterisation of deregulated signalling molecules (e.g. human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, mitogen-activated protein kinases) are very promising candidates for the identification of new suitable therapy targets and for the selection of those patients who will receive the greatest benefit from individualised treatments. The reverse phase protein array (RPPA) is a promising new technology that allows quick, precise and simultaneous analysis of many components of a network. Importantly it requires only limited amounts of routine clinical material (e.g. FFPE biopsies) and can be used for absolute protein measurements. We and other research groups have described successful protein extraction from routine FFPE tissues. In this manuscript we show how these recent developments might facilitate the implementation of RPPA in clinical trials and routine settings.

  4. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue: The holy grail of clinical proteomics.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Valérie; Peeters, Lise; Maes, Evelyne; Pringels, Lentel; Verjans, Eddy-Tim; Landuyt, Bart

    2014-10-01

    Tissue is the most relevant biological material to gather insight in disease mechanisms by means of omics technologies. However, fresh frozen tissue, which is generally regarded as the best imaginable source for such studies, is often not available. In case it is available, the different ways of storage (e.g. -20°C, -80°C, liquid nitrogen, etc.) hamper the conduction of reproducible multicenter studies because of different protein degradation rates. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue on the contrary is considered as a valuable alternative for fresh frozen tissue, because only a few standard operation procedures are applied worldwide for the preparation of these tissues and because they are all stored in the same way. However, a study on the impact of the different preparation protocols for FFPE tissue was still lacking. Therefore, Bronsert et al. in this issue [Bronsert, P., Weißer, J., Biniossek, M. L., Kuehs, M. et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2014, 8 786-804] conducted such a study that provides proof that there is no significant effect between these sample preparations procedures, and thereby they further open the gate for FFPE tissues to enter the field of clinical proteomics.

  5. Detection of alpha human papillomaviruses in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Hošnjak, Lea; Poljak, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens stored in pathology departments worldwide are an invaluable source for diagnostic purposes when fresh clinical material is unavailable as well as for retrospective molecular and epidemiological studies, especially when dealing with rare clinical conditions for which prospective collection is not feasible. Accurate detection of HPV infection in these specimens is particularly challenging because nucleic acids are often degraded and therefore, not suitable for amplification of larger fragments of the viral genome or viral gene transcripts. This review provides a brief summary of molecular methods for detecting alpha-HPV DNA/RNA in FFPE tissue specimens. We specifically address the key procedural and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on the quality of nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissue specimens, and describe some solutions that can be used to increase their integrity and/or amplifiability. Moreover, commonly used methods for HPV DNA/RNA detection in FFPE tissue specimens are presented and discussed, focusing on studies using polymerase chain reaction as an HPV detection method and published after 1999. Finally, we briefly summarize our 22 years of experience with HPV detection in FFPE tissue specimens. PMID:26514313

  6. Detection of alpha human papillomaviruses in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Hošnjak, Lea; Poljak, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens stored in pathology departments worldwide are an invaluable source for diagnostic purposes when fresh clinical material is unavailable as well as for retrospective molecular and epidemiological studies, especially when dealing with rare clinical conditions for which prospective collection is not feasible. Accurate detection of HPV infection in these specimens is particularly challenging because nucleic acids are often degraded and therefore, not suitable for amplification of larger fragments of the viral genome or viral gene transcripts. This review provides a brief summary of molecular methods for detecting alpha-HPV DNA/RNA in FFPE tissue specimens. We specifically address the key procedural and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on the quality of nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissue specimens, and describe some solutions that can be used to increase their integrity and/or amplifiability. Moreover, commonly used methods for HPV DNA/RNA detection in FFPE tissue specimens are presented and discussed, focusing on studies using polymerase chain reaction as an HPV detection method and published after 1999. Finally, we briefly summarize our 22 years of experience with HPV detection in FFPE tissue specimens.

  7. A simple method for isolation of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples for PCR.

    PubMed

    Kallio, P; Syrjänen, S; Tervahauta, A; Syrjänen, K

    1991-11-01

    A simple method of processing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. In this procedure, deparaffinized sections are readily subjected to DNA isolation simply by boiling and the released DNA can be directly employed for PCR. The method allows analysis of single-copy genes or viral sequences at least up to 300 base pairs long in one working day. This method is particularly useful in analysing retrospective materials when the simplicity and low cost of the assay are preferable. Furthermore, the simplicity of the procedure reduces the risk of contamination. PMID:1800525

  8. Multiplexed miRNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Bognanni, Claudia; Tuschl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Multiplexed miRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (miRNA FISH) is an advanced method for visualizing differentially expressed miRNAs, together with other reference RNAs, in archival tissues. Some miRNAs are excellent disease biomarkers due to their abundance and cell-type specificity. However, these short RNA molecules are difficult to visualize due to loss by diffusion, probe mishybridization, and signal detection and signal amplification issues. Here, we describe a reliable and adjustable method for visualizing and normalizing miRNA signals in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. PMID:25218385

  9. Data analysis considerations for detecting copy number changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sharoni

    2012-11-01

    The Whole Genome Sampling Analysis (WGSA) assay in combination with Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Arrays is used for copy number analysis of high-quality DNA samples (i.e., samples that have been collected from blood, fresh or frozen tissue, or cell lines). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, however, represent the most prevalent form of archived clinical samples, but they provide additional challenges for molecular assays. FFPE processing usually results in the degradation of FFPE DNA and in the contamination and chemical modification of these DNA samples. In this article, we describe the steps needed to obtain reliable copy number predictions from degraded and contaminated FFPE samples.

  10. Real-time PCR analysis of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embeded tissues: effects of the fixation on outcome reliability.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, Francesca; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, Duccio; Taddei, Antonio; Garbini, Francesca; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Pepi, Monica; Paglierani, Milena; Asirelli, Grazia; Freschi, Giancarlo; Bechi, Paolo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2007-09-01

    In many pathologic circumstances, quantitative mRNA expression levels are important for evaluation of possible genome mutations. The development of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology has facilitated the realization of nucleic acid quantification. Potentially, quantitative PCR offers a number of advantages over traditional methods because it permits the use of small amounts of genetic material. In the present study, we optimize a RNA purification technique on specimens that are formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and we examine prolonged formalin fixation effects on quantitative RT-PCR analysis. We compared RNA levels with 70 colic mucosa samples using the cyclooxygenase 2 gene as marker. The difference in amplification successes between formalin-fixed tissues and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was not statistically significant. Moreover, we compared the expression of formalin-fixed samples with the expression of each fresh tissue. Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test shows that only the difference in the expression levels of 1- or 3-hour formalin-fixed samples is not statistically significant with respect to other fixation times. We found that the mRNA can be reliably extracted from formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections but that prolonged formalin fixation produces different results in quantitative RT-PCR. It can be related to difference in RNA sequences length and the generation of secondary structures that are more susceptible to the prolonged formalin fixation. We suppose that the paraffin do not influence the RNA extraction yield because there are no statistical significant differences between amplification success of formalin-fixed tissues and paraffin-embedded tissues. Therefore, in relative expression quantization, we confirm that it is appropriate to use specimens with same protocols and time for formalin fixation.

  11. Transcriptional profiling of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue: pitfalls and recommendations for identifying biologically relevant changes.

    PubMed

    Rentoft, Matilda; Coates, Philip John; Laurell, Göran; Nylander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Expression profiling techniques have been used to study the biology of many types of cancer but have been limited to some extent by the requirement for collection of fresh tissue. In contrast, formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples are widely available and represent a vast resource of potential material. The techniques used to handle the degraded and modified RNA from these samples are relatively new and all the pitfalls and limitations of this material for whole genome expression profiling are not yet clarified. Here, we analyzed 70 FFPE tongue carcinoma samples and 17 controls using the whole genome DASL array covering nearly 21000 genes. We identified that sample age is related to quality of extracted RNA and that sample quality influences apparent expression levels in a non-random manner related to gene probe sequence, leading to spurious results. However, by removing sub-standard samples and analysing only those 28 cancers and 15 controls that had similar quality we were able to generate a list of 934 genes significantly altered in tongue cancer compared to control samples of tongue. This list contained previously identified changes and was enriched for genes involved in many cancer-related processes such as tissue remodelling, inflammation, differentiation and apoptosis. Four novel genes of potential importance in tongue cancer development and maintenance, SH3BGL2, SLC2A6, SLC16A3 and CXCL10, were independently confirmed, validating our data. Hence, gene expression profiling can be performed usefully on archival material if appropriate quality assurance steps are taken to ensure sample consistency and we present some recommendations for the use of FFPE material based on our findings.

  12. Improved DNA content histograms from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue by proteinase K digestion.

    PubMed

    Albro, J; Bauer, K D; Hitchcock, C L; Wittwer, C T

    1993-01-01

    An improved method for the enzymatic digestion of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue for DNA content analysis by flow cytometry is presented. Forty samples of histologically normal liver were alternately digested by the traditional pepsin method or a new method utilizing proteinase K and heat. Sixteen (40%) of the pepsin-digested samples had apparent DNA aneuploid peaks by flow cytometry. False DNA aneuploid peaks were not present in any of the histograms obtained after proteinase K digestion. Microscopy showed that the pepsin-digested samples had residual cytoplasmic remnants which contained fluorescent material. Samples digested with proteinase K had few cytoplasmic remnants. The average G0/G1 coefficient of variation after proteinase K treatment was lower (41%) and the fluorescent intensity higher (128%) than the pepsin-treated samples. The apparent mean S-phase (a combination of S-phase cells and underlying debris) after proteinase K digestion was 35% of the pepsin-treated samples. Primary and secondary tumors of the liver that were DNA aneuploid after pepsin treatment were also DNA aneuploid after proteinase K treatment. A modified digestion protocol utilizing proteinase K and heat can provide superior results for DNA content analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue.

  13. Multicenter Evaluation of a Novel Automated Rapid Detection System of BRAF Status in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Parlow, Laura; Gabler, Lisa; Mesteri, Ildiko; Koperek, Oskar; von Deimling, Andreas; Streubel, Berthold; Preusser, Matthias; Lehmann, Annika; Kellner, Udo; Pauwels, Patrick; Lambin, Suzan; Dietel, Manfred; Hummel, Michael; Klauschen, Frederick; Birner, Peter; Möbs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The mutated BRAF oncogene represents a therapeutic target in malignant melanoma. Because BRAF mutations are also involved in the pathogenesis of other human malignancies, the use of specific BRAF inhibitors might also be extended to other diseases in the future. A prerequisite for the clinical application of BRAF inhibitors is the reliable detection of activating BRAF mutations in routine histopathological samples. In a multicenter approach, we evaluated a novel and fully automated PCR-based system (Idylla) capable of detecting BRAF V600 mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue within 90 minutes with high sensitivity. We analyzed a total of 436 samples with the Idylla system. Valid results were obtained in 421 cases (96.56%). Its performance was compared with conventional methods (pyrosequencing or Sanger sequencing). Concordant results were obtained in 406 cases (96.90%). Reanalysis of eight discordant samples by next-generation sequencing and/or pyrosequencing with newly extracted DNA and the BRAF RGQ Kit confirmed the Idylla result in seven cases, resulting in an overall agreement of 98.57%. In conclusion, the Idylla system is a highly reliable and sensitive platform for detection of BRAF V600 mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material, providing an efficient alternative to conventional diagnostic methods, particularly for routine diagnostics laboratories with limited experience in molecular pathology.

  14. Proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Casadonte, Rita; Caprioli, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue collections represent a valuable informational resource for proteomic studies. Multiple FFPE core biopsies can be assembled in a single block to form tissue microarrays (TMAs). We describe a protocol for analyzing protein in FFPE -TMAs using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MAL DI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). The workflow incorporates an antigen retrieval step following deparaffinization, in situ trypsin digestion, matrix application and then mass spectrometry signal acquisition. The direct analysis of FFPE -TMA tissue using IMS allows direct analysis of multiple tissue samples in a single experiment without extraction and purification of proteins. The advantages of high speed and throughput, easy sample handling and excellent reproducibility make this technology a favorable approach for the proteomic analysis of clinical research cohorts with large sample numbers. For example, TMA analysis of 300 FFPE cores would typically require 6 h of total time through data acquisition, not including data analysis. PMID:22011652

  15. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Gorzolka, Karin; Walch, Axel

    2014-11-01

    The molecular investigation of archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples provides the chance to obtain molecular patterns as indicatives for treatment and clinical end points. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging is capable of localizing molecules like proteins and peptides in tissue sections and became a favorite platform for the targeted and non-targeted approaches, especially in clinical investigations for biomarker research. In FFPE tissues the recovery of proteomic information is constrained by fixation-induced cross-links of proteins. The promising new insights obtained from FFPE in combination with the comprehensive patients' data caused much progress in the optimization of MS imaging protocols to investigate FFPE samples. This review presents the past and current research in MALDI MS imaging of FFPE tissues, demonstrating the improvement of analyses, their actual limitations, but also the promising future perspectives for histopathological and tissue-based research.

  16. Genomic analysis by oligonucleotide array Comparative Genomic Hybridization utilizing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Savage, Stephanie J; Hostetter, Galen

    2011-01-01

    Formalin fixation has been used to preserve tissues for more than a hundred years, and there are currently more than 300 million archival samples in the United States alone. The application of genomic protocols such as high-density oligonucleotide array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, therefore, opens an untapped resource of available tissues for research and facilitates utilization of existing clinical data in a research sample set. However, formalin fixation results in cross-linking of proteins and DNA, typically leading to such a significant degradation of DNA template that little is available for use in molecular applications. Here, we describe a protocol to circumvent formalin fixation artifact by utilizing enzymatic reactions to obtain quality DNA from a wide range of FFPE tissues for successful genome-wide discovery of gene dosage alterations in archival clinical samples.

  17. Mass spectrometric analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue: unlocking the proteome within.

    PubMed

    Hood, Brian L; Conrads, Thomas P; Veenstra, Timothy D

    2006-07-01

    The predominance of tissues stored worldwide in hospitals and clinical laboratories exist in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks that are generated by simple and well-established protocols. Although generation of FFPE tissues has facilitated their characterization by such techniques as histopathology, they have proven refractory to biomarker discovery investigations using state-of-the-art MS-based proteomic methodologies. Very recently new methods have been developed that enable proteins extracted from FFPE tissues to be analyzed by MS. This review will highlight and discuss those efforts that have led to this exciting recent progress. Although these developments are quite new, the ability to conduct MS-based proteomic analyses of FFPE tissues opens heretofore intractable clinical samples for discovery-based biomarker research.

  18. Toward improving the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol B; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-08-01

    Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and their associated diagnostic records represent an invaluable source of retrospective proteomic information on diseases for which the clinical outcome and response to treatment are known. However, analysis of archival FFPE tissues by high-throughput proteomic methods has been hindered by the adverse effects of formaldehyde fixation and subsequent tissue histology. This review examines recent methodological advances for extracting proteins from FFPE tissue suitable for proteomic analysis. These methods, based largely upon heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques borrowed from immunohistochemistry, allow at least a qualitative analysis of the proteome of FFPE archival tissues. The authors also discuss recent advances in the proteomic analysis of FFPE tissue; including liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, reverse phase protein microarrays and imaging mass spectrometry.

  19. Sample processing considerations for detecting copy number changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sharoni

    2012-11-01

    The Whole Genome Sampling Analysis (WGSA) assay in combination with Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Arrays is used for copy number analysis of high-quality DNA samples (i.e., samples that have been collected from blood, fresh or frozen tissue, or cell lines). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, however, represent the most prevalent form of archived clinical samples, but they provide additional challenges for molecular assays. FFPE processing usually results in the degradation of FFPE DNA and in the contamination and chemical modification of these DNA samples. Because of these issues, FFPE DNA is not suitable for all molecular assays designed for high-quality DNA samples. Strategies recommended for processing FFPE DNA samples through WGSA and to the Mapping arrays are described here. PMID:23118355

  20. Data analysis considerations for detecting copy number changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sharoni

    2012-11-01

    The Whole Genome Sampling Analysis (WGSA) assay in combination with Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Arrays is used for copy number analysis of high-quality DNA samples (i.e., samples that have been collected from blood, fresh or frozen tissue, or cell lines). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, however, represent the most prevalent form of archived clinical samples, but they provide additional challenges for molecular assays. FFPE processing usually results in the degradation of FFPE DNA and in the contamination and chemical modification of these DNA samples. In this article, we describe the steps needed to obtain reliable copy number predictions from degraded and contaminated FFPE samples. PMID:23118356

  1. Deparaffinization of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks using hot water instead of xylene.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Narges; Bayani, Masomeh; Ghaffari, Taraneh

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to deparaffinize formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues using hot water instead of xylene and measuring the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA from the respective tissues. To deparaffinize the tissue sections with hot water, small sections were exposed to 90 °C distilled sterile water. After 25 FFPE tissue samples were deparaffinized with the hot water method, DNA was then extracted. The mean of optical density and the ratio of absorbance of the DNA solution were 220.01 ± 36.1 ng/μl and 1.65 ± 0.1, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) gene showed that the method can be used as a tool for different applications. PMID:27287960

  2. Sample processing considerations for detecting copy number changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sharoni

    2012-11-01

    The Whole Genome Sampling Analysis (WGSA) assay in combination with Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Arrays is used for copy number analysis of high-quality DNA samples (i.e., samples that have been collected from blood, fresh or frozen tissue, or cell lines). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, however, represent the most prevalent form of archived clinical samples, but they provide additional challenges for molecular assays. FFPE processing usually results in the degradation of FFPE DNA and in the contamination and chemical modification of these DNA samples. Because of these issues, FFPE DNA is not suitable for all molecular assays designed for high-quality DNA samples. Strategies recommended for processing FFPE DNA samples through WGSA and to the Mapping arrays are described here.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh, Omid; Atkinson, Michael J; Tapio, Soile

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue has recently gained interest as an alternative to fresh/frozen tissue for retrospective protein biomarker discovery. However, during the formalin fixation proteins undergo degradation and cross-linking, making conventional protein analysis technologies challenging. Cross-linking is even more challenging when quantitative proteome analysis of FFPE tissue is planned. The use of conventional protein labeling technologies on FFPE tissue has turned out to be problematic as the lysine residue labeling targets are frequently blocked by the formalin treatment. We have established a qualitative and quantitative proteomics analysis technique for FFPE tissues that combines label-free proteomic analysis with optimized protein extraction and separation conditions.

  4. Dose-Response Analysis of RNA-Seq Profiles in Archival Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples provide a vast untapped resource for chemical safety and translational science. To date, genomic profiling of FFPE samples has been limited by poor RNA quality and inconsistent results with limited utility in dose-response assessmen...

  5. Quantification of HER2 by Targeted Mass Spectrometry in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Breast Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Carine; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Lamerz, Jens; Kux van Geijtenbeek, Sabine; McKee, Thomas A; Venturi, Miro; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Hochstrasser, Denis; Cutler, Paul; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ducret, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The ability to accurately quantify proteins in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using targeted mass spectrometry opens exciting perspectives for biomarker discovery. We have developed and evaluated a selectedreaction monitoring assay for the human receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumors. Peptide candidates were identified using an untargeted mass spectrometry approach in relevant cell lines. A multiplexed assay was developed for the six best candidate peptides and evaluated for linearity, precision and lower limit of quantification. Results showed a linear response over a calibration range of 0.012 to 100 fmol on column (R(2): 0.99-1.00).The lower limit of quantification was 0.155 fmol on column for all peptides evaluated. The six HER2 peptides were quantified by selected reaction monitoring in a cohort of 40 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from women with invasive breast carcinomas, which showed different levels of HER2 gene amplification as assessed by standard methods used in clinical pathology. The amounts of the six HER2 peptides were highly and significantly correlated with each other, indicating that peptide levels can be used as surrogates of protein amounts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. After normalization for sample size, selected reaction monitoring peptide measurements were able to correctly predict 90% of cases based on HER2 amplification as defined by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists. In conclusion, the developed assay showed good analytical performance and a high agreement with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization data. This study demonstrated that selected reaction monitoring allows to accurately quantify protein expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and represents therefore a powerful approach for biomarker discovery studies. The untargeted mass spectrometry

  6. Quantification of HER2 by Targeted Mass Spectrometry in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Breast Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Carine; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Lamerz, Jens; Kux van Geijtenbeek, Sabine; McKee, Thomas A; Venturi, Miro; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Hochstrasser, Denis; Cutler, Paul; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ducret, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The ability to accurately quantify proteins in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using targeted mass spectrometry opens exciting perspectives for biomarker discovery. We have developed and evaluated a selectedreaction monitoring assay for the human receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumors. Peptide candidates were identified using an untargeted mass spectrometry approach in relevant cell lines. A multiplexed assay was developed for the six best candidate peptides and evaluated for linearity, precision and lower limit of quantification. Results showed a linear response over a calibration range of 0.012 to 100 fmol on column (R(2): 0.99-1.00).The lower limit of quantification was 0.155 fmol on column for all peptides evaluated. The six HER2 peptides were quantified by selected reaction monitoring in a cohort of 40 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from women with invasive breast carcinomas, which showed different levels of HER2 gene amplification as assessed by standard methods used in clinical pathology. The amounts of the six HER2 peptides were highly and significantly correlated with each other, indicating that peptide levels can be used as surrogates of protein amounts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. After normalization for sample size, selected reaction monitoring peptide measurements were able to correctly predict 90% of cases based on HER2 amplification as defined by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists. In conclusion, the developed assay showed good analytical performance and a high agreement with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization data. This study demonstrated that selected reaction monitoring allows to accurately quantify protein expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and represents therefore a powerful approach for biomarker discovery studies. The untargeted mass spectrometry

  7. High-resolution copy number profiling by array CGH using DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    van Essen, Hendrik F; Ylstra, Bauke

    2012-01-01

    We describe protocols to acquire high-quality DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for the use in array comparative genome hybridization (CGH). Formalin fixation combined with paraffin embedding is routine procedure for solid malignancies in the diagnostic practice of the pathologist. As a consequence, large archives of FFPE tissues are available in pathology institutes across the globe. This archival material is for many research questions an invaluable resource, with long-term clinical follow-up and survival data available. FFPE is, thus, highly attractive for large genomics studies, including experiments requiring samples for test/learning and validation. Most larger array CGH studies have, therefore, made use of FFPE material and show that CNAs have tumor- and tissue-specific traits (Chin et al. Cancer Cell 10: 529-541, 2006; Fridlyand et al. BMC Cancer 6: 96, 2006; Weiss et al. Oncogene 22: 1872-1879, 2003; Jong et al. Oncogene 26: 1499-1506, 2007). The protocols described are tailored to array CGH of FFPE solid malignancies: from sectioning FFPE blocks to specific cynosures for pathological revisions of sections, DNA isolation, quality testing, and amplification. The protocols are technical in character and elaborate up to the labeling of isolated DNA while further processes and interpretation and data analysis are beyond the scope.

  8. Improved detection of mycobacterial DNA by PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using thin sections.

    PubMed

    Loeschke, S; Goldmann, T; Vollmer, E

    2005-01-01

    PCR is a unique methodology allowing for the sensitive detection of mycobacterial DNA-sequences in cases in which no fresh material can be obtained for classic analyses. Despite the limitations of this technique, for example the less satisfactory quality of DNA from paraffin-embedded specimens and the high effort necessary to control contamination, PCR still represents a useful additional tool for routine diagnostic examinations of mycobacterial infections. Fragmentation of the DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples on the one hand and the rigid cell wall of mycobacteria on the other hand are obstacles to detecting the DNA of these microorganisms by PCR. Here, we describe a simple mechanical procedure that allows us to improve the detection of mycobacterial DNA with the use of thin (1 microm) sections instead of thicker sections. This could be explained by a gentle, mechanical opening of the acid fast mycobacterial cell wall. Thus, even the application of heat/cold shock treatments is not necessary. This inexpensive fast procedure can also be used for the detection of other infectious agents. PMID:15807309

  9. Detection of Tropical Fungi in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue: Still an Indication for Microscopy in Times of Sequence-Based Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Frickmann, Hagen; Loderstaedt, Ulrike; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Eggert, Petra; Haeupler, Alexandra; Bialek, Ralf; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was the evaluation of panfungal PCR protocols with subsequent sequence analysis for the diagnostic identification of invasive mycoses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples with rare tropical mycoses. Materials and Methods. Five different previously described panfungal PCR/sequencing protocols targeting 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene fragments as well as internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 fragments were evaluated with a collection of 17 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of patients with rare and/or tropical invasive mycoses, comprising chromoblastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, mycetoma/maduromycosis, and rhinosporidiosis, in a proof-of-principle analysis. Results. The primers of the panfungal PCRs readily and predominantly reacted with contaminating environmental fungi that had deposited on the paraffin blocks. Altogether three sequence results of histoplasmosis and mycetoma samples that matched the histological assessment were associated with sample age <10 years and virtually without PCR inhibition. Conclusions. The high risk of amplifying environmental contaminants severely reduces the usefulness of the assessed panfungal PCR/sequencing protocols for the identification of rare and/or tropical mycoses in stored formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Histological assessment remains valuable for such indications if cultural differentiation is impossible from inactivated sample material. PMID:25961048

  10. Use of Raman Spectroscopy in Characterizing Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Breast Tumor Samples (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Frances; Cade, Nicholas; Cook, Richard; Springall, Robert; Gillet, Cheryl; Richards, David; Festy, Frederic

    2009-04-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of breast tissue are used by pathologists to correctly type and grade the primary tumor and to assess the extent of a patient's disease. The cut sections represent a reproducible likeness of the morphology of the tissue when viewed through a microscope, although the fixation technique creates some artifacts. What is not known is how the sections differ chemically from how the tumor would look or behave within the breast. Raman spectroscopy is, like many other optical techniques, fast, noninvasive, and generally inexpensive. The advantage Raman has over other techniques is its powerful ability to identify specific chemicals, molecules, and bonds within a sample. Using Raman spectroscopy the chemicals present in both fresh tissue and FFPE sections can be identified and compared, allowing any differences between them to be identified. This information may be useful to the pathologist as an aid to further treatment regimes or novel molecular techniques, and as an aid to patient management. If these sections are found to be chemically similar to fresh tissue, they could be used to further characterize breast tumors, particularly rare tumors, using Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Genomic DNA extraction methods using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Keerti; Mahas, Ahmed; Kent, Michael N; Naik, Sameep; Markey, Michael

    2015-10-01

    As new technologies come within reach for the average cytogenetic laboratory, the study of chromosome structure has become increasingly more sophisticated. Resolution has improved from karyotyping (in which whole chromosomes are discernible) to fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, with which specific megabase regions are visualized), array-based CGH (aCGH, examining hundreds of base pairs), and next-generation sequencing (providing single base pair resolution). Whole genome next-generation sequencing remains a cost-prohibitive method for many investigators. Meanwhile, the cost of aCGH has been reduced during recent years, even as resolution has increased and protocols have simplified. However, aCGH presents its own set of unique challenges. DNA of sufficient quantity and quality to hybridize to arrays and provide meaningful results is required. This is especially difficult for DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Here, we compare three different methods for acquiring DNA of sufficient length, purity, and "amplifiability" for aCGH and other downstream applications. Phenol-chloroform extraction and column-based commercial kits were compared with adaptive focused acoustics (AFA). Of the three extraction methods, AFA samples showed increased amplicon length and decreased polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failure rate. These findings support AFA as an improvement over previous DNA extraction methods for FFPE tissues.

  12. Protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections: quality evaluation by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Liu, Cheng; Balgley, Brian M; Lee, Cheng; Taylor, Clive R

    2006-06-01

    A satisfactory protocol of protein extraction has been established based on the heat-induced antigen retrieval (AR) technique widely applied in immunohistochemistry for archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. Based on AR, an initial serial experiment to identify an optimal protocol of heat-induced protein extraction was carried out using FFPE mouse tissues. The optimal protocol for extraction of proteins was then performed on an archival FFPE tissue of human renal carcinoma. FFPE sections were boiled in a retrieval solution of Tris-HCl containing 2% SDS, followed by incubation. Fresh tissue taken from the same case of renal carcinoma was processed for extraction of proteins by a conventional method using radioimmunoprecipitation assay solution, to compare the efficiency of protein extraction from FFPE tissue sections with extraction from fresh tissue. As a control, further sections of the same FFPE sample were processed by the same procedure without heating treatment. Evaluation of the quality of protein extracted from FFPE tissue was done using gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, showing most identified proteins extracted from FFPE tissue sections were overlapped with those extracted from fresh tissue.

  13. Preparation of Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Tissue Cores for both RNA and DNA Extraction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Palak G; Selvarajah, Shamini; Boursalie, Suzanne; How, Nathan E; Ejdelman, Joshua; Guerard, Karl-Philippe; Bartlett, John M; Lapointe, Jacques; Park, Paul C; Okello, John B A; Berman, David M

    2016-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPET) represents a valuable, well-annotated substrate for molecular investigations. The utility of FFPET in molecular analysis is complicated both by heterogeneous tissue composition and low yields when extracting nucleic acids. A literature search revealed a paucity of protocols addressing these issues, and none that showed a validated method for simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA from regions of interest in FFPET. This method addresses both issues. Tissue specificity was achieved by mapping cancer areas of interest on microscope slides and transferring annotations onto FFPET blocks. Tissue cores were harvested from areas of interest using 0.6 mm microarray punches. Nucleic acid extraction was performed using a commercial FFPET extraction system, with modifications to homogenization, deparaffinization, and Proteinase K digestion steps to improve tissue digestion and increase nucleic acid yields. The modified protocol yields sufficient quantity and quality of nucleic acids for use in a number of downstream analyses, including a multi-analyte gene expression platform, as well as reverse transcriptase coupled real time PCR analysis of mRNA expression, and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis of DNA methylation. PMID:27583817

  14. Identification of fungal pathogens in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded tissue samples by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Rickerts, Volker

    2016-02-01

    The etiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is incompletely understood due to diagnostic limitations including insensitivity of cultures and failure of histopathology to discriminate between different species. This diagnostic gap precludes the optimal use of antifungals, leading to adverse patient outcomes. The identification of fungal pathogens from Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) blocks by molecular methods is emerging as an alternative approach to study the etiology of IFI. PCR assays, including species specific- and broadrange fungal tests are used with FFPE samples from patients with proven IFI. Fungal species identification is achieved in 15-90% of the samples. This heterogeneity may be explained by the samples studied. However, comparison of different studies is impaired, as controls ruling out false positive-, false negative test results or PCR inhibition are frequently not reported. Studies using in situ hybridization also vary in the clinical samples included and the targeted fungi. In addition, target sequences, the probe chemistry and the detection of hybridization signals also account for the differences in diagnostic sensitivity. Using both approaches in parallel yields additive insights, potentially leading to a superior identification of fungal etiology and awareness of the limitations of both molecular diagnostic approaches.

  15. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays, which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues.

  16. Preparation of Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Tissue Cores for both RNA and DNA Extraction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Palak G; Selvarajah, Shamini; Boursalie, Suzanne; How, Nathan E; Ejdelman, Joshua; Guerard, Karl-Philippe; Bartlett, John M; Lapointe, Jacques; Park, Paul C; Okello, John B A; Berman, David M

    2016-08-21

    Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPET) represents a valuable, well-annotated substrate for molecular investigations. The utility of FFPET in molecular analysis is complicated both by heterogeneous tissue composition and low yields when extracting nucleic acids. A literature search revealed a paucity of protocols addressing these issues, and none that showed a validated method for simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA from regions of interest in FFPET. This method addresses both issues. Tissue specificity was achieved by mapping cancer areas of interest on microscope slides and transferring annotations onto FFPET blocks. Tissue cores were harvested from areas of interest using 0.6 mm microarray punches. Nucleic acid extraction was performed using a commercial FFPET extraction system, with modifications to homogenization, deparaffinization, and Proteinase K digestion steps to improve tissue digestion and increase nucleic acid yields. The modified protocol yields sufficient quantity and quality of nucleic acids for use in a number of downstream analyses, including a multi-analyte gene expression platform, as well as reverse transcriptase coupled real time PCR analysis of mRNA expression, and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis of DNA methylation.

  17. DNA extraction from fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dzamko, Nicolas; Halliday, Glenda; Huang, Yue

    2013-10-01

    Both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human brain tissues are invaluable resources for molecular genetic studies of central nervous system diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders. To identify the optimal method for DNA extraction from human brain tissue, we compared methods on differently-processed tissues. Fragments of LRRK2 and MAPT (257 bp and 483 bp/245 bp) were amplified for evaluation. We found that for FFPE samples, the success rate of DNA extraction was greater when using a commercial kit than a laboratory-based method (successful DNA extraction from 76% versus 33% of samples). PCR amplicon size and storage period were key factors influencing the success rate of DNA extraction from FFPE samples. In the fresh-frozen samples, the DNA extraction success rate was 100% using either a commercial kit (QIAamp DNA Micro) or a laboratory-based method (sample boiling in 0.1 mol/L NaOH, followed by proteinase K digestion, and then DNA extraction using Chelex-100) regardless of PCR amplicon length or tissue storage time. Although the present results demonstrate that PCR-amplifiable genomic DNA can be extracted from both fresh-frozen and FFPE samples, fresh brain tissue is recommended for DNA extraction in future neuropathological studies.

  18. A Molecular Profile of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hodgin, Jeffrey B.; Borczuk, Alain C.; Nasr, Samih H.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Nair, Viji; Martini, Sebastian; Eichinger, Felix; Vining, Courtenay; Berthier, Celine C.; Kretzler, Matthias; D'Agati, Vivette D.

    2010-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common form of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome defined by the characteristic lesions of focal glomerular sclerosis and foot process effacement; however, its etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. We used mRNA isolated from laser-captured glomeruli from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded renal biopsies, until recently considered an unsuitable source of mRNA for microarray analysis, to investigate the glomerular gene expression profiles of patients with primary classic FSGS, collapsing FSGS (COLL), minimal change disease (MCD), and normal controls (Normal). Amplified mRNA was hybridized to an Affymetrix Human X3P array. Unsupervised (unbiased) hierarchical clustering revealed two distinct clusters delineating FSGS and COLL from Normal and MCD. Class comparison analysis of FSGS + COLL combined versus Normal + MCD revealed 316 significantly differentially regulated genes (134 up-regulated, 182 down-regulated). Among the differentially regulated genes were those known to be part of the slit diaphragm junctional complex and those previously described in the dysregulated podocyte phenotype. Analysis based on Gene Ontology categories revealed overrepresented biological processes of development, differentiation and morphogenesis, cell motility and migration, cytoskeleton organization, and signal transduction. Transcription factors associated with developmental processes were heavily overrepresented, indicating the importance of reactivation of developmental programs in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Our findings reveal novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of glomerular injury and structural degeneration in FSGS. PMID:20847290

  19. Genomic DNA extraction methods using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Keerti; Mahas, Ahmed; Kent, Michael N; Naik, Sameep; Markey, Michael

    2015-10-01

    As new technologies come within reach for the average cytogenetic laboratory, the study of chromosome structure has become increasingly more sophisticated. Resolution has improved from karyotyping (in which whole chromosomes are discernible) to fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, with which specific megabase regions are visualized), array-based CGH (aCGH, examining hundreds of base pairs), and next-generation sequencing (providing single base pair resolution). Whole genome next-generation sequencing remains a cost-prohibitive method for many investigators. Meanwhile, the cost of aCGH has been reduced during recent years, even as resolution has increased and protocols have simplified. However, aCGH presents its own set of unique challenges. DNA of sufficient quantity and quality to hybridize to arrays and provide meaningful results is required. This is especially difficult for DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Here, we compare three different methods for acquiring DNA of sufficient length, purity, and "amplifiability" for aCGH and other downstream applications. Phenol-chloroform extraction and column-based commercial kits were compared with adaptive focused acoustics (AFA). Of the three extraction methods, AFA samples showed increased amplicon length and decreased polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failure rate. These findings support AFA as an improvement over previous DNA extraction methods for FFPE tissues. PMID:26126956

  20. Phosphoproteome analysis of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections mounted on microscope slides.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Masaki; Yoshihara, Hiroki; Masuda, Takeshi; Tsukahara, Mai; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2014-02-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections mounted on microscope slides are one of the largest available resources for retrospective research on various diseases, but quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of FFPE sections has never been achieved because of the extreme difficulty of procuring sufficient phosphopeptides from the limited amounts of proteins on the slides. Here, we present the first protocol for quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of FFPE sections by utilizing phase-transfer surfactant-aided extraction/tryptic digestion of FFPE proteins followed by high-recovery phosphopeptide enrichment via lactic acid-modified titania chromatography. We established that FFPE sections retain a similar phosphoproteome to fresh tissue specimens during storage for at least 9 months, confirming the utility of our method for evaluating phosphorylation profiles in various diseases. We also verified that chemical labeling based on reductive dimethylation of amino groups was feasible for quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of FFPE samples on slides. Furthermore, we improved the LC-MS sensitivity by miniaturizing nanoLC columns to 25 μm inner diameter. With this system, we could identify 1090 phosphopeptides from a single FFPE section obtained from a microscope slide, containing 25.2 ± 5.4 μg of proteins. This protocol should be useful for large-scale phosphoproteome analysis of archival FFPE slides, especially scarce samples from patients with rare diseases.

  1. Reliable LC3 and p62 Autophagy Marker Detection in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Human Tissue by Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Schläfli, A.M.; Berezowska, S.; Adams, O.; Langer, R.; Tschan, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy assures cellular homeostasis, and gains increasing importance in cancer, where it impacts on carcinogenesis, propagation of the malignant phenotype and development of resistance. To date, its tissue-based analysis by immunohistochemistry remains poorly standardized. Here we show the feasibility of specifically and reliably assessing the autophagy markers LC3B and p62 (SQSTM1) in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry. Preceding functional experiments consisted of depleting LC3B and p62 in H1299 lung cancer cells with subsequent induction of autophagy. Western blot and immunofluorescence validated antibody specificity, knockdown efficiency and autophagy induction prior to fixation in formalin and embedding in paraffin. LC3B and p62 antibodies were validated on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded cell pellets of treated and control cells and finally applied on a tissue microarray with 80 human malignant and nonneoplastic lung and stomach formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples. Dot-like staining of various degrees was observed in cell pellets and 18/40 (LC3B) and 22/40 (p62) tumors, respectively. Seventeen tumors were double positive for LC3B and p62. P62 displayed additional significant cytoplasmic and nuclear staining of unknown significance. Interobserver-agreement for grading of staining intensities and patterns was substantial to excellent (kappa values 0.60-0.83). In summary, we present a specific and reliable IHC staining of LC3B and p62 on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue. Our presented protocol is designed to aid reliable investigation of dysregulated autophagy in solid tumors and may be used on large tissue collectives. PMID:26150155

  2. Reliable LC3 and p62 autophagy marker detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Schläfli, A M; Berezowska, S; Adams, O; Langer, R; Tschan, M P

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy assures cellular homeostasis, and gains increasing importance in cancer, where it impacts on carcinogenesis, propagation of the malignant phenotype and development of resistance. To date, its tissue-based analysis by immunohistochemistry remains poorly standardized. Here we show the feasibility of specifically and reliably assessing the autophagy markers LC3B and p62 (SQSTM1) in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry. Preceding functional experiments consisted of depleting LC3B and p62 in H1299 lung cancer cells with subsequent induction of autophagy. Western blot and immunofluorescence validated antibody specificity, knockdown efficiency and autophagy induction prior to fixation in formalin and embedding in paraffin. LC3B and p62 antibodies were validated on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded cell pellets of treated and control cells and finally applied on a tissue microarray with 80 human malignant and non-neoplastic lung and stomach formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples. Dot-like staining of various degrees was observed in cell pellets and 18/40 (LC3B) and 22/40 (p62) tumors, respectively. Seventeen tumors were double positive for LC3B and p62. P62 displayed additional significant cytoplasmic and nuclear staining of unknown significance. Interobserver-agreement for grading of staining intensities and patterns was substantial to excellent (kappa values 0.60 - 0.83). In summary, we present a specific and reliable IHC staining of LC3B and p62 on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue. Our presented protocol is designed to aid reliable investigation of dysregulated autophagy in solid tumors and may be used on large tissue collectives.

  3. Reliable LC3 and p62 autophagy marker detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Schläfli, A M; Berezowska, S; Adams, O; Langer, R; Tschan, M P

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy assures cellular homeostasis, and gains increasing importance in cancer, where it impacts on carcinogenesis, propagation of the malignant phenotype and development of resistance. To date, its tissue-based analysis by immunohistochemistry remains poorly standardized. Here we show the feasibility of specifically and reliably assessing the autophagy markers LC3B and p62 (SQSTM1) in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry. Preceding functional experiments consisted of depleting LC3B and p62 in H1299 lung cancer cells with subsequent induction of autophagy. Western blot and immunofluorescence validated antibody specificity, knockdown efficiency and autophagy induction prior to fixation in formalin and embedding in paraffin. LC3B and p62 antibodies were validated on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded cell pellets of treated and control cells and finally applied on a tissue microarray with 80 human malignant and non-neoplastic lung and stomach formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples. Dot-like staining of various degrees was observed in cell pellets and 18/40 (LC3B) and 22/40 (p62) tumors, respectively. Seventeen tumors were double positive for LC3B and p62. P62 displayed additional significant cytoplasmic and nuclear staining of unknown significance. Interobserver-agreement for grading of staining intensities and patterns was substantial to excellent (kappa values 0.60 - 0.83). In summary, we present a specific and reliable IHC staining of LC3B and p62 on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue. Our presented protocol is designed to aid reliable investigation of dysregulated autophagy in solid tumors and may be used on large tissue collectives. PMID:26150155

  4. Robustness of Next Generation Sequencing on Older Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Mehaffey, Michele G.; Sachs, Michael C.; Altekruse, Sean; Camalier, Corinne; Chuaqui, Rodrigo; Cozen, Wendy; Das, Biswajit; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Lih, Chih-Jian; Lynch, Charles F.; Makhlouf, Hala; McGregor, Paul; McShane, Lisa M.; Phillips Rohan, JoyAnn; Walsh, William D.; Williams, Paul M.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Schully, Sheri D.

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are used to detect somatic mutations in tumors and study germ line variation. Most NGS studies use DNA isolated from whole blood or fresh frozen tissue. However, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are one of the most widely available clinical specimens. Their potential utility as a source of DNA for NGS would greatly enhance population-based cancer studies. While preliminary studies suggest FFPE tissue may be used for NGS, the feasibility of using archived FFPE specimens in population based studies and the effect of storage time on these specimens needs to be determined. We conducted a study to determine whether DNA in archived FFPE high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries Residual Tissue Repositories (RTR) was present in sufficient quantity and quality for NGS assays. Fifty-nine FFPE tissues, stored from 3 to 32 years, were obtained from three SEER RTR sites. DNA was extracted, quantified, quality assessed, and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). Following DNA extraction, 58 of 59 specimens (98%) yielded DNA and moved on to the library generation step followed by WES. Specimens stored for longer periods of time had significantly lower coverage of the target region (6% lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 3-10%) and lower average read depth (40x lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 18-60), although sufficient quality and quantity of WES data was obtained for data mining. Overall, 90% (53/59) of specimens provided usable NGS data regardless of storage time. This feasibility study demonstrates FFPE specimens acquired from SEER registries after varying lengths of storage time and under varying storage conditions are a promising source of DNA for NGS. PMID:26222067

  5. 'Tissue surrogates' as a model for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol B; Cunningham, Robert E; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2007-08-01

    High-throughput proteomic studies of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues have the potential to be a powerful tool for examining the clinical course of disease. However, advances in FFPE tissue-based proteomics have been hampered by inefficient methods to extract proteins from archival tissue and by an incomplete knowledge of formaldehyde-induced modifications in proteins. To help address these problems, we have developed a procedure for the formation of 'tissue surrogates' to model FFPE tissues. Cytoplasmic proteins, such as lysozyme or ribonuclease A, at concentrations approaching the protein content in whole cells, are fixed with 10% formalin to form gelatin-like plugs. These plugs have sufficient physical integrity to be processed through graded alcohols, xylene, and embedded in paraffin according to standard histological procedures. In this study, we used tissue surrogates formed from one or two proteins to evaluate extraction protocols for their ability to quantitatively extract proteins from the surrogates. Optimal protein extraction was obtained using a combination of heat, a detergent, and a protein denaturant. The addition of a reducing agent did not improve protein recovery; however, recovery varied significantly with pH. Protein extraction of >80% was observed for pH 4 buffers containing 2% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) when heated at 100 degrees C for 20 min, followed by incubation at 60 degrees C for 2 h. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extracted proteins revealed that the surrogate extracts contained a mixture of monomeric and multimeric proteins, regardless of the extraction protocol employed. Additionally, protein extracts from surrogates containing carbonic anhydrase:lysozyme (1:2 mol/mol) had disproportionate percentages of lysozyme, indicating that selective protein extraction in complex multiprotein systems may be a concern in proteomic studies of FFPE tissues.

  6. Highly multiplexed single-cell analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Michael J.; Sevinsky, Christopher J.; Sood, Anup; Adak, Sudeshna; Bello, Musodiq O.; Bordwell, Alexander; Can, Ali; Corwin, Alex; Dinn, Sean; Filkins, Robert J.; Hollman, Denise; Kamath, Vidya; Kaanumalle, Sireesha; Kenny, Kevin; Larsen, Melinda; Lazare, Michael; Lowes, Christina; McCulloch, Colin C.; McDonough, Elizabeth; Pang, Zhengyu; Rittscher, Jens; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Sarachan, Brion D.; Seel, Maximilian L.; Seppo, Antti; Shaikh, Kashan; Sui, Yunxia; Zhang, Jingyu; Ginty, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Limitations on the number of unique protein and DNA molecules that can be characterized microscopically in a single tissue specimen impede advances in understanding the biological basis of health and disease. Here we present a multiplexed fluorescence microscopy method (MxIF) for quantitative, single-cell, and subcellular characterization of multiple analytes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Chemical inactivation of fluorescent dyes after each image acquisition round allows reuse of common dyes in iterative staining and imaging cycles. The mild inactivation chemistry is compatible with total and phosphoprotein detection, as well as DNA FISH. Accurate computational registration of sequential images is achieved by aligning nuclear counterstain-derived fiducial points. Individual cells, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, tumor, and stromal regions are segmented to achieve cellular and subcellular quantification of multiplexed targets. In a comparison of pathologist scoring of diaminobenzidine staining of serial sections and automated MxIF scoring of a single section, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, p53, and androgen receptor staining by diaminobenzidine and MxIF methods yielded similar results. Single-cell staining patterns of 61 protein antigens by MxIF in 747 colorectal cancer subjects reveals extensive tumor heterogeneity, and cluster analysis of divergent signaling through ERK1/2, S6 kinase 1, and 4E binding protein 1 provides insights into the spatial organization of mechanistic target of rapamycin and MAPK signal transduction. Our results suggest MxIF should be broadly applicable to problems in the fields of basic biological research, drug discovery and development, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:23818604

  7. Optimization of gene expression microarray protocol for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Belder, Nevin; Coşkun, Öznur; Erdoğan, Beyza Doğanay; Savaş, Berna; Ensari, Arzu; Özdağ, Hilal

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a widely available clinical specimen for retrospective studies. The possibility of long-term clinical follow-up of FFPE samples makes them a valuable source to evaluate links between molecular and clinical information. Working with FFPE samples in the molecular research area, especially using high-throughput molecular techniques such as microarray gene expression profiling, has come into prominence. Because of the harmful effects of formalin fixation process such as degradation of nucleic acids, cross-linking with proteins, and chemical modifications on DNA and RNA, there are some limitations in gene expression profiling studies using FFPE samples. To date many studies have been conducted to evaluate gene expression profiling using microarrays (Thomas et al., Thomas et al. (2013) [1]; Scicchitano et al., Scicchitano et al. (2006) [2]; Frank et al., Frank et al. (2007) [3]; Fedorowicz et al., Fedorowicz et al. (2009) [4]). However, there is still no generally accepted, efficient and standardized procedure for microarray analysis of FFPE samples. This paper describes the microarray data presented in our recently accepted to be published article showing a standard protocol from deparaffinization of FFPE tissue sections and RNA extraction to microarray gene expression analysis. Here we represent our data in detail, deposited in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database with the accession number GSE73883. Four combinations of two different cRNA/cDNA preparation and labeling protocols with two different array platforms (Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 and U133_X3P) were evaluated to determine which combination gives the best percentage of present call. The study presents a dataset for comparative analysis which has a potential in terms of providing a robust protocol for gene expression profiling with FFPE tissue samples. PMID:26981433

  8. MicroRNA expression profiles of seminoma from paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue.

    PubMed

    Bing, Z; Master, S R; Tobias, J W; Baldwin, D A; Xu, X W; Tomaszewski, J E

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we used microRNA (miRNA) microarrays in an unbiased screen for aberrantly expressed miRNAs in seminoma, a primitive type of germ cell tumor. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical samples from 11 cases of normal testicular tissue resected for nonneoplastic causes and from 11 cases of seminoma were assessed for miRNA expression. Normal testicular tissue and seminoma were paired by race. We found 112 miRNAs to be differentially expressed between seminoma and normal testicular tissue; 52 miRNAs were overexpressed, and 60, downregulated in seminoma. We did not observe significant differences between black and white populations in our race-paired study. The upregulation of the expression of hsa-mir-21, hsa-mir-372, hsa-mir-373, has-mir-221, and hsa-mir-222 was validated by reverse transcription and real-time PCR. Hsa-mir-372 was upregulated around 1,270-fold (95 % confidence interval (CI) 525.2-3,064.8; p = 8.1e-5 by Mann-Whitney U test). Hsa-mir-373 was upregulated around 1,530-fold (95 % CI 620.5-3,785.6; p = 8.0e-5 by Mann-Whitney U test), consistent with previous reports, indicating that the miRNAs in FFPE are well preserved, and FFPE can be a valuable source for the miRNA study of seminoma. In addition, expression of hsa-mir-21 (12.2-fold, 0.0095), hsa-mir-221 (3.8-fold, 0.014) and hsa-mir-222 (3.8-fold, 0.019) was found elevated in seminoma compared to normal testicular tissue.

  9. Optimization of gene expression microarray protocol for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Belder, Nevin; Coşkun, Öznur; Erdoğan, Beyza Doğanay; Savaş, Berna; Ensari, Arzu; Özdağ, Hilal

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a widely available clinical specimen for retrospective studies. The possibility of long-term clinical follow-up of FFPE samples makes them a valuable source to evaluate links between molecular and clinical information. Working with FFPE samples in the molecular research area, especially using high-throughput molecular techniques such as microarray gene expression profiling, has come into prominence. Because of the harmful effects of formalin fixation process such as degradation of nucleic acids, cross-linking with proteins, and chemical modifications on DNA and RNA, there are some limitations in gene expression profiling studies using FFPE samples. To date many studies have been conducted to evaluate gene expression profiling using microarrays (Thomas et al., Thomas et al. (2013) [1]; Scicchitano et al., Scicchitano et al. (2006) [2]; Frank et al., Frank et al. (2007) [3]; Fedorowicz et al., Fedorowicz et al. (2009) [4]). However, there is still no generally accepted, efficient and standardized procedure for microarray analysis of FFPE samples. This paper describes the microarray data presented in our recently accepted to be published article showing a standard protocol from deparaffinization of FFPE tissue sections and RNA extraction to microarray gene expression analysis. Here we represent our data in detail, deposited in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database with the accession number GSE73883. Four combinations of two different cRNA/cDNA preparation and labeling protocols with two different array platforms (Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 and U133_X3P) were evaluated to determine which combination gives the best percentage of present call. The study presents a dataset for comparative analysis which has a potential in terms of providing a robust protocol for gene expression profiling with FFPE tissue samples.

  10. Precision of Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We compared the reproducibility of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry-based peptide quantitation in tryptic digests from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and frozen clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues. The analyses targeted a candidate set of 114 peptides previously identified in shotgun proteomic analyses, of which 104 were detectable in FFPE and frozen tissue. Although signal intensities for MRM of peptides from FFPE tissue were on average 66% of those in frozen tissue, median coefficients of variation (CV) for measurements in FFPE and frozen tissues were nearly identical (18–20%). Measurements of lysine C-terminal peptides and arginine C-terminal peptides from FFPE tissue were similarly reproducible (19.5% and 18.3% median CV, respectively). We further evaluated the precision of MRM-based quantitation by analysis of peptides from the Her2 receptor in FFPE and frozen tissues from a Her2 overexpressing mouse xenograft model of breast cancer and in human FFPE breast cancer specimens. We obtained equivalent MRM measurements of HER2 receptor levels in FFPE and frozen mouse xenografts derived from HER2-overexpressing BT474 cells and HER2-negative Sum159 cells. MRM analyses of 5 HER2-positive and 5 HER-negative human FFPE breast tumors confirmed the results of immunohistochemical analyses, thus demonstrating the feasibility of HER2 protein quantification in FFPE tissue specimens. The data demonstrate that MRM analyses can be performed with equal precision on FFPE and frozen tissues and that lysine-containing peptides can be selected for quantitative comparisons, despite the greater impact of formalin fixation on lysine residues. The data further illustrate the feasibility of applying MRM to quantify clinically important tissue biomarkers in FFPE specimens. PMID:22530795

  11. Hyperspectral unmixing for removing autofluorescence from paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, P.; Wilson, B. C.; Damaskinos, S.

    2005-09-01

    The use of digital fluorescence confocal microscopy in biological sciences has grown in recent decades due to the versatility of fluorescence imaging. The ability to selectively label specific morphological features, genetic mutations and/or chemical micro-environmental changes with discreet fluorescent labels allows a better understanding of the complex systems that regulate cellular processes. Specimens can range in size from single cells to tissue sections and tissue arrays, which can occupy the entire surface of a microscope slide (25mm x 70mm). Using a confocal scanning laser MACROscope, a wide-area confocal imaging system (Biomedical Photometrics Inc.), it is possible to image these large specimens at high resolution, without the need to tile many small microscope fields. A hyperspectral imaging (HSI) mode has been added to the MACROscope system to assess the use of HSI in the removal/separation of tissue autofluorescence from digital images of fluorescently-labeled paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue sections. In pathology and immunohistochemistry applications this autofluorescence can hinder, or even prevent, detection of the applied fluorescent label(s). In the present study, fluorescence emission from the specimen was sampled at ~7 nm bandwidths across 32 channels, amounting to viewing ~220 nm of the visible spectrum as a hyperspectral data cube. The data cube was then processed to remove the contributions from autofluorescence, leaving only the signal from the fluorophore(s) of interest. Comparisons are drawn from HSI obtained with a commercial hyperspectral confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 510 META) employing image tiling. The initial results demonstrate the ability to spectrally unmix the tissue autofluorescence in large tissue sections.

  12. Unmasking of complements using proteinase-K in formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Nada, R; Kumar, A; Kumar, V G; Gupta, K L; Joshi, K

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM). Immunofluorescence panel included fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated IgG, IgA, IgM, complements (C3 and C1q), light chains (kappa, lambda) and fibrinogen antibodies. After standardization of the technique, 75 renal biopsies and 43 autopsies cases were stained. Out of 43 autopsy cases, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) was confirmed in 18 cases (Lupus nephritis-11, IgAN-6, MGN-1), complement-mediated dense deposit disease (DDD-1) and monoclonal diseases in 4 cases (amyloidosis-3, cast nephropathy-1). Immune-mediated injury was excluded in 17 cases (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis -3, crescentic GN-6 [pauci-immune-3, anti-GBM-3], thrombotic microangiopathy-5, atherosclerosis-3). Renal biopsies (n-75) where inadequate or no frozen sample was available; this technique classified 52 mesangiocapillary pattern as MPGN type-1-46, DDD-2 and (C3GN-4). Others were diagnosed as IgAN-3, lupus nephritis-2, MGN-4, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)-1, Non-IC crescentic GN-1, monoclonal diseases-3. In nine cases, DIF on FFPE tissue could not help in making diagnosis. Proteinase-K enzymatic digestion of FFPE renal biopsies can unmask complements (both C3 and C1q) in immune-complexes mediated and complement-mediated diseases. This method showed good results on autopsy tissues archived for as long as 15 years. PMID:27194832

  13. Unmasking of complements using proteinase-K in formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Nada, R; Kumar, A; Kumar, V G; Gupta, K L; Joshi, K

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM). Immunofluorescence panel included fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated IgG, IgA, IgM, complements (C3 and C1q), light chains (kappa, lambda) and fibrinogen antibodies. After standardization of the technique, 75 renal biopsies and 43 autopsies cases were stained. Out of 43 autopsy cases, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) was confirmed in 18 cases (Lupus nephritis-11, IgAN-6, MGN-1), complement-mediated dense deposit disease (DDD-1) and monoclonal diseases in 4 cases (amyloidosis-3, cast nephropathy-1). Immune-mediated injury was excluded in 17 cases (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis -3, crescentic GN-6 [pauci-immune-3, anti-GBM-3], thrombotic microangiopathy-5, atherosclerosis-3). Renal biopsies (n-75) where inadequate or no frozen sample was available; this technique classified 52 mesangiocapillary pattern as MPGN type-1-46, DDD-2 and (C3GN-4). Others were diagnosed as IgAN-3, lupus nephritis-2, MGN-4, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)-1, Non-IC crescentic GN-1, monoclonal diseases-3. In nine cases, DIF on FFPE tissue could not help in making diagnosis. Proteinase-K enzymatic digestion of FFPE renal biopsies can unmask complements (both C3 and C1q) in immune-complexes mediated and complement-mediated diseases. This method showed good results on autopsy tissues archived for as long as 15 years.

  14. Robustness of Next Generation Sequencing on Older Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Mehaffey, Michele G; Sachs, Michael C; Altekruse, Sean; Camalier, Corinne; Chuaqui, Rodrigo; Cozen, Wendy; Das, Biswajit; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lih, Chih-Jian; Lynch, Charles F; Makhlouf, Hala; McGregor, Paul; McShane, Lisa M; Phillips Rohan, JoyAnn; Walsh, William D; Williams, Paul M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Mechanic, Leah E; Schully, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are used to detect somatic mutations in tumors and study germ line variation. Most NGS studies use DNA isolated from whole blood or fresh frozen tissue. However, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are one of the most widely available clinical specimens. Their potential utility as a source of DNA for NGS would greatly enhance population-based cancer studies. While preliminary studies suggest FFPE tissue may be used for NGS, the feasibility of using archived FFPE specimens in population based studies and the effect of storage time on these specimens needs to be determined. We conducted a study to determine whether DNA in archived FFPE high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries Residual Tissue Repositories (RTR) was present in sufficient quantity and quality for NGS assays. Fifty-nine FFPE tissues, stored from 3 to 32 years, were obtained from three SEER RTR sites. DNA was extracted, quantified, quality assessed, and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). Following DNA extraction, 58 of 59 specimens (98%) yielded DNA and moved on to the library generation step followed by WES. Specimens stored for longer periods of time had significantly lower coverage of the target region (6% lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 3-10%) and lower average read depth (40x lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 18-60), although sufficient quality and quantity of WES data was obtained for data mining. Overall, 90% (53/59) of specimens provided usable NGS data regardless of storage time. This feasibility study demonstrates FFPE specimens acquired from SEER registries after varying lengths of storage time and under varying storage conditions are a promising source of DNA for NGS. PMID:26222067

  15. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona; Gaihede, Michael; Birkelund, Svend; Andersen, Vibeke; Stensballe, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control (“Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples” [1]). We here report the data from the analysis. The comparative analysis was performed on 24 colon mucosa biopsies, extracted from the sigmoideum of two gastroenterologically healthy participants for the purpose of this study. A set of biopsies were additionally stored for 30 min at room temperature prior to formalin-fixation. The samples were analyzed by high throughput gel free quantitative proteomics. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD002029. PMID:26937473

  16. Detection and characterization of Newcastle disease virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from commercial broilers in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y; Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M

    2014-03-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is highly contagious and causes severe economic losses to the poultry industry due to high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we describe the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in formalin-fixed tissues from an outbreak of ND on broiler farms in Egypt. The affected birds experienced respiratory and/or nervous signs and a 75% mortality rate. Tissue samples were collected and placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin followed by embedding in paraffin. RNA was extracted from 80-microm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and recovered in 60 microl of elution buffer. All samples were negative for influenza virus by real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR but positive for NDV. These flocks were known to have been vaccinated with a live NDV vaccine (LaSota strain). The nucleic acid sequences of the virus detected in this study were similar to those of a velogenic virus at its cleavage site 111GRRQKR*F117 and clustered with class II genogroup VII lineage of NDV, with a nucleotide sequence identity of 94%-99%. Although extraction and amplification of NDV from paraffin-embedded tissues from experimentally infected birds has been reported previously, this study reports on the use of RT-PCR on formalin-fixed tissues from actual field samples.

  17. HaloPlex Targeted Resequencing for Mutation Detection in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples.

    PubMed

    Moens, Lotte N J; Falk-Sörqvist, Elin; Ljungström, Viktor; Mattsson, Johanna; Sundström, Magnus; La Fleur, Linnéa; Mathot, Lucy; Micke, Patrick; Nilsson, Mats; Botling, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled substantial advances in the study of human diseases. Combined with targeted DNA enrichment methods, high sequence coverage can be obtained for different genes simultaneously at a reduced cost per sample, creating unique opportunities for clinical cancer diagnostics. However, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) process of tissue samples, routinely used in pathology departments, results in DNA fragmentation and nucleotide modifications that introduce a number of technical challenges for downstream biomolecular analyses. We evaluated the HaloPlex target enrichment system for somatic mutation detection in 80 tissue fractions derived from 20 clinical cancer cases with paired tumor and normal tissue available in both FFPE and fresh-frozen format. Several modifications to the standard method were introduced, including a reduced target fragment length and two strand capturing. We found that FFPE material can be used for HaloPlex-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing, even when starting from small amounts of DNA. By specifically capturing both strands for each target fragment, we were able to reduce the number of false-positive errors caused by FFPE-induced artifacts and lower the detection limit for somatic mutations. We believe that the HaloPlex method presented here will be broadly applicable as a tool for somatic mutation detection in clinical cancer settings.

  18. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical tissues show spurious copy number changes in array-CGH profiles.

    PubMed

    Mc Sherry, E A; Mc Goldrick, A; Kay, E W; Hopkins, A M; Gallagher, W M; Dervan, P A

    2007-11-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival clinical specimens are invaluable in discovery of prognostic and therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancer. However, the suitability of FFPE-derived genetic material for array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies is underexplored. In this study, genetic profiles of matched FFPE and fresh-frozen specimens were examined to investigate DNA integrity differences between these sample types and determine the impact this may have on genetic profiles. Genomic DNA was extracted from three patient-matched FFPE and fresh-frozen clinical tissue samples. T47D breast cancer control cells were also grown in culture and processed to yield a fresh T47D sample, a fresh-frozen T47D sample and a FFPE T47D sample. DNA was extracted from all the samples; array-CGH conducted and genetic profiles of matched samples were then compared. A loss of high molecular weight DNA was observed in the FFPE clinical tissues and FFPE T47D samples. A dramatic increase in absolute number of genetic alterations was observed in all FFPE tissues relative to matched fresh-frozen counterparts. In future, alternative fixation and tissue-processing procedures, and/or new DNA extraction and CGH profiling protocols, may be implemented, enabling identification of changes involved in disease progression using stored clinical specimens.

