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Sample records for formally certified sat

  1. Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Strategy Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Eric; Oglesby, David; Bhatt, Devesh; Murugesan, Anitha; Engstrom, Eric; Mueller, Joe; Pelican, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This is the Final Report of a research project to investigate issues and provide guidance for the qualification of formal methods tools under the DO-330 qualification process. It consisted of three major subtasks spread over two years: 1) an assessment of theoretical soundness issues that may affect qualification for three categories of formal methods tools, 2) a case study simulating the DO-330 qualification of two actual tool sets, and 3) an investigation of risk mitigation strategies that might be applied to chains of such formal methods tools in order to increase confidence in their certification of airborne software.

  2. Assessment of long-term impact of formal certified cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program among nurses

    PubMed Central

    Saramma, P. P.; Raj, L. Suja; Dash, P. K.; Sarma, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines are periodically renewed and published by the American Heart Association. Formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Despite widespread training CPR is often poorly performed. Hospital educators spend a significant amount of time and money in training health professionals and maintaining basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) skills among them. However, very little data are available in the literature highlighting the long-term impact of these training. Aims: To evaluate the impact of formal certified CPR training program on the knowledge and skill of CPR among nurses, to identify self-reported outcomes of attempted CPR and training needs of nurses. Setting and Design: Tertiary care hospital, Prospective, repeated-measures design. Subjects and Methods: A series of certified BLS and ACLS training programs were conducted during 2010 and 2011. Written and practical performance tests were done. Final testing was undertaken 3–4 years after training. The sample included all available, willing CPR certified nurses and experience matched CPR noncertified nurses. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS for Windows version 21.0. Results: The majority of the 206 nurses (93 CPR certified and 113 noncertified) were females. There was a statistically significant increase in mean knowledge level and overall performance before and after the formal certified CPR training program (P = 0.000). However, the mean knowledge scores were equivalent among the CPR certified and noncertified nurses, although the certified nurses scored a higher mean score (P = 0.140). Conclusions: Formal certified CPR training program increases CPR knowledge and skill. However, significant long-term effects could not be found. There is a need for regular and periodic recertification. PMID:27303137

  3. Assessing, Recognising and Certifying Informal and Non-Formal Learning (ARCNIL): Evolution and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetlik, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying non-formal and informal knowledge may be a consequence of separating education and training from other social and economic activities. Specialisation and formalisation of education and training both aim to increase learning efficiency. In the emerging knowledge society, this has attracted particular attention among researchers and…

  4. Formal Modeling and Analysis of a Preliminary Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS)Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrreno, Victor A.; Gottliebsen, Hanne; Butler, Ricky; Kalvala, Sara

    2004-01-01

    New concepts for automating air traffic management functions at small non-towered airports raise serious safety issues associated with the software implementations and their underlying key algorithms. The criticality of such software systems necessitates that strong guarantees of the safety be developed for them. In this paper we present a formal method for modeling and verifying such systems using the PVS theorem proving system. The method is demonstrated on a preliminary concept of operation for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project at NASA Langley.

  5. Preparing for the SAT: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelrouth, Jed I.; Zabrucky, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, more than 1.6 million students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a standardized college admissions test (College Board 2016a). Researchers have estimated that 33 percent of students who take the SAT participate in some mode of formal test preparation, such as private tutoring or classes, to prepare for the exam (Buchmann, Condron…

  6. Work Experience of Certified Laboratory Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Medical Technology Education, Bethesda, MD.

    Questionnaires concerning the nature of work performed and the work setting, plans for continuing formal education, and opinions regarding the relevancy of training received were sent to all individuals (3,282) certified by the Board of Certified Laboratory Assistants (CLA's) since certification began in 1965. Some findings from the 970 returned…

  7. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  8. A survey of SAT solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Weiwei; Zhou, Xu

    2017-06-01

    In Computer Science, the Boolean Satisfiability Problem(SAT) is the problem of determining if there exists an interpretation that satisfies a given Boolean formula. SAT is one of the first problems that was proven to be NP-complete, which is also fundamental to artificial intelligence, algorithm and hardware design. This paper reviews the main algorithms of the SAT solver in recent years, including serial SAT algorithms, parallel SAT algorithms, SAT algorithms based on GPU, and SAT algorithms based on FPGA. The development of SAT is analyzed comprehensively in this paper. Finally, several possible directions for the development of the SAT problem are proposed.

  9. FDA Certified Mammography Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Program Consumer Information (MQSA) Search for a Certified Facility Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Email Print This list of FDA Certified Mammography Facilities is updated weekly. If you click on Search ...

  10. SmallSat Lab

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    CubeSat. Mr. Alvarez worked with four students on the PCB layout for the solar panels and the construction of the 6U CubeSat mockup . Support for Mr...Hull and Mr. Alvarez was $49k including fringe benefits. !! Purchases: During this time period a license for MatLab software and the Princeton...Satellite ToolBox was purchased using funds from this award. This software adds tremendous capability to the SmallSat Lab by enabling students to analyze

  11. SmallSat Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  12. Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cachera, David; Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    A certified static analysis is an analysis whose semantic validity has been formally proved correct with a proof assistant. The recent increasing interest in using proof assistants for mechanizing programming language metatheory has given rise to several approaches for certification of static analysis. We propose a panorama of these techniques and compare their respective strengths and weaknesses.

  13. FDA Certified Mammography Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Radiation-Emitting Products Home Radiation-Emitting Products Mammography Quality Standards Act and Program Consumer Information (MQSA) ... it Email Print This list of FDA Certified Mammography Facilities is updated weekly. If you click on ...

  14. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  15. Abstract Model of the SATS Concept of Operations: Initial Results and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    An abstract mathematical model of the concept of operations for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is presented. The Concept of Operations consist of several procedures that describe nominal operations for SATS, Several safety properties of the system are proven using formal techniques. The final goal of the verification effort is to show that under nominal operations, aircraft are safely separated. The abstract model was written and formally verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  16. Active CryoCubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Active CryoCubeSat project will demonstrate an advanced thermal control system for a 6-Unit (6U) CubeSat platform. A miniature, active thermal control system, in which a fluid is circulated in a closed loop from thermal loads to radiators, will be developed. A miniature cryogenic cooler will be integrated with this system to form a two-stage thermal control system. Key components will be miniaturized by using advanced additive manufacturing techniques resulting in a thermal testbed for proving out these technologies. Previous CubeSat missions have not tackled the problem of active thermal control systems nor have any past or current CubeSat missions included cryogenic instrumentation. This Active CryoCubeSat development effort will provide completely new capacities for CubeSats and constitutes a major advancement over the state-of-the-art in CubeSat thermal control.

  17. CarbonSat Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Tobehn, Carsten; Ernst, Robert; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Notholt, John

    1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important manmade greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are driving global climate change. Currently, the CO2 measurements from the ground observing network are still the main sources of information but due to the limited number of measurement stations the coverage is limited. In addition, CO2 monitoring and trading is often based mainly on bottom-up calculations and an independent top down verification is limited due to the lack of global measurement data with local resolution. The first CO2 and CH4 mapping from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT shows that satellites add important missing global information. Current GHG measurement satellites (GOSAT)are limited either in spatial or temporal resolution and coverage. These systems have to collect data over a year or even longer to produce global regional fluxes products. Conse-quently global, timely, higher spatial resolution and high accuracy measurement are required for: 1. A good understanding of the CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks for reliable climate predic-tion; and 2. Independent and transparent verification of accountable sources and sinks in supporting Kyoto and upcoming protocols The CarbonSat constellation idea comes out the trade off of resolution and swath width during CarbonSat mission definition studies. In response to the urgent need to support the Kyoto and upcoming protocols, a feasibility study has been carried out. The proposed solution is a constellation of five CarbonSat satellites in 614km LTAN 13:00, which is able to provide global, daily CO2 and CH4 measurement everywhere on the Earth with high spatial resolution 2 × 2 km and low uncertainty lt;2ppm (CO2) and lt;8ppb (CH4). The unique global daily measurement capability significantly increases the number of cloud free measurements, which enables more reliable services associated with reduced uncertainty, e.g. to 0.15ppm (CO2) per month in 10km and even more timely products. The CarbonSat Constellation in

  18. Gender Bias in SAT Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.; And Others

    Sex-related bias on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) was studied in a sample of 1,112 students in SAT coaching classes who took the SAT. Of these, 1,028 answered an additional questionnaire (Appendix A of this report) about high school grade point average, perceived abilities, and background. Almost all of the subjects were 11th graders (97.8%),…

  19. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  20. TacSats for NATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    Tactical satellites (TacSats) are studied to determine their utility in meeting the needs of theater commanders. Six mission areas are studied: battlefield surveillance, communications, tactical missile warning and assessment, regional maritime surveillance, navigation, and weather. The synergistic role between strategic and tactical satellites is also considered. TacSat system concepts are provided in most mission areas as are means of implementing TacSat systems, including the launch and ground system segments. Issues raised in these areas are discussed. Finally, TacSat costs are discussed and the Working Group's conclusions and recommendations are provided.

  1. The TechSAT program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachar, M.; Lapid, P.

    1992-12-01

    The TechSAT project is described which is intended to establish a wide academic infrastructure for the development of new space technologies. A TechSAT satellite will be used for educational purposes by the academic staff and students as well as by radio amateurs. Tech SAT is a microsatellite weighing 50 kg with 45x45x45 cm dimensions. It is based on a Nadir pointing 3D stabilized platform with body mounted solar panels. The TechSAT hardware includes an autonomous attitude control system, a power supply system, and an onboard computer. Command control and telemetry systems will be based on the amateur radio communications payload.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=tv_vcr.pr_crit_tv_vcr.

  3. A Certified Health Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This article features a certification program for health care workers in Southeastern Oklahoma. Kiamichi Technology Center is certifying success for its students while helping to meet the demand for trained health care workers in Southeastern Oklahoma. Through the health careers certification program at Kiamichi Technology Center in Hugo, Oklahoma…

  4. A Certified Health Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This article features a certification program for health care workers in Southeastern Oklahoma. Kiamichi Technology Center is certifying success for its students while helping to meet the demand for trained health care workers in Southeastern Oklahoma. Through the health careers certification program at Kiamichi Technology Center in Hugo, Oklahoma…

  5. Certified records manager exam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Certified Records Managers (ICRM) is a non-profit, certifying organization of professional records managers and administrators. ICRM members are experienced in information requirements, records and information systems, and the related office systems and technologies. All members have met certification requirements and have received the Certified Records Manager (CRM) designation. As the field of information and records management moves toward standardization, and as the application of new technologies and technicalities complicate the measurement and demonstration of professional competence, the need for a means of identifying persons who have basic competency increases. The ICRM is providing such a means by testing and certifying basic knowledge. More and more job announcements are requiring this evidence of competency. Unfortunately, as an organization, NIRMA has a relatively small number of CRMs. The goal of the ICRM Development Group is two-fold; (1) to encourage NIRMA members to obtain their certification by providing basic information and support and; (2) to develop the Nuclear Specialist test module which will demonstrate that bearers have demonstrated expertise in nuclear records management as well as basic competencies. This report covers the examination process.

  6. CloudSat Education Network: Partnerships for Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TeBockhorst, D.

    2014-12-01

    CloudSat Education Network (CEN): Partnerships to improve the understanding of clouds in formal and informal settings. Since The CloudSat satellite launched in 2006 the Formal and Informal education programs for the mission have been focused on bringing an understanding about the mission science and the importance of clouds, climate & weather science. This has been done by creating and strengthening partnership and collaboration within scientific and educational communities around the country and the world. Because CloudSat was formally recognized as a Earth System Science Pathfinder campaign with the GLOBE program, the CEN developed a set of field protocols for student observations that augmented the GLOBE atmosphere protocols when there was a satellite overpass. This shared process between GLOBE & CloudSat resulted in the training & creation of CEN schools that are both GLOBE schools and CloudSat schools, and also produced three GLOBE partnerships that specialize in cloud science education and outreach. In addition, the CEN has developed productive relationships with other NASA missions and EPO teams. Specifically, in collaboration with the NASA CERES mission projects S'Cool and MyNASAData, we have co-presented at NSTA conferences and with schools participating in a NASA EPOESS-funded formal education project. This collaborative work has been a very real benefit to a wide variety of audiences needing to strengthen their understanding of clouds and their roles in the earth system, and we hope will serve as a model to future missions looking to involve the public in mission science.

  7. A Generalization of SAT and #SAT for Robust Policy Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to ΣP2 (a corollary of Dell et al. [2012] and Karp and Lipton [1982]). Proof. Suppose #∃SAT reduces to #P . Then...Klieber, J. Marques-Silva, and E. Clarke. Solving qbf with counterexample guided refinement. In SAT, pages 114–128. Springer, 2012. R.M. Karp and R. Lipton

  8. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, displays a piece of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  9. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, prepares layers of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  10. SDO FlatSat Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amason, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is to understand and, ideally, predict the solar variations that influence life and society. It's instruments will measure the properties of the Sun and will take hifh definition images of the Sun every few seconds, all day every day. The FlatSat is a high fidelity electrical and functional representation of the SDO spacecraft bus. It is a high fidelity test bed for Integration & Test (I & T), flight software, and flight operations. For I & T purposes FlatSat will be a driver to development and dry run electrical integration procedures, STOL test procedures, page displays, and the command and telemetry database. FlatSat will also serve as a platform for flight software acceptance and systems testing for the flight software system component including the spacecraft main processors, power supply electronics, attitude control electronic, gimbal control electrons and the S-band communications card. FlatSat will also benefit the flight operations team through post-launch flight software code and table update development and verification and verification of new and updated flight operations products. This document highlights the benefits of FlatSat; describes the building of FlatSat; provides FlatSat facility requirements, access roles and responsibilities; and, and discusses FlatSat mechanical and electrical integration and functional testing.

  11. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  12. SATS HVO Concept Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria; Williams, Daniel; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) Air Traffic Operations Lab (ATOL) in an effort to comprehensively validate tools and procedures intended to enable the Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept of operations. The SATS HVO procedures were developed to increase the rate of operations at non-towered, non-radar airports in near all-weather conditions. A key element of the design is the establishment of a volume of airspace around designated airports where pilots accept responsibility for self-separation. Flights operating at these airports, are given approach sequencing information computed by a ground based automated system. The SATS HVO validation experiment was conducted in the ATOL during the spring of 2004 in order to determine if a pilot can safely and proficiently fly an airplane while performing SATS HVO procedures. Comparative measures of flight path error, perceived workload and situation awareness were obtained for two types of scenarios. Baseline scenarios were representative of today s system utilizing procedure separation, where air traffic control grants one approach or departure clearance at a time. SATS HVO scenarios represented approaches and departure procedures as described in the SATS HVO concept of operations. Results from the experiment indicate that low time pilots were able to fly SATS HVO procedures and maintain self-separation as safely and proficiently as flying today's procedures.

  13. NASA Facts: SporeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Tomko, David

    2013-01-01

    SporeSat is an autonomous, free-flying three-unit (3U) spacecraft that will be used to conduct scientific experiments to gain a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of plant cell gravity sensing. SporeSat is being developed through a partnership between NASAs Ames Research Center and the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University. Amani Salim and Jenna L. Rickus are the Purdue University Principal Investigators. The SporeSat mission will be flown using a 3U nanosatellite weighing approximately 12 pounds and measuring 14 inches long by 4 inches wide by 4 inches tall. SporeSat will utilize flight-proven spacecraft technologies demonstrated on prior Ames nanosatellite missions such as PharmaSat and OrganismOrganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) as well as upgrades that increase the hardware integration capabilities with SporeSat science instrumentation. In addition, the SporeSat science payload will serve as a technology platform to evaluate new microsensor technologies for enabling future fundamental biology missions.

  14. Recognising and Certifying Lifelong Skills: Impact on Labour Market Integration of the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Pedro Afonso

    2009-01-01

    The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…

  15. A plan for structured management of the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Schurman, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the plan and accomplishments for development of a Systematic Management Plan for the Systems Approach to Training (SMPSAT). This project is sponsored by the United States Marine Corps Headquarters training policy branch (HQMC(TAP)). Purpose of this effort is to develop a comprehensive plan for management of the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) system in the USMC. This management plan will allow HQMC to monitor the SAT system in order to provide maximum support to the SAT system in both the formal schools and the Fleet Marine Force.

  16. Propulsion for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.

  17. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  18. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  19. Formal Approaches to Ensuring the Safety of Space Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph describing formal approaches taken to assure the safety of space software is presented. The topics include: 1) Certifiable Program Generation; 2) Certification Framework; 3) Annotation Generation; 4) Experiments; and 5) Future Work.

  20. 40 CFR 161.175 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified limits. 161.175 Section 161... Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified limits for the ingredients in the product. Certified limits become legally binding limits upon approval of the application. Certified limits will apply to the...

  1. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  2. DebriSat Project Update and Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorge, M.; Krisko, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    DebriSat Reporting Topics: DebriSat Fragment Analysis Calendar; Near-term Fragment Extraction Strategy; Fragment Characterization and Database; HVI (High-Velocity Impact) Considerations; Requirements Document.

  3. EMC Test Report: StangSat - CubeSat Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmody, Lynne M.; Aragona, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I testing performed on the StangSat; the unit under test (UUT). Testing was per the requirements of MIL STD-461F. The UUT was characterized and passed the radiated emissions (RE102 limit for Spacecraft) testing.

  4. NPS CubeSat Launcher Program Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    the United States; NASA’s GeneSat-1 launched on a Minotaur -1 out of Wallops Island, VA in December 2006. As of the date of this thesis, only four...CubeSats have been launched from the U.S. this year: PharmaSat, CP6, AeroCube-3, HawkSat-1, also on a Minotaur -I out of Wallops Island. This is

  5. Beating the SAT: Playing the Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted workshop for high school seniors, 50 of whom had taken Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) and 50 of whom had taken Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). After completion of six-hour program on application of game-playing strategies to SAT, both retakers and first-time takers of SAT (who had previously taken PSAT) raised their scores…

  6. Tensor Network Contractions for #SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob D.; Morton, Jason; Turner, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    The computational cost of counting the number of solutions satisfying a Boolean formula, which is a problem instance of #SAT, has proven subtle to quantify. Even when finding individual satisfying solutions is computationally easy (e.g. 2-SAT, which is in ), determining the number of solutions can be #-hard. Recently, computational methods simulating quantum systems experienced advancements due to the development of tensor network algorithms and associated quantum physics-inspired techniques. By these methods, we give an algorithm using an axiomatic tensor contraction language for n-variable #SAT instances with complexity where c is the number of COPY-tensors, g is the number of gates, and d is the maximal degree of any COPY-tensor. Thus, n-variable counting problems can be solved efficiently when their tensor network expression has at most COPY-tensors and polynomial fan-out. This framework also admits an intuitive proof of a variant of the Tovey conjecture (the r,1-SAT instance of the Dubois-Tovey theorem). This study increases the theory, expressiveness and application of tensor based algorithmic tools and provides an alternative insight on these problems which have a long history in statistical physics and computer science.

  7. Guidelines for Improving SAT Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott; DeLeonibus, Nancy

    The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) identified 34 high schools whose students maintained or improved their SAT scores from 1973 to 1976 or whose mean scores in 1973 were approximately the same as in 1965. In an open-ended questionnaire, the principals of these schools were asked to identify success factors. Their…

  8. SAT Future: Alignment to Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief architects of the Common Core State Standards was named the next president of the College Board and said one of his top priorities is to reshape the organization's influential college-admissions test, the SAT, to better reflect the new standards. David Coleman will assume his new duties on Oct. 15, replacing Gaston Caperton, who…

  9. Independent Schools and the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, when the College Board released its average SAT scores for the 2015 graduating class, two details stood out for many educators: (1) the record participation and diversity numbers (close to 1.7 million students took the test, with 50 percent being students of color); and (2) the test's lower average scores compared with previous…

  10. Computer Coaching for the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Three computer software packages from Krell, Borg-Warner, and Edu-ware are reviewed in terms of their improving users' vocabulary, verbal analogy, and mathematical skills in preparation for the SATs. Students benefitting most are those who know the subject but do poorly on tests. (MBR)

  11. Independent Schools and the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, when the College Board released its average SAT scores for the 2015 graduating class, two details stood out for many educators: (1) the record participation and diversity numbers (close to 1.7 million students took the test, with 50 percent being students of color); and (2) the test's lower average scores compared with previous…

  12. Computer Coaching for the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Three computer software packages from Krell, Borg-Warner, and Edu-ware are reviewed in terms of their improving users' vocabulary, verbal analogy, and mathematical skills in preparation for the SATs. Students benefitting most are those who know the subject but do poorly on tests. (MBR)

  13. SAT Future: Alignment to Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief architects of the Common Core State Standards was named the next president of the College Board and said one of his top priorities is to reshape the organization's influential college-admissions test, the SAT, to better reflect the new standards. David Coleman will assume his new duties on Oct. 15, replacing Gaston Caperton, who…

  14. Find a NCCAOM Certified Practitioner

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCAOM Certification Get Certified Get Recertified PDA Search Engine Find A Practitioner State Licensing Helpful NCCAOM Links ... My Status State Licensure Diplomates Recertification PDA Search Engine State Licensure Consumers Diplomate of Acupuncture Diplomate of ...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gsCertified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=monitors.pr_crit_monitors.

  16. TechSAT attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shachar, M.; Vansover, R.

    1992-01-01

    TechSAT is an academic program of the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology. Emphasizing new engineering solutions, it will be a low-cost, sun-synchronized, 3-axis stabilized, nadir-pointing 50-kg microsat, and will be launched by Arianne as a piggyback payload. The satellite is actually a gyrostat, based on a momentum wheel, a static horizon sensor, three magnetotorquers and a 3-axis magnetometer, all especially designed for TechSAT, with total power consumption of under 3 W. The satellite is designed to be released with unknown attitude and with zero stored momentum. The wheel is accelerated to its biased momentum and the body is slowly controlled to become stabilized, using algorithms that utilize magnetometer data only, to an accuracy of 5 deg, which is considered as coarse cruise. Next, fine cruise uses the static horizon sensor, and a final accuracy of 0.1 deg is achieved.

  17. LifeSat - Radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceflight crews will be exposed to levels of radiation which exceed those experienced on the ground. In order to reduce the uncertainty in the evaluation of risks it is necessary to validate the responses of biological systems in space under conditions which simulate exposure levels expected during exploration class missions. The LifeSat system provides the experimental capabilities to satisfy these goals. Specifically, LifeSat is capable of long duration flights of up to 60 days, is able to fly directly into trapped radiation belts and in circular or eccentric polar orbits, has the ability to provide artificial gravity and imposes fewer restrictions than the STS on the use of hazardous materials such as chemical fixatives. These features along with reference missions and experiments are discussed with respect to radiation research goals.

  18. CS2SAT Desktop Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) desktop tool that provides a repeatable and systematic approach for control system users to assess the cyber security posture of their control system networks. The tool assists users in identifying the cyber security parameters of their systems and then offers security objectives, in the form of requirements, for improving the security of their specific network. Each requirement is linked to a series of associated recommendations for compliance dependent upon the desired level of security protection. Each requirement is supported by links to the original standards document and recommendations are supported by links to whitepapers and other help documents. Package also includes two back-end supporting codes: CS2SAT Requirements Matrix and Control System Security Information System.

  19. Solitons and SeaSat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    second statement is demonstrated to be false. The% Kadomtsev-.1etviashvile equation relevant to Internal Waves is shown not to have SOliL -solutions. This...more than one space dimension. The second statement is demonstrated to be false. The Kadomtsev-Petviashvile equation relevant to Internal Waves Is...observed by SeaSat has led to suggestions that the phenomena may be related to Internal 0 Wave Solitons. Most observations were made under conditions for

  20. DebriSat Laboratory Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    thomas.huynh@us.af.mil Jesse Edwards SMC/ENC jesse.edwards.4@us.af.mil J.-C. Liou NASA-JSC jer -chyi.l iou-1 @nasa.gov John Opiela NASA-JSC...DebriSat Team Members: J.-C. Liou : NASA Space Debris Program Office, NASA JSC AEDC Range G Light Gas Gun Staff Charles Griffice: Aerospace Marlon

  1. MightySat 1 deployment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-15

    S88-E-5171 (12-15-98) --- MightySat, a 705-pound U.S. Air Force/Phillips Laboratory satellite, pops out of a special canister in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its way to the begining of its Earth-orbital life. The succeeding frame shows the satellite after it left the Shuttle. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 02:13:50 GMT, Dec. 15.

  2. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  3. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  4. Beyond formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  5. Researchers-To Certify or Not To Certify.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Albert

    The author presents a summary of his own view on the need for certification of research personnel employed by local education agencies and examines the advantages and disadvantages of certifying educational researchers. Certification is considered desirable upon the development of appropriate standards of competency and the establishment of…

  6. Seeking Coalitions between Certified and Non-Certified Art Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Lara M.; Chou, Chun-Ming; Hsu, Pei-Lan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the following question, posed in the call for submissions to this special issue, dealing with significant 21st-century debates for art education: "How can art educators embrace non-certified individuals who teach art in various settings such as craft stores, after-school programs, and community centers?" While the question…

  7. The AstroSat Production Line: From AstroSat 100 to AstroSat 1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliet, E.; Pawlak, D.; Koeck, C.; Beaufumé, E.

    2008-08-01

    From the late 90s onward, Astrium Satellites has developed and improved several classes of high resolution optical Earth Observation satellites. The resulting product line ranges from micro-satellites (about 120 kg) type to the large satellites (in the range of 1 200 kg). They all make uses of state of the art technologies for optical payloads, as well as for avionics. Several classes of platforms have thus been defined and standardised: AstroSat 100 for satellites up to 150 kg, allowing affordable but fully operational missions, AstroSat 500 for satellites up to 800 kg, allowing complex high resolution missions, and AstroSat 1000 for satellites up to 1 200 kg, providing very high resolution and outstanding imaging and agility capabilities. A new class, AstroSat 250, has been developed by Astrium Satellites, and is now proposed, offering a state-of-the-art 3-axis agile platform for high- resolution missions, with a launch mass below 550 kg. The Astrosat platforms rely on a centralised architecture avionics based on an innovative AOCS hybridising of measurements from GPS, stellar sensors and inertial reference unit. Operational safety has been emphasised through thruster free safe modes. All optical payloads make use of all Silicon Carbide (SiC) telescopes. High performance and low consumption linear CCD arrays provide state of the art images. The satellites are designed for simple flight operations, large data collection capability, and large versatility of payload and missions. They are adaptable to a large range of performances. Astrium satellites have already been selected by various customers worldwide.

  8. CryoSat-2 and the CryoSat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, R.; Cullen, R.

    2009-04-01

    CryoSat was chosen as the first of ESA's Earth Explorer Opportunity missions in late 1999, following a competitive selection process. Its goal is the measurement of secular change in the cryosphere, particularly in the elevation of the ice caps and the thickness of sea ice. The required accuracy corresponds to about half of the variation expected due to natural variability, over reasonable scales for the surfaces concerned. The selected technique is radar altimetry, although the instrument has been modified to provide the enhanced capabilities needed to significantly extend the spatial coverage of previous altimetry missions, particularly ERS and EnviSat. Thus the radar includes a synthetic aperture mode which enables the along- track resolution to be improved to about 250 m. This will enable detection of leads in sea-ice which are narrower than those detected hitherto, so that operation deeper into pack-ice can be achieved with a consequent reduction in errors due to omission. Altimetry over the steep edges of ice caps is hampered by the irregular topography which, since the radar ranging is performed to the closest reflector rather than the point directly below, introduces uncertainty into the exactitude of repeat measurements. CryoSat's radar includes a second antenna and receiver chain so that interferometry may be used to determine the arrival angle of the echo and so improve localisation of the reflection. The satellite payload, which includes a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination and a set of star trackers to measure the orientation of the interferometer, is quite complex and demanding. The satellite was launched on 8 October 2005, just less than 6 years after the start of the programme. Unfortunately the launch vehicle, a Rockot launcher derived from the Russian SS-19 ICBM, suffered an anomaly at the end of its second-stage flight, with the result that the satellite was lost, the debris falling close to the North pole. Determination to rebuild

  9. Test and On-Orbit Experiences of FalconSAT-3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    space mission on a Department of Defense-funded satellite project. FalconSAT-3 is a 50 kg, gravity gradient-stabilized designed and built by cadets and launched March 2007 on the first ESPA (Enhanced extended launch vehicle Satellite Payload Adapter) mission. FalconSAT-3 was one of six satellites integrated onto the launch vehicle and the nature of the mission made it that the satellite was subject to the full formality of testing requirements. Two successive gravity gradient booms failed either design requirements or environmental testing; design requirements grew

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=poolpumps.pr_crit_poolpumps

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of May 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=audio_dvd.pr_crit_audio_dvd

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Fixtures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Luminaires. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=LU#specs

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of January 1, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ovens.pr_crit_comm_ovens

  14. CubeSat Deployment Photos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-14

    View taken by the Expedition 49 crew of track of first of four pairs of Planet Lab DoveSats over the Earth. This deployment titled “Flock 2” is a fleet of nanosatellites designed, built and operated by Planet Labs Inc., and will enable imagery of the changing planet to be taken on a frequent basis, with humanitarian and environmental applications ranging from monitoring deforestation and the ice caps to disaster relief and improving agriculture yields in developing nations. Image used as part of Twitter message - We launched two satellites from @Space_Station today – like skydivers soaring towards the earth." #AstroKate.

  15. SatR Is a Repressor of Fluoroquinolone Efflux Pump SatAB

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Jose Antonio; San Millan, Alvaro; Montero, Natalia; Gutierrez, Belen; Ovejero, Cristina Martinez; Carrilero, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic agent responsible for high-mortality outbreaks among the human population in China. In this species, the ABC transporter SatAB mediates fluoroquinolone resistance when overexpressed. Here, we describe and characterize satR, an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a MarR superfamily regulator that acts as a repressor of satAB. satR is cotranscribed with satAB, and its interruption entails the overexpression of the pump, leading to a clinically relevant increase in resistance to fluoroquinolones. PMID:23650171

  16. Buy Certified-Verified Green Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products eligible to be certified by an independent third party against national standards. As a matter of best practice and consumer protection, EPA strongly encourages organizations to purchase these types of certified green power products.

  17. Is the SAT a 'Wealth Test'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Discuss whether high scores on the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) are associated with high student socioeconomic status, including high family income, particularly in California. Concludes that the SAT is no more a "wealth test" than is every other measure of student achievement such as grades. Describes other factors influencing…

  18. The SAT: An Essay in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlodinow, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the release of the most comprehensive study of SAT exams. The headline on the Web site of the College Board, the maker of the test, was, "SAT Studies Show Test's Strength in Predicting College Success." At the same time, a headline on the Web site of the group FairTest, a 23-year-old, nonprofit…

  19. The SAT: An Essay in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlodinow, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the release of the most comprehensive study of SAT exams. The headline on the Web site of the College Board, the maker of the test, was, "SAT Studies Show Test's Strength in Predicting College Success." At the same time, a headline on the Web site of the group FairTest, a 23-year-old, nonprofit…

  20. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  1. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  2. A Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Demand Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) demand modeling is a tool that will be useful for decision-makers to analyze SATS demands in both airport and airspace. We constructed a series of models following the general top-down, modular principles in systems engineering. There are three principal models, SATS Airport Demand Model (SATS-ADM), SATS Flight Demand Model (SATS-FDM), and LMINET-SATS. SATS-ADM models SATS operations, by aircraft type, from the forecasts in fleet, configuration and performance, utilization, and traffic mixture. Given the SATS airport operations such as the ones generated by SATS-ADM, SATS-FDM constructs the SATS origin and destination (O&D) traffic flow based on the solution of the gravity model, from which it then generates SATS flights using the Monte Carlo simulation based on the departure time-of-day profile. LMINET-SATS, an extension of LMINET, models SATS demands at airspace and airport by all aircraft operations in US The models use parameters to provide the user with flexibility and ease of use to generate SATS demand for different scenarios. Several case studies are included to illustrate the use of the models, which are useful to identify the need for a new air traffic management system to cope with SATS.

  3. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review (CDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Selby, Michael; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Byrne, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of Small Satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy (i.e. high pressure vessels). These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The project formally began in FY15 as a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is in final preparation of the Critical Design Review prior to initiating the fabrication and integration phase of the project. The iSat project is on schedule for a launch opportunity in November 2017.

  4. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  5. 12 CFR 327.2 - Certified statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.2 Certified statements. (a) Required. (1) The certified statement shall also be...) The quarterly certified statement invoice shall reflect the institution's risk assignment, assessment base, assessment computation, and assessment amount, for each quarterly assessment period....

  6. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.7 Certified pistachios. Certified pistachios are those that...

  7. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.7 Certified pistachios. Certified pistachios are those that...

  8. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.7 Certified pistachios. Certified pistachios are those that...

  9. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  10. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  11. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary...