  19. HaloPlex Targeted Resequencing for Mutation Detection in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples.

    PubMed

    Moens, Lotte N J; Falk-Sörqvist, Elin; Ljungström, Viktor; Mattsson, Johanna; Sundström, Magnus; La Fleur, Linnéa; Mathot, Lucy; Micke, Patrick; Nilsson, Mats; Botling, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled substantial advances in the study of human diseases. Combined with targeted DNA enrichment methods, high sequence coverage can be obtained for different genes simultaneously at a reduced cost per sample, creating unique opportunities for clinical cancer diagnostics. However, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) process of tissue samples, routinely used in pathology departments, results in DNA fragmentation and nucleotide modifications that introduce a number of technical challenges for downstream biomolecular analyses. We evaluated the HaloPlex target enrichment system for somatic mutation detection in 80 tissue fractions derived from 20 clinical cancer cases with paired tumor and normal tissue available in both FFPE and fresh-frozen format. Several modifications to the standard method were introduced, including a reduced target fragment length and two strand capturing. We found that FFPE material can be used for HaloPlex-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing, even when starting from small amounts of DNA. By specifically capturing both strands for each target fragment, we were able to reduce the number of false-positive errors caused by FFPE-induced artifacts and lower the detection limit for somatic mutations. We believe that the HaloPlex method presented here will be broadly applicable as a tool for somatic mutation detection in clinical cancer settings. PMID:26354930

  20. STR typing of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) aborted foetal tissue in criminal paternity cases.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Ayeleth; Barash, Mark; Voskoboinik, Lev; Brauner, Paul; Gafny, Roni

    2011-03-01

    Sexual assault or rape cases occasionally result in unwanted pregnancies. In almost all such cases the foetus is aborted. A forensic laboratory may receive the foetus, the placenta, or paraffin embedded abortion material for paternity testing. Obtaining a foetal profile DNA from a foetus or placenta may not be successful due to the age or condition of the tissue. Moreover, maternal contamination of placental material will invariably result in a mixed DNA profile. However, the use of properly screened abortion material from paraffin blocks will almost always result in obtaining a foetal DNA profile. Furthermore, foetal tissue fixed in paraffin blocks does not require special conditions for submission and storage as required to preserve fresh foetal or placental tissue. As hospitals routinely prepare foetal tissue in paraffin blocks, which should be readily obtainable by forensic laboratories, these samples would appear to be the preferred choice for paternity testing. PMID:21334577

  1. Multiple drug resistance-related messenger RNA expression in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human breast tumour tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, L; Kennedy, S; McDermott, E; Kelehan, P; Clynes, M

    1996-01-01

    A method is described by which RNA, suitable for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, can be extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and subsequently used for detecting the expression of several genes. Using this technique, RNA can be extracted from specimens, quantified, reverse transcribed and regions of interest amplified and analysed within 36 h. The tissue specimens included in this study were from human breast carcinoma, investigating a range of genes associated with the development and/or maintenance of multiple drug resistance (MDR). This technique, applied to archival tissues, offers great potential for increasing our understanding of alterations in expression levels of genes associated with MDR. The method developed is also applicable to studies on expression of other genes in paraffin-embedded tissues.

  2. Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens: paraffin wax removal with organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Meuse, Curtis W; Barker, Peter E

    2009-12-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens form the basis for diagnostic histopathology. Although adequate for morphologic visualization, clinical variability in preparation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded clinical specimens represents an obstacle to quantitative molecular genetic analysis in areas such as genomics and proteomics. A quantitative reexamination of classical histopathology tissue preparation methods was initiated to determine which protocol steps might improve molecular analysis, beginning with deparaffinization. Infrared spectroscopy in the spectral region above 2000/cm of fixed sectioned model cell cultures through glass microscope slides showed all solvents remove over 97% of paraffin. To further compare extractions among solvents xylene, hexane and limonene, the correlation coefficients between the spectrum of paraffin and the spectra of the mounted extracted model tissue sections across the spectral interval containing the prominent CH stretching bands of paraffin were calculated. The correlation coefficients allow different extraction methods to be ranked in terms of how much paraffin remains. The results indicate that among 3 model tissue sample types, xylene extraction removes more paraffin than hexane or limonene. More importantly, these results establish a starting point from which further analysis of preanalytical processing methods can proceed.

  3. Performance of a novel KRAS mutation assay for formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuko; Yoneshige, Azusa; Ito, Akihiko; Ueda, Yoji; Kondo, Satoshi; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Togashi, Yosuke; Terashima, Masato; De Velasco, Marco A; Tomida, Shuta; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    We compared the performance of the 3D-Gene® mutation assay (3D-Gene® KRAS mutation assay kit) with the Scorpion-ARMS (therascreen® KRAS RGQ PCR Kit) and Luminex (MEBGEN™ KRAS kit) assays for the detection of KRAS mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 150 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue samples with or without macrodissection under hematoxylin and eosin staining and the KRAS mutation status was independently determined using these assays. Discordant results were re-analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Mutation detection analysis was successfully performed in all 150 specimens using the 3D-Gene® mutation assay without an invalid case. The concordance rate between the 3D-Gene® mutation assay and Scorpion-ARMS or Luminex was 98.7% (148/150). KRAS mutations were detected at a frequency of 35.3% (53/150) in colorectal cancer specimens. Three discrepant cases were found between the three assays. Overall, our results demonstrate a high concordance rate of between the 3D-Gene® mutation assay and the two existing in-vitro diagnostics kits. All three assays proved to be validated methods for detecting clinically significant KRAS mutations in paraffin-embedded tissue samples. PMID:25674493

  4. Covalent binding of formalin fixed paraffin embedded brain tissue sections to glass slides suitable for in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tourtellotte, W W; Verity, A N; Schmid, P; Martinez, S; Shapshak, P

    1987-02-01

    A novel method for covalently binding formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sections to glass microscope slides is validated suitable for in situ hybridization (ISH). Using the organosilane methodology of Maples (1985), 100% tissue adhesion is reported with no nonspecific probe binding, staining, or autoradiographic artefacts. JC viral nucleic acid sequences are successfully detected in FFPE progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy brain tissue and the Tm of the hybridized product is estimated. From the Tm the most stringent washing condition resulting in an optimal signal to noise ratio is determined. A comparison is made between currently used methods of tissue adhesion and the proposed organosilane methodology. This methodology greatly facilitates studies of conditions for ISH and elucidation of mechanisms of viral infections requiring consecutive FFPE sections. It is also applicable to studies using cryosections and cultured cells.

  5. Functional DNA quantification guides accurate next-generation sequencing mutation detection in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy is a challenging sample for molecular assays such as targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). We compared three methods for FFPE DNA quantification, including a novel PCR assay (‘QFI-PCR’) that measures the absolute copy number of amplifiable DNA, across 165 residual clinical specimens. The results reveal the limitations of commonly used approaches, and demonstrate the value of an integrated workflow using QFI-PCR to improve the accuracy of NGS mutation detection and guide changes in input that can rescue low quality FFPE DNA. These findings address a growing need for improved quality measures in NGS-based patient testing. PMID:24001039

  6. Direct cancer tissue proteomics: a method to identify candidate cancer biomarkers from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissues.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S-I; Thumar, J; Lundgren, D H; Rezaul, K; Mayya, V; Wu, L; Eng, J; Wright, M E; Han, D K

    2007-01-01

    Successful treatment of multiple cancer types requires early detection and identification of reliable biomarkers present in specific cancer tissues. To test the feasibility of identifying proteins from archival cancer tissues, we have developed a methodology, termed direct tissue proteomics (DTP), which can be used to identify proteins directly from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissue samples. Using minute prostate biopsy sections, we demonstrate the identification of 428 prostate-expressed proteins using the shotgun method. Because the DTP method is not quantitative, we employed the absolute quantification method and demonstrate picogram level quantification of prostate-specific antigen. In depth bioinformatics analysis of these expressed proteins affords the categorization of metabolic pathways that may be important for distinct stages of prostate carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we validate Wnt-3 as an upregulated protein in cancerous prostate cells by immunohistochemistry. We propose that this general strategy provides a roadmap for successful identification of critical molecular targets of multiple cancer types.

  7. High-quality genomic DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples deparaffinized using mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianghai; Kennedy, Stephen H; Svarovsky, Therese; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Xu, Anlong; Zondervan, Krina T

    2009-12-15

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue remains a challenge, despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) success rates with DNA extracted using current methods remain low. We extracted DNA from 140 long-term archived FFPE samples using a simple but effective deparaffinization method, removing the wax with mineral oil, and a commercially available DNA extraction kit. DNA quality was subsequently tested in a genotyping experiment with 14 microsatellite markers. High-quality DNA was obtained with a mean PCR success rate of 97% (range: 88-100%) across markers. The results suggested that DNA extracted using this novel method is likely to be suitable for genetic studies involving DNA fragments <200 bp.

  8. High-quality genomic DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples deparaffinized using mineral oil

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianghai; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Svarovsky, Therese; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Xu, Anlong; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue remains a challenge, despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) success rates with DNA extracted using current methods remain low. We extracted DNA from 140 long-term archived FFPE samples using a simple but effective deparaffinization method, removing the wax with mineral oil, and a commercially available DNA extraction kit. DNA quality was subsequently tested in a genotyping experiment with 14 microsatellite markers. High-quality DNA was obtained with a mean PCR success rate of 97% (range: 88–100%) across markers. The results suggested that DNA extracted using this novel method is likely to be suitable for genetic studies involving DNA fragments <200 bp. PMID:19698695

  9. Molecular identification of Coccidioides immitis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from a Colombian patient.

    PubMed

    Canteros, Cristina E; Vélez H, Alejandro; Toranzo, Adriana I; Suárez-Alvarez, Roberto; Tobón O, Ángela; Jimenez A, María del Pilar; Restrepo M, Ángela

    2015-06-01

    Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii are the etiologic agents of coccidioidomycosis, an endemic fungal disease of the Americas. In Colombia, this mycosis is uncommon, and only five cases, two of them imported, have been documented.By means of DNA sequencing, C. immitis was identified in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues samples from the 5th Colombian patient diagnosed in 1997. The patient was born in Pinto, Department of Magdalena, and had never visited other geographic regions, a reason to consider that the mycosis had been acquired locally.This species is primarily found in California although it has been occasionally reported in other geographic areas such as Mexico and Brazil. This is the first indigenous report of C. immitis-associated coccidioidomycosis in a Colombian patient.

  10. Analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue via proteomic techniques and misconceptions of antigen retrieval.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Matthew B; Padula, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Since emerging in the late 19(th) century, formaldehyde fixation has become a standard method for preservation of tissues from clinical samples. The advantage of formaldehyde fixation is that fixed tissues can be stored at room temperature for decades without concern for degradation. This has led to the generation of huge tissue banks containing thousands of clinically significant samples. Here we review techniques for proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples with a specific focus on the methods used to extract and break formaldehyde crosslinks. We also discuss an error-of-interpretation associated with the technique known as "antigen retrieval." We have discovered that this term has been mistakenly applied to two disparate molecular techniques; therefore, we argue that a terminology change is needed to ensure accurate reporting of experimental results. Finally, we suggest that more investigation is required to fully understand the process of formaldehyde fixation and its subsequent reversal. PMID:27177815

  11. A MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging method applicable to different formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissues.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Gabriele; Smith, Andrew James; Galli, Manuel; Garancini, Mattia; Chinello, Clizia; Bono, Francesca; Pagni, Fabio; Magni, Fulvio

    2015-06-01

    Recent advancements in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) technology have enabled the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, unlocking a wealth of new proteomic information and facilitating the possibility of performing studies with higher statistical power as well as multi-centric collaborations within the field of proteomics research. However, current methods used to analyse these specimens are often time-consuming and they need to be modified when applied to human tissues of different origin. Here we present a reproducible and time-effective method that could address these aforementioned issues and widen the applicability of this technology to a number of challenging tissue types. Additionally, tissue molecular images show high spatial resolution and a strong correlation with the morphological features, enabling the identification of tissue morphology using statistically derived visualisation, without any prior knowledge. PMID:25592401

  12. An efficient method for the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue by sonication.

    PubMed

    Heller, M J; Burgart, L J; TenEyck, C J; Anderson, M E; Greiner, T C; Robinson, R A

    1991-09-01

    A method was developed for fast and efficient isolation of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for subsequent use in PCRs and DNA hybridization assays. The method relies on the use of a sonicating water bath to disrupt tissue samples to which a small amount of micro-sized glass beads have been added. The sonicating glass beads provide fast and efficient physical shearing of fixed tissue sections, allowing for quick release and solubilization of the DNA. The extraction process from paraffin section to amplifiable target DNA takes 30 minutes. The method eliminates the need for repetitive solvent extractions and exhaustive proteinase K digestion. PCR amplification of human genomic and viral target sequences was successfully carried out on DNA isolated from a number of different types of normal and infected tissues.

  13. PCR detection of clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant Helicobacter pylori from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Bryan H; Regner, Maryann; Mangold, Kathy A; Thomson, Richard B; Kaul, Karen L

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin is a growing concern in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori and is associated with three major point mutations of the 23S rRNA, A2142C, A2142G, and A2143G. The use of traditional culture-based methods for determination of clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori are time consuming and lack sensitivity. We implemented a real-time PCR with melt curve analysis to detect and characterize H. pylori in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens to assess the frequency of clarithromycin resistance mutations in our study population. One hundred and fifty-three formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies were chosen on the basis of positive immunohistochemical staining for H. pylori and an accompanying histopathological diagnosis of Helicobacter-associated gastritis. New adjacent sections were taken for immunohistochemical staining and DNA extraction with subsequent testing by PCR assay and melt curve analysis using a primer and probe combination first described by Oleastro et al.(12) One hundred and forty-six samples demonstrated adequate amplification of a human DNA control target. Of these, there were 122 H. pylori immunohistochemistry-positive samples. In all, 103 out of 122 (84%) immunohistochemistry-positive samples demonstrated amplifiable H. pylori 23S rRNA gene target and 19 (16%) demonstrated no amplification of H. pylori. Twenty-two samples were negative for H. pylori by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Two were negative for H. pylori by immunohistochemistry, but were positive for H. pylori by PCR. In all, 52 out of 105 (50%) PCR-positive samples demonstrated resistance mutations, and it was determined that a heterogeneous population of mutated and unmutated organisms was present in 11 out of 52 samples. The use of PCR assays allows for a timely assessment of clarithromycin resistance status without the disadvantages of culture-based methods, and may lead to a decrease in treatment failure rates.

  14. The effects of age-in-block on RNA-seq analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Archival samples represent a vast resource for identification of chemical and pharmaceutical targets. Previous use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples has been limited due to changes in RNA introduced by fixation and embedding procedures. Recent advances in RNA-seq...

  15. Use of polymerase chain reaction in detection of Marek’s disease and reticuloendotheliosis viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumorous tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for the diagnosis of Marek’s disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues; and for the diagnosis of MD in tissues only preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. MD virus (MDV) and RE vi...

  16. Detection of Newcastle disease virus RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and comparison with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The usefulness of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues was examined and compared to the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays for detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Spleen and lung tissues...

  17. Use of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in diagnosis of Marek’s disease and reticuloendotheliosis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumorous tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PCR was used in diagnosis of Marek’s disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumorous tissues that have been stored for periods varied from 5-244 months. In another experiment, PCR was also used in diagnosis of MD in tumorous tissues that have been onl...

  18. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection rates. In this study the diagnostic sensitivity of P. jirovecii real time PCR on DNA isolated from fresh bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples versus that from matched FFPE derived DNA is analyzed. Our results indicate that when targeting a small DNA fragment P. jirovecii PCR can be performed on FFPE BAL samples with acceptable sensitivity (up to 83.3%). This is considerably higher than the 33.3% positives observed by classical staining of these samples.

  19. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues: protein digestion as a limiting step for retrieval of high-quality DNA.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cano, S J; Brady, S P

    1997-12-01

    Several DNA extraction methods have been used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, with variable results being reported regarding the suitability of DNA obtained from such sources to serve as template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genetic analyses. We present a method routinely used for archival material in our laboratory that reliably yields DNA of sufficient quality for PCR studies. This method is based on extended proteinase K digestion (250 micrograms/ml in an EDTA-free calcium-containing buffer supplemented with mussel glycogen) followed by phenol-chloroform extraction. Agarose gel electrophoresis of both digestion buffer aliquots and PCR amplification of the beta-globin gene tested the suitability of the retrieved DNA for PCR amplification.

  20. New immunohistochemical "sandwich" staining method for mdr1 P-glycoprotein detection with JSB-1 monoclonal antibody in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, K.; Vaughan, M. M.; Slocum, H. K.; Arredondo, M. A.; Takita, H.; Baker, R. M.; Rustum, Y. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a new immunoperoxidase "sandwich" staining method for amplified detection of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) that is suitable for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (conventional) tissue sections. This was accomplished by substantially changing the procedure described by Chan (1988) so as to increase specific staining intensity and to decrease nonspecific background staining. To determine the most appropriate primary antibody for the assay, we compared the immunoreactivity of JSB-1, C494, and C219 monoclonal antibodies recognizing internal epitopes of Pgp, and MRK16 and 4E3 monoclonal antibodies recognizing external epitopes of Pgp. Paraffin sections of Pgp-positive normal human tissues (adrenal, liver, kidney, and brain), of renal tumors, and of cell pellets of sensitive and multidrug resistant human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, KB) were used for comparisons. Immunostaining was excellent with JSB-1, moderate with C494, and very weak with C219. MRK16 and 4E3 showed no reaction. Nonspecific background staining was reduced by 1) omitting immunoglobulin G from secondary antibodies; 2) decreasing the concentration of peroxidase-antiperoxidase complex; and 3) utilizing casein solution for blocking and washing. Pretreatment of sections before immunostaining was also simplified. Using JSB-1, the threshold for detection of elevated Pgp corresponded to less than two-fold relative resistance to doxorubicin. Applying this method, we found two of 26 non-small cell lung cancers were positive for Pgp, consistent with previous results of others using frozen sections. This new immunoperoxidase sandwich staining method using JSB-1 now allows reliable Pgp detection in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (archived) surgical specimens and small biopsy materials commonly used for diagnostic purposes. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7508682

  1. Excavation of a buried treasure--DNA, mRNA, miRNA and protein analysis in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Weiss, A T A; Gruber, A D

    2011-06-01

    Fresh or frozen tissue samples will always be the best tissue source for the analysis of nucleic acids and proteins from tissues. However, their long-term storage is expensive and laborious. Much interest has therefore been focused on the question whether the almost infinite resources of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples in the archives of pathology and histology departments can be used for research on biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of disease. In recent years the methods and protocols for the extraction of DNA, mRNA, miRNA and proteins from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples have improved enormously. Especially, the possibilities of analysing DNA and miRNA in FFPE have reached a level that allows their application as a first line approach in the search for biomarkers. In contrast, many questions remain in terms of quantification of mRNA and protein expression levels in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. This review gives an overview on current potentials and limitations of the quantification of DNA, miRNA, mRNA and the proteome in FFPE tissue samples. The chemical events during formalin fixation and paraffin embedding and alternatives to formalin fixation are described. In addition, methods and general problems of DNA, miRNA, mRNA and protein extraction and the current knowledge on the feasibility and accuracy of quantitative gene expression analysis in FFPE tissues is summarized.

  2. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene-fixed samples compared with restored formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded DNA.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap-freezing is the PAXgene Tissue System, developed for simultaneous preservation of morphology, proteins, and nucleic acids. In the current study, we compared the performance of DNA from either PAXgene or formalin-fixed tissues to snap-frozen material for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better compared with restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition, DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time- and cost-effective.

  3. A melanin-bleaching methodology for molecular and histopathological analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Choi, Jiyeon; Sears, John D; Ylaya, Kris; Perry, Candice; Choi, Chel H; Hong, Seung-Mo; Cho, Hanbyoul; Brown, Kevin M; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2016-10-01

    Removal of excessive melanin from heavily pigmented formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) melanoma tissues is essential for histomorphological and molecular diagnostic assessments. Although there have been efforts to address this issue, current methodologies remain complex and time-consuming, and are not suitable for multiple molecular applications. Herein, we have developed a robust and rapid melanin-bleaching methodology for FFPE tissue specimens. Our approach is based on quick bleaching (15 min) at high temperature (80 °C) with 0.5% diluted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Tris-HCl, PBS, or Tris/Tricine/SDS buffer. Immunostaining for Ki-67 and HMB45 was enhanced by bleaching with 0.5% H2O2 in Tris/Tricine/SDS and Tris-HCl, respectively. In addition to histopathological applications, our approach also facilitates recovery of protein and nucleic acid from archival melanin-rich FFPE tissue sections. Protein extracted from bleached FFPE tissues was compatible with western blotting using anti-human GAPDH and AKT antibodies. Our bleaching condition significantly improved RNA quality compared with unbleached tissues without compromising the yield. Notably, the RNA/DNA obtained from bleached tissues was suitable for end point PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. In conclusion, this improved melanin-bleaching method enhances and simplifies immunostaining procedures, and facilitates the use of melanin-rich FFPE tissues for histomorphological and PCR amplification-based molecular assays.

  4. Use of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues for diagnosis and therapy in routine clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Berg, Daniela; Malinowsky, Katharina; Reischauer, Bilge; Wolff, Claudia; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are used routinely everyday in hospitals world-wide for histopathological diagnosis of diseases like cancer. Due to formalin-induced cross-linking of proteins, FFPE tissues present a particular challenge for proteomic analysis. Nevertheless, there has been recent progress for extraction-based protein analysis in these tissues. Novel tools developed in the last few years are urgently needed because precise protein biomarker quantification in clinical FFPE tissues will be crucial for treatment decisions and to assess success or failure of current and future personalized molecular therapies. Furthermore, they will help to conceive why only a subset of patients responds to individualized treatments. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) is a very promising new technology for quick and simultaneous analysis of many patient samples allowing relative and absolute protein quantifications. In this chapter, we show how protein extraction from FFPE tissues might facilitate the implementation of RPPA for therapy decisions and discuss challenges for application of RPPA in clinical trials and routine settings.

  5. Optimization of Single- and Dual-Color Immunofluorescence Protocols for Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Archival Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Ito, Reiko; Manley, Nancy R; Hale, Laura P

    2016-02-01

    Performance of immunofluorescence staining on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissues is generally not considered to be feasible, primarily due to problems with tissue quality and autofluorescence. We report the development and application of procedures that allowed for the study of a unique archive of thymus tissues derived from autopsies of individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima, Japan in 1945. Multiple independent treatments were used to minimize autofluorescence and maximize fluorescent antibody signals. Treatments with NH3/EtOH and Sudan Black B were particularly useful in decreasing autofluorescent moieties present in the tissue. Deconvolution microscopy was used to further enhance the signal-to-noise ratios. Together, these techniques provide high-quality single- and dual-color fluorescent images with low background and high contrast from paraffin blocks of thymus tissue that were prepared up to 60 years ago. The resulting high-quality images allow the application of a variety of image analyses to thymus tissues that previously were not accessible. Whereas the procedures presented remain to be tested for other tissue types and archival conditions, the approach described may facilitate greater utilization of older paraffin block archives for modern immunofluorescence studies.

  6. PCR amplification and high throughput sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human biopsies.

    PubMed

    Tabibian-Keissar, Hilla; Schibby, Ginette; Michaeli, Miri; Rakovsky-Shapira, Aviya; Azogui-Rosenthal, Noemie; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Rosenblatt, Kinneret; Mehr, Ramit; Barshack, Iris

    2013-02-01

    The use of high throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies in biomedicine is expanding in a variety of fields in recent years. The 454 system is an HTS platform that is ideally suited to characterize B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires by sequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, as it is able to sequence stretches of several hundred nucleotides. Most studies that used this platform for antibody repertoire analyses have started from fresh or frozen tissues or peripheral blood samples, and rely on starting with optimal quality DNA. In this paper we demonstrate that BCR repertoire analysis can be done using DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissue samples. The heterogeneity of BCR repertoires we obtained confirms the plausibility of HTS of DNA from FFPE specimens. The establishment of experimental protocols and computational tools that enable sequence data analysis from the low quality DNA of FFPE tissues is important for enabling research, as it would enable the use of the rich source of preserved samples in clinical biobanks and biopsy archives.

  7. The influence of immunohistochemistry on mRNA recovery from microdissected frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections.

    PubMed

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Abrahamsen, Helene N; Villegas, Berta; Sorensen, Boe S; Schmidt, Henrik; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2004-12-01

    Laser-assisted microdissection (LAM) is now widely used to obtain specific cell populations from heterogeneous tissues. A major disadvantage of LAM is poor tissue morphology during microscopy, in part because coverslips are not used. Immunohistochemical labeling can improve identification of target cells but may affect the subsequent analysis of the microdissected tissue. We studied the effect of immunohistochemistry (IHC) on mRNA recovery from labeled cells after microdissection from both frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections, using Melan-A and Ki-67 staining in lymph nodes with metastatic melanoma as a model. We developed rapid protocols for immunostaining in an attempt to limit loss of mRNA during procedures. A sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was used to measure mRNA. We found a marked decrease in the mRNA yield from 500 microdissected cells from frozen and paraffin sections after immunostaining for both markers. Recovery of mRNA decreased by up to 89%, comparing the immunostained with the routinely stained sections. Interestingly, the ratio between mRNA for the two markers was similar in all stains, indicating that immunostained sections may be used for mRNA analysis. We also investigated the effect of storing membrane-mounted sections for microdissection under different conditions. Slides mounted with paraffin sections could be stored at room temperature for up to 90 days with no significant decrease in mRNA recovery.

  8. Protein unlocking procedures of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: application to MALDI-TOF imaging MS investigations.

    PubMed

    Ronci, Maurizio; Bonanno, Elena; Colantoni, Alfredo; Pieroni, Luisa; Di Ilio, Carmine; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Federici, Giorgio; Urbani, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are a powerful tool for examining the clinical course of diseases. These specimens represent an incredible mine of valuable clinical and biological information for proteomic investigation. MALDI-TOF imaging MS (MALDI-IMS) is a protein profiling technique which enables the direct sampling of histological section; however, the quality of molecular data are strongly influenced by the tissue preparation condition. In fact, in previous years most of the studies employing such a technological platform have been conducted using cryo-preserved tissues. We have developed an in vitro approach using "tissue surrogate" samples in order to explore different protein unlocking procedures which might enable a suitable recovery of polypeptides for MS analysis. The developed protocols have been compared both by MALDI-TOF MS and nLC-MS(E) analysis either on surrogate samples or on FFPE specimen from human breast cancer. The collected evidence has been applied for the preparation of FFPE tissue sections following MALDI-IMS analysis. Our results outline the possibility to obtain valuable peptide mass spectra profiles form FFPE preparations by applying a combined two steps procedure of heat induced antigen retrieval (HIAR) in presence of EDTA and on target trypsin hydrolysis. A multivariate statistical evaluation is presented and discussed according to molecular spatial distributions and tissue morphology.

  9. Optimized Protocol for Quantitative Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jacob J; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Schoenherr, Regine M; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-08-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e., nine processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R(2) = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R(2) = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens.

  10. Improved diagnosis of mycobacterial infections in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections with nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Azov, Andrey G; Koch, Jørn; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    Traditional histological diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is insensitive and poorly specific. To improve this, we developed nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols for detecting a Mycobacterium genus-specific 65-kDa heat shock protein (HSP65) sequence and the M. tuberculosis complex-specific insertion sequence IS6110 in FFPE sections. Protocols were optimized on tissues from 20 patients with a final clinical diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. Amplicons were controlled by sequencing and restriction endonuclease digestion. PCR could detect as few as three mycobacterial genomes per reaction. Assays showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for both M. tuberculosis complex and M. avium complex infection. Paraffin blocks from a second group of 26 patients with histological evidence of necrotizing granulomas of unknown etiology were then analyzed as a surrogate group to test the assay under conditions similar to those applying during routine diagnosis. Twenty-three of these blocks contained amplifiable DNA; nine were positive for M. tuberculosis complex DNA and four for other types of mycobacterial DNA. Furthermore, digestion of HSP65 amplicons with NarI could distinguish M. tuberculosis from M. avium complex. In conclusion, our nested PCR assays can be used as reliable tools for the detection of mycobacterial infections in FFPE tissues. The assays are simple and rapid to perform and show improved sensitivity and specificity compared to previously reported protocols.

  11. High-mass-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of metabolites from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Ly, Alice; Buck, Achim; Balluff, Benjamin; Sun, Na; Gorzolka, Karin; Feuchtinger, Annette; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Weirich, Gregor; Erlmeier, Franziska; Langer, Rupert; Aubele, Michaela; Zitzelsberger, Horst; McDonnell, Liam; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are the gold standard for histological examination, and they provide valuable molecular information in tissue-based research. Metabolite assessment from archived tissue samples has not been extensively conducted because of a lack of appropriate protocols and concerns about changes in metabolite content or chemical state due to tissue processing. We present a protocol for the in situ analysis of metabolite content from FFPE samples using a high-mass-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR-MSI) platform. The method involves FFPE tissue sections that undergo deparaffinization and matrix coating by 9-aminoacridine before MALDI-MSI. Using this platform, we previously detected ∼1,500 m/z species in the mass range m/z 50-1,000 in FFPE samples; the overlap compared with fresh frozen samples is 72% of m/z species, indicating that metabolites are largely conserved in FFPE tissue samples. This protocol can be reproducibly performed on FFPE tissues, including small samples such as tissue microarrays and biopsies. The procedure can be completed in a day, depending on the size of the sample measured and raster size used. Advantages of this approach include easy sample handling, reproducibility, high throughput and the ability to demonstrate molecular spatial distributions in situ. The data acquired with this protocol can be used in research and clinical practice.

  12. Optimization of Urea Based Protein Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Koepsell, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Urea based protein extraction of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue provides the most efficient workflow for proteomics due to its compatibility with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This study optimizes the use of urea for proteomic analysis of clinical FFPE tissue. A series of protein extraction conditions manipulating temperature and buffer composition were compared to reduce carbamylation introduced by urea and increase protein detection. Each extraction was performed on a randomized pair of serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue and analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results were compared in terms of yield, missed cleavages, and peptide carbamylation. Lowering extraction temperature to 60°C decreased carbamylation at the cost of decreased protein detection and yield. Protein extraction for at least 20 minutes at 95°C followed by 60°C for 2 hours maximized total protein yield while maintaining protein detection and reducing carbamylation by 7.9%. When accounting for carbamylation during analysis, this modified extraction temperature provides equivalent peptide and protein detection relative to the commercially available Qproteome® FFPE Tissue Kit. No changes to buffer composition containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, and 1 M ammonium bicarbonate resulted in improvements to control conditions. Optimized urea in-solution digestion provides an efficient workflow with maximized yields for proteomic analysis of clinically relevant FFPE tissue.

  13. Optimization of Urea Based Protein Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Koepsell, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Urea based protein extraction of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue provides the most efficient workflow for proteomics due to its compatibility with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This study optimizes the use of urea for proteomic analysis of clinical FFPE tissue. A series of protein extraction conditions manipulating temperature and buffer composition were compared to reduce carbamylation introduced by urea and increase protein detection. Each extraction was performed on a randomized pair of serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue and analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results were compared in terms of yield, missed cleavages, and peptide carbamylation. Lowering extraction temperature to 60°C decreased carbamylation at the cost of decreased protein detection and yield. Protein extraction for at least 20 minutes at 95°C followed by 60°C for 2 hours maximized total protein yield while maintaining protein detection and reducing carbamylation by 7.9%. When accounting for carbamylation during analysis, this modified extraction temperature provides equivalent peptide and protein detection relative to the commercially available Qproteome® FFPE Tissue Kit. No changes to buffer composition containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, and 1 M ammonium bicarbonate resulted in improvements to control conditions. Optimized urea in-solution digestion provides an efficient workflow with maximized yields for proteomic analysis of clinically relevant FFPE tissue. PMID:27660725

  14. A well-based reverse-phase protein array of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers from tissue-based proteomic studies directly contribute to defining disease states as well as promise to improve early detection or provide for further targeted therapeutics. In the clinical setting, tissue samples are preserved as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks for histological examination. However, proteomic analysis of FFPE tissue is complicated due to the high level of covalently cross-linked proteins arising from formalin fixation. To address these challenges, we developed well-based reverse-phase protein array (RPPA). This approach is a robust protein isolation methodology (29.44 ± 7.8 μg per 1 mm(3) of FFPE tissue) paired with a novel on electrochemiluminescence detection system. Protein samples derived from FFPE tissue by means of laser capture dissection, with as few as 500 shots, demonstrate measurable signal differences for different proteins. The lysates coated to the array plate, dried up and vacuum-sealed, remain stable up to 2 months at room temperature. This methodology is directly applicable to FFPE tissue and presents the direct opportunity of addressing hypothesis within clinical trials and well-annotated clinical tissue repositories.

  15. Measuring expression levels of small regulatory RNA molecules from body fluids and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Adrienn; Docs, Otto; Czimmerer, Zsolt; Orosz, Laszlo; Horvath, Attila; Török, Olga; Mehes, Gabor; Nagy, Laszlo; Balint, Balint L

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of various pathophysiological processes such as immune regulation and cancer. Next-generation sequencing methods enable us to monitor their presence in various types of samples but we need flexible methods for validating datasets generated by high-throughput methods. Here we describe the detailed protocols to be used with our MiRNA Primer Design Tool assay design system. The presented methods allow the flexible design of the oligonucleotides needed for the RT-qPCR detection of any variant of small regulatory RNA molecules from virtually any species. This method can be used to measure miRNA levels from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples and various body fluids. As an example, we show the results of the hsa-miR-515-3p, hsa-miR-325, and hsa-miR-155 quantification using a specific UPL probe (Universal Probe Library) and a stem-loop RT-qPCR assay. The small nucleolar RNA RNU43 is used as endogenous control for normalization of the results. Urine from healthy pregnant women and FFPE samples from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and treated with antibody-based anti-EGFR monotherapy were used as samples.

  16. Impact of pre-analytical factors on the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Seonaid M; Craven, Rachel A; Nirmalan, Niroshini J; Harnden, Patricia; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-04-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a tremendous potential resource for biomarker discovery, with large numbers of samples in hospital pathology departments and links to clinical information. However, the cross-linking of proteins and nucleic acids by formalin fixation has hampered analysis and proteomic studies have been restricted to using frozen tissue, which is more limited in availability as it needs to be collected specifically for research. This means that rare disease subtypes cannot be studied easily. Recently, improved extraction techniques have enabled analysis of FFPE tissue by a number of proteomic techniques. As with all clinical samples, pre-analytical factors are likely to impact on the results obtained, although overlooked in many studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the various pre-analytical factors, which include warm and cold ischaemic time, size of sample, fixation duration and temperature, tissue processing conditions, length of storage of archival tissue and storage conditions, and to review the studies that have considered these factors in more detail. In those areas where investigations are few or non-existent, illustrative examples of the possible importance of specific factors have been drawn from studies using frozen tissue or from immunohistochemical studies of FFPE tissue.

  17. Double immunofluorescent staining of rat macrophages in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue using two monoclonal mouse antibodies.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Raymond A; Isidro, Angel A; Cruz, Myrella L; Hernandez, Siomara; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2015-12-01

    The conventional approach of double immunostaining to visualize more than one protein in tissues or cells using antibodies from two different host species is not always feasible due to limitations with antibody availability. Previously reported methodologies for performing multiple immunostains on the same tissue or cells with antibodies originating from the same species are varied in their complexity, sensitivity, and approach to prevent unwanted interactions between antibodies. In the ever-expanding field of macrophage biology, much more is known about mouse and human macrophages than their rat counterparts. The limited availability of validated and well-characterized monoclonal antibodies from different species is one factor responsible for preventing advances in rat macrophage biology. Here we describe an immunostaining method for identifying and examining rat macrophages that is sufficiently sensitive for use in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and that uses only commercially available reagents and antibodies. This method can be used to help characterize both physiological and pathophysiological processes in rat macrophages and can be adapted for use with any two antibodies from the same species of origin as long as one of the antibodies is biotinylated. PMID:26403093

  18. Optimized Protocol for Quantitative Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jacob J; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Schoenherr, Regine M; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-08-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e., nine processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R(2) = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R(2) = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens. PMID:27462933

  19. A melanin-bleaching methodology for molecular and histopathological analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Choi, Jiyeon; Sears, John D; Ylaya, Kris; Perry, Candice; Choi, Chel H; Hong, Seung-Mo; Cho, Hanbyoul; Brown, Kevin M; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2016-10-01

    Removal of excessive melanin from heavily pigmented formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) melanoma tissues is essential for histomorphological and molecular diagnostic assessments. Although there have been efforts to address this issue, current methodologies remain complex and time-consuming, and are not suitable for multiple molecular applications. Herein, we have developed a robust and rapid melanin-bleaching methodology for FFPE tissue specimens. Our approach is based on quick bleaching (15 min) at high temperature (80 °C) with 0.5% diluted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Tris-HCl, PBS, or Tris/Tricine/SDS buffer. Immunostaining for Ki-67 and HMB45 was enhanced by bleaching with 0.5% H2O2 in Tris/Tricine/SDS and Tris-HCl, respectively. In addition to histopathological applications, our approach also facilitates recovery of protein and nucleic acid from archival melanin-rich FFPE tissue sections. Protein extracted from bleached FFPE tissues was compatible with western blotting using anti-human GAPDH and AKT antibodies. Our bleaching condition significantly improved RNA quality compared with unbleached tissues without compromising the yield. Notably, the RNA/DNA obtained from bleached tissues was suitable for end point PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. In conclusion, this improved melanin-bleaching method enhances and simplifies immunostaining procedures, and facilitates the use of melanin-rich FFPE tissues for histomorphological and PCR amplification-based molecular assays. PMID:27548802

  20. High-mass-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of metabolites from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Ly, Alice; Buck, Achim; Balluff, Benjamin; Sun, Na; Gorzolka, Karin; Feuchtinger, Annette; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Weirich, Gregor; Erlmeier, Franziska; Langer, Rupert; Aubele, Michaela; Zitzelsberger, Horst; McDonnell, Liam; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are the gold standard for histological examination, and they provide valuable molecular information in tissue-based research. Metabolite assessment from archived tissue samples has not been extensively conducted because of a lack of appropriate protocols and concerns about changes in metabolite content or chemical state due to tissue processing. We present a protocol for the in situ analysis of metabolite content from FFPE samples using a high-mass-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR-MSI) platform. The method involves FFPE tissue sections that undergo deparaffinization and matrix coating by 9-aminoacridine before MALDI-MSI. Using this platform, we previously detected ∼1,500 m/z species in the mass range m/z 50-1,000 in FFPE samples; the overlap compared with fresh frozen samples is 72% of m/z species, indicating that metabolites are largely conserved in FFPE tissue samples. This protocol can be reproducibly performed on FFPE tissues, including small samples such as tissue microarrays and biopsies. The procedure can be completed in a day, depending on the size of the sample measured and raster size used. Advantages of this approach include easy sample handling, reproducibility, high throughput and the ability to demonstrate molecular spatial distributions in situ. The data acquired with this protocol can be used in research and clinical practice. PMID:27414759

  1. Optimization of Urea Based Protein Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Luebker, Stephen A; Koepsell, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Urea based protein extraction of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue provides the most efficient workflow for proteomics due to its compatibility with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This study optimizes the use of urea for proteomic analysis of clinical FFPE tissue. A series of protein extraction conditions manipulating temperature and buffer composition were compared to reduce carbamylation introduced by urea and increase protein detection. Each extraction was performed on a randomized pair of serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue and analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results were compared in terms of yield, missed cleavages, and peptide carbamylation. Lowering extraction temperature to 60°C decreased carbamylation at the cost of decreased protein detection and yield. Protein extraction for at least 20 minutes at 95°C followed by 60°C for 2 hours maximized total protein yield while maintaining protein detection and reducing carbamylation by 7.9%. When accounting for carbamylation during analysis, this modified extraction temperature provides equivalent peptide and protein detection relative to the commercially available Qproteome® FFPE Tissue Kit. No changes to buffer composition containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, and 1 M ammonium bicarbonate resulted in improvements to control conditions. Optimized urea in-solution digestion provides an efficient workflow with maximized yields for proteomic analysis of clinically relevant FFPE tissue. PMID:27660725

  2. Comparison of the DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Sugie, R; Tsuchiya, B; Kameya, T; Natori, M; Mukai, K

    2001-12-01

    To obtain an adequate quality and quantity of DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, six different DNA extraction methods were compared. Four methods used deparaffinization by xylene followed by proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform extraction. The temperature of the different steps was changed to obtain higher yields and improved quality of extracted DNA. The remaining two methods used microwave heating for deparaffinization. The best DNA extraction method consisted of deparaffinization by microwave irradiation, protein digestion with proteinase K at 48 degrees C overnight, and no further purification steps. By this method, the highest DNA yield was obtained and the amplification of a 989-base pair beta-globin gene fragment was achieved. Furthermore, DNA extracted by means of this procedure from five gastric carcinomas was successfully used for single strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing assays of the beta-catenin gene. Because the microwave-based DNA extraction method presented here is simple, has a lower contamination risk, and results in a higher yield of DNA compared with the ordinary organic chemical reagent-based extraction method, it is considered applicable to various clinical and basic fields.

  3. Optimization of Single- and Dual-Color Immunofluorescence Protocols for Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Archival Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Ito, Reiko; Manley, Nancy R; Hale, Laura P

    2016-02-01

    Performance of immunofluorescence staining on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissues is generally not considered to be feasible, primarily due to problems with tissue quality and autofluorescence. We report the development and application of procedures that allowed for the study of a unique archive of thymus tissues derived from autopsies of individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima, Japan in 1945. Multiple independent treatments were used to minimize autofluorescence and maximize fluorescent antibody signals. Treatments with NH3/EtOH and Sudan Black B were particularly useful in decreasing autofluorescent moieties present in the tissue. Deconvolution microscopy was used to further enhance the signal-to-noise ratios. Together, these techniques provide high-quality single- and dual-color fluorescent images with low background and high contrast from paraffin blocks of thymus tissue that were prepared up to 60 years ago. The resulting high-quality images allow the application of a variety of image analyses to thymus tissues that previously were not accessible. Whereas the procedures presented remain to be tested for other tissue types and archival conditions, the approach described may facilitate greater utilization of older paraffin block archives for modern immunofluorescence studies. PMID:26392518

  4. A well-based reverse-phase protein array of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers from tissue-based proteomic studies directly contribute to defining disease states as well as promise to improve early detection or provide for further targeted therapeutics. In the clinical setting, tissue samples are preserved as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks for histological examination. However, proteomic analysis of FFPE tissue is complicated due to the high level of covalently cross-linked proteins arising from formalin fixation. To address these challenges, we developed well-based reverse-phase protein array (RPPA). This approach is a robust protein isolation methodology (29.44 ± 7.8 μg per 1 mm(3) of FFPE tissue) paired with a novel on electrochemiluminescence detection system. Protein samples derived from FFPE tissue by means of laser capture dissection, with as few as 500 shots, demonstrate measurable signal differences for different proteins. The lysates coated to the array plate, dried up and vacuum-sealed, remain stable up to 2 months at room temperature. This methodology is directly applicable to FFPE tissue and presents the direct opportunity of addressing hypothesis within clinical trials and well-annotated clinical tissue repositories. PMID:26043998

  5. Optimized protocol for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring-based proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jacob J.; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Schoenherr, Regine M.; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues. While the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e. 9 processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R2 = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R2 = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens. PMID:27462933

  6. Enhanced fungal DNA-Extraction from Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue specimens by application of thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Rickerts, V.; Khot, P.D.; Ko, D.L.; Fredricks, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Determining the etiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is critical for patient management as fungi vary in their susceptibility to antifungals. However, the etiology remains obscure in many cases due to negative culture results. The identification of fungal DNA from pathology blocks by PCR and sequencing is an alternative approach to determine the etiology of IFI. Previous studies identified fungal DNA in only 50% of samples with positive histopathology, probably due to DNA damage by the tissue fixation. We used realtime PCR to quantify human and fungal DNA from Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue specimens in order to study the effect of thermal energy during extraction on the yield of amplifiable DNA and subsequent identification of fungal DNA. Tissue sections from eight patients with proven IFI were subjected to DNA extraction with varying exposure to thermal energy. Amplifiable DNA increased up to 76-fold by increasing incubation temperature from 65°C to 90°C. An additional increase was documented by incubation for up to 6 hours at 90°C. The augmented amplification of fungal DNA was associated with improved species identification by sequencing of the PCR amplicons. This may help illuminate the etiology of IFI and thereby improve patient management by guiding antifungal therapy. PMID:22414380

  7. Comparison of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and real-time PCR in the detection of EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material of non-small cell lung carcinoma-superiority of NGS.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Katja; Mäki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Wirtanen, Aino; Rönty, Mikko; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Andrews, Jenny M; Telaranta-Keerie, Aino I; Hannula, Sari; Lagström, Sonja; Ellonen, Pekka; Knuuttila, Aija; Knuutila, Sakari

    2013-05-01

    The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments has made it important to test cancer patients for clinically significant gene mutations that influence the benefit of treatment. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a promising method for diagnostic purposes by enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple mutations in various genes in a single test. The aim of our study was to screen EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations by targeted NGS and commonly used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of targeted NGS for the detection of the mutations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify potential novel mutations by targeted NGS. We analyzed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue specimens from 81 non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. We observed a significant concordance (from 96.3 to 100%) of the EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutation detection results between targeted NGS and real-time PCR. Moreover, targeted NGS revealed seven nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations and one insertion-deletion variation in EGFR not detectable by the real-time PCR methods. The potential clinical significance of these variants requires elucidation in future studies. Our results support the use of targeted NGS in the screening of EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in FFPE tissue material.

  8. Whole-exome sequencing and clinical interpretation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples to guide precision cancer medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Allen, Eliezer M; Wagle, Nikhil; Stojanov, Petar; Perrin, Danielle L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Marlow, Sara; Jane-Valbuena, Judit; Friedrich, Dennis C; Kryukov, Gregory; Carter, Scott L; McKenna, Aaron; Sivachenko, Andrey; Rosenberg, Mara; Kiezun, Adam; Voet, Douglas; Lawrence, Michael; Lichtenstein, Lee T; Gentry, Jeff G; Huang, Franklin W; Fostel, Jennifer; Farlow, Deborah; Barbie, David; Gandhi, Leena; Lander, Eric S; Gray, Stacy W; Joffe, Steven; Janne, Pasi; Garber, Judy; MacConaill, Laura; Lindeman, Neal; Rollins, Barrett; Kantoff, Philip; Fisher, Sheila A; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Garraway, Levi A

    2014-06-01

    Translating whole-exome sequencing (WES) for prospective clinical use may have an impact on the care of patients with cancer; however, multiple innovations are necessary for clinical implementation. These include rapid and robust WES of DNA derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue, analytical output similar to data from frozen samples and clinical interpretation of WES data for prospective use. Here, we describe a prospective clinical WES platform for archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The platform employs computational methods for effective clinical analysis and interpretation of WES data. When applied retrospectively to 511 exomes, the interpretative framework revealed a 'long tail' of somatic alterations in clinically important genes. Prospective application of this approach identified clinically relevant alterations in 15 out of 16 patients. In one patient, previously undetected findings guided clinical trial enrollment, leading to an objective clinical response. Overall, this methodology may inform the widespread implementation of precision cancer medicine.

  9. Identification of Bacteria in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Heart Valve Tissue via 16S rRNA Gene Nucleotide Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Imrit, Kavita; Goldfischer, Michael; Wang, Jie; Green, Jaime; Levine, Jerome; Lombardo, Joseph; Hong, Tao

    2006-01-01

    We applied 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify bacterial species present in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded heart valve tissue. In 40% (12/30) of the cases, we were able to identify the bacterium to the species-genus level. For more recent cases (≤4 years), the success rate was significantly improved, to 70% (P < 0.001). PMID:16825394

  10. Validation of the Lung Subtyping Panel in Multiple Fresh-Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Lung Tumor Gene Expression Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Faruki, Hawazin; Mayhew, Gregory M; Fan, Cheng; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Parker, Scott; Kam-Morgan, Lauren; Eisenberg, Marcia; Horten, Bruce; Hayes, D Neil; Perou, Charles M; Lai-Goldman, Myla

    2016-06-01

    Context .- A histologic classification of lung cancer subtypes is essential in guiding therapeutic management. Objective .- To complement morphology-based classification of lung tumors, a previously developed lung subtyping panel (LSP) of 57 genes was tested using multiple public fresh-frozen gene-expression data sets and a prospectively collected set of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tumor samples. Design .- The LSP gene-expression signature was evaluated in multiple lung cancer gene-expression data sets totaling 2177 patients collected from 4 platforms: Illumina RNAseq (San Diego, California), Agilent (Santa Clara, California) and Affymetrix (Santa Clara) microarrays, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Gene centroids were calculated for each of 3 genomic-defined subtypes: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine, the latter of which encompassed both small cell carcinoma and carcinoid. Classification by LSP into 3 subtypes was evaluated in both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples, and agreement with the original morphology-based diagnosis was determined. Results .- The LSP-based classifications demonstrated overall agreement with the original clinical diagnosis ranging from 78% (251 of 322) to 91% (492 of 538 and 869 of 951) in the fresh-frozen public data sets and 84% (65 of 77) in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded data set. The LSP performance was independent of tissue-preservation method and gene-expression platform. Secondary, blinded pathology review of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples demonstrated concordance of 82% (63 of 77) with the original morphology diagnosis. Conclusions .- The LSP gene-expression signature is a reproducible and objective method for classifying lung tumors and demonstrates good concordance with morphology-based classification across multiple data sets. The LSP panel can supplement morphologic assessment of lung cancers, particularly

  11. Comparison of Accuracy of Whole-Exome Sequencing with Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh Frozen Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mi Jeong; Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Yu Jin; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Kyung Soo; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixing with paraffin embedding (FFPE) has been a standard sample preparation method for decades, and archival FFPE samples are still very useful resources. Nonetheless, the use of FFPE samples in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing, which is a powerful technique for the identification of genomic alterations at the nucleotide level, has been challenging due to poor DNA quality and artificial sequence alterations. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of matched frozen samples and FFPE samples of tissues from 4 cancer patients and compared the next-generation sequencing data obtained from these samples. The major differences between data obtained from the 2 types of sample were the shorter insert size and artificial base alterations in the FFPE samples. A high proportion of short inserts in the FFPE samples resulted in overlapping paired reads, which could lead to overestimation of certain variants; >20% of the inserts in the FFPE samples were double sequenced. A large number of soft clipped reads was found in the sequencing data of the FFPE samples, and about 30% of total bases were soft clipped. The artificial base alterations, C>T and G>A, were observed in FFPE samples only, and the alteration rate ranged from 200 to 1,200 per 1M bases when sequencing errors were removed. Although high-confidence mutation calls in the FFPE samples were compatible to that in the frozen samples, caution should be exercised in terms of the artifacts, especially for low-confidence calls. Despite the clearly observed artifacts, archival FFPE samples can be a good resource for discovery or validation of biomarkers in cancer research based on whole-exome sequencing. PMID:26641479

  12. Comparison of Accuracy of Whole-Exome Sequencing with Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh Frozen Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ensel; Choi, Yoon-La; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Yu Jin; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Kyung Soo; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixing with paraffin embedding (FFPE) has been a standard sample preparation method for decades, and archival FFPE samples are still very useful resources. Nonetheless, the use of FFPE samples in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing, which is a powerful technique for the identification of genomic alterations at the nucleotide level, has been challenging due to poor DNA quality and artificial sequence alterations. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of matched frozen samples and FFPE samples of tissues from 4 cancer patients and compared the next-generation sequencing data obtained from these samples. The major differences between data obtained from the 2 types of sample were the shorter insert size and artificial base alterations in the FFPE samples. A high proportion of short inserts in the FFPE samples resulted in overlapping paired reads, which could lead to overestimation of certain variants; >20% of the inserts in the FFPE samples were double sequenced. A large number of soft clipped reads was found in the sequencing data of the FFPE samples, and about 30% of total bases were soft clipped. The artificial base alterations, C>T and G>A, were observed in FFPE samples only, and the alteration rate ranged from 200 to 1,200 per 1M bases when sequencing errors were removed. Although high-confidence mutation calls in the FFPE samples were compatible to that in the frozen samples, caution should be exercised in terms of the artifacts, especially for low-confidence calls. Despite the clearly observed artifacts, archival FFPE samples can be a good resource for discovery or validation of biomarkers in cancer research based on whole-exome sequencing.

  13. Characterization of anti-TIMP-1 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemical localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Irene Vejgaard; Fenger, Claus; Winther, Henrik; Foged, Niels T; Lademann, Ulrik; Brünner, Nils; Usher, Pernille A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate seven anti-TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) monoclonal antibodies by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Detection of the TIMP-1 protein was studied by IHC in FFPE human archival normal and neoplastic samples. Indirect IHC technique was used, and the seven antibodies (clones VT1, VT2, VT4, VT5, VT6, VT7, and VT8) were tested in various concentrations using different pretreatment protocols. All seven VT antibodies specifically immunostained the cytoplasm of islets of Langerhans cells in normal pancreas, epithelial cells of hyperplastic prostate, tumor cells of medullary thyroid carcinoma, and fibroblast-like cells of malignant melanoma. Specificity of the anti-TIMP-1 antibodies was confirmed by several controls, e.g., Western blotting on proteins extracted from FFPE tissue showed that the VT7 antibody reacted specifically with a protein band of approximately 28 kDa, corresponding to the molecular mass of TIMP-1. However, sensitivity varied with the different antibodies. Use of heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) and the VT7 clone applied at low concentrations demonstrated more intense immunoreactivity with the TIMP-1-positive cell types compared to the other six clones. Furthermore, when tested on a range of normal and neoplastic endocrine tissues, the VT7 clone demonstrated immunoreactivity with all neuroendocrine cell types. In conclusion, all seven antibodies detected TIMP-1 protein in various normal and neoplastic FFPE tissues, but one clone, VT7, was superior for IHC staining of TIMP-1 in FFPE tissue sections when using HIER.

  14. Assessment of the 2-d gel-based proteomics application of clinically archived formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Davalieva, Katarina; Kiprijanovska, Sanja; Polenakovic, Momir

    2014-04-01

    Hospital tissue repositories possess a vast and valuable supply of disease samples with matched retrospective clinical information. Detection and characterization of disease biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues will greatly aid the understanding of the diseases mechanisms and help in the development of diagnostic and prognostic markers. In this study, the possibility of using full-length proteins extracted from clinically archived FFPE tissues in two-dimensional (2-D) gel-based proteomics was evaluated. The evaluation was done based on two types of tumor tissues (breast and prostate) and two extraction protocols. The comparison of the 2-D patterns of FFPE extracts obtained by two extraction protocols with the matching frozen tissue extracts showed that only 7-10% of proteins from frozen tissues can be matched to proteins from FFPE tissues. Most of the spots in the 2-D FFPE's maps had pl 4-6, while the percentages of proteins with pl above 6 were 3-5 times lower in comparison to the fresh/frozen tissue. Despite the three-fold lower number of the detected spots in FFPE maps compared to matched fresh/frozen maps, 67-78% of protein spots in FFPE could not be matched to the corresponding spots in the fresh/frozen tissue maps indicating irreversible protein modifications. In conclusion, the inability to completely reverse the cross-linked complexes and overcome protein fragmentation with the present day FFPE extraction methods stands in the way of effective use of these samples in 2-D gel based proteomics studies.

  15. Fusion transcript discovery in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tissues reveals a link to tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Ambannavar, Ranjana; Stephans, James; Jeong, Jennie; Dei Rossi, Andrew; Liu, Mei-Lan; Friedman, Adam J; Londry, Jason J; Abramson, Richard; Beasley, Ellen M; Baker, Joffre; Levy, Samuel; Qu, Kunbin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of gene fusions promises to play an important role in personalized cancer treatment decisions. Many rare gene fusion events have been identified in fresh frozen solid tumors from common cancers employing next-generation sequencing technology. However the ability to detect transcripts from gene fusions in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues, which exist in very large sample repositories for which disease outcome is known, is still limited due to the low complexity of FFPE libraries and the lack of appropriate bioinformatics methods. We sought to develop a bioinformatics method, named gFuse, to detect fusion transcripts in FFPE tumor tissues. An integrated, cohort based strategy has been used in gFuse to examine single-end 50 base pair (bp) reads generated from FFPE RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets employing two breast cancer cohorts of 136 and 76 patients. In total, 118 fusion events were detected transcriptome-wide at base-pair resolution across the 212 samples. We selected 77 candidate fusions based on their biological relevance to cancer and supported 61% of these using TaqMan assays. Direct sequencing of 19 of the fusion sequences identified by TaqMan confirmed them. Three unique fused gene pairs were recurrent across the 212 patients with 6, 3, 2 individuals harboring these fusions respectively. We show here that a high frequency of fusion transcripts detected at the whole transcriptome level correlates with poor outcome (P<0.0005) in human breast cancer patients. This study demonstrates the ability to detect fusion transcripts as biomarkers from archival FFPE tissues, and the potential prognostic value of the fusion transcripts detected.

  16. Factors affecting immunoreactivity in long-term storage of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Federica; Pigozzi, Simona; Ceriolo, Paola; Calamaro, Paola; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Antigen decay in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections for immunohistochemistry is a well-known phenomenon which may have repercussions on translational and research studies and length of storage time appears fundamental. The aim of this study was to evaluate all possible factors which may lead to antigen decay on a prospective standardized collection of human tissues with a panel of 14 routinely used antibodies. Serial slide sections from FFPE control tissues were stored using different methods (routine storage at room temperature, Parafilm(®) protected, paraffin coated and cold stored at 4 °C) and for different time periods: 1, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 36 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed at each time cutoff simultaneously on stored sections and on freshly cut sections using a panel of 14 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was compared with immunoreactions performed at time zero. Reduction in immunostaining was observed for a subset of antibodies (CD3, CD 31, CD117, estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki67, p53, TTF-1, vimentin) while for others (smooth muscle actin, keratins 7, 20, AE1/AE3, 34βE12), no antigen decay was observed. Loss of antigenicity was proportional to tissue section age and was dependent on mode of storage with cold storage slides being the least affected. All antigens with reductions in immunosignal were nuclear or membranous, and they all required heat pre-treatment for antigen retrieval. In contrast to results from other studies, when pre-analytical factors are strictly controlled and standardized, antigen decay seems to be restricted to nuclear or membrane antigens which require heat antigen retrieval.

  17. Identification of transcriptionally active HPV infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morbini, Patrizia; Alberizzi, Paola; Tinelli, Carmine; Paglino, Chiara; Bertino, Giulia; Comoli, Patrizia; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Benazzo, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenic activity is the result of viral oncogene E6 and E7 expression in infected cells. Oncogene expression analysis is, however, not part of the routine diagnostic evaluation of HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) since it requires fresh tumor tissue. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of several methods commonly employed for HPV characterization in OPSCC with the results of the newly available HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy samples, in order to establish if the latter should be introduced in the diagnostic routine to increase accuracy when fresh tissue is not available. p16 immunostain, DNA ISH for high-risk HPV genotypes, SPF LiPA amplification and genotyping, and HPV16 E6 amplification were performed on 41 consecutive OPSCC samples. Twenty (48.7%) cases were positive by mRNA ISH; sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 90% for p16, 90% and 100% for DNA ISH, 70% and 76% for SPF10 LiPA, 90% and 76% for E6 amplification. A diagnostic algorithm considering p16 immunostain as first step followed by either high-risk HPV DNA ISH or HPV16 E6 amplification in p16-positive cases correctly characterized 90% of mRNA-positive and all mRNA-negative cases; combining the 3 tests correctly identified all cases. While no stand-alone test was sufficiently accurate for classifying HPV-associated OPSCC, the high sensitivity and specificity of the established combination of p16 immunostain, DNA ISH, and HPV16 DNA amplification suggests that the introduction of labour- and cost-intensive mRNA ISH, is not necessary in the diagnostic routine of oropharyngeal tumors.

  18. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Patai, Árpád V; Schöller, Andrea; Krenács, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 ± 3.18 μg DNA; Q: 3.00 ± 4.04 μg DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 ± 2.91 μg DNA; Q: 11.51 ± 7.50 μg DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits.