  2. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.7 Certified pistachios. Certified pistachios are those that...

  3. 40 CFR 158.350 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certified limits. 158.350 Section 158.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.350 Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified...

  4. 40 CFR 158.350 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certified limits. 158.350 Section 158.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.350 Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified...

  5. 40 CFR 158.350 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified limits. 158.350 Section 158.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.350 Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified...

  6. 40 CFR 158.350 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified limits. 158.350 Section 158.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.350 Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified...

  7. 1 CFR 18.5 - Certified copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified copies. 18.5 Section 18.5 General... DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.5 Certified copies. The certified copies or duplicate originals of each document must be submitted with the original. Each copy or duplicate...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Lighting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories including ENERGY STAR Unique IDs, ENERGY STAR partners, model names and numbers, and brand names. Learn more about ENERGY STAR products at www.energystar.gov/products. A full list of ENERGY STAR specifications can be found at www.energystar.gov/specifications.

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.3 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1, 2012 or the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1, 2017 . A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=roof_prods.pr_crit_roof_products

  10. [Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon].

    PubMed

    Chihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese Board of General Thoracic Surgery (JBGTS) consisted by Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS) and The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS) has been certified Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon (JBCTS) since 2004. At present, JBCTS is obtained by being of Certified Surgeon by Japan Surgical Society( JSS), completion of minimum requirement of surgical experience, scientific papers, presentation at medical assembly, learning of postgraduate educational programs, and examination approximate 11 years after graduation of medical school. Thirteen hundreds JBCTS throughout Japan are engaged in operation for 77,000 cases/year, including 38,000 lung cancer patients/year. The operative volume has been growing lineally these 30 years, and operative mortality in lung cancer patients has been less than 1% these several years. Japanese Medical Specialty Board (JMSB) published a guideline of the new system of medical specialty certification system in Jury 2014, in which fundamental structure is consisted by basic specialties of 19 medical fields and following subspecialties and program based system rather than curriculum based system. According to this guideline, JBGTS has been collaborated with JSS in order to establish sequential programs of the 2 specialties, and proposed an improved certification system to accomplish the mission that it educates trainees to be thoracic surgical professionals who is able to perform safe and standalized procedures.

  11. Reentry Experiment SAT-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Maurice; Kuhns, Casey; Honda, Motoaki; Shiely, Robert; Adamson, Aaron; Aken, Jordan; Walch, Robert; Galovich, Cynthia; Semak, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    The challenge of reentering the Earth's atmosphere is not new. For years, NASA has successfully designed vessels that have endured the harsh process of reentry. However, in most cases, this is made possible only through the act of over-engineering; designing to withstand conditions far beyond what is expected to be encountered. Though this method has been effective, there would be benefit in knowing more precisely what to expect upon atmospheric reentry. The University of Northern Colorado Reentry Experiment SAT-X project, launched from Wallops Island, Virginia on July 21, 2011, was designed to shed light on the reentry process by collecting motion data for a capsule ejected from a rocket. Moreover, a secondary objective was to test the capability of the prototype capsule to serve as a platform for future reentry experiments. The mission and preliminary results from the launch will be described.

  12. Periodically Launched, Dedicated CubeSats/SmallSats for Space Situational Awareness Through NASA Communications Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, E. M.; Shaw, H.; Estabrook, P.; Neilsen, T. L.; Gunther, J.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Schaire, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is an area where spaceflight activities and missions can directly influence the quality of life on earth. The combination of space weather, near earth orbiting objects, atmospheric conditions at the space boundary, and other phenomena can have significant short-term and long-term implications for the inhabitants of this planet. The importance of SSA has led to increased activity in this area from both space and ground based platforms. The emerging capability of CubeSats and SmallSats provides an opportunity for these low-cost, versatile platforms to augment the SSA infrastructure. The CubeSats and SmallSats can be launched opportunistically with shorter lead times than larger missions. They can be organized both as constellations or individual sensor elements. Combining CubeSats and SmallSats with the existing NASA communications networks (TDRS Space Network, Deep Space Network and the Near Earth Network) provide a backbone structure for SSA which can be tied to a SSA portal for data distribution and management. In this poster we will describe the instruments and sensors needed for CubeSat and SmallSat SSA missions. We will describe the architecture and concept of operations for a set of opportunistic, periodically launched, SSA CubeSats and SmallSats. We will also describe the integrated communications infrastructure to support end-to-end data delivery and management to a SSA portal.

  13. Interplanetary CubeSat Navigational Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Young, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are miniaturized spacecraft of small mass that comply with a form specification so they can be launched using standardized deployers. Since the launch of the first CubeSat into Earth orbit in June of 2003, hundreds have been placed into orbit. There are currently a number of proposals to launch and operate CubeSats in deep space, including MarCO, a technology demonstration that will launch two CubeSats towards Mars using the same launch vehicle as NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) Mars lander mission. The MarCO CubeSats are designed to relay the information transmitted by the InSight UHF radio during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) in real time to the antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) on Earth. Other CubeSatts proposals intend to demonstrate the operation of small probes in deep space, investigate the lunar South Pole, and visit a near Earth object, among others. Placing a CubeSat into an interplanetary trajectory makes it even more challenging to pack the necessary power, communications, and navigation capabilities into such a small spacecraft. This paper presents some of the challenges and approaches for successfully navigating CubeSats and other small spacecraft in deep space.

  14. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    NASAs PhoneSat project will test whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately three pounds. Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

  15. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    NASA's PhoneSat project tests whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately 1 kg (2.2 pounds). Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

  16. CloudSat Profiles Tropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-10

    CloudSat's Cloud Profiling Radar captured a profile across Tropical Storm Andrea on Wednesday, May 9, 2007, near the South Carolina/Georgia/Florida Atlantic coast. The upper image shows an infrared view of Tropical Storm Andrea from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite, with CloudSat's ground track shown as a red line. The lower image is the vertical cross section of radar reflectivity along this path, where the colors indicate the intensity of the reflected radar energy. CloudSat orbits approximately one minute behind Aqua in a satellite formation known as the A-Train. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA09379

  17. Certified randomness in quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-07

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  18. Certified randomness in quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-01

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  19. Metric Methodology for the Creation of Environments and Processes to Certify a Component: The NRL Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    133 Table 25. Data Types .....................................................................................................135 Table 26. DDAA /DAA...of the system to be accredited. • Documentation of the formal agreement among the DDAA or DAA, Certifier, User Representative, and Program Manager...key members of the C&A team will be a Developmental DAA ( DDAA ) who supports the program acquisition during the design and development of the NP and

  20. Certifying achievement in the control of Chagas disease native vectors: what is a viable scenario?

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Yoshioka, Kota

    2014-01-01

    As an evaluation scheme, we propose certifying for “control”, as alternative to “interruption”, of Chagas disease transmission by native vectors, to project a more achievable and measurable goal and sharing good practices through an “open online platform” rather than “formal certification” to make the key knowledge more accumulable and accessible. PMID:25317713

  1. SAT-Solving Based on Boundary Point Elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Eugene; Manolios, Panagiotis

    We study the problem of building structure-aware SAT-solvers based on resolution. In this study, we use the idea of treating a resolution proof as a process of Boundary Point Elimination (BPE). We identify two problems of using SAT-algorithms with Conflict Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) for structure-aware SAT-solving. We introduce a template of resolution based SAT-solvers called BPE-SAT that is based on a few generic implications of the BPE concept. BPE-SAT can be viewed as a generalization of CDCL SAT-solvers and is meant for building new structure-aware SAT-algorithms. We give experimental results substantiating the ideas of the BPE approach. In particular, to show the importance of structural information we compare an implementation of BPE-SAT and state-of-the-art SAT-solvers on narrow CNF formulas.

  2. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We describe the current status of HaloSat.

  3. HaloSat- A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    We propose to develop, build, and fly HaloSat, a CubeSat capable of measuring the oxygen line emission from the hot Galactic halo. A dedicated CubeSat enables an instrument design and observing strategy to maximize the halo signal while minimizing foregrounds from solar wind charge exchange interactions within the solar system. We will use HaloSat to map the distribution of hot gas in the Milky Way and determine whether it fills an extended, and thus massive halo, or whether the halo is compact, and thus does not contribute significantly to the total mass of the Milky Way. HaloSat can be accomplished at modest cost using a CubeSat, a novel platform for space astrophysics missions. We will use a commercially available CubeSat bus and commercially available X-ray detectors to reduce development risk and minimize overall mission cost. HaloSat builds on the initiatives of GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in the development of CubeSats for low cost access to space and relies on the technical expertise of WFF personnel for spacecraft and mission design and operations. The team, from University of Iowa (UI), GSFC, Johns Hopkins, and CNRS (France), contains experts in X-ray detector development and data analysis and the astrophysics of hot plasmas and Galactic structure. The UI team will include a number of junior researchers (undergraduates, graduate students, and a postdoc) and help train them for future leadership roles on NASA space flight missions.

  4. Stennis certified as Project Ready

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi Power Co. Director of Economic Development Arnie Williams presents NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Deputy Director Patrick Scheuermann with a commemorative plate designating the facility as a Project Ready technology park during a Nov. 6 ceremony. The designation certifies Stennis as a 'project ready' site for high-tech firms seeking a new location. Mississippi Power launched the Project Ready Certified Site Program to identify locations that are ready to go and relatively risk-free in an effort to attract companies into the region. Stennis is the first site to gain the technology park certification. Participants in the Nov. 6 ceremony included (l to r): Sue Wright, economic development director for the Hancock County Development Commission; Griff Salmon, director of the Global Business Division of the Mississippi Development Authority; Williams; Scheuermann; Mark Sweeney, senior principal of the McCallum Sweeney Consulting firm in Greenville, S.C., which is helping implement the Project Ready initiative; and Ron Magee, assistant to the director of Stennis' Center Operations Directorate.

  5. Stennis certified as Project Ready

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi Power Co. Director of Economic Development Arnie Williams presents NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Deputy Director Patrick Scheuermann with a commemorative plate designating the facility as a Project Ready technology park during a Nov. 6 ceremony. The designation certifies Stennis as a 'project ready' site for high-tech firms seeking a new location. Mississippi Power launched the Project Ready Certified Site Program to identify locations that are ready to go and relatively risk-free in an effort to attract companies into the region. Stennis is the first site to gain the technology park certification. Participants in the Nov. 6 ceremony included (l to r): Sue Wright, economic development director for the Hancock County Development Commission; Griff Salmon, director of the Global Business Division of the Mississippi Development Authority; Williams; Scheuermann; Mark Sweeney, senior principal of the McCallum Sweeney Consulting firm in Greenville, S.C., which is helping implement the Project Ready initiative; and Ron Magee, assistant to the director of Stennis' Center Operations Directorate.

  6. Kepler Certified False Positive Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Batalha, Natalie Marie; Colon, Knicole Dawn; Coughlin, Jeffrey Langer; Haas, Michael R.; Henze, Chris; Huber, Daniel; Morton, Tim; Rowe, Jason Frank; Mullally, Susan Elizabeth; hide

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the Kepler Certied False Positive table hosted at the Exoplanet Archive1, herein referred to as the CFP table. This table is the result of detailed examination by the Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) of declared false positives in the Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) tables (see, for example, Batalha et al. (2012); Burke et al.(2014); Rowe et al. (2015); Mullally et al. (2015); Coughlin et al. (2015b)) at the Exoplanet Archive. A KOI is considered a false positive if it is not due to a planet orbiting the KOI's target star. The CFP table contains all KOIs in the Exoplanet Archive cumulative KOI table. The purpose of the CFP table is to provide a list of certified false positive KOIs. A KOI is certified as a false positive when, in the judgement of the FPWG, there is no plausible planetary interpretation of the observational evidence, which we summarize by saying that the evidence for a false positive is compelling. This certification process involves detailed examination using all available data for each KOI, establishing a high-reliability ground truth set. The CFP table can be used to estimate the reliability of, for example, the KOI tables which are created using only Kepler photometric data, so the disposition of individual KOIs may differ in the KOI and CFP tables. Follow-up observers may find the CFP table useful to avoid observing false positives.

  7. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, Deborah; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    PhoneSat 2.4, carried into space on November 19, 2013 aboard a Minotaur I rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, is the first of the PhoneSat family to use a two-way S-band radio to allow engineers to command the satellite from Earth. This mission also serves as a technology demonstration for a novel attitude determination and control system (ADCS) that establishes and stabilizes the satellites attitude relative to Earth. Unlike the earlier PhoneSats that used a Nexus One, PhoneSat 2.4 uses the Nexus S smartphone, which runs Googles Android operating system, and is made by Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon, So. Korea. The smartphone provides many of the functions needed by the satellite such as a central computer, data memory, ready-made interfaces for communications, navigation and power all pre-assembled in a rugged electronics package.

  8. Answering when opportunity knocks - SATS goes global.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Chris

    2012-02-23

    One local doctor, by grasping random overlapping educational opportunities, has become the catalyst for 'Doctors without Borders' (MSF) wanting to adopt the South African Triage Scale (SATS) as its standard emergency protocol for resource-poor countries world-wide.

  9. CloudSat View of Flossie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    CloudSat passed directly over Tropical Storm Flossie on July 29 and showed cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in northern Hawaii and cumulonimbus clouds over the southern part. Large amounts of liqui...

  10. Score Trends, SAT Validity and Subgroup Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Summer Institute on College Admissions at Harvard in June 2008. The presentation explores whether the SAT validity has changed with the test changes and if those changes affect specific subgroups.

  11. CloudSat View of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-30

    NASA CloudSat spacecraft overpassed Hurricane Sandy on Oct. 29, 2012 just as Sandy was approaching the Atlantic coastline. Sandy contained estimated maximum sustained winds of 90 miles per hour 78 knots.

  12. NanoRacks CubeSat Deployment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-11

    ISS038-E-044883 (11 Feb. 2014) --- The Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (SSOD), in the grasp of the Kibo laboratory robotic arm, is photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member on the International Space Station as it begins the deployment of a set of NanoRacks CubeSats. The CubeSats program contains a variety of experiments such as Earth observations and advanced electronics testing.

  13. AstroSat - Configuration and Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalgund, K. H.; Suryanarayana Sarma, K.; Gaurav, Piyush Kumar; Nagesh, G.; Annadurai, M.

    2017-06-01

    AstroSat is India's first space-based observatory satellite dedicated to astronomy. It has the capability to perform multi-wavelength and simultaneous observations of cosmic bodies in a wide band of wavelengths. This paper briefly summarizes the challenges faced in the configuration of AstroSat spacecraft, accommodation and sizing of its critical subsystems, their realization and testing of payloads and the integrated satellite.

  14. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  15. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  16. Certifying nonlocality from separable marginals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vértesi, Tamás; Laskowski, Wiesław; Pál, Károly F.

    2014-01-01

    Imagine three parties, Alice, Bob, and Charlie, who share a state of three qubits such that all two-party reduced states A-B, A-C, and B-C are separable. Suppose that they have information only about these marginals but not about the global state. According to recent results, there exists an example for a set of three separable two-party reduced states that is only compatible with an entangled global state. In this paper, we show a stronger result by exhibiting separable two-party reduced states A-B, A-C, and B-C, such that any global state compatible with these marginals is nonlocal. Hence, we obtain that nonlocality of multipartite states can be certified from information only about separable marginals.

  17. TechEdSat 5 PhoneSat 5 Team Photo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-28

    TechEdSat 5 PhoneSat 5 Team photo on July 26, 2016. Taken in fron of the 1/3 scale Shuttle Orbiter Model, in front of the Parade Ground on Clark Road at NASA Research Park. Mark Murbach Sarosh Hussain Ali Guarneros Luna David Handy Jonathan Hanson Jakqueline Granillo Sarah Chu Alejandro Sales

  18. 31 CFR 357.31 - Certifying individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN TREASURY/RESERVE AUTOMATED DEBT ENTRY SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.31 Certifying... assignments of securities; or (iii) To certify assignments of securities. (2) Officers and...

  19. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and, in the case of mixtures which are aqueous solutions or aqueous pastes, sodium benzoate in a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of...

  20. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and, in the case of mixtures which are aqueous solutions or aqueous pastes, sodium benzoate in a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of December 2, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/certified-products/detail/data_center_storage

  2. Certified Nurses' Aide Job-Related Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This document, which is designed for students preparing to become a certified nurses' aide, contains instructional text and learning activities organized in nine sections. The following topics are covered: the role of the certified nurse's aide (job duties, personal health, professionalism, code of ethics); infection control (the infection…

  3. The NASA CloudSat Education Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, D. K.

    2006-05-01

    CloudSat, a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder Mission, will launch into orbit the world's most advanced weather radar designed to measure properties of clouds that are essential for accurate understanding of Earth's weather and climate processes. Providing the first vertical profiles of global measurements of cloud thickness, height, water and ice content and a wide range of precipitation data linked to cloud development, CloudSat measurements will fill a critical gap in understanding how clouds affect climate. Any mission of this nature requires extensive ground-based reference data. The CloudSat Education Network provides the opportunity for schools around the world to partner with the CloudSat Science Team and the NASA-sponsored GLOBE Program. The Network will link together scientists, students, teachers, and their communities to give students meaningful, authentic and contemporary science education experiences. Student activities and learning outcomes are being developed to meet both general education outcomes and specific standards or objectives from school curricula. The main focus of the knowledge development component of the project is to help students better understand long-term climate change and the climatic processes that maintain the Earth's Energy balance. Student research with CloudSat/GLOBE data will be strongly encouraged. Scientists will receive research-quality data in support of the mission and in return will interact with teachers and their students to promote interest in science. Participation in the network throughout the duration of the project will be monitored and schools will be asked to maintain levels of participation in order to give CloudSat scientists a solid consistent base of data to support their research. The preferred base level of participation is the reporting of cloud, temperature and precipitation data according to modified GLOBE protocols approximately every 16 days coinciding with the CloudSat satellite overpass. The

  4. KidSat: Image User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Andres, Paul; Baker, John; Goodson, Greg; Marshall, William; McGuire, John; Rackley, Kathleen; Stork, Elizabeth Jones; Yiu, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    The goal of KidSat was to provide young students with the opportunity to participate directly in the NASA space program and to enhance learning in the process. The KidSat pilot project was focused on using a color digital camera, mounted on the space shuttle, to take pictures of the Earth. These could be used to enhance middle school curricula. The project not only benefited middle school students, who were essentially the Science Team, responsible for deciding where to take pictures, but it also benefited high school students and undergraduates, who were essentially the Project Team, responsible for the development and implementation of the project. KidSat flew on three missions as part of the pilot project: STS-76, STS-81, and STS-86. This document describes the goals, project elements, results, and data for the three KidSat missions that made up the pilot program. It serves as a record for this pilot project and may be used as a reference for similar projects. It can also be a too] in using the data to its fullest extent. The KidSat Web page remains on-line at http://kidsat.jpl.nasa.gov/kidsat, and the images may be downloaded in their full resolution.

  5. MEMS deformable mirror CubeSat testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Kerri L.; Marinan, Anne D.; Novak, Benjamin; Kerr, Caitlin; Nguyen, Tam; Webber, Matthew; Falkenburg, Grant; Barg, Andrew; Berry, Kristen; Carlton, Ashley; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo A.

    2013-09-01

    To meet the high contrast requirement of 1 × 10-10to image an Earth-like planet around a Sun-like star, space telescopes equipped with coronagraphs require wavefront control systems. Deformable mirrors are a key element of these systems that correct for optical imperfections, thermal distortions, and diffraction that would otherwise corrupt the wavefront and ruin the contrast. However, high-actuator-count MEMS deformable mirrors have yet to fly in space long enough to characterize their on-orbit performance and reduce risk by developing and operating their supporting systems. The goal of the MEMS Deformable Mirror CubeSat Testbed is to develop a CubeSat-scale demonstration of MEMS deformable mirror and wavefront sensing technology. In this paper, we consider two approaches for a MEMS deformable mirror technology demonstration payload that will fit within the mass, power, and volume constraints of a CubeSat: 1) a Michelson interferometer and 2) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We clarify the constraints on the payload based on the resources required for supporting CubeSat subsystems drawn from subsystems that we have developed for a different CubeSat flight project. We discuss results from payload lab prototypes and their utility in defining mission requirements.

  6. (abstract) Formal Inspection Technology Transfer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda A.; Kelly, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A Formal Inspection Technology Transfer Program, based on the inspection process developed by Michael Fagan at IBM, has been developed at JPL. The goal of this program is to support organizations wishing to use Formal Inspections to improve the quality of software and system level engineering products. The Technology Transfer Program provides start-up materials and assistance to help organizations establish their own Formal Inspection program. The course materials and certified instructors associated with the Technology Transfer Program have proven to be effective in classes taught at other NASA centers as well as at JPL. Formal Inspections (NASA tailored Fagan Inspections) are a set of technical reviews whose objective is to increase quality and reduce the cost of software development by detecting and correcting errors early. A primary feature of inspections is the removal of engineering errors before they amplify into larger and more costly problems downstream in the development process. Note that the word 'inspection' is used differently in software than in a manufacturing context. A Formal Inspection is a front-end quality enhancement technique, rather than a task conducted just prior to product shipment for the purpose of sorting defective systems (manufacturing usage). Formal Inspections are supporting and in agreement with the 'total quality' approach being adopted by many NASA centers.

  7. The Amma-Sat Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, K.; Desbois, M.; Eymard, L.

    2004-12-01

    The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project is a French initiative, which aims at identifying and analysing in details the multidisciplinary and multi-scales processes that lead to a better understanding of the physical mechanisms linked to the African Monsoon. The main components of the African Monsoon are: Atmospheric Dynamics, the Continental Water Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, Oceanic and Continental Surface Conditions. Satellites contribute to various objectives of the project both for process analysis and for large scale-long term studies: some series of satellites (METEOSAT, NOAA,.) have been flown for more than 20 years, ensuring a good quality monitoring of some of the West African atmosphere and surface characteristics. Moreover, several recent missions, and several projects will strongly improve and complement this survey. The AMMA project offers an opportunity to develop the exploitation of satellite data and to make collaboration between specialist and non-specialist users. In this purpose databases are being developed to collect all past and future satellite data related to the African Monsoon. It will then be possible to compare different types of data from different resolution, to validate satellite data with in situ measurements or numerical simulations. AMMA-SAT database main goal is to offer an easy access to satellite data to the AMMA scientific community. The database contains geophysical products estimated from operational or research algorithms and covering the different components of the AMMA project. Nevertheless, the choice has been made to group data within pertinent scales rather than within their thematic. In this purpose, five regions of interest where defined to extract the data: An area covering Tropical Atlantic and Africa for large scale studies, an area covering West Africa for mesoscale studies and three local areas surrounding sites of in situ observations. Within each of these regions satellite data are projected on

  8. CryoSat Quality Control- Sensitivity Study of CryoSat Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Amanda; Mannan, Rubinder; Webb, Erica; Bouffard, Jerome; Femenias, Pierre; Cipollini, Paolo; Calafat, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Parameters and geophysical corrections provided in L1, L2I and L2 CryoSat Ice products are currently checked using the Quality Control for CryoSat (QCC) tool integrated at PDGS. This tool provides configurable quality control for CryoSat data products according to a predefined Test Definition File (TDF). A detailed analysis has recently been performed to tune these thresholds, as the current thresholds were defined at the start of the CryoSat mission. The study was extended to the recently released CryoSat Ocean Products: IOP and GOP. The updated test thresholds have now been approved and the new version of the QCC tool will be implemented to operationally screen all CryoSat Baseline-C Ice and Ocean products. This paper presents the threshold updates resulting from this analysis, a summary of statistical results and an overview of the trends of two CryoSat variables, including plots of temporal changes in operational Baseline-C data.

  9. TemperSAT: A new efficient fair-sampling random k-SAT solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    The set membership problem is of great importance to many applications and, in particular, database searches for target groups. Recently, an approach to speed up set membership searches based on the NP-hard constraint-satisfaction problem (random k-SAT) has been developed. However, the bottleneck of the approach lies in finding the solution to a large SAT formula efficiently and, in particular, a large number of independent solutions is needed to reduce the probability of false positives. Unfortunately, traditional random k-SAT solvers such as WalkSAT are biased when seeking solutions to the Boolean formulas. By porting parallel tempering Monte Carlo to the sampling of binary optimization problems, we introduce a new algorithm (TemperSAT) whose performance is comparable to current state-of-the-art SAT solvers for large k with the added benefit that theoretically it can find many independent solutions quickly. We illustrate our results by comparing to the currently fastest implementation of WalkSAT, WalkSATlm.

  10. Partitioning SAT Instances for Distributed Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Antti E. J.; Junttila, Tommi; Niemelä, Ilkka

    In this paper we study the problem of solving hard propositional satisfiability problem (SAT) instances in a computing grid or cloud, where run times and communication between parallel running computations are limited.We study analytically an approach where the instance is partitioned iteratively into a tree of subproblems and each node in the tree is solved in parallel.We present new methods for constructing partitions which combine clause learning and lookahead. The methods are incorporated into the iterative approach and its performance is demonstrated with an extensive comparison against the best sequential solvers in the SAT competition 2009 as well as against two efficient parallel solvers.

  11. Certifying Auto-Generated Flight Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen

    2008-01-01

    Model-based design and automated code generation are being used increasingly at NASA. Many NASA projects now use MathWorks Simulink and Real-Time Workshop for at least some of their modeling and code development. However, there are substantial obstacles to more widespread adoption of code generators in safety-critical domains. Since code generators are typically not qualified, there is no guarantee that their output is correct, and consequently the generated code still needs to be fully tested and certified. Moreover, the regeneration of code can require complete recertification, which offsets many of the advantages of using a generator. Indeed, manual review of autocode can be more challenging than for hand-written code. Since the direct V&V of code generators is too laborious and complicated due to their complex (and often proprietary) nature, we have developed a generator plug-in to support the certification of the auto-generated code. Specifically, the AutoCert tool supports certification by formally verifying that the generated code is free of different safety violations, by constructing an independently verifiable certificate, and by explaining its analysis in a textual form suitable for code reviews. The generated documentation also contains substantial tracing information, allowing users to trace between model, code, documentation, and V&V artifacts. This enables missions to obtain assurance about the safety and reliability of the code without excessive manual V&V effort and, as a consequence, eases the acceptance of code generators in safety-critical contexts. The generation of explicit certificates and textual reports is particularly well-suited to supporting independent V&V. The primary contribution of this approach is the combination of human-friendly documentation with formal analysis. The key technical idea is to exploit the idiomatic nature of auto-generated code in order to automatically infer logical annotations. The annotation inference algorithm

  12. Certifying Auto-Generated Flight Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen

    2008-01-01

    Model-based design and automated code generation are being used increasingly at NASA. Many NASA projects now use MathWorks Simulink and Real-Time Workshop for at least some of their modeling and code development. However, there are substantial obstacles to more widespread adoption of code generators in safety-critical domains. Since code generators are typically not qualified, there is no guarantee that their output is correct, and consequently the generated code still needs to be fully tested and certified. Moreover, the regeneration of code can require complete recertification, which offsets many of the advantages of using a generator. Indeed, manual review of autocode can be more challenging than for hand-written code. Since the direct V&V of code generators is too laborious and complicated due to their complex (and often proprietary) nature, we have developed a generator plug-in to support the certification of the auto-generated code. Specifically, the AutoCert tool supports certification by formally verifying that the generated code is free of different safety violations, by constructing an independently verifiable certificate, and by explaining its analysis in a textual form suitable for code reviews. The generated documentation also contains substantial tracing information, allowing users to trace between model, code, documentation, and V&V artifacts. This enables missions to obtain assurance about the safety and reliability of the code without excessive manual V&V effort and, as a consequence, eases the acceptance of code generators in safety-critical contexts. The generation of explicit certificates and textual reports is particularly well-suited to supporting independent V&V. The primary contribution of this approach is the combination of human-friendly documentation with formal analysis. The key technical idea is to exploit the idiomatic nature of auto-generated code in order to automatically infer logical annotations. The annotation inference algorithm

  13. Two CubeSats Deployed from the International Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This movie of a CubeSat deployment from the International Space Station shows a compilation of photos taken by astronauts on May 16, 2016. The bottom-most CubeSat is the NASA-funded MinXSS CubeSat,...

  14. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  15. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  16. Analysis of the WindSat Receiver Frequency Passbands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-12

    Unclassified Unlimited 17 Michael H. Bettenhausen (202) 767-8278 The WindSat instrument is the primary payload for the Coriolis mission which was launched...INTRODUCTION The WindSat instrument is the primary payload for the Coriolis mission which was launched on 6 Jan- uary 2003. WindSat is a 22-channel

  17. SAT Participation and Performance for the Class of 2014. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    SAT participation and performance are milestones on the path to college and career readiness. This report provides the results for SAT participation and performance in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) for the class of 2014. Analysis of postsecondary outcomes for MCPS graduates indicates that graduates who took the SAT were more…

  18. Test and On-Orbit Experiences of FalconSAT-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, W. W.; France, M. E. B.

    2008-08-01

    The fundamental objectives of the capstone design project in the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) are for cadets to learn important engineering lessons by executing a real space mission on a Department of Defense-funded satellite project. FalconSAT-3 is a 50 kg, gravity gradient-stabilized designed and built by cadets and launched March 2007 on the first ESPA (Enhanced extended launch vehicle Satellite Payload Adapter) mission. FalconSAT-3 was one of six satellites integrated onto the launch vehicle and the nature of the mission made it that the satellite was subject to the full formality of testing requirements. Two successive gravity gradient booms failed either design requirements or environmental testing; design requirements grew dramatically during the design phase; ambiguous thermal vacuum test results led to uncertainty at launch; and after launch it was not possible to contact the satellite for several weeks.

  19. Exploring Our Solar System with CubeSats and NanoSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Norton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is NASA's lead center for robotic exploration of our solar system. We are known for our large, flagship missions, such as Voyager, which gave humanity its first close look at Jupiter and Saturn; and the Mars Rovers, which have excited millions worldwide with their daring landing exploits. Less familiar to those outside NASA may be our role in developing the Kepler mission, which has discovered more than 2000 planets around other stars; or the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, one of many JPL Earth Science missions. A recent JPL initiative has emphasized low cost missions that use rapidly evolving technology developed for CubeSats and NanoSat s to explore our solar system. Costs are significantly lower (by one or two orders of magnitude) than for conventional JPL missions, and development time is also significantly shorter. At present 21 such CubeSat flight projects are under way at the laboratory with various partners : some in flight, some in development, some in advanced formulation. Four are planned as deep space missions. To succeed in exploring deep space CubeSat/NanoSat missions have to address several challenges: the more severe radiation environment, communications and navigation at a distance, propulsion, and packaging of instruments that can return valuable science into a compact volume/mass envelope. Instrument technologies, including cameras, magnetometers, spectrometers, radiometers, and even radars are undergoing miniaturization to fit on these smaller platforms. Other key technologies are being matured for smallsats and NanoSats in deep space, including micro -electric propulsion, compact radio (and optical) communications, and onboard data reduction. This paper will describe missions that utilize these developments including the first two deep space CubeSats (INSPIRE), planned for launch in 2017; the first pair of CubeSats to be sent to another planet (MARCO), manifested with the In

  20. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the baryons observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  1. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  2. SAT Scores at NAIS Member Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2015-01-01

    Between March and June 2014, more than 1.67 million students from the 2014 graduating class took the SAT, marking a new participation record for the test. At the request of the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), the College Board created a special report that allows the association to compare how independent school students fared…

  3. The RadioSat (sm) network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-01-01

    The RadioSat network under development by radio Satellite Corporation will use mobile satellite (MSAT) technology to provide diverse personal communications, broadcast, and navigation services. The network will support these services simultaneously for integrated mobile radios throughout Canada and the United States. The RadioSat network takes advantage of several technological breakthroughs, all coming to fruition by the time the first MSAT satellite is launched in 1994. The most important of these breakthroughs is the enormous radiated power of each MSAT spacecraft - orders of magnitude greater than the radiated power of previous L-band spacecraft. Another important breakthrough is the development of advanced digital audio compression algorithms, enabling the transmission of broadcast quality music at moderate data rates. Finally, continuing dramatic increases in VLSI capabilities permit the production of complex, multi-function mobile satellite radios in very large quantities at prices little more than those of conventional car radios. In addition to performance breakthroughs and their economic implications to RadioSat, the design of the RadioSat network is reviewed.

  4. The RadioSat (sm) network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-01-01

    The RadioSat network under development by radio Satellite Corporation will use mobile satellite (MSAT) technology to provide diverse personal communications, broadcast, and navigation services. The network will support these services simultaneously for integrated mobile radios throughout Canada and the United States. The RadioSat network takes advantage of several technological breakthroughs, all coming to fruition by the time the first MSAT satellite is launched in 1994. The most important of these breakthroughs is the enormous radiated power of each MSAT spacecraft - orders of magnitude greater than the radiated power of previous L-band spacecraft. Another important breakthrough is the development of advanced digital audio compression algorithms, enabling the transmission of broadcast quality music at moderate data rates. Finally, continuing dramatic increases in VLSI capabilities permit the production of complex, multi-function mobile satellite radios in very large quantities at prices little more than those of conventional car radios. In addition to performance breakthroughs and their economic implications to RadioSat, the design of the RadioSat network is reviewed.