  19. Multilabel immunofluorescence and antigen reprobing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections: novel applications for precision pathology diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Thoeni, Cornelia; Muise, Aleixo; Yeger, Herman; Cutz, Ernest

    2016-06-01

    We report new methods for multilabel immunofluorescence (MIF) and reprobing of antigen epitopes on the same formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections. The MIF method includes an antigen-retrieval step followed by multilabel immunostaining and examination by confocal microscopy. As examples, we illustrate epitopes localized to the apical and basolateral membranes, and the cytoplasm of enterocytes of normal small intestine and in cases of congenital enteropathies (microvillous inclusion disease and congenital tufting enteropathy). We also demonstrate localization of the bile salt excretion pump protein (BSEP) in bile canalicular membrane of normal hepatocytes and in cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis. To demonstrate colocalization of cytoplasmic and nuclear epitopes we analyzed normal control and hyperplastic pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) and neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs), presumed airway sensors in the lungs of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). As cytoplasmic markers we used anti-bombesin or anti-synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) antibody, respectively, and for nuclear localization, antibodies against neurogenic genes mammalian achaete-scute homolog (Mash1) and prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1), essential for NEB cells differentiation and maturation, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) a downstream modulator of hypoxia response and a proliferation marker Ki67. The reprobing method consisted of removal of the previously immunolabeled target and immunostaining with different antibodies, facilitating colocalization of enterocyte brush border epitopes as well as HIF1α, Mash1 and Prox1 in PNEC/NEB PNEC and NEBs. As these methods are suitable for routine FFPE pathology samples from various tissues, allowing visualization of multiple epitopes in the same cells/sections with superior contrast and resolution, they are suitable for a wide range of applications in diagnostic pathology and may be particularly well suited for precision medicine

  20. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Patai, Árpád V; Schöller, Andrea; Krenács, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 ± 3.18 μg DNA; Q: 3.00 ± 4.04 μg DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 ± 2.91 μg DNA; Q: 11.51 ± 7.50 μg DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits. PMID:25991403

  1. Imaging of N-Linked Glycans from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is associated with most of the diseases. Direct imaging and profiling of N-glycans on tissue sections can reveal tissue-specific and/or disease-associated N-glycans, which not only could serve as molecular signatures for diagnosis but also shed light on the functional roles of these biomolecules. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that has been used to correlate peptides, proteins, lipids, and metabolites with their underlying histopathology in tissue sections. Here, we report an MSI technique for direct analysis of N-glycans from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. This technique consists of sectioning FFPE tissues, deparaffinization, and rehydration of the sections, denaturing tissue proteins, releasing N-linked glycans from proteins by printing peptide-N-glycosidase F over the sections, spray-coating the tissue with matrix, and analyzing N-glycans by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Brain sections from a C57BL/6 mouse were imaged using this technique at a resolution of 100 μm. Forty-two N-glycans were analyzed from the mouse brain section. The mass spectrometry images were used to study the relative abundance of oligomannose, nonfucosylated, and fucosylated complex N-glycans in different brain areas including isocortex, hippocampal formation, and brainstem and specific glycans associated with different areas of the brain were identified. Furthermore, glioblastoma tumor xenografts in a NOD/SCID mouse were imaged. Several glycans with differential expression in tumor versus normal brain tissues were identified. The MSI technique allows for imaging of N-glycans directly from FFPE sections. This method can potentially identify tissue-specific and/or disease-associated glycans coexpressed with other molecular signatures or within certain histological structures. PMID:25029481

  2. Comparison of Accuracy of Whole-Exome Sequencing with Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh Frozen Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ensel; Choi, Yoon-La; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Yu Jin; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Kyung Soo; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixing with paraffin embedding (FFPE) has been a standard sample preparation method for decades, and archival FFPE samples are still very useful resources. Nonetheless, the use of FFPE samples in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing, which is a powerful technique for the identification of genomic alterations at the nucleotide level, has been challenging due to poor DNA quality and artificial sequence alterations. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of matched frozen samples and FFPE samples of tissues from 4 cancer patients and compared the next-generation sequencing data obtained from these samples. The major differences between data obtained from the 2 types of sample were the shorter insert size and artificial base alterations in the FFPE samples. A high proportion of short inserts in the FFPE samples resulted in overlapping paired reads, which could lead to overestimation of certain variants; >20% of the inserts in the FFPE samples were double sequenced. A large number of soft clipped reads was found in the sequencing data of the FFPE samples, and about 30% of total bases were soft clipped. The artificial base alterations, C>T and G>A, were observed in FFPE samples only, and the alteration rate ranged from 200 to 1,200 per 1M bases when sequencing errors were removed. Although high-confidence mutation calls in the FFPE samples were compatible to that in the frozen samples, caution should be exercised in terms of the artifacts, especially for low-confidence calls. Despite the clearly observed artifacts, archival FFPE samples can be a good resource for discovery or validation of biomarkers in cancer research based on whole-exome sequencing. PMID:26641479

  3. [Use of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for molecular genetic analysis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)].

    PubMed

    Jarošová, Marie; Kučerová, Jana; Flodr, Patrik; Mikešová, Michaela; Procházka, Vít; Papajík, Tomáš

    2014-04-01

    The currently valid molecular genetic subclassification of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into three prognostic subgroups based on expression profiling has been the objective of numerous genetic studies. In routine clinical practice, however, expression profiling technology remains unavailable for the most of centers. Apart from the technology, in some cases molecular genetic laboratories have problems obtaining high-quality material, i.e. fresh tissues, for RNA isolation to determine gene expression. One possibility is to determine the gene expression from RNA obtained by isolation from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. This pilot study aimed at isolating RNA from FFPE in patients diagnosed with DLBCL and verifying the potential use of such RNA for the expression analysis of 7 selected genes. Although the study showed that it is possible to isolate RNA and determine the expression of the selected genes from archival material, the values of relative expression of some genes in the set were too variable to be used for unambiguous prognostic classification. It was confirmed that retrospective analyses of selected genes may be performed with sufficient material obtained, and that properly archived blocks may be used for molecular biology analyses even after 8 years.

  4. Using next-generation sequencing for high resolution multiplex analysis of copy number variation from nanogram quantities of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens.

    PubMed

    Wood, Henry M; Belvedere, Ornella; Conway, Caroline; Daly, Catherine; Chalkley, Rebecca; Bickerdike, Melissa; McKinley, Claire; Egan, Phil; Ross, Lisa; Hayward, Bruce; Morgan, Joanne; Davidson, Leslie; MacLennan, Ken; Ong, Thian K; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Cook, Ian; Adams, David J; Taylor, Graham R; Rabbitts, Pamela

    2010-08-01

    The use of next-generation sequencing technologies to produce genomic copy number data has recently been described. Most approaches, however, reply on optimal starting DNA, and are therefore unsuitable for the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, which largely precludes the analysis of many tumour series. We have sought to challenge the limits of this technique with regards to quality and quantity of starting material and the depth of sequencing required. We confirm that the technique can be used to interrogate DNA from cell lines, fresh frozen material and FFPE samples to assess copy number variation. We show that as little as 5 ng of DNA is needed to generate a copy number karyogram, and follow this up with data from a series of FFPE biopsies and surgical samples. We have used various levels of sample multiplexing to demonstrate the adjustable resolution of the methodology, depending on the number of samples and available resources. We also demonstrate reproducibility by use of replicate samples and comparison with microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and digital PCR. This technique can be valuable in both the analysis of routine diagnostic samples and in examining large repositories of fixed archival material.

  5. A single simple procedure for dewaxing, hydration and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, I M S; Dimke, H; Frische, S

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) is widely used for immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and includes temperatures well above the melting point of paraffin. We therefore tested whether traditional xylene-based removal of paraffin is required on sections from paraffin-embedded tissue, when HIER is performed by vigorous boiling in 10 mM Tris/0.5 mM EGTA-buffer (pH=9). Immunohistochemical results using HIER with or without prior dewaxing in xylene were evaluated using 7 primary antibodies targeting proteins located in the cytosol, intracellular vesicles and plasma membrane. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing was observed on staining pattern. Semiquantitative analysis did not show HIER to influence the intensity of labelling consistently. Consequently, quantification of immune labelling intensity using fluorescent secondary antibodies was performed at 5 dilutions of primary antibody with and without prior dewaxing in xylene. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing on signal intensity was detectable indicating similar immunoreactivity in dewaxed and non-dewaxed sections. The intensity of staining the nucleus with the DNA-stain ToPro3 was similarly unaffected by omission of dewaxing in xylene. In conclusion, the HIER procedure described and tested can be used as a single procedure enabling dewaxing, hydration and epitope retrieval for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

  6. A single simple procedure for dewaxing, hydration and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, I M S; Dimke, H; Frische, S

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) is widely used for immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and includes temperatures well above the melting point of paraffin. We therefore tested whether traditional xylene-based removal of paraffin is required on sections from paraffin-embedded tissue, when HIER is performed by vigorous boiling in 10 mM Tris/0.5 mM EGTA-buffer (pH=9). Immunohistochemical results using HIER with or without prior dewaxing in xylene were evaluated using 7 primary antibodies targeting proteins located in the cytosol, intracellular vesicles and plasma membrane. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing was observed on staining pattern. Semiquantitative analysis did not show HIER to influence the intensity of labelling consistently. Consequently, quantification of immune labelling intensity using fluorescent secondary antibodies was performed at 5 dilutions of primary antibody with and without prior dewaxing in xylene. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing on signal intensity was detectable indicating similar immunoreactivity in dewaxed and non-dewaxed sections. The intensity of staining the nucleus with the DNA-stain ToPro3 was similarly unaffected by omission of dewaxing in xylene. In conclusion, the HIER procedure described and tested can be used as a single procedure enabling dewaxing, hydration and epitope retrieval for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. PMID:26708177

  7. A Single Simple Procedure for Dewaxing, Hydration and Heat-Induced Epitope Retrieval (HIER) for Immunohistochemistry in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, I.M.S.; Dimke, H.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) is widely used for immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and includes temperatures well above the melting point of paraffin. We therefore tested whether traditional xylene-based removal of paraffin is required on sections from paraffin-embedded tissue, when HIER is performed by vigorous boiling in 10 mM Tris/0.5 mM EGTA-buffer (pH=9). Immunohistochemical results using HIER with or without prior dewaxing in xylene were evaluated using 7 primary antibodies targeting proteins located in the cytosol, intracellular vesicles and plasma membrane. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing was observed on staining pattern. Semiquantitative analysis did not show HIER to influence the intensity of labelling consistently. Consequently, quantification of immune labelling intensity using fluorescent secondary antibodies was performed at 5 dilutions of primary antibody with and without prior dewaxing in xylene. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing on signal intensity was detectable indicating similar immunoreactivity in dewaxed and non-dewaxed sections. The intensity of staining the nucleus with the DNA-stain ToPro3 was similarly unaffected by omission of dewaxing in xylene. In conclusion, the HIER procedure described and tested can be used as a single procedure enabling dewaxing, hydration and epitope retrieval for immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. PMID:26708177

  8. The influence of DNA degradation in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue on locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Iben; Kjeldsen, Tina E; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Wojdacz, Tomasz K

    2015-12-01

    Readily accessible formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are a highly valuable source of genetic material for molecular analyses in both research and in vitro diagnostics but frequently genetic material in those samples is highly degraded. With locus-specific methylation changes being widely investigated for use as biomarkers in various aspects of clinical disease management, we aimed to evaluate to what extent standard laboratory procedures can approximate the quality of the DNA extracted from FFPE samples prior to methylation analyses. DNA quality in 107 FFPE non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples was evaluated using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis. Subsequently, the quality assessment results were correlated with the results of locus specific methylation assessment with methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). The correlation of template quality with PCR amplification performance and HRM based methylation detection indicated a significant influence of DNA quality on PCR amplification but not on methylation assessment. In conclusion, standard laboratory procedures fairly well approximate DNA degradation of FFPE samples and DNA degradation does not seem to considerably affect locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM. PMID:26551081

  9. A Comparison of Fresh Frozen vs. Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Specimens of Canine Mammary Tumors via Branched-DNA Assay.

    PubMed

    Lüder Ripoli, Florenza; Mohr, Annika; Conradine Hammer, Susanne; Willenbrock, Saskia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Hennecke, Silvia; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Mammary neoplasms are the tumors most affecting female dogs and women. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable source of archived biological material. Fresh frozen (FF) tissue is considered ideal for gene expression analysis. However, strategies based on FFPE material offer several advantages. Branched-DNA assays permit a reliable and fast workflow when analyzing gene expression. The aim of this study was to assess the comparability of the branched-DNA assay when analyzing certain gene expression patterns between FF and FFPE samples in canine mammary tumors. RNA was isolated from 109 FFPE samples and from 93 FF samples of different canine mammary tissues. Sixteen (16) target genes (Tp53; Myc; HMGA1; Pik3ca; Mcl1; MAPK3; FOXO3; PTEN; GATA4; PFDN5; HMGB1; MAPK1; BRCA2; BRCA1; HMGA2; and Her2) were analyzed via branched-DNA assay (b-DNA). ACTB, GAPDH, and HPRT1 were used as data normalizers. Overall, the relative gene expression of the two different origins of samples showed an agreement of 63%. Still, care should be taken, as FFPE specimens showed lower expression of the analyzed targets when compared to FF samples. The fact that the gene expression in FFPE proved to be lower than in FF specimens is likely to have been caused by the effect of storage time. ACTB had the best performance as a data normalizer. PMID:27187374

  10. A Comparison of Fresh Frozen vs. Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Specimens of Canine Mammary Tumors via Branched-DNA Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lüder Ripoli, Florenza; Mohr, Annika; Conradine Hammer, Susanne; Willenbrock, Saskia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Hennecke, Silvia; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Mammary neoplasms are the tumors most affecting female dogs and women. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable source of archived biological material. Fresh frozen (FF) tissue is considered ideal for gene expression analysis. However, strategies based on FFPE material offer several advantages. Branched-DNA assays permit a reliable and fast workflow when analyzing gene expression. The aim of this study was to assess the comparability of the branched-DNA assay when analyzing certain gene expression patterns between FF and FFPE samples in canine mammary tumors. RNA was isolated from 109 FFPE samples and from 93 FF samples of different canine mammary tissues. Sixteen (16) target genes (Tp53; Myc; HMGA1; Pik3ca; Mcl1; MAPK3; FOXO3; PTEN; GATA4; PFDN5; HMGB1; MAPK1; BRCA2; BRCA1; HMGA2; and Her2) were analyzed via branched-DNA assay (b-DNA). ACTB, GAPDH, and HPRT1 were used as data normalizers. Overall, the relative gene expression of the two different origins of samples showed an agreement of 63%. Still, care should be taken, as FFPE specimens showed lower expression of the analyzed targets when compared to FF samples. The fact that the gene expression in FFPE proved to be lower than in FF specimens is likely to have been caused by the effect of storage time. ACTB had the best performance as a data normalizer. PMID:27187374

  11. The influence of DNA degradation in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue on locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Iben; Kjeldsen, Tina E; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Wojdacz, Tomasz K

    2015-12-01

    Readily accessible formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are a highly valuable source of genetic material for molecular analyses in both research and in vitro diagnostics but frequently genetic material in those samples is highly degraded. With locus-specific methylation changes being widely investigated for use as biomarkers in various aspects of clinical disease management, we aimed to evaluate to what extent standard laboratory procedures can approximate the quality of the DNA extracted from FFPE samples prior to methylation analyses. DNA quality in 107 FFPE non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples was evaluated using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis. Subsequently, the quality assessment results were correlated with the results of locus specific methylation assessment with methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). The correlation of template quality with PCR amplification performance and HRM based methylation detection indicated a significant influence of DNA quality on PCR amplification but not on methylation assessment. In conclusion, standard laboratory procedures fairly well approximate DNA degradation of FFPE samples and DNA degradation does not seem to considerably affect locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM.

  12. Identification of monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemical staining of feline B lymphocytes in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Monteith, C E; Chelack, B J; Davis, W C; Haines, D M

    1996-01-01

    Commercially-available monoclonal antibodies to B lymphocytes were evaluated for immunohistochemical staining of feline B lymphocytes in frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using an avidin biotin complex immunoperoxidase immunohistochemical technique. Three monoclonal antibodies: F46A and F72A raised to "carnivore" B lymphocytes and RA3.6B2 raised to murine B lymphocytes, stained B lymphocyte-dependent areas of frozen feline lymphoid tissue. In addition, antibody RA3.6B2 stained B lymphocyte dependent areas in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded feline tissues. There was no staining of T lymphocyte-dependent areas in either frozen or formalin-fixed tissues. Dual parameter flow cytometry, using an anti-pan-T lymphocyte antibody, revealed that greater than 99% of the cells stained by RA3.6B2 are a population distinct from T lymphocytes. F46A was shown to stain a sub-population of those cells stained with RA3.6B2. These antibodies may be useful in the identification of feline B lymphocytes using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry and thereby provide additional tools to study B lymphocyte ontogeny and the significance of lymphocyte phenotype in lymphoid neoplasia in cats. Images Figure 1. PMID:8809382

  13. Application of array CGH on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues including small numbers of microdissected cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicola A; Hamoudi, Rifat A; Ichimura, Koichi; Liu, Lu; Pearson, Danita M; Collins, V Peter; Du, Ming-Qing

    2006-09-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) has diverse applications in cancer gene discovery and translational research. Currently, aCGH is performed primarily using high molecular weight DNA samples and its application to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues remains to be established. To explore how aCGH can be reliably applied to archival FFPE tissues and whether it is possible to apply aCGH to small numbers of cells microdissected from FFPE tissue sections, we have systematically performed aCGH on 15 pairs of matched frozen and FFPE astrocytic tumour tissues using a well-established in-house human 1 Mb BAC/PAC genomic array. By spiking tumour DNA with normal DNA, we demonstrated that at least 70% of tumour DNA was required for reliable aCGH analysis. Using aCGH data from frozen tissue as a reference, it was found that only FFPE astrocytic tumour tissues that supported PCR amplification of >300 bp DNA fragment provided high quality, reproducible aCGH data. The presence of necrosis in a tissue specimen had an adverse effect on the quality of aCGH, while fixation in formalin for up to 96 h of fresh tissue did not appear to affect the quality of the result. As little as 10-20 ng DNA from frozen or FFPE tissues could be readily used for aCGH analysis following whole genome amplification (WGA). Furthermore, as few as 2000 microdissected cells from haematoxylin-stained slides of archival FFPE tissues could be successfully used for aCGH investigations when WGA was used. By careful assessment of DNA integrity and review of histology, to exclude necrosis and select specimens with a high proportion of tumour cells, it is feasible to preselect archival FFPE tissues adequate for aCGH analysis. With the help of microdissection and WGA, it is also possible to apply aCGH to histologically defined lesions, such as carcinoma in situ.

  14. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue epigenomics using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays.

    PubMed

    de Ruijter, Tim C; de Hoon, Joep P J; Slaats, Jeroen; de Vries, Bart; Janssen, Marjolein J F W; van Wezel, Tom; Aarts, Maureen J B; van Engeland, Manon; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Van Neste, Leander; Veeck, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Current genome-wide methods to detect DNA-methylation in healthy and diseased tissue require high-quality DNA from fresh-frozen (FF) samples. However, well-annotated clinical samples are mostly available as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues containing poor-quality DNA. To overcome this limitation, we here aimed to evaluate a DNA restoration protocol for usage with the genome-wide Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assay (HM-450K). Sixty-six DNA samples from normal colon (n=9) and breast cancer (n=11) were interrogated separately using HM-450K. Analyses included matched FF/FFPE samples and technical duplicates. FFPE DNA was processed with (FFPEr) or without a DNA restoration protocol (Illumina). Differentially methylated genes were finally validated in 24 additional FFPE tissues using nested methylation-specific PCR (MSP). In summary, β-values correlation between FFPEr duplicates was high (ρ=0.9927 (s.d. ±0.0015)). Matched FF/FFPEr correlation was also high (ρ=0.9590 (s.d. ±0.0184)) compared with matched FF/FFPE (ρ=0.8051 (s.d. ±0.1028). Probe detection rate in FFPEr samples (98.37%, s.d. ±0.66) was comparable to FF samples (99.98%, s.d. ±0.019) and substantially lower in FFPE samples (82.31%, s.d. ±18.65). Assay robustness was not decreased by sample archival age up to 10 years. We could also demonstrate no decrease in assay robustness when using 100 ng of DNA input only. Four out of the five selected differentially methylated genes could be validated by MSP. The gene failing validation by PCR showed high variation of CpG β-values in primer-binding sites. In conclusion, by using the FFPE DNA restoration protocol, HM-450K assays provide robust, accurate and reproducible results with FFPE tissue-derived DNA, which are comparable to those obtained with FF tissue. Most importantly, differentially methylated genes can be validated using more sensitive techniques, such as nested MSP, altogether providing an epigenomics platform for

  15. Comparison of gene expression profiling by reverse transcription quantitative PCR between fresh frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Navarro, Iker; Gámez-Pozo, Angelo; González-Barón, Manuel; Pinto-Marín, Alvaro; Hardisson, David; López, Rocío; Madero, Rosario; Cejas, Paloma; Mendiola, Marta; Espinosa, Enrique; Vara, Juan Angel Fresno

    2010-05-01

    Recent reports demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying gene expression by using RNA isolated from blocks of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue. The development of molecular tests for clinical use based on archival materials would be of great utility in the search for and validation of important genes or gene expression profiles. In this study, we compared the performance of different normalization strategies in the correlation of quantitative data between fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE samples and analyzed the parameters that characterize such correlation for each gene. Total RNA extracted from FFPE samples presented a shift in raw cycle threshold (Cq) values that can be explained by its extensive degradation. Proper normalization can compensate for the effects of RNA degradation in gene expression measurements. We show that correlation between normalized expression values is better for moderately to highly expressed genes whose expression varies significantly between samples. Nevertheless, some genes had no correlation. These genes should not be included in molecular tests for clinical use based on FFPE samples. Our results could serve as a guide when developing clinical diagnostic tests based on RT-qPCR analyses of FFPE tissues in the coming era of treatment decision-making based on gene expression profiling.

  16. Comparison of Five Commercial Nucleic Acid Extraction Kits for the PCR-based Detection of Burkholderia Pseudomallei DNA in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Obersteller, Sonja; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    The extraction and further processing of nucleic acids (NA) from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for microbiological diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches is challenging. Here, we assessed the effects of five different commercially available nucleic acid extraction kits on the results of real-time PCR. FFPE samples from organs of Burkholderia pseudomallei-infected Swiss mice were subjected to processing with five different extraction kits from QIAGEN (FFPE DNA Tissue Kit, EZ1 DNA Tissue Kit, DNA Mini Kit, DNA Blood Mini Kit, and FlexiGene DNA Kit) in combination with three different real-time PCRs targeting B. pseudomallei-specific sequences of varying length after 16 years of storage. The EZ1 DNA Tissue Kit and the DNA Mini Kit scored best regarding the numbers of successful PCR reactions. In case of positive PCR, differences regarding the cycle-threshold (Ct) values were marginal. The impact of the applied extraction kits on the reliability of PCR from FFPE material seems to be low. Interfering factors like the quality of the dewaxing procedure or the sample age appear more important than the selection of specialized FFPE kits. PMID:27766174

  17. Improved PCR amplification for molecular analysis using DNA from long-term preserved formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Taga, Masataka; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Shinohara, Tomoko; Takahashi, Keiko; Ito, Reiko; Yasui, Wataru; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hamatani, Kiyohiro

    2013-01-01

    Archival tissue specimens are valuable resources of materials for molecular biological analyses in retrospective studies, especially for rare diseases or those associated with exposure to uncommon environmental events. Although successful amplification with PCR is essential for analysis of DNA extracted from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, we have often encountered problems with poor PCR amplification of target fragments. To overcome this, we examined whether heat treatment in alkaline solution could efficiently restore the PCR template activity of DNA that had already been extracted from FFPE lung cancer tissue specimens. The effect of the heat treatment was assessed by PCR for the TP53 gene and other lung cancer-related gene loci. The heat treatment of DNA samples in borate buffer resulted in successful PCR amplification of DNA fragments ranging from 91 to 152 bp. This technique for restoration of template activity of DNA for PCR amplification is very simple and economical, and requires no special apparatus, so it may be applicable for molecular analysis of DNA samples from FFPE tissue specimens at various laboratories.

  18. Two methods for proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue result in differential protein identification, data quality, and cost.

    PubMed

    Luebker, Stephen A; Wojtkiewicz, Melinda; Koepsell, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a rich source of clinically relevant material that can yield important translational biomarker discovery using proteomic analysis. Protocols for analyzing FFPE tissue by LC-MS/MS exist, but standardization of procedures and critical analysis of data quality is limited. This study compared and characterized data obtained from FFPE tissue using two methods: a urea in-solution digestion method (UISD) versus a commercially available Qproteome FFPE Tissue Kit method (Qkit). Each method was performed independently three times on serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue to minimize pre-analytical variations and analyzed with three technical replicates by LC-MS/MS. Data were evaluated for reproducibility and physiochemical distribution, which highlighted differences in the ability of each method to identify proteins of different molecular weights and isoelectric points. Each method replicate resulted in a significant number of new protein identifications, and both methods identified significantly more proteins using three technical replicates as compared to only two. UISD was cheaper, required less time, and introduced significant protein modifications as compared to the Qkit method, which provided more precise and higher protein yields. These data highlight significant variability among method replicates and type of method used, despite minimizing pre-analytical variability. Utilization of only one method or too few replicates (both method and technical) may limit the subset of proteomic information obtained. PMID:26306679

  19. Influence of parasite density and sample storage time on the reliability of Entamoeba histolytica-specific PCR from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Frickmann, Hagen; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Eggert, Petra; Schwarz, Norbert G; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-12-01

    We report on the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in comparison with microscopy and have determined predictors that may influence PCR results. E. histolytica-specific and Entamoeba dispar-specific real-time PCR and microscopy from adjacent histologic sections were performed using a collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained from patients with invasive amebiasis. Specimens had been collected during the previous 4 decades. Association of sample age, parasite density, and reliability of PCR was analyzed. E. histolytica PCR was positive in 20 of 34 biopsies (58.8%); 2 of these 20 were microscopically negative for amebae in neighboring tissue sections. PCR was negative in 9 samples with visible amebae in neighboring sections and in 5 samples without visible parasites in neighboring sections. PCR was negative in all specimens that were older than 3 decades. Low parasite counts and sample ages older than 20 years were predictors for false-negative PCR results. All samples were negative for E. dispar DNA. PCR is suitable for the detection of E. histolytica in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples that are younger than 2 decades and that contain intermediate to high parasite numbers. Negative results in older samples were due to progressive degradation of DNA over time as indicated by control PCRs targeting the human 18S rRNA gene. Moreover, our findings support previous suggestions that only E. histolytica but not E. dispar is responsible for invasive amebiasis.

  20. Use of polymerase chain reaction in detection of Marek's disease and reticuloendotheliosis viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumorous tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weisheng; Mays, Jody; Dunn, John; Fulton, Richard; Silva, Robert; Fadly, Aly

    2013-12-01

    A simple PCR method was developed for the detection of Marek's disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and for the detection of MD in tissues only preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. MD virus (MDV) and RE virus proviral DNA were detected in FFPE tissues stored for over 20 yr. MDV was also detected in tissues only preserved in formalin for up to 6 mo. The data indicate that PCR of formalin-fixed and FFPE tissues is a simple and valuable tool that can be used to identify MD and RE infection. The method described in this paper is a good alternative to any biologic or immunohistochemical assay to confirm the detection of MD and RE, as it does not require shipping frozen tissues to the diagnostic laboratory.

  1. Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues (FFPE) as a Robust Source for the Profiling of Native and Protease-Generated Protein Amino Termini.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zon Weng; Weisser, Juliane; Nilse, Lars; Costa, Fabrizio; Keller, Eva; Tholen, Martina; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Biniossek, Martin; Bronsert, Peter; Schilling, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Dysregulated proteolysis represents a hallmark of numerous diseases. In recent years, increasing number of studies has begun looking at the protein termini in hope to unveil the physiological and pathological functions of proteases in clinical research. However, the availability of cryopreserved tissue specimens is often limited. Alternatively, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues offer an invaluable resource for clinical research. Pathologically relevant tissues are often stored as FFPE, which represent the most abundant resource of archived human specimens. In this study, we established a robust workflow to investigate native and protease-generated protein N termini from FFPE specimens. We demonstrate comparable N-terminomes of cryopreserved and formalin-fixed tissue, thereby showing that formalin fixation/paraffin embedment does not proteolytically damage proteins. Accordingly, FFPE specimens are fully amenable to N-terminal analysis. Moreover, we demonstrate feasibility of FFPE-degradomics in a quantitative N-terminomic study of FFPE liver specimens from cathepsin L deficient or wild-type mice. Using a machine learning approach in combination with the previously determined cathepsin L specificity, we successfully identify a number of potential cathepsin L cleavage sites. Our study establishes FFPE specimens as a valuable alternative to cryopreserved tissues for degradomic studies. PMID:27087653

  2. Genetic Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from a Large Number of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples of Human Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Sima; Torbaghan, Shams Shariat; Dabiri, Shahriar; Babaei, Zahra; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, presents an important medical and veterinary problem globally, including that in Iran. Different genotypes of E. granulosus have been reported from human isolates worldwide. This study identifies the genotype of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in three provinces of Iran using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. In this study, 200 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from human CE cases were collected from Alborz, Tehran, and Kerman provinces. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were performed for genetic characterization of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates from this study and reference sequences of different genotypes was done using a maximum likelihood method. In total, 54.4%, 0.8%, 1%, and 40.8% of the samples were identified as the G1, G2, G3, and G6 genotypes, respectively. The findings of the current study confirm the G1 genotype (sheep strain) to be the most prevalent genotype involved in human CE cases in Iran and indicates the high prevalence of the G6 genotype with a high infectivity for humans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the first documented human CE case in Iran infected with the G2 genotype. PMID:25535316

  3. Technical Reproducibility of Single-Nucleotide and Size-Based DNA Biomarker Assessment Using DNA Extracted from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shenli; Tan, Iain B.; Sapari, Nur S.; Grabsch, Heike I.; Okines, Alicia; Smyth, Elizabeth C.; Aoyama, Toru; Hewitt, Lindsay C.; Inam, Imran; Bottomley, Dan; Nankivell, Matthew; Stenning, Sally P.; Cunningham, David; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Tsuburaya, Akira; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Soong, Richie; Tan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues has been used in the past to analyze genetic polymorphisms. We evaluated the technical reproducibility of different types of assays for gene polymorphisms using DNA extracted from FFPE material. By using the MassARRAY iPLEX system, we investigated polymorphisms in DPYD (rs1801159 and rs3918290), UMPS (rs1801019), ERCC1 (rs11615), ERCC1 (rs3212986), and ERCC2 (rs13181) in 56 FFPE DNA samples. By using PCR, followed by size-based gel electrophoresis, we also examined TYMS 5′ untranslated region 2R/3R repeats and GSTT1 deletions in 50 FFPE DNA samples and 34 DNAs extracted from fresh-frozen tissues and cell lines. Each polymorphism was analyzed by two independent runs. We found that iPLEX biomarker assays measuring single-nucleotide polymorphisms provided consistent concordant results. However, by using FFPE DNA, size-based PCR biomarkers (GSTT1 and TYMS 5′ untranslated region) were discrepant in 32.7% (16/49, with exact 95% CI, 19.9%–47.5%; exact binomial confidence limit test) and 4.2% (2/48, with exact 95% CI, 0.5%–14.3%) of cases, respectively, whereas no discrepancies were observed using intact genomic DNA. Our findings suggest that DNA from FFPE material can be used to reliably test single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, results based on size-based PCR biomarkers, and particularly GSTT1 deletions, using FFPE DNA need to be interpreted with caution. Independent repeated assays should be performed on all cases to assess potential discrepancies. PMID:25746798

  4. Technical reproducibility of single-nucleotide and size-based DNA biomarker assessment using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenli; Tan, Iain B; Sapari, Nur S; Grabsch, Heike I; Okines, Alicia; Smyth, Elizabeth C; Aoyama, Toru; Hewitt, Lindsay C; Inam, Imran; Bottomley, Dan; Nankivell, Matthew; Stenning, Sally P; Cunningham, David; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Tsuburaya, Akira; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Soong, Richie; Tan, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues has been used in the past to analyze genetic polymorphisms. We evaluated the technical reproducibility of different types of assays for gene polymorphisms using DNA extracted from FFPE material. By using the MassARRAY iPLEX system, we investigated polymorphisms in DPYD (rs1801159 and rs3918290), UMPS (rs1801019), ERCC1 (rs11615), ERCC1 (rs3212986), and ERCC2 (rs13181) in 56 FFPE DNA samples. By using PCR, followed by size-based gel electrophoresis, we also examined TYMS 5' untranslated region 2R/3R repeats and GSTT1 deletions in 50 FFPE DNA samples and 34 DNAs extracted from fresh-frozen tissues and cell lines. Each polymorphism was analyzed by two independent runs. We found that iPLEX biomarker assays measuring single-nucleotide polymorphisms provided consistent concordant results. However, by using FFPE DNA, size-based PCR biomarkers (GSTT1 and TYMS 5' untranslated region) were discrepant in 32.7% (16/49, with exact 95% CI, 19.9%-47.5%; exact binomial confidence limit test) and 4.2% (2/48, with exact 95% CI, 0.5%-14.3%) of cases, respectively, whereas no discrepancies were observed using intact genomic DNA. Our findings suggest that DNA from FFPE material can be used to reliably test single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, results based on size-based PCR biomarkers, and particularly GSTT1 deletions, using FFPE DNA need to be interpreted with caution. Independent repeated assays should be performed on all cases to assess potential discrepancies.

  5. Revealing the Molecular Portrait of Triple Negative Breast Tumors in an Understudied Population through Omics Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Martínez, Hector Aquiles; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantú, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Durand, Geoffroy; Forey, Nathalie; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; McKay, James; Ardin, Maude; Villar, Stéphanie; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer that is more prevalent in certain populations, in particular in low- and middle-income regions. The detailed molecular features of TNBC in these regions remain unexplored as samples are mostly accessible as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archived tissues, a challenging material for advanced genomic and transcriptomic studies. Using dedicated reagents and analysis pipelines, we performed whole exome sequencing and miRNA and mRNA profiling of 12 FFPE tumor tissues collected from pathological archives in Mexico. Sequencing analyses of the tumor tissues and their blood pairs identified TP53 and RB1 genes as the most frequently mutated genes, with a somatic mutation load of 1.7 mutations/exome Mb on average. Transcriptional analyses revealed an overexpression of growth-promoting signals (EGFR, PDGFR, VEGF, PIK3CA, FOXM1), a repression of cell cycle control pathways (TP53, RB1), a deregulation of DNA-repair pathways, and alterations in epigenetic modifiers through miRNA:mRNA network de-regulation. The molecular programs identified were typical of those described in basal-like tumors in other populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using archived clinical samples for advanced integrated genomics analyses. It thus opens up opportunities for investigating molecular features of tumors from regions where only FFPE tissues are available, allowing retrospective studies on the search for treatment strategies or on the exploration of the geographic diversity of breast cancer. PMID:25961742

  6. Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of Merkel cell carcinoma and correlation with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Andea, Aleodor A; Patel, Raj; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Isayeva, Tatyana; Kumar, Sanjay; Siegal, Gene P

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, but highly aggressive primary cutaneous malignancy, showing neuroendocrine differentiation. In 2008, a novel member of the polyomavirus family, named Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was identified in the genome of MCC tumors raising the possibility of an involvement in its pathogenesis. Due to the rarity of this tumor and current pathology practices, the most readily available tissue is archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material. In this study, we evaluated the presence of MCPyV in FFPE tissue and correlated its presence with tumor progression. Representative FFPE specimens from 18 tumors belonging to 14 patients with a diagnosis of MCC spanning the period from 2003 to 2008 were retrieved. Following DNA extraction, we performed PCR amplification and sequencing with four different MCPyV-specific primer pairs mapping within the T antigen and VP1 region. Overall, we detected MCPyV amplicons in 8/18 (44.4%) analyzed tumors from 7/14 (50%) cases. Two-year survival rate and median survival for the MCPyV-positive MCCs were 48% and 22.5 months, respectively and for the negative ones 69% and 51.3 months, respectively; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.8). There was no significant correlation between the presence of the virus and the stage at presentation; however, tumors in the head and neck area had a lower frequency of viral positivity compared to those arising in the extremities suggesting a MCPyV-independent oncogenetic pathway perhaps, dependent on UV exposure, in a subset of these cases.

  7. Multi-center evaluation of the novel fully-automated PCR-based Idylla™ BRAF Mutation Test on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Linea; Grauslund, Morten; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Montagut, Clara; Torres, Erica; Moragón, Ester; Micalessi, Isabel; Frans, Johan; Noten, Veerle; Bourgain, Claire; Vriesema, Renske; van der Geize, Robert; Cokelaere, Kristof; Vercooren, Nancy; Crul, Katrien; Rüdiger, Thomas; Buchmüller, Diana; Reijans, Martin; Jans, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The advent of BRAF-targeted therapies led to increased survival in patients with metastatic melanomas harboring a BRAF V600 mutation (implicated in 46-48% of malignant melanomas). The Idylla(™) System (Idylla(™)), i.e., the real-time-PCR-based Idylla(™) BRAF Mutation Test performed on the fully-automated Idylla(™) platform, enables detection of the most frequent BRAF V600 mutations (V600E/E2/D, V600K/R/M) in tumor material within approximately 90 min and with 1% detection limit. Idylla(™) performance was determined in a multi-center study by analyzing BRAF mutational status of 148 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from malignant melanoma patients, and comparing Idylla(™) results with assessments made by commercial or in-house routine diagnostic methods. Of the 148 samples analyzed, Idylla(™) initially recorded 7 insufficient DNA input calls and 15 results discordant with routine method results. Further analysis learned that the quality of 8 samples was insufficient for Idylla(™) testing, 1 sample had an invalid routine test result, and Idylla(™) results were confirmed in 10 samples. Hence, Idylla(™) identified all mutations present, including 7 not identified by routine methods. Idylla(™) enables fully automated BRAF V600 testing directly on FFPE tumor tissue with increased sensitivity, ease-of-use, and much shorter turnaround time compared to existing diagnostic tests, making it a tool for rapid, simple and highly reliable analysis of therapeutically relevant BRAF mutations, in particular for diagnostic units without molecular expertise and infrastructure.

  8. Revealing the Molecular Portrait of Triple Negative Breast Tumors in an Understudied Population through Omics Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Martínez, Hector Aquiles; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantú, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Durand, Geoffroy; Forey, Nathalie; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; McKay, James; Ardin, Maude; Villar, Stéphanie; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer that is more prevalent in certain populations, in particular in low- and middle-income regions. The detailed molecular features of TNBC in these regions remain unexplored as samples are mostly accessible as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archived tissues, a challenging material for advanced genomic and transcriptomic studies. Using dedicated reagents and analysis pipelines, we performed whole exome sequencing and miRNA and mRNA profiling of 12 FFPE tumor tissues collected from pathological archives in Mexico. Sequencing analyses of the tumor tissues and their blood pairs identified TP53 and RB1 genes as the most frequently mutated genes, with a somatic mutation load of 1.7 mutations/exome Mb on average. Transcriptional analyses revealed an overexpression of growth-promoting signals (EGFR, PDGFR, VEGF, PIK3CA, FOXM1), a repression of cell cycle control pathways (TP53, RB1), a deregulation of DNA-repair pathways, and alterations in epigenetic modifiers through miRNA:mRNA network de-regulation. The molecular programs identified were typical of those described in basal-like tumors in other populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using archived clinical samples for advanced integrated genomics analyses. It thus opens up opportunities for investigating molecular features of tumors from regions where only FFPE tissues are available, allowing retrospective studies on the search for treatment strategies or on the exploration of the geographic diversity of breast cancer.

  9. Multi-center evaluation of the novel fully-automated PCR-based Idylla™ BRAF Mutation Test on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Linea; Grauslund, Morten; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Montagut, Clara; Torres, Erica; Moragón, Ester; Micalessi, Isabel; Frans, Johan; Noten, Veerle; Bourgain, Claire; Vriesema, Renske; van der Geize, Robert; Cokelaere, Kristof; Vercooren, Nancy; Crul, Katrien; Rüdiger, Thomas; Buchmüller, Diana; Reijans, Martin; Jans, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The advent of BRAF-targeted therapies led to increased survival in patients with metastatic melanomas harboring a BRAF V600 mutation (implicated in 46-48% of malignant melanomas). The Idylla(™) System (Idylla(™)), i.e., the real-time-PCR-based Idylla(™) BRAF Mutation Test performed on the fully-automated Idylla(™) platform, enables detection of the most frequent BRAF V600 mutations (V600E/E2/D, V600K/R/M) in tumor material within approximately 90 min and with 1% detection limit. Idylla(™) performance was determined in a multi-center study by analyzing BRAF mutational status of 148 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from malignant melanoma patients, and comparing Idylla(™) results with assessments made by commercial or in-house routine diagnostic methods. Of the 148 samples analyzed, Idylla(™) initially recorded 7 insufficient DNA input calls and 15 results discordant with routine method results. Further analysis learned that the quality of 8 samples was insufficient for Idylla(™) testing, 1 sample had an invalid routine test result, and Idylla(™) results were confirmed in 10 samples. Hence, Idylla(™) identified all mutations present, including 7 not identified by routine methods. Idylla(™) enables fully automated BRAF V600 testing directly on FFPE tumor tissue with increased sensitivity, ease-of-use, and much shorter turnaround time compared to existing diagnostic tests, making it a tool for rapid, simple and highly reliable analysis of therapeutically relevant BRAF mutations, in particular for diagnostic units without molecular expertise and infrastructure. PMID:26407762

  10. The Importance of Reference Gene Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples from Sarcoma Patients — An Often Underestimated Problem12

    PubMed Central

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Safwat, Akmal; Bærentzen, Steen; Nordsmark, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Brita S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is efficient for quantification of gene expression, but the choice of reference genes is of paramount importance as it is essential for correct interpretation of data. This is complicated by the fact that the materials often available are routinely collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples in which the mRNA is known to be highly degraded. The purpose of this study was to investigate 22 potential reference genes in sarcoma FFPE samples and to study the variation in expression level within different samples taken from the same tumor and between different histologic types. Methods: Twenty-nine patients treated for sarcoma were enrolled. The samples encompassed 82 (FFPE) specimens. Extraction of total RNA from 7-μm FFPE sections was performed using a fully automated, bead-base RNA isolation procedure, and 22 potential reference genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stability of the genes was analyzed by RealTime Statminer. The intrasamples variation and the interclass correlation coefficients were calculated. The linear regression model was used to calculate the degradation of the mRNA over time. Results: The quality of RNA was sufficient for analysis in 84% of the samples. Recommended reference genes differed with histologic types. However, PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 were stably expressed regardless of the histologic type included. The variation in ∆Cq value for samples from the same patients was similar to the variation between patients. It was possible to compensate for the time-dependent degradation of the mRNA when normalization was made using the selected reference genes. Conclusion: PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 are suitable reference genes for normalization in gene expression studies of FFPE samples from sarcoma regardless of the histology. PMID:25500077

  11. Revealing the Molecular Portrait of Triple Negative Breast Tumors in an Understudied Population through Omics Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Martínez, Hector Aquiles; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantú, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Durand, Geoffroy; Forey, Nathalie; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; McKay, James; Ardin, Maude; Villar, Stéphanie; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer that is more prevalent in certain populations, in particular in low- and middle-income regions. The detailed molecular features of TNBC in these regions remain unexplored as samples are mostly accessible as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archived tissues, a challenging material for advanced genomic and transcriptomic studies. Using dedicated reagents and analysis pipelines, we performed whole exome sequencing and miRNA and mRNA profiling of 12 FFPE tumor tissues collected from pathological archives in Mexico. Sequencing analyses of the tumor tissues and their blood pairs identified TP53 and RB1 genes as the most frequently mutated genes, with a somatic mutation load of 1.7 mutations/exome Mb on average. Transcriptional analyses revealed an overexpression of growth-promoting signals (EGFR, PDGFR, VEGF, PIK3CA, FOXM1), a repression of cell cycle control pathways (TP53, RB1), a deregulation of DNA-repair pathways, and alterations in epigenetic modifiers through miRNA:mRNA network de-regulation. The molecular programs identified were typical of those described in basal-like tumors in other populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using archived clinical samples for advanced integrated genomics analyses. It thus opens up opportunities for investigating molecular features of tumors from regions where only FFPE tissues are available, allowing retrospective studies on the search for treatment strategies or on the exploration of the geographic diversity of breast cancer. PMID:25961742

  12. Feasibility of archival non-buffered formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues for PCR amplification: an analysis of resected gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Nabeshima, K; Kataoka, H; Koono, M

    1996-12-01

    Although several factors affecting the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from formalin-fixed tissues have been investigated mostly by experiments, the feasibility of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples stored in pathology departments for PCR amplification has rarely been examined directly. Thus, the feasibility of 74 archival unbuffered 10% formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for PCR amplification with primers producing a 190 b.p. DNA segment of p53 exon 5 was investigated. Fixation time was the critical factor influencing the sensitivity of PCR amplification. All (6/6) of the samples fixed for only 1 day, 44% (7/16) of the samples fixed for 2-3 days and 14% (4/28) of the samples fixed for 4-6 days showed successful amplification, while no amplification was obtained for the samples fixed for 7 days or more. The peak size of DNA extracted from the archival tissues decreased as the fixation time became longer. Experiments using xenografted tumor tissues fixed for various times showed longer permissible fixation time; up to 9 days of fixation, decreasing amounts of PCR products were obtained while no amplification was obtained for the samples fixed for 12 days or more. The time in paraffin seemed to be a minor factor for PCR amplification since all of the 1 day fixation samples, including those that had been embedded for up to 5 years, resulted in efficient amplification. The size of the amplified DNA segments, however, could be another factor influencing the sensitivity of amplification because even the 1 day fixation samples showed less amplification of 345 b.p. DNA compared with those of 167 and 262 b.p. DNA. Additionally, a point mutation was detected in the amplified p53 products from archival tissues using a non-isotopic method, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, archival tissue samples that had been fixed immediately for only up to 1 day were constantly available for PCR amplification

  13. PCR-Based Diagnosis of Naegleria sp. Infection in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Brain Sections▿

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Marc; Gianinazzi, Christian; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We developed a real-time PCR which allowed the highly sensitive detection of Naegleria fowleri in histological brain tissue sections from experimentally infected mice. This genus-specific small-subunit (18S) rRNA gene-based PCR can complement conventional (immuno-) histology for the diagnosis of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in paraffin-embedded brain necropsy specimens that had been fixed in formalin buffered with phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:17121998

  14. The comparison of methods to identify the presence of fibrocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival cardiac tissue with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pu-Ping; Shuai, Qun; Wang, Shang-Wen; Tao, Si-Ming; Qu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Dian-Hua

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal technical approach to identify the presence of fibrocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival cardiac tissue with CHD (coronary heart disease). Using the coexpression markers CD45 and αSMA, the presence of fibrocytes was examined by three different methods, including double immunohistochemistry staining, combination labeling of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and double immunofluorescence labeling. Double immunohistochemistry staining was very difficult to identify the CD45(+)/αSMA(+) fibrocytes. Although combination staining of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence has made it possible to evaluate the co-localization of CD45 and αSMA in the fibrocytes, this method was prone to produce many false positive cells. In contrast, CD45(+)/αSMA(+) fibrocytes could be clearly recognized by double immunofluorescence labeling. In conclusion, double immunofluorescence labeling is the optimal technical approach to identify the presence of fibrocytes in routinely processed cardiac tissue with CHD.

  15. High-Throughput Amplicon-Based Copy Number Detection of 11 Genes in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Ovarian Tumour Samples by MLPA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Kondrashova, Olga; Love, Clare J; Lunke, Sebastian; Hsu, Arthur L; Waring, Paul M; Taylor, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    Whilst next generation sequencing can report point mutations in fixed tissue tumour samples reliably, the accurate determination of copy number is more challenging. The conventional Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay is an effective tool for measurement of gene dosage, but is restricted to around 50 targets due to size resolution of the MLPA probes. By switching from a size-resolved format, to a sequence-resolved format we developed a scalable, high-throughput, quantitative assay. MLPA-seq is capable of detecting deletions, duplications, and amplifications in as little as 5ng of genomic DNA, including from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples. We show that this method can detect BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2 and CCNE1 copy number changes in DNA extracted from snap-frozen and FFPE tumour tissue, with 100% sensitivity and >99.5% specificity.

  16. High-Throughput Amplicon-Based Copy Number Detection of 11 Genes in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Ovarian Tumour Samples by MLPA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Kondrashova, Olga; Love, Clare J; Lunke, Sebastian; Hsu, Arthur L; Waring, Paul M; Taylor, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    Whilst next generation sequencing can report point mutations in fixed tissue tumour samples reliably, the accurate determination of copy number is more challenging. The conventional Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay is an effective tool for measurement of gene dosage, but is restricted to around 50 targets due to size resolution of the MLPA probes. By switching from a size-resolved format, to a sequence-resolved format we developed a scalable, high-throughput, quantitative assay. MLPA-seq is capable of detecting deletions, duplications, and amplifications in as little as 5ng of genomic DNA, including from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples. We show that this method can detect BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2 and CCNE1 copy number changes in DNA extracted from snap-frozen and FFPE tumour tissue, with 100% sensitivity and >99.5% specificity. PMID:26569395

  17. High-Throughput Amplicon-Based Copy Number Detection of 11 Genes in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Ovarian Tumour Samples by MLPA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashova, Olga; Love, Clare J.; Lunke, Sebastian; Hsu, Arthur L.; Waring, Paul M.; Taylor, Graham R.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst next generation sequencing can report point mutations in fixed tissue tumour samples reliably, the accurate determination of copy number is more challenging. The conventional Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay is an effective tool for measurement of gene dosage, but is restricted to around 50 targets due to size resolution of the MLPA probes. By switching from a size-resolved format, to a sequence-resolved format we developed a scalable, high-throughput, quantitative assay. MLPA-seq is capable of detecting deletions, duplications, and amplifications in as little as 5ng of genomic DNA, including from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples. We show that this method can detect BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2 and CCNE1 copy number changes in DNA extracted from snap-frozen and FFPE tumour tissue, with 100% sensitivity and >99.5% specificity. PMID:26569395

  18. Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Specimens with the HPV Direct Flow CHIP System

    PubMed Central

    Herraez-Hernandez, Elsa; Preda, Ovidiu; Alonso, Sonia; Pardo, Rosario Serrano; Olmo, Asuncion

    2013-01-01

    The novel HPV Direct Flow CHIP commercial system for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is based on rapid PCR and automatic reverse dot blot hybridization to genotype-specific probes, allowing the detection of 36 HPV genotypes. This study examined the performance of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (n= 99). Each sample was analyzed both by Direct PCR, using crude cell extracts without DNA purification, and by conventional PCR, using purified DNA. Pair-wise analysis of the results demonstrated strong concordance between the results obtained with the two protocols, although a slightly higher rate of multiple infections was detected by conventional PCR. In summary, HPV Direct Flow CHIP achieves effective HPV detection from FFPE samples with both Direct PCR and Conventional PCR protocols. PMID:24222806

  19. Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in formalin fixed paraffin embedded biopsies in Malaysian non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are reportedly associated with various responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving the anti-EGFR agents. Detection of the mutation therefore plays an important role in therapeutic decision making. The aim of this study was to detect EGFR mutations in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples using both Scorpion ARMS and high resolution melt (HRM) assay, and to compare the sensitivity of these methods. Results All of the mutations were found in adenocarcinoma, except one that was in squamous cell carcinoma. The mutation rate was 45.7% (221/484). Complex mutations were also observed, wherein 8 tumours carried 2 mutations and 1 tumour carried 3 mutations. Conclusions Both methods detected EGFR mutations in FFPE samples. HRM assays gave more EGFR positive results compared to Scorpion ARMS. PMID:23590575

  20. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus antigen and genomic DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from an Egyptian outbreak in 2006.

    PubMed

    Awadin, W; Hussein, H; Elseady, Y; Babiuk, S; Furuoka, H

    2011-10-01

    An outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) was reported in 2006 in Egypt affecting 16 provinces. Biopsies and post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves that showed typical clinical signs of LSD and fixed in formalin. These samples were collected from a private dairy farm in the Damietta province of Egypt. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were assessed using histology, and skin lesions were classified as either acute or subacute/chronic. Both lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction and LSDV antigen detected by immunohistochemistry using a capripoxvirus-specific monoclonal antibody were observed in the acute skin lesions and in some subacute/chronic skin lesions. PMID:21699673

  1. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drug Related Crystal-Like Structures in Formalin-Fixed Frozen and Paraffin-Embedded Rabbit Kidney Tissue Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinen, Anne L.; van Oevelen, Cateau; Eijkel, Gert B.; Van Heerden, Marjolein; Cuyckens, Filip; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2016-01-01

    A multimodal mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) based approach was used to characterize the molecular content of crystal-like structures in a frozen and paraffin embedded piece of a formalin-fixed rabbit kidney. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging were combined to analyze the frozen and paraffin embedded sample without further preparation steps to remove the paraffin. The investigated rabbit kidney was part of a study on a drug compound in development, in which severe renal toxicity was observed in dosed rabbits. Histological examination of the kidney showed tubular degeneration with precipitation of crystal-like structures in the cortex, which were assumed to cause the renal toxicity. The MS imaging approach was used to find out whether the crystal-like structures were composed of the drug compound, metabolites, or an endogenous compound as a reaction to the drug administration. The generated MALDI-MSI data were analyzed using principal component analysis. In combination with the MS/MS results, this way of data processing demonstrates that the crystal structures were mainly composed of metabolites and relatively little parent drug.

  2. Use of softening agents to improve the production of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of nail tissue: an assessment.

    PubMed

    Orchard, G E; Torres, J; Sounthararajah, R

    2008-01-01

    The use of tissue softeners to enhance the quality of tissue sections of heavily keratotic tissue is not widely published. There are very few indicators in the scientific literature that attempt to compare and contrast the benefits and disadvantages of such techniques, as most are passed down through word of mouth rather than through published data. This study attempts to present a preliminary evaluation of several methods employing tissue softeners to facilitate the preparation of reproducible, good-quality formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of nail tissue. A standard 10-minute surface application of each softener is employed for all paraffin-embedded tissue in order to ensure consistency. The results show that the use of Veet (hair remover), Fairy Liquid or fabric conditioner provides the most beneficial results. Thus, widely available products can be used in preference to specific commercially produced reagents that have no clear benefits and can cost considerably more to purchase. This study will form the basis of a more in-depth evaluation of the most beneficial softeners, in an attempt to determine optimal parameters for their use in routine histopathology laboratories. PMID:19055107

  3. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative method for the detection of HER-2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Pu, Tianjie; Guo, Peng; Qiu, Yan; Chen, Shinan; Yang, Libo; Sun, Linyong; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the most common methods that are used to quantify HER-2 gene and protein levels, respectively, in human breast cancer. However, due to bad sample quality, some samples are unable to be subjected to a FISH assay. We evaluated 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), IHC, and FISH. We also performed qPCR and FISH assays on delayed formalin-fixed (DDF) samples. The qPCR results were in complete concordance with the results of IHC and FISH. In regards to the DDF samples, the HER-2 fluorescent signal seemed decayed compared with that of the DDF samples after 1 h. However, the qPCR method still works well up to 12 hours. Our results indicated that qPCR was obviously superior to FISH in cases that were not fixed in a reasonable amount of time. However, qPCR can be an alternative method by which to perform HER2 amplification assays in breast cancer.

  4. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry profiling of N-glycans in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded clinical tissue blocks and tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Powers, Thomas W; Neely, Benjamin A; Shao, Yuan; Tang, Huiyuan; Troyer, Dean A; Mehta, Anand S; Haab, Brian B; Drake, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) method to spatially profile the location and distribution of multiple N-linked glycan species in frozen tissues has been extended and improved for the direct analysis of glycans in clinically derived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Formalin-fixed tissues from normal mouse kidney, human pancreatic and prostate cancers, and a human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue microarray were processed by antigen retrieval followed by on-tissue digestion with peptide N-glycosidase F. The released N-glycans were detected by MALDI-IMS analysis, and the structural composition of a subset of glycans could be verified directly by on-tissue collision-induced fragmentation. Other structural assignments were confirmed by off-tissue permethylation analysis combined with multiple database comparisons. Imaging of mouse kidney tissue sections demonstrates specific tissue distributions of major cellular N-linked glycoforms in the cortex and medulla. Differential tissue distribution of N-linked glycoforms was also observed in the other tissue types. The efficacy of using MALDI-IMS glycan profiling to distinguish tumor from non-tumor tissues in a tumor microarray format is also demonstrated. This MALDI-IMS workflow has the potential to be applied to any FFPE tissue block or tissue microarray to enable higher throughput analysis of the global changes in N-glycosylation associated with cancers.

  5. Effective DNA/RNA Co-Extraction for Analysis of MicroRNAs, mRNAs, and Genomic DNA from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Christina; Lin, Juan; Ye, Kenny; Kim, Ryung; Hazan, Rachel; Rohan, Thomas; Fineberg, Susan; Loudig, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrospective studies of archived human specimens, with known clinical follow-up, are used to identify predictive and prognostic molecular markers of disease. Due to biochemical differences, however, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) DNA and RNA have generally been extracted separately from either different tissue sections or from the same section by dividing the digested tissue. The former limits accurate correlation whilst the latter is impractical when utilizing rare or limited archived specimens. Principal Findings For effective recovery of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen, without splitting the proteinase-K digested tissue solution, we optimized a co-extraction method by using TRIzol and purifying DNA from the lower aqueous and RNA from the upper organic phases. Using a series of seven different archived specimens, we evaluated the total amounts of genomic DNA and total RNA recovered by our TRIzol-based co-extraction method and compared our results with those from two commercial kits, the Qiagen AllPrep DNA/RNA FFPE kit, for co-extraction, and the Ambion RecoverAll™ Total Nucleic Acid Isolation kit, for separate extraction of FFPE-DNA and -RNA. Then, to accurately assess the quality of DNA and RNA co-extracted from a single FFPE specimen, we used qRT-PCR, gene expression profiling and methylation assays to analyze microRNAs, mRNAs, and genomic DNA recovered from matched fresh and FFPE MCF10A cells. These experiments show that the TRIzol-based co-extraction method provides larger amounts of FFPE-DNA and –RNA than the two other methods, and particularly provides higher quality microRNAs and genomic DNA for subsequent molecular analyses. Significance We determined that co-extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen is an effective recovery approach to obtain high-quality material for parallel molecular and high-throughput analyses. Our optimized approach provides the option of collecting DNA, which

  6. Transcriptome Sequencing (RNAseq) Enables Utilization of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Biopsies with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma for Exploration of Disease Biology and Biomarker Development.

    PubMed

    Eikrem, Oystein; Beisland, Christian; Hjelle, Karin; Flatberg, Arnar; Scherer, Andreas; Landolt, Lea; Skogstrand, Trude; Leh, Sabine; Beisvag, Vidar; Marti, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an underused resource for molecular analyses. This proof of concept study aimed to compare RNAseq results from FFPE biopsies with the corresponding RNAlater® (Qiagen, Germany) stored samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients to investigate feasibility of RNAseq in archival tissue. From each of 16 patients undergoing partial or full nephrectomy, four core biopsies, such as two specimens with ccRCC and two specimens of adjacent normal tissue, were obtained with a 16g needle. One normal and one ccRCC tissue specimen per patient was stored either in FFPE or RNAlater®. RNA sequencing libraries were generated applying the new Illumina TruSeq® Access library preparation protocol. Comparative analysis was done using voom/Limma R-package. The analysis of the FFPE and RNAlater® datasets yielded similar numbers of detected genes, differentially expressed transcripts and affected pathways. The FFPE and RNAlater datasets shared 80% (n = 1106) differentially expressed genes. The average expression and the log2 fold changes of these transcripts correlated with R2 = 0.97, and R2 = 0.96, respectively. Among transcripts with the highest fold changes in both datasets were carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), neuronal pentraxin-2 (NPTX2) and uromodulin (UMOD) that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. IPA revealed the presence of gene signatures of cancer and nephrotoxicity, renal damage and immune response. To simulate the feasibility of clinical biomarker studies with FFPE samples, a classifier model was developed for the FFPE dataset: expression data for CA9 alone had an accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of 94%, respectively, and achieved similar performance in the RNAlater dataset. Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGFB1)-regulated genes, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and NOTCH signaling cascade may support novel therapeutic strategies. In conclusion, in this proof of concept study, RNAseq data

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing (RNAseq) Enables Utilization of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Biopsies with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma for Exploration of Disease Biology and Biomarker Development

    PubMed Central

    Eikrem, Oystein; Beisland, Christian; Hjelle, Karin; Flatberg, Arnar; Scherer, Andreas; Landolt, Lea; Skogstrand, Trude; Leh, Sabine; Beisvag, Vidar; Marti, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an underused resource for molecular analyses. This proof of concept study aimed to compare RNAseq results from FFPE biopsies with the corresponding RNAlater® (Qiagen, Germany) stored samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients to investigate feasibility of RNAseq in archival tissue. From each of 16 patients undergoing partial or full nephrectomy, four core biopsies, such as two specimens with ccRCC and two specimens of adjacent normal tissue, were obtained with a 16g needle. One normal and one ccRCC tissue specimen per patient was stored either in FFPE or RNAlater®. RNA sequencing libraries were generated applying the new Illumina TruSeq® Access library preparation protocol. Comparative analysis was done using voom/Limma R-package. The analysis of the FFPE and RNAlater® datasets yielded similar numbers of detected genes, differentially expressed transcripts and affected pathways. The FFPE and RNAlater datasets shared 80% (n = 1106) differentially expressed genes. The average expression and the log2 fold changes of these transcripts correlated with R2 = 0.97, and R2 = 0.96, respectively. Among transcripts with the highest fold changes in both datasets were carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), neuronal pentraxin-2 (NPTX2) and uromodulin (UMOD) that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. IPA revealed the presence of gene signatures of cancer and nephrotoxicity, renal damage and immune response. To simulate the feasibility of clinical biomarker studies with FFPE samples, a classifier model was developed for the FFPE dataset: expression data for CA9 alone had an accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of 94%, respectively, and achieved similar performance in the RNAlater dataset. Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGFB1)-regulated genes, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and NOTCH signaling cascade may support novel therapeutic strategies. In conclusion, in this proof of concept study, RNAseq data

  8. Development of a robust protocol for gene expression analysis using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver transplant biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Emily; Burt, Alastair D; Barker, Catriona E; Kirby, John A; Brain, John G

    2013-09-01

    Liver transplant biopsies are routinely archived following formalin fixation and paraffin embedding and may provide an additional source of diagnostic information following transcriptomic biomarker analysis. This study was designed to compare gene transcription between resting and stressed biliary cells in culture, these cells after fixation and embedding and archival liver transplant biopsy tissue. The transcription of p21/WAF1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 showed similar changes in the fresh and embedded liver cells. However, the expression of TGF-β2 was markedly different between the fresh and embedded samples, suggesting that fixation can produce sequence-specific artefacts. Sufficient quantities of pure RNA were recovered from all the liver transplant biopsies to allow complementary DNA production. Measurement of the transcription of all three genes showed variability between the cases. Although the results for individual transcripts should be interpreted with care, these data do suggest the feasibility of performing a larger biomarker discovery studies using archival tissue.

  9. Comparison of Different Buffers for Protein Extraction from Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Specimens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kaini; Sun, Jian; Cao, Xinxin; Zhou, Daobin; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We determined the best extraction buffer for proteomic investigation using formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. A Zwittergent 3-16 based buffer, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-containing buffer with/without polyethylene glycol 20000 (PEG20000), urea-containing buffer, and FFPE-FASP protein preparation kit were compared for protein extraction from different types of rat FFPE tissues, including the heart, brain, liver, lung, and kidney. All of the samples were divided into two groups of laser microdissected (LMD) and non-LMD specimens. For both kinds of specimens, Zwittergent was the most efficient buffer for identifying peptides and proteins, was broadly applicable to different tissues without impairing the enzymatic digestion, and was well compatible with mass spectrometry analysis. As a high molecular weight carrier substance, PEG20000 improved the identification of peptides and proteins; however, such an advantage is limited to tissues containing submicrograms to micrograms of protein. Considering its low lytic strength, urea-containing buffer would not be the first alternative for protein recovery. In conclusion, Zwittergent 3-16 is an effective buffer for extracting proteins from FFPE specimens for downstream proteomics analysis.