  5. Pre- to Post- CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, J.

    2015-12-01

    CubeSats sprung from a formative picosatellite effort at a university in the heart of Silicon Valley, took root in a university-led university environment, and have grown into complex-shaped explorers in both near and soon-to-be deep space. Private citizens, businesses, government are building and launching a variety of science, technology demonstration, and service missions. A new generation of space explorers is gaining first hand experience in space missions at all educational levels. There is new life and new energy in the space program. However, space is still difficult. The environment is harsh. Funding is sparse. This talk explores this history and the future of CubeSats from the context of a university-centric laboratory that emphasizes teaching, research, and entrepreneurial impact. It will explore the following questions: What sparked the CubeSat innovation? What are longer lasting lessons of this community? Where are places we can go next? What does it take to get there? The talk will draw on lessons learned from building over six on-orbit CubeSat missions and training hundreds of space engineers.

  6. SAT Scores at NAIS Member Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2015-01-01

    Between March and June 2014, more than 1.67 million students from the 2014 graduating class took the SAT, marking a new participation record for the test. At the request of the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), the College Board created a special report that allows the association to compare how independent school students fared…

  7. Investigating SATS-36 for a Matriculation Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Saras; Idris, Noraini

    2015-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards statistics have been more often negative due to many factors such as initial perception of the subject, low ability in mathematics and lack of motivation to study statistics. Studies involving SATS-36 included investigation of the different factors in relation to students' attitude towards statistics. Other studies have…

  8. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities,"…

  9. SAT Scores, Journalism and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Philip

    1993-01-01

    The two symposium articles extend "USA Today" SAT state ranking efforts by examining which states have the highest achievers, add the most value to enrolled students, and use resources most effectively. Dynarski and Gleason show that this test measures educational achievement more than innate ability. Graham and Husted adjust rankings…

  10. Certified organic vegetable production for market

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelines provide general provisions and processes for obtaining and maintaining organic certification, but did not specify best management practices for crop...

  11. 40 CFR 141.28 - Certified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 141.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.28 Certified... supplier of water with the applicable requirements of this part. ...

  12. 40 CFR 141.28 - Certified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 141.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.28 Certified... supplier of water with the applicable requirements of this part. ...

  13. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  14. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  15. To certify or not to certify: clinical social work decisions and involuntary hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, J

    1988-01-01

    This research compares, on a variety of clinical and contextual factors, case episodes in which Clinical Social Workers decided to certify patients for involuntary hospitalization with those episodes where they decided not to certify them. A cross-sectional exploratory design was developed, and descriptive data was collected using a modified critical incident technique and a structured interview schedule. Among certified cases, the dangerousness of the patient was the major reason for certification, especially dangerousness to others. Lack of dangerousness to others and use of alternatives to involuntary hospitalization were major factors in the decision not to certify. Schizophrenic disorders were most frequently identified in certified patients; depressive and neurotic conditions in non-certified cases.

  16. Are Certified Breast Centers Cost-Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bani, Mayada R.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Schrauder, Michael G.; Wagner, Stefanie; Fasching, Peter A.; Lux, Michael Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Summary The German health care system has entered an era of specialist centers and certification. Hospitals are required to introduce quality management with external monitoring, refining and improving their quality of treatment. These statutory requirements can only be met through specialization, centralization, and establishing centers and networks with internal and external interdisciplinary collaboration. The breast centers certified according to the criteria of the German Cancer Society (DKG) and German Society for Mastology (DGS) are pioneers here. Simultaneously, there are increasing demands for more cost-effective medical services despite limited resources – making economic analysis of health care provision necessary. Few economic studies of the centers and certification system have been conducted, however. General long-term quality data, particularly for results, are not yet available from certified breast centers. At present, a certified breast center is not itself a proven independent prognostic parameter for treatment results. However, the individual criteria required for breast center certification show a significant positive influence on clinical efficacy. Certified breast centers involve substantial extra costs that are not reimbursed by funding bodies, so the slightest potential benefit for patients from certified centers already appears cost-effective. When the actual costs, currently usually subsidized by other departments, are considered, it is unclear whether certified breast centers remain cost-effective. PMID:20877662

  17. Certified quantum non-demolition measurement of material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, M. W.; Koschorreck, M.; Kubasik, M.; Napolitano, M.; Sewell, R. J.

    2012-08-01

    An extensive debate on quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement, reviewed in Grangier et al (1998 Nature 396 537), finds that true QND measurements must have both non-classical state-preparation capability and non-classical information-damage tradeoff. Existing figures of merit for these non-classicality criteria require direct measurement of the signal variable and are thus difficult to apply to optically-probed material systems. Here we describe a method to demonstrate both criteria without need for to direct signal measurements. Using a covariance matrix formalism and a general noise model, we compute meter observables for QND measurement triples, which suffice to compute all QND figures of merit. The result will allow certified QND measurement of atomic spin ensembles using existing techniques.

  18. Certified Nursing Assistants’ Explanatory Models of Nursing Home Resident Depression

    PubMed Central

    Piven, Mary Lynn; Anderson, Ruth A.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explored how Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) understood resident depression. Interviews with 18 CNAs, working in two nursing homes were guided by Kleinman’s Explanatory Models of Illness framework. Interview data were content analyzed and CNAs’ descriptions of depression were compared to the MDS 2.0 Mood Screen and to DSM-IV-TR Depression Criteria. CNAs identified causes, signs, and symptoms of depression, but they were unsure about the duration and normalcy of depression in residents. Although they had no formal training, CNAs felt responsible for detecting depression and described verbal and non-verbal approaches that they used for emotional care of depressed residents. CNAs hold potential to improve the detection of depression and contribute to the emotional care of residents. Attention to knowledge deficits and facility barriers may enhance this capacity. PMID:18390825

  19. CubeSat evolution: Analyzing CubeSat capabilities for conducting science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Golkar, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the space industry produced large and sophisticated spacecraft handcrafted by large teams of engineers and budgets within the reach of only a few large government-backed institutions. However, over the last decade, the space industry experienced an increased interest towards smaller missions and recent advances in commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology miniaturization spurred the development of small spacecraft missions based on the CubeSat standard. CubeSats were initially envisioned primarily as educational tools or low cost technology demonstration platforms that could be developed and launched within one or two years. Recently, however, more advanced CubeSat missions have been developed and proposed, indicating that CubeSats clearly started to transition from being solely educational and technology demonstration platforms to offer opportunities for low-cost real science missions with potential high value in terms of science return and commercial revenue. Despite the significant progress made in CubeSat research and development over the last decade, some fundamental questions still habitually arise about the CubeSat capabilities, limitations, and ultimately about their scientific and commercial value. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the state of the art CubeSat capabilities with a special focus on advanced scientific missions and a goal of assessing the potential of CubeSat platforms as capable spacecraft. A total of over 1200 launched and proposed missions have been analyzed from various sources including peer-reviewed journal publications, conference proceedings, mission webpages as well as other publicly available satellite databases and about 130 relatively high performance missions were downselected and categorized into six groups based on the primary mission objectives including "Earth Science and Spaceborne Applications", "Deep Space Exploration", "Heliophysics: Space Weather", "Astrophysics", "Spaceborne In Situ

  20. Achievements and Future Plan of Interplanetary CubeSats and Micro-Sats in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Ryu

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces Japanese achievements and future plans of CubeSats and Micro-Sats for deep space exploration. As the first step toward deep space mission by such tiny spacecraft, University of Tokyo and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) developed the world's first deep space micro-spacecraft PROCYON (Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation). Its mission objective is to demonstrate a micro-spacecraft bus technology for deep space exploration and proximity flyby to asteroids performing optical measurements. PROCYON was launched into the Earth departure trajectory on December 3, 2014 together with Japanese asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa-2. PROCYON successfully completed the bus system demonstration mission in its interplanetary flight. Currently, Japan is not only pursuing the improvement and utilization of the demonstrated micro-sat deep space bus system with a weight of tens of kg or more for more practical scientific deep space missions, but also trying to develop smaller spacecraft with a weight of less than tens of kg, namely CubeSats, for deep space exploration. We are proposing a self-contained 6U CubeSat mission for the rideshare opportunity on the USA's SLS EM-1 mission, which will fly to a libration orbit around Earth-Moon L2 point and perform scientific observations of the Earth and the Moon. We are also seeking the possibility of CubeSats which is carried by a larger spacecraft to the destination and supports the mission by taking advantage of its low-cost and risk-tolerable feature. As an example of such style of CubeSat missions, we are studying a CubeSat for close observations of an asteroid, which will be carried to the target asteroid by a larger mother spacecraft. This CubeSat is released from the mother spacecraft to make a close flyby for scientific observations, which is difficult to be performed by the mother spacecraft if we consider the risk of the collision to the target asteroid or dust particles ejected

  1. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  2. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  3. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  4. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  5. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  6. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as follows...

  7. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as follows...

  8. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as follows...

  9. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as follows...

  10. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as follows...

  11. Formal Methods Tool Qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Lucas G.; Cofer, Darren; Slind, Konrad; Tinelli, Cesare; Mebsout, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Formal methods tools have been shown to be effective at finding defects in safety-critical digital systems including avionics systems. The publication of DO-178C and the accompanying formal methods supplement DO-333 allows applicants to obtain certification credit for the use of formal methods without providing justification for them as an alternative method. This project conducted an extensive study of existing formal methods tools, identifying obstacles to their qualification and proposing mitigations for those obstacles. Further, it interprets the qualification guidance for existing formal methods tools and provides case study examples for open source tools. This project also investigates the feasibility of verifying formal methods tools by generating proof certificates which capture proof of the formal methods tool's claim, which can be checked by an independent, proof certificate checking tool. Finally, the project investigates the feasibility of qualifying this proof certificate checker, in the DO-330 framework, in lieu of qualifying the model checker itself.

  12. A Comparison of the Ethical Beliefs of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors and National Certified Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, V. M.; Leahy, M. J.; Saunders, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    Results of a national survey of certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs) are compared with those obtained by Gibson and Pope (1993) from a national sample of national certified counselors (NCCs) to determine their beliefs about whether particular behaviors are ethical, and the degree of consensus or controversy about these behaviors.…

  13. Planetary CubeSats Come of Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Spangelo, Sara; Frick, Andreas; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Klesh, Andrew; Wyatt, E. Jay; Reh, Kim; Baker, John

    2015-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory initiatives in developing and formulating planetary CubeSats are described. Six flight systems already complete or underway now at JPL for missions to interplanetary space, the Moon, a near-Earth asteroid, and Mars are described at the subsystem level. Key differences between interplanetary nanospacecraft and LEO CubeSats are explained, as well as JPL's adaptation of vendor components and development of system solutions to meet planetary-mission needs. Feasible technology-demonstration and science measurement objectives are described for multiple modes of planetary mission implementation. Seven planetary-science demonstration mission concepts, already proposed to NASA by Discovery-2014 PIs partnered with JPL, are described for investigations at Sun-Earth L5, Venus, NEA 1999 FG3, comet Tempel 2, Phobos, main-belt asteroid 24 Themis, and metal asteroid 16 Psyche. The JPL staff and facilities resources available to PIs for analysis, design, and development of planetary nanospacecraft are catalogued.

  14. COLD-SAT feasibility study safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.

  15. An investigation of safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified and non-certified organizations.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl

    2016-09-01

    Many organizations worldwide have implemented Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 in their premises because of the assumed positive effects of this standard on safety. Few studies have analyzed the effect of the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organizations. This case-control study used a new safety climate questionnaire to evaluate three OHSAS 18001-certified and three non-certified manufacturing companies in Iran. Hierarchical regression indicated that the safety climate was influenced by OHSAS implementation and by safety training. Employees who received safety training had better perceptions of the safety climate and its dimensions than other respondents within the certified companies. This study found that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 does not guarantee improvement of the safety climate. This study also emphasizes the need for high-quality safety training for employees of the certified companies to improve the safety climate.

  16. NASA's Participation in Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts 2009-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    Many U.S. government organizations build or fly space systems: a) NASA, NOAA, Navy, Air Force, NRO, ORS. Others? b) Through the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC) we have increased the grass-roots interaction between many of these organizations. c) We all deal with many of the same challenges: More rapid deployments, lower budgets; Advancing technologies - frameworks, clouds, virtualization; Evolving concepts - automation, situational awareness, enterprise mngt. Standardization - formal or by common use. There is an inherently governmental role in creating the business case for contractors and commercial product vendors to move in directions beneficial to multiple government space organizations.

  17. LifeSat - A new research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, William P.; Dunning, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    LifeSat is a reusable recoverable satellite that will support research in the gravitation and radiation biology fields. It can provide sustained lower gravitational levels than manned vehicles and can access orbits where specimens can be exposed to cosmic radiation. The satellite design encompasses environmental support for vertebrate, invertebrate and plant specimens ranging from cells and tissues up to small mammals. The first launch, in a series of 7 satellite flights, is planned for late 1995.

  18. Observing Compact Stars with AstroSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a brief description of India's AstroSat mission which is a powerful space based observatory for compact star research. An account is given of observational constraints and spectral and timing capabilities as realised post-launch. Some preliminary results of observations of the Crab pulsar and an X-ray binary system GX 301-2 are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of the mission.

  19. LifeSat - A new research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, William P.; Dunning, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    LifeSat is a reusable recoverable satellite that will support research in the gravitation and radiation biology fields. It can provide sustained lower gravitational levels than manned vehicles and can access orbits where specimens can be exposed to cosmic radiation. The satellite design encompasses environmental support for vertebrate, invertebrate and plant specimens ranging from cells and tissues up to small mammals. The first launch, in a series of 7 satellite flights, is planned for late 1995.

  20. DebriSat Hypervelocity Impact Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    public release; distribution unlimited.  Targets: Scaled Multishock Shield, DebrisLV, and DebriSat  500-600 g hollow aluminum and nylon projectile...solar cells), NBK7 glass, titanium, sapphire, T1000 fiber, M55J carbon fiber, PVE film (sheet, wire ), kevlar, HDPE, polyurethane plastic, mylar...impact project. The design (Fig. 7) used a hollow aluminum cylinder made of 7075-T651 aluminum with a nylon sleeve. During assembly the aluminum

  1. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting CFS to CubeSat Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS. Large parts of cFS are now open source, which has spurred adoption outside of NASA. This paper reports on the experiences of two teams using cFS for current CubeSat missions. The performance overheads of cFS are quantified, and the reusability of code between missions is discussed. The analysis shows that cFS is well suited to use on CubeSats and demonstrates the portability and modularity of cFS code.

  2. ExoplanetSat: detecting transiting exoplanets using a low-cost CubeSat platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Seager, Sara; Pong, Christopher M.; Villaseñor, Jesus S.; Ricker, George R.; Miller, David W.; Knapp, Mary E.; Farmer, Grant T.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca

    2010-07-01

    Nanosatellites, i.e. spacecraft that weigh between 1 and 10 kg, are drawing increasing interest as platforms for conducting on-orbit science. This trend is primarily driven by the ability to piggyback nanosatellites on the launch of large spacecraft and hence achieve orbit at greatly reduced cost. The CubeSat platform is a standardized nanosatellite configuration, consisting of one, two, or three 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm units (1, 2, or 3 "U"s) arranged in a row. We present a CubeSat-based concept for the discovery of transiting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest Sun-like stars. The spacecraft prototype - termed ExoplanetSat - is a 3U space telescope capable of monitoring a single target star from low Earth orbit. Given the volume limitations of the CubeSat form factor, designing a capable spacecraft requires overcoming significant challenges. This work presents the initial satellite configuration along with several subsystem-specific solutions to the aforementioned constraints. An optical design based on a modified commercial off-the-shelf camera lens is given. We also describe a novel two-stage attitude control architecture that combines 3-axis reaction wheels for coarse pointing with a piezoelectric translation stage at the focal plane for fine pointing. Modeling and simulation results are used to demonstrate feasibility by quantifying ExoplanetSat pointing precision, signal-to-noise ratio, guide star magnitude, and additional design parameters which determine system performance.