  10. Comparison of Different Buffers for Protein Extraction from Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Specimens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kaini; Sun, Jian; Cao, Xinxin; Zhou, Daobin; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We determined the best extraction buffer for proteomic investigation using formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. A Zwittergent 3-16 based buffer, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-containing buffer with/without polyethylene glycol 20000 (PEG20000), urea-containing buffer, and FFPE-FASP protein preparation kit were compared for protein extraction from different types of rat FFPE tissues, including the heart, brain, liver, lung, and kidney. All of the samples were divided into two groups of laser microdissected (LMD) and non-LMD specimens. For both kinds of specimens, Zwittergent was the most efficient buffer for identifying peptides and proteins, was broadly applicable to different tissues without impairing the enzymatic digestion, and was well compatible with mass spectrometry analysis. As a high molecular weight carrier substance, PEG20000 improved the identification of peptides and proteins; however, such an advantage is limited to tissues containing submicrograms to micrograms of protein. Considering its low lytic strength, urea-containing buffer would not be the first alternative for protein recovery. In conclusion, Zwittergent 3-16 is an effective buffer for extracting proteins from FFPE specimens for downstream proteomics analysis. PMID:26580073

  11. The effect of aging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues on the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry signals in cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Nuovo, Allison J; Garofalo, Michela; Mikhail, Alexandria; Nicol, Alcina F; Vianna-Andrade, Cecilia; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2013-09-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are widely used in biomedical research but little is known about the effect of the age of the block or unstained slides on the in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry signal. We compared the in situ-based and immunohistochemistry-based signals for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples that ranged from 0 to 15 years of age. There was a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the strength of the p16 signal when comparing tissues prepared from recent unstained slides (0 to 1 y old, mean score of 92%) to those of intermediate age (5 to 7 y old, mean score of 49%) to old unstained slides (cut 13 to 15 y ago, mean score of 10%). Equivalent, progressive, and significant decreases in the intensity of the signals for microRNAs, CD45, and human papillomavirus DNA were seen in tissues stored on slides from 5 to 7 years and 13 to 15 years, respectively. However, the diminution of signal was much less, although still statistically significant, if the sections from the 13- to 15-year-old paraffin blocks were prepared in 2012. The data likely does not represent degradation of the targets as extraction of several microRNA from the old blocks showed no detectable degradation, despite the markedly weakened in situ hybridization signal. It is concluded that in situ-based signal for DNA, microRNAs, and proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues are significantly reduced over time, especially when stored long term on glass slides which, in turn, can lead to a significant underestimation of the amount and presence of the nucleic acid or protein target.

  12. Profiling signalling pathways in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues reveals cross-talk between EGFR, HER2, HER3 and uPAR.

    PubMed

    Berg, Daniela; Wolff, Claudia; Malinowsky, Katharina; Tran, Kai; Walch, Axel; Bronger, Holger; Schuster, Tibor; Höfler, Heinz; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, new approaches and developments in patient-tailored cancer therapies have raised the need to select, more precisely, those patients who will respond to personalized treatments. Therefore, the most efficient way for optimal therapy and patient selection is to provide a tumour-specific protein network portrait prior to treatment. The aim of our study was to monitor protein networks in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissues, with special emphasis on epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mediated signalling pathways, to identify and validate new disease markers. For this purpose we used a recently developed technology to extract full-length proteins from FFPE tissues and analysed 23 molecules involved in HER2-related signalling by reverse phase protein microarray (RPPA) in a series of 106 FFPE breast cancer tissue samples. We found a significant correlation of HER2 with human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3/erbB3), epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR/HER1/erbB1) and urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) in routinely used FFPE breast cancer tissues. Thus, targeting HER2, EGFR, HER3 and uPAR together may offer a more efficient treatment option for patients with breast cancer.

  13. The efficacy of uracil DNA glycosylase pretreatment in amplicon-based massively parallel sequencing with DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded esophageal cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Masakuni; Yokota, Tomoya; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Takashi; Koh, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Advances in mutation testing for molecular-targeted cancer therapies have led to the increased use of archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors. However, DNA extracted from FFPE tumors (FFPE DNA) is problematic for mutation testing, especially for amplicon-based massively parallel sequencing (MPS), owing to DNA fragmentation and artificial C:G > T:A single nucleotide variants (SNVs) caused by deamination of cytosine to uracil. Therefore, to reduce artificial C:G > T:A SNVs in amplicon-based MPS using FFPE DNA, we evaluated the efficacy of uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) pretreatment, which can eliminate uracil-containing DNA molecules, with 126 archived FFPE esophageal cancer specimens. We also examined the association between the frequency of C:G > T:A SNVs and DNA quality, as assessed by a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay. UDG pretreatment significantly lowered the frequency of C:G > T:A SNVs in highly fragmented DNA (by approximately 60%). This effect was not observed for good- to moderate-quality DNA, suggesting that a predictive assay (i.e., DNA quality assessment) needs to be performed prior to UDG pretreatment. These results suggest that UDG pretreatment is efficacious for mutation testing by amplicon-based MPS with fragmented DNA from FFPE samples.

  14. Detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using conventional PCR and heteroduplex/amplicon size differences.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Kathy A; Wang, Vivien; Weissman, Scott M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Kaul, Karen L

    2010-01-01

    In many families with histories suggestive of BRCA1- or BRCA2-related disease, the proband is deceased. Reliable assessment of archived tissue blocks not amenable to full gene sequencing would be helpful. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers that bracket the BRCA mutation site and microfluidics-based detection of heteroduplex/amplicon size differences was developed to circumvent artifacts associated with low quality DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Genomic DNA was extracted from 100 FFPE specimens from patients that had previously undergone BRCA gene sequence analysis on blood specimens. Conventional PCR amplification products were differentiated using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. One FFPE specimen failed to amplify the wild-type alleles for all three sites and was therefore called indeterminate. All 62 FFPE specimens with known Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutations had both the wild-type and the correct mutated allele amplified, including one specimen that failed to amplify the mutant allele in other real-time PCR assays. Appropriately, 21 FFPE specimens known to have other BRCA1/2 mutations and 16 without any mutation had only the wild-type allele correctly amplified for each target. Therefore, by changing the primer location and detecting amplicons via heteroduplexes formed by size differences, we identified mutations from FFPE tissues missed using real-time methods.

  15. Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Horn, Heike; Bausinger, Julia; Staiger, Annette M; Sohn, Maximilian; Schmelter, Christopher; Gruber, Kim; Kalla, Claudia; Ott, M Michaela; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL) and six malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches.

  16. Comparison of quantitative real time PCR with Sequencing and ribosomal RNA-FISH for the identification of fungi in Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Identification of the causative agents of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is critical for guiding antifungal therapy. Cultures remain negative in a substantial number of IFI cases. Accordingly, species identification from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens by molecular methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and PCR provides an appealing approach to improve management of patients. Methods We designed FISH probes targeting the 28S rRNA of Aspergillus and Candida and evaluated them with type strains. Fluorescence microscopy (FM), using FISH probes and quantitative broad-range fungal PCR targeting the rRNA gene were applied to FFPE tissue specimens from patients with proven IFI in order to explore benefits and limitations of each approach. Results PCR followed by sequencing identified a broad spectrum of pathogenic fungi in 28 of 40 evaluable samples (70%). Hybridisation of FISH probes to fungal rRNA was documented in 19 of 40 tissue samples (47.5%), including 3 PCR negative samples with low fungal burden. The use of FISH was highly sensitive in invasive yeast infections, but less sensitive for moulds. In samples with hyphal elements, the evaluation of hybridisation was impaired due to autofluorescence of hyphae and necrotic tissue background. Conclusions While PCR appears to be more sensitive in identifying the causative agents of IFI, some PCR negative and FISH positive samples suggest that FISH has some potential in the rapid identification of fungi from FFPE tissue samples. PMID:21791040

  17. High-throughput RNA sequencing of a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy lung tissue sample from the 1918 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Li; Kash, John C; Beres, Stephen B; Sheng, Zong-Mei; Musser, James M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2013-01-01

    Most biopsy and autopsy tissues are formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE), but this process leads to RNA degradation that limits gene expression analysis. The RNA genome of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus was previously determined in a 9-year effort by overlapping RT-PCR from post-mortem samples. Here, the full genome of the 1918 virus at 3000× coverage was determined in one high-throughput sequencing run of a library derived from total RNA of a 1918 FFPE sample after duplex-specific nuclease treatments. Bacterial sequences associated with secondary bacterial pneumonias were also detected. Host transcripts were well represented in the library. Compared to a 2009 pandemic influenza virus FFPE post-mortem library, the 1918 sample showed significant enrichment for host defence and cell death response genes, concordant with prior animal studies. This methodological approach should assist in the analysis of FFPE tissue samples isolated over the past century from a variety of diseases. PMID:23180419

  18. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Specimens with Necrotizing Granulomatous Inflammation by Strand Displacement Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Forsgren, Arne; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Rapid, reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential to initiate correct treatment, avoid severe complications, and prevent transmission. Conventional microbiological methods may not be an option if samples are formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histopathological examination. With the demonstration of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, tuberculosis becomes an important differential diagnosis, although it was not initially suspected. Following paraffin extraction, BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was applied to 47 prospectively and 19 retrospectively collected FFPE samples from various sources with granulomatous inflammation and results were compared to tuberculosis notification. Of the prospective samples, 20 were from patients who were notified as having tuberculosis and the assay was positive in 18 (90%). Specificity was 100%. For 27 of the patients with prospectively collected FFPE specimens, culture was performed on a specimen collected at a later date from the same location. Culture revealed MTC in 14 and nontuberculous mycobacteria in four. BDProbeTec ET was positive in 13 (92.8%) of the patients with positive MTC culture and negative in the remaining. The sensitivity and specificity in 19 archival samples was 40% and 100%, respectively, compared to notification data. The assay provided rapid, correct diagnosis on different sources of FFPE samples collected prospectively and therefore offers an important supplementary method for patients where tuberculosis was not initially suspected. PMID:15269300

  19. Detection of c-myc amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH).

    PubMed

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) allows evaluation of genetic abnormalities, such as changes in chromosome number, chromosome translocations or gene amplifications, by hybridization of tagged DNA (or RNA) probes with complementary DNA (or RNA) sequences in interphase nuclei of target tissue. However, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is also applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, besides metaphase chromosome spreads. CISH is similar to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) regarding pretreatments and hybridization protocols but differs in the way of visualization. Indeed, CISH signal detection is similar to that used in immunohistochemistry, making use of a peroxidase-based chromogenic reaction instead of fluorescent dyes. In particular, tagged DNA probes are indirectly detected using an enzyme-conjugated antibody targeting the tags. The enzymatic reaction of the chromogenic substrate leads to the formation of strong permanent brown signals that can be visualized by bright-field microscopy at 40 × magnification. The advantage of CISH is that it allows the simultaneous observation of gene amplification and tissue morphology and the slides can be stored for a long time.

  20. Validation of tumor markers in central nervous system germ cell tumors by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dowhan; Lee, Da Hye; Choi, Junjeong; Shim, Kyu Won; Kim, Se Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic protocols for treatment of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) are completely different, so it is important to distinguish pure germinomas from NGGCTs. As it can be difficult to diagnose by morphology alone, immunohisto-chemistry (IHC) has been widely used as an ancillary test to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, IHC has limitations due to the misinterpretation of results or the aberrant loss of immunoreactivity. However, real-time RT-PCR has certain advantages over IHC, including its quantitative nature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of real-time RT-PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks for the diagnosis of germ cell tumors of the central nervous system. We selected eight markers of germ cell tumors using a literature search, and validated them using real-time RT-PCR. Among them, POU5F1, NANOG and TGFB2 were statistically significant (P=0.05) in multiple comparisons (MANOVA) of three groups (pure germinomas, mature teratomas and malignant germ cell tumors). Two-group (pure germinomas and NGGCTs) discriminant analysis achieved a 70.0% success rate in cross-validation. We concluded that real-time RT-PCR using FFPE tissue has adequate validating power comparable to IHC in the diagnosis of central nervous system germ cell tumors; therefore, when IHC is not available, not conclusive or not informative, RT-PCR is a potential alternative to a repeat biopsy.

  1. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for detection of H. pylori in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth; Roesler, Bruna; Guardia, Ana Carolina; Milan, Arlete; Hara, Natalicia; Escanhoela, Cecília; Almeida, Jazon; Boin, Ilka; Zeitune, José Murilo

    2014-03-01

    Since Helicobacter spp. DNA was identified in liver tissue resected from patients with hepatocelullar carcinoma (HCC), researchers have suggested a role of this bacterium in hepatic carcinogenesis. Archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues represent an extraordinary source for clinical studies providing many advantages. However, DNA extraction from FFPE tissues is laborious, time-consuming and still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate five protocols for DNA extraction from FFPE liver obtained from patients with HCC in order to detect Helicobacter pylori DNA. These methods were: (1) QIAamp FFPE Tissue Kit, (2) QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, (3) Wizard SV Genomic DNA Purification System, (4) RealiaPrep FFPE gDNA Miniprep System and (5) phenol-chloroform. H. pylori detection was performed using 16S rRNA gene amplification by PCR. The highest total amount of DNA was obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplification did not show statistically significant differences among the methods (p=0.466), although the highest percentage of positive cases (70%) was found in samples extracted with phenol-chloroform. We suggest that of the five methods evaluated, phenol/chloroform is the most suitable for detection of H. pylori in FFPE liver from patients with HCC.

  2. Critical comparison of sample preparation strategies for shotgun proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples: insights from liver tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The growing field of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue proteomics holds promise for improving translational research. Direct tissue trypsinization (DT) and protein extraction followed by in solution digestion (ISD) or filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) are the most common workflows for shotgun analysis of FFPE samples, but a critical comparison of the different methods is currently lacking. Experimental design DT, FASP and ISD workflows were compared by subjecting to the same label-free quantitative approach three independent technical replicates of each method applied to FFPE liver tissue. Data were evaluated in terms of method reproducibility and protein/peptide distribution according to localization, MW, pI and hydrophobicity. Results DT showed lower reproducibility, good preservation of high-MW proteins, a general bias towards hydrophilic and acidic proteins, much lower keratin contamination, as well as higher abundance of non-tryptic peptides. Conversely, FASP and ISD proteomes were depleted in high-MW proteins and enriched in hydrophobic and membrane proteins; FASP provided higher identification yields, while ISD exhibited higher reproducibility. Conclusions These results highlight that diverse sample preparation strategies provide significantly different proteomic information, and present typical biases that should be taken into account when dealing with FFPE samples. When a sufficient amount of tissue is available, the complementary use of different methods is suggested to increase proteome coverage and depth. PMID:25097466

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV⁺-AIDS patient: pathological diagnosis confirmed by PCR using formalin-fixed- and paraffin-embedded-tissues.

    PubMed

    Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Céspedes, Ghislaine; Romero, Sandra; Fuentes, Isabel; Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A; Cañavate, Carmen; Flores-Chávez, María

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV(+) patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL) developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE) and meningoencephalitis (NME). The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF-) and paraffin-embedded- (PE-) tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease.

  4. Targeted, high-depth, next-generation sequencing of cancer genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and fine-needle aspiration tumor specimens.

    PubMed

    Hadd, Andrew G; Houghton, Jeff; Choudhary, Ashish; Sah, Sachin; Chen, Liangjing; Marko, Adam C; Sanford, Tiffany; Buddavarapu, Kalyan; Krosting, Julie; Garmire, Lana; Wylie, Dennis; Shinde, Rupali; Beaudenon, Sylvie; Alexander, Erik K; Mambo, Elizabeth; Adai, Alex T; Latham, Gary J

    2013-03-01

    Implementation of highly sophisticated technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), into routine clinical practice requires compatibility with common tumor biopsy types, such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fine-needle aspiration specimens, and validation metrics for platforms, controls, and data analysis pipelines. In this study, a two-step PCR enrichment workflow was used to assess 540 known cancer-relevant variants in 16 oncogenes for high-depth sequencing in tumor samples on either mature (Illumina GAIIx) or emerging (Ion Torrent PGM) NGS platforms. The results revealed that the background noise of variant detection was elevated approximately twofold in FFPE compared with cell line DNA. Bioinformatic algorithms were optimized to accommodate this background. Variant calls from 38 residual clinical colorectal cancer FFPE specimens and 10 thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens were compared across multiple cancer genes, resulting in an accuracy of 96.1% (95% CI, 96.1% to 99.3%) compared with Sanger sequencing, and 99.6% (95% CI, 97.9% to 99.9%) compared with an alternative method with an analytical sensitivity of 1% mutation detection. A total of 45 of 48 samples were concordant between NGS platforms across all matched regions, with the three discordant calls each represented at <10% of reads. Consequently, NGS of targeted oncogenes in real-life tumor specimens using distinct platforms addresses unmet needs for unbiased and highly sensitive mutation detection and can accelerate both basic and clinical cancer research.

  5. High-resolution analysis of paraffin-embedded and formalin-fixed prostate tumors using comparative genomic hybridization to genomic microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paris, Pamela L; Albertson, Donna G; Alers, Janneke C; Andaya, Armann; Carroll, Peter; Fridlyand, Jane; Jain, Ajay N; Kamkar, Sherwin; Kowbel, David; Krijtenburg, Pieter-Jaap; Pinkel, Daniel; Schröder, Fritz H; Vissers, Kees J; Watson, Vivienne J E; Wildhagen, Mark F; Collins, Colin; Van Dekken, Herman

    2003-03-01

    We have used prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous neoplasm among men, to investigate the feasibility of performing genomic array analyses of archival tissue. Prostate-specific antigen and a biopsy Gleason grade have not proven to be accurate in predicting clinical outcome, yet they remain the only accepted biomarkers for prostate cancer. It is likely that distinct spectra of genomic alterations underlie these phenotypic differences, and that once identified, may be used to differentiate between indolent and aggressive tumors. Array comparative genomic hybridization allows quantitative detection and mapping of copy number aberrations in tumors and subsequent associations to be made with clinical outcome. Archived tissues are needed to have patients with sufficient clinical follow-up. In this report, 20 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples originating from 1986 to 1996 were studied. We present a straightforward protocol and demonstrate the utility of archived tissue for array comparative genomic hybridization with a 2400 element BAC array that provides high-resolution detection of both deletions and amplifications.

  6. Expression analysis of mRNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues by mRNA in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Henke, Ralf T; Eun Kim, Sung; Maitra, Anirban; Paik, Soonmyung; Wellstein, Anton

    2006-04-01

    Gene expression in diseased tissues can indicate the contribution to a disease process and potentially guide therapeutic decision-making. Archival tissues with associated clinical outcome may be useful to discover or validate the role of a candidate gene in a disease process or the response to therapy. Such archival tissues are commonly formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, restricting the methods available for gene expression analysis. Obviously, the detection of proteins in tissues requires adaptation for each protein and the detection of secreted proteins can prove difficult or of reduced value since the protein detected may not reflect the total amount produced. Thus, we describe here a reliable method for the detection of mRNA in archival tissues. The method for mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) was adapted by us for >15 different genes and applied to several hundred tissue microarrays (TMAs) and full sections generating >10,000 expression data points. We also discuss the utility of TMAs to simultaneously analyze several hundred tissue samples on one slide to minimize variability and preserve valuable tissue samples. Experimental protocols are provided that can be implemented without major hurdles in a typical molecular pathology laboratory and we discuss quantitative analysis as well as advantages and limitations of ISH with a special focus on secreted proteins. We conclude that ISH is a reliable and cost effective approach to gene expression analysis in archival tissues that is amenable to screening of series of tissues or of genes of interest.

  7. Deparaffinization with mineral oil: a simple procedure for extraction of high-quality DNA from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Heikal, Nahla; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Agarwal, Archana M

    2014-09-01

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival samples remains difficult. Successful polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with DNA extracted from FFPE samples is still very low. We extracted DNA from 12 recent and old archival FFPE bone marrow trephine biopsies by use of a simple protocol on the basis of deparaffinization with molecular biology-grade mineral oil followed by DNA extraction with the Qiagen FFPE kit. Comparison of this deparaffinization method with standard protocols, for example, xylene or Hemo-D with subsequent rehydration using graded ethanols, was investigated. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were tested by a combination of ultraviolet spectroscopy, analysis on a Caliper LabChip GX, and real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melt analysis. Highest quality PCR-amplifiable DNA was obtained by deparaffinization with mineral oil, whereas more variable results were obtained for the other 2 deparaffinization procedures. This result was confirmed by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Besides improvements in the quality of extracted DNA, use of mineral oil for deparaffinization has the added benefit of decreased time (20 vs. 75 min) and a significant reduction of hands-on labor (1 step vs. multiple hands-on centrifugation and decanting steps).

  8. Next-generation sequencing and microarray-based interrogation of microRNAs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue: Preliminary assessment of cross-platform concordance

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Andrew D.; Hill, Katherine E.; Correll, Mick; Hu, Lan; Wang, Yaoyu; Rubio, Renee; Duan, Shenghua; Quackenbush, John; Spentzos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is increasingly employed in biomedical investigations. Strong concordance between microarray and mRNA-seq levels has been reported in high quality specimens but information is lacking on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and particularly for microRNA (miRNA) analysis. We conducted a preliminary examination of the concordance between miRNA-seq and cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation (DASL) miRNA assays. Quantitative agreement between platforms is moderate (Spearman correlation 0.514–0.596) and there is discordance of detection calls on a subset of miRNAs. Quantitative PCR (q-RT-PCR) performed for several discordant miRNAs confirmed the presence of most sequences detected by miRNA-seq but not by DASL but also that miRNA-seq did not detect some sequences, which DASL confidently detected. Our results suggest that miRNA-seq is specific, with few false positive calls, but it may not detect certain abundant miRNAs in FFPE tissue. Further work is necessary to fully address these issues that are pertinent for translational research. PMID:23562991

  9. Multiplexed color-coded probe-based gene expression assessment for clinical molecular diagnostics in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human renal allograft tissue.

    PubMed

    Adam, Benjamin; Afzali, Bahman; Dominy, Katherine M; Chapman, Erin; Gill, Reeda; Hidalgo, Luis G; Roufosse, Candice; Sis, Banu; Mengel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Histopathologic diagnoses in transplantation can be improved with molecular testing. Preferably, molecular diagnostics should fit into standard-of-care workflows for transplant biopsies, that is, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) processing. The NanoString(®) gene expression platform has recently been shown to work with FFPE samples. We aimed to evaluate its methodological robustness and feasibility for gene expression studies in human FFPE renal allograft samples. A literature-derived antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) 34-gene set, comprised of endothelial, NK cell, and inflammation transcripts, was analyzed in different retrospective biopsy cohorts and showed potential to molecularly discriminate ABMR cases, including FFPE samples. NanoString(®) results were reproducible across a range of RNA input quantities (r = 0.998), with different operators (r = 0.998), and between different reagent lots (r = 0.983). There was moderate correlation between NanoString(®) with FFPE tissue and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with corresponding dedicated fresh-stabilized tissue (r = 0.487). Better overall correlation with histology was observed with NanoString(®) (r = 0.354) than with qRT-PCR (r = 0.146). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of multiplexed gene expression quantification from FFPE renal allograft tissue. This represents a method for prospective and retrospective validation of molecular diagnostics and its adoption in clinical transplantation pathology.

  10. Digital Sorting of Pure Cell Populations Enables Unambiguous Genetic Analysis of Heterogeneous Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tumors by Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Chiara; Forcato, Claudio; Buson, Genny; Fontana, Francesca; Mangano, Chiara; Doffini, Anna; Sero, Valeria; Lanzellotto, Rossana; Signorini, Giulio; Calanca, Alex; Sergio, Maximilian; Romano, Rita; Gianni, Stefano; Medoro, Gianni; Giorgini, Giuseppe; Morreau, Hans; Barberis, Massimo; Corver, Willem E; Manaresi, Nicolò

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine in oncology requires an accurate characterization of a tumor molecular profile for patient stratification. Though targeted deep sequencing is an effective tool to detect the presence of somatic sequence variants, a significant number of patient specimens do not meet the requirements needed for routine clinical application. Analysis is hindered by contamination of normal cells and inherent tumor heterogeneity, compounded with challenges of dealing with minute amounts of tissue and DNA damages common in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Here we present an innovative workflow using DEPArray™ system, a microchip-based digital sorter to achieve 100%-pure, homogenous subpopulations of cells from FFPE samples. Cells are distinguished by fluorescently labeled antibodies and DNA content. The ability to address tumor heterogeneity enables unambiguous determination of true-positive sequence variants, loss-of-heterozygosity as well as copy number variants. The proposed strategy overcomes the inherent trade-offs made between sensitivity and specificity in detecting genetic variants from a mixed population, thus rescuing for analysis even the smaller clinical samples with low tumor cellularity. PMID:26864208

  11. qPCR is a sensitive and rapid method for detection of cytomegaloviral DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy tissue.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Morgan H; Post, Kristin; Sen, Joyashree D; Chang, Hsim Y; Zhao, Zijin; Fan, Rong; Chen, Shaoxiong; Leland, Diane; Cheng, Liang; Lin, Jingmei

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to identify cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of immunosuppressed patients, given their greater risk for developing severe infection. Many laboratory methods for the detection of CMV infection have been developed, including serology, viral culture, and molecular methods. Often, these methods reflect systemic involvement with CMV and do not specifically identify local tissue involvement. Therefore, detection of CMV infection in the GI tract is frequently done by traditional histology of biopsy tissue. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining in conjunction with immunohistochemistry (IHC) have remained the mainstays of examining these biopsies. H&E and IHC sometimes result in atypical (equivocal) staining patterns, making interpretation difficult. It was shown that quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for CMV can successfully be performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy tissue for very high sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate how to perform qPCR testing for the detection of CMV in FFPE biopsy tissue in a clinical laboratory setting. This method is likely to be of great benefit for patients in cases of equivocal staining for CMV in GI biopsies.

  12. A M-MLV reverse transcriptase with reduced RNaseH activity allows greater sensitivity of gene expression detection in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded prostate cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Rachel M; Rhodes, Anthony; Oxley, Jon; Ladomery, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) human tissue collections are an invaluable resource for retrospective gene expression studies. However formalin fixation results in chemical modification of RNA and increased RNA degradation. This can affect RNA yield and quality. A critical step when analysing gene expression is the conversion of RNA to complementary DNA (cDNA) using a reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. FFPE derived RNA may affect the performance and efficiency of the RT enzyme and cDNA synthesis. We directly compared three commonly used FFPE RNA isolation methods and measured RNA yield, purity and integrity. We also assessed the effectiveness of three commercially available Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (M-MLV) RTs on cDNA synthesis and gene expression sensitivity when using FFPE RNA as a template. Our results show that gene detection sensitivity is dependent on the isolation method, RT and length of the PCR amplicon (<200bp) when using FFPE RNA. The use of an M-MLV RT enzyme with reduced RNaseH activity gave significantly increased qRT-PCR sensitivity when using FFPE RNA derived from prostate tissue. The choice of RT can also affect perceived changes in target gene expression and thus the same RT should be used when attempting to reproduce results from different studies. This study highlights the need to optimise and evaluate RNA isolation methods and RTs when using FFPE RNA as a template in order to maximise a successful outcome in PCR applications.

  13. Integrated and convenient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for LC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xianyin; Schneider, Bryan P

    2014-11-01

    Because fresh-frozen tissue samples associated with long-term clinical data and of rare diseases are often unobtainable at the present time, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are considered a highly valuable resource for researchers. However, protein extraction from FFPE tissues faces challenges of deparaffinization and cross-link reversion. Current procedures for protein extraction from FFPE tissue require separate steps and toxic solvents, resulting in inconvenience in protein extraction. To overcome these limitations, an integrated method was developed using nontoxic solvents in four types of FFPE tissues. The average amount of proteins from three replicates of bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissues were 442.6, 728.9, 736.4, and 694.7 μg with CVs of 7.5, 5.8, 2.4, and 4.5%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that 348, 417, 607, and 304 unique proteins were identified and quantified without specification of isoform by a least two peptides from bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissue samples, respectively. The analysis of individual protein CV demonstrated that 97-99% of the proteins were quantified with a CV ≤ 30%, verifying the reproducibility of the integrated protein extraction method. In summary, the developed method is high-yield, reproducible, convenient, simple, low cost, nonvolatile, nonflammable, and nontoxic.

  14. Immunohistochemistry and molecular epidemiology of avian paramyxovirus 1 from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections of Japanese doves (Columba livia) affected with neurological signs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Fujimori, Hideo; Koyama, Akiko; Dai, Trinh Quang; Imai, Kunitoshi; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Yamamoto, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Four doves (Nos. 1-4 birds) affected with neurological signs (ataxia, circling and torticollis) were investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Viral isolation was tried from the tracheal and cloacal swabs of all 4 birds and from liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung and brain of Nos. 1 and 2 birds. No viruses were isolated from 4 birds, but they had high serum antibody titers against avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1). Histologically, they had the characteristic histological changes of pigeon APMV-1 infection; nonpurulent encephalitis and interstitial nephritis. Immununohistochemically, APMV-1 antigens were detected in the necrotic renal tubular epithelial cells of 1 bird of them (No. 3 bird). Detection of APMV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections was attempted by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequencing the RT-PCR product showed the virus RNA belonged to the same APMV-1 genotype (VI) as the strains isolated from the world previous cases of pigeon APMV-1 infection. The RT-PCR of FFPE sections and sequencing of RT-PCR products are useful for molecular epidemiology of the virus when viral isolation from fresh samples is unsuccessful.

  15. Linkage-Specific in Situ Sialic Acid Derivatization for N-Glycan Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Holst, Stephanie; Heijs, Bram; de Haan, Noortje; van Zeijl, René J M; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; van Pelt, Gabi W; Mehta, Anand S; Angel, Peggy M; Mesker, Wilma E; Tollenaar, Rob A; Drake, Richard R; Bovée, Judith V M G; McDonnell, Liam A; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging is a rapidly evolving field in which mass spectrometry techniques are applied directly on tissues to characterize the spatial distribution of various molecules such as lipids, protein/peptides, and recently also N-glycans. Glycans are involved in many biological processes and several glycan changes have been associated with different kinds of cancer, making them an interesting target group to study. An important analytical challenge for the study of glycans by MALDI mass spectrometry is the labile character of sialic acid groups which are prone to in-source/postsource decay, thereby biasing the recorded glycan profile. We therefore developed a linkage-specific sialic acid derivatization by dimethylamidation and subsequent amidation and transferred this onto formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for MALDI imaging of N-glycans. Our results show (i) the successful stabilization of sialic acids in a linkage specific manner, thereby not only increasing the detection range, but also adding biological meaning, (ii) that no noticeable lateral diffusion is induced during to sample preparation, (iii) the potential of mass spectrometry imaging to spatially characterize the N-glycan expression within heterogeneous tissues. PMID:27145236

  16. Methods for Studying MicroRNA Expression and Their Targets in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Breast Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruno Costa; Santos, Bruno; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António Sebastião

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a burden in cancer treatment. In the past few years molecular genetics brought a new hope with personalized therapy. This individual approach allows the identification of genetic profiles that will respond better to a given treatment and consequently get a better outcome. Recently, physicians received an extra aid with the approval of molecular tools based on gene expression signatures. With these tools, physicians have the capacity to identify the probability of disease recurrence in the first 5 years following diagnosis, a fact that is essential for a more effective adjuvant therapy administration. However, some patients still relapse and acquire drug resistance and aggressive tumors. For that reason, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular players in drug resistance is of extreme importance. MicroRNAs have been described as regulators of various cellular pathways and as predictive and prognostic factors. As broad regulators, microRNAs also interfere with drug metabolism and drug targets. Thus it is of paramount importance to understand which microRNAs are deregulated in breast cancer and try to relate this misexpression with resistance to therapeutics, poor outcomes, and survival. Here, we describe a possible approach to study microRNA expression and respective targets from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissues. FFPE tissues are regularly archived for long periods in pathology departments, and microRNAs are well conserved in these tissues. PMID:26910075

  17. Pre-Analytical Considerations for Successful Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS): Challenges and Opportunities for Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Tissue (FFPE) Samples

    PubMed Central

    Arreaza, Gladys; Qiu, Ping; Pang, Ling; Albright, Andrew; Hong, Lewis Z.; Marton, Matthew J.; Levitan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    In cancer drug discovery, it is important to investigate the genetic determinants of response or resistance to cancer therapy as well as factors that contribute to adverse events in the course of clinical trials. Despite the emergence of new technologies and the ability to measure more diverse analytes (e.g., circulating tumor cell (CTC), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), etc.), tumor tissue is still the most common and reliable source for biomarker investigation. Because of its worldwide use and ability to preserve samples for many decades at ambient temperature, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue (FFPE) is likely to be the preferred choice for tissue preservation in clinical practice for the foreseeable future. Multiple analyses are routinely performed on the same FFPE samples (such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization, RNAseq, DNAseq, TILseq, Methyl-Seq, etc.). Thus, specimen prioritization and optimization of the isolation of analytes is critical to ensure successful completion of each assay. FFPE is notorious for producing suboptimal DNA quality and low DNA yield. However, commercial vendors tend to request higher DNA sample mass than what is actually required for downstream assays, which restricts the breadth of biomarker work that can be performed. We evaluated multiple genomics service laboratories to assess the current state of NGS pre-analytical processing of FFPE. Significant differences in pre-analytical capabilities were observed. Key aspects are highlighted and recommendations are made to improve the current practice in translational research. PMID:27657050

  18. Digital Sorting of Pure Cell Populations Enables Unambiguous Genetic Analysis of Heterogeneous Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tumors by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, Chiara; Forcato, Claudio; Buson, Genny; Fontana, Francesca; Mangano, Chiara; Doffini, Anna; Sero, Valeria; Lanzellotto, Rossana; Signorini, Giulio; Calanca, Alex; Sergio, Maximilian; Romano, Rita; Gianni, Stefano; Medoro, Gianni; Giorgini, Giuseppe; Morreau, Hans; Barberis, Massimo; Corver, Willem E.; Manaresi, Nicolò

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine in oncology requires an accurate characterization of a tumor molecular profile for patient stratification. Though targeted deep sequencing is an effective tool to detect the presence of somatic sequence variants, a significant number of patient specimens do not meet the requirements needed for routine clinical application. Analysis is hindered by contamination of normal cells and inherent tumor heterogeneity, compounded with challenges of dealing with minute amounts of tissue and DNA damages common in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Here we present an innovative workflow using DEPArray™ system, a microchip-based digital sorter to achieve 100%-pure, homogenous subpopulations of cells from FFPE samples. Cells are distinguished by fluorescently labeled antibodies and DNA content. The ability to address tumor heterogeneity enables unambiguous determination of true-positive sequence variants, loss-of-heterozygosity as well as copy number variants. The proposed strategy overcomes the inherent trade-offs made between sensitivity and specificity in detecting genetic variants from a mixed population, thus rescuing for analysis even the smaller clinical samples with low tumor cellularity. PMID:26864208

  19. Improved method for extraction and detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies using laser micro-dissection

    PubMed Central

    Loayza, María Fernanda; Villavicencio, Fernando Xavier; Santander, Stephanie Carolina; Baldeón, Manuel; Ponce, Lourdes Karina; Salvador, Iván; Vivar Díaz, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    To assess the molecular events exerted by Helicobacter pylori interacting directly with gastric epithelial cells, an improved procedure for microbial DNA isolation from stained hematoxilin-eosin gastric biopsies was developed based on laser micro-dissection (LM) [1]. Few articles have described the use of LM to select and detect H. pylori genome from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissue [2]. To improve the yield and quality of DNA isolated from H. pylori contacting intestinal epithelial cells, the following conditions were established after modification of the QIAamp DNA Micro kit. • Use of at least 25 cut sections of 10–20 μm of diameter and 3 μm thick with more than 10 bacteria in each cut. • Lysis with 30 μL of tissue lysis buffer and 20 μL of proteinase K (PK) with the tube in an upside-down position. • The use of thin purification columns with 35 μL of elution buffer. The mean of DNA concentration obtained from 25 LM cut sections was 1.94± 0 .16 ng/μL, and it was efficiently amplified with qPCR in a Bio Rad iCycler instrument. The LM can improve the sample selection and DNA extraction for molecular analysis of H. pylori associated with human gastric epithelium. PMID:26150965

  20. qPCR Is a Sensitive and Rapid Method for Detection of Cytomegaloviral DNA in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Biopsy Tissue

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Morgan H.; Post, Kristin; Sen, Joyashree D.; Chang, Hsim Y.; Zhao, Zijin; Fan, Rong; Chen, Shaoxiong; Leland, Diane; Cheng, Liang; Lin, Jingmei

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to identify cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of immunosuppressed patients, given their greater risk for developing severe infection. Many laboratory methods for the detection of CMV infection have been developed, including serology, viral culture, and molecular methods. Often, these methods reflect systemic involvement with CMV and do not specifically identify local tissue involvement. Therefore, detection of CMV infection in the GI tract is frequently done by traditional histology of biopsy tissue. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining in conjunction with immunohistochemistry (IHC) have remained the mainstays of examining these biopsies. H&E and IHC sometimes result in atypical (equivocal) staining patterns, making interpretation difficult. It was shown that quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for CMV can successfully be performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy tissue for very high sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate how to perform qPCR testing for the detection of CMV in FFPE biopsy tissue in a clinical laboratory setting. This method is likely to be of great benefit for patients in cases of equivocal staining for CMV in GI biopsies. PMID:25046572

  1. Improved method for extraction and detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies using laser micro-dissection.

    PubMed

    Loayza, María Fernanda; Villavicencio, Fernando Xavier; Santander, Stephanie Carolina; Baldeón, Manuel; Ponce, Lourdes Karina; Salvador, Iván; Vivar Díaz, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    To assess the molecular events exerted by Helicobacter pylori interacting directly with gastric epithelial cells, an improved procedure for microbial DNA isolation from stained hematoxilin-eosin gastric biopsies was developed based on laser micro-dissection (LM) [1]. Few articles have described the use of LM to select and detect H. pylori genome from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissue [2]. To improve the yield and quality of DNA isolated from H. pylori contacting intestinal epithelial cells, the following conditions were established after modification of the QIAamp DNA Micro kit. •Use of at least 25 cut sections of 10-20 μm of diameter and 3 μm thick with more than 10 bacteria in each cut.•Lysis with 30 μL of tissue lysis buffer and 20 μL of proteinase K (PK) with the tube in an upside-down position.•The use of thin purification columns with 35 μL of elution buffer. The mean of DNA concentration obtained from 25 LM cut sections was 1.94± 0 .16 ng/μL, and it was efficiently amplified with qPCR in a Bio Rad iCycler instrument. The LM can improve the sample selection and DNA extraction for molecular analysis of H. pylori associated with human gastric epithelium.

  2. Sequential real-time PCR assays applied to identification of genomic signatures in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: a case report about brucella-induced osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binxue; Wear, Douglas J; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Izadjoo, Mina

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animals to human by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or inhalation of aerosols. Brucella infection-induced osteomyelitis may present only with nonspecific clinical and radiographic findings, mild elevations in serum inflammatory markers, as well as nonspecific histological changes. We studied a case of an Iraqi war veteran with multifocal vertebral body and left iliac bone lesions on radio nucleotide scans and magnetic resonance imaging, clinically suspected osteomyelitis possibly because of Brucella. Although histomorphological findings were nonspecific, consisting of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate and reactive fibrosis, tissue gram and silver impregnation stains of bone biopsies were informative, revealing gram-negative coccobacilli consistent in size with Brucella species. Total nucleic acids were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and amplified by sequential real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes coding (1) outer membrane protein (omp-31) of Brucella species and (2) insertion sequence (IS711) of Brucella abortus (b-abt). Polymerase chain reaction results confirmed B. abortus as the causative pathogens for presumed diagnosis of Brucella osteomyelitis. PMID:23356125

  3. Clinical and pathological features of Burkitt lymphoma showing expression of BCL2--an analysis including gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Masqué-Soler, Neus; Szczepanowski, Monika; Kohler, Christian W; Aukema, Sietse M; Nagel, Inga; Richter, Julia; Siebert, Reiner; Spang, Rainer; Burkhardt, Birgit; Klapper, Wolfram

    2015-11-01

    The differential diagnosis between Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be challenging. BL has been reported to express less BCL2 than DLBCL, but this issue has not been analysed systematically. BL expressing BCL2 can be considered to be MYC/BCL2 co-expressors, a feature that is associated with poorer outcome in DLBCL but that has not been correlated with outcome in BL so far. We analysed the expression of BCL2 in 150 cases of conventionally diagnosed BL using two different BCL2 antibodies. BCL2 expression was detected in 23% of the cases, though the expression varied in intensity and number of positive cells. We did not detect any relevant differences in clinical presentation and outcome between BCL2-positive and BCL2-negative BL in a subgroup of 43 cases for which detailed clinical data were available. An independent cohort of 17 BL with expression of BCL2 were analysed molecularly, with 13 of 17 cases classified as molecularly defined BL (Burkitt Lymphoma) using gene expression profiling on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The four lymphomas diagnosed molecularly as intermediates did not differ in clinical presentation and outcome from molecularly defined BL. PMID:26218299

  4. High-resolution MALDI-FT-ICR MS imaging for the analysis of metabolites from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded clinical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Buck, Achim; Ly, Alice; Balluff, Benjamin; Sun, Na; Gorzolka, Karin; Feuchtinger, Annette; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Weirich, Gregor; Erlmeier, Franziska; Langer, Rupert; Aubele, Michaela; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2015-09-01

    We present the first analytical approach to demonstrate the in situ imaging of metabolites from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissue samples. Using high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR MSI), we conducted a proof-of-principle experiment comparing metabolite measurements from FFPE and fresh frozen tissue sections, and found an overlap of 72% amongst 1700 m/z species. In particular, we observed conservation of biomedically relevant information at the metabolite level in FFPE tissues. In biomedical applications, we analysed tissues from 350 different cancer patients and were able to discriminate between normal and tumour tissues, and different tumours from the same organ, and found an independent prognostic factor for patient survival. This study demonstrates the ability to measure metabolites in FFPE tissues using MALDI-FT-ICR MSI, which can then be assigned to histology and clinical parameters. Our approach is a major technical, histochemical, and clinicopathological advance that highlights the potential for investigating diseases in archived FFPE tissues. PMID:25965788

  5. Multilocus sequence typing of Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from cats living in non-endemic regions reveals a new phylogenetic clade.

    PubMed

    Arunmozhi Balajee, S; Hurst, Steven F; Chang, Loretta S; Miles, Macon; Beeler, Emily; Hale, Christa; Kasuga, Takao; Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom; Lindsley, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum are found most often in endemic regions of North, Central, and South America. H. capsulatum has been divided into eight geographic clades by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Recently, one isolate and five formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples were received from six of 15 suspected cases of histoplasmosis in cats residing in areas not known to be endemic for H. capsulatum. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequence analysis of the rDNA ITS-2 region confirmed the diagnosis of H. capsulatum. Since these cases were not, as noted, from the accepted endemic areas, it was of interest to understand the molecular epidemiology of these isolates. Results of molecular analysis indicated that the H. capsulatum recovered from the cats were most closely related to the North American-1 clade, but clustered separately outside this clade, suggesting that the H. capsulatum infecting the animals may represent a separate clade or phylogenetic species. This study also demonstrated the utility of obtaining valuable molecular subtype data directly from archived FFPE tissue blocks, particularly when a fungus culture was not performed or is otherwise unavailable. PMID:23072593

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV+-AIDS Patient: Pathological Diagnosis Confirmed by PCR Using Formalin-Fixed- and Paraffin-Embedded-Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Céspedes, Ghislaine; Romero, Sandra; Fuentes, Isabel; Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Cañavate, Carmen; Flores-Chávez, María

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV+ patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL) developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE) and meningoencephalitis (NME). The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF-) and paraffin-embedded- (PE-) tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease. PMID:25763312

  7. Comparison of multiple protein extraction buffers for GeLC-MS/MS proteomic analysis of liver and colon formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Valérie; Boonen, Kurt; Pringels, Lentel; Sagaert, Xavier; Prenen, Hans; Landuyt, Bart; Schoofs, Liliane; Maes, Evelyne

    2016-02-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a potential valuable source of samples for clinical research. Since these specimens are banked in hospital archives, large cohorts of samples can be collected in short periods of time which can all be linked with a patients' clinical history. Therefore, the use of FFPE tissue in protein biomarker discovery studies gains interest. However, despite the growing number of FFPE proteome studies in the literature, there is a lack of a FFPE proteomics standard operating procedure (SOP). One of the challenging steps in the development of such a SOP is the ability to obtain an efficient and repeatable extraction of full length FFPE proteins. In this study, the protein extraction efficiency of eight protein extraction buffers is critically compared with GeLC-MS/MS (1D gel electrophoresis followed by in-gel digestion and LC-MS/MS). The data variation caused by using these extraction buffers was investigated since the variation is a very important aspect when using FFPE tissue as a source for biomarker detection. In addition, a qualitative comparison was made between the protein extraction efficiency and repeatability for FFPE tissue and fresh frozen tissue.

  8. Validation of tumor markers in central nervous system germ cell tumors by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dowhan; Lee, Da Hye; Choi, Junjeong; Shim, Kyu Won; Kim, Se Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic protocols for treatment of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) are completely different, so it is important to distinguish pure germinomas from NGGCTs. As it can be difficult to diagnose by morphology alone, immunohisto-chemistry (IHC) has been widely used as an ancillary test to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, IHC has limitations due to the misinterpretation of results or the aberrant loss of immunoreactivity. However, real-time RT-PCR has certain advantages over IHC, including its quantitative nature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of real-time RT-PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks for the diagnosis of germ cell tumors of the central nervous system. We selected eight markers of germ cell tumors using a literature search, and validated them using real-time RT-PCR. Among them, POU5F1, NANOG and TGFB2 were statistically significant (P=0.05) in multiple comparisons (MANOVA) of three groups (pure germinomas, mature teratomas and malignant germ cell tumors). Two-group (pure germinomas and NGGCTs) discriminant analysis achieved a 70.0% success rate in cross-validation. We concluded that real-time RT-PCR using FFPE tissue has adequate validating power comparable to IHC in the diagnosis of central nervous system germ cell tumors; therefore, when IHC is not available, not conclusive or not informative, RT-PCR is a potential alternative to a repeat biopsy. PMID:23124437

  9. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test for the detection of human papillomaviruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2011-07-01

    Comparative evaluation of Abbott RealTime and Innogenetics INNO-LiPA on alternately processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of 31 cervical cancers and 31 uterine myomas showed complete agreement in the detection of 14 assay-common HPV genotypes and partial genotyping of HPV-16 and HPV-18. The tissue preparation protocol was shown to be sample-to-sample contamination safe.

  10. Development of a Peptide Nucleic Acid Probe to Trichosporon Species and Identification of Trichosporonosis by Use of In Situ Hybridization in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Sections

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Minoru; Okubo, Yoichiro; Sasai, Daisuke; Nakayama, Haruo; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Ide, Tadashi; Wakayama, Megumi; Ishiwatari, Takao; Tochigi, Naobumi; Nemoto, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify Trichosporon species in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections from which visual discrimination of non-glabrata Candida species is mostly ineffective but critical for the choice of antifungals, we tested the usefulness of a newly designed peptide nucleic acid probe (PNA) for in situ hybridization (ISH). Results confirmed the usefulness of ISH with our PNA probe in identifying Trichosporon species from Candida albicans. PMID:23100341

  11. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test for the detection of human papillomaviruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2011-07-01

    Comparative evaluation of Abbott RealTime and Innogenetics INNO-LiPA on alternately processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of 31 cervical cancers and 31 uterine myomas showed complete agreement in the detection of 14 assay-common HPV genotypes and partial genotyping of HPV-16 and HPV-18. The tissue preparation protocol was shown to be sample-to-sample contamination safe. PMID:21513740

  12. A predictive factor of the quality of microarray comparative genomic hybridization analysis for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kenjiro; Oikawa, Masahiro; Arai, Junichi; Mussazhanova, Zhanna; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Nakashima, Masahiro; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Hatachi, Toshiko; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue, the most common form of tissue preservation in routine practice, for cytogenetic analysis using microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) remains challenging. We searched for a predictive factor of the performance of FFPE DNA in aCGH analysis. DNA was extracted from 63 FFPE archival tissue samples of various tissue types (31 breast cancers, 24 lung cancers, and 8 thyroid tumors), followed by aCGH analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Tumor DNA from matched frozen samples and from FFPE samples after whole-genome amplification were also analyzed in 2 and 4 case, respectively. The derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread) was used to assess the overall quality of each aCGH result. The DLRSpread correlated significantly with the double-stranded DNA ratio of tumor DNA, storage time, and the degree of labeling with Cy5 (P<0.0001; correlation coefficients=-0.796, 0.551, -0.481, respectively). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the double-stranded DNA ratio of tumor DNA is the most significant predictive factor of DLRSpread (regression coefficient=-0.4798; P=<0.0001). The cytogenetic profiles of FFPE and matched frozen samples showed good concordance. Although the double-stranded DNA ratios were increased after whole-genome amplification, the DLRSpread was not improved. The double-stranded DNA ratio can be used to predict the performance of aCGH analysis for DNA from FFPE samples. Using this quality metric, valuable FFPE archival tissue samples can be utilized for aCGH analysis.

  13. Mining the Archives: A Cross-Platform Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Webster, A Francina; Zumbo, Paul; Fostel, Jennifer; Gandara, Jorge; Hester, Susan D; Recio, Leslie; Williams, Andrew; Wood, Charles E; Yauk, Carole L; Mason, Christopher E

    2015-12-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a potentially invaluable resource for transcriptomic research. However, use of FFPE samples in genomic studies has been limited by technical challenges resulting from nucleic acid degradation. Here we evaluated gene expression profiles derived from fresh-frozen (FRO) and FFPE mouse liver tissues preserved in formalin for different amounts of time using 2 DNA microarray protocols and 2 whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) library preparation methodologies. The ribo-depletion protocol outperformed the other methods by having the highest correlations of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and best overlap of pathways, between FRO and FFPE groups. The effect of sample time in formalin (18 h or 3 weeks) on gene expression profiles indicated that test article treatment, not preservation method, was the main driver of gene expression profiles. Meta- and pathway analyses indicated that biological responses were generally consistent for 18 h and 3 week FFPE samples compared with FRO samples. However, clear erosion of signal intensity with time in formalin was evident, and DEG numbers differed by platform and preservation method. Lastly, we investigated the effect of time in paraffin on genomic profiles. Ribo-depletion RNA-seq analysis of 8-, 19-, and 26-year-old control blocks resulted in comparable quality metrics, including expected distributions of mapped reads to exonic, untranslated region, intronic, and ribosomal fractions of the transcriptome. Overall, our results indicate that FFPE samples are appropriate for use in genomic studies in which frozen samples are not available, and that ribo-depletion RNA-seq is the preferred method for this type of analysis in archival and long-aged FFPE samples.

  14. Low-coverage exome sequencing screen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors reveals evidence of exposure to carcinogenic aristolochic acid

    PubMed Central

    Castells, Xavier; Karanović, Sandra; Ardin, Maude; Tomić, Karla; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Durand, Geoffroy; Villar, Stephanie; Forey, Nathalie; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Voegele, Catherine; Karlović, Krešimir; Mišić, Maja; Dittrich, Damir; Dolgalev, Igor; McKay, James; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Sidorenko, Viktoria S.; Fernandes, Andrea; Heguy, Adriana; Dickman, Kathleen G.; Olivier, Magali; Grollman, Arthur P.; Jelaković, Bojan; Zavadil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary exposure to cytotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acid (AA) causes severe nephropathy typically associated with urological cancers. Monitoring of AA exposure uses biomarkers such as aristolactam-DNA adducts, detected by mass spectrometry in the kidney cortex, or the somatic A>T transversion pattern characteristic of exposure to AA, as revealed by previous DNA sequencing studies using fresh frozen tumors. Methods Here we report a low-coverage whole-exome sequencing method (LC-WES) optimized for multi-sample detection of the AA mutational signature, and demonstrate its utility in 17 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded urothelial tumors obtained from 15 patients with endemic nephropathy, an environmental form of aristolochic acid nephropathy. Results LC-WES identified the AA signature, alongside signatures of age and APOBEC enzyme activity, in 15 samples sequenced at the average per-base coverage of ~10x. Analysis at 3–9x coverage revealed the signature in 91% of the positive samples. The exome-wide distribution of the predominant A>T transversions exhibited a stochastic pattern whereas 83 cancer driver genes were enriched for recurrent non-synonymous A>T mutations. In two patients, pairs of tumors from different parts of the urinary tract, including the bladder, harbored overlapping mutation patterns, suggesting tumor dissemination via cell seeding. Conclusion LC-WES analysis of archived tumor tissues is a reliable method applicable to investigations of both the exposure to AA and its biologic effects in human carcinomas. Impact By detecting cancers associated with AA exposure in high-risk populations, LC-WES can support future molecular epidemiology studies and provide evidence-base for relevant preventive measures. PMID:26383547

  15. Improving molecular detection of fungal DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: comparison of five tissue DNA extraction methods using panfungal PCR.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cadavid, C; Rudd, S; Zaki, S R; Patel, M; Moser, S A; Brandt, M E; Gómez, B L

    2010-06-01

    DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is difficult and requires special protocols in order to extract small amounts of DNA suitable for amplification. Most described methods report an amplification success rate between 60 and 80%; therefore, there is a need to improve molecular detection and identification of fungi in FFPE tissue. Eighty-one archived FFPE tissues with a positive Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain were evaluated using five different commercial DNA extraction kits with some modifications. Three different panfungal PCR assays were used to detect fungal DNA, and two housekeeping genes were used to assess the presence of amplifiable DNA and to detect PCR inhibitors. The sensitivities of the five extraction protocols were compared, and the quality of DNA detection (calculated for each kit as the number of housekeeping gene PCR-positive samples divided by the total number of samples) was 60 to 91% among the five protocols. The efficiencies of the three different panfungals used (calculated as the number of panfungal-PCR-positive samples divided by the number of housekeeping gene PCR-positive samples) were 58 to 93%. The panfungal PCR using internal transcribed spacer 3 (ITS3) and ITS4 primers yielded a product in most FFPE tissues. Two of the five DNA extraction kits (from TaKaRa and Qiagen) showed similar and promising results. However, one method (TaKaRa) could extract fungal DNA from 69 of the 74 FFPE tissues from which a housekeeping gene could be amplified and was also cost-effective, with a nonlaborious protocol. Factors such as sensitivity, cost, and labor will help guide the selection of the most appropriate method for the needs of each laboratory.

  16. High quality genomic copy number data from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded leiomyosarcoma: optimisation of universal linkage system labelling.

    PubMed

    Salawu, Abdulazeez; Ul-Hassan, Aliya; Hammond, David; Fernando, Malee; Reed, Malcolm; Sisley, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Most soft tissue sarcomas are characterized by genetic instability and frequent genomic copy number aberrations that are not subtype-specific. Oligonucleotide microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (array CGH) is an important technique used to map genome-wide copy number aberrations, but the traditional requirement for high-quality DNA typically obtained from fresh tissue has limited its use in sarcomas. Although large archives of Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples are available for research, the degradative effects of formalin on DNA from these tissues has made labelling and analysis by array CGH technically challenging. The Universal Linkage System (ULS) may be used for a one-step chemical labelling of such degraded DNA. We have optimised the ULS labelling protocol to perform aCGH on archived FFPE leiomyosarcoma tissues using the 180k Agilent platform. Preservation age of samples ranged from a few months to seventeen years and the DNA showed a wide range of degradation (when visualised on agarose gels). Consistently high DNA labelling efficiency and low microarray probe-to-probe variation (as measured by the derivative log ratio spread) was seen. Comparison of paired fresh and FFPE samples from identical tumours showed good correlation of CNAs detected. Furthermore, the ability to macro-dissect FFPE samples permitted the detection of CNAs that were masked in fresh tissue. Aberrations were visually confirmed using Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation. These results suggest that archival FFPE tissue, with its relative abundance and attendant clinical data may be used for effective mapping for genomic copy number aberrations in such rare tumours as leiomyosarcoma and potentially unravel clues to tumour origins, progression and ultimately, targeted treatment.

  17. Feline leukemia virus detection by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from cats with lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M L; Haines, D M; Meric, S M; Misra, V

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and DNA was assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 70 cats with lymphosarcoma (LSA). Tissue sections were tested for FeLV gp70 antigen using avidinbiotin complex (ABC) immunohistochemistry (IHC); DNA was extracted and purified from the same tissue blocks for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 166 base pair region of the FeLV long terminal repeat (LTR). Results were related to antemortem FeLV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serum p27 antigen, anatomic site of LSA, and patient age. Viral DNA was detected by PCR in 80% of cases and viral antigen by IHC in 57% of cases. Seventeen cases were PCR-positive and IHC-negative; one case was PCR-negative and IHC-positive. Clinical records included FeLV ELISA results for 30 of 70 cats. All 19 ELISA-positive cats were positive by PCR and IHC; of the 11 ELISA-negative cats that were negative by IHC, seven were positive by PCR. When evaluated according to anatomic site, FeLV DNA and antigen were detected less frequently in intestinal LSAs than in multicentric and mediastinal tumors. Lymphosarcoma tissues from cats < 7 yr were several fold more likely to be positive for FeLV antigen by IHC than were tumors from cats > or = 7 yr. However, there was no significant difference in PCR detection of FeLV provirus between LSAs from cats < 7 yr and those > or = 7 yr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:8269365

  18. Reliable PCR quantitation of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptor mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is independent of prior macro-dissection.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Hennig, Guido; Kyndi, Marianne; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Myhre, Simen; Sørlie, Therese; Overgaard, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression analysis on messenger RNA (mRNA) purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is increasingly used for research purposes. Tissue heterogeneity may question specificity and interpretation of results from mRNA isolated from a whole slide section, and thresholds for minimal tumor content in the paraffin block or macrodissection are used to avoid contamination from non-neoplastic tissue. The aim was to test if mRNA from tissue surrounding breast cancer affected quantification of estrogen receptor α (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2), by comparing gene expression from whole slide and tumor-enriched sections, and correlating gene expression from whole slide sections with corresponding immunohistochemistry. Gene expression, based on mRNA extracted from a training set (36 paraffin blocks) and two validation sets (133 + 1,083 blocks), were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for all samples, as well as by microarray for 133 validation samples. In the training set, agreement between high vs. low mRNA expression from whole slide and tumor-enriched sections was absolute for ESR1 and ERBB2, and 83 % for PGR. Overall agreements, when comparing mRNA expression to immunohistochemistry, were 100 % (ERBB2), 89 % (ESR1) and 83 % (PGR), which was confirmed in the validation sets. Percentage of tumor in the sections did not influence the results. In conclusion, reliable quantification of ESR1, PGR and ERBB2 mRNA expression can be obtained from a whole slide section, and correlates well with immunohistochemistry. Prior removal of surrounding tissue was found to be unnecessary even with minimal tumor content in the section. PMID:24100522

  19. Gene fusion detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded benign fibrous histiocytomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Walther, Charles; Hofvander, Jakob; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Domanski, Henryk A; Gisselsson, David; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Doyle, Leona A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (FH) can be subdivided into several morphological and clinical subgroups. Recently, gene fusions involving either one of two protein kinase C genes (PRKCB and PRKCD) or the ALK gene were described in FH. We here wanted to evaluate the frequency of PRKCB and PRKCD gene fusions in FH. Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, 36 cases could be analyzed. PRKCB or PRKCD rearrangements were seen in five tumors: 1/7 regular, 0/3 aneurysmal, 0/6 cellular, 2/7 epithelioid, 0/1 atypical, 2/10 deep, and 0/2 metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the status of the ALK gene in selected cases, finding rearrangements in 3/7 epithelioid and 0/1 atypical lesions. To assess the gene fusion status of FH further, deep sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was performed on FFPE tissue from eight cases with unknown gene fusion status, as well as on two FH and six soft tissue sarcomas with known gene fusions; of the latter eight positive controls, the expected fusion transcript was found in all but one, while 2/8 FH with unknown genetic status showed fusion transcripts, including a novel KIRREL/PRKCA chimera. Thus, also a third member of the PRKC family is involved in FH tumorigenesis. We conclude that gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological (regular, cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid) and clinical (cutaneous, deep) subsets of FH, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases. In epithelioid lesions, however, rearrangements of PRKC or ALK were seen, as mutually exclusive events, in the majority (5/7) of cases. Finally, the study also shows that RNA-Seq is a promising tool for identifying gene fusions in FFPE tissues.

  20. Proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded glomeruli suggests depletion of glomerular filtration barrier proteins in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Kenneth; Vethe, Heidrun; Skogstrand, Trude; Leh, Sabine; Dahl, Tone D.; Tenstad, Olav; Berven, Frode S.; Reed, Rolf K.; Vikse, Bjørn Egil

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that hypertension may cause glomerular damage, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. Methods In the present study, we used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue to investigate changes in the glomerular proteome in the non-clipped kidney of two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats, with special emphasis on the glomerular filtration barrier. 2K1C hypertension was induced in 6-week-old Wistar Hannover rats (n = 6) that were sacrificed 23 weeks later and compared with age-matched sham-operated controls (n = 6). Tissue was stored in FFPE tissue blocks and later prepared on tissue slides for laser microdissection. Glomeruli without severe morphological damage were isolated, and the proteomes were analysed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results 2K1C glomeruli showed reduced abundance of proteins important for slit diaphragm complex, such as nephrin, podocin and neph1. The podocyte foot process had a pattern of reduced abundance of transmembrane proteins but unchanged abundances of the podocyte cytoskeletal proteins synaptopodin and α-actinin-4. Lower abundance of important glomerular basement membrane proteins was seen. Possible glomerular markers of damage with increased abundance in 2K1C were transgelin, desmin and acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 1. Conclusions Microdissection and tandem mass spectrometry could be used to investigate the proteome of isolated glomeruli from FFPE tissue. Glomerular filtration barrier proteins had reduced abundance in the non-clipped kidney of 2K1C hypertensive rats. PMID:25129444

  1. Detection and identification of yeasts from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue by use of PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simner, Patricia J; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Uhl, James R; Wengenack, Nancy L; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-11-01

    Diagnosis of yeast infection is typically accomplished by fungal smear and culture, histopathologic examination, and/or serologic studies. Newer assays based on mass spectrometry may be useful for yeast identification when histologic examination is inconclusive, fungal cultures are not ordered, or cultures fail to yield a causative agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the PLEX-ID broad fungal assay to accurately detect and identify yeasts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Tissue samples from 78 FFPE specimens with both histopathology and corresponding culture results for a variety of yeasts were tested using the PLEX-ID broad fungal assay. A 40-μm FFPE tissue section from each specimen was digested with proteinase K followed by nucleic acid extraction and PCR using broad-range fungal primers. Yeast DNA in amplified products was identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Discordant results were resolved by D2 rRNA gene sequencing. PLEX-ID analysis detected yeast DNA in 78.2% (61/78) of the cases, of which 91.8% (56/61) were concordant with culture results. Of the 5 discordant positive results, 4 PLEX-ID results were considered to result from environmental contaminants, while 1 clinically important discrepancy was observed (Blastomyces dermatitidis by culture and Cryptococcus neoformans by PLEX-ID). Sequencing of the discordant sample was unsuccessful. The majority of histopathology results (89.7% [70/78]) correlated with culture results. The PLEX-ID broad fungal assay identifies fungi directly from FFPE tissues and can be a useful adjunct to traditional culture and histopathology tests.

  2. Mining the Archives: A Cross-Platform Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Webster, A Francina; Zumbo, Paul; Fostel, Jennifer; Gandara, Jorge; Hester, Susan D; Recio, Leslie; Williams, Andrew; Wood, Charles E; Yauk, Carole L; Mason, Christopher E

    2015-12-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a potentially invaluable resource for transcriptomic research. However, use of FFPE samples in genomic studies has been limited by technical challenges resulting from nucleic acid degradation. Here we evaluated gene expression profiles derived from fresh-frozen (FRO) and FFPE mouse liver tissues preserved in formalin for different amounts of time using 2 DNA microarray protocols and 2 whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) library preparation methodologies. The ribo-depletion protocol outperformed the other methods by having the highest correlations of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and best overlap of pathways, between FRO and FFPE groups. The effect of sample time in formalin (18 h or 3 weeks) on gene expression profiles indicated that test article treatment, not preservation method, was the main driver of gene expression profiles. Meta- and pathway analyses indicated that biological responses were generally consistent for 18 h and 3 week FFPE samples compared with FRO samples. However, clear erosion of signal intensity with time in formalin was evident, and DEG numbers differed by platform and preservation method. Lastly, we investigated the effect of time in paraffin on genomic profiles. Ribo-depletion RNA-seq analysis of 8-, 19-, and 26-year-old control blocks resulted in comparable quality metrics, including expected distributions of mapped reads to exonic, untranslated region, intronic, and ribosomal fractions of the transcriptome. Overall, our results indicate that FFPE samples are appropriate for use in genomic studies in which frozen samples are not available, and that ribo-depletion RNA-seq is the preferred method for this type of analysis in archival and long-aged FFPE samples. PMID:26361796

  3. Gene fusion detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded benign fibrous histiocytomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Walther, Charles; Hofvander, Jakob; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Domanski, Henryk A; Gisselsson, David; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Doyle, Leona A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (FH) can be subdivided into several morphological and clinical subgroups. Recently, gene fusions involving either one of two protein kinase C genes (PRKCB and PRKCD) or the ALK gene were described in FH. We here wanted to evaluate the frequency of PRKCB and PRKCD gene fusions in FH. Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, 36 cases could be analyzed. PRKCB or PRKCD rearrangements were seen in five tumors: 1/7 regular, 0/3 aneurysmal, 0/6 cellular, 2/7 epithelioid, 0/1 atypical, 2/10 deep, and 0/2 metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the status of the ALK gene in selected cases, finding rearrangements in 3/7 epithelioid and 0/1 atypical lesions. To assess the gene fusion status of FH further, deep sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was performed on FFPE tissue from eight cases with unknown gene fusion status, as well as on two FH and six soft tissue sarcomas with known gene fusions; of the latter eight positive controls, the expected fusion transcript was found in all but one, while 2/8 FH with unknown genetic status showed fusion transcripts, including a novel KIRREL/PRKCA chimera. Thus, also a third member of the PRKC family is involved in FH tumorigenesis. We conclude that gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological (regular, cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid) and clinical (cutaneous, deep) subsets of FH, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases. In epithelioid lesions, however, rearrangements of PRKC or ALK were seen, as mutually exclusive events, in the majority (5/7) of cases. Finally, the study also shows that RNA-Seq is a promising tool for identifying gene fusions in FFPE tissues. PMID:26121314

  4. Quantitative RT-PCR assay of HER2 mRNA expression in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangjung; Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lee, Dongsup; Cho, Yoonjung; Park, Kwang Hwa; Jung, Dongju; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2, also known as erbB2) expression is a preparatory process to decide a treatment strategy for breast cancer patients. 20-30% of breast cancer patients have HER2 overexpression, and they usually show poor recovery rate. For detection of HER2 expression, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods are conventionally used. Although these methods are accurate and reliable, their time-consuming process and high cost need a concise method with high sensitivity and accuracy. As a complementary method to the current IHC/FISH standard techniques, PCR-based methods have been developed. Here we employed a quantitative PCR method to detect HER2 expression in one hundred ninety nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissue samples from the patients treated over two years at the Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Republic of Korea. Relative expression of HER2 mRNA in the FFPE samples was analyzed using a quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) method and the obtained HER2 expression levels were compared with those from IHC/FISH methods. Our results show that the RT-qPCR method was highly concordant with IHC/FISH methods for detecting HER2 expression. Overall sensitivity and specificity of the BrightGen HER2 RT-qDx assay kit (Syantra, Calgary, Canada), which is a kit we used for RT-qPCR analyses, were 93.0% and 89.8% (P < 0.0001), respectively. The diagnostic cut-off value of HER2 RT-qDx for the clinical samples was determined by likelihood ratio, among which the highest likelihood ratio of relative HER2 mRNA levels was over 105.5 (AUC = 0.9466) with the highest sensitivity and specificity. Our study indicates that quantification of HER2 mRNA expression with the RT-qPCR could be an alternative method of conventional IHC/FISH methods.

  5. Equivalence of protein inventories obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue in multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry shotgun proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Robert W; Brock, Jonathan W C; Tanksley, Jarred P; Li, Ming; Washington, Mary Kay; Slebos, Robbert J C; Liebler, Daniel C

    2009-08-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens comprise a potentially valuable resource for retrospective biomarker discovery studies, and recent work indicates the feasibility of using shotgun proteomics to characterize FFPE tissue proteins. A critical question in the field is whether proteomes characterized in FFPE specimens are equivalent to proteomes in corresponding fresh or frozen tissue specimens. Here we compared shotgun proteomic analyses of frozen and FFPE specimens prepared from the same colon adenoma tissues. Following deparaffinization, rehydration, and tryptic digestion under mild conditions, FFPE specimens corresponding to 200 microg of protein yielded approximately 400 confident protein identifications in a one-dimensional reverse phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The major difference between frozen and FFPE proteomes was a decrease in the proportions of lysine C-terminal to arginine C-terminal peptides observed, but these differences had little effect on the proteins identified. No covalent peptide modifications attributable to formaldehyde chemistry were detected by analyses of the MS/MS datasets, which suggests that undetected, cross-linked peptides comprise the major class of modifications in FFPE tissues. Fixation of tissue for up to 2 days in neutral buffered formalin did not adversely impact protein identifications. Analysis of archival colon adenoma FFPE specimens indicated equivalent numbers of MS/MS spectral counts and protein group identifications from specimens stored for 1, 3, 5, and 10 years. Combination of peptide isoelectric focusing-based separation with reverse phase LC-MS/MS identified 2554 protein groups in 600 ng of protein from frozen tissue and 2302 protein groups from FFPE tissue with at least two distinct peptide identifications per protein. Analysis of the combined frozen and FFPE data showed a 92% overlap in the protein groups identified. Comparison of gene ontology

  6. Comparison of whole-exome sequencing of matched fresh and formalin fixed paraffin embedded melanoma tumours: implications for clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Johansson, Peter A; Menzies, Alexander M; Dias, Kerith-Rae; Pupo, Gulietta M; Kakavand, Hojabr; Wilmott, James S; Mann, Graham J; Hayward, Nicholas K; Dinger, Marcel E; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    The identification of recurrent driver mutations by whole-exome sequencing (WES) of fresh-frozen human cancers and the subsequent development of novel targeted therapies have recently transformed the treatment of many cancers including melanoma. In routine clinical practice, fresh-frozen tissue is rarely available and mutation testing usually needs to be carried out on archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue, from which DNA is typically fragmented, cross-linked and of lower quality. In this study we aimed to determine whether WES data generated from genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from FFPE tissues can be produced reliably and of clinically-actionable standard. In this study of ten melanoma patients, we compared WES data produced from analysis of gDNA isolated from FFPE tumour tissue with that isolated from fresh-frozen tumour tissue from the same specimen. FFPE samples were sequenced using both Illumina's Nextera and NimbleGen SeqCap exome capture kits. To examine mutations between the two tissue sources and platforms, somatic mutations in the FFPE exomes were called using the matched fresh tissue sequence as a reference. Of the 10 FFPE DNA samples, seven Nextera and four SeqCap samples passed library preparation. On average, there were 5341 and 2246 variants lost in FFPE compared to matched fresh tissue utilising Nextera and SeqCap kits, respectively. In order to explore the feasibility of future clinical implementation of WES, FFPE variants in 27 genes of important clinical relevance in melanoma were assessed. The average concordance rate was 43.2% over a total of 1299 calls for the chosen genes in the FFPE DNA. For the current clinically most important melanoma mutations, 0/3 BRAF and 6/8 (75%) NRAS FFPE calls were concordant with the fresh tissue result, which was confirmed using a Sequenom OncoCarta Panel. The poor performance of FFPE WES indicates that specialised library construction to account for low quality DNA and further refinements will

  7. Equivalence of protein inventories obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue in multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry shotgun proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Robert W; Brock, Jonathan W C; Tanksley, Jarred P; Li, Ming; Washington, Mary Kay; Slebos, Robbert J C; Liebler, Daniel C

    2009-08-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens comprise a potentially valuable resource for retrospective biomarker discovery studies, and recent work indicates the feasibility of using shotgun proteomics to characterize FFPE tissue proteins. A critical question in the field is whether proteomes characterized in FFPE specimens are equivalent to proteomes in corresponding fresh or frozen tissue specimens. Here we compared shotgun proteomic analyses of frozen and FFPE specimens prepared from the same colon adenoma tissues. Following deparaffinization, rehydration, and tryptic digestion under mild conditions, FFPE specimens corresponding to 200 microg of protein yielded approximately 400 confident protein identifications in a one-dimensional reverse phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The major difference between frozen and FFPE proteomes was a decrease in the proportions of lysine C-terminal to arginine C-terminal peptides observed, but these differences had little effect on the proteins identified. No covalent peptide modifications attributable to formaldehyde chemistry were detected by analyses of the MS/MS datasets, which suggests that undetected, cross-linked peptides comprise the major class of modifications in FFPE tissues. Fixation of tissue for up to 2 days in neutral buffered formalin did not adversely impact protein identifications. Analysis of archival colon adenoma FFPE specimens indicated equivalent numbers of MS/MS spectral counts and protein group identifications from specimens stored for 1, 3, 5, and 10 years. Combination of peptide isoelectric focusing-based separation with reverse phase LC-MS/MS identified 2554 protein groups in 600 ng of protein from frozen tissue and 2302 protein groups from FFPE tissue with at least two distinct peptide identifications per protein. Analysis of the combined frozen and FFPE data showed a 92% overlap in the protein groups identified. Comparison of gene ontology

  8. Comparison of whole-exome sequencing of matched fresh and formalin fixed paraffin embedded melanoma tumours: implications for clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Johansson, Peter A; Menzies, Alexander M; Dias, Kerith-Rae; Pupo, Gulietta M; Kakavand, Hojabr; Wilmott, James S; Mann, Graham J; Hayward, Nicholas K; Dinger, Marcel E; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    The identification of recurrent driver mutations by whole-exome sequencing (WES) of fresh-frozen human cancers and the subsequent development of novel targeted therapies have recently transformed the treatment of many cancers including melanoma. In routine clinical practice, fresh-frozen tissue is rarely available and mutation testing usually needs to be carried out on archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue, from which DNA is typically fragmented, cross-linked and of lower quality. In this study we aimed to determine whether WES data generated from genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from FFPE tissues can be produced reliably and of clinically-actionable standard. In this study of ten melanoma patients, we compared WES data produced from analysis of gDNA isolated from FFPE tumour tissue with that isolated from fresh-frozen tumour tissue from the same specimen. FFPE samples were sequenced using both Illumina's Nextera and NimbleGen SeqCap exome capture kits. To examine mutations between the two tissue sources and platforms, somatic mutations in the FFPE exomes were called using the matched fresh tissue sequence as a reference. Of the 10 FFPE DNA samples, seven Nextera and four SeqCap samples passed library preparation. On average, there were 5341 and 2246 variants lost in FFPE compared to matched fresh tissue utilising Nextera and SeqCap kits, respectively. In order to explore the feasibility of future clinical implementation of WES, FFPE variants in 27 genes of important clinical relevance in melanoma were assessed. The average concordance rate was 43.2% over a total of 1299 calls for the chosen genes in the FFPE DNA. For the current clinically most important melanoma mutations, 0/3 BRAF and 6/8 (75%) NRAS FFPE calls were concordant with the fresh tissue result, which was confirmed using a Sequenom OncoCarta Panel. The poor performance of FFPE WES indicates that specialised library construction to account for low quality DNA and further refinements will

  9. N-glycan MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Enables the Delineation of Ovarian Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Everest-Dass, Arun V; Briggs, Matthew T; Kaur, Gurjeet; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is a fatal gynaecological malignancy in adult women with a five-year overall survival rate of only 30%. Glycomic and glycoproteomic profiling studies have reported extensive protein glycosylation pattern alterations in ovarian cancer. Therefore, spatio-temporal investigation of these glycosylation changes may unearth tissue-specific changes that occur in the development and progression of ovarian cancer. A novel method for investigating tissue-specific N-linked glycans is using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections that can spatially profile N-glycan compositions released from proteins in tissue-specific regions. In this study, tissue regions of interest (e.g. tumor, stroma, adipose tissue and necrotic areas) were isolated from FFPE tissue sections of advanced serous ovarian cancers (n = 3). PGC-LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-MSI were used as complementary techniques to firstly generate structural information on the tissue-specific glycans in order to then obtain high resolution images of the glycan structure distribution in ovarian cancer tissue. The N-linked glycan repertoires carried by the proteins in these tissue regions were structurally characterized for the first time in FFPE ovarian cancer tissue regions, using enzymatic peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) release of N-glycans. The released glycans were analyzed by porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatography (PGC-LC) and collision induced electrospray negative mode MS fragmentation analysis. The N-glycan profiles identified by this analysis were then used to determine the location and distribution of each N-glycan on FFPE ovarian cancer sections that were treated with PNGase F using high resolution MALDI-MSI. A tissue-specific distribution of N-glycan structures identified particular regions of the ovarian cancer sections. For example, high mannose glycans were predominantly expressed in the

  10. Multiclass Carcinogenic DNA Adduct Quantification in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Yao, Lihua; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Rosenquist, Thomas A; Grollman, Arthur P; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    DNA adducts are a measure of internal exposure to genotoxicants and an important biomarker for human risk assessment. However, the employment of DNA adducts as biomarkers in human studies is often restricted because fresh-frozen tissues are not available. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with clinical diagnosis are readily accessible. Recently, our laboratory reported that DNA adducts of aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic component of Aristolochia herbs used in traditional Chinese medicines worldwide, can be recovered quantitatively from FFPE tissues. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of our method for retrieval of DNA adducts from archived tissue by measuring DNA adducts derived from four other classes of human carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), and N-nitroso compounds (NOCs). Deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (dG-N(2)-B[a]PDE); the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP); the HAA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP); and the dG adducts of the NOC 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), O(6)-methyl-dG (O(6)-Me-dG) and O(6)-pyridyloxobutyl-dG (O(6)-POB-dG), formed in liver, lung, bladder, pancreas, or colon were recovered in comparable yields from fresh-frozen and FFPE preserved tissues of rodents treated with the procarcinogens. Quantification was achieved by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-IT-MS(3)). These advancements in the technology of DNA adduct retrieval from FFPE tissue clear the way for use of archived pathology samples in molecular epidemiology studies designed to assess the causal role of exposure to hazardous chemicals

  11. MicroRNA expression signatures for the prediction of BRCA1/2 mutation-associated hereditary breast cancer in paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanic, Miljana; Yanowski, Kira; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Rodriguez-Pinilla, María Socorro; Marquez-Rodas, Iván; Osorio, Ana; Pisano, David G; Martinez-Delgado, Beatriz; Benítez, Javier

    2015-02-01

    Screening for germline mutations in breast cancer-associated genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is indicated for patients with breast cancer from high-risk breast cancer families and influences both treatment options and clinical management. However, only 25% of selected patients test positive for BRCA1/2 mutation, indicating that additional diagnostic biomarkers are necessary. We analyzed 124 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from patients with hereditary (104) and sporadic (20) invasive breast cancer, divided into two series (A and B). Microarray expression profiling of 829 human miRNAs was performed on 76 samples (Series A), and bioinformatics tool Prophet was used to develop and test a microarray classifier. Samples were stratified into a training set (n = 38) for microarray classifier generation and a test set (n = 38) for signature validation. A 35-miRNA microarray classifier was generated for the prediction of BRCA1/2 mutation status with a reported 95% (95% CI = 0.88-1.0) and 92% (95% CI: 0.84-1.0) accuracy in the training and the test set, respectively. Differential expression of 12 miRNAs between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers versus noncarriers was validated by qPCR in an independent tumor series B (n = 48). Logistic regression model based on the expression of six miRNAs (miR-142-3p, miR-505*, miR-1248, miR-181a-2*, miR-25* and miR-340*) discriminated between tumors from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers with 92% (95% CI: 0.84-0.99) accuracy. In conclusion, we identified miRNA expression signatures predictive of BRCA1/2 mutation status in routinely available FFPE breast tumor samples, which may be useful to complement current patient selection criteria for gene testing by identifying individuals with high likelihood of being BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  12. N-glycan MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Enables the Delineation of Ovarian Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Everest-Dass, Arun V; Briggs, Matthew T; Kaur, Gurjeet; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is a fatal gynaecological malignancy in adult women with a five-year overall survival rate of only 30%. Glycomic and glycoproteomic profiling studies have reported extensive protein glycosylation pattern alterations in ovarian cancer. Therefore, spatio-temporal investigation of these glycosylation changes may unearth tissue-specific changes that occur in the development and progression of ovarian cancer. A novel method for investigating tissue-specific N-linked glycans is using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections that can spatially profile N-glycan compositions released from proteins in tissue-specific regions. In this study, tissue regions of interest (e.g. tumor, stroma, adipose tissue and necrotic areas) were isolated from FFPE tissue sections of advanced serous ovarian cancers (n = 3). PGC-LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-MSI were used as complementary techniques to firstly generate structural information on the tissue-specific glycans in order to then obtain high resolution images of the glycan structure distribution in ovarian cancer tissue. The N-linked glycan repertoires carried by the proteins in these tissue regions were structurally characterized for the first time in FFPE ovarian cancer tissue regions, using enzymatic peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) release of N-glycans. The released glycans were analyzed by porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatography (PGC-LC) and collision induced electrospray negative mode MS fragmentation analysis. The N-glycan profiles identified by this analysis were then used to determine the location and distribution of each N-glycan on FFPE ovarian cancer sections that were treated with PNGase F using high resolution MALDI-MSI. A tissue-specific distribution of N-glycan structures identified particular regions of the ovarian cancer sections. For example, high mannose glycans were predominantly expressed in the

  13. Coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction enables selective identification of K-Ras mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaorong; Xie, Li; Hou, Zhibo; Qian, Xiaoping; Yu, Lixia; Wei, Jia; Ding, Yitao; Liu, Baorui

    2011-09-01

    Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing is the standard assay for the detection of K-Ras mutations. However, this method is deficient in identifying small numbers of mutation-bearing cells, and tumor-cell enrichment methods such as microdissection or macrodissection are labor intensive and not always achievable. We applied the recently described coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction, which amplifies minority alleles selectively, to detect K-Ras mutations directly in 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens and compared the results with those of conventional polymerase chain reaction. To avoid a false-negative result from the coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction assay, we applied a more sensitive peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction method as the gold standard. Dilution experiments indicated an approximately 5-fold improvement in sensitivity with coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing. Conventional polymerase chain reaction detected K-Ras mutations in 11 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens (37.9%), whereas coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction could identify all of those mutations as well as mutations in 10 additional samples, for a total of 21 (72.4%, P = .002) of 29. Unlike peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction, coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction identified all K-Ras mutations in specimens in which tumor cells accounted for at least 20% of the total. Adoption of coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction is straightforward and requires no additional reagents or instruments. The technique is a good strategy to detect K-Ras mutations selectively in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

  14. Detection of MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous soft tissue tumors from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue: comparison of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Libbrecht, Louis

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the detection of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification was evaluated in lipomatous soft tissue tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a PCR-based technique, in comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These 2 techniques were evaluated in a series of 77 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lipomatous tumors (27 benign adipose tumors, 28 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, 18 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, and 4 pleomorphic liposarcomas). Using MLPA, with a cut-off ratio of >2, 36/71 samples (22 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, and 14 dedifferentiated liposarcomas) showed MDM2 and CDK4 amplification. Using FISH as gold standard, MLPA showed a sensitivity of 90% (36/40) and a specificity of 100% (31/31) in detecting amplification of MDM2 and CDK4 in lipomatous soft tissue tumors. In case of high-level amplification (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio >5), concordance was 100%. Four cases of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (4/26, 15%) with a low MDM2 and CDK4 amplification level (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio ranging between 2 and 2.5) detected by FISH showed no amplification by MLPA, although gain of MDM2 and CDK4 (ratios ranging between 1.6 and 1.9) was seen with MLPA. No amplification was detected in benign lipomatous tumors and pleomorphic liposarcomas. Furthermore, there was a very high concordance between the ratios obtained by FISH and MLPA. In conclusion, MLPA proves to be an appropriate and straightforward technique for screening MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous tumors, especially when a correct cut-off value and reference samples are chosen, and could be considered a good alternative to FISH to determine MDM2 and CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas. Moreover, because MLPA, as a multiplex technique, allows simultaneous detection of multiple chromosomal changes of interest, it could be in the future a very reliable and fast molecular analysis on

  15. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A.; Starbuck, Kristen D.; Kim, James C.; Bernay, Derek C.; Scangas, George A.; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Louis, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of cancer is rapidly evolving as a result of improvement in genomic technologies and the growing applicability of such analyses to clinical oncology. Array based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA), particularly in solid tumors, and has been applied to the study of malignant gliomas. In the clinical setting, however, gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies and thus formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis, especially for rare types of gliomas. Moreover, the biological basis for the marked intratumoral heterogeneity in gliomas is most readily addressed in FFPE material. Therefore, for gliomas, the ability to use DNA from FFPE tissue is essential for both clinical and research applications. In this study, we have constructed a custom bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array and show excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting CNAs in a panel of paired frozen and FFPE glioma samples. Our study demonstrates a high concordance rate between CNAs detected in FFPE compared to frozen DNA. We have also developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. This labeling technique was applied to a panel of biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA) to identify genetic changes unique to each component. Together, results from these studies suggest that BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH are sensitive tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and can enable genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas. PMID:21080181

  16. Real-time PCR assay based on the differential expression of microRNAs and protein-coding genes for molecular classification of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded medulloblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Kunder, Ratika; Jalali, Rakesh; Sridhar, Epari; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Goel, Naina; Goel, Atul; Gupta, Tejpal; Krishnatry, Rahul; Kannan, Sadhana; Kurkure, Purna; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar; Shetty, Prakash; Biyani, Naresh; Korshunov, Andrey; Pfister, Stefan M.; Northcott, Paul A.; Shirsat, Neelam Vishwanath

    2013-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma has recently been found to consist of 4 molecularly and clinically distinct subgroups: WNT, Sonce hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4. Deregulated microRNA expression is known to contribute to pathogenesis and has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic potential in the classification of various cancers. Methods Molecular subgrouping and microRNA expression analysis of 44 frozen and 59 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded medulloblastomas from an Indian cohort were carried out by real-time RT-PCR assay. Results The differential expression of 9 microRNAs in the 4 molecular subgroups was validated in a set of 101 medulloblastomas. The tumors in the WNT subgroup showed significant (P < .0001) overexpression of miR-193a-3p, miR-224, miR-148a, miR-23b, and miR-365. Reliable classification of medulloblastomas into the 4 molecular subgroups was obtained using a set of 12 protein-coding genes and 9 microRNAs as markers in a real-time RT-PCR assay with an accuracy of 97% as judged by the Prediction Analysis of Microarrays. Age at diagnosis, histology, gender-related incidence, and the relative survival rates of the 4 molecular subgroups in the present Indian cohort were found to be similar to those reported for medulloblastomas from the American and European subcontinent. Non-WNT, non–SHH medulloblastomas underexpressing miR-592 or overexpressing miR-182 were found to have significantly inferior survival rates, indicating utility of these miRNAs as markers for risk stratification. Conclusions The microRNA based real-time PCR assay is rapid, simple, inexpensive, and useful for molecular classification and risk stratification of medulloblastomas, in particular formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues, wherein the expression profile of protein-coding genes is often less reliable due to RNA fragmentation. PMID:24203893

  17. [Evaluation of 3 methods of DNA extraction from paraffin-embedded material for the amplification of genomic DNA using PCR].

    PubMed

    Mesquita, R A; Anzai, E K; Oliveira, R N; Nunes, F D

    2001-01-01

    There are several protocols reported in the literature for the extraction of genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Genomic DNA is utilized in molecular analyses, including PCR. This study compares three different methods for the extraction of genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia) and non-formalin-fixed (normal oral mucosa) samples: phenol with enzymatic digestion, and silica with and without enzymatic digestion. The amplification of DNA by means of the PCR technique was carried out with primers for the exon 7 of human keratin type 14. Amplicons were analyzed by means of electrophoresis in an 8% polyacrylamide gel with 5% glycerol, followed by silver-staining visualization. The phenol/enzymatic digestion and the silica/enzymatic digestion methods provided amplicons from both tissue samples. The method described is a potential aid in the establishment of the histopathologic diagnosis and in retrospective studies with archival paraffin-embedded samples.

  18. Real-time quantitative PCR in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pleural tissue in patients from a high HIV endemic area.

    PubMed

    Baba, Kamaldeen; Pathak, Sharad; Sviland, Lisbeth; Langeland, Nina; Hoosen, Anwar A; Asjo, Birgitta; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne M; Mustafa, Tehmina

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) based on formalin-fixed biopsies from patients living in high TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic areas. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) assay targeting a segment of the gene for mycobacterial 65-kd heat shock protein was developed and evaluated on pleural biopsies from 25 patients clinically diagnosed as having TB, on the basis of the good response to treatment, and from 11 controls. A nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) assay for the repetitive genetic sequence insert IS6110, common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms, was performed for comparison. When compared with N-PCR, the real-time PCR assay gave a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. When compared with clinical diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR (68% and 73%, respectively) was comparable with the sensitivity and specificity of the N-PCR assay (64% and 82%, respectively). There were no major differences in the diagnostic validity for the confirmed TB/HIV coinfected patients compared with the results from the whole TB group. In conclusion, the overall accuracy of the real-time PCR assay was comparable with that of the N-PCR and both were equally useful as diagnostic tools in the setting of a HIV coinfection. The real-time PCR has the additional advantage of a short turn-around time, low risk of sample contamination, and offers the possibility to quantify bacterial load, making it a powerful tool for the rapid diagnosis of TB pleuritis.

  19. Real-time quantitative PCR in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pleural tissue in patients from a high HIV endemic area.

    PubMed

    Baba, Kamaldeen; Pathak, Sharad; Sviland, Lisbeth; Langeland, Nina; Hoosen, Anwar A; Asjo, Birgitta; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne M; Mustafa, Tehmina

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) based on formalin-fixed biopsies from patients living in high TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic areas. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) assay targeting a segment of the gene for mycobacterial 65-kd heat shock protein was developed and evaluated on pleural biopsies from 25 patients clinically diagnosed as having TB, on the basis of the good response to treatment, and from 11 controls. A nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) assay for the repetitive genetic sequence insert IS6110, common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms, was performed for comparison. When compared with N-PCR, the real-time PCR assay gave a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. When compared with clinical diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR (68% and 73%, respectively) was comparable with the sensitivity and specificity of the N-PCR assay (64% and 82%, respectively). There were no major differences in the diagnostic validity for the confirmed TB/HIV coinfected patients compared with the results from the whole TB group. In conclusion, the overall accuracy of the real-time PCR assay was comparable with that of the N-PCR and both were equally useful as diagnostic tools in the setting of a HIV coinfection. The real-time PCR has the additional advantage of a short turn-around time, low risk of sample contamination, and offers the possibility to quantify bacterial load, making it a powerful tool for the rapid diagnosis of TB pleuritis. PMID:18382372

  20. Immunolocalization of MAP-2 in Routinely Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Guinea Pig Brain Sections Using Microwave Irradiation: A Comparison of Different Combinations of Antibody Clones and Antigen Retrieval Buffer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Robert K.; Pleva, Christina M.; Hamilton, Tracey A.; Petrali, John P.

    2005-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of different microwave pretreatment methods to retrieve microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded guinea pig brain sections. Brain sections, microwave pretreated in boiling sodium citrate, citric acid, Tris hydrochloride, and EDTA buffers of pH 4, 6, and 8, were labeled with four different clones of MAP-2 monoclonal antibodies. No MAP-2 immunoreactivity was observed in control sections processed without microwave pretreatment. Optimal MAP-2 immunoreactivity was observed only when MAP-2 antibody clone AP18 was used in conjunction with citric acid buffer of pH 6.0. Using this combination, brain sections from nerve agent soman-exposed guinea pigs were found to exhibit marked reduction in MAP-2 immunostaining in the hippocampus. These observations suggest that the clone of the antibody in addition to the type and pH of antigen retrieval (AR) solution are important variables to be considered for establishing an optimal AR technique. When studying counterpart antigens of species other than that to which the antibodies were originally raised, different antibody clones must be tested in combination with different microwave-assisted AR (MAR) methods. This MAR method makes it possible to conduct retrospective studies on archival guinea pig brain paraffin blocks to evaluate changes in neuronal MAP-2 expression as a consequence of chemical warfare nerve agent toxicity.

  1. Evaluation of Mutational Testing of Preneoplastic Barrett's Mucosa by Next-Generation Sequencing of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Endoscopic Samples for Detection of Concurrent Dysplasia and Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Del Portillo, Armando; Lagana, Stephen M; Yao, Yuan; Uehara, Takeshi; Jhala, Nirag; Ganguly, Tapan; Nagy, Peter; Gutierrez, Jorge; Luna, Aesis; Abrams, Julian; Liu, Yang; Brand, Randall; Sepulveda, Jorge L; Falk, Gary W; Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2015-07-01

    Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (BIM) may harbor genomic mutations before the histologic appearance of dysplasia and cancer and requires frequent surveillance. We explored next-generation sequencing to detect mutations with the analytical sensitivity required to predict concurrent high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus by testing nonneoplastic BIM. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) routine biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection samples from 32 patients were tested: nonprogressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-NP) with BIM, who never had a diagnosis of dysplasia or EAC (N = 13); progressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-P) with BIM and a worse diagnosis of HGD or EAC (N = 15); and four BIM-negative samples. No mutations were detected in the BIM-NP (0 of 13) or BIM-negative samples, whereas the BIM-P samples had mutations in 6 (75%) of 8 cases in TP53, APC, and CDKN2A (P = 0.0005), detected in samples with as low as 20% BIM. We found that next-generation sequencing from routine FFPE nonneoplastic Barrett's esophagus samples can detect multiple mutations in minute areas of BIM with high analytical sensitivity. Next-generation sequencing panels for detection of TP53 and possibly combined mutations in other genes, such as APC and CDKN2A, may be useful in the clinical setting to improve dysplasia and cancer surveillance in patients with Barrett's esophagus. PMID:26068095

  2. Evaluation of Mutational Testing of Preneoplastic Barrett's Mucosa by Next-Generation Sequencing of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Endoscopic Samples for Detection of Concurrent Dysplasia and Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Del Portillo, Armando; Lagana, Stephen M; Yao, Yuan; Uehara, Takeshi; Jhala, Nirag; Ganguly, Tapan; Nagy, Peter; Gutierrez, Jorge; Luna, Aesis; Abrams, Julian; Liu, Yang; Brand, Randall; Sepulveda, Jorge L; Falk, Gary W; Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2015-07-01

    Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (BIM) may harbor genomic mutations before the histologic appearance of dysplasia and cancer and requires frequent surveillance. We explored next-generation sequencing to detect mutations with the analytical sensitivity required to predict concurrent high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus by testing nonneoplastic BIM. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) routine biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection samples from 32 patients were tested: nonprogressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-NP) with BIM, who never had a diagnosis of dysplasia or EAC (N = 13); progressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-P) with BIM and a worse diagnosis of HGD or EAC (N = 15); and four BIM-negative samples. No mutations were detected in the BIM-NP (0 of 13) or BIM-negative samples, whereas the BIM-P samples had mutations in 6 (75%) of 8 cases in TP53, APC, and CDKN2A (P = 0.0005), detected in samples with as low as 20% BIM. We found that next-generation sequencing from routine FFPE nonneoplastic Barrett's esophagus samples can detect multiple mutations in minute areas of BIM with high analytical sensitivity. Next-generation sequencing panels for detection of TP53 and possibly combined mutations in other genes, such as APC and CDKN2A, may be useful in the clinical setting to improve dysplasia and cancer surveillance in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

  3. Evaluation of Mutational Testing of Preneoplastic Barrett's Mucosa by Next-Generation Sequencing of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Endoscopic Samples for Detection of Concurrent Dysplasia and Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Del Portillo, Armando; Lagana, Stephen M.; Yao, Yuan; Uehara, Takeshi; Jhala, Nirag; Ganguly, Tapan; Nagy, Peter; Gutierrez, Jorge; Luna, Aesis; Abrams, Julian; Liu, Yang; Brand, Randall; Sepulveda, Jorge L.; Falk, Gary W.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (BIM) may harbor genomic mutations before the histologic appearance of dysplasia and cancer and requires frequent surveillance. We explored next-generation sequencing to detect mutations with the analytical sensitivity required to predict concurrent high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus by testing nonneoplastic BIM. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) routine biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection samples from 32 patients were tested: nonprogressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-NP) with BIM, who never had a diagnosis of dysplasia or EAC (N = 13); progressors to HGD or EAC (BIM-P) with BIM and a worse diagnosis of HGD or EAC (N = 15); and four BIM-negative samples. No mutations were detected in the BIM-NP (0 of 13) or BIM-negative samples, whereas the BIM-P samples had mutations in 6 (75%) of 8 cases in TP53, APC, and CDKN2A (P = 0.0005), detected in samples with as low as 20% BIM. We found that next-generation sequencing from routine FFPE nonneoplastic Barrett's esophagus samples can detect multiple mutations in minute areas of BIM with high analytical sensitivity. Next-generation sequencing panels for detection of TP53 and possibly combined mutations in other genes, such as APC and CDKN2A, may be useful in the clinical setting to improve dysplasia and cancer surveillance in patients with Barrett's esophagus. PMID:26068095

  4. Analytical performance of a PCR assay for the detection of KRAS mutations (codons 12/13 and 61) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung; Brophy, Victoria H; Cao, Jianli; Velez, Margot; Hoeppner, Corey; Soviero, Stephen; Lawrence, H Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    KRAS mutation testing is mandatory before prescribing anti-epidermal growth factor monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. We describe the performance of a TaqMelt polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay-the cobas® KRAS Mutation Test-designed to detect 19 mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61. The limit of detection was determined using DNA blends from cell lines, plasmids, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Assay performance was compared to Sanger sequencing using a panel of 188 specimens. Discordant specimens were subjected to next generation pyrosequencing (454). Assay repeatability was assessed using a panel of six specimens. A >95% correct mutation call rate was obtained in all specimen types with ~5% mutant alleles at DNA inputs of 0.8-6.3 ng per PCR reaction; 100% detection rate was observed at the recommended DNA input of 50 ng. The positive percent agreement with Sanger was 97.5% (79/81) for codons 12/13 and 85.7% (6/7) for codon 61. Negative percent agreement was 94.4% (101/107) for codon 12/13 and 99.4% (180/181) for codon 61. Nine of 10 discordant specimens yielded 454 results consistent with the cobas® results. With repeated testing, the assay showed a correct call rate of 100% (192/192) for all operators, instruments, reagent lots, and days tested. The cobas® test detects KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 at a limit of detection of <5%. The PCR assay was more sensitive and specific than Sanger sequencing, and performance was highly reproducible. Test performance was not influenced by various endogenous interfering substances or common gut microbes.

  5. HPV16 detection by qPCR method in relation to quantity and quality of DNA extracted from archival formalin fixed and paraffin embedded head and neck cancer tissues by three commercially available kits.

    PubMed

    Biesaga, Beata; Janecka, Anna; Mucha-Małecka, Anna; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Szostek, Sława; Słonina, Dorota; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare HPV16 detection by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in relation to the quantity and quality of DNA isolated from 21 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) head and neck cancer tissues by three commercially available kits: EX-WAX™ DNA Extraction Kit (M) (Merck Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany), QIAamp(®) DNA FFPE Tissue (Q) (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) and ReliaPrep™ FFPE gDNA Miniprep System (P) (Promega, Madison, USA). Quantity of extracted DNA was assessed spectrophometrically and fluorometrically. Its quality was analyzed using A260/280 and A260/230 ratios and the β-actin fragment amplifiability in qPCR. HPV16 presence was detected by qPCR, using specific primers and TaqMan probe. HPV infection was found in 8 DNA samples extracted with M kit (38.1%) and in 7 (33.3%) isolated with Q and P kits. Three samples from M and Q kits were characterized by HPV16 positivity and lack of β-actin amplifiability. They had significantly lower A260/280 ratio (M: 1.6±0.0, p=0.044 and Q: 1.7±0.0, p=0.016) compared to samples with both fragments amplification (M: 1.7±0.0 and Q: 1.9±0.0). Therefore, for HPV detection by qPCR in FFPE tissues we recommend ReliaPrep™ FFPE gDNA Miniprep System.

  6. Optimal reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors controlling for tumor cell content and decay of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Sørensen, Brita S; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Reliable determination of gene-expression levels from qRT-PCR requires accurate normalization of target genes to reference genes in order to remove nonbiological variation. Reference genes are ideally constitutively expressed in every cell, but many genes used for normalization has been shown to vary with tissue type, cellular proliferation, cancer progression, and degradation of nucleic acids. Gene-expression analysis is increasingly performed on degraded mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE), giving the option of examining retrospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to select robust reference genes showing stable expression over time in FFPE, controlling for various content of tumor tissue and decay of mRNA because of variable length of storage of the tissue. Sixteen reference genes were quantified by qRT-PCR in 40 FFPE breast tumor samples, stored for 1 to 29 years. Samples included 2 benign lesions and 38 carcinomas with varying tumor content. Stability of the reference genes were determined by the geNorm algorithm. mRNA was successfully extracted from all samples, and the 16 genes quantified in the majority of samples. Results showed 14% loss of amplifiable mRNA per year, corresponding to a half-life of 4.6 years. The 4 most stable expressed genes were CALM2, RPL37A, ACTB, and RPLP0. Several of the other examined genes showed considerably instability over time (GAPDH, PSMC4, OAZ1, IPO8). In conclusion, we identified 4 genes robustly expressed over time and independent of neoplastic tissue content in the FFPE block. Other widely used reference genes were concluded to be less suited for retrospective analysis of FFPE breast samples.

  7. Multi-Center Evaluation of the Fully Automated PCR-Based Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay for Rapid KRAS Mutation Status Determination on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue of Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Solassol, Jérôme; Vendrell, Julie; Märkl, Bruno; Haas, Christian; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Montagut, Clara; Smith, Matthew; O’Sullivan, Brendan; D’Haene, Nicky; Le Mercier, Marie; Grauslund, Morten; Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Burt, Emma; Cotter, Finbarr; Stieber, Daniel; Schmitt, Fernando de Lander; Motta, Valentina; Lauricella, Calogero; Colling, Richard; Soilleux, Elizabeth; Fassan, Matteo; Mescoli, Claudia; Collin, Christine; Pagès, Jean-Christophe; Sillekens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer therapy, the determination of RAS mutational status is needed for therapeutic decision-making. Most prevalent in colorectal cancer are KRAS exon 2 mutations (40% prevalence); lower prevalence is observed for KRAS exon 3 and 4 mutations (6%) and NRAS exon 2, 3, and 4 mutations (5%). The Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Test on the molecular diagnostics Idylla™ platform is a simple (<2 minutes hands-on time), highly reliable, and rapid (approximately 2 hours turnaround time) in vitro diagnostic sample-to-result solution. This test enables qualitative detection of 21 mutations in codons 12, 13, 59, 61, 117, and 146 of the KRAS oncogene being clinically relevant according to the latest clinical guidelines. Here, the performance of the Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay, for Research Use Only, was assessed on archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections by comparing its results with the results previously obtained by routine reference approaches for KRAS genotyping. In case of discordance, samples were assessed further by additional methods. Among the 374 colorectal cancer FFPE samples tested, the overall concordance between the Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay and the confirmed reference routine test results was found to be 98.9%. The Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay enabled detection of 5 additional KRAS-mutated samples not detected previously with reference methods. As conclusion the Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Test can be applied as routine tool in any clinical setting, without needing molecular infrastructure or expertise, to guide the personalized treatment of colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27685259

  8. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Annika; Lüder Ripoli, Florenza; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method.

  9. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, Jørgen; Breinholt, Marie F; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte; Pedersen, Carsten; Lund, Flemming; Mygind, Henrik; Sölétormos, György; Rudnicki, Martin

    2012-12-01

    We compare HER2 receptor amplification analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) DNA copy-number assay following laser capture microdissection (LCM) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with verified ovarian cancer. We speculate that LCM should result in a more accurate assessment of HER2 amplification in our real-time PCR assay compared with IHC and FISH. HER2 overexpression measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR was found in 5.0%, 5.0%, and 22.5%, respectively. HER2 negative results measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR were found in 95%, 92.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. Analysis failed for IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR in 0%, 2.5%, or 17.5% of cases. Concordance between IHC and FISH, IHC and real-time PCR, or FISH and real-time PCR were 89.7%, 72.7%, or 78.1%, respectively. Only few ovarian cancer patients were HER2 overexpressed measured by IHC or FISH and thus could be eligible for antibody-based therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Interestingly, we find an increased number of HER2 positive patients by real-time PCR analysis on microdissected cancer cells, suggesting a number of HER2 positive patients not detected by current methods. Thus, the concept of quantitative measurement of HER2 on microdissected cancer cells should be explored further.

  10. The storage period of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks does not influence the concentration and purity of the isolated DNA in a series of 83 renal and thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nechifor-Boilă, Adela Corina; Loghin, Andrada; Vacariu, Victor; Halaţiu, Vasile Bogdan; Borda, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Optimal recovery of nucleic acids from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is highly dependent on a series of pre-extraction steps, mainly related (but not limited) to fixation. The aim of our study was to investigate if the storage period of the FFPE blocks had a significant effect on the isolated DNA. We examined the quantity and purity of the isolated DNA from 83 FFPE blocks, corresponding to malignant thyroid (n=28) and renal (n=55) carcinomas that had been stored in our department for up to eight years. The DNA extraction protocol was based on a precipitation method (MasterPure™ DNA Purification Kit, Epicentre), in accordance to the manufacturer instructions, optimized in our laboratory. A spectrophotometer was used to determine the yield (A260) and purity (A260/A280 ratio) of the isolated DNA. We successfully isolated good DNA quantity and purity from all our study cases (mean concentration: 223.4 ± 104.16 ng/μL; mean A260/A280 ratio: 1.68 ± 0.09). Moreover, no statistically significant differences were observed between tumor blocks stored for 2-3 years and 7-8 years, respectively, both in terms of DNA quantity (p=0.196) and purity (p=0.663). In conclusion, we successfully validated an efficient, reproducible DNA extraction technique that provided a good range of DNA concentrations and purity, regardless the type of tissue (thyroid or kidney). Moreover, we demonstrated that the storage period of the FFPE blocks does not have a significant influence on the DNA quantity and purity.

  11. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A; Starbuck, Kristen D; Kim, James C; Bernay, Derek C; Scangas, George A; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T; Betensky, Rebecca A; Louis, David N

    2011-04-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA). Because diffuse malignant gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis; FFPE tissues are also needed to study the intratumoral heterogeneity that characterizes these neoplasms. In this paper, we present a combination of evaluations and technical advances that provide strong support for the ready use of oligonucleotide aCGH on FFPE diffuse gliomas. We first compared aCGH using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays in 45 paired frozen and FFPE gliomas, and demonstrate a high concordance rate between FFPE and frozen DNA in an individual clone-level analysis of sensitivity and specificity, assuring that under certain array conditions, frozen and FFPE DNA can perform nearly identically. However, because oligonucleotide arrays offer advantages to BAC arrays in genomic coverage and practical availability, we next developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. To demonstrate utility in FFPE tissues, we applied this approach to biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and demonstrate CNA differences between DNA obtained from the two components. Therefore, BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH can be sensitive and specific tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and novel labeling techniques enable the routine use of oligonucleotide arrays for FFPE DNA. In combination, these advances should facilitate genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas from FFPE tissues. PMID:21080181

  12. The storage period of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks does not influence the concentration and purity of the isolated DNA in a series of 83 renal and thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nechifor-Boilă, Adela Corina; Loghin, Andrada; Vacariu, Victor; Halaţiu, Vasile Bogdan; Borda, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Optimal recovery of nucleic acids from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is highly dependent on a series of pre-extraction steps, mainly related (but not limited) to fixation. The aim of our study was to investigate if the storage period of the FFPE blocks had a significant effect on the isolated DNA. We examined the quantity and purity of the isolated DNA from 83 FFPE blocks, corresponding to malignant thyroid (n=28) and renal (n=55) carcinomas that had been stored in our department for up to eight years. The DNA extraction protocol was based on a precipitation method (MasterPure™ DNA Purification Kit, Epicentre), in accordance to the manufacturer instructions, optimized in our laboratory. A spectrophotometer was used to determine the yield (A260) and purity (A260/A280 ratio) of the isolated DNA. We successfully isolated good DNA quantity and purity from all our study cases (mean concentration: 223.4 ± 104.16 ng/μL; mean A260/A280 ratio: 1.68 ± 0.09). Moreover, no statistically significant differences were observed between tumor blocks stored for 2-3 years and 7-8 years, respectively, both in terms of DNA quantity (p=0.196) and purity (p=0.663). In conclusion, we successfully validated an efficient, reproducible DNA extraction technique that provided a good range of DNA concentrations and purity, regardless the type of tissue (thyroid or kidney). Moreover, we demonstrated that the storage period of the FFPE blocks does not have a significant influence on the DNA quantity and purity. PMID:26429169

  13. HPV16 detection by qPCR method in relation to quantity and quality of DNA extracted from archival formalin fixed and paraffin embedded head and neck cancer tissues by three commercially available kits.

    PubMed

    Biesaga, Beata; Janecka, Anna; Mucha-Małecka, Anna; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Szostek, Sława; Słonina, Dorota; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare HPV16 detection by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in relation to the quantity and quality of DNA isolated from 21 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) head and neck cancer tissues by three commercially available kits: EX-WAX™ DNA Extraction Kit (M) (Merck Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany), QIAamp(®) DNA FFPE Tissue (Q) (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) and ReliaPrep™ FFPE gDNA Miniprep System (P) (Promega, Madison, USA). Quantity of extracted DNA was assessed spectrophometrically and fluorometrically. Its quality was analyzed using A260/280 and A260/230 ratios and the β-actin fragment amplifiability in qPCR. HPV16 presence was detected by qPCR, using specific primers and TaqMan probe. HPV infection was found in 8 DNA samples extracted with M kit (38.1%) and in 7 (33.3%) isolated with Q and P kits. Three samples from M and Q kits were characterized by HPV16 positivity and lack of β-actin amplifiability. They had significantly lower A260/280 ratio (M: 1.6±0.0, p=0.044 and Q: 1.7±0.0, p=0.016) compared to samples with both fragments amplification (M: 1.7±0.0 and Q: 1.9±0.0). Therefore, for HPV detection by qPCR in FFPE tissues we recommend ReliaPrep™ FFPE gDNA Miniprep System. PMID:27456982

  14. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Annika; Lüder Ripoli, Florenza; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method. PMID:27649560

  15. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Annika; Lüder Ripoli, Florenza; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method. PMID:27649560

  16. Validation of a Multiplex Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of KRAS Gene Mutations in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues from Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seekhuntod, Sirirat; Thavarungkul, Paninee; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with KRAS mutations do not respond to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and fail to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mutation analysis of KRAS is needed before starting treatment with monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The objective of this study is to develop a multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR) assay to detect KRAS mutations. Methods We developed a single-tube MAS-PCR assay for the detection of seven KRAS mutations (G12D, G12A, G12R, G12C, G12S, G12V, and G13D). We performed MAS-PCR assay analysis for KRAS on DNA isolated from 270 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal cancer tissues. Sequences of all 270 samples were determined by pyrosequencing. Seven known point-mutation DNA samples diluted with wild-type DNA were assayed to determine the limitation of detection and reproducibility of the MAS-PCR assay. Results Overall, the results of MAS-PCR assay were in good concordance with pyrosequencing, and only seven discordant samples were found. The MAS-PCR assay reproducibly detected 1 to 2% mutant alleles. The most common mutations were G13D in codon 13 (49.17%), G12D (25.83%) and G12V (12.50%) in codon 12. Conclusion The MAS-PCR assay provides a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tool for accurate detection of KRAS mutations in routine FFPE colorectal cancer tissues. PMID:26812617

  17. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA RT-qPCR assays on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens from women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, which is the third most common cancer in women. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and Ki67 are tumor cell markers indicating cancer cell proliferation in cancer patients, and activation of hTERT and Ki67 leads to progressive cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the CervicGen HPVE6/E7 mRNA RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HPV high-risk (HR) genotypes (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 69), and the CervicGen hTERT and Ki67 mRNA RT-qDx assay using 117 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer tissue samples. The diagnostic validity of the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay for detecting histologically proven prevalent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 94% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV), and 78.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The most common HPV genotypes detected in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples were HPV 16 (56%) and HPV 18 (10%). The positivity rate of hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expressions in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples on RT-qPCR was 65% and 93% respectively. Moreover, the positivity rates were 92% for a combination of HPV E6/E7 and hTERT mRNA expressions, 97% for HPV E6/E7 and Ki67 mRNA expressions, and 99% (99/100) for the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expressions. These data showed that SSC FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples correlated more strongly with high Ki67 mRNA expressions than with hTERT mRNA expressions. Notably, hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expression level was increased in high-grade cervical lesions, but was very low in normal samples. Our findings suggest that the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expression levels could be used in a complementary manner in diagnosing high-grade cervical lesions. Further studies are required to evaluate these assays as a useful predictive tool for screening low-grade cervical lesions.

  18. Analytic performance studies and clinical reproducibility of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have a high likelihood of benefiting from treatment with anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sanger sequencing is widely used for mutation detection but can be technically challenging, resulting in longer turn-around-time, with limited sensitivity for low levels of mutations. This manuscript details the technical performance verification studies and external clinical reproducibility studies of the cobas EGFR Mutation Test, a rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay designed to detect 41 mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. Methods The assay’s limit of detection was determined using 25 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET)-derived and plasmid DNA blends. Assay performance for a panel of 201 specimens was compared against Sanger sequencing with resolution of discordant specimens by quantitative massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP). Internal and external reproducibility was assessed using specimens tested in duplicate by different operators, using different reagent lots, instruments and at different sites. The effects on the performance of the cobas EGFR test of endogenous substances and nine therapeutic drugs were evaluated in ten FFPET specimens. Other tests included an evaluation of the effects of necrosis, micro-organisms and homologous DNA sequences on assay performance, and the inclusivity of the assay for less frequent mutations. Results A >95% hit rate was obtained in blends with >5% mutant alleles, as determined by MPP analysis, at a total DNA input of 150 ng. The overall percent agreement between Sanger sequencing and the cobas test was 96.7% (negative percent agreement 97.5%; positive percent agreement 95.8%). Assay repeatability was 98% when tested with two operators, instruments, and reagent lots. In the external reproducibility study, the agreement was > 99% across all sites, all operators and all reagent lots

  19. Expression of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kriegsmann, Mark; Randau, Thomas M; Gravius, Sascha; Lisenko, Katharina; Altmann, Carolin; Arens, Norbert; Kriegsmann, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation affecting about 1 % of adults in developed countries. Currently, the diagnosis is based on the revised criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) from 2010. These criteria include clinical and laboratory parameters. Because of the variability of the clinical picture, delayed diagnosis of RA occurs in a significant subset of patients. Therefore, the discovery of novel biomarkers that improve the diagnosis of RA is of particular interest. Recently, it became evident that miRNAs have regulatory activities in physiologic processes and human diseases. Upregulation of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 has been shown in various compartments such as serum, blood, synovial fluid, and tissues in patients with RA. A total of 87 samples were analyzed (RA 50, osteoarthritis (OA) 37). RNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded synovial tissue (FFPE). The relative expression of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 was determined by comparison to a housekeeping RNA molecule (snRNA U6) and an RNA pool from histologically and clinically verified OA samples. miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 were significantly elevated in RA compared to OA synovial tissues (p < 0.001). A strong correlation between the miRNAs could be observed. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of RA were 0.76/0.80 (miR-146a), 0.80/0.95 (miR-155), and 0.86/0.81 (miR-223). The combination of miR-155 and miR-223 resulted in the highest area under the curve (AUC 0.92) with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.84/0.91, respectively. Significantly higher expression levels of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 in FFPE synovial tissue samples of patients with established RA compared to patients with OA were shown. The usefulness of these miRs for the differential diagnosis of early phases of RA against OA remains to be investigated. PMID:27079198

  20. How Suitable is Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight for Metabolite Imaging from Clinical Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples in Comparison to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry?

    PubMed

    Buck, Achim; Balluff, Benjamin; Voss, Andreas; Langer, Rupert; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2016-05-17

    In research and clinical settings, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are collected routinely and therefore this material constitutes a highly valuable source to gather insight in metabolic changes of diseases. Among mass spectrometry techniques to examine the molecular content of FFPE tissue, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the most appropriate when morphological and histological features are to be related to metabolic information. Currently, high-resolution mass spectrometers are widely used for metabolomics studies. However, with regards to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI, no study has so far addressed the necessity of instrumental mass resolving power in terms of clinical diagnosis and prognosis using archived FFPE tissue. For this matter we performed for the first time a comprehensive comparison between a high mass resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer and a time-of-flight (TOF) instrument with lower mass resolving power. Spectra analysis revealed that about one-third of the detected peaks remained unresolved by MALDI-TOF, which led to a 3-5 times lower number of m/z features compared to FTICR measurements. Overlaid peak information and background noise in TOF images made a precise assignment of molecular attributes to morphological features more difficult and limited classification approaches. This clearly demonstrates the need for high-mass resolution capabilities for metabolite imaging. Nevertheless, MALDI-TOF allowed reproducing and verifying individual markers identified previously by MALDI-FTICR MSI. The systematic comparison gives rise to a synergistic combination of the different MSI platforms for high-throughput discovery and validation of biomarkers.

  1. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas demonstrate the same chromosome changes as those found in frozen samples: a comparative study using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Valo, Isabelle; Josselin, Nicolas; Talmant, Pascaline; Foussard, Charles; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Ifrah, Nobert; Zandecki, Marc; Rousselet, Marie-Christine

    2004-06-01

    Cytogenetic studies in lymphomas classically require fresh or frozen tissue, whereas in many instances only paraffin-embedded biopsies are available. We applied an interphase FISH assay on nuclei extracted from thick paraffin sections to determine accuracy of molecular cytogenetics in such samples. Twenty-three lymphoma samples and 4 reactive lymph nodes were tested with various commercially available DNA probes, and hybridization patterns were compared with those obtained on frozen nuclei counterparts. Successful hybridization with all probes tested was observed for 23/27 (85%) paraffin-embedded tissues and for all (100%) frozen samples, and cut-off levels defining positivity were superimposable for both situations. Chromosome changes were detected in the same way, without any false-positive or false-negative cases. Hybridization signals observed on dewaxed samples were either those classically expected to define the relevant chromosome change or were atypical: all atypical changes could be demonstrated also into nuclei from the frozen counterpart. Moreover, all typical and atypical chromosome changes observed on frozen nuclei were also detected in paraffin-embedded tissues. Our study shows that our interphase FISH assay performed on paraffin-embedded samples is a valuable alternate to conventional methods to ascertain diagnosis of lymphomas as to include patients into therapeutic trials.

  2. Tissue fixed with formalin and processed without paraffin embedding is suitable for imaging of both peptides and lipids by MALDI-IMS.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska, Monika; Gawin, Marta; Polańska, Joanna; Widłak, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Type and quality of sample preparation have significant impact on imaging mass spectrometry results. Though imaging of fresh-frozen tissues is considered to give the best results, they are incompatible with clinical practice, since routine diagnostics is most frequently performed using formalin-fixed tissues, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material is a gold standard in histopathology. We aimed to assess utility of formalin-fixed tissue specimen processed without paraffin embedding (i.e., deep-frozen and cryo-sectioned) for MALDI imaging of both peptides and lipids. Peptide and lipid imaging was performed in fresh-frozen, FFPE and formalin-fixed/frozen samples of a mouse kidney, then composition of the resulting spectra was compared. We demonstrated similarity of spectra registered during peptide imaging in FFPE and formalin-fixed/frozen tissues, and similarity of spectra registered during lipid imaging in fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed/frozen material. Furthermore, molecular images of formalin-fixed/frozen tissue resembled the features of both fresh-frozen and FFPE tissue in the case of peptide imaging, and the features of fresh-frozen tissue in the case of lipid imaging. We conclude that tissue preserved by formalin fixation and processed without paraffin embedding can be considered as an alternative to both fresh-frozen and FFPE material.

  3. Tissue fixed with formalin and processed without paraffin embedding is suitable for imaging of both peptides and lipids by MALDI-IMS.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska, Monika; Gawin, Marta; Polańska, Joanna; Widłak, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Type and quality of sample preparation have significant impact on imaging mass spectrometry results. Though imaging of fresh-frozen tissues is considered to give the best results, they are incompatible with clinical practice, since routine diagnostics is most frequently performed using formalin-fixed tissues, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material is a gold standard in histopathology. We aimed to assess utility of formalin-fixed tissue specimen processed without paraffin embedding (i.e., deep-frozen and cryo-sectioned) for MALDI imaging of both peptides and lipids. Peptide and lipid imaging was performed in fresh-frozen, FFPE and formalin-fixed/frozen samples of a mouse kidney, then composition of the resulting spectra was compared. We demonstrated similarity of spectra registered during peptide imaging in FFPE and formalin-fixed/frozen tissues, and similarity of spectra registered during lipid imaging in fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed/frozen material. Furthermore, molecular images of formalin-fixed/frozen tissue resembled the features of both fresh-frozen and FFPE tissue in the case of peptide imaging, and the features of fresh-frozen tissue in the case of lipid imaging. We conclude that tissue preserved by formalin fixation and processed without paraffin embedding can be considered as an alternative to both fresh-frozen and FFPE material. PMID:27001204

  4. Evaluation of Protein Profiles From Treated Xenograft Tumor Models Identifies an Antibody Panel for Formalin-fixed and Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Tissue Analysis by Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA)*

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Sabine; Zajac, Magdalena; Friess, Thomas; Ruge, Elisabeth; Rieder, Natascha; Gierke, Berthold; Heubach, Yvonne; Thomas, Marlene; Pawlak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) are an established tool for measuring the expression and activation status of multiple proteins in parallel using only very small amounts of tissue. Several studies have demonstrated the value of this technique for signaling pathway analysis using proteins extracted from fresh frozen (FF) tissue in line with validated antibodies for this tissue type; however, formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the standard method for tissue preservation in the clinical setting. Hence, we performed RPPA to measure profiles for a set of 300 protein markers using matched FF and FFPE tissue specimens to identify which markers performed similarly using the RPPA technique in fixed and unfixed tissues. Protein lysates were prepared from matched FF and FFPE tissue specimens of individual tumors taken from three different xenograft models of human cancer. Materials from both untreated mice and mice treated with either anti-HER3 or bispecific anti-IGF-1R/EGFR monoclonal antibodies were analyzed. Correlations between signals from FF and FFPE tissue samples were investigated. Overall, 60 markers were identified that produced comparable profiles between FF and FFPE tissues, demonstrating significant correlation between the two sample types. The top 25 markers also showed significance after correction for multiple testing. The panel of markers covered several clinically relevant tumor signaling pathways and both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated proteins were represented. Biologically relevant changes in marker expression were noted when RPPA profiles from treated and untreated xenografts were compared. These data demonstrate that, using appropriately selected antibodies, RPPA analysis from FFPE tissue is well feasible and generates biologically meaningful information. The identified panel of markers that generate similar profiles in matched fixed and unfixed tissue samples may be clinically useful for pharmacodynamic studies of drug effect

  5. Evaluation of Protein Profiles From Treated Xenograft Tumor Models Identifies an Antibody Panel for Formalin-fixed and Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Tissue Analysis by Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA).