  3. Physics First: Impact on SAT Math Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Craig E.

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the traditional curricular sequence (BCP) and methods of teaching, but requires more empirical evidence. This study determined impact of a PF program (PF-PCB) on math achievement (SAT math scores) after the first two cohorts of students completed the PF-PCB program at Matteo Ricci High School (MRHS) and provided more quantitative data to inform the PF debate and advance secondary science education. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) determined the influence of covariates and revealed that PF-PCB program had a significant (p < .05) impact on SAT math scores in the second cohort at MRHS. Statistically adjusted, the SAT math means for PF students were 21.4 points higher than their non-PF counterparts when controlling for prior math achievement (HSTP math), socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity/race.

  4. SAT Monitor Program. High School Students View the SAT and College Admissions Process. Report on Wave of Completed Questionnaires Associated with December 1977 SAT Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Response Analysis Corp., Princeton, NJ.

    College applicants taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) were surveyed regarding the tests, college admission in general, and the communications received concerning the test and their scores. Separate questionnaires were administered before taking the SAT or TSWE, after taking the test, and after…

  5. Adipocyte nuclei captured from VAT and SAT.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Suresh; Yu, Ping; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; Hartzell, Diane; Baile, Clifton A; Meagher, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related comorbidities are thought to result from the reprogramming of the epigenome in numerous tissues and cell types, and in particular, mature adipocytes within visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT. The cell-type specific chromatin remodeling of mature adipocytes within VAT and SAT is poorly understood, in part, because of the difficulties of isolating and manipulating large fragile mature adipocyte cells from adipose tissues. We constructed MA-INTACT (Mature Adipocyte-Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types) mice using the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) promoter (ADNp) to tag the surface of mature adipocyte nuclei with a reporter protein. The SUN1mRFP1Flag reporter is comprised of a fragment of the nuclear transmembrane protein SUN1, the fluorescent protein mRFP1, and three copies of the Flag epitope tag. Mature adipocyte nuclei were rapidly and efficiently immuno-captured from VAT and SAT (MVA and MSA nuclei, respectively), of MA-INTACT mice. MVA and MSA nuclei contained 1,000 to 10,000-fold higher levels of adipocyte-specific transcripts, ADIPOQ, PPARg2, EDNRB, and LEP, relative to uncaptured nuclei, while the latter expressed higher levels of leukocyte and endothelial cell markers IKZF1, RETN, SERPINF1, SERPINE1, ILF3, and TNFA. MVA and MSA nuclei differentially expressed several factors linked to adipogenesis or obesity-related health risks including CEBPA, KLF2, RETN, SERPINE1, and TNFA. The various nuclear populations dramatically differentially expressed transcripts encoding chromatin remodeler proteins regulating DNA cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation (TETs, DNMTs, TDG, GADD45s) and nucleosomal histone modification (ARID1A, KAT2B, KDM4A, PRMT1, PRMT5, PAXIP1). Remarkably, MSA and MVA nuclei expressed 200 to 1000-fold higher levels of thermogenic marker transcripts PRDM16 and UCP1. The MA-INTACT mouse enables a simple way to perform cell-type specific analysis of highly purified mature adipocyte nuclei from VAT and SAT

  6. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.

  7. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting cFS to CubeSat Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary Alex; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS.

  8. The isotropic Hamiltonian formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2011-02-10

    A Hamiltonian formalism is a procedure that allows to associate a dynamical system to a function and that includes classical Hamiltonian mechanics as a particular case. The present, expository paper gives a survey of the Hamiltonian formalism defined by an isotropic subbundle of TM+T*M, in particular, by a Dirac structure. We discuss reduction and geometric quantization of the Hamiltonian dynamical systems provided by this formalism.

  9. Satisfiability Threshold for Random Regular nae-sat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jian; Sly, Allan; Sun, Nike

    2016-01-01

    We consider the random regular k- nae- sat problem with n variables, each appearing in exactly d clauses. For all k exceeding an absolute constant {{k}_0}, we establish explicitly the satisfiability threshold {{{d_star} equiv {d_star(k)}}}. We prove that for {{d < d_star}} the problem is satisfiable with high probability, while for {{d > d_star}} the problem is unsatisfiable with high probability. If the threshold {{d_star}} lands exactly on an integer, we show that the problem is satisfiable with probability bounded away from both zero and one. This is the first result to locate the exact satisfiability threshold in a random constraint satisfaction problem exhibiting the condensation phenomenon identified by Krzakała et al. [Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(25):10318-10323, 2007]. Our proof verifies the one-step replica symmetry breaking formalism for this model. We expect our methods to be applicable to a broad range of random constraint satisfaction problems and combinatorial problems on random graphs.

  10. TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series Fact Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murbach, Marcus; Martinez, Andres; Guarneros Luna, Ali

    2014-01-01

    TechEdSat-3p is the second generation in the TechEdSat-X series. The TechEdSat Series uses the CubeSat standards established by the California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. With typical blocks being constructed from 1-unit (1U 10x10x10 cm) increments, the TechEdSat-3p has a 3U volume with a 30 cm length. The project uniquely pairs advanced university students with NASA researchers in a rapid design-to-flight experience lasting 1-2 semesters.The TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series provides a rapid platform for testing technologies for future NASA Earth and planetary missions, as well as providing students with an early exposure to flight hardware development and management.

  11. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Samanpreet; Singh, Mandeep

    2002-07-01

    Water scarcity is the major issue in all parts of world. Wastewater reuse is one alternative. SAT proves to efficient, economical and feasible method for wastewater treatment. SAT system achieves an excellent reduction of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and fecal coliform. About 90% of water applied to SAT site is returned to watershed. A case study has been made by the authors to increase the efficiency of this system.

  12. Finite-Size Scaling in Random K-SAT Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Meesoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Chanil; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-03-01

    We propose a comprehensive view of threshold behaviors in random K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problems, in the context of the finite-size scaling (FSS) concept of nonequilibrium absorbing phase transitions using the average SAT (ASAT) algorithm. In particular, we focus on the value of the FSS exponent to characterize the SAT/UNSAT phase transition, which is still debatable. We also discuss the role of the noise (temperature-like) parameter in stochastic local heuristic search algorithms.

  13. Certified Nurse Assistant Certification Examination Test Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnot, Lois; And Others

    This document contains four certification examinations (Forms A-D) for a certified nurse assistant in Missouri. Each of the four test booklets contains general instructions for completing the information section of the answer sheet, general instructions for taking the certification examination, and 100 questions. All test problems are in a…

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Conditioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Conditioners that are effective as of October 26, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=roomac.pr_crit_room_ac

  15. 40 CFR 158.350 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of variability likely to be encountered in the production process. (iii) Take into account the... estimate based on production process), and its accuracy and precision. This will be particularly useful if... of the application. Certified limits will apply to the product from the date of production to date of...

  16. 40 CFR 141.28 - Certified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified laboratories. 141.28 Section 141.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.28...

  17. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  18. 1 CFR 16.3 - Certifying duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certifying duties. 16.3 Section 16.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF... attaching the required number of true copies of each original document submitted by the agency to the Office...

  19. 40 CFR 161.175 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certified limits. 161.175 Section 161.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry Data Requirements § 161.175...

  20. 40 CFR 161.175 - Certified limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certified limits. 161.175 Section 161.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry Data Requirements § 161.175...

  1. 28 CFR 0.148 - Certifying officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Authorizations With..., and Explosives, Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs, the Director of the... other organizational units of the Department are authorized to designate employees to certify vouchers....

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of January 1, 2011. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lchvac.pr_crit_lchvac

  3. Salaries and Income of Certified Engineering Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers Joint Council, New York, NY. Engineering Manpower Commission.

    This report is the result of a survey conducted by the American Society of Certified Engineering Technicians (ASCET), and is based on the responses to a questionnaire by 5204 members. Data are presented in the form of maturity curves and statistical tables. A maturity curve on which salary appears as a function of age is included for each of these…

  4. 12 CFR 327.2 - Certified statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the FDIC's e-business Web site FDICconnect a quarterly certified statement invoice each assessment... of the Assessments Section. (4) Each assessment period, the FDIC will provide courtesy e-mail... available and may be accessed on FDICconnect. E-mail notification will be sent to all individuals...

  5. EU ENERGY STAR Certified Uninterruptible Power Supplies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies that are effective as of August 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=uninterruptible_power_supplies.pr_crit_uninterruptible_power_supplies

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Uninterruptible Power Supplies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies that are effective as of August 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=uninterruptible_power_supplies.pr_crit_uninterruptible_power_supplies

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of January 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=geo_heat.pr_crit_geo_heat_pumps

  8. 31 CFR 346.14 - Certifying officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying officers. 346.14 Section 346.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... imprint of the corporate seal, or, where the institution is an authorized issuing agent for United...

  9. 31 CFR 341.14 - Certifying officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying officers. 341.14 Section 341.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... imprint of the corporate seal, or, where the institution is an authorized issuing agent for United...

  10. 13 CFR 121.303 - What size procedures are used by SBA before it makes a formal size determination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SBA before it makes a formal size determination? 121.303 Section 121.303 Business Credit and... by SBA before it makes a formal size determination? (a) A concern that submits an application for financial assistance is deemed to have certified that it is small under the applicable size standard. SBA...

  11. Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David; Fink, Patrick W.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats project is directed at the development of novel antennas for CubeSats to replace the bulky and obtrusive antennas (e.g., whip antennas) that are typically used. The integrated antennas will not require mechanical deployment and thus will allow future CubeSats to avoid potential mechanical problems and therefore improve mission reliability. Furthermore, the integrated antennas will have improved functionality and performance, such as circular polarization for improved link performance, compared with the conventional antennas currently used on CubeSats.

  12. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  13. Formality in Rhetorical Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Formality in rhetorical delivery can be defined as a complex variable that represents the speaker's efforts to invoke sociocultural rules of audience control through the nonverbal components of the delivery. This document describes some of the aspects of formality, outlines its significance in rhetorical contexts, and evaluates the concept in…

  14. 31 CFR 315.57 - When a certifying officer may not certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Certifying Officers §...

  15. MarsSat: assured communication with Mars.

    PubMed

    Gangale, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The author developed the MarsSat concept during the 1990s. For this task, he designed a class of orbits to solve the problem of communicating with crews on Mars when the planet is in solar conjunction as seen from Earth, a planetary configuration that occurs near the midpoint of a conjunction class mission to Mars. This type of orbit minimizes the distance between Mars and the communications satellite; thus, minimizing the size, weight, and power requirements, while providing a simultaneous line-of-sight to both Earth and Mars. The MarsSat orbits are solar orbits that have the same period as Mars, but are inclined a few degrees out of the plane of the Mars orbit and also differ in eccentricity from the orbit of Mars. These differences cause a spacecraft in this orbit to rise North of Mars, then fall behind Mars, then drop South of Mars, and then pull ahead of Mars, by some desired distance in each case-typically about 20 million kilometers-in order to maintain an angular separation of a couple of degrees as seen from a point in the orbit of Earth on the opposite side of the Sun. A satellite in this type of orbit would relay communications between Earth and Mars during the period of up to several weeks, when direct communication is blocked by the Sun. These orbits are far superior for this purpose when compared to stationing a satellite at one of the Sun-Mars equilateral Lagrangian points, L(4) or L(5), for two reasons. First, L(4) and L(5) are 228 million kilometers from Mars, about 10 times the distance of a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits, and by virtue of the inverse-square law, all other things being equal, the signal strength received at L(4) or L(5) would be one percent of the signal strength received by a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits. Thus, a relay satellite stationed at L(4) or L(5) would have to be that much more powerful to receive data at the same rate, with concomitant increases in spacecraft size and weight. Second, a number of

  16. DebriSat Pre Preshot Laboratory Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-27

    panels consisting of fiberglass (E-glass, #1,2,4,5), stainless steel mesh (#3) and Kevlar (#6,7). In contrast to the DebriSat and Debris-LV impact...shield supplied by NASA which consisted of seven bumper panels consisting of fiberglass (E-glass, #1,2,4,5), stainless steel mesh (#3) and Kevlar (#6,7...stainless steel bumper though it also contains significant amounts Al and Si. The Al and Si contents are about equal in early arriving Fe-Cr-Ni while

  17. OpenSatKit Enables Quick Startup for CubeSat Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; Melton, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The software required to develop, integrate, and operate a spacecraft is substantial regardless of whether its a large or small satellite. Even getting started can be a monumental task. To solve this problem, NASAs Core Flight System (cFS), NASA's 42 spacecraft dynamics simulator, and Ball Aerospaces COSMOS ground system have been integrated together into a kit called OpenSatKit that provides a complete and open source software solution for starting a new satellite mission. Users can have a working system with flight software, dynamics simulation, and a ground command and control system up and running within hours.Every satellite mission requires three primary categories of software to function. The first is Flight Software (FSW) which provides the onboard control of the satellites and its payload(s). NASA's cFS provides a great platform for developing this software. Second, while developing a satellite on earth, it is necessary to simulate the satellites orbit, attitude, and actuators, to ensure that the systems that control these aspects will work correctly in the real environment. NASAs 42 simulator provides these functionalities. Finally, the ground has to be able to communicate with the satellite, monitor its performance and health, and display its data. Additionally, test scripts have to be written to verify the system on the ground. Ball Aerospace's COSMOS command and control system provides this functionality. Once the OpenSatKit is up and running, the next step is to customize the platform and get it running on the end target. Starting from a fully working system makes porting the cFS from Linux to a users platform much easier. An example Raspberry Pi target is included in the kit so users can gain experience working with a low cost hardware target. All users can benefit from OpenSatKit but the greatest impact and benefits will be to SmallSat missions with constrained budgets and small software teams. This paper describes OpenSatKits system design, the

  18. 7 CFR 205.661 - Investigation of certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.661 Investigation of... regulations of this part concerning production and handling operations certified as organic by the certifying...

  19. List of EPA Certified Forced-Air Furnaces

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA-Certified Forced-Air Furnace list contains EPA-certified forced-air furnaces that meet the 2015 NSPS for New Residential Wood Heaters, New Residential Hydronic Heaters and Forced-Air Furnaces.

  20. 7 CFR 205.661 - Investigation of certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.661 Investigation of... regulations of this part concerning production and handling operations certified as organic by the certifying...

  1. CloudSat Anomaly Recovery and Operational Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, Michael; Witkowski, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Nov 2011: NASA/JPL declared CloudSat fully operational in DO ]OP Mode . CloudSat collects science data during sunlit portion of orbit, stable spin hibernation in eclipse . New CONOPS requires constant monitoring of thermal and power profiles, while allowing collection of 54 mins of science data per sunlit orbit

  2. SAT and ACT Predict College GPA after Removing "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Thomas R.; Pillow, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined whether the SAT and ACT would predict college grade point average (GPA) after removing g from the tests. SAT and ACT scores and freshman GPAs were obtained from a university sample (N=161) and the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N=8984). Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships among g, GPA,…

  3. Money Improves Test Scores--Even State-Level SATs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1996-01-01

    Three former secretaries of education--William Bennett, Lauro Cavazos, and Terrel Bell--have touted state-level SAT scores as proof that educational financing does not matter. Recently, Brian Powell and Lala Carr Steelman adjusted scores for participation rate and detected a very strong relationship between expenditures and SAT scores. Bigger…

  4. Variations in State SAT Performance: Meaningful or Misleading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr

    1984-01-01

    The authors attempt to show how the dissemination of uncorrected state Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores may have created an inaccurate public and governmental perception of the variation in educational quality. Their research demonstrates that comparing state SAT averages is ill-advised unless these ratings are corrected for compositional and…

  5. Appraising the Implications of the SAT for Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the corrected state rankings on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are explained by the percentage of students taking the test and by student composition by sex, race, and average family income. Higher state per capita educational expenditures are significantly related to higher average SAT scores. Policy implications are…

  6. CloudSat Safety Operations at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    CloudSat safety operations at Vendenberg AFB is given. The topics include: 1) CloudSat Project Overview; 2) Vandenberg Ground Operations; 3) Delta II Launch Vehicle; 4) The A-Train; 5) System Safety Management; 6) CALIPSO Hazards Assessment; 7) CALIPSO Supplemental Safeguards; 8) Joint System Safety Operations; 9) Extended Stand-down; 10) Launch Delay Safety Concerns; and 11) Lessons Learned.

  7. 7 CFR 205.662 - Noncompliance procedure for certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.662... of a certified operation by a certifying agent or a State organic program's governing State official... demonstrates that each noncompliance has been resolved, the certifying agent or the State organic program's...

  8. 7 CFR 205.662 - Noncompliance procedure for certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.662... of a certified operation by a certifying agent or a State organic program's governing State official... demonstrates that each noncompliance has been resolved, the certifying agent or the State organic...

  9. 7 CFR 205.662 - Noncompliance procedure for certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.662... of a certified operation by a certifying agent or a State organic program's governing State official... demonstrates that each noncompliance has been resolved, the certifying agent or the State organic...

  10. 7 CFR 205.662 - Noncompliance procedure for certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.662... of a certified operation by a certifying agent or a State organic program's governing State official... demonstrates that each noncompliance has been resolved, the certifying agent or the State organic...

  11. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use of natural gas or petroleum, or both, as a primary energy source in any certifying powerplant... fuel as a primary energy source in a certifying powerplant. (a) NEPA compliance. Except as provided in... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants....

  12. 7 CFR 205.662 - Noncompliance procedure for certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.662... of a certified operation by a certifying agent or a State organic program's governing State official... demonstrates that each noncompliance has been resolved, the certifying agent or the State organic program's...

  13. 25 CFR 700.49 - Certified eligible head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified eligible head of household. 700.49 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.49 Certified eligible head of household. A certified eligible head of household is a person who has received notice from the Commission that he/she...

  14. 25 CFR 700.49 - Certified eligible head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified eligible head of household. 700.49 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.49 Certified eligible head of household. A certified eligible head of household is a person who has received notice from the Commission that he/she...

  15. 25 CFR 700.49 - Certified eligible head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified eligible head of household. 700.49 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.49 Certified eligible head of household. A certified eligible head of household is a person who has received notice from the Commission that he/she...

  16. 25 CFR 700.49 - Certified eligible head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified eligible head of household. 700.49 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.49 Certified eligible head of household. A certified eligible head of household is a person who has received notice from the Commission that he/she...

  17. 25 CFR 700.49 - Certified eligible head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified eligible head of household. 700.49 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.49 Certified eligible head of household. A certified eligible head of household is a person who has received notice from the Commission that he/she...

  18. 25 CFR 81.23 - Posting and certifying election results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Posting and certifying election results. 81.23 Section 81... REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.23 Posting and certifying election results. (a) The results of the... appropriate public places determined by the election board. (b) The election board shall certify the results...

  19. 49 CFR 1001.2 - Certified copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certified copies of records. 1001.2 Section 1001.2... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF RECORDS § 1001.2 Certified copies of records. Copies of and extracts from public records will be certified by the Records Officer. Persons...

  20. 37 CFR 1.13 - Copies and certified copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies and certified copies... Patent and Trademark Office § 1.13 Copies and certified copies. (a) Non-certified copies of patents, and... States Patent and Trademark Office to any person, and copies of other records or papers will be furnished...

  1. 24 CFR 200.218 - Who must certify and sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who must certify and sign. 200.218... Previous Participation Review and Clearance Procedure § 200.218 Who must certify and sign. All principals must certify and sign the certificate personally as to their individual record and are responsible for...

  2. 24 CFR 200.218 - Who must certify and sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who must certify and sign. 200.218... Previous Participation Review and Clearance Procedure § 200.218 Who must certify and sign. All principals must certify and sign the certificate personally as to their individual record and are responsible for...

  3. 24 CFR 200.218 - Who must certify and sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who must certify and sign. 200.218... Previous Participation Review and Clearance Procedure § 200.218 Who must certify and sign. All principals must certify and sign the certificate personally as to their individual record and are responsible for...

  4. 24 CFR 200.218 - Who must certify and sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who must certify and sign. 200.218... Previous Participation Review and Clearance Procedure § 200.218 Who must certify and sign. All principals must certify and sign the certificate personally as to their individual record and are responsible for...

  5. 24 CFR 200.218 - Who must certify and sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who must certify and sign. 200.218... Previous Participation Review and Clearance Procedure § 200.218 Who must certify and sign. All principals must certify and sign the certificate personally as to their individual record and are responsible for...

  6. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section 403.155 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND THE PRODUCTION OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 403.155 Does SSA certify records? We can certify the...

  7. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section 403.155 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND THE PRODUCTION OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 403.155 Does SSA certify records? We can certify the...

  8. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section 403.155 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND THE PRODUCTION OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 403.155 Does SSA certify records? We can certify the...

  9. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section 403.155 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND THE PRODUCTION OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 403.155 Does SSA certify records? We can certify the...

  10. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section 403.155 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND THE PRODUCTION OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 403.155 Does SSA certify records? We can certify the...

  11. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is not... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified daily rate. 159.35 Section...

  12. 19 CFR 159.34 - Certified quarterly rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.34 Certified quarterly rate. (a) Countries for which quarterly rate is certified. For the currency of each of the following... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified quarterly rate. 159.34 Section...

  13. 30 CFR 70.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 70.202 Section 70... HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this part shall be done by a certified person. (b...

  14. 30 CFR 90.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 90.202 Section 90... Sampling Procedures § 90.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  15. 30 CFR 70.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 70.202 Section 70... HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this part shall be done by a certified person. (b...

  16. 30 CFR 71.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 71.202 Section 71... Sampling Procedures § 71.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  17. 30 CFR 70.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 70.202 Section 70... HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this part shall be done by a certified person. (b...

  18. 30 CFR 90.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 90.202 Section 90... Sampling Procedures § 90.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  19. 30 CFR 71.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 71.202 Section 71... Sampling Procedures § 71.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  20. 30 CFR 70.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 70.202 Section 70... HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this part shall be done by a certified person. (b...

  1. 30 CFR 71.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 71.202 Section 71... Sampling Procedures § 71.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  2. 30 CFR 71.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 71.202 Section 71... Sampling Procedures § 71.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  3. 30 CFR 90.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 90.202 Section 90... Sampling Procedures § 90.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  4. 30 CFR 70.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 70.202 Section 70... HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this part shall be done by a certified person. (b...

  5. 30 CFR 71.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 71.202 Section 71... Sampling Procedures § 71.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  6. 30 CFR 90.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 90.202 Section 90... Sampling Procedures § 90.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  7. 30 CFR 90.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 90.202 Section 90... Sampling Procedures § 90.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  8. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an... of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued upon return of the original certificate to the...

  9. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an... of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued upon return of the original certificate to the...

  10. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an... of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued upon return of the original certificate to the...

  11. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an... of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued upon return of the original certificate to the...

  12. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an... of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued upon return of the original certificate to the...

  13. Certified pediatric nurses' perceptions of job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Janet; Harrison, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Pediatric Nursing Certification Board surveyed a national sample of 1354 hospital-based certified pediatric nurses (CPNs) to determine their perceptions of certification on job satisfaction and other factors. There is a substantial body of literature that demonstrates job satisfaction among nurses positively increases retention and reduces absenteeism and burnout. CPNs seek certification for a personal sense of achievement, professional recognition, and validation of clinical competency. The certified nurse survey respondents had self-reported high levels of job satisfaction and indicated that relationships with colleagues and a supportive work environment were very important to their levels of job satisfaction. The results of this study highlight important factors for hospitals to consider as they plan strategies and cost-effective ways to positively affect patient care and retain qualified pediatric nurses at the bedside.

  14. CubeSat Integration into the Space Situational Awareness Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K.; Wolfson, M.; Brown, J.

    2013-09-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company has recently been involved in developing GEO Space Situational Awareness architectures, which allows insights into how cubesats can augment the current national systems. One hole that was identified in the current architecture is the need for timelier metric track observations to aid in the chain of custody. Obtaining observations of objects at GEO can be supported by CubeSats. These types of small satellites are increasing being built and flown by government agencies like NASA and SMDC. CubeSats are generally mass and power constrained allowing for only small payloads that cannot typically mimic traditional flight capability. CubeSats do not have a high reliability and care must be taken when choosing mission orbits to prevent creating more debris. However, due to the low costs, short development timelines, and available hardware, CubeSats can supply very valuable benefits to these complex missions, affordably. For example, utilizing CubeSats for advanced focal plane demonstrations to support technology insertion into the next generation situational awareness sensors can help to lower risks before the complex sensors are developed. CubeSats can augment the planned ground and space based assets by creating larger constellations with more access to areas of interest. To aid in maintaining custody of objects, a CubeSat constellation at 500 km above GEO would provide increased point of light tracking that can augment the ground SSA assets. Key features of the Cubesat include a small visible camera looking along the GEO belt, a small propulsion system that allows phasing between CubeSats, and an image processor to reduce the data sent to the ground. An elegant communications network will also be used to provide commands to and data from multiple CubeSats. Additional CubeSats can be deployed on GSO launches or through ride shares to GEO, replenishing or adding to the constellation with each launch. Each CubeSat would take images of

  15. 40 CFR 141.28 - Certified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified laboratories. 141.28 Section... laboratories. (a) For the purpose of determining compliance with § 141.21 through 141.27, 141.30, 141.40, 141.74, 141.89 and 141.402, samples may be considered only if they have been analyzed by a...

  16. 40 CFR 141.28 - Certified laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certified laboratories. 141.28 Section... laboratories. (a) For the purpose of determining compliance with § 141.21 through 141.27, 141.30, 141.40, 141.74, 141.89 and 141.402, samples may be considered only if they have been analyzed by a...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Set Top Boxes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of September 1, 2011 or the Version 4.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of December 19, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=ST

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Non-lighting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Non-lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories including ENERGY STAR Unique IDs, ENERGY STAR partners, model names and numbers, and brand names. Learn more about ENERGY STAR products at www.energystar.gov/products. A full list of ENERGY STAR specifications can be found at www.energystar.gov/specifications.

  19. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org.

  20. Job satisfaction among multiple sclerosis certified nurses.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Elsie E; Halper, June; Costello, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    Several studies document high levels of job satisfaction among certified nurses, but no study has examined job satisfaction and factors influencing job satisfaction of certified multiple sclerosis (MS) nurses. This study tested a theoretical model proposing that two organizational factors, colleague relationships and benefits, will predict job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was represented by four factors: autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency. Participants included MS nurses certified for 6 months or more practicing mostly in three countries (Canada, Great Britain, and the United States) who anonymously completed the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale, an overall job satisfaction rating, and demographic information. Findings indicate that colleague relationships and benefits significantly estimated organization structure and that autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency significantly estimated job satisfaction; furthermore, organization factors such as colleague relationships and benefits significantly predict job satisfaction. Among the countries, several statistically significant differences were observed between job satisfaction factors as well as items in both organization and job satisfaction subscales. Average factor scores among the countries were mostly rated satisfactory. The International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis Nurses Executive Board plans to use the study findings to see how it needs to focus efforts as an organization toward enhancing and standardizing MS care and develop MS nurse professionalism worldwide.

  1. Achieving Science with CubeSats: Thinking Inside the Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lal, Bhavya

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a study conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The study focused on the scientific potential and technological promise of CubeSats. We will first review the growth of the CubeSat platform from an education-focused technology toward a platform of importance for technology development, science, and commercial use, both in the United States and internationally. The use has especially exploded in recent years. For example, of the over 400 CubeSats launched since 2000, more than 80% of all science-focused ones have been launched just in the past four years. Similarly, more than 80% of peer-reviewed papers describing new science based on CubeSat data have been published in the past five years.We will then assess the technological and science promise of CubeSats across space science disciplines, and discuss a subset of priority science goals that can be achieved given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. Many of these goals address targeted science, often in coordination with other spacecraft, or by using sacrificial or high-risk orbits that lead to the demise of the satellite after critical data have been collected. Other goals relate to the use of CubeSats as constellations or swarms, deploying tens to hundreds of CubeSats that function as one distributed array of measurements.Finally, we will summarize our conclusions and recommendations from this study; especially those focused on nearterm investment that could improve the capabilities of CubeSats toward increased science and technological return and enable the science communities’ use of CubeSats.

  2. Achieving Science with CubeSats: Thinking Inside the Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, B.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a study conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The study focused on the scientific potential and technological promise of CubeSats. We will first review the growth of the CubeSat platform from an education-focused technology toward a platform of importance for technology development, science, and commercial use, both in the United States and internationally. The use has especially exploded in recent years. For example, of the over 400 CubeSats launched since 2000, more than 80% of all science-focused ones have been launched just in the past four years. Similarly, more than 80% of peer-reviewed papers describing new science based on CubeSat data have been published in the past five years. We will then assess the technological and science promise of CubeSats across space science disciplines, and discuss a subset of priority science goals that can be achieved given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. Many of these goals address targeted science, often in coordination with other spacecraft, or by using sacrificial or high-risk orbits that lead to the demise of the satellite after critical data have been collected. Other goals relate to the use of CubeSats as constellations or swarms, deploying tens to hundreds of CubeSats that function as one distributed array of measurements. Finally, we will summarize our conclusions and recommendations from this study; especially those focused on near-term investment that could improve the capabilities of CubeSats toward increased science and technological return and enable the science communities' use of CubeSats.

  3. Massively Clustered CubeSats NCPS Demo Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Young, David; Kim, Tony; Houts, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Technologies under development for the proposed Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) will require an un-crewed demonstration mission before they can be flight qualified over distances and time frames representative of a crewed Mars mission. In this paper, we describe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform, possibly comprising hundreds of CubeSats, as the main payload of the NCPS demo mission. This platform would enable a mechanism for cost savings for the demo mission through shared support between NASA and other government agencies as well as leveraged commercial aerospace and academic community involvement. We believe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform should be an obvious first choice for the NCPS demo mission when one considers that cost and risk of the payload can be spread across many CubeSat customers and that the NCPS demo mission can capitalize on using CubeSats developed by others for its own instrumentation needs. Moreover, a demo mission of the NCPS offers an unprecedented opportunity to invigorate the public on a global scale through direct individual participation coordinated through a web-based collaboration engine. The platform we describe would be capable of delivering CubeSats at various locations along a trajectory toward the primary mission destination, in this case Mars, permitting a variety of potential CubeSat-specific missions. Cameras on various CubeSats can also be used to provide multiple views of the space environment and the NCPS vehicle for video monitoring as well as allow the public to "ride along" as virtual passengers on the mission. This collaborative approach could even initiate a brand new Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) program for launching student developed CubeSat payloads beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) on future deep space technology qualification missions. Keywords: Nuclear Propulsion, NCPS, SLS, Mars, CubeSat.