    PubMed

    Bader, Sabine; Zajac, Magdalena; Friess, Thomas; Ruge, Elisabeth; Rieder, Natascha; Gierke, Berthold; Heubach, Yvonne; Thomas, Marlene; Pawlak, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) are an established tool for measuring the expression and activation status of multiple proteins in parallel using only very small amounts of tissue. Several studies have demonstrated the value of this technique for signaling pathway analysis using proteins extracted from fresh frozen (FF) tissue in line with validated antibodies for this tissue type; however, formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the standard method for tissue preservation in the clinical setting. Hence, we performed RPPA to measure profiles for a set of 300 protein markers using matched FF and FFPE tissue specimens to identify which markers performed similarly using the RPPA technique in fixed and unfixed tissues. Protein lysates were prepared from matched FF and FFPE tissue specimens of individual tumors taken from three different xenograft models of human cancer. Materials from both untreated mice and mice treated with either anti-HER3 or bispecific anti-IGF-1R/EGFR monoclonal antibodies were analyzed. Correlations between signals from FF and FFPE tissue samples were investigated. Overall, 60 markers were identified that produced comparable profiles between FF and FFPE tissues, demonstrating significant correlation between the two sample types. The top 25 markers also showed significance after correction for multiple testing. The panel of markers covered several clinically relevant tumor signaling pathways and both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated proteins were represented. Biologically relevant changes in marker expression were noted when RPPA profiles from treated and untreated xenografts were compared. These data demonstrate that, using appropriately selected antibodies, RPPA analysis from FFPE tissue is well feasible and generates biologically meaningful information. The identified panel of markers that generate similar profiles in matched fixed and unfixed tissue samples may be clinically useful for pharmacodynamic studies of drug effect

  6. DNA extraction from paraffin embedded material for genetic and epigenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Pikor, Larissa A; Enfield, Katey S S; Cameron, Heryet; Lam, Wan L

    2011-01-01

    Disease development and progression are characterized by frequent genetic and epigenetic aberrations including chromosomal rearrangements, copy number gains and losses and DNA methylation. Advances in high-throughput, genome-wide profiling technologies, such as microarrays, have significantly improved our ability to identify and detect these specific alterations. However as technology continues to improve, a limiting factor remains sample quality and availability. Furthermore, follow-up clinical information and disease outcome are often collected years after the initial specimen collection. Specimens, typically formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE), are stored in hospital archives for years to decades. DNA can be efficiently and effectively recovered from paraffin-embedded specimens if the appropriate method of extraction is applied. High quality DNA extracted from properly preserved and stored specimens can support quantitative assays for comparisons of normal and diseased tissues and generation of genetic and epigenetic signatures (1). To extract DNA from paraffin-embedded samples, tissue cores or microdissected tissue are subjected to xylene treatment, which dissolves the paraffin from the tissue, and then rehydrated using a series of ethanol washes. Proteins and harmful enzymes such as nucleases are subsequently digested by proteinase K. The addition of lysis buffer, which contains denaturing agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), facilitates digestion (2). Nucleic acids are purified from the tissue lysate using buffer-saturated phenol and high speed centrifugation which generates a biphasic solution. DNA and RNA remain in the upper aqueous phase, while proteins, lipids and polysaccharides are sequestered in the inter- and organic-phases respectively. Retention of the aqueous phase and repeated phenol extractions generates a clean sample. Following phenol extractions, RNase A is added to eliminate contaminating RNA. Additional phenol extractions

  7. DNA extraction from paraffin embedded material for genetic and epigenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Pikor, Larissa A; Enfield, Katey S S; Cameron, Heryet; Lam, Wan L

    2011-03-26

    Disease development and progression are characterized by frequent genetic and epigenetic aberrations including chromosomal rearrangements, copy number gains and losses and DNA methylation. Advances in high-throughput, genome-wide profiling technologies, such as microarrays, have significantly improved our ability to identify and detect these specific alterations. However as technology continues to improve, a limiting factor remains sample quality and availability. Furthermore, follow-up clinical information and disease outcome are often collected years after the initial specimen collection. Specimens, typically formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE), are stored in hospital archives for years to decades. DNA can be efficiently and effectively recovered from paraffin-embedded specimens if the appropriate method of extraction is applied. High quality DNA extracted from properly preserved and stored specimens can support quantitative assays for comparisons of normal and diseased tissues and generation of genetic and epigenetic signatures (1). To extract DNA from paraffin-embedded samples, tissue cores or microdissected tissue are subjected to xylene treatment, which dissolves the paraffin from the tissue, and then rehydrated using a series of ethanol washes. Proteins and harmful enzymes such as nucleases are subsequently digested by proteinase K. The addition of lysis buffer, which contains denaturing agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), facilitates digestion (2). Nucleic acids are purified from the tissue lysate using buffer-saturated phenol and high speed centrifugation which generates a biphasic solution. DNA and RNA remain in the upper aqueous phase, while proteins, lipids and polysaccharides are sequestered in the inter- and organic-phases respectively. Retention of the aqueous phase and repeated phenol extractions generates a clean sample. Following phenol extractions, RNase A is added to eliminate contaminating RNA. Additional phenol extractions

  8. Detection of ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts and the TFE3 antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in a series of 18 cases of alveolar soft part sarcoma: useful diagnostic tools in cases with unusual histological features.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ann; Bartle, Gillian; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P; Meis, Jeanne M; Mangham, D Chas; Grimer, Rob J; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare malignancy; diagnostic problems may occur when cases present as a metastasis or with unusual morphologic features. In this study, a series of 18 cases with follow-up information were analysed with regard to the ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts and immuno-detection of TFE3 using archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Novel primers to detect ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts, type 1 and 2, were designed. The patients, ten female and eight male, ranged in age from 3 to 46 years; 16 involved soft tissues of the extremities (nine, lower; seven, upper), one involved the uterine cervix and one was a primary bone tumour of the foot. Seven ASPS had unusual morphologic features lacking the typical alveolar pattern. Seven had lung metastases at the time of diagnosis, and three developed lung and brain metastases later. Four patients died of disease (after 1-5 years); four are alive with metastases (after 2-15 years), and ten are alive and well (after 1-10 years). Vascular invasion correlated with metastatic disease. All 18 ASPS, four granular cell tumours (one of which was malignant) and one adrenal cortical carcinoma showed TFE3 immuno-positivity. The 18/18 ASPS showed ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts (nine, type 1; nine, type 2), four of which had a balanced translocation. ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts were not detected in 25 controls. We conclude that immuno-detection of TFE3 and RT-PCR-based identification of ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are powerful tools in the diagnosis of ASPS, particularly in cases with unusual morphologic features.

  9. Effects of formalin fixation, paraffin embedding, and time of storage on DNA preservation in brain tissue: a BrainNet Europe study.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidre; Armstrong, Judith; Capellari, Sabina; Parchi, Piero; Arzberger, Thomas; Bell, Jeanne; Budka, Herbert; Ströbel, Thomas; Giaccone, Giorgio; Rossi, Giacomina; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Fakai, Peter; Schmitt, Andrea; Riederers, Peter; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Ravid, Rivka; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2007-07-01

    There is a large amount of tissue stored in brain collections and brain banks, but little is known about whether formalin-fixed tissues and paraffin blocks stored for years in brain banks are suitable for the retrospective genetic studies. The study was carried out in order to: (i) compare DNA preservation in frozen, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues stored for different periods; (ii) study point mutations and triplet expansions in frozen, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded material stored for variable periods, and using different fixative solutions; (iii) compare different methods to optimize DNA extraction and DNA amplification from suboptimally preserved brain tissue. DNA preservation is suitable for genetic studies in samples stored at -80 degrees C for several years. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was inferior to frozen tissue, but did yield adequate results in many cases depending on the type of fixative solution and time of fixation before embedding. Prolonged fixation in formalin rarely yielded useful DNA. Similar results were obtained in samples from prion diseases. The best results were obtained by using the Qiagen kits (QIAmp DNA Micro) in frozen material, paraffin blocks and formalin-fixed tissue. Genomiphi and TaKaRa Ex Taq methods were also assayed in paraffin blocks and in formalin-fixed samples with limited success.

  10. Evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of an optimized method for detecting clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections.

    PubMed

    Slack, D N; McCarthy, K P; Wiedemann, L M; Sloane, J P

    1993-12-01

    Following our recent reports of detecting clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements by the polymerase chain reaction, we have improved and simplified the technique for use in diagnostic histopathology laboratories and determined, on coded samples, the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the modified methodology in distinguishing malignant lymphoma from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and nonlymphoid tumors. Using only three primer pairs for the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T-cell receptor beta and gamma chain genes on well-characterized lesions of widely varying morphology and immunophenotype, clonal rearrangements were detected in 65% of B-cell lymphomas, and 77-82% of T-cell tumors. Specificity and observer consistency ranged from 93-97%. The method requires very careful control, particularly to avoid misinterpretation of results because of contamination and nonspecific amplification, but in its present form is relatively simple and inexpensive, and gives results on single paraffin-embedded sections within 24 h. PMID:8118599

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of the androgen receptor with monoclonal antibody F39.4 in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded human tissues after microwave pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Janssen, P J; Brinkmann, A O; Boersma, W J; Van der Kwast, T H

    1994-08-01

    We describe the immunohistochemical detection of the human androgen receptor (AR) in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded tissue with the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F39.4. Deparaffinized sections were heated in a microwave oven for antigen retrieval. A panel of human male- and female-derived tissues was investigated. We observed a nuclear staining pattern consistent with previous results on frozen sections. Moreover, we studied the possibility of detecting AR in prolonged formalin-fixed tissue and in paraffin-embedded archival material. After prolonged fixation times or long-term storage of paraffin-embedded tissue, the staining intensity for the AR did not deteriorate. Blocking experiments with the specific synthetic peptides demonstrated the specificity of this technique. We conclude that this method is specific, allows retrospective AR studies, and offers optimally preserved morphology.

  12. ImmunoFISH on isolated nuclei from paraffin-embedded biopsy material.

    PubMed

    Tan, Soo-Yong; Mattsson, Goran

    2010-01-01

    The detection of genetic abnormalities in paraffin sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used in clinical practice to detect amplification of the ERB2 gene in breast carcinoma and various chromosomal translocations in lymphomas and soft tissue tumors. However, interpretation of FISH signals in tissue sections may be difficult due to overlapping nuclei and nuclear truncation artifacts. Some of these shortcomings may be avoided by the use of isolated nuclear preparations. However, identification of cell populations may be difficult in detached cells removed from their histological context. We have described an optimized immunoFISH technique on isolated nuclear suspension, which combines the benefits of studying isolated cells derived from paraffin embedded tissues by FISH analysis with the ability to detect cell lineage and other markers by immunofluorescence.

  13. Molecular confirmation of t(6;11)(p21;q12) renal cell carcinoma in archival paraffin-embedded material using a break-apart TFEB FISH assay expands its clinicopathologic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Argani, Pedram; Yonescu, Raluca; Morsberger, Laura; Morris, Kerry; Netto, George J; Smith, Nathan; Gonzalez, Nilda; Illei, Peter B; Ladanyi, Marc; Griffin, Constance A

    2012-10-01

    A subset of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) is characterized by t(6;11)(p21;q12), which results in fusion of the untranslated Alpha (MALAT1) gene to the TFEB gene. Only 21 genetically confirmed cases of t(6;11) RCCs have been reported. This neoplasm typically demonstrates a distinctive biphasic morphology, comprising larger epithelioid cells and smaller cells clustered around basement membrane material; however, the full spectrum of its morphologic appearances is not known. The t(6;11) RCCs differ from most conventional RCCs in that they consistently express melanocytic immunohistochemical (IHC) markers such as HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cathepsin K but are often negative for epithelial markers such as cytokeratins. TFEB IHC has been proven to be useful to confirm the diagnosis of t(6;11) RCCs in archival material, because native TFEB is upregulated through promoter substitution by the gene fusion. However, IHC is highly fixation dependent and has been proven to be particularly difficult for TFEB. A validated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for molecular confirmation of the t(6;11) RCC in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material has not been previously reported. We report herein the development of a break-apart TFEB FISH assay for the diagnosis of t(6;11)(p21;q12) RCCs. We validated the assay on 4 genetically confirmed cases and 76 relevant expected negative control cases and used the assay to report 8 new cases that expand the clinicopathologic spectrum of t(6;11) RCCs. An additional previously reported TFEB IHC-positive case was confirmed by TFEB FISH in 46-year-old archival material. In conclusion, TFEB FISH is a robust, clinically validated assay that can confirm the diagnosis of t(6;11) RCC in archival material and should allow a more comprehensive clinicopathologic delineation of this recently recognized neoplastic entity.

  14. Producing reverse phase protein microarrays from formalin-fixed tissues.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Claudia; Schott, Christina; Malinowsky, Katharina; Berg, Daniela; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    In most hospitals around the world FFPE (formalin fixed, paraffin embedded) tissues have been used for diagnosis and have subsequently been archived since decades. This has lead to a sizeable pool of this kind of tissues. Till quite recently it was not possible to use this congeries of samples for protein analysis, but now several groups described successful protein extraction from FFPE tissues. In this chapter, we describe a protein extraction protocol established in our laboratory combined with the use of reverse phase protein microarray.

  15. Molecular pathological analysis of sarcomas using paraffin-embedded tissue: current limitations and future possibilities

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijn, Matt; Guo, Xiangqian; Sweeney, Robert T; Beck, Andrew H; West, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sarcomas of soft tissue and bone are rare neoplasms that can be separated into a large number of different diagnostic entities. Over the years, a number of diagnostic markers have been developed that aid pathologists in reaching the appropriate diagnoses. Many of these markers are sarcoma-specific proteins that can be detected by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections. In addition, a wide range of molecular studies have been developed that can detect gene mutations, gene amplifications or chromosomal translocations in FFPE material. Until recently, most sequencing-based approaches relied on the availability of fresh frozen tissue. However, with the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, FFPE material is increasingly being used as a tool to identify novel immuno-histochemistry markers, gene mutations, and chromosomal translocations, and to develop diagnostic tests. PMID:24107169

  16. Proteomic analysis of RCL2 paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Bellet, V; Boissière, F; Bibeau, F; Desmetz, C; Berthe, M L; Rochaix, P; Maudelonde, T; Mangè, A; Solassol, J

    2008-10-01

    Histopathological diagnosis in most of the world's hospitals is based upon formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although this standard fixation and embedding procedure keeps the tissue in excellent form for morphological and immunohistological analysis, FFPE is inappropriate for nucleic acids and protein studies. We investigated the potential value of RCL2, a new non-toxic fixative, for sparing proteins preserved in paraffin-embedded tissues. Normal colonic mucosa tissue was fixed in RCL2 prior to paraffin embedding (RCL2P), and then processed for quality and quantity of protein conservation, as compared to frozen and FFPE tissues using complementary proteomic analysis approaches. Using 4 different protein extraction protocols, RCL2P tissue consistently showed the highest protein yield. Similar protein patterns were observed with RCL2P and frozen tissues using mono and bi-dimensional electrophoresis. Moreover, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, as well as phosphorylated proteins, were successfully detected using western-blot. Furthermore, protein patterns observed by mass spectrometry analysis after laser-captured microdissection were found to be identical for frozen and RCL2-fixed tissues. At last, immunohistochemistry using various antibodies showed comparable results between both tissue storage methods. We concluded that RCL2 has great potential for performing both morphological and molecular analyses on the same archival paraffin-embedded tissue sample, and can be a new method for investigating protein biomarkers.

  17. Proteomic analysis of RCL2 paraffin-embedded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bellet, V; Boissière, F; Bibeau, F; Desmetz, C; Berthe, M L; Rochaix, P; Maudelonde, T; Mangè, A; Solassol, J

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological diagnosis in most of the world's hospitals is based upon formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although this standard fixation and embedding procedure keeps the tissue in excellent form for morphological and immunohistological analysis, FFPE is inappropriate for nucleic acids and protein studies. We investigated the potential value of RCL2, a new non-toxic fixative, for sparing proteins preserved in paraffin-embedded tissues. Normal colonic mucosa tissue was fixed in RCL2 prior to paraffin embedding (RCL2P), and then processed for quality and quantity of protein conservation, as compared to frozen and FFPE tissues using complementary proteomic analysis approaches. Using 4 different protein extraction protocols, RCL2P tissue consistently showed the highest protein yield. Similar protein patterns were observed with RCL2P and frozen tissues using mono and bi-dimensional electrophoresis. Moreover, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, as well as phosphorylated proteins, were successfully detected using western-blot. Furthermore, protein patterns observed by mass spectrometry analysis after laser-captured microdissection were found to be identical for frozen and RCL2-fixed tissues. At last, immunohistochemistry using various antibodies showed comparable results between both tissue storage methods. We concluded that RCL2 has great potential for performing both morphological and molecular analyses on the same archival paraffin-embedded tissue sample, and can be a new method for investigating protein biomarkers. PMID:19012729

  18. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  19. High-resolution copy number analysis of paraffin-embedded archival tissue using SNP BeadArrays.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Jan; Lips, Esther H; van Eijk, Ronald; Eilers, Paul H C; Szuhai, Károly; Wijmenga, Cisca; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2007-03-01

    High-density SNP microarrays provide insight into the genomic events that occur in diseases like cancer through their capability to measure both LOH and genomic copy numbers. Where currently available methods are restricted to the use of fresh frozen tissue, we now describe the design and validation of copy number measurements using the Illumina BeadArray platform and the application of this technique to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. In fresh frozen tissue from a set of colorectal tumors with numerous chromosomal aberrations, our method measures copy number patterns that are comparable to values from established platforms, like Affymetrix GeneChip and BAC array-CGH. Moreover, paired comparisons of fresh frozen and FFPE tissues showed nearly identical patterns of genomic change. We conclude that this method enables the use of paraffin-embedded material for research into both LOH and numerical chromosomal abnormalities. These findings make the large pathological archives available for genomic analysis, which could be especially relevant for hereditary disease where fresh material from affected relatives is rarely available.

  20. Efficient DNA Extraction for HPV Genotyping in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya S.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    DNA from archived FFPE can be used for papillomavirus genotyping, but potential problems include paraffin as a physical barrier, DNA cross-linking, and PCR inhibitors. To address these complications, we combined a commercially available DNA isolation kit (Qiagen DNeasy) with a heat treatment and evaluated the resulting DNA with regards to HPV typing. DNA was extracted from 10-μm sections from 150 FFPE cancer samples. One protocol followed the manufacturer's recommendation, including paraffin removal by xylene and tissue lysis at 56°C. A second section was directly incubated at 120°C and subsequently lysed at 65°C. After spin-column purification, both extracts were tested with a linear array HPV genotyping assay. Additionally, cellular DNA yield, HPV16 DNA copies, and PCR inhibitors were assessed by real-time qPCR assays. Inadequate linear array HPV genotyping assay results were significantly more frequent (P = 0.0003) in xylene-treated (29/150, 19.3%) than in heat-treated extracts (8/150, 5.3%). HPV detection also differed, with 94/150 (62.7%) and 110/150 (73.3%) positive results, respectively (P = 0.0026). The heat method also yielded more PCR-amplifiable cellular DNA (8.2-fold; P < 0.001) and HPV16 copies (6.5-fold; P = 0.009), although PCR inhibitors also had a greater effect (P = 0.035). Aggressive heat treatment demonstrated an advantage over traditional xylene purification protocols, resulting in higher DNA yields and increased sensitivity for HPV testing. PMID:21704270

  1. Efficient DNA extraction for HPV genotyping in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya S; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2011-07-01

    DNA from archived FFPE can be used for papillomavirus genotyping, but potential problems include paraffin as a physical barrier, DNA cross-linking, and PCR inhibitors. To address these complications, we combined a commercially available DNA isolation kit (Qiagen DNeasy) with a heat treatment and evaluated the resulting DNA with regards to HPV typing. DNA was extracted from 10-μm sections from 150 FFPE cancer samples. One protocol followed the manufacturer's recommendation, including paraffin removal by xylene and tissue lysis at 56°C. A second section was directly incubated at 120°C and subsequently lysed at 65°C. After spin-column purification, both extracts were tested with a linear array HPV genotyping assay. Additionally, cellular DNA yield, HPV16 DNA copies, and PCR inhibitors were assessed by real-time qPCR assays. Inadequate linear array HPV genotyping assay results were significantly more frequent (P = 0.0003) in xylene-treated (29/150, 19.3%) than in heat-treated extracts (8/150, 5.3%). HPV detection also differed, with 94/150 (62.7%) and 110/150 (73.3%) positive results, respectively (P = 0.0026). The heat method also yielded more PCR-amplifiable cellular DNA (8.2-fold; P < 0.001) and HPV16 copies (6.5-fold; P = 0.009), although PCR inhibitors also had a greater effect (P = 0.035). Aggressive heat treatment demonstrated an advantage over traditional xylene purification protocols, resulting in higher DNA yields and increased sensitivity for HPV testing.

  2. Detection of immunoglobulin IGH gene rearrangements on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Moharrami, G; Ghorbian, S; Seifi, M; Estiar, M A; Fakhrjoo, A; Sakhinia, M; Sakhinia, E

    2014-01-01

    Human lymphomas are aggressive malignant diseases, which can be categorized based on their B and T cell lineage. B-cell lymphomas form around 90% of the total lymphoma cases, the remnants of malignancies arise from the T cell branch. Lymphomas are mostly characterized as clonal proliferations of specific tumor cells. The detection of malignant lymphomas are extensively investigated by their morphological features, immunohistochemistry and flowcytometric immunophenotyping, but in some of cases remained unknown. The BIOMED-2 protocols were used to determine the clonality of IGH gene rearrangements in patients with lymphoma. PCR amplification was performed on FFPE of 50 patients with B-cell lymphoma, which consisted of 11 cases with HLs, 25 cases of B-NHLs and 14 cases of B-LPD (lymphoproliferative disorders) that diagnosed as unclassifiable lymphoma. The rate of positive clonality was detected in 96% (24/25) of B-NHLs, whereas in 4% (1/25) of cases clonality was showed in a polyclonal pattern. In B-HLs, 82% (9/11) of cases showed clonality and 18% (2/11) of the cases showed polyclonality. The rate of positive clonality observed in 64.3% (9/14) of cases with B-LPD and 35.7% (5/14) of cases clonality was not detected in any of immunoglobulin gene family (FR1, FR2, FR3). In groups with DLBCL, clonality was detected in 95% (19/20) of the cases. In patients diagnosed with FL and MALTs 100% cases showed clonality for complete IGH. Our study revealed that EuroClonality BIOMED-2 protocols could be considered as a valuable and reliable method for clonality detection, especially in IGH analysis.

  3. Quantitative Profiling of Single Formalin Fixed Tumour Sections: proteomics for translational research

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher S.; McConechy, Melissa K.; Cochrane, Dawn R.; Nazeran, Tayyebeh; Karnezis, Anthony N.; Huntsman, David G.; Morin, Gregg B.

    2016-01-01

    Although re-sequencing of gene panels and mRNA expression profiling are now firmly established in clinical laboratories, in-depth proteome analysis has remained a niche technology, better suited for studying model systems rather than challenging materials such as clinical trial samples. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel and optimized platform called SP3-Clinical Tissue Proteomics (SP3-CTP) for in-depth proteome profiling of practical quantities of tumour tissues, including formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Using single 10 μm scrolls of clinical tumour blocks, we performed in-depth quantitative analyses of individual sections from ovarian tumours covering the high-grade serous, clear cell, and endometrioid histotypes. This examination enabled the generation of a novel high-resolution proteome map of ovarian cancer histotypes from clinical tissues. Comparison of the obtained proteome data with large-scale genome and transcriptome analyses validated the observed proteome biology for previously validated hallmarks of this disease, and also identified novel protein features. A tissue microarray analysis validated cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) as a novel clear cell carcinoma feature with potential clinical relevance. In addition to providing a milestone in the understanding of ovarian cancer biology, these results show that in-depth proteomic analysis of clinically annotated FFPE materials can be effectively used as a biomarker discovery tool and perhaps ultimately as a diagnostic approach. PMID:27713570

  4. Detection of hepatitis C viral RNA sequences in fresh and paraffin-embedded liver biopsy specimens of non-A, non-B hepatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Bresters, D; Cuypers, H T; Reesink, H W; Chamuleau, R A; Schipper, M E; Boeser-Nunnink, B D; Lelie, P N; Jansen, P L

    1992-07-01

    In this study methods of HCV-RNA detection in fresh frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver biopsies are described. Of 22 untreated chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis patients and 6 control patients, a plasma sample and part of a liver biopsy were freshly frozen for hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA-PCR. From 16 of the same non-A, non-B hepatitis patients and from 5 of the same control patients formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue from the same biopsy was available also for HCV cDNA-PCR. In 13 of 22 non-A, non-B hepatitis patients HCV-RNA could be detected in plasma as well as in liver tissue. In the other 9 non-A, non-B hepatitis patients and in 6 control patients, no HCV-RNA was detectable in either plasma or liver tissue. The comparison between HCV cDNA-PCR results in fresh frozen versus formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver biopsies showed that although detection of HCV-RNA in both correlated 100% the quantity of HCV-RNA was lower in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver biopsies of 5 of 8 patients for whom end-point dilution titration of liver RNA was performed. We conclude that using the procedures described HCV-RNA can be reliably detected in both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver biopsies and that HCV cDNA-PCR in liver tissue may become an important assay, especially for monitoring anti-viral therapy.

  5. Combined Nomarski interference contrast and immunofluorescent study of neuropathological specimens: CSF sediments and paraffin embedded brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Mussini, J M; Hauw, J J; Escourolle, R

    1977-11-01

    The direct immunofluorescent technique may be easily improved by the use of the Nomarski optics. This contrast allows accurate identification of fluorescent CSF cells and structures in formalin fixed paraffin embedded brain tissues; in the latter, the combined optical procedure is fruitfull in order to avoid fluorescent artifacts misinterpretation. Furthermore, it is emphazised that the conditions in which routine neuropathological specimens are removed and stored usualy does permit the application of the immunofluorescent technique.

  6. Detection of constitutive and inducible HSP70 proteins in formalin fixed human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Preusse-Prange, A; Modrow, J-H; Schwark, T; von Wurmb-Schwark, N

    2014-02-01

    The investigation of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue is a routine method in forensic histology. Since these samples are usually stored for decades they provide a unique tissue bank for different scientific issues. In the past, numerous studies were conducted using different kinds of paraffin embedded tissues. However, it is well known that formalin affects macromolecules and thus might hamper reliable and reproducible molecular experiments. The aim of this study was to find out if the treatment with formalin has a negative effect on different protein detection methods and additionally to define the dimension of those possible deleterious effects. We incubated brain tissue samples in formalin for up to three months. After incubation, the samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting to specifically detect and quantify members of the HSP70 superfamily (heat shock proteins). Our study shows that the Western blot analysis of formalin fixed tissues does not allow a reliable detection of proteins at all, while a reproducible detection by IHC was still possible after one month of incubation.

  7. The tissue is the issue: improved methylome analysis from paraffin-embedded tissues by application of the HOPE technique.

    PubMed

    Marwitz, Sebastian; Kolarova, Julia; Reck, Martin; Reinmuth, Niels; Kugler, Christian; Schädlich, Ines; Haake, Andrea; Zabel, Peter; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Siebert, Reiner; Goldmann, Torsten; Ammerpohl, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Alterations in the DNA methylome are characteristic for numerous diseases and a typical hallmark of cancer. Therefore, DNA methylation is currently under investigation in research labs and has also entered diagnostics. Recently, protocols like the BeadChip technology have become commercially available to study DNA methylation in an array format and semiquantitative fashion. However, it is known that fixation of the sample material with formalin prior to BeadChip analysis can affect the results. In this study we compared the influence of fixation on the outcome of BeadChip analysis. From six patients each a lung cancer tissue sample and a corresponding tumor-free lung tissue sample were collected. The samples were separated into three pieces. One piece of each sample was fixed with formalin, another one by the non-cross-linking HOPE technique (Hepes-glutamic acid buffer mediated Organic solvent Protection Effect). Subsequently, both became paraffin embedded. As a reference, the remaining third piece was cryopreserved. In addition we used three adenocarcinoma cell lines (H838, A549, and H1650) to validate the results from patient tissues. We show that using the HOPE technique instead of formalin largely prevents the introduction of formalin-fixation related artifacts. An ANOVA analysis significantly separated HOPE- and cryopreserved from formalin-fixed samples (FDR<0.05), while differences in the methylation data obtained from HOPE-fixed and cryopreserved material were minor. Consequently, HOPE fixation is superior to formalin fixation if a subsequent BeadChip analysis of paraffin-embedded sample material is intended.

  8. RT-PCR Analysis of RNA Extracted from Bouin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gloghini, Annunziata; Canal, Barbara; Klein, Ulf; Dal Maso, Luigino; Perin, Tiziana; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Carbone, Antonino

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated whether RNA can be efficiently isolated from Bouin-fixed or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissue specimens. To this aim, we applied a new and simple method that includes the combination of proteinase K digestion and column purification. By this method, we demonstrated that the amplification of long fragments could be accomplished after a pre-heating step before cDNA synthesis associated with the use of enzymes that work at high temperature. By means of PCR using different primers for two examined genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]- and CD40), we amplified segments of cDNA obtained by reverse transcription of the isolated RNA extracted from Bouin-fixed or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Amplified fragments of the expected sizes were obtained for both genes tested indicating that this method is suitable for the isolation of high-quality RNA. To explore the possibility for giving accurate real time quantitative RT-PCR results, cDNA obtained from matched frozen, Bouin-fixed and formalin-fixed neoplastic samples (two diffuse large cell lymphomas, one plasmacytoma) was tested for the following target genes: CD40, Aquaporin-3, BLIMP1, IRF4, Syndecan-1. Delta threshold cycle (ΔCT) values for Bouin-fixed and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their correlation with those for frozen samples showed an extremely high correlation (r > 0.90) for all of the tested genes. These results show that the method of RNA extraction we propose is suitable for giving accurate real time quantitative RT-PCR results. PMID:15507667

  9. [Morphologic HIV demonstration in formalin embedded material--techniques, problems, results].

    PubMed

    Zietz, C; Speiser, B; Hell, W; Stürzl, M; Wolf, H; Roth, W K

    1991-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material of archival specimens is suitable for a morphological HIV-detection: Infected cells with HIV in the proliferative phase can be demonstrated with reliable results on tissue sections by immunohistological technics using new antibodies. In situ nucleic acid hybridisation technics can also show HIV in the expression phase on paraffin-embedded material, but often fail in demonstrating latently HIV-infected cells. The DNA-Polymerase chain reaction can detect latent Provirus in morphologically defined areas of paraffin sections even in autopsy material, i.e. lymphnodes and even eyes of patients with HIV-Infection, but requires precaution and control with respect to contamination.

  10. High-throughput sequencing and copy number variation detection using formalin fixed embedded tissue in metastatic gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokhwi; Lee, Jeeyun; Hong, Min Eui; Do, In-Gu; Kang, So Young; Ha, Sang Yun; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Se Hoon; Kang, Won Ki; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2014-01-01

    In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. To characterize cancer at a molecular level, the use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is important. We tested the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 and nCounter Copy Number Variation Assay in 89 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples to determine whether they are applicable in archival clinical samples for personalized targeted therapies. We validated the results with Sanger sequencing, real-time quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Frequently detected somatic mutations included TP53 (28.17%), APC (10.1%), PIK3CA (5.6%), KRAS (4.5%), SMO (3.4%), STK11 (3.4%), CDKN2A (3.4%) and SMAD4 (3.4%). Amplifications of HER2, CCNE1, MYC, KRAS and EGFR genes were observed in 8 (8.9%), 4 (4.5%), 2 (2.2%), 1 (1.1%) and 1 (1.1%) cases, respectively. In the cases with amplification, fluorescence in situ hybridization for HER2 verified gene amplification and immunohistochemistry for HER2, EGFR and CCNE1 verified the overexpression of proteins in tumor cells. In conclusion, we successfully performed semiconductor-based sequencing and nCounter copy number variation analyses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples. High-throughput screening in archival clinical samples enables faster, more accurate and cost-effective detection of hotspot mutations or amplification in genes.

  11. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375.

  12. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples

    PubMed Central

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  13. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  14. Primer-extension pre-amplification of DNA from paraffin-embedded tissue: Analysis of concurrent breast lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pekkel, V.; Schmitz, M.; Allred, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    We are examining concurrent breast lesions (proliferative disease, in situ cancers and invasive cancers) that co-exist in the same breast for clonality studies of breast cancer evolution. The archival tissue samples with concurrent breast lesions suitable for these analyses are formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. We have successfully implemented microdissection and DNA extraction protocols from lesion/normal tissue sets from breast cancer patients. These preparations permit the efficient polymerase chain reaction amplification of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRPs) for the genetic analysis. However, the unequal yield of DNA from particularly small lesions and/or the paucity of normal breast ductal epithelium has made extensive testing of these samples difficult. In order to equalize the recovery of DNA from the various morphologically defined lesions and normal tissue, we have implemented the method of primer-extension pre-amplification (PEP). In order to demonstrate the fidelity of the PEP technique in this application, we selected a series of 16 paired normal-lesion DNAs from lysates of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. These samples had been previously analyzed for loss-of-heterozygosity by direct PCR amplification with SSRPs. The PEP products were re-amplified with the locus specific SSRPs to determine whether the genetic characteristics of the tumor and normal samples were preserved. For the eight SSRP loci tested thus far, all of the samples amplified and showed the same patterns of LOH as seen before. These results suggest that PEP may be a generally useful technique for genetic analysis of microscopic neoplastic lesions. At least 20-fold amplification of template DNA was observed in our experiments. We expect that this technique will also permit analysis of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue by comparative genomic hybridization.

  15. Protocol for HER2 FISH determination on PAXgene-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Loibner, Martina; Viertler, Christian; Groelz, Daniel; Wyrich, Ralf; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics in personalized medicine increasingly relies on the combination of a variety of analytical technologies to characterize individual diseases and to select patients for targeted therapies. The gold standard for tissue-based diagnostics is fixation in formalin and embedding in paraffin, which results in excellent preservation of morphology but negatively impacts on a variety of molecular assays. The formalin-free, non-cross-linking PAXgene tissue system preserves morphology in a similar way to formalin, but also preserves biomolecules essentially in a similar way to cryopreservation, which markedly widens the spectrum, sensitivity and accuracy of molecular analytics. In this study, we have developed and tested a protocol for PAXgene-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The implementation of a 24-h formalin postfixation step of slides from PAXgene-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues allowed us to use the assays approved for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. The equivalence of the methodologies was demonstrated by FISH analysis of HER2 amplification in breast cancer cases. The 24-h postfixation step of the slides used for FISH can be well integrated in the routine diagnostic workflow and allows the remaining PAXgene-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue to be used for further molecular testing.

  16. Confirmation of immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction using surgically obtained, paraffin-embedded samples to diagnose primary palate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yokomizo, Naoko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intraoral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare lymphoma that has a good prognosis if diagnosed correctly and treated in time. Presentation of case A 64-year-old woman was referred to our department with asymptomatic swelling of the left hard palate. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the left hard palate. We performed a pre-surgery biopsy; however, it was difficult to differentiate MALT lymphoma from other reactive lymphoproliferative disorders via gross or microscopic examination. Although the lesion was completely excised, histological findings did not allow a definitive diagnosis due to an absence of visible monoclonality. We then performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical samples. Capillary electrophoresis showed monoclonal peaks of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, thus facilitating a definitive diagnosis of MALT lymphoma. Discussion PCR technique is rapid, accurate, and enables a definitive diagnosis without relying on traditional histological or molecular diagnostic techniques, such as Southern blotting. Conclusion We suggest that, if histological examination is ambiguous or fresh material is insufficient, PCR can be performed using paraffin-embedded materials to definitively diagnose low-grade lymphomas, such as MALT lymphoma. PMID:25841155

  17. Comparison of methods for extracting DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin sections for nonisotopic PCR.

    PubMed

    Frank, T S; Svoboda-Newman, S M; Hsi, E D

    1996-09-01

    DNA was extracted from unstained 5-microns sections of neutral buffered 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by proteinase K digestion without detergents followed by boiling, proteinase K digestion with ionic detergents with and without phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation, sonication with proteinase K followed by boiling, or boiling alone. Serial 1:10 dilutions of the extracted DNA were subject to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 255-bp portion of the p53 gene. Digestion with proteinase K without ionic detergents followed by boiling (without phenol chloroform extraction) gave the best yield, enabling visualization of ethidium bromide-stained PCR product from a DNA dilution corresponding to 0.1 mm2 of tissue containing of the order of 10(3) nuclear profiles. Proteinase K digestion with detergents followed by phenol-chloroform extraction was no more effective than simple boiling. Although the success of PCR from preserved tissue will vary with the fixative and size of the amplified fragment, DNA extracted with this optimized method can be used for identification of viruses, loss of heterozygosity, and immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in paraffin-embedded tissue without radioisotopes.

  18. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C·G > T·A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  19. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Munchel, Sarah; Hoang, Yen; Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C · G > T · A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes.

  20. Comparison of protocols for DNA extraction from long-term preserved formalin fixed tissues.

    PubMed

    Paireder, Stefan; Werner, Bettina; Bailer, Josef; Werther, Wolfgang; Schmid, Erich; Patzak, Beatrix; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2013-08-15

    The current study compared the applicability of protocols to extract DNA from formalin fixed heart tissues that have been preserved for more than 50 years. Ten methods were tested: a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) standard protocol, seven variants of this standard protocol, and two commercial kits. In the case of younger specimens (fixed in 1951, 1934, or 1914), extracts with DNA concentrations ≥ 10.0 ng/μl were obtained with the standard CTAB protocol, two variants of the standard protocol including prolonged tissue digestion (72 h instead of 1-2h), and a commercial kit particularly recommended for DNA extraction from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE Kit). With the FFPE Kit, DNA could also be extracted from older tissues (fixed in 1893, 1850/1851, or before 1820). In general, the purity of the DNA extracts, assessed from the ratio of the absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, was not very high. In spite of their rather low purity, the DNA extracts could, however, be used to amplify a 122-bp sequence and, in most cases, also a 171-bp sequence of the gene coding for human albumin by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  1. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Munchel, Sarah; Hoang, Yen; Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C · G > T · A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  2. Antibody validation and scoring guidelines for ABCG2 immunohistochemical staining in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colon cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cederbye, Camilla Natasha; Palshof, Jesper Andreas; Hansen, Tine Plato; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Linnemann, Dorte; Stenvang, Jan; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Brünner, Nils; Viuff, Birgitte Martine

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of the ATP-dependent drug efflux pump ABCG2 is a major molecular mechanism of multidrug resistance in cancer and might be a predictive biomarker for drug response. Contradictory results have been reported for immunohistochemical studies of ABCG2 protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC), probably because of the use of different antibodies and scoring approaches. In this study, we systematically studied six commercially available anti-ABCG2 antibodies, using cell lines with up-regulation of ABCG2, and selected one antibody for validation in CRC tissue. Furthermore, we established scoring guidelines for ABCG2 expression based on the clinically used guidelines for HER2 immunohistochemistry assessment in gastric cancer. The guidelines provide a semi-quantitative measure of the basolateral membrane staining of ABCG2 and disregard the apical membrane staining and the cytoplasmic signal. Intra-tumor heterogeneity in ABCG2 immunoreactivity was observed; however, statistical analyses of tissue microarrays (TMAs) and the corresponding whole sections from primary tumors of 57 metastatic CRC patients revealed a strong positive correlation between maximum TMA scores and whole sections, especially when more than one core was used. In conclusion, here, we provide validated results to guide future studies on the associations between ABCG2 immunoreactivity in tumor cells and the benefits of chemotherapeutic treatment in patients with CRC. PMID:27257141

  3. Somatic Mutation Screening Using Archival Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Fluidigm Multiplex PCR and Illumina Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Escudero-Ibarz, Leire; Moody, Sarah; Zeng, Naiyan; Clipson, Alexandra; Huang, Yuanxue; Xue, Xuemin; Grigoropoulos, Nicholas F; Barrans, Sharon; Worrillow, Lisa; Forshew, Tim; Su, Jing; Firth, Andrew; Martin, Howard; Jack, Andrew; Brugger, Kim; Du, Ming-Qing

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput somatic mutation screening using FFPE tissues is a major challenge because of a lack of established methods and validated variant calling algorithms. We aimed to develop a targeted sequencing protocol by Fluidigm multiplex PCR and Illumina sequencing and to establish a companion variant calling algorithm. The experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were first developed and optimized against a series of somatic mutations (147 substitutions, 12 indels ranging from 1 to 33 bp) in seven genes, previously detected by Sanger sequencing of DNA from 163 FFPE lymphoma biopsy specimens. The optimized experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were further ascertained in two separate experiments by including the seven genes as a part of larger gene panels (22 or 13 genes) using FFPE and high-molecular-weight lymphoma DNAs, respectively. We found that most false-positive variants were due to DNA degradation, deamination, and Taq polymerase errors, but they were nonreproducible and could be efficiently eliminated by duplicate experiments. A small fraction of false-positive variants appeared in duplicate, but they were at low alternative allele frequencies and could be separated from mutations when appropriate threshold value was used. In conclusion, we established a robust practical approach for high-throughput mutation screening using archival FFPE tissues.

  4. Somatic Mutation Screening Using Archival Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Fluidigm Multiplex PCR and Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Escudero-Ibarz, Leire; Moody, Sarah; Zeng, Naiyan; Clipson, Alexandra; Huang, Yuanxue; Xue, Xuemin; Grigoropoulos, Nicholas F.; Barrans, Sharon; Worrillow, Lisa; Forshew, Tim; Su, Jing; Firth, Andrew; Martin, Howard; Jack, Andrew; Brugger, Kim; Du, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput somatic mutation screening using FFPE tissues is a major challenge because of a lack of established methods and validated variant calling algorithms. We aimed to develop a targeted sequencing protocol by Fluidigm multiplex PCR and Illumina sequencing and to establish a companion variant calling algorithm. The experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were first developed and optimized against a series of somatic mutations (147 substitutions, 12 indels ranging from 1 to 33 bp) in seven genes, previously detected by Sanger sequencing of DNA from 163 FFPE lymphoma biopsy specimens. The optimized experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were further ascertained in two separate experiments by including the seven genes as a part of larger gene panels (22 or 13 genes) using FFPE and high-molecular-weight lymphoma DNAs, respectively. We found that most false-positive variants were due to DNA degradation, deamination, and Taq polymerase errors, but they were nonreproducible and could be efficiently eliminated by duplicate experiments. A small fraction of false-positive variants appeared in duplicate, but they were at low alternative allele frequencies and could be separated from mutations when appropriate threshold value was used. In conclusion, we established a robust practical approach for high-throughput mutation screening using archival FFPE tissues. PMID:26165823

  5. Fully Automated RNAscope In Situ Hybridization Assays for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Courtney M; Zhang, Bingqing; Miller, Melanie; Butko, Emerald; Wu, Xingyong; Laver, Thomas; Kernag, Casey; Kim, Jeffrey; Luo, Yuling; Lamparski, Henry; Park, Emily; Su, Nan; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Biomarkers such as DNA, RNA, and protein are powerful tools in clinical diagnostics and therapeutic development for many diseases. Identifying RNA expression at the single cell level within the morphological context by RNA in situ hybridization provides a great deal of information on gene expression changes over conventional techniques that analyze bulk tissue, yet widespread use of this technique in the clinical setting has been hampered by the dearth of automated RNA ISH assays. Here we present an automated version of the RNA ISH technology RNAscope that is adaptable to multiple automation platforms. The automated RNAscope assay yields a high signal-to-noise ratio with little to no background staining and results comparable to the manual assay. In addition, the automated duplex RNAscope assay was able to detect two biomarkers simultaneously. Lastly, assay consistency and reproducibility were confirmed by quantification of TATA-box binding protein (TBP) mRNA signals across multiple lots and multiple experiments. Taken together, the data presented in this study demonstrate that the automated RNAscope technology is a high performance RNA ISH assay with broad applicability in biomarker research and diagnostic assay development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2201-2208, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MicroRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue using real time quantitative PCR: the strengths and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, J R; Mekenkamp, L J M; Teerenstra, S; De Krijger, I; Nagtegaal, I D

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs with a huge impact in a wide range of biological processes, including cancer. The evidence collected to date demonstrates that miRNAs represent valid diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers in cancer. The identification of these miRNA biomarkers in archived tissues has been facilitated by novel development and refinement of detection methodologies. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods used to detect low levels of miRNAs with high sensitivity and specificity. However, several technical parameters should be identified and optimized in order to obtain meaningful and reproducible results. The purpose of this review is to describe some of these technical parameters and improve the validity and reliability of miRNA expression studies. PMID:22003827

  7. Use of monoclonal antibodies to detect specific mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenying; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for cancer patients have changed considerably in recent years with the introduction of variable gene mutation and targeted therapy. Although molecular testing for gene mutations remains the gold standard in assessing biopsy tissues for specific mutations and for subsequent therapy, recent developments have led to the use of highly specific monoclonal antibodies to detect mutated genes in tissue sections. Some of the early developments included antibodies against EGFR, but have expanded to include antibodies detecting mutated RAS, BRAF, and SDHx. Immunohistochemical detection of gene mutations using mutation-specific antibodies has the advantage of allowing the detailed visualization of protein distributions in situ and provides direct visualization of the heterogeneity in the distribution of targeted proteins. This review will discuss the use of selected mainly monoclonal antibodies targeting specific mutated molecules and indicate how the detection of these proteins can be used for chemotherapeutic purposes in targeting mutated genes. PMID:27083401

  8. A new monoclonal antibody (CAL2) detects CALRETICULIN mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies.

    PubMed

    Stein, H; Bob, R; Dürkop, H; Erck, C; Kämpfe, D; Kvasnicka, H-M; Martens, H; Roth, A; Streubel, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnostic of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) discovered CALRETICULIN (CALR) mutations as a major driver in these disorders. In contrast to JAK2 mutations being mainly associated with polycythaemia vera, CALR mutations are only associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). CALR mutations are present in the majority of PMF and ET patients lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. As these CALR mutations are absent from reactive bone marrow (BM) lesions their presence indicates ET or PMF. So far these mutations are detectable only by molecular assays. Their molecular detection is cumbersome because of the great CALR mutation heterogeneity. Therefore, the availability of a simple assay would be of great help. All CALR mutations reported lead to a frameshift generating a new 36 amino-acid C-terminus. We generated a monoclonal antibody (CAL2) to this C-neoterminus by immunizing mice with a representative peptide and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing data in 173 MPNs and other BM diseases. There was a 100% correlation between the molecular and the CAL2 immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Thus, the detection of CALR mutations by the CAL2 IHC is a specific, sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost method.

  9. Enrichment of PrPSc in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissues Prior to Analysis by Western Blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diagnosis of prion disease is primarily through immunodetection of the infectious agent. Typically, 2 distinct procedures are recommended for a definitive diagnosis with immunohistochemistry and Western blot providing the most information as to the specific isolate in question. In the past these app...

  10. A standardized staining protocol for L1CAM on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using automated platforms.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Mina; Harari, Ayelet; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Zeimet, Alain G; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Altevogt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is overexpressed in many human cancers and can serve as a biomarker for prognosis in most of these cancers (including type I endometrial carcinomas). Here we provide an optimized immunohistochemical staining procedure for a widely used automated platform (VENTANA™), which has recourse to commercially available primary antibody and detection reagents. In parallel, we optimized the staining on a semi-automated BioGenix (i6000) 
immunostainer. These protocols yield good stainings and should represent the basis for a reliable and standardized immunohistochemical detection of L1CAM in a variety of malignancies in different laboratories. PMID:24242293

  11. Somatic Mutation Screening Using Archival Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Fluidigm Multiplex PCR and Illumina Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Escudero-Ibarz, Leire; Moody, Sarah; Zeng, Naiyan; Clipson, Alexandra; Huang, Yuanxue; Xue, Xuemin; Grigoropoulos, Nicholas F; Barrans, Sharon; Worrillow, Lisa; Forshew, Tim; Su, Jing; Firth, Andrew; Martin, Howard; Jack, Andrew; Brugger, Kim; Du, Ming-Qing

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput somatic mutation screening using FFPE tissues is a major challenge because of a lack of established methods and validated variant calling algorithms. We aimed to develop a targeted sequencing protocol by Fluidigm multiplex PCR and Illumina sequencing and to establish a companion variant calling algorithm. The experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were first developed and optimized against a series of somatic mutations (147 substitutions, 12 indels ranging from 1 to 33 bp) in seven genes, previously detected by Sanger sequencing of DNA from 163 FFPE lymphoma biopsy specimens. The optimized experimental protocol and variant calling algorithm were further ascertained in two separate experiments by including the seven genes as a part of larger gene panels (22 or 13 genes) using FFPE and high-molecular-weight lymphoma DNAs, respectively. We found that most false-positive variants were due to DNA degradation, deamination, and Taq polymerase errors, but they were nonreproducible and could be efficiently eliminated by duplicate experiments. A small fraction of false-positive variants appeared in duplicate, but they were at low alternative allele frequencies and could be separated from mutations when appropriate threshold value was used. In conclusion, we established a robust practical approach for high-throughput mutation screening using archival FFPE tissues. PMID:26165823

  12. RNA Sequencing of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Specimens for Gene Expression Quantification and Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Ye, Fei; Su, Yinghao; Clark, Travis; Shu, Xiao-ou

    2016-01-01

    Background. Proper rRNA depletion is crucial for the successful utilization of FFPE specimens when studying gene expression. We performed a study to evaluate two major rRNA depletion methods: Ribo-Zero and RNase H. RNAs extracted from 4 samples were treated with the two rRNA depletion methods in duplicate and sequenced (N = 16). We evaluated their reducibility, ability to detect RNA, and ability to molecularly subtype these triple negative breast cancer specimens. Results. Both rRNA depletion methods produced consistent data between the technical replicates. We found that the RNase H method produced higher quality RNAseq data as compared to the Ribo-Zero method. In addition, we evaluated the RNAseq data generated from the FFPE tissue samples for noncoding RNA, including lncRNA, enhancer/super enhancer RNA, and single nucleotide variation (SNV). We found that the RNase H is more suitable for detecting high-quality, noncoding RNAs as compared to the Ribo-Zero and provided more consistent molecular subtype identification between replicates. Unfortunately, neither method produced reliable SNV data. Conclusions. In conclusion, for FFPE specimens, the RNase H rRNA depletion method performed better than the Ribo-Zero. Neither method generates data sufficient for SNV detection. PMID:27774452

  13. Genomic Changes in Gliomas Detected Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Array in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shuko; Henderson, Lindsay B.; Eshleman, James R.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Burger, Peter; Griffin, Constance A.; Batista, Denise A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomes 1p and 19q in oligodendrogliomas (ODGs) have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Current clinical assays are limited because the probes or primers interrogate only limited genomic segments. We investigated the use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays for identifying genomic changes in gliomas from FFPE tissues. DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of 30 brain tumor cases (15 ODGs and 15 non-ODGs) and assayed on the Illumina array with 300,000 markers. SNP results were compared with standard short tandem repeat (STR) assays of chromosomes 1p and 19q. Fifteen ODGs had LOH by STR and deletion by array on both 1p and 19q. Ten non-ODGs had no evidence of LOH on 1p and 19q by STR, seven of which had no abnormalities for these chromosomes; three had partial deletions by SNP array. Five non-ODG cases had partial LOH or deletion by both assays. No major discordance was found between SNP array and STR results. Advantages of SNP arrays include no need for an accompanying normal sample, the ability to find small segmental deletions, the potential to distinguish between deletions and copy neutral LOH, and whole-genome screening to allow discovery of new, significant loci. Assessment of genomic changes in routine glioma specimens using SNP arrays is feasible and has great potential as an accurate clinical diagnostic test. PMID:21726663

  14. Cross-contamination in the molecular detection of Bartonella from paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Varanat, M; Maggi, R G; Linder, K E; Horton, S; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2009-09-01

    The genus Bartonella comprises a group of gram-negative, fastidious bacteria. Because of diagnostic limitations of culture and serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a powerful tool for the detection of Bartonella spp. in blood and tissue samples. However, because many wild and domestic animals harbor Bartonella spp., transfer of Bartonella DNA during sample collection or histologic processing could result in false-positive PCR test results. In this study, we describe evidence of Bartonella DNA dissemination and transfer in the necropsy room and during the subsequent processing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Bartonella DNA was amplified from different areas of the necropsy room, from the liquid paraffin in the tissue processor, and from different parts of the microtome. Unless stringent procedures are established and followed to avoid cross-contamination, the molecular detection of Bartonella spp. from tissue samples obtained at necropsy or processed in a multispecies histopathology laboratory will not be reliable. PMID:19429988

  15. Diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans central nervous system infection by DNA sequencing from paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; De Carolis, Elena; Mello, Enrica; Pallotto, Carlo; Leli, Christian; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Baldelli, Franco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Infections by Nocardia spp. are generally regarded as opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised patients, but can also affect immunocompetent subjects. Such infections represent an important diagnostic challenge for clinicians and microbiologists, and diagnosis is frequently delayed or even conducted post mortem. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of ventriculitis and relapsing brain abscess. Five months prior, this patient had undergone external ventricular drain and surgery for a cerebellar abscess. Histopathology demonstrated pyogenic inflammatory reaction, microbiologic investigations proved negative and empiric antimicrobial therapy was administered for a total of eight weeks. Six weeks later, the patient developed relapsing neurologic manifestations. On reviewing the patient's clinical history it emerged that the patient had suffered pneumonia two months prior to neurosurgery, treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate 3g a day and levofloxacin 500mg a day for three weeks. On the CNS relapsing manifestations, nocardiosis was suspected and DNA sequencing from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebellar tissue collected during neurosurgery allowed diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans infection. The patient received medical therapy for 11 months. At follow-up, eight months after treatment was discontinued, the patient was aymptomatic. Nocardia spp. infections need to be suspected not only in immunocompromised, but also in immunocompetent patients. Proper samples need to be collected for proper microbiologic investigations. Paraffin-embedded tissue genomic sequencing can be a useful tool for diagnosis of nocardiosis. PMID:27367327

  16. STED Super-Resolution Microscopy of Clinical Paraffin-Embedded Human Rectal Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Christian Andreas; Rüschoff, Josef; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Liersch, Torsten; Jakobs, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissue resected during cancer surgery is indispensable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and represents a vast and largely unexploited resource for research. Optical microscopy of such specimen is curtailed by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional optical microscopy. To overcome this limitation, we used STED super-resolution microscopy enabling optical resolution well below the diffraction barrier. We visualized nanoscale protein distributions in sections of well-annotated paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue stored in a clinical repository. Using antisera against several mitochondrial proteins, STED microscopy revealed distinct sub-mitochondrial protein distributions, suggesting a high level of structural preservation. Analysis of human tissues stored for up to 17 years demonstrated that these samples were still amenable for super-resolution microscopy. STED microscopy of sections of HER2 positive rectal adenocarcinoma revealed details in the surface and intracellular HER2 distribution that were blurred in the corresponding conventional images, demonstrating the potential of super-resolution microscopy to explore the thus far largely untapped nanoscale regime in tissues stored in biorepositories. PMID:25025184

  17. Detection of PrP**Sc in formalin-fixed tissues by western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formalin fixation is the most prevalent form of tissue preservative. As such, formalin fixed tissue represents an important source of archival material for study. Formalin fixation requires little environmental control and preserves the cellular architecture of a wide range of tissues, an importan...

  18. Full-length protein extraction protocols and gel-based downstream applications in formalin-fixed tissue proteomics.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Uzzau, Sergio; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue repositories and their associated clinical information can represent a valuable resource for tissue proteomics. In order to make these tissues available for protein biomarker discovery and validation studies, dedicated sample preparation procedures overcoming the intermolecular cross-links introduced by formalin need to be implemented. This chapter describes a full-length protein extraction protocol optimized for downstream gel-based proteomics applications. Using the procedures detailed here, SDS-PAGE, western immunoblotting, GeLC-MS/MS, 2D-PAGE, and 2D-DIGE can be carried out on FFPE tissues. Technical tips, critical aspects, and drawbacks of the method are presented and discussed.

  19. Guided protein extraction from formalin-fixed tissues for quantitative multiplex analysis avoids detrimental effects of histological stains.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Schott, Christina; Becker, Ingrid; Höfler, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are the basis for histopathological diagnosis of many diseases around the world. For translational research and routine diagnostics, protein analysis from FFPE tissues is very important. We evaluated the potential influence of six histological stains, including hematoxylin (Mayer and Gill), fast red, light green, methyl blue and toluidine blue, for yield, electrophoretic mobility in 1-D gels, and immunoreactivity of proteins isolated from formalin-fixed breast cancer tissues. Proteins extracted from stained FFPE tissues using a recently established technique were compared with proteins obtained from the same tissues but without prior histological staining. Western blot and quantitative protein lysate microarray analysis demonstrated that histological staining can result in decreased protein yield but may not have much influence on immunoreactivity and electrophoretic mobility. Interestingly, not all staining protocols tested are compatible with subsequent protein analysis. The commonly used hematoxylin staining was found to be suitable for multiplexed quantitative protein measurement technologies although protein extraction was less efficient. For best results we suggest a guided protein extraction method, in which an adjacent hematoxylin/eosin-stained tissue section is used to control dissection of an unstained specimen for subsequent protein extraction and quantification for research and diagnosis.

  20. Comparison of fine needle aspiration biopsy and paraffin embedded tissue sections for measuring AgNOR proteins.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, S; Eroz, R; Cucer, N; Oktay, M; Türkeli, M

    2015-07-01

    Paraffin embedded tissue sections and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are important methods for diagnosis. We compared thyroid tissue obtained by FNAB to paraffin embedded sections to determine whether there were differences in detection of the amounts of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) proteins. Twenty-two patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included in the study. Slides were prepared with both FNAB tissue and 3 μm sections of paraffin embedded tissue, and stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per individual were evaluated; total AgNOR number/nucleus (TAn/TNn) and total AgNOR area/nuclear area (TAa/TNa) of individual cells were determined. Mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values were 4.800 ± 1.118 and 13.382 ± 2.612, respectively, for FNAB samples; corresponding values were 2.406 ± 0.649 and 8.49 ± 0.893, respectively, for paraffin embedded sections. The differences between FNAB materials and paraffin embedded tissue sections were significant for the mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values. Significant differences in the amounts of AgNOR protein detected were found between FNAB and paraffin embedded tissue sections.

  1. Microwave-assisted antigen retrieval and incubation with cox-2 antibody of archival paraffin-embedded human oligodendroglioma and astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Temel, Sehime G; Minbay, F Zehra; Kahveci, Zeynep; Jennes, Lothar

    2006-09-30

    Immunohistochemistry is an important tool that is often used for the diagnosis of pathologies; however, the length of time required to process the tissue is relatively long. Furthermore, the quality and sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining is affected by formalin fixation which results in variable loss of antigenicity, known as masking effect. Here we assess the effect of microwave irradiation on the incubation time required to obtain high quality immunohistochemical staining for cox-2 using archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. The results show that intermittent microwave irradiation during the incubation with the primary antibody reduced the time requirement to 5 min while the staining quality was indistinguishable from 1 or 24 h long incubations. Thus, the use of this procedure results in a significant saving of time which is important for a timely diagnosis of pathological conditions that await treatment.

  2. Detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA sequences in paraffin-embedded tissues from the female urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Aglianò, A M; Gazzaniga, P; Cervigni, M; Gradilone, A; Napolitano, M; Pastore, L I; Manzari, V; Frati, L; Vecchione, A

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the presence of human papillomavirus-related DNA sequences (HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18) in 33 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies from the urinary tract of female patients with recurrent and persistent urethritis and cystitis, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples for PCR reaction were selected among tissues examined for histological diagnosis on the basis of the presence of microscopic changes consistent with HPV infection. Sequences homologous to HPV 6, 11 and 18 genome were not found, while HPV 16-related DNA sequences were identified in 25/33 lesions with histopathological diagnosis of metaplasia (1 from the urethra, 23 from the trigone and 1 from the bladder). The results suggest that the spread of HPV in the female urinary tract may not be uncommon and point to the need for further research on the possible pathogenic role in recurrent female disturbances.

  3. The proteomics of formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, David Cilia; Murray, Graeme I

    2013-04-01

    Proteomics, which is the global analysis of protein expression in cells and tissues, has emerged over the last ten to fifteen years as a key set of technologies to improve our understanding of disease processes and to identify new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive disease biomarkers. Whilst most proteomic studies have been conducted on fresh frozen tissue, the continuous improvements in technical procedures for protein extraction and separation, coupled with increasingly powerful bioinformatics, have provided the opportunity for proteomic analysis to be conducted on formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue. This potential advance should allow proteomic analysis to be performed on the extensive archives of clinically annotated formalin fixed wax embedded tissue blocks stored in pathology departments worldwide. In this review the main techniques and their limitations involved in proteomic analysis of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue will be outlined and examples of their successful application will be indicated.

  4. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0–20 years, 21–40 years, 41–60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0–20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  5. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration.

    PubMed

    Kong, Po-Lian; Looi, Lai-Meng; Lau, Tze-Pheng; Cheah, Phaik-Leng

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0-20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  6. DNA copy number analysis of fresh and formalin-fixed specimens by shallow whole-genome sequencing with identification and exclusion of problematic regions in the genome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, Ilari; Sie, Daoud; Bengtsson, Henrik; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Olshen, Adam B.; van Thuijl, Hinke F.; van Essen, Hendrik F.; Eijk, Paul P.; Rustenburg, François; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Wesseling, Pieter; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of DNA copy number aberrations by shallow whole-genome sequencing (WGS) faces many challenges, including lack of completion and errors in the human reference genome, repetitive sequences, polymorphisms, variable sample quality, and biases in the sequencing procedures. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival material, the analysis of which is important for studies of cancer, presents particular analytical difficulties due to degradation of the DNA and frequent lack of matched reference samples. We present a robust, cost-effective WGS method for DNA copy number analysis that addresses these challenges more successfully than currently available procedures. In practice, very useful profiles can be obtained with ∼0.1× genome coverage. We improve on previous methods by first implementing a combined correction for sequence mappability and GC content, and second, by applying this procedure to sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project in order to develop a blacklist of problematic genome regions. A small subset of these blacklisted regions was previously identified by ENCODE, but the vast majority are novel unappreciated problematic regions. Our procedures are implemented in a pipeline called QDNAseq. We have analyzed over 1000 samples, most of which were obtained from the fixed tissue archives of more than 25 institutions. We demonstrate that for most samples our sequencing and analysis procedures yield genome profiles with noise levels near the statistical limit imposed by read counting. The described procedures also provide better correction of artifacts introduced by low DNA quality than prior approaches and better copy number data than high-resolution microarrays at a substantially lower cost. PMID:25236618

  7. DNA copy number analysis of fresh and formalin-fixed specimens by shallow whole-genome sequencing with identification and exclusion of problematic regions in the genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, Ilari; Sie, Daoud; Bengtsson, Henrik; van de Wiel, Mark A; Olshen, Adam B; van Thuijl, Hinke F; van Essen, Hendrik F; Eijk, Paul P; Rustenburg, François; Meijer, Gerrit A; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Wesseling, Pieter; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G; Ylstra, Bauke

    2014-12-01

    Detection of DNA copy number aberrations by shallow whole-genome sequencing (WGS) faces many challenges, including lack of completion and errors in the human reference genome, repetitive sequences, polymorphisms, variable sample quality, and biases in the sequencing procedures. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival material, the analysis of which is important for studies of cancer, presents particular analytical difficulties due to degradation of the DNA and frequent lack of matched reference samples. We present a robust, cost-effective WGS method for DNA copy number analysis that addresses these challenges more successfully than currently available procedures. In practice, very useful profiles can be obtained with ∼0.1× genome coverage. We improve on previous methods by first implementing a combined correction for sequence mappability and GC content, and second, by applying this procedure to sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project in order to develop a blacklist of problematic genome regions. A small subset of these blacklisted regions was previously identified by ENCODE, but the vast majority are novel unappreciated problematic regions. Our procedures are implemented in a pipeline called QDNAseq. We have analyzed over 1000 samples, most of which were obtained from the fixed tissue archives of more than 25 institutions. We demonstrate that for most samples our sequencing and analysis procedures yield genome profiles with noise levels near the statistical limit imposed by read counting. The described procedures also provide better correction of artifacts introduced by low DNA quality than prior approaches and better copy number data than high-resolution microarrays at a substantially lower cost.

  8. Immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded renal biopsies: Experience of a tertiary care center with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Geetika; Singh, Lavleen; Ghosh, Ranajoy; Nath, Devajit; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe the technique of immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded tissue sections and discuss the potential pitfalls with an in depth review of literature. METHODS Immunofluorescence is integral to diagnostic renal pathology. Immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded renal biopsies (IF-P) after enzyme treatment has been described in literature, however has not found widespread use in renal pathology laboratories. In our laboratory proteinase K digestion of paraffin embedded renal biopsy material was standardized and applied prospectively in cases where immunofluorescence on fresh frozen tissue was non contributory or not possible. Diagnostic utility was assessed and in a cohort of cases comparison of intensity of staining with routine immunofluorescence was performed. RESULTS Over the 5-year study period, of the 3141 renal biopsies received IF-P was performed on 246 cases (7.7%) and was interpretable with optimal digestion in 214 cases (6.8%). It was of diagnostic utility in the majority of cases, which predominantly included glomerular disease. Non-diagnostic IF-P was found in membranous nephropathy (2 of 11 cases), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (2 of 32 cases), lupus nephritis (1 of 25 cases), post infectious glomerulonephritis (1 of 11 cases) and chronic glomerulonephritis (3 of 8 cases). Comparing cases with both routine IF and IF-P, 35 of 37 showed either equal intensity or a minor difference in intensity of staining (1+) for the diagnostic immunoglobulin/complement. Technically assessment of immunofluorescence on the paraffin embedded tissue was found to be easier with clearly observed morphology, however a false positive staining pattern was observed in under-digested tissue. CONCLUSION As a “salvage” technique, immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded renal biopsies is of great diagnostic utility, however not without pitfalls. PMID:27648410

  9. Immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded renal biopsies: Experience of a tertiary care center with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Geetika; Singh, Lavleen; Ghosh, Ranajoy; Nath, Devajit; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe the technique of immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded tissue sections and discuss the potential pitfalls with an in depth review of literature. METHODS Immunofluorescence is integral to diagnostic renal pathology. Immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded renal biopsies (IF-P) after enzyme treatment has been described in literature, however has not found widespread use in renal pathology laboratories. In our laboratory proteinase K digestion of paraffin embedded renal biopsy material was standardized and applied prospectively in cases where immunofluorescence on fresh frozen tissue was non contributory or not possible. Diagnostic utility was assessed and in a cohort of cases comparison of intensity of staining with routine immunofluorescence was performed. RESULTS Over the 5-year study period, of the 3141 renal biopsies received IF-P was performed on 246 cases (7.7%) and was interpretable with optimal digestion in 214 cases (6.8%). It was of diagnostic utility in the majority of cases, which predominantly included glomerular disease. Non-diagnostic IF-P was found in membranous nephropathy (2 of 11 cases), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (2 of 32 cases), lupus nephritis (1 of 25 cases), post infectious glomerulonephritis (1 of 11 cases) and chronic glomerulonephritis (3 of 8 cases). Comparing cases with both routine IF and IF-P, 35 of 37 showed either equal intensity or a minor difference in intensity of staining (1+) for the diagnostic immunoglobulin/complement. Technically assessment of immunofluorescence on the paraffin embedded tissue was found to be easier with clearly observed morphology, however a false positive staining pattern was observed in under-digested tissue. CONCLUSION As a “salvage” technique, immunofluorescence on paraffin embedded renal biopsies is of great diagnostic utility, however not without pitfalls.

  10. A reliable method for the selection of exploitable melanoma archival paraffin embedded tissues for transcript biomarker profiling.

    PubMed

    Lebbe, Celeste; Guedj, Mickael; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Podgorniak, Marie Pierre; Menashi, Suzanne; Janin, Anne; Mourah, Samia

    2012-01-01

    The source tissue for biomarkers mRNA expression profiling of tumors has traditionally been fresh-frozen tissue. The adaptation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for routine mRNA profiling would however be invaluable in view of their abundance and the clinical information related to them. However, their use in the clinic remains a challenge due to the poor quality of RNA extracted from such tissues. Here, we developed a method for the selection of melanoma archival paraffin-embedded tissues that can be reliably used for transcript biomarker profiling. For that, we used qRT-PCR to conduct a comparative study in matched pairs of frozen and FFPE melanoma tissues of the expression of 25 genes involved in angiogenesis/tumor invasion and 15 housekeeping genes. A classification method was developed that can select the samples with a good frozen/FFPE correlation and identify those that should be discarded on the basis of paraffin data for four reference genes only. We propose therefore a simple and inexpensive assay which improves reliability of mRNA profiling in FFPE samples by allowing the identification and analysis of "good" samples only. This assay which can be extended to other genes would however need validation at the clinical level and on independent tumor series. PMID:22272228

  11. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T.; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue. PMID:26745875

  12. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-12

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue.

  13. Analysis of iron, zinc, selenium and cadmium in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Gray, Michael A.; MacIas, V.; Centeno, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a valuable and abundant resource of pathologic material for various biomedical studies. In the present study, we report the application of high-resolution inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) for quantification of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd in FFPE prostate tissue. These elements have a possible role in the development of prostate diseases: while Zn and Se are needed for a healthy prostate, Cd shows multiple toxic and carcinogenic effects. Excessive accumulation of Fe induces the production of highly reactive hydroxyl radical species, which may play a role in cancer etiopathogenesis. To assess whether the levels of these metals in the FFPE prostate tissue represent their original content, we compared their levels with those in the fresh tissue (on dry weight basis) in samples obtained from 15 patients. We found that in FFPE tissue, the recoveries of Se, Fe, Cd and Zn were progressively decreased, 97??11% (r=0.88), 82??22% (r=0.86), 59??23% (r=0.69) and 24??11% (r=0.38), respectively. Thus, the use of correction factors, determined as k=0.16 for Se, k=0.20 for Fe, k=0.27 for Cd and k=0.67 for Zn, is required to estimate the retrospective levels of these elements in the parental non-processed fresh (wet) prostate tissue. The technique used in this study enables the analysis of archival FFPE prostate tissue for the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd to study association between the levels of these metals and prostate disease. ?? 2008.

  14. Amplicon Sequencing of Colorectal Cancer: Variant Calling in Frozen and Formalin-Fixed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Betge, Johannes; Kerr, Grainne; Miersch, Thilo; Leible, Svenja; Erdmann, Gerrit; Galata, Christian L.; Zhan, Tianzuo; Gaiser, Timo; Post, Stefan; Ebert, Matthias P.; Horisberger, Karoline; Boutros, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology becoming relevant for genotyping of clinical samples. Here, we assessed the stability of amplicon sequencing from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and paired frozen samples from colorectal cancer metastases with different analysis pipelines. 212 amplicon regions in 48 cancer related genes were sequenced with Illumina MiSeq using DNA isolated from resection specimens from 17 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. From ten of these patients, paired fresh frozen and routinely processed FFPE tissue was available for comparative study. Sample quality of FFPE tissues was determined by the amount of amplifiable DNA using qPCR, sequencing libraries were evaluated using Bioanalyzer. Three bioinformatic pipelines were compared for analysis of amplicon sequencing data. Selected hot spot mutations were reviewed using Sanger sequencing. In the sequenced samples from 16 patients, 29 non-synonymous coding mutations were identified in eleven genes. Most frequent were mutations in TP53 (10), APC (7), PIK3CA (3) and KRAS (2). A high concordance of FFPE and paired frozen tissue samples was observed in ten matched samples, revealing 21 identical mutation calls and only two mutations differing. Comparison of these results with two other commonly used variant calling tools, however, showed high discrepancies. Hence, amplicon sequencing can potentially be used to identify hot spot mutations in colorectal cancer metastases in frozen and FFPE tissue. However, remarkable differences exist among results of different variant calling tools, which are not only related to DNA sample quality. Our study highlights the need for standardization and benchmarking of variant calling pipelines, which will be required for translational and clinical applications. PMID:26010451

  15. Thin basement membrane nephropathy cannot be diagnosed reliably in deparaffinized, formalin-fixed tissue.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samih H; Markowitz, Glen S; Valeri, Anthony M; Yu, Zhimin; Chen, Liqun; D'Agati, Vivette D

    2007-04-01

    In diagnostic renal pathology, electron microscopy is ideally performed on glutaraldehyde-fixed, plastic resin-embedded tissue (EM-G). When no glomeruli are present in the portion of the biopsy fixed in glutaraldehyde, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue can be reprocessed for electron microscopy (EM-F). The usefulness of this salvage technique for the diagnosis of thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) has not been studied systematically. Here we compare the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness by EM-G vs EM-F in 21 renal biopsies, including TBMN (eight patients), normals (two patients), minimal change disease (MCD) (six patients) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) (five patients). There was significant reduction of the GBM thickness by EM-F compared with EM-G across all diagnostic categories in all 21 cases. The mean percentage reduction in GBM thickness was 23% for the TBMN cases, 40% for the normal/MCD cases and 34% for the DN cases. Four patients with MCD had a mean GBM thickness by EM-F that fell below the defining threshold for diagnosis of TBMN. For the TBMN cases, the 99th percentile for GBM thickness by EM-F was 194 nm, suggesting that the diagnosis of TBMN by EM-F can be excluded with confidence if the GBM thickness is above 200 nm. No clear criteria could be established to diagnose TBMN by EM-F. Renal pathologists should be aware that reprocessing of paraffin tissue for EM causes artifactual GBM thinning that precludes accurate diagnosis of TBMN.

  16. [Morphologic HIV demonstration in formalin embedded material--techniques, problems, results].

    PubMed

    Zietz, C; Speiser, B; Hell, W; Stürzl, M; Wolf, H; Roth, W K

    1991-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material of archival specimens is suitable for a morphological HIV-detection: Infected cells with HIV in the proliferative phase can be demonstrated with reliable results on tissue sections by immunohistological technics using new antibodies. In situ nucleic acid hybridisation technics can also show HIV in the expression phase on paraffin-embedded material, but often fail in demonstrating latently HIV-infected cells. The DNA-Polymerase chain reaction can detect latent Provirus in morphologically defined areas of paraffin sections even in autopsy material, i.e. lymphnodes and even eyes of patients with HIV-Infection, but requires precaution and control with respect to contamination. PMID:1724819

  17. High quality DNA obtained with an automated DNA extraction method with 70+ year old formalin-fixed celloidin-embedded (FFCE) blocks from the indiana medical history museum.

    PubMed

    Niland, Erin E; McGuire, Audrey; Cox, Mary H; Sandusky, George E

    2012-01-01

    DNA and RNA have been used as markers of tissue quality and integrity throughout the last few decades. In this research study, genomic quality DNA of kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, and brain were analyzed in tissues from post-mortem patients and surgical cancer cases spanning the past century. DNA extraction was performed on over 180 samples from: 70+ year old formalin-fixed celloidin-embedded (FFCE) tissues, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from surgical cases and post-mortem cases from the 1970's, 1980's, 1990's, and 2000's, tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin/stored in 70% ethanol from the 1990's, 70+ year old tissues fixed in unbuffered formalin of various concentrations, and fresh tissue as a control. To extract DNA from FFCE samples and ethanol-soaked samples, a modified standard operating procedure was used in which all tissues were homogenized, digested with a proteinase K solution for a long period of time (24-48 hours), and DNA was extracted using the Autogen Flexstar automated extraction machine. To extract DNA from FFPE, all tissues were soaked in xylene to remove the paraffin from the tissue prior to digestion, and FFPE tissues were not homogenized. The results were as follows: celloidin-embedded and paraffin-embedded tissues yielded the highest DNA concentration and greatest DNA quality, while the formalin in various concentrations, and long term formalin/ethanol-stored tissue yielded both the lowest DNA concentration and quality of the tissues tested. The average DNA yield for the various fixatives was: 367.77 μg/ mL FFCE, 590.7 μg/mL FFPE, 53.74 μg/mL formalin-fixed/70% ethanol-stored and 33.2 μg/mL unbuffered formalin tissues. The average OD readings for FFCE, FFPE, formalin-fixed/70% ethanol-stored tissues, and tissues fixed in unbuffered formalin were 1.86, 1.87, 1.43, and 1.48 respectively. The results show that usable DNA can be extracted from tissue fixed in formalin and embedded in celloidin or

  18. Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Kun; Chen, Tu-nan; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Li-guo; Liu, Qiao; Li, Zhao; Li, Fei; Zhong, Sen-cheng; Li, Ze-ren; Feng, Hua; Zhao, Jian-heng

    2014-07-01

    The refractive indices, absorption coefficients, and complex dielectric constants of paraffin-embedded brain glioma and normal brain tissues have been measured by a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the 0.2- to 2.0-THz range. The spectral differences between gliomas and normal brain tissues were obtained. Compared with normal brain tissue, our results indicate that paraffin-embedded brain gliomas have a higher refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant. Based on these results, the best THz frequencies for different methods of paraffin-embedded brain glioma imaging, such as intensity imaging, coherent imaging with continuum THz sources, and THz pulsed imaging with short-pulsed THz sources, are analyzed.

  19. Optical clearing and multiphoton imaging of paraffin-embedded specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Degan, Simone; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-02-01

    New labeling, imaging, or analysis tools could provide new retrospective insights when applied to archived, paraffin-embedded samples. Deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy of paraffin-embedded specimens is achieved using optical clearing with mineral oil. We tested a variety of murine tissue specimens including skin, lung, spleen, kidney, and heart, acquiring multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation, and pump-probe images This technique introduces the capability for non-destructive 3-dimensional microscopic imaging of existing archived pathology specimens, enabling retrospective studies.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy studies of formalin-fixed cervix tissues.

    PubMed

    Krishna, C M; Sockalingum, G D; Vadhiraja, B M; Maheedhar, K; Rao, A C K; Rao, L; Venteo, L; Pluot, M; Fernandes, D J; Vidyasagar, M S; Kartha, V B; Manfait, M

    2007-02-15

    Optical histopathology is fast emerging as a potential tool in cancer diagnosis. Fresh tissues in saline are ideal samples for optical histopathology. However, evaluation of suitability of ex vivo handled tissues is necessitated because of severe constraints in sample procurement, handling, and other associated problems with fresh tissues. Among these methods, formalin-fixed samples are shown to be suitable for optical histopathology. However, it is necessary to further evaluate this method from the point of view discriminating tissues with minute biochemical variations. A pilot Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopic studies of formalin-fixed tissues normal, malignant, and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy from the same malignant cervix subjects were carried out, with an aim to explore the feasibility of discriminating these tissues, especially the tissues after-2-fractions of radiotherapy from other two groups. Raman and FTIR spectra exhibit large differences for normal and malignant tissues and subtle differences are seen between malignant and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy tissues. Spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and it provided good discrimination of normal and malignant tissues. PCA of data of three tissues, normal, malignant, and 2-fractions after radiotherapy, gave two clusters corresponding to normal and malignant + after-2-fractions of radiotherapy tissues. A second step of PCA was required to achieve discrimination between malignant and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy tissues. Hence, this study not only further supports the use of formalin-fixed tissues in optical histopathology, especially from Raman spectroscopy point of view, it also indicates feasibility of discriminating tissues with minute biochemical differences such as malignant and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy.

  1. Three Dimensional Imaging of Paraffin Embedded Human Lung Tissue Samples by Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna E.; Vasilescu, Dragos M.; Seal, Katherine A. D.; Keyes, Samuel D.; Mavrogordato, Mark N.; Hogg, James C.; Sinclair, Ian; Warner, Jane A.; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Lackie, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) micro-architecture of lung tissue can provide insights into the pathology of lung disease. Micro computed tomography (µCT) has previously been used to elucidate lung 3D histology and morphometry in fixed samples that have been stained with contrast agents or air inflated and dried. However, non-destructive microstructural 3D imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues would facilitate retrospective analysis of extensive tissue archives of lung FFPE lung samples with linked clinical data. Methods FFPE human lung tissue samples (n = 4) were scanned using a Nikon metrology µCT scanner. Semi-automatic techniques were used to segment the 3D structure of airways and blood vessels. Airspace size (mean linear intercept, Lm) was measured on µCT images and on matched histological sections from the same FFPE samples imaged by light microscopy to validate µCT imaging. Results The µCT imaging protocol provided contrast between tissue and paraffin in FFPE samples (15mm x 7mm). Resolution (voxel size 6.7 µm) in the reconstructed images was sufficient for semi-automatic image segmentation of airways and blood vessels as well as quantitative airspace analysis. The scans were also used to scout for regions of interest, enabling time-efficient preparation of conventional histological sections. The Lm measurements from µCT images were not significantly different to those from matched histological sections. Conclusion We demonstrated how non-destructive imaging of routinely prepared FFPE samples by laboratory µCT can be used to visualize and assess the 3D morphology of the lung including by morphometric analysis. PMID:26030902

  2. Tryptic peptide reference data sets for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry on formalin-fixed ovarian cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Meding, Stephan; Martin, Karina; Gustafsson, Ove J R; Eddes, James S; Hack, Sandra; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for morphology-based proteomic tissue analysis. However, peptide identification is still a major challenge due to low S/N ratios, low mass accuracy and difficulties in correlating observed m/z species with peptide identities. To address this, we have analyzed tryptic digests of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarray cores, from 31 ovarian cancer patients, by LC-MS/MS. The sample preparation closely resembled the MALDI imaging workflow in order to create representative reference data sets containing peptides also observable in MALDI imaging experiments. This resulted in 3844 distinct peptide sequences, at a false discovery rate of 1%, for the entire cohort and an average of 982 distinct peptide sequences per sample. From this, a total of 840 proteins and, on average, 297 proteins per sample could be inferred. To support the efforts of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project Consortium, we have annotated these proteins with their respective chromosome location. In the presented work, the benefit of using a large cohort of data sets was exemplified by correct identification of several m/z species observed in a MALDI imaging experiment. The tryptic peptide data sets generated will facilitate peptide identification in future MALDI imaging studies on ovarian cancer.

  3. Identification of high-confidence somatic mutations in whole genome sequence of formalin-fixed breast cancer specimens

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Shawn E.; Smith, Erin N.; Schwab, Richard B.; Bao, Lei; Jung, HyunChul; Wang, Xiaoyun; Voest, Emile; Pierce, John P.; Messer, Karen; Parker, Barbara A.; Harismendy, Olivier; Frazer, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of archived, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples for massive parallel sequencing has been challenging due to DNA damage and contamination with normal stroma. Here, we perform whole genome sequencing of DNA isolated from two triple-negative breast cancer tumors archived for >11 years as 5 µm FFPE sections and matched germline DNA. The tumor samples show differing amounts of FFPE damaged DNA sequencing reads revealed as relatively high alignment mismatch rates enriched for C·G > T·A substitutions compared to germline samples. This increase in mismatch rate is observable with as few as one million reads, allowing for an upfront evaluation of the sample integrity before whole genome sequencing. By applying innovative quality filters incorporating global nucleotide mismatch rates and local mismatch rates, we present a method to identify high-confidence somatic mutations even in the presence of FFPE induced DNA damage. This results in a breast cancer mutational profile consistent with previous studies and revealing potentially important functional mutations. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of performing genome-wide deep sequencing analysis of FFPE archived tumors of limited sample size such as residual cancer after treatment or metastatic biopsies. PMID:22492626

  4. Flexible Lab-Tailored Cut-Offs for Suitability of Formalin-Fixed Tumor Samples for Diagnostic Mutational Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Sara; Tondat, Fabrizio; Pacchioni, Donatella; Molinaro, Luca; Barreca, Antonella; Macrì, Luigia; Chiusa, Luigi; di Celle, Paola Francia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The selection of proper tissues from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumors before diagnostic molecular testing is responsibility of the pathologist and represents a crucial step to produce reliable test results. The international guidelines suggest two cut-offs, one for the percentage and one for the number of tumor cells, in order to enrich the tumor content before DNA extraction. The aim of the present work was two-fold: to evaluate to what extent a low percentage or absolute number of tumor cells can be qualified for somatic mutation testing; and to determine how assay sensitivities can guide pathologists towards a better definition of morphology-based adequacy cut-offs. We tested 1797 tumor specimens from melanomas, colorectal and lung adenocarcinomas. Respectively, their BRAF, K-RAS and EGFR genes were analyzed at specific exons by mutation-enriched PCR, pyrosequencing, direct sequencing and real-time PCR methods. We demonstrate that poorly cellular specimens do not modify the frequency distribution of either mutated or wild-type DNA samples nor that of specific mutations. This observation suggests that currently recommended cut-offs for adequacy of specimens to be processed for molecular assays seem to be too much stringent in a laboratory context that performs highly sensitive routine analytical methods. In conclusion, new cut-offs are needed based on test sensitivities and documented tumor heterogeneity. PMID:25844806

  5. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus by polymerase chain reaction in cultured isolates, cervicovaginal mucus, and formalin-fixed tissues from infected heifers and fetuses.

    PubMed

    BonDurant, Robert H; Campero, Carlos M; Anderson, Mark L; Van Hoosear, Karen A

    2003-11-01

    A rapid, reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, originally developed for definitive laboratory identification of the bovine venereal pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus from cultures of male reproductive tract fluids, was used for testing the following: 1) cultured, geographically disparate trichomonad isolates, 2) formalin-fixed tissues from infected heifers and naturally infected fetuses, and 3) cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) from experimentally infected females. In 12 of 12 Western Hemisphere isolates of pathogenic T. foetus (isolated from outbreaks of clinical trichomoniasis or from screening surveys) and in 1 of 1 American Type Culture Collection strain of Tritrichomonas suis, PCR yielded a positive result, i.e., a 347-base pair amplicon in the 5.8S ribosomal RNA and internal transcribed spacer (5.8S-ITS) region of the genome, whereas cultures of Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas gallinae did not produce a PCR product. The PCR assay was also positive in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrial samples from 4 of 4 experimentally infected heifers, as well as in archived tissues from 2 of 2 T. foetus-infected aborted bovine fetuses that were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory from a natural outbreak. It was negative in fixed, embedded uterine tissues of 2 of 2 uninfected virgin heifers used as negative controls and in archived fixed gut tissue of a T. gallinae-infected pigeon. In another experiment, CVM aspirated from 4 of 4 experimentally infected heifers in the fifth or sixth postinfection week yielded a positive PCR product of the expected size, whereas CVM from 2 of 2 controls were PCR negative. Pending validation in larger clinical studies, the PCR assay for the 5.8S-ITS coding region of the T. foetus genome offers the prospect of definitive identification of this agent directly from CVM or from formalin-fixed tissues or when false-positive culture results are suspected. PMID:14667024

  6. Standardization of immunohistochemistry for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections based on the antigen-retrieval technique: from experiments to hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Liu, Cheng; Taylor, Clive R

    2007-02-01

    From a practical point of view, one of the most difficult issues in the standardization of IHC for FFPE tissue is the adverse influence of formalin upon antigenicity, as well as the great variation in fixation/processing procedures. Based on previous study, an additional study using four markers demonstrated the potential for obtaining equivalent IHC staining among FFPE tissue sections with periods of formalin fixation ranging from 6 hr to 30 days. On this basis, the following hypothesis is proposed. "The use of optimized AR protocols permits retrieval of specific proteins (antigens) from FFPE tissues to a defined and reproducible degree (expressed as R%), with reference to the amount of protein present in the original fresh/unfixed tissue". This hypothesis may also be presented mathematically: the protein amount in a fresh cell/tissue, expressed as Pf, produces an IHC signal in fresh tissue of integral(Pf). When the identical IHC staining plus AR treatment is applied to a FFPE tissue section, the IHC signal may be represented as integral (Pffpe). The degree of retrieval after AR (R%) is calculated as follows: R% = integral (Pffpe)/ integral (Pf) x 100%. The amount of protein in the FFPE tissue may then be derived as follows: Pffpe = Pf x R%. In a situation where optimized AR is 100% effective, the IHC signal would then be of equal strength in fresh tissue and FFPE tissue, and Pffpe= Pf. Further studies are designed to test the limitations of the proposed hypothesis.

  7. A multi-centre investigation towards reaching a consensus on the immunohistochemical detection of ERbeta in archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Carder, Pauline J; Murphy, Claire E; Dervan, Peter; Kennedy, Maria; McCann, Amanda; Saunders, Philippa T K; Shaaban, Abeer M; Foster, Christopher S; Witton, Caroline J; Bartlett, John M S; Walker, Rosemary A; Speirs, Valerie

    2005-08-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) alpha is a well-established independent prognostic factor in breast cancer whose presence determines the clinical implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy. A second receptor, ERb has been described, and a number of studies have examined its expression in breast tissue. However elucidation of the role played by ERb has been hampered by published immunohistochemical studies employing a variety of protocols and scoring systems such that inter-laboratory comparisons are difficult. Here we present a multi-centre study designed to critically evaluate inter-laboratory differences in methodology. Six UK and Irish centres participated in this study. A small series of breast cancers were stained using centre-specific laboratory protocols and scored using both centrespecific and standard scoring protocols. There was generally poor agreement as to what constituted a positive or negative case when centre-specific scoring systems were used with less than half of all cases in agreement. Concordance was improved when a standard scoring system was used but varied according to threshold for positivity employed and primary antibody. Our results emphasise the need for further studies addressing the role of ERb to be based on a wider consensus on criteria for positivity. Ideally this should be based on calibration against clinical outcome.

  8. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D'Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues.

  9. Employing Digital Droplet PCR to Detect BRAF V600E Mutations in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Reference Standard Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Oh, Myung Ryurl; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Si Eun; Kim, Young Deug; Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Byun, Bohyun; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    ddPCR is a highly sensitive PCR method that utilizes a water-oil emulsion system. Using a droplet generator, an extracted nucleic acid sample is partitioned into ~20,000 nano-sized, water-in-oil droplets, and PCR amplification occurs in individual droplets. The ddPCR approach is in identifying sequence mutations, copy number alterations, and select structural rearrangements involving targeted genes. Here, we demonstrate the use of ddPCR as a powerful technique for precisely quantitating rare BRAF V600E mutations in FFPE reference standard cell lines, which is helpful in identifying individuals with cancer. In conclusion, ddPCR technique offers the potential to precisely profile the specific rare mutations in different genes in various types of FFPE samples. PMID:26484710

  10. Multiplex DNA short tandem repeat analysis. A useful method for determining the provenance of minute fragments of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Popiolek, Dorota A; Prinz, Mechthild K; West, A Brian; Nazzaruolo, Bianca L; Estacio, Sheila M; Budimlija, Zoran M

    2003-11-01

    A tiny fragment of high-grade carcinoma was found in histologic sections and in the paraffin block of a benign cervical polyp from a patient with no clinical evidence of malignancy. Thus, it raised the suspicion of block contamination. No malignant tumor was processed the same day as the polyp; however, a similar tumor had been processed 6 days earlier. Multiplex DNA short tandem repeat analysis was applied to paraffin-extracted tissue samples obtained from the polyp, the suspected contaminant, the patient's additional cervical biopsy specimen, and the putative source of contamination. The results demonstrated that the suspected contaminant and the patient's cervical tissue could not have come from the same patient and that the suspected contaminant derived from the tumor processed earlier, without reasonable doubt. We hypothesize that this friable tumor escaped from cassettes into the processor and contaminated the polyp specimen. Multiplex DNA short tandem repeat analysis can be applied to determine the provenance of minute tissue samples in surgical pathology. PMID:14608902

  11. High-quality genotyping data from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue on the drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters plus array.

    PubMed

    Vos, Hanneke I; van der Straaten, Tahar; Coenen, Marieke J H; Flucke, Uta; te Loo, D Maroeska W M; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array covers 1936 markers in 231 genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. Blood- and saliva-derived DNA works well on the DMET array, but the utility of DNA from FFPE tissue has not been reported for this array. As the ability to use DNA from FFPE tissue on the array could open the potential for large retrospective sample collections, we examined the performance and reliability of FFPE-derived DNA on the DMET Plus array. Germline DNA isolated from archived normal FFPE tissue blocks stored for 3 to 19 years and matched blood or saliva from 16 patients with osteosarcoma were genotyped on the DMET Plus array. Concordance was assessed by calculating agreement and the κ-statistic. We observed high call rates for both the blood- or saliva-derived DNA samples (99.4%) and the FFPE-derived DNA samples (98.9%). Moreover, the concordance among the 16 blood- or saliva-derived DNA and FFPE DNA pairs was high (97.4%, κ = 0.915). This is the first study showing that DNA from normal FFPE tissue provides accurate and reliable genotypes on the DMET Plus array compared with blood- or saliva-derived DNA. This finding provides an opportunity for pharmacogenetic studies in diseases with high mortality rates and prevents a bias in studies where otherwise only alive patients can be included.

  12. Detection of PrPSc in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue by Western Blot Differentiates Classical Scrapie, Nor98 Scrapie, and BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the presence of an infectious abnormal isoform of normal mammalian proteins called prions (PrP**Sc). Identification of PrP**Sc in the CNS is typicall...

  13. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples

    PubMed Central

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D’Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues. PMID:23950653

  14. Inter-laboratory comparison of DNA preservation in archival paraffin-embedded human brain tissue from participating centres on four continents.

    PubMed

    Kösel, S; Grasbon-Frodl, E M; Arima, K; Chimelli, L; Hahn, M; Hashizume, Y; Hulette, C; Ikeda, K; Jacobsen, P F; Jones, M; Kobayashi, M; Love, S; Mizutani, T; Rosemberg, S; Sasaki, A; Smith, T W; Takahashi, H; Vortmeyer, A O; Graeber, M B

    2001-07-01

    DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue is known to contain as yet ill-characterized inhibitors of the PCR process. As part of a project that aims to clarify the role of mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in human neurodegenerative diseases using DNA from various ethnic backgrounds, we have investigated factors that influence the preservation of archival DNA and its suitability for PCR. In this study, neuropathological tissue samples were analysed that had been routinely processed in 18 international centres on four continents. Following DNA extraction, PCR amplification of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences was performed with and without additional purification of the template DNA. In addition, the DNA used for PCR was analysed by HPLC. Phosphate-buffered formalin proved to be a superior fixative compared with unbuffered aldehyde: DNA extraction resulted in greater yields, the molecular weight of the isolated DNA was higher and PCR was more successful. PCR inhibitors were identified as (1) high concentrations of small (<300 bp) DNA fragments that competitively compete with template DNA and (2) contaminants of the DNA template solution including denatured protein that cannot be completely removed by phenolic extraction. HPLC analysis did not reveal significant qualitative differences between DNA isolated from fresh-frozen tissue samples and DNA recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue. The fact that DNA could be amplified from the majority of tissue specimens in this study suggests that rare diseases and diseases where ethnic background plays an important role can be sampled for genetic polymorphism analysis on a global scale using archival neuropathological collections.

  15. Evaluation of a fluorescence-labelled oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA for in situ detection of Salmonella serovars in paraffin-embedded tissue sections and their rapid identification in bacterial smears.

    PubMed Central

    Nordentoft, S; Christensen, H; Wegener, H C

    1997-01-01

    A method for the detection of Salmonella based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been developed and applied for the direct detection of Salmonella in pure cultures and in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. On the basis of the 23S rRNA gene sequences representing all of the S. enterica subspecies and S. bongori, an 18-mer oligonucleotide probe was selected. The specificity of the probe was tested by in situ hybridization to bacterial cell smears of pure cultures. Forty-nine of 55 tested Salmonella serovars belonging to subspecies I, II, IIIb, IV, and VI hybridized with the probe. The probe did not hybridize to serovars from subspecies IIIa (S. arizonae) or to S. bongori. No cross-reaction to 64 other strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae or 18 other bacterial strains outside this family was observed. The probe was tested with sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from experimentally infected mice or from animals with a history of clinical salmonellosis. In these tissue sections the probe hybridized specifically to Salmonella serovars, allowing for the detection of single bacterial cells. The development of a fluorescence-labelled specific oligonucleotide probe makes the FISH technique a promising tool for the rapid identification of S. enterica in bacterial smears, as well as for the detection of S. enterica in histological tissue sections. PMID:9316923

  16. A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from skin and paraffin-embedded tissues applicable to T-cell clonality assays.

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Julia V; Biderman, Bella V; Nikulina, Elena E; Sudarikov, Andrey B

    2012-01-01

    PCR-based clonality assay of rearranged T-cell receptor genes gamma and beta (TCRG and TCRB) in a number of cases could be essential to discriminate between cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoproliferative lesions in the skin. However, extraction of good-quality DNA from skin specimens (especially formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) remains a challenge. Common procedures, being labour-intensive and time-consuming and requiring toxic solvents such as phenol and chloroform, still may end up with DNA sample of insufficient quality. We herewith present a simple and efficient method for DNA isolation based on ammonia extraction of tissue, followed by neutralization and simultaneous salting out of proteins with acetic acid. We have analysed 30 samples - 24 fresh (16 skin, two spleen and six lymph node) and six paraffin-embedded. Standard procedure (proteinase K digestion, followed by phenol/chloroform extraction) has been carried out simultaneously. We observed good PCR signal for TCRG rearrangements in 30 samples processed with the new protocol and only in 20 extracted with proteinase K/phenol/chloroform. For TCRB, the success rate was 29 of 30 with the new protocol, compared to 11 of 30 with conventional protocol. The proposed method of DNA extraction should improve the value of T-cell clonality assay, because insufficient DNA quality and quantity may bias analysis towards monoclonality and therefore cause false-positive results.

  17. Comparison of five protocols to extract DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues for the detection of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Aldana, Adalucy; Martínez, José William; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are a valuable source of DNA with which to perform large retrospective studies on the epidemiology of HPV infection. Five different DNA extraction protocols were carried out to evaluate the DNA obtained from FFPE samples with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two primer sets to amplify a constitutive human gene, β-globin, and two primer sets to detect the L1 and E6 HPV genes. From the five DNA extraction protocols evaluated, the best results were obtained with protocol A, corresponding to a crude extract from the sample. With the procedures described herein, we were able to amplify DNA extracted from archival paraffin blocks stored for six years. However, the amplification products were more efficiently obtained with primers that amplified shorter fragments. This result indicates that a major factor limiting the extraction process in these samples is DNA fragmentation, a factor that will naturally vary between the different specimens evaluated. Also, depending upon the extraction method, PCR amplification of a human gene does not necessarily guarantee the successful extraction of viral DNA. In conclusion, different DNA and HPV detection methods can significantly influence the results. Therefore, the DNA extraction methods and primers used for DNA amplification in fixed tissues need to be chosen carefully, depending on the specific requirements of the study being carried out.

  18. Comparison of five protocols to extract DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues for the detection of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Aldana, Adalucy; Martínez, José William; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are a valuable source of DNA with which to perform large retrospective studies on the epidemiology of HPV infection. Five different DNA extraction protocols were carried out to evaluate the DNA obtained from FFPE samples with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two primer sets to amplify a constitutive human gene, β-globin, and two primer sets to detect the L1 and E6 HPV genes. From the five DNA extraction protocols evaluated, the best results were obtained with protocol A, corresponding to a crude extract from the sample. With the procedures described herein, we were able to amplify DNA extracted from archival paraffin blocks stored for six years. However, the amplification products were more efficiently obtained with primers that amplified shorter fragments. This result indicates that a major factor limiting the extraction process in these samples is DNA fragmentation, a factor that will naturally vary between the different specimens evaluated. Also, depending upon the extraction method, PCR amplification of a human gene does not necessarily guarantee the successful extraction of viral DNA. In conclusion, different DNA and HPV detection methods can significantly influence the results. Therefore, the DNA extraction methods and primers used for DNA amplification in fixed tissues need to be chosen carefully, depending on the specific requirements of the study being carried out. PMID:25444238

  19. Preservation of nucleic acids and tissue morphology in paraffin-embedded clinical samples: comparison of five molecular fixatives.

    PubMed

    Staff, Synnöve; Kujala, Paula; Karhu, Ritva; Rökman, Annika; Ilvesaro, Joanna; Kares, Saara; Isola, Jorma

    2013-09-01

    Formalin fixation preserves tissue morphology at the expense of macromolecule integrity. Freshly frozen samples are the golden standard for DNA and RNA analyses but require laborious deep-freezing and frozen sectioning for morphological studies. Alternative tissue stabilisation methods are therefore needed. We analysed the preservation of nucleic acids, immunohistochemical staining properties and tissue morphology in paraffin-embedded clinical tissue samples fixed with Z7, RCL2, PAXgene, Allprotect and RNAlater. Formalin-fixed and deep-frozen samples were used as controls. Immunohistochemical analyses showed good preservation of antigenicity in all except Allprotect and RNAlater-fixed samples. RNA quality, based on RNA integrity number value by Bioanalyzer, was comparable with freshly frozen samples only in PAXgene-fixed samples. According to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses, RNA from PAXgene samples yielded results similar to freshly frozen samples. No difference between fixatives was seen in DNA analyses (PCR and real-time PCR). In conclusion, PAXgene seems to be superior to other molecular fixatives and formaldehyde.

  20. [Analysis of different methods of extracting DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues and the application of nest PCR].

    PubMed

    Yan, Limin; Sun, Baocun; Zhao, Xiulan; Liu, Zenghui; Song, Wenjing

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the most optimal method of DNA extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and to improve the amplification of long fragments with the method. Three methods, one step method, phenol-chloroform extraction method, and genomic DNA purification kit method, were employed to extract DNA from twenty normal thyroid tissues which were fixed with formalin and embedded with paraffin. The highest proportionality of OD260/OD280 in the examples was obtained by phenol-chloroform extraction method, 1.703 +/- 0.086, compared to the results of the other two methods. As for the long DNA segments amplification, the achievement ratio of one step method, phenol-chloroform extraction method and genomic DNA purification kit method were 0%, 5% and 10%, respectively, by traditional PCR method, but 0%, 95% and 85% respectively by the nest PCR. We have found that the best process of extracting DNA from FFPE is digesting by proteinase K and purifying by phenol-chloroform, and it is effective to amplify long DNA segments from FFPE by nest PCR.

  1. Towards quantitative mRNA analysis in paraffin-embedded tissues using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: a methodological study on lymph nodes from melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Helene Nortvig; Steiniche, Torben; Nexo, Ebba; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2003-02-01

    Improved extraction techniques combined with sensitive real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction may allow detection of mRNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials, but the factors affecting mRNA quantification in clinical material using these methods have not been systematically analyzed. We designed analyses using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for quantification of MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs. The analytical intra- and interassay imprecision (coefficient of variation) was in the range 10 to 20% for all three genes studied. Using these protocols, we studied the influence of tissue autolysis and length of formalin-fixation on mRNA detection in metastatic melanoma. Delay in freezing reduced detectable mRNA, although this was less than predicted and mostly occurred early in autolysis. MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs were consistently detected in FFPE metastatic melanoma even after fixation for up to 3 weeks, although the total mRNA detected was markedly reduced in fixed compared with fresh tissues (up to 99%). Quantification of MART-1 was, however, possible if this was expressed relative to a housekeeping gene. The polymerase chain reaction product from FFPE tissues could be increased up to 100-fold amplifying short (<136 bp) compared with long amplicons. Variations in time before tissue processing and in fixation length seem to be less important sources of imprecision than previously assumed. Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of mRNA in archive and routine diagnostic tissues may be possible.

  2. Identify paraffin-embedded brain glioma using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ze-ren; Meng, Kun; Chen, Tu-nan; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Li-guo; Liu, Qiao; Li, Zhao; Li, Fei; Zhong, Sen-cheng; Feng, Hua; Zhao, Jian-heng

    2015-01-01

    The refractive indices, absorption coefficients and complex dielectric constants spectra of paraffin-embedded brain glioma and normal brain tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the range of 0.2 - 2.0 THz. The spectral differences between glioma and normal brain tissues were obtained. Our results indicate that, compared with normal tissue, glioma had higher refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant. Based on these results, the suitable frequency components for different methods of glioma imaging (intensity imaging, coherent imaging and terahertz pulsed imaging) are analyzed.

  3. Variations in Feulgen stainability of epithelial parenchymal cells extracted from paraffin-embedded salivary gland specimens.

    PubMed

    Schimmelpenning, H; Falkmer, U G; Hamper, K; Seifert, G; Auer, G U

    1990-01-01

    The variations of Feulgen stainability of cells extracted from paraffin-embedded archival specimens for DNA assessment by means of image cytometry (ICM) were investigated in normal salivary gland parenchyma. The Feulgen stainability of the deparaffinized, rehydrated, and disaggregated preparations was found to exhibit variations of up to 300%, expressed by the mean of integrated optical density (IOD), when a routine procedure was applied to a first series of Cytospin preparations of disaggregated specimens. When measured in nondisaggregated tissue sections, only negligible variations were observed. After minimization of the mechanical strains to the cellular material in the Cytospin preparations in a second series, the variations in Feulgen stainability were found to be considerably lower. The findings indicate that the main reason for variations in the Feulgen stainability of extracted cells is, most likely, the disaggregation procedure itself. Factors such as initial treatment of the specimens, duration and kind of formalin fixation, and length of storage time periods seem to be of minor importance. Retrospective studies on paraffin-embedded specimens require a carefully controlled tissue type-adapted disaggregation procedure. In addition, we concluded that the interpretation of histograms, obtained by means of ICM DNA assessments in Cytospin preparations of archival material, requires a well-defined internal specific standard.

  4. Plasmid-Based Materials as Multiplex Quality Controls and Calibrators for Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing Assays.

    PubMed

    Sims, David J; Harrington, Robin D; Polley, Eric C; Forbes, Thomas D; Mehaffey, Michele G; McGregor, Paul M; Camalier, Corinne E; Harper, Kneshay N; Bouk, Courtney H; Das, Biswajit; Conley, Barbara A; Doroshow, James H; Williams, P Mickey; Lih, Chih-Jian

    2016-05-01

    Although next-generation sequencing technologies have been widely adapted for clinical diagnostic applications, an urgent need exists for multianalyte calibrator materials and controls to evaluate the performance of these assays. Control materials will also play a major role in the assessment, development, and selection of appropriate alignment and variant calling pipelines. We report an approach to provide effective multianalyte controls for next-generation sequencing assays, referred to as the control plasmid spiked-in genome (CPSG). Control plasmids that contain approximately 1000 bases of human genomic sequence with a specific mutation of interest positioned near the middle of the insert and a nearby 6-bp molecular barcode were synthesized, linearized, quantitated, and spiked into genomic DNA derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded-prepared hapmap cell lines at defined copy number ratios. Serial titration experiments demonstrated the CPSGs performed with similar efficiency of variant detection as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell line genomic DNA. Repetitive analyses of one lot of CPSGs 90 times during 18 months revealed that the reagents were stable with consistent detection of each of the plasmids at similar variant allele frequencies. CPSGs are designed to work across most next-generation sequencing methods, platforms, and data analysis pipelines. CPSGs are robust controls and can be used to evaluate the performance of different next-generation sequencing diagnostic assays, assess data analysis pipelines, and ensure robust assay performance metrics. PMID:27105923

  5. Thiel embalming fluid--a new way to revive formalin-fixed cadaveric specimens.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Amanda; Eisma, Roos; Lamb, Clare

    2014-09-01

    By soft fixing cadavers using the Thiel embalming method, our cadavers now exhibit a greater degree of flexibility and color retention compared to that of traditional formalin-fixed cadavers. The aim of this experiment was to discover whether Thiel embalming fluid could be used to revive and soften the muscles of formalin-fixed prosected specimens. Earlier this year, two severely dehydrated formalin-fixed forearm and hand specimens were fully submerged in a tank containing Thiel embalming fluid. After a period of six months the specimens were removed from the tank and noticeable changes were observed in flexibility, quality of the tissue, and color of the specimens.

  6. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction fails to detect peripheral-blood hepatitis C RNA in formalin-fixed liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R B; Batts, K P; Germer, J J; Perez, R G; Wiesner, R H; Persing, D H

    1998-11-01

    Currently, one of the major indications for liver transplantation is infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Many studies have suggested that recurrent infection with HCV is universal after transplantation. Fastidious techniques, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have proved to be highly sensitive for detecting HCV RNA in serum and in fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue. In this study, we wanted to determine whether the identification of HCV RNA in liver tissue by RT-PCR might reflect the detection of circulating HCV RNA in blood within the tissue, rather than implying true tissue infection. We performed RT-PCR for HCV RNA in FFPE liver biopsy specimens taken from 14 donor allografts shortly before and immediately after implantation into recipients. The recipients were known to have HCV RNA in serum and explanted liver tissue, as determined by RT-PCR. We were unable to detect HCV RNA in any of the study samples, either before or after transplantation. In a related study, qualitative and quantitative HCV RNA analyses were performed by RT-PCR and branched DNA (bDNA) amplification, respectively, on serum samples collected pretransplantation and immediately posttransplantation from 10 other patients who underwent transplantation for hepatitis C. HCV RNA was detected in all serum samples before and after transplantation by RT-PCR; however, the bDNA assay detected HCV RNA in only 6 of 10 samples pre-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and in none of the immediately post-OLT samples. In our system, despite the RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in serum before and after the transplantation, HCV RNA is not detectable in the peripheral blood that accompanies formalin-fixed liver tissue. This implies that RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in tissue reflects true liver infection, rather than contamination by HCV RNA in accompanying peripheral blood.

  7. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction fails to detect peripheral-blood hepatitis C RNA in formalin-fixed liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R B; Batts, K P; Germer, J J; Perez, R G; Wiesner, R H; Persing, D H

    1998-11-01

    Currently, one of the major indications for liver transplantation is infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Many studies have suggested that recurrent infection with HCV is universal after transplantation. Fastidious techniques, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have proved to be highly sensitive for detecting HCV RNA in serum and in fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue. In this study, we wanted to determine whether the identification of HCV RNA in liver tissue by RT-PCR might reflect the detection of circulating HCV RNA in blood within the tissue, rather than implying true tissue infection. We performed RT-PCR for HCV RNA in FFPE liver biopsy specimens taken from 14 donor allografts shortly before and immediately after implantation into recipients. The recipients were known to have HCV RNA in serum and explanted liver tissue, as determined by RT-PCR. We were unable to detect HCV RNA in any of the study samples, either before or after transplantation. In a related study, qualitative and quantitative HCV RNA analyses were performed by RT-PCR and branched DNA (bDNA) amplification, respectively, on serum samples collected pretransplantation and immediately posttransplantation from 10 other patients who underwent transplantation for hepatitis C. HCV RNA was detected in all serum samples before and after transplantation by RT-PCR; however, the bDNA assay detected HCV RNA in only 6 of 10 samples pre-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and in none of the immediately post-OLT samples. In our system, despite the RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in serum before and after the transplantation, HCV RNA is not detectable in the peripheral blood that accompanies formalin-fixed liver tissue. This implies that RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in tissue reflects true liver infection, rather than contamination by HCV RNA in accompanying peripheral blood. PMID:9791155

  8. Immunocytochemical assay of progesterone receptors in paraffin-embedded specimens of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brustein, S; Fruchter, R; Greene, G L; Pertschuk, L P

    1989-09-01

    An immunohistochemical method for the detection of progesterone receptors (PgR) using the monoclonal anti-PgR antibody KD 68 was utilized to study paraffin-embedded tissue sections from women with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. Stromal as well as myometrial nuclear PgR were nearly always apparent. In carcinoma, 11/24 (46%) of cases showed epithelial positivity, whereas in hyperplasia 8/9 (89%) were PgR-positive (P less than 0.05). Initial biochemical PgR assays by the dextran-coated charcoal method were compared with results of PgR-immunocytochemical assays (ICA) in the paraffin-embedded tissue and were in concordance in 92%. In the one discordant specimen, PgR-ICA-negative tumor cells were seen infiltrating PgR-ICA-positive myometrium, and the biochemical assay was thus felt to be falsely positive. Twelve additional cases of endometrial carcinoma were also studied for estrogen receptor (ER) by immunocytochemistry. Two were positive for both ER and PgR, while five were negative for both receptors. The immunocytochemical methods described allow for analysis of routinely fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, thus permitting analysis of very small specimens and archival material.

  9. Comparative analysis of four methods to extract DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues: effect on downstream molecular applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large portion of tissues stored worldwide for diagnostic purposes is formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE). These FFPE-archived tissues are an extremely valuable source for retrospective (genetic) studies. These include mutation screening in cancer-critical genes as well as pathogen detection. In this study we evaluated the impact of several widely used DNA extraction methods on the quality of molecular diagnostics on FFPE tissues. Findings We compared 4 DNA extraction methods from 4 identically processed FFPE mammary-, prostate-, colon- and lung tissues with regard to PCR inhibition, real time SNP detection and amplifiable fragment size. The extraction methods, with and without proteinase K pre-treatment, tested were: 1) heat-treatment, 2) QIAamp DNA-blood-mini-kit, 3) EasyMAG NucliSens and 4) Gentra Capture-Column-kit. Amplifiable DNA fragment size was assessed by multiplexed 200-400-600 bp PCR and appeared highly influenced by the extraction method used. Proteinase K pre-treatment was a prerequisite for proper purification of DNA from FFPE. Extractions with QIAamp, EasyMAG and heat-treatment were found suitable for amplification of fragments up to 400 bp from all tissues, 600 bp amplification was marginally successful (best was QIAamp). QIAamp and EasyMAG extracts were found suitable for downstream real time SNP detection. Gentra extraction was unsuitable. Hands-on time was lowest for heat-treatment, followed by EasyMAG. Conclusions We conclude that the extraction method plays an important role with regard to performance in downstream molecular applications. PMID:20840759

  10. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody 19A2 and a new antigen retrieval technique has prognostic impact in archival paraffin-embedded node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Siitonen, S M; Kallioniemi, O P; Isola, J J

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated whether proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry with antigen retrieval could be used as a measure of cell proliferation in archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and whether the staining results have long-term prognostic significance in axillary node-negative breast cancer. Primary tumor samples obtained from 109 axillary-node-negative breast cancer cases were used for the study. The best staining results were obtained with the 19A2 antibody after microwave heating in a solution of saturated lead thiocyanate. Using this method, there was a significant correlation (linear regression, r = 0.580, P < 0.001) between the proportion of PCNA19A2-positive carcinoma cells (PCNA19A2 score) and DNA flow cytometric S phase fraction. A high PCNA19A2 score was associated with high mitotic count, DNA aneuploidy, and absence of estrogen receptors. Axillary-node-negative patients with a high PCNA19A2 score (cut-point 8%) had significantly worse prognosis than those with a low PCNA19A2 score (P = 0.008). According to a Cox multivariate analysis, PCNA19A2 score had independent prognostic value but only if S phase fraction was excluded from the analysis. In our study, the PCNAPC10 score correlated weakly only with primary tumor size (analysis of variance) and prognosis (5-year univariate survival analysis), but the significance of these findings needs further evaluation. In conclusion, PCNA immunohistochemistry with the 19A2 antibody after an appropriate antigen retrieval treatment may offer a useful alternative to DNA flow cytometry for the analysis of cell proliferation activity from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas.

  11. The use of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ralton, Lynda D; Murray, Graeme I

    2011-04-01

    The potential of proteomic approaches to elucidate disease pathogenesis and biomarker discovery is increasingly being recognised. These studies are usually based on the use of fresh tissue samples. Problems in obtaining and storing fresh frozen samples, especially either for the investigation of rare diseases or for the study of microscopic disease foci, have led to the investigation of the possible use of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue for proteomic biomarker detection Overcoming problems with protein cross-linking associated with formalin fixation of tissues, especially by using heat-mediated retrieval techniques combined with highly sensitive methods for protein separation and identification are now emerging, giving promise to the use of formalin fixed wax embedded tissues for proteomic analysis. Formalin fixed wax embedded tissues, together with their associated clinical and pathological information outcome may provide significant potential opportunities for proteomics research. Such studies of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue will allow access to already acquired clinical tissue samples which can be readily correlated with clinical, pathological and outcome data. It also provides access to rare types of tissue/diseases that would be either difficult to collect prospectively in a timely manner or are unlikely to be available as fresh samples. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the issues associated with the use of formalin fixed wax embedded tissues for proteomics.

  12. Copy number and loss of heterozygosity detected by SNP array of formalin-fixed tissues using whole-genome amplification.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Angela; Drozdov, Ignat; Guerra, Eliete; Ouzounis, Christos A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gleeson, Michael J; McGurk, Mark; Tavassoli, Mahvash; Odell, Edward W

    2011-01-01

    The requirement for large amounts of good quality DNA for whole-genome applications prohibits their use for small, laser capture micro-dissected (LCM), and/or rare clinical samples, which are also often formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE). Whole-genome amplification of DNA from these samples could, potentially, overcome these limitations. However, little is known about the artefacts introduced by amplification of FFPE-derived DNA with regard to genotyping, and subsequent copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses. Using a ligation adaptor amplification method, we present data from a total of 22 Affymetrix SNP 6.0 experiments, using matched paired amplified and non-amplified DNA from 10 LCM FFPE normal and dysplastic oral epithelial tissues, and an internal method control. An average of 76.5% of SNPs were called in both matched amplified and non-amplified DNA samples, and concordance was a promising 82.4%. Paired analysis for copy number, LOH, and both combined, showed that copy number changes were reduced in amplified DNA, but were 99.5% concordant when detected, amplifications were the changes most likely to be 'missed', only 30% of non-amplified LOH changes were identified in amplified pairs, and when copy number and LOH are combined ∼50% of gene changes detected in the unamplified DNA were also detected in the amplified DNA and within these changes, 86.5% were concordant for both copy number and LOH status. However, there are also changes introduced as ∼20% of changes in the amplified DNA are not detected in the non-amplified DNA. An integrative network biology approach revealed that changes in amplified DNA of dysplastic oral epithelium localize to topologically critical regions of the human protein-protein interaction network, suggesting their functional implication in the pathobiology of this disease. Taken together, our results support the use of amplification of FFPE-derived DNA, provided sufficient samples are used to increase power

  13. Effects of fixative and fixation time on the extraction and polymerase chain reaction amplification of RNA from paraffin-embedded tissue. Comparison of two housekeeping gene mRNA controls.

    PubMed

    Foss, R D; Guha-Thakurta, N; Conran, R M; Gutman, P

    1994-09-01

    A number of reports have indicated that RNA recovered from paraffin-embedded tissue can be used as a substrate in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although it is established that RNA in paraffin-embedded tissue undergoes significant degradation, the specific contributions of different fixatives and fixation times to this degradation are not known. Mouse splenic tissue was harvested and fixed immediately for 2, 8, or 24 h in either formalin, Omnifix II, or Carnoy's fixative and then processed and embedded in paraffin. RNA was extracted from deparaffinized cubes of tissue using an adaptation of the technique described by Chomczynski and Sacchi. RNA was reverse transcribed using a random hexamer primed reaction. PCR amplification for cDNAs of the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) mRNAs was then performed. Although GAPDH amplification is used routinely on fresh and frozen tissues, we show that the presence of DNA contamination in the RNA preparations limits its usefulness in paraffin-embedded tissue. Amplifiable HPRT mRNA sequences were detected in nine of 12 samples fixed in Omnifix II, in four of 12 samples fixed in Carnoy's fixative, and in none of 12 formalin-fixed samples. Because of primer selection to preclude amplification of genomic HPRT, DNA contamination is not an issue when HPRT is amplified. Thus, HPRT represents the control system of choice for the evaluation of RNA in PET. The techniques described provide a rapid, uniform, and reproducible method of obtaining RNA from PET for molecular analysis, but they indicate limited utility for retrospective analysis of archival tissues. PMID:7981889

  14. PCR amplification from paraffin-embedded tissues: recommendations on fixatives for long-term storage and prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Greer, C E; Lund, J K; Manos, M M

    1991-08-01

    The development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification methods has afforded molecular studies of fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples and other archival material. Some fixation methods damage DNA, and thus deleteriously affect subsequent PCR analysis. This study addressed the effect of short- and long-term storage (2 hr to 30 days) in a variety of fixatives (10% buffered-neutral formalin [BNF], 95% ethanol, acetone, and OmniFix) before paraffin embedding. We tested the ability of prepared tissue sections to yield DNA amplification products ranging from 268 to 1327 bp. Results indicated that tissues fixed for 8 days in BNF were able to amplify 536-bp but very little 989-bp DNA fragments; after 30 days of BNF fixation only a 268-bp fragment was amplifiable. Samples fixed in OmniFix and acetone yielded products of 989 and 1327 bp, respectively, after 8 days of fixation; both fixatives yielded 989-bp amplification products after 30 days of fixation. Tissues fixed in 95% ethanol for up to 30 days efficiently produced DNA amplification fragments of up to 1327 bp in length. The results provide important information for prospective studies that involve PCR analysis from archival material. Furthermore, fixation and long-term storage in ethanol should prove particularly useful in remote areas where refrigeration or immediate sample-processing is unavailable.

  15. Detection of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA using a peptide nucleic acid probe in paraffin-embedded archival specimens.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Makoto; Akatsuka, Shinya; Shirase, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Hiai, Hiroshi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2004-04-01

    Although the human genome project has been completed, the functions of many genes remain undetermined. In situ hybridization (ISH) is a key method for identifying cells in which a given messenger RNA is transcribed. Paraffin-embedded specimens remain precious materials for research, but preservation of high-quality RNA in these specimens is not expected unless ample caution was taken during fixation. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a recently developed hybrid molecule with genetic information that has high stability and high affinity to the complementary DNA or RNA. We applied a PNA probe to mRNA ISH of liver specimens obtained by autopsy and embedded in paraffin 28-48 years ago. An 18-mer PNA probe for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used. Staining was then analyzed in association with morphology by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and with the time between death of the patient and tissue fixation. Notably, specimens fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin 48 years ago yielded excellent results if the time before fixation was short enough (<8 h). There was a significant inverse correlation between the intensity of ISH staining and the time before fixation. Oligonucleotide PNA probe, albeit at high cost, would increase the value of paraffin-embedded specimens in storage for use in human medical research.

  16. A rapid extraction method for glycogen from formalin-fixed liver.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mitchell A; Li, Shihan; Aroney, Samuel T N; Deng, Bin; Li, Cheng; Roura, Eugeni; Schulz, Benjamin L; Harcourt, Brooke E; Forbes, Josephine M; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-03-15

    Liver glycogen, a highly branched polymer, acts as our blood-glucose buffer. While past structural studies have extracted glycogen from fresh or frozen tissue using a cold-water, sucrose-gradient centrifugation technique, a method for the extraction of glycogen from formalin-fixed liver would allow the analysis of glycogen from human tissues that are routinely collected in pathology laboratories. In this study, both sucrose-gradient and formalin-fixed extraction techniques were carried out on piglet livers, with the yields, purities and size distributions (using size exclusion chromatography) compared. The formalin extraction technique, when combined with a protease treatment, resulted in higher yields (but lower purities) of glycogen with size distributions similar to the sucrose-gradient centrifugation technique. This formalin extraction procedure was also significantly faster, allowing glycogen extraction throughput to increase by an order of magnitude. Both extraction techniques were compatible with mass spectrometry proteomics, with analysis showing the two techniques were highly complementary.

  17. Diagnosis of Marek's Disease From a Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) Using Paraffin-embedded Liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single paraffin-embedded liver section was submitted from a research flock of Japanese quail that had revealed focal infiltrations of immature lymphocytes within multiple visceral organs. Tumor cells were characterized as T-cells positive for Marek's disease virus (MDV) pp38 antigen by IHC dual st...

  18. Measurement of gene expression in archival paraffin-embedded tissues: development and performance of a 92-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Maureen; Pho, Mylan; Dutta, Debjani; Stephans, James C; Shak, Steven; Kiefer, Michael C; Esteban, Jose M; Baker, Joffre B

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last decade many laboratories have shown that mRNA levels in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FPE) tissue specimens can be quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques despite the extensive RNA fragmentation that occurs in tissues so preserved. We have developed RT-PCR methods that are sensitive, precise, and that have multianalyte capability for potential wide use in clinical research and diagnostic assays. Here it is shown that the extent of fragmentation of extracted FPE tissue RNA significantly increases with archive storage time. Probe and primer sets for RT-PCR assays based on amplicons that are both short and homogeneous in length enable effective reference gene-based data normalization for cross comparison of specimens that differ substantially in age. A 48-gene assay used to compare gene expression profiles from the same breast cancer tissue that had been either frozen or FPE showed very similar profiles after reference gene-based normalization. A 92-gene assay, using RNA extracted from three 10- micro m FPE sections of archival breast cancer specimens (dating from 1985 to 2001) yielded analyzable data for these genes in all 62 tested specimens. The results were substantially concordant when estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 receptor status determined by RT-PCR was compared with immunohistochemistry assays for these receptors. Furthermore, the results highlight the advantages of RT-PCR over immunohistochemistry with respect to quantitation and dynamic range. These findings support the development of RT-PCR analysis of FPE tissue RNA as a platform for multianalyte clinical diagnostic tests.

  19. De-staining and re-staining mucins in formalin fixed paraffin sections.

    PubMed

    Smith, A A; Glickfield, I

    2011-04-01

    Re-staining of formalin fixed paraffin sections sometimes is required and this requires prior de-staining. Some simple and effective protocols for de-staining are described. Mucihematoxylin and mucicarmine can be removed with acid alcohol. Zirconyl hematoxylin can be removed with periodic acid or Sinha's fixative. Alcian blue can be removed with 5% trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane. Colloidal iron can be bleached in 1% household bleach in alcohol. PAS can be removed with hydrogen peroxide or ammonium hydroxide. With few exceptions, de-stained sections can be re-stained with mucihematoxylin, PAS or Gabe's trichrome.

  20. [Development of a Dual Detection Method with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Immunostaining on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections--Molecular Pathological Detection Techniques and Their Applications to Pathological Diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has recently become important for pathological diagnosis. However, its practical applications is not widespread because FISH protocol with FFPE specimens is complicated. We report a dual detection method by overlapping FISH with fluorescent immunostaining on FFPE sections. This method is characterized by changing buffers for heat treatment without proteolytic enzyme treatment. Subsequent proteolytic enzyme treatment can be omitted using an antigen activation solution, pH9 (Nichirei Corporation), for heat treatment. After the pretreatment, dual detection was achieved by DNA FISH following RNA FISH and fluorescent immunostaining. This protocol visualized gene abnormalities and protein overexpression on the same sections. Of note, in poorly differentiated tumors containing both normal and tumor cells, the tumor cells were clearly identified on the sections, and FISH signals could be counted in these cells. In addition, HER2 mRNA overexpression and gene amplification were simultaneously detected in HER2-positive gastric cancer. Thus, this method should be widely applicable in clinical settings.

  1. In vivo transcriptional cytokine responses and association with clinical and pathological outcomes in chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the host response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) infection in chickens and the relationship between the innate immune response and the severity of clinical disease. Innate responses are considered important during the earliest phases of microbial invasion because they can lim...