  4. A Certified Stamp of Approval: How Important Are IT Certifications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the world of campus IT hiring, think of certifications as the equivalent of the SATs. They're just one component of the overall application, along with the interview, past performance, and references. If the candidate is accomplished and well rounded, the SATs--or certifications--can be more of a checklist item. Otherwise, they may make the…

  5. A Certified Stamp of Approval: How Important Are IT Certifications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the world of campus IT hiring, think of certifications as the equivalent of the SATs. They're just one component of the overall application, along with the interview, past performance, and references. If the candidate is accomplished and well rounded, the SATs--or certifications--can be more of a checklist item. Otherwise, they may make the…

  6. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

    2014-11-01

    Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

  7. Size Contrast for Mars CubeSat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-12

    The full-scale mock-up of NASA's MarCO CubeSat held by Farah Alibay, a systems engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is dwarfed by the one-half-scale model of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter behind her. MarCO, short for Mars Cube One, is the first interplanetary use of CubeSat technologies for small spacecraft. JPL is preparing two MarCO twins for launch in March 2016. They will ride along on an Atlas V launch vehicle lifting off from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, with NASA's next Mars lander, InSight. MarCO is a technology demonstration aspect of the InSight mission. The mock-up in the photo is in a configuration to show the deployed position of components that correspond to MarCO's two solar panels and two antennas. During launch, those components will be stowed for a total vehicle size of about 14.4 inches (36.6 centimeters) by 9.5 inches (24.3 centimeters) by 4.6 inches (11.8 centimeters). After launch, the two MarCO CubeSats and InSight will be navigated separately to Mars. The MarCO twins will fly past the planet in September 2016 just as InSight is descending through the atmosphere and landing on the surface. MarCO is a technology demonstration to relay communications from InSight to Earth during InSight's descent and landing. InSight communications during that critical period will also be recorded by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for delayed transmission to Earth. InSight -- an acronym for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport -- will study the interior of Mars to improve understanding of the processes that formed and shaped rocky planets, including Earth. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http

  8. CubeSats for Astrophysics: The Current Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2017-01-01

    Cubesats are small satellites built to multiples of 1U (1000 cm3). The 2016 NRC Report “Achieving Science with CubeSats” indicates that between 2013 and 2018 NASA and NSF sponsored 104 CubeSats. Of those, only one is devoted to astrophysics: HaloSat (PI: P. Kaaret), a 6U CubeSat with an X-ray payload to study the hot galactic halo.Despite this paucity of missions, CubeSats have a lot of potential for astrophysics. To assess the science landscape that a CubeSat astrophysics mission may occupy, we consider the following parameters:1-Wavelength: CubeSats are not competitive in the visible, unless the application (e.g. high precision photometry) is difficult to do from the ground. Thermal IR science is limited by the lack of low-power miniaturized cryocoolers and by the large number of infrared astrophysical missions launched or planned. In the UV, advances in δ-doping processes result in larger sensitivity with smaller apertures. Commercial X-ray detectors also allow for competitive science.2-Survey vs. Pointed observations: All-sky surveys have been done at most wavelengths from X-rays to Far-IR and CubeSats will not be able to compete in sensitivity with them. CubeSat science should then center on specific objects or object classes. Due to poor attitude control, unresolved photometry is scientifically more promising that extended imaging.3-Single-epoch vs. time domain: CubeSat apertures cannot compete in sensitivity with big satellites when doing single-epoch observations. However, time-domain astrophysics is an area in which CubeSats can provide very valuable science return.Technologically, CubeSat astrophysics is limited by:1-Lack of large apertures: The largest aperture CubeSat launched is ~10 cm, although deployable apertures as large as 20 cm could be fitted to 6U buses.2-Poor attitude control: State-of-the-art systems have demonstrated jitter of ~10” on timescales of seconds. Jitter imposes limits on image quality and, coupled with detector errors

  9. Near Earth Network (NEN) CubeSat Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaire, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations, including NASA, commercial, and partner ground stations, that are strategically located to maximize the coverage provided to a variety of orbital and suborbital missions, including those in LEO (Low Earth Orbit), GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit), HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit), lunar and L1-L2 orbits. The NEN's future mission set includes and will continue to include CubeSat missions. The first NEN-supported CubeSat mission will be the Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) launching into LEO in 2017. The majority of the CubeSat missions destined to fly on EM-1, launching in late 2018, many in a lunar orbit, will communicate with ground-based stations via X-band and will utilize the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed IRIS (Satellite Communication for Air Traffic Management) radio. The NEN recognizes the important role CubeSats are beginning to play in carrying out NASAs mission and is therefore investigating the modifications needed to provide IRIS radio compatibility. With modification, the NEN could potentially expand support to the EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1) lunar CubeSats. The NEN could begin providing significant coverage to lunar CubeSat missions utilizing three to four of the NEN's mid-latitude sites. This coverage would supplement coverage provided by the JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The NEN, with smaller apertures than DSN, provides the benefit of a larger beamwidth that could be beneficial in the event of uncertain ephemeris data. In order to realize these benefits the NEN would need to upgrade stations targeted based on coverage ability and current configuration ease of upgrade, to ensure compatibility with the IRIS radio. In addition, the NEN is working with CubeSat radio developers to ensure NEN compatibility with alternative CubeSat radios for Lunar and L1-L2 CubeSats. The NEN has provided NEN compatibility requirements to several radio

  10. Pilot study: whole body manual subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) therapy improved pain and SAT structure in women with lipedema.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Karen L; Ussery, Christopher; Eekema, Alyna

    2017-09-20

    Background Lipedema is a common painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) disorder in women affecting the limbs. SAT therapy is a manual therapy to improve soft tissue quality. Objective Determine if SAT therapy improves pain and structure of lipedema SAT. Design Single arm prospective pilot study. Setting Academic medical center. Patients Seven women, 46 ± 5 years, weight 90 ± 19 kg, with lipedema. Intervention Twelve 90-min SAT therapy sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, SAT ultrasound (Vevo 2100), leg volumetrics, skin caliper assessment, tissue exam, weight, resting metabolic rate, pain assessment, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and body shape questionnaire (BSQ) at baseline and end of study. Results Weight, resting metabolic rate and BSQ did not change significantly. Limb fat over total body fat mass (p = 0.08) and trunk fat over total body mass trended down from baseline (p = 0.08) by DXA. Leg volume and caliper assessments in eight of nine areas (p < 0.007), LEFS (p = 0.002) and average pain (p = 0.007) significantly decreased from baseline. Fibrosis significantly decreased in the nodules, hips and groin. Ultrasound showed improved SAT structure in some subjects. Side effects included pain, bruising, itching, swelling and gastroesophageal reflux disease. All women said they would recommend SAT therapy to other women with lipedema. Limitations Small number of subjects. Conclusion SAT therapy in 4 weeks improved tissue structure, perceived leg function, and volume although shape was not affected. While side effects of SAT therapy were common, all women felt the therapy was beneficial.

  11. Space radiation incident on SATS missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A special orbital radiation study was conducted in order to evaluate mission encountered energetic particle fluxes. This information is to be supplied to the project subsystem engineers for their guidance in designing flight hardware to withstand the expected radiation levels. Flux calculations were performed for a set of 20 nominal trajectories placed at several altitudes and inclinations. Temporal variations in the ambient electron environment were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model, extrapolated to the tentative SATS launch epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations ware performed with the latest proton and electron environment models, using new computational methods. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form. Estimates of energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission at selected integral energies ranging from 10 to 100 Mev, calculated for a year of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle.

  12. CryoSat Data Quality Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzinac, C.; Parrinello, T.; Féménias, P.; Fornari, M.; Mannan, R.

    2011-12-01

    CryoSat data are routinely controlled by ESA-ESRIN-SPPA office with various tools and with the support of the IDEAS industrial consortium. This poster introduces to the structure of the data products, the available quality tools (Quality Checks and Monitoring Facility) and methodology, and shows the main statistical results from the data acquired since the end of the commissioning phase (January 2011). Due to some anomalies still present in the data, ESA is planning to operate a new version of the processors by the end of 2011, followed by a full reprocessing campaign in 2012. This poster presents the reprocessing schedule and the main improvements expected from the new release of the specialized processors at Level 1b and at Level 2.

  13. Dipping Thermospheric Explorer CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, B.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Doe, R. A.; Herrero, F.; Hickey, M. P.; Vadas, S.; Malsbury, J.; Fuller, S.; Huang, A.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Dipping Thermospheric Explorer (DipTE) mission is to provide a data set that can be used to characterize the impact of gravity waves (GWs) on the thermosphere, and to open the door to many future thermospheric missions. The momentum deposited by dissipation of GWs which originate in the lower atmosphere and in the auroral region drives thermospheric variability, and hence is a key parameter in space weather research. The DipTE satellite, proposed for the NSF “CubeSat-based Science Missions for Space Weather and Atmospheric Research,” solicitation 09-523, is a 3U(0.34 x 0.1 x 0.1 m)CubeSat, with a spectrometer payload. The satellite employs a propulsion system to maneuver from the initial circular release orbit into an elliptic orbit that passes through the thermosphere, and uses passive aerodynamic stabilization. The spectrometer will measure perturbations in the neutral wind and temperature, in the ion velocity and temperature, and in the densities of the primary neutral and ionic species as the orbit decays down to the lowest altitude of radio contact (≈150 km). The resulting data set will have many applications to thermospheric and ionospheric science: for example, characterization of the GW spectrumas a function of altitude, latitude, longitude, and local time; study of GW sources by ray-tracing individual waves back to their sources; and determining the spatial variability in the neutral winds. The presentation describes the science objectives, the mission and the concept of operations, and the spacecraft configuration and its subsystems.

  14. Advanced Trauma Life Support certified physicians in a non trauma system setting: is it enough?

    PubMed

    Drimousis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Stergiopoulos, Spiros; Delicha, Eumorfia M; Giannopoulos, Panagiotis; Larentzakis, Antreas; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ATLS(®) on trauma mortality in a non-trauma system setting. ATLS represents a fundamental element of trauma training in every trauma curriculum. Nevertheless, there are limited studies in the literature as for the impact of ATLS training in trauma mortality, especially outside the US. This is a prospective observational study. The primary end point was to investigate factors that affect mortality of trauma patients in our health care system. We performed a multivariate analysis for this purpose and we identified ATLS certification as a predictor of overall mortality. Following this finding we stratified patients according to the severity of injury as expressed by the ISS score and we compared outcome between those treated by an ATLS certified physician and those treated by non-certified ones. Trauma volume and demographics of trauma patients, factors that affect mortality of traumatized patients and mortality between patients treated by ATLS(®) certified and non-certified physicians. In total, 8862 trauma patients were included in the analysis. The majority of trauma patients (5988, 67.6%) were treated by a general surgeon, followed by those treated by an orthopedic surgeon (2194, 24.8%). There were 446 deaths in the registry but, 260 arrived dead in the Emergency Department and were excluded from the analysis. Multivariate analysis of the 186 deaths that occurred in the hospital revealed age, high ISS score, low GCS score, urban location of injury, neck injury and ATLS(®) certification as factors predisposing to mortality. Cross tabulation of ATLS(®) certification and ISS of the trauma patients shows that those treated by certified physicians died more often in all subcategories of ISS score (p<0.05). In Greece, with no formal trauma system implementation, ATLS(®) certified physicians achieve worse outcomes than their non-certified colleagues when managing trauma patients. We believe that these findings

  15. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  16. An examination of the integration of certified peer specialists into community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Emily A; Reinhart, Chrystal; Wituk, Scott; Meissen, Greg

    2012-08-01

    The formal role of Certified Peer Specialist (CPS) is a recent addition to the mental health field. CPSs are people in recovery employed within the mental health system, mostly by community mental health centers, to provide support through sharing life experiences with those working toward recovery from mental illness. This brief report examines participant's experiences being a CPS, responsibilities and activities as a CPS, and integration into community mental health centers. Findings suggest that CPSs demonstrate high levels of communal orientation, job satisfaction, workplace integration and organizational support and are well received in mental health centers.

  17. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  18. Ontology or formal ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Ontology or formal ontology? Which word is correct? The aim of this article is to introduce correct terms and explain their basis. Ontology describes a particular area of interest (domain) in a formal way - defines the classes of objects that are in that area, and relationships that may exist between them. Meaning of ontology consists mainly in facilitating communication between people, improve collaboration of software systems and in the improvement of systems engineering. Ontology in all these areas offer the possibility of unification of view, maintaining consistency and unambiguity.

  19. 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kief, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.

  20. Going the distance for certified cancer registrars.

    PubMed

    Backus, Amanda; Kolender, Ellen R

    2009-01-01

    Cancer registry departments are using electronic technology to solve the local and national Certified Tumor Registrar (CTR) shortages. As demand for CTRs continues to increase without an accompanied increase in the supply of qualified personnel, cancer registry departments are looking for new solutions to this growing local and national trend. In order to solve this problem, some cancer registries have started using telecommunication to fill the empty positions within their departments. This is the case at Roper St. Francis Healthcare (RSFH) in Charleston, SC, where Cancer Registry Manager, Ellen Kolender, RHIA, CTR, used telecommuting to fill one full-time and one part-time CTR position.

  1. Ethnic differences in certified sickness absence.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C C; Pocock, S J

    1982-01-01

    The certified sickness absence of 4482 employees in one plant of a large manufacturing company in South-east England was studied for 12 months. The absences in the principal ethnic groups, Caucasian, Asian, and West Indian were compared. After standardisation for age and job grade in each department the Asians had twice the spells per man and nearly twice the days lost per man compared with the Caucasians. Compared with the Caucasians there was slightly more absence in West Indians. Various factors affect absence, and one reason for these differences may be that the three ethnic groups appreciate painful or unpleasant stimuli to a different degree. PMID:7093156

  2. Correlates of Formal Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

    This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

  3. Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.

  4. Training and Certification Program for Certified Energy Auditors (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professionals (CBCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Bill

    2012-08-24

    The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has offered energy efficiency training and certification programs for over 30 years. During that time AEE has certified more than 22,000 professionals. All of our certification programs are the result of extensive industry research and program development and oversight by certification boards. For this project award, AEE proposed to work with the Department of Energy to utilize and extend existing industry recognized Certified Energy Auditor (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professional (CBCP) programs under this Training Program Development Announcement. These expanded training programs will have significant impact in training professionals for building commissioning and energy auditing to achieve the goal of bringing existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance potential and ensuring that new buildings maintain their expected optimal level of performance. The goals and objectives of the training development project were achieved with the development of new training programs that are now being offered as self-sustaining commercial training and certification programs. These new programs are training and certifying professionals who are accomplishing the goal of increasing building energy performance in both existing and new buildings.

  5. 24 CFR 1710.504 - Cooperation among certified states and between certified states and the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Certification of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710... the situs certified state laws. (4) Continue to effectively operate its Land Sales Program as...

  6. 77 FR 5415 - National Organic Program: Notice of Draft Guidance for Accredited Certifying Agents, Certified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 National Organic Program: Notice of... Certified Organic Products AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability with request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Organic Program (NOP) is announcing the availability of...

  7. Reflections on International Certified Nursing Assistants.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Penelope Ann

    2017-01-01

    The author, a former university faculty member who taught English to speakers of other languages and now a nursing home resident, shares her observations about how English language proficiency, culture, and religious differences affect her care. She provides examples of communication challenges that can be annoying or cause harm, her coping strategies, and reasons many certified nursing assistants might never be fully fluent in English. She explains how international certified nursing assistants can benefit residents because of skills developed by family-centered care in their countries of origin. She also discusses related issues-the importance of being culturally competent about U.S. culture. She points out how religiousness not only affects residents but is a buffer for staff against the stress of physically and emotionally demanding low-wage work. Overall, the author likes receiving care from individuals from other countries, finding reward in comparing how her personal struggle with illness and paralysis resonates with the trauma of migration and how learning firsthand about varying beliefs and attitudes clarifies her identity and place in world history.

  8. Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.

    PubMed

    Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C

    2010-04-15

    Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory.

  9. Atmospheric Entry Aerothermodynamics Flight Test on CubeSat Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakraker, I.; Umit, E.; van der Haegen, V.; Chazot, O.

    2014-06-01

    The challenging aerothermochemistry of atmospheric entry is aimed to be experimented on a triple CubeSat platform having ablative TPS in the front unit and ceramic TPS on the side panels. Five aerothermodynamics payloads are presented in this paper.

  10. Skunk Works type approach for F-SAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Gary F.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the F-SAT Program, the classic program organization, design/configuration management, procurement/material, manufacturing, quality assurance, the facility, and personnel management.

  11. Skunk Works type approach for F-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gary F.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the F-SAT Program, the classic program organization, design/configuration management, procurement/material, manufacturing, quality assurance, the facility, and personnel management.

  12. Cloud profiling radar for the CloudSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Wu, Chialin; Durden, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    The CloudSat Mission is a new satellite mission jointly developed by NASA, JPL, the Canadian Agency, Colorado State University, and the US AirForce to acquire a global data set of vertical cloud structure and its variability.

  13. Modeling Growth of SAT Reading Performance Using Repeated Measures Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Hui; Wiley, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Annual National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in New York in March 2008. This presentation explores the growth trajectory of the SAT Reading scores and examine what demographics and variation may cause changes and affect growth.

  14. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Engelhardt, B.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three Corner Sat (3CS) is a mission of three university nanosatellites scheduled for launch on September 2002. The 3CS misison will utilize significan onboard autonomy to perform onboard science data validation and replanning.

  15. ProSAT2—Protein Structure Annotation Server

    PubMed Central

    Gabdoulline, R. R.; Ulbrich, S.; Richter, S.; Wade, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    ProSAT2 is a server to facilitate interactive visualization of sequence-based, residue-specific annotations mapped onto 3D protein structures. As the successor of ProSAT (Protein Structure Annotation Tool), it includes its features for visualizing SwissProt and PROSITE functional annotations. Currently, the ProSAT2 server can perform automated mapping of information on variants and mutations from the UniProt KnowledgeBase and the BRENDA enzyme information system onto protein structures. It also accepts and maps user-prepared annotations. By means of an annotation selector, the user can interactively select and group residue-based information according to criteria such as whether a mutation affects enzyme activity. The visualization of the protein structures is based on the WebMol Java molecular viewer and permits simultaneous highlighting of annotated residues and viewing of the corresponding descriptive texts. ProSAT2 is available at . PMID:16845114

  16. Evolution of subterminal satellite (StSat) repeats in hominids.

    PubMed

    Koga, Akihiko; Notohara, Morihiro; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2011-02-01

    Subterminal satellite (StSat) repeats, consisting of 32-bp-long AT-rich units (GATATTTCCATGTT(T/C)ATACAGATAGCGGTGTA), were first found in chimpanzee and gorilla (African great apes) as one of the major components of heterochromatic regions located proximal to telomeres of chromosomes. StSat repeats have not been found in orangutan (Asian great ape) or human. This patchy distribution among species suggested that the StSat repeats were present in the common ancestor of African great apes and subsequently lost