  2. [Development of a Dual Detection Method with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Immunostaining on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections--Molecular Pathological Detection Techniques and Their Applications to Pathological Diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has recently become important for pathological diagnosis. However, its practical applications is not widespread because FISH protocol with FFPE specimens is complicated. We report a dual detection method by overlapping FISH with fluorescent immunostaining on FFPE sections. This method is characterized by changing buffers for heat treatment without proteolytic enzyme treatment. Subsequent proteolytic enzyme treatment can be omitted using an antigen activation solution, pH9 (Nichirei Corporation), for heat treatment. After the pretreatment, dual detection was achieved by DNA FISH following RNA FISH and fluorescent immunostaining. This protocol visualized gene abnormalities and protein overexpression on the same sections. Of note, in poorly differentiated tumors containing both normal and tumor cells, the tumor cells were clearly identified on the sections, and FISH signals could be counted in these cells. In addition, HER2 mRNA overexpression and gene amplification were simultaneously detected in HER2-positive gastric cancer. Thus, this method should be widely applicable in clinical settings. PMID:26548243

  3. Enabling Multiphoton and Second Harmonic Generation Imaging in Paraffin-Embedded and Histologically Stained Sections

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Michael G.; Kroll, Sebastian; Brucker, Sara Y.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear microscopy, namely multiphoton imaging and second harmonic generation (SHG), is an established noninvasive technique useful for the imaging of extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, measurements are performed in vivo on freshly excised tissues or biopsies. In this article, we describe the effect of rehydrating paraffin-embedded sections on multiphoton and SHG emission signals and the acquisition of nonlinear images from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections before and after a destaining protocol. Our results reveal that bringing tissue sections to a physiological state yields a significant improvement in nonlinear signals, particularly in SHG. Additionally, the destaining of sections previously processed with H&E staining significantly improves their SHG emission signals during imaging, thereby allowing sufficient analysis of collagen in these sections. These results are important for researchers and pathologists to obtain additional information from paraffin-embedded tissues and archived samples to perform retrospective analysis of the ECM or gain additional information from rare samples. PMID:27018844

  4. Toxicological analysis of formalin-fixed or embalmed tissues: a review.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panagiota; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Dona, Artemisia; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2013-12-10

    During the autopsy of forensic cases, when there is no suspicion of drug use or chemical exposure, biological fluids may not be obtained for toxicological analysis, while specimens of tissues may be collected and preserved in a formalin solution for histological examination. When specific questions arise after the burial, the only possible options are the exhumation of an embalmed body or the toxicological analysis of the formalin-fixed specimens. The drug concentrations in these specimens can be altered due to the extraction efficiency and/or the chemical activity of the formalin solutions used during chemical fixation or embalming process. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies about the determination of specific groups of drugs in formalin-fixed or embalmed specimens and their stability after chemical fixation or embalming process. The analytical aspects of this determination are also discussed. The stability of drugs in formalin environment and the possible reaction of the drugs with formaldehyde, which is a highly reactive chemical substance, should always be considered during post-mortem/post-embalming forensic analysis. The additional analysis of the formalin solution in which the tissue was preserved is considered necessary. The identification and the evaluation of the possible degradation products or chemical derivatives are extremely useful during the interpretation of the results.

  5. Elastic scattering spectroscopy findings in formalin-fixed oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinson, B.; Elmaaytah, M.; Jerjes, W.; Hopper, C.

    2005-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been shown to spread locally and infiltrate adjacent bone or via the lymphatic system to the cervical lymph nodes. This usually necessitates a surgical neck dissection and either a local or segmental resection for bone clearance. While histopathology remains the gold standard for tissue diagnosis, several new diagnostic techniques are being developed that rely on physical and biochemical changes that mirror or precede malignant changes within tissue. The aim of this study was to compare findings of Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy (ESS) with histopathology on formalin-fixed specimens of both neck lymph node dissections and de-calcified archival bone from patients with OSCC. We wished to see if this technique could be used as an adjunct or alternative to histopathology in defining cervical nodal involvement and if it could be used to identify bone resection margins positive for tumour. 130 lymph nodes were examined from 13 patients. The nodes were formalin-fixed, bivalved and examined by ESS. The intensity of the spectrum at 4 points was considered for comparison; at 360nm, 450nm, 630nm and 690nm. 341 spectra were taken from the mandibular specimens of 21 patients, of which 231 spectra were taken from histologically positive sites and the rest were normal. The nodes and bone specimens were then routinely processed with haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, examined histopathologically, and the results compared. Using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) as a statistical method, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 68% was obtained for the neck nodes and a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 80% for the bone margins.

  6. Mutations in BRCA1 from fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue can be artifacts of preservation.

    PubMed

    Wong, C; DiCioccio, R A; Allen, H J; Werness, B A; Piver, M S

    1998-11-01

    DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded tissues has been used for analysis of DNA alterations in disease states. Use of archival tissue can expedite the gathering of large numbers of specimens from rare disease subtypes that would take years to accumulate prospectively. Therefore, archival tissues from 70 ovarian cancer cases diagnosed before or at age 40 were retrieved for analysis of BRCA1 mutations. DNA was isolated from paraffin-embedded tissue of 70 ovarian cancer cases diagnosed before or at age 40. BRCA1 mutation analysis was conducted by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. Fifty-eight BRCA1 mutations were found in 34 of the 70 ovarian cancer cases. Twenty-two cases had one mutation each and 12 cases had multiple mutations. Multiple mutations found in histologically normal tissue of 2 cases were not present in matched tumor tissue. For another case, DNA from two separate blocks of normal tissue contained different mutations. These observations were anomalous and suggested that mutations detected in fixed tissues may be artifacts of tissue preservation and not present in the original unfixed tissues. To test this suggestion, blood was obtained from 2 patients for whom mutations were found in fixed, normal tissue. DNA from their unfixed lymphocytes did not contain the mutations found in fixed normal tissue. Thus, mutations found in fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues can be artifacts of tissue preservation. The reliability of DNA sequence data derived from such tissues must be questioned in the absence of corroborating data from unfixed tissues. This severely limits the use of fixed tissues as a source of DNA for retrospective research and for clinical genetic testing in families for which a disease-affected member is not alive.

  7. Analysis of T cell receptor beta chain CDR3 size using RNA extracted from formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue.

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, U; Wyatt, J I; Howdle, P D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To isolate RNA and DNA simultaneously from formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue to assess the clonality of enteropathy associated T cell lymphomas and to analyse it in detail by a non-radioactive method of T cell receptor complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratyping. METHODS: DNA and RNA were isolated simultaneously from formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue blocks and subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and semi-nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The RT-PCR T cell receptor V beta products were analysed by CDR3 spectratyping using a denaturing polyacrylamide gel and silver staining. RESULTS: Usable DNA and RNA were isolated simultaneously from formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue. The specific clonality of the tissue was successfully analysed by a non-radioactive method of T cell receptor CDR3 spectratyping of the RT-PCR products. CDR3 spectratying of the RT-PCR products demonstrated the precise clonal nature of the tumour and non-tumour tissue showing that the non-tumour tissue comprised an oligoclonal population of a number of different T cell receptor V beta families. The tumour tissue comprised two T cell subtypes of the one family, T cell receptor V beta 9. CONCLUSIONS: RNA and DNA were isolated from formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma tissue. Detailed analysis of clonality can be carried out by a non-radioactive method of CDR3 spectratyping. Images PMID:9462260

  8. Determination of collagen content within picrosirius red stained paraffin-embedded tissue sections using fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Benjamin; Siebert, Hanna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Picrosirius red (PSR) staining is a commonly used histological technique to visualize collagen in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. PSR stained collagen appears red in light microscopy. However it is largely unknown that PSR stained collagen also shows a red fluorescence, whereas live cells have a distinct green autofluorescence. Both emission patterns can be detected using standard filter sets as found in conventional fluorescence microscopes. Here we used digital image addition and subtraction to determine the relative area of the pure collagen and live cell content in heart tissue in a semi-automated process using standard software. This procedure, which considers empty spaces (holes) within the section, can be easily adapted to quantify the collagen and live cell areas in healthy or fibrotic tissues as aorta, lung, kidney or liver by semi-automated planimetry exemplified herein for infarcted heart tissue obtained from the mouse myocardial infarction model. • Use of conventional PSR stained paraffin-embedded tissue sections for fluorescence analysis. • PSR and autofluorescence images are used to calculate area of collagen and area of live cells in the tissue; empty spaces (holes) in tissue are considered. • High throughput analysis of collagen and live cell content in tissue for statistical purposes. PMID:26150980

  9. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Formalin Fixed Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of key therapeutic targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical tissue samples is typically done by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and is only subjectively quantitative through a narrow dynamic range. The development of a standardized, highly-sensitive, linear, and quantitative assay for EGFR for use in patient tumor tissue carries high potential for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. Methods A mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay for the EGFR protein (EGFR-SRM) was developed utilizing the Liquid Tissue®-SRM technology platform. Tissue culture cells (n = 4) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to establish quantitative EGFR levels. Matching formalin fixed cultures were analyzed by the EGFR-SRM assay and benchmarked against immunoassay of the non-fixed cultured cells. Xenograft human tumor tissue (n = 10) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) origin and NSCLC patient tumor tissue samples (n = 23) were microdissected and the EGFR-SRM assay performed on Liquid Tissue lysates prepared from microdissected tissue. Quantitative curves and linear regression curves for correlation between immunoassay and SRM methodology were developed in Excel. Results The assay was developed for quantitation of a single EGFR tryptic peptide for use in FFPE patient tissue with absolute specificity to uniquely distinguish EGFR from all other proteins including the receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R, cMet, Her2, Her3, and Her4. The assay was analytically validated against a collection of tissue culture cell lines where SRM analysis of the formalin fixed cells accurately reflects EGFR protein levels in matching non-formalin fixed cultures as established by ELISA sandwich immunoassay (R2 = 0.9991). The SRM assay was applied to a collection of FFPE NSCLC xenograft tumors where SRM data range from 305amol/μg to 12,860amol/μg and are consistent

  10. Global Transcriptome and Sequenome Analysis of Formalin-Fixed Salivary Epithelial–Myoepithelial Carcinoma Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Isabel; Bell, Achim; Wani, Khalida; Bell, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Diverse microarray and sequencing technologies have been widely used to characterize molecular changes in malignant epithelial cells in salivary neoplasms. Such gene expression studies to identify markers and targets in tumor cells are, however, compromised by the cellular heterogeneity of these tumors and by the difficulties to accrue matching controls representing normal salivary glands. Seventeen samples of primary salivary epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma along with tissue from six normal major salivary glands were microdissected from paraffin-embedded tissue. Pools of RNA from highly enriched preparations of these cell types were subjected to expression profiling using a whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing experiment. In parallel, extracted genomic DNA was used for the 50 gene hotspot panel sequenome. KRAS mutations in three patients (18%), NRAS mutations in one patient (6%), but no HRAS, MET, PIK3CA, or BRAF mutations. Using strict and conservative criteria, 220 differentially expressed transcripts were found, with 36% up- and 64% downregulated. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI Entrez Gene, and computationally analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis program. From these significantly changed expressions, the analysis identified 26 cancer-related transcripts and 16 transcripts related to mitochondrial dysfunction overlapping with three cancer-related genes. These 220 differentially expressed genes including micro-RNAs provide here a sufficiently large set to specifically define epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma and to identify novel and potentially important targets for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of this cancer. PMID:25546727

  11. Probing focal cortical dysplasia in formalin fixed samples using tissue optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Conti, Valerio; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of most common causes of intractable epilepsy in pediatric population and these are often insensitive to anti-epileptic drugs. FCD is characterized by a disarray in localized regions of the cerebral cortex and abnormal neurons which results them to misfire with incorrect signals. Resective neurosurgery to remove or disconnect the affected parts from the rest of the brain seems to be a viable option to treat FCD. Before neurosurgery the subject could undergo imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. On the downside FCD could be elusive in MRI images and may be practically invisible in CT scans. Furthermore, unnecessary removal of normal tissues is to be taken into consideration as this could lead to neurological defects. In this context, optical spectroscopy have been widely investigated as an alternative technique for the detection of abnormal tissues in different organ sites. Disease progression is accompanied by a number of architectural, biochemical and morphological changes. These variations are reflected in the spectral intensity and line shape. Here, in this proof of concept study we propose to investigate the application of tissue optical spectroscopy based on fluorescence excitation at two wavelength 378 and 445 nm coupled along with Raman spectroscopy for the detection of FCD on formalin fixed tissue specimens from pediatric subjects. For fluorescence at both the excitation wavelengths FCD showed a decreased intensity at longer wavelength when compared to normal tissues. Also, differences exist in the Raman spectral profiles of normal and FCD.

  12. Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues.

    PubMed

    Kihu, Simon Mwangi; Gitao, George Chege; Bebora, Lily Caroline; Njenga, Munene John; Wairire, Gidraph Gachunga; Maingi, Ndichu; Wahome, Raphael Githaiga; Oyugi, Julius Otieno; Lutomia, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

  13. [Tissue artefacts by the use of overheated forceps for paraffin embedding (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Müller, K M

    1980-05-01

    Histologic work-up of tissue specimens, especially from endoscopic biopsies, requires the use of fine forceps for orientation and dressing in fluid paraffin during the embedding procedure. These forceps are usually preheated over an open flame. If, however, smaller tissue particles are handled with overheated forceps, arteficial alterations may occur which are apt to hamper or falsify the histologic evaluation of the prepared section. Some typical tissue artefacts due to the handling with overheated forceps, are demonstrated with slides from liver biopsies. Recent experiences with an auxiliary instrument for paraffin embedding (Histostat of Vogel, designed by Ciplea) are reported. The forceps are kept at stable temperatures by immersion in fluid paraffin during the embedding procedure, thus excluding almost completely the risk of tissue artefacts by handling with overheated forceps.

  14. Study of paraffin-embedded colon cancer tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Molis, Gediminas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Valusis, Gintaras; Granja, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, samples of non-neoplastic and adenocarcinoma-affected human colon tissue samples were analyzed using multipoint transmission time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to sort out the contrast-contributing factors other than water, the main contrast mechanism factor in in-vivo or in freshly excised bio-tissue. Solving the electromagnetic inverse problem through THz-TDS and, analyzing the transmittance spectra that yielded the frequency-dependent absorption coefficient α and refractive index n of non-neoplastic and neoplastic tissues, we show that it is possible to distinguish between non-neoplastic and neoplastic regions in paraffin-embedded dehydrated. Results and discussion are presented.

  15. Terahertz spectroscopy for the study of paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Molis, Gediminas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Valusis, Gintaras; Granja, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy constitute promising technique for biomedical applications as a complementary and powerful tool for diseases screening specially for early cancer diagnostic. The THz radiation is not harmful to biological tissues. As increased blood supply in cancer-affected tissues and consequent local increase in tissue water content makes THz technology a potentially attractive. In the present work, samples of healthy and adenocarcinoma-affected gastric tissue were analyzed using transmission time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The work shows the capability of the technique to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in dried and paraffin-embedded samples. Plots of absorption coefficient α and refractive index n of normal and cancer affected tissues, are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected tissues are discussed.

  16. Modified technique to recover microsporidian spores in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples by light microscopy and correlation with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, P L; MacPherson, D W; McKenzie, R A

    1996-01-01

    Microsporidia are an emerging cause of significant disease, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Until recently, the diagnosis of enteric infections has required invasive sampling, the use of expensive technology, and considerable technological expertise. The purpose of the present study was to examine three modifications to the processing of fecal specimens for light microscopy (LM) examination for microsporidian spores: the use of pretreatment with potassium hydroxide, modified centrifugation conditions, and a modified staining technique. A sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal sample containing numerous microsporidian spores confirmed to be positive by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in all studies performed. A simulation of a heavy to lightly infected individual was used. The results of LM were correlated with those of TEM. Duplicate smears were stained with Weber's modified trichrome and Giemsa (GS) stains. The stained slides were randomized and examined blindly by LM at x 625 and x 1,250 magnifications. A portion of the dilutions after centrifugation were fixed for TEM. The Weber modified trichrome stain performance rating was higher than the Giemsa stain rating because of ease of interpretation, and material stained with Weber modified trichrome stain required less examination time at a lower magnification. The number of positive smears and the quantity of spores detected were significantly higher following pretreatment of the sample with KOH. TEM was positive only when numerous spores were present, but the quality of the photomicrographs was superior after pretreatment with KOH. Pretreatment of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples with 10% KOH and then a 5-min centrifugation time and staining with Weber modified trichrome stain provide for the excellent recovery of microsporidia in the routine diagnostic parasitology laboratory. PMID:8897162

  17. Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

  18. Use of formalin-fixed tissues for ex-vivo imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortkroff, Sonya; Goodwin, Alicia; Giattina, Susanne; Liu, Bin; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2006-02-01

    Structural and compositional analysis of normal and pathological tissues by OCT often is performed ex vivo and subsequently compared to the histology. Many of the tissues of interest require immediate fixation to prevent degradation of the sample. Frequently, samples are obtained up to a week prior to procuring images by OCT. We investigated whether fixation affects OCT image analysis by acquiring images of freshly isolated bovine ligament samples and repeating OCT imaging of the same area after fixation at 24 hours and at one week. Samples were divided into two groups: group one was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for 24 hours and placed in normal saline while group two remained in formalin for one week. Tissue samples were processed for paraffin embedment and stained with Masson's trichrome or with picrosirius red. The banding pattern contrast ratio of the OCT images before and after fixation for both groups was measured and compared for possible differences. Histology was evaluated for tissue integrity and compared to the OCT images. The mean contrast ratio at time 0 was 5.41 +/- 1.1 and 5.31 +/- 0.6 for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Results at 1 week were slightly lower with 5.11 +/- 0.3 and 5.20 +/- 0.7, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data by ANOVA showed no difference in the contrast ratios with time or with treatment. This data indicates that 24 hours in formalin is sufficient to fix these small ligament samples with little effect on imaging up to one week after fixation.

  19. Comparison of 2 different PCR-based technologies for the detection of human papilloma virus from paraffin-embedded tissue: genómica clinical arrays versus SPF(10)-LiPA(25).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristina; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Alemany, Laia; Tous, Sara; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Velasco, Julio

    2012-03-01

    The great interest in molecular epidemiology of human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical cancer led us to perform a thorough evaluation of 2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the detection of HPV in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare HPV detection in FFPE samples that have histopathologic diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer using SPF10 broad-spectrum primers PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and LiPA25 (version 1: Labo Biomedical products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands version 1) and the Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays technique (Genómica, Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain). In this study, 235 biopsies with histopathologic diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer were analyzed for the detection and genotyping of HPV by LiPA25 SPF10-PCR System (version 1) and Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays technique. The detection of HPV DNA with Genómica technique was 75.1%, and 91.9% with LiPA25 SPF10-PCR. The Genómica technique detected a higher percentage of multiple infections (35%) than LiPA25 (8.9%), with a very low agreement for the detection of multiple infections between them (P>0.05). Our study highlights an important difference between 2 PCR-based methods for detection and genotyping of HPV. LiPA25 SPF10-PCR technology may be more adequate than Genómica for the detection of HPV DNA when using FFPE tissue. PMID:22306675

  20. Dramatic reduction of sequence artefacts from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed cancer biopsies by treatment with uracil- DNA glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Do, Hongdo; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Non-reproducible sequence artefacts are frequently detected in DNA from formalinfixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. However, no rational strategy has been developed for reduction of sequence artefacts from FFPE DNA as the underlying causes of the artefacts are poorly understood. As cytosine deamination to uracil is a common form of DNA damage in ancient DNA, we set out to examine whether treatment of FFPE DNA with uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) would lead to the reduction of C>T (and G>A) sequence artefacts. Heteroduplex formation in high resolution melting (HRM)-based assays was used for the detection of sequence variants in FFPE DNA samples. A set of samples that gave false positive HRM results for screening for the E17K mutation in exon 4 of the AKT1 gene were chosen for analysis. Sequencing of these samples showed multiple non-reproducible C:G>T:A artefacts. Treatment of the FFPE DNA with UDG prior to PCR amplification led to a very marked reduction of the sequence artefacts as indicated by both HRM and sequencing analysis, indicating that uracil lesions are the major cause of sequence artefacts. Similar results were shown for the BRAF V600 region in the same sample set and EGFR exon 19 in another sample set. UDG treatment specifically suppressed the formation of artefacts in FFPE DNA as it did not affect the detection of true KRAS codon 12 and true EGFR exon 19 and 20 mutations. We conclude that uracil in FFPE DNA leads to a significant proportion of sequence artefacts. These can be minimised by a simple UDG pretreatment which can be readily carried out, in the same tube, as the PCR immediately prior to commencing thermal cycling. HRM is a convenient way of monitoring both the degree of damage and the effectiveness of the UDG treatment. These findings have immediate and important implications for cancer diagnostics where FFPE DNA is used as the primary genetic material for mutational studies guiding personalised medicine strategies and where simple

  1. Molecular Detection and Typing of Human Papillomaviruses in Paraffin-Embedded Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer Tissue Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Pezhman; Motamedi, Hossein; Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masoud Reza; Bahrami Shehni, Mahjabin; Kargar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is one of the important reasons of mortality among females. Prevention, early diagnosis and immediate treatment can affect the rate of mortality in this cancer and several epidemiological studies have shown a strong relationship between human papilloma viruses (HPVs) and cervical cancer. Objectives: The present study was conducted to survey HPV infections in a women population with cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia/metaplasia in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: 72 paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies which had been previously archived from women with cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Afterward, the detected HPV strains were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR amplicons. Results: 60 out of 72 samples had necessary requirements and HPV DNA was detected in 43.3% of these samples. Most HPV positive samples belonged to women aged from 48 to 63 years. On the other hand, HPV infection among patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 48.78% and in women with dysplasia/metaplasia was 26.66%. The most prevalent type of the human papilloma virus was HPV16 (100%). Conclusions: Knowing the most prevalent type of the human papilloma viruses circulating in the population (HPV16) can be applied in the future screening and managing programs of this major disease and also in vaccination against the prevalent types of the virus. Meanwhile, it seems that more studies should be performed to determine the role of different risk factors involved in development of the disease, especially those related with social behaviors and traditions with respect to different areas. PMID:27366309

  2. Promoter methylation analysis on microdissected paraffin-embedded tissues using bisulfite treatment and PCR-SSCP.

    PubMed

    Bian, Y S; Yan, P; Osterheld, M C; Fontolliet, C; Benhattar, J

    2001-01-01

    Methylation-sensitive single-strand conformation analysis (MS-SSCA) is a new method of screening for DNA methylation changes. The combination of bisulfite modification and PCR results in the conversion of unmethylated cytosines to thymines, whereas methylated cytosines remain unchanged. This sequence conversion can lead to methylation-dependent alterations of single-strand conformation, which can be detected by SSCA. An analysis of mixtures of methylated and unmethylated DNA at known ratios revealed that the relative intensities of the corresponding bands following MS-SSCA were maintained. MS-SSCA was applied for methylation analysis of human p16 promoter region using genomic DNA obtained from either frozen, fixed, or microdissected fixed tissue sections. MS-SSCA is a rapid, specific, and semiquantitative approach that allows the detection of methylation of the p16 gene promoter. In reconstruction experiments, the method permits the detection of 10% or less of cells harboring a methylated p16 promoter. We have been successful in analyzing by MS-SSCA almost all (96%) tumor samples microdissected from archival paraffin-embedded fixed tissue sections and obtaining reproducible results. In addition, when microdissection was performed, the clonality of this genetic alteration could be identified.

  3. Agarose/gelatin immobilisation of tissues or embryo segments for orientated paraffin embedding and sectioning.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Kathryn S; Ng, Ee Ting; Bowles, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    The technique described in this protocol allows the user to position small tissues in the optimal orientation for paraffin embedding and sectioning by first immobilising the tissue in an agarose/gelatin cube. This method is an adaptation of methods used for early embryos and can be used for any small tissues or embryo segments. Processing of larger tissue sections using molds to create agarose/gelatin blocks has been described previously; this detailed protocol provides a method for dealing with much smaller tissues or embryos (≤5mm). The tissue is briefly fixed then an agarose/gelatin drop is created to surround the tissue. The tissue can be orientated as per the user's preference in the drop before it sets as is carved into a cube with a domed top. The cube is then dehydrated and goes through the embedding and sectioning process. The domed cube is easy to orientate when embedding the tissue in a wax block giving the user assured orientation of the small tissue for sectioning. Additionally, the agarose/gelatin cube is easy to see in the unmolded wax once embedded, making the region of interest easy to identify. PMID:26742717

  4. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858.

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Losada, A P; Riaza, A; Santos, Y; Quiroga, M I

    2014-11-01

    A sensitive and specific immunohistochemical technique was developed to improve the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis and to better understand its pathogenesis. Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 were inoculated subcutaneously with a bacterial suspension of Tenacibaculum maritimum, and samples were taken at different hours post-inoculation. Sections from different organs were used as positive controls. In addition, a total of 128 field samples from different organs collected from tenacibaculosis outbreaks were used. Tenacibaculum maritimum antigens were detected in several organs of experimentally infected Senegalese sole and in at least one of the tissues from fish suffering from natural tenacibaculosis previously confirmed by culture and PCR-based methods. In fish collected during outbreaks, a strong positive reaction was detected in ulcerative skin areas. Moreover, bacterial antigen was identified inside scale pockets and in sites of the skin with mild lesion. In kidney and spleen, evident immunostaining of bacterial antigen was detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. Besides, the presence of T. maritimum in the intestinal tract without associated histological changes suggests that this organ may act as a reservoir for T. maritimum. The results of this study confirm the usefulness of IHC for the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues.

  5. Robust gene expression and mutation analyses of RNA-sequencing of formalin-fixed diagnostic tumor samples.

    PubMed

    Graw, Stefan; Meier, Richard; Minn, Kay; Bloomer, Clark; Godwin, Andrew K; Fridley, Brooke; Vlad, Anda; Beyerlein, Peter; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Current genomic studies are limited by the availability of fresh tissue samples. Here, we show that Illumina RNA sequencing of formalin-fixed diagnostic tumor samples produces gene expression that is strongly correlated with matched frozen tumor samples (r > 0.89). In addition, sequence variations identified from FFPE RNA show 99.67% concordance with that from exome sequencing of matched frozen tumor samples. Because FFPE is a routine diagnostic sample preparation, the feasibility results reported here will facilitate the setup of large-scale research and clinical studies in medical genomics that are currently limited by the availability of fresh frozen samples. PMID:26202458

  6. Immunocytochemistry of formalin-fixed human brain tissues: microwave irradiation of free-floating sections.

    PubMed

    Shiurba, R A; Spooner, E T; Ishiguro, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshida, R; Wheelock, T R; Imahori, K; Cataldo, A M; Nixon, R A

    1998-01-01

    Formalin fixation, the chemical process in which formaldehyde binds to cells and tissues, is widely used to preserve human brain specimens from autolytic decomposition. Ultrastructure of cellular and mitochondrial membranes is markedly altered by vesiculation, but this does not interfere with diagnostic evaluation of neurohistology by light microscopy. Serious difficulties are encountered, however, when immunocytochemical staining is attempted. Antigens that are immunoreactive in unfixed frozen sections and protein extracts appear to be concealed or destroyed in formalin-fixed tissues. In dilute aqueous solution, formaldehyde is in equilibrium with methylene glycol and its polymeric hydrates, the balance by far in favor of methylene glyco. Carbonylic formaldehyde is a reactive electrophilic species well known for crosslinking functional groups in tissue proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides. Some of its methylene crosslinks are readily hydrolyzed. Others are stable and irreversible. During immunostaining reactions, intra- and inter-molecular links between macromolecules limit antibody permeation of tissue sections, alter protein secondary structure, and reduce accessibility of antigenic determinants . Accordingly, immunoreactivity is diminished for many antigens. Tissues are rapidly penetrated by methylene glycol, but formaldehyde binding to cellular constituents is relatively slow, increasing progressively until equilibrium is reached. In addition, prolonged storage in formalin may result in acidification of human brain specimens. Low pH favors dissociation of methylene glycol into formaldehyde, further reducing both classical staining and antigen detectability. Various procedures have been devised to counter the antigen masking effects of formaldehyde. Examples include pretreatment of tissue sections with proteases, formic acid, or ultrasound. Recently, heating of mounted sections in ionic salt solution by microwave energy was found to restore many

  7. Improved technique for fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis of isolated nuclei from archival, B5 or formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Schurter, M J; LeBrun, D P; Harrison, K J

    2002-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is an effective method to detect chromosomal alterations in a variety of tissue types, including archived paraffin wax embedded specimens fixed in B5 or formalin. However, precipitating fixatives such as B5 have been known to produce unsatisfactory results in comparison with formalin when used for FISH. This study describes an effective nuclear isolation and FISH procedure for B5 and formalin fixed tissue, optimising the nuclear isolation step and nuclei pretreatments using tonsil and mantle cell lymphoma specimens. The protocol presented can be used to isolate nuclei and perform FISH on B5 or formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded samples from a variety of tissue types.

  8. Prognostic Significance of Molecular Upstaging of Paraffin-Embedded Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hiroya; Morton, Donald L.; Kuo, Christine; Turner, Roderick R.; Elashoff, David; Elashoff, Robert; Taback, Bret; Fujimoto, Akihide; Hoon, Dave S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Detection of micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is important for accurate staging and prognosis in melanoma patients. However, a significant number of patients with histopathology-negative SLNs subsequently develop recurrent disease. We hypothesized that a quantitative realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT) assay using multiple specific mRNA markers could detect occult metastasis in paraffin-embedded (PE) SLNs to upstage and predict disease outcome. Patients and Methods qRT was performed on retrospectively collected PE SLNs from 215 clinically node-negative patients who underwent lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for melanoma and were followed up for at least 8 years. PE SLNs (n = 308) from these patients were sectioned and assessed by qRT for mRNA of four melanoma-associated genes: MART-1 (antigen recognized by T cells-1), MAGE-A3 (melanoma antigen gene-A3 family), GalNAc-T (β1→4-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase), and Pax3 (paired-box homeotic gene transcription factor 3). Results Fifty-three (25%) patients had histopathology-positive SLNs by hemotoxylin and eosin and/or immunohistochemistry. Of the 162 patients with histopathology-negative SLNs, 48 (30%) had nodes that expressed at least one of the four qRT markers, and these 48 patients also had a significantly increased risk of disease recurrence by a Cox proportional hazards model analysis (P < .0001; risk ratio, 7.48; 95% CI, 3.70 to 15.15). The presence of ≥ one marker in histopathology-negative SLNs was also a significant independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis for overall survival (P = .0002; risk ratio, 11.42; 95% CI, 3.17 to 41.1). Conclusion Molecular upstaging of PE histopathology-negative SLNs by multiple-marker qRT assay is a significant independent prognostic factor for long-term disease recurrence and overall survival of patients with early-stage melanoma. PMID:15226334

  9. [Comparison of two different real-time PCR systems in postmortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues].

    PubMed

    Yağmur, Gülhan; Albayrak, Nurhan; Daş, Taner; Yıldırım, Muzaffer; Ozgün, Ayşe; Büyük, Yalçın

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of those infections with high morbidity and mortality in all around the world. Hundreds of people died from this disease without diagnosed or due to resistant strains in Turkey. Therefore, it is important to identify postmortem cases who have died from tuberculosis. Molecular methods have been widely used as well as conventional methods in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to compare the two different real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) system in the postmortem diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in paraffin-embedded tissues. A total of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue samples [lung (n= 35), brain (n= 2), heart (n= 2), lymph node (n= 1)] in which histopathologic findings consistent with TB (necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, gelatinous caseous pneumonia, necrotic fibrous nodul) obtained from 37 autopsy cases (31 male, 6 female; age range: 25-85 yrs) were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded tissues were deparafinized with xylene and ethyl alcohol and then DNA isolation was done with QIAsymphony DSP Virus/Pathogen Midi kit in the QIAsymphony device. DNA amplification process was performed by Rt-PCR using the kit Artus® M. tuberculosis RG-PCR in the Rotor-Gene® Q device (Qiagen, Germany). Likewise, after deparafinization process, samples placed in the cartridge and isolation and Rt-PCR was performed by Xpert® MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA) system, simultaneosly. Seventeen and 20 out of the 40 paraffin-embedded tissues yielded positive results with Qiagen and Xpert system, respectively. M.tuberculosis DNA was found positive in 13 (32.5%) and negative in 16 (40%) of the samples by both of the systems, exhibiting 72.5% (29/40) of concordance. On the other hand, seven (17.5%) samples that were positive with Xpert system yielded negative result with the Qiagen, while four (10%) samples that were positive with Qiagen yielded negative result with the Xpert system. Of the 20 positive cases detected with

  10. A comparative study of fluorescence in malignant melanoma and nevocellular nevus using a fluorescence microscope and formalin-fixed specimens.

    PubMed

    Shukuwa, T; Nonaka, S; Yoshida, H

    1990-09-01

    Fluorescence in malignant melanoma cells was investigated. The specimens from 18 cases of malignant melanoma and 26 cases of nevocellular nevus, which were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, were studied by the fluorescence microscopic method. On the fluorescence microscope, the malignant melanoma cells emitted intense fluorescence from the cytoplasm. The nevus cells with large amounts of melanin granules showed moderate fluorescence. The tumor cells of melanoma in situ and nevus cells with few melanin granules emitted little fluorescence. Not only malignant melanoma cells but also nevus cells in the formalin fixed specimens had various degrees of fluorescence. Many cases of malignant melanoma emitted intense fluorescence, but this was rarely found in nevocellular nevus. This method is also useful in differentiating melanoma from nevocellular nevus. PMID:2277143

  11. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Adams, Andrea J; LaBonte, John P; Ball, Morgan L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Toothman, Mary H; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2015-01-01

    Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM) to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN), test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80-90%) when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections), current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from archived museum

  12. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Andrea J.; LaBonte, John P.; Ball, Morgan L.; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L.; Toothman, Mary H.; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2015-01-01

    Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM) to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN), test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80–90%) when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections), current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from archived museum

  13. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Adams, Andrea J; LaBonte, John P; Ball, Morgan L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Toothman, Mary H; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2015-01-01

    Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM) to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN), test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80-90%) when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections), current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from archived museum

  14. A simple protocol for paraffin-embedded myelin sheath staining with osmium tetroxide for light microscope observation.

    PubMed

    Di Scipio, Federica; Raimondo, Stefania; Tos, Pierluigi; Geuna, Stefano

    2008-07-01

    Experimental investigation of peripheral nerve fiber regeneration is attracting more and more attention among both basic and clinical researchers. Assessment of myelinated nerve fiber morphology is a pillar of peripheral nerve regeneration research. The gold standard for light microscopic imaging of myelinated nerve fibers is toluidine blue staining of resin-embedded semithin sections. However, many researchers are unaware that the dark staining of myelin sheaths typically produced by this procedure is due to osmium tetroxide postfixation and not due to toluidine blue. In this article, we describe a simple pre-embedding protocol for staining myelin sheaths in paraffin-embedded nerve specimens using osmium tetroxide. The method involves immersing the specimen in 2% osmium tetroxide for 2 h after paraformaldehyde fixation, followed by routine dehydration and paraffin embedding. Sections can then be observed directly under the microscope or counterstained using routine histological methods. Particularly good results were obtained with Masson's trichrome counterstain, which permits the imaging of connective structures in nerves that are not detectable in toluidine blue-stained resin sections. Finally, we describe a simple protocol for osmium etching of sections, which makes further immunohistochemical analysis possible on the same specimens. Taken together, our results suggest that the protocol described in this article is a valid alternative to the conventional resin embedding-based protocol: it is much cheaper, can be adopted by any histological laboratory, and allows immunohistochemical analysis to be conducted.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of remote frozen sections compared with paraffin-embedded sections: a telepathology project in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Patrizia; Soegner, Peter I.; Stadlmann, Sonja; Jacobs, Jan; Mikuz, Gregor

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of remote frozen sections examined by telepathology. The gold standard was the diagnosis made using direct examination of paraffin-embedded sections. A consecutive series of 134 frozen-section cases were examined by six qualified pathologists. We used the Zeiss telepathology system with robot microscopy, which allowed different magnifications and fields of view to be chosen. The wide-area network used the TCP/IP protocol. The diagnosis made on the frozen sections was compared with the final diagnosis in the paraffin-embedded sections. Times were recorded for each telepathology session, as well as the users comments on usability and software, and on any communication problems which occurred. In addition, we evaluated the importance of the macroscopic sampling of the surgical specimen, applied to each type of tissue. The diagnostic evaluation showed complete agreement in approximately 80% of cases, in 20% diagnosis was not possible due to insufficient quality of the slides. The median time for the telemedicine diagnosis was 14 min 30 sec.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Genotyping and Sequencing Using Paraffin-Embedded Biopsies from Residents of Colombian Areas with Contrasting Gastric Cancer Risks

    PubMed Central

    Sicinschi, Liviu A.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Camargo, M. Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Bravo, Luis E.; Schneider, Barbara G.

    2010-01-01

    Background cagA-positive and vacA s1 and m1 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer (GC). We determined these genotypes using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens harvested from infected individuals and compared genotype distributions in two Colombian populations residing in geographic regions with a high and low incidence of GC. Methods DNA from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies from 107 adults was amplified using primers specific for cagA, for the cag ‘empty site’, for the s and m alleles of vacA, and for H. pylori 16S rRNA. Results H. pylori infection was detected by molecular assays in 97 (90.7%) biopsies. Complete genotyping of cagA and vacA was achieved in 94 (96.9%) cases. The presence of cagA was detected in 78 of 97 cases (80.4%); when considered separately, cagA and vacA s regions were not significantly associated with a particular geographic area. The vacA m1 allele and s1m1 genotypes were more common in the area of high risk for GC (p = .037 and p = .044, respectively), while the vacA m2 allele and s2m2 genotypes were more prevalent in the low-risk area. The prevalence of the combination of cagA-positive, vacA s1m1 genotypes was 84.3% and 60.5% for high and low risk areas, respectively (p = .011). Conclusions H. pylori cagA and vacA genotyping from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies permitted reliable typability and discrimination. The more virulent cagA-positive s1m1 strains, as well as vacA m1 genotype, were more prevalent in high risk than in low risk areas, which may contribute to the difference in GC risk between those two regions. PMID:18321303

  17. Investigation into a new softening agent for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Orchard, G E; Torres, J; Poirier, A; Sounthararajah, R; Webster, J; Notini, L; Hacker, L; Ismail, F; Nwokie, T; Humphrey, P; Spigler, E; Missaghian-Cully, S; Brewer, C; Meredith-Jones, A

    2009-01-01

    The use of tissue softening agents to improve microtomy of keratotic tissues is employed widely. Many of these softeners contain hazardous constituents such as phenol. In this study, the use of non-ionic surfactants or non-toxic ingredients are investigated with the aim of creating a new softening agent. The new agent should be more effective in facilitating the sectioning of hardened tissue while reducing toxicity and complications associated with sectioning hard tissue compared to a commercially available phenol-based formulation. Four formulations are compared against the commercial product for their capability to section routinely processed paraffin-embedded tissue under standard operating procedure parameters. The trial formulations were shown to be fast acting and enabled improved serial sectioning of hard keratotic tissue in nearly all the cases tested. There was no evidence of adverse staining using either tinctorial or immunohistochemical methods. The new formulations had advantages over the commercially available solutions, improving on the number and quality of sections attainable from the tissue blocks, as well as offering a composition less toxic than phenol-based products.

  18. Optimization of specimen preparation from formalin-fixed liver tissues for liver micronucleus assays: Hepatocyte staining with fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Shigano, Miyuki; Takashima, Rie; Takasawa, Hironao; Hamada, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    The liver micronucleus (MN) assay is an effective and important in vivo test for detecting genotoxic compounds, particularly those that require metabolic activation. For this assay, hepatocytes (HEPs) can be isolated by collagenase treatment but without requirement for in situ liver perfusion. Consequently, the liver MN assay can be integrated into a general repeated-dose (RD) toxicity study. The method is also applicable to liver MN assays involving partial hepatectomy or the use of juvenile rats. Here, we propose an improved method for staining HEPs prepared from formalin-fixed liver tissues for MN assays, without collagenase treatment. HEP suspensions are prepared by treating the tissues with concentrated KOH and a fluorescent dye, SYBR(®) Gold (SYGO), is used for staining. Visualization of the MN in SYGO-stained HEPs is clearer than with Wright-Giemsa staining. We compared the induction of MN as measured with our new method versus the conventional method using collagenase dispersion. Our method not only enables the integration of the liver MN assay into a general RD toxicity study but also allows it to be conducted retrospectively. PMID:27085473

  19. Optimization of specimen preparation from formalin-fixed liver tissues for liver micronucleus assays: Hepatocyte staining with fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Shigano, Miyuki; Takashima, Rie; Takasawa, Hironao; Hamada, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    The liver micronucleus (MN) assay is an effective and important in vivo test for detecting genotoxic compounds, particularly those that require metabolic activation. For this assay, hepatocytes (HEPs) can be isolated by collagenase treatment but without requirement for in situ liver perfusion. Consequently, the liver MN assay can be integrated into a general repeated-dose (RD) toxicity study. The method is also applicable to liver MN assays involving partial hepatectomy or the use of juvenile rats. Here, we propose an improved method for staining HEPs prepared from formalin-fixed liver tissues for MN assays, without collagenase treatment. HEP suspensions are prepared by treating the tissues with concentrated KOH and a fluorescent dye, SYBR(®) Gold (SYGO), is used for staining. Visualization of the MN in SYGO-stained HEPs is clearer than with Wright-Giemsa staining. We compared the induction of MN as measured with our new method versus the conventional method using collagenase dispersion. Our method not only enables the integration of the liver MN assay into a general RD toxicity study but also allows it to be conducted retrospectively.

  20. Effect of section thickness on quality of flow cytometric DNA content determinations in paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, R A; Gay, H; Fair, W R; Melamed, M R

    1986-01-01

    DNA content determinations were carried out by flow cytometry on nuclear suspensions prepared from the same paraffin-embedded tissue block for each of eight surgically resected human carcinomas at section thicknesses of 5,10,20,30,40,50, and 100 millimicrons. Flow cytometric DNA determinations were also obtained on fresh tissue specimens in four of the eight carcinomas. As section thickness decreased below 50 millimicrons, there was a progressive increase in the histogram baseline noise at low DNA values and a decrease in the relative peak height of aneuploid DNA. The former was attributed to an increase of nuclear fragments in thinner sections, and the latter to the greater probability of transection of the larger aneuploid cells within a specimen. Both artifacts were minimized at section thickness of 50 millimicrons or greater.

  1. Comparison of techniques for the successful detection of BRCA1 mutations in fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonine L; Thompson, W Douglas; Casey, Graham; DiCioccio, Richard A; Whittemore, Alice S; Diep, Anh T; Thakore, Seema S; Vaziri, Susan; Xue, Shanyan; Haile, Robert W

    2002-09-01

    Genomic DNA isolated from archived paraffin-embedded tissues (PETs) has important applicability in genetic epidemiological studies. To determine the accuracy of the sequence data, using DNA derived from PET among patients with known mutations characterized from blood, we conducted a blinded factorial experiment to simultaneously examine the influence of mutation type, age of the PET, PCR product type, and Taq DNA polymerase on BRCA1 gene mutation detection. The probability of detecting sequencing artifacts was also investigated. We found that: (a) gene detection was most accurate for newer PET; (b) high fidelity Taq with shorter PCR amplicon length yielded the highest mutation detection success rate and lowest artifact rate; and (c) base substitutions were more often correctly identified than frameshift mutations or wild-type sequences. We concluded that DNA derived from PET that archived for less than 18 years can be used successfully for detecting BRCA1 gene mutations if quality control is strictly maintained.

  2. PCR-RFLP studies on chromosome 3p in formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, F; Rabbitts, P H; Sundresan, V; Hagmar, B

    1994-09-15

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been extensively studied on the short arm of chromosome 3, and functional proofs have been obtained defining a tumor-suppressor locus at 3p21-22. We examined 31 paraffin-embedded cervical cancer samples for LOH, using 5 PCR-primer pairs, located around 3p21. Allele loss was found in 19 out of the 27 informative samples (70%) while 13 out of 23 informative samples (56%) had LOH located at 3p21-22. More of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive samples had LOH compared to the HPV-negative samples, giving only a weak association between loss of allele and HPV integration. Modifications of the DNA in the formaldehyde-fixed samples were detected, and further studies will be required to clarify how such artifacts may affect restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies on fixed tissues.

  3. Detection and genetic relationship of dengue virus sequences in seventeen-year-old paraffin-embedded samples from Cuba.

    PubMed

    Sariol, C A; Pelegrino, J L; Martinez, A; Arteaga, E; Kouri, G; Guzman, M G

    1999-12-01

    This study describes the use of the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to generate dengue 2 amplicons from paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues collected in Cuba 17 years ago. The presumptive diagnoses had been made only by clinical evolution without serologic confirmation. This study confirms once again that dengue 2 virus was directly associated with the fatal cases in children and illustrates the potential of the RT-PCR for retrospective diagnosis of dengue cases 17 years after death. A close similarity in the genomic sequences of the dengue 2 RNA detected in tissue samples from fatal cases and those dengue 2 Cuban strains that had been previously investigated confirms the appropriate genomic classification of the etiologic agent associated with the 1981 dengue hemorrhagic fever Cuban epidemic.

  4. Evaluation of rapid microsatellite analysis of paraffin-embedded specimens in screening for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Raedle, J; Brieger, A; Trojan, J; Hardt, T; Herrmann, G; Zeuzem, S

    1999-05-01

    Length alterations in short repetitive DNA sequences, termed microsatellite instability (MSI), are used as a diagnostic criterion of replication errors caused by various mutations in at least five mismatch repair genes. Therefore, MSI analysis is useful in clinical practice to identify patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). MSI can be detected by amplification of microsatellite loci in DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor and corresponding peritumoral specimens after numerous time consuming steps limiting the clinical utilities. Rapid microsatellite analysis, a efficient and rapid DNA extraction technique based on Triton X-100 preincubation, was compared with the conventional DNA extraction for HNPCC screening in colorectal tumor specimens from 12 patients. Five complex and two noncomplex (CA)n microsatellite loci were tested, with use of multicolor fluorescent analysis. MSI and loss of heterozygosity in colorectal tumor samples could equally be assessed with the two DNA preparation methods, whereas the number of initially unsuccessful DNA extractions from paraffin-embedded tissue specimens and overall duration for MSI analysis were significantly reduced when rapid microsatellite analysis was used. A replication error-positive phenotype was detected in 2 of 10 patients with a positive family history for colorectal cancer, and diagnosis of HNPCC was finally confirmed by detection of a specific germline mutation. The described rapid microsatellite analysis is less time consuming and more efficient, and, in general, it reduces the risk of contamination by limiting the number of steps required. Therefore, it might replace current DNA extraction procedures. Furthermore, techniques using fluorescent polymerase chain reaction and semiautomated DNA sequencer allow for precise, observer-independent, and rapid scoring in MSI and loss of heterozygosity assessment. A combination of our rapid DNA extraction method and the use of a highly specific

  5. Autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine suppressed re-recurrence of HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma following 29 unsuccessful treatments with extensive conventional therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inui, Toshio; Ohno, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine after primary resection has been shown to suppress the recurrence of hepatitis B virus-associated HCC, but the effect of this treatment on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related disease has not yet been clarified. Here, we report a case of a patient with repeat recurrent HCC that was associated with HCV who had endured 29 episodes of HCC recurrence despite a variety of therapy using conventional methods. Finally, treatment with a single course of autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine resulted in suppression of potential further re-recurrence of HCC for more than 43 months without any additional treatment. PMID:22789008

  6. Improved polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum with formalin-fixed tubercle bacilli for training of tuberculosis microscopists.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-10-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists.

  7. Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Artificial Sputum with Formalin-Fixed Tubercle Bacilli for Training of Tuberculosis Microscopists▿†

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  8. Improved polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum with formalin-fixed tubercle bacilli for training of tuberculosis microscopists.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi; Wahyunitisari, Manik Rento; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiki, Akiko

    2011-10-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method for detecting tubercle bacilli when there are more than 10,000 bacilli/ml in the original sputum. Furthermore, because the microscopic method provides not only quantitative, but also qualitative information, such as the shape of bacilli, it has remained significant. We have previously developed and reported panel test slides made from polyacrylamide-based artificial sputum (PBAS) mixed with both cultured THP-1 cells and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. In this paper, we report an improved preparation method for PBAS for panel test slides that provides a simplified method and enhanced availability with high consistency in each grade and in which only negative PBAS is prepared from polyacrylamide and cultured THP-1 cells and mixed with graded formalin-fixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis solution (FFTBS) containing oral flora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the slides. In the smears prepared using this improved method, the numbers (average ± standard deviation [SD]) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 300 fields (2- by 3-cm smear) in eight smears of each grade ranged from 5 to 9 (6.4 ± 1.4), from 59 to 88 (74.6 ± 10.0), from 503 to 912 (705.0 ± 145.7), and from 1,819 to 3,256 (2133.3 ± 478.0) in ±, +, ++, and +++ smears, respectively. In addition, this preparation method provided high similarity to the microscopic appearance of bacilli and background seen in the actual patient sputum, with high feasibility. These results revealed that our new PBAS had high authenticity in the appearance and consistency in each grade, which could make it valuable as a reliable artificial sputum for the training of microscopists. PMID:21813720

  9. Immunohistochemical Staining of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on Paraffin-embedded Slides of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bigelow, Elaine; Bever, Katherine M.; Xu, Haiying; Yager, Allison; Wu, Annie; Taube, Janis; Chen, Lieping; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Anders, Robert A.; Zheng, Lei

    2013-01-01

    B7-H1/PD-L1, a member of the B7 family of immune-regulatory cell-surface proteins, plays an important role in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immune responses through its interaction with its receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) 1,2. Overexpression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been noted in a number of human cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, ovary, and renal cells, and has been shown to impair anti-tumor T-cell immunity3-8. Recently, B7-H1 expression by pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues has been identified as a potential prognostic marker9,10. Additionally, blockade of B7-H1 in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer has been shown to produce an anti-tumor response11. These data suggest the importance of B7-H1 as a potential therapeutic target. Anti-B7-H1 blockade antibodies are therefore being tested in clinical trials for multiple human solid tumors including melanoma and cancers of lung, colon, kidney, stomach and pancreas12. In order to eventually be able to identify the patients who will benefit from B7-H1 targeting therapies, it is critical to investigate the correlation between expression and localization of B7-H1 and patient response to treatment with B7-H1 blockade antibodies. Examining the expression of B7-H1 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues through immunohistochemistry will give a better understanding of how this co-inhibitory signaling molecule contributes to the suppression of antitumor immunity in the tumor's microenvironment. The anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody (clone 5H1) developed by Chen and coworkers has been shown to produce reliable staining results in cryosections of multiple types of human neoplastic tissues4,8, but staining on paraffin-embedded slides had been a challenge until recently13-18. We have developed the B7-H1 staining protocol for paraffin-embedded slides of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. The B7-H1 staining protocol described here produces consistent membranous and

  10. [Detection of mixed lymphoid chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: demonstration by interphase cytogenetics in paraffin-embedded tissue].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, T; Ott, G; Kalla, J; Helbig, W; Schwenke, H; Kubel, M; Pönisch, W; Feyer, P; Friedrich, A

    1994-01-01

    In bone marrow transplantation (BMT) the detection of residual host lymphoid or haematopoietic cells surviving conditioning therapy is because of its association to graft-versus-host disease, graft-versus-leukemia reaction, and relapse of leukemia a matter of great interest. We studied the occurrence of this mixed lymphoid chimerism (MC) in the formol-fixed lymphatic tissue of lymph nodes and spleen from 21 autopsies after allogeneic sex-mismatched BMT (5 females, 16 males, survival 5 to 1140 days after BMT). In situ hybridisation with biotinylated centromer-specific anti-X- and anti-Y-chromosome probes was performed on pepsin-digested paraffin sections. The number of double X-, single X-, and Y-chromosome bearing cells was analysed microscopically. Because of artefacts only 14 cases remained for valid investigation. MC was detected in 6 cases (5 out of 11 males 5 days to 840 days and 1 out of 3 females 76 days after BMT). MC occurred after whole body irradiation with 10 Gy (n = 5) and 7 Gy (n = 1). In 1 autopsy relapse of leukemia caused host cell infiltration. Cases with MC did not express histological signs of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, but 5 out of 8 with complete lymphoid chimerism did. The sensitivity of interphase cytogenetics on paraffin embedded tissue is low.

  11. Pitfalls in the immunohistochemical localization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in paraffin embedded sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Claass, A; Sommer, M; de Jonge, H R

    2000-10-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause the hereditary disease cystic fibrosis. The most frequent mutant deltaF508 has been shown in vitro to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Ex vivo studies using immunohistochemical labelling in cryofixed skin biopsies have confirmed the mislocalization of deltaF508 CFTR in sweat glands. The purpose of this study was to test CFTR antibodies in paraffin-embedded skin biopsies to take advantage of the superior tissue preservation as compared to cryofixation. A panel of 7 CFTR antibodies was applied to skin sections of healthy controls and of cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for the deltaF508 mutation. Sweat gland labelling consistent with CFTR localization and different between control and cystic fibrosis tissue was obtained with 2 antibodies. Conventional staining controls confirmed the labelling specificity. The antibodies were subsequently tested in a series of 237 sections of 16 biopsy specimens. However, the sweat gland labelling pattern proved not to be dependent on CFTR genotype. This finding was the sole indicator of non-specificity of the staining which was revealed only by the size of our random sample. Our results emphasize that CFTR immunolabelling following formalin fixation has to be interpreted with the utmost caution.

  12. Recognition and reduction of artifacts from autolysis in paraffin-embedded tissue using DNA/nuclear protein flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pollack, A; Ciancio, G; Terry, N H; Block, N L

    1993-01-01

    Artifacts from autolysis can be a problem in retrospective flow-cytometric analyses of DNA content in paraffin-embedded tissues. Autolyzed tissue from rat liver, human liver, and rat spleen were stained for DNA and nuclear protein to determine if this technique would be useful in identifying partially degraded cells. After the tissue was deparaffinized and rehydrated, the nuclei were isolated using 0.5% pepsin. Propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used to stain DNA and nuclear protein. When unfixed rat liver tissue was allowed to undergo autolysis at 4 degrees C for 24-48 h before fixation, there was a progressive broadening of the G1 and G2M DNA peaks and a slight increase in the average DNA contents of these peaks. Nuclei that stained more intensely with PI also stained more intensely with FITC. Similar results were obtained using human liver and rat spleen. Sometimes the increased PI staining resulted in a false aneuploid peak. The distinctive skewing of the DNA/nuclear protein histograms from autolysis was reduced by increasing the incubation of the tissue in 0.5% pepsin from 0.5 h to 1.5 h during the nuclei-isolation step. The DNA/nuclear protein method provides a means for identifying artifacts from autolysis, whereas the extended pepsin treatment provides a means for reducing these artifacts.

  13. Identification of 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Producing Cells by Detection of Fluorescence in Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Y.; Onda, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Shibutani, M.

    2016-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced by enterochromaffin (EC) cells is an important enteric mucosal signaling ligand and has been implicated in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. The present study reports a new, simple and rapid visualization method of 5-HT-producing EC cells utilizing detection of fluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections after formalin fixation. In human samples, there was a high incidence of fluorescence+ cells in the 5-HT+ cells in the pyloric, small intestinal and colonic glands, while co-localization was lacking between fluorescence+ and gastrin+ cells in the pyloric and small intestinal glands. Fluorescence+ EC cells were detected in the colon of mice and rats. Fluorescence+ cells were also observed in 5-HT+ β cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans in pregnant mice, while non-pregnant mouse pancreatic islet cells showed no 5-HT immunoreactivity or fluorescence. These results suggest that fluorescence+ cells are identical to 5-HT+ cells, and the source of fluorescence may be 5-HT itself or molecules related to its synthesis or degradation. This fluorescence signal detection method may be applicable for monitoring of inflammatory status of inflammatory bowel diseases in both the experimental and clinical settings. PMID:27734992

  14. Detection and Quantification of CWD Prions in Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissues by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Clare E; Davenport, Kristen A; Henderson, Davin M; Pulscher, Laura A; Mathiason, Candace K; Zabel, Mark D; Hoover, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Traditional diagnostic detection of chronic wasting disease (CWD) relies on immunodetection of misfolded CWD prion protein (PrP(CWD)) by western blotting, ELISA, or immunohistochemistry (IHC). These techniques require separate sample collections (frozen and fixed) which may result in discrepancies due to variation in prion tissue distribution and assay sensitivities that limit detection especially in early and subclinical infections. Here, we harness the power of real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to amplify, detect, and quantify prion amyloid seeding activity in fixed paraffin-embedded (FPE) tissue sections. We show that FPE RT-QuIC has greater detection sensitivity than IHC in tissues with low PrP(CWD) burdens, including those that are IHC-negative. We also employ amyloid formation kinetics to yield a semi-quantitative estimate of prion concentration in a given FPE tissue. We report that FPE RT-QuIC has the ability to enhance diagnostic and investigative detection of disease-associated PrP(RES) in prion, and potentially other, protein misfolding disease states. PMID:27157060

  15. Detection and Quantification of CWD Prions in Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissues by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Clare E.; Davenport, Kristen A.; Henderson, Davin M.; Pulscher, Laura A.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Zabel, Mark D.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional diagnostic detection of chronic wasting disease (CWD) relies on immunodetection of misfolded CWD prion protein (PrPCWD) by western blotting, ELISA, or immunohistochemistry (IHC). These techniques require separate sample collections (frozen and fixed) which may result in discrepancies due to variation in prion tissue distribution and assay sensitivities that limit detection especially in early and subclinical infections. Here, we harness the power of real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to amplify, detect, and quantify prion amyloid seeding activity in fixed paraffin-embedded (FPE) tissue sections. We show that FPE RT-QuIC has greater detection sensitivity than IHC in tissues with low PrPCWD burdens, including those that are IHC-negative. We also employ amyloid formation kinetics to yield a semi-quantitative estimate of prion concentration in a given FPE tissue. We report that FPE RT-QuIC has the ability to enhance diagnostic and investigative detection of disease-associated PrPRES in prion, and potentially other, protein misfolding disease states. PMID:27157060

  16. Genotyping of human papillomavirus in paraffin embedded cervical tissue samples from women in Ethiopia and the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abate, Ebba; Aseffa, Abraham; El-Tayeb, Muntasir; El-Hassan, Ibrahim; Yamuah, Lawrence; Mihret, Wude; Bekele, Liku; Ashenafi, Senait; El-Dawi, Nadia; Belayneh, Meseret; El-Hassan, Ahmed; Engers, Howard

    2013-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent female malignancy in most developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with dysplasia and carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The objective of this study was to identify the prevailing HPV genotypes responsible for the development of cervical cancer among women in Ethiopia and the Sudan. A molecular characterization of HPV was done on 245 paraffin embedded cervical biopsy samples collected from the two countries. Amplification of HPV and subsequent genotyping was done using SPF10 primers and Line probe assay. Of samples collected from Ethiopian patients, 93% (149/160) and 13% (21/160) had high risk and low risk HPV genotypes, respectively. Among samples collected from the Sudan, 94% (80/85) harbored high risk and 11.7% (10/85) low risk HPV genotypes. Human papillomavirus 16 was the most frequent genotype identified in samples from Ethiopia (91%, 136/149) and the Sudan (82.5%, 66/80). HPV 52, 58, and 18 were the second, third and fourth common genotypes identified in Ethiopia, whereas HPV 18, 45, and 52 were the second, third, and fourth genotypes identified in samples collected from the Sudan. Thus, individuals living in different geographical localities should receive vaccines based on the specific genotypes circulating in the area and a vaccine targeting HPV 16, 18, 45, 52, and 58 may be optimal for the control of cervical cancer in the two countries.

  17. Age-related presence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in paraffin-embedded lung samples of dogs with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wöhrer, Daniela; Spergser, Joachim; Bagrinovschi, Gabriela; Möstl, Karin; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to detect selected pathogens in pneumonic lung tissue of dogs of different age groups by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridisation (ISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to get information about their involvement in pneumonia formation. In archived formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded lung samples from 68 cases with the clinical and histologic diagnosis of pneumonia the histological pattern of pneumonia was re-evaluated and the samples were further investigated for the following infectious agents: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Pasteurella (P.) multocida, Mycoplasma spp., and Pneumocystis spp. In 47.1% of the samples at least one of the featured respiratory pathogens was detected. In 31.3% of these positive samples more than one pathogen could be found. The correct detection of CDV had been achieved in ten out of eleven positive cases (90.9%) upon initial investigation, but the presence of bacterial pathogens, like B. bronchiseptica (10 cases) and P. multocida (17 cases) had been missed in all but one case. While CDV and CRCoV infections were exclusively found in dogs younger than one year, the vast majority of infections with P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica were both common either in dogs younger than 4 months or older than one year. Thus, this retrospective approach yielded valuable data on the presence, absence and prevalence of certain respiratory pathogens in dogs with pneumonia. PMID:26919147

  18. Double labeling and simultaneous detection of B- and T cells using fluorescent nano-crystal (q-dots) in paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Zahavy, Eran; Freeman, Esther; Lustig, Shlomo; Keysary, Avi; Yitzhaki, Shmuel

    2005-09-01

    A double immunohistochemical technique for the simultaneous detection of T- and B cells in paraffin-embedded mice tissues have been developed. This procedure is based on using fluorescent nano-crystals (q-dots). The benefit of using q-dots evolves from their unique fluorescence characteristics advantages: such as broad excitation spectrum, narrow emission band and high photo-bleaching threshold compare to organic fluorophores. T cells antigens (CD3) were stained using antibody-coated q-dots with max emission at 655 nm (GalphaRb-QD655). B cells antigens (CD45R/B220) were stained using streptavidin-coated q-dots with max emission at 585 nm (SA-QD585). The simultaneous detection of T- and B cells was demonstrated in paraffin-embedded lymph node using standard fluorescence microscope.

  19. Immunocytochemical detection of androgen receptor in human temporal cortex characterization and application of polyclonal androgen receptor antibodies in frozen and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Puy, L; MacLusky, N J; Becker, L; Karsan, N; Trachtenberg, J; Brown, T J

    1995-11-01

    Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of androgen receptor protein in various regions of the rodent and non-human primate cortex. Localization of androgen receptor in the human brain has, however, not been studied as extensively, because of difficulties in obtaining suitable tissue samples. In the present study, we have localized androgen receptors in both frozen and paraffin-embedded temporal cortex from epileptic patients undergoing resection. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against fusion proteins containing fragments of the human androgen receptor protein. The antibodies were affinity-purified against the corresponding fusion protein. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting using extracts from human cell lines demonstrated the specificity of the antibodies for the human androgen receptor and lack of cross-reactivity with other steroid hormone receptors. Immunocytochemistry was performed on frozen and paraffin sections of human temporal cortex and in paraffin-embedded benign hyperplastic prostates (BPH), as well as prostate and breast carcinomas, by the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Antigen-retrieval was performed in paraffin-embedded sections using microwave irradiation. Specific nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for androgen receptor was detected in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia cells of the temporal cortex. In contrast, only nuclear staining was observed in BPH, prostate and breast carcinomas. Immunoprecipitation of human temporal cortex lysate and subsequent Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of a 98 kDa immunoreactive protein, slightly smaller than the reported molecular weight of the wild-type androgen receptor. These results provide further evidence for the expression of androgen receptor in the human temporal cortex. The use of these immunocytochemical techniques should enable the retrospective determination of possible changes in androgen receptor expression in

  20. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hykin, Sarah M.; Bi, Ke; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2015-01-01

    For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles), attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens—particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses—has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp). We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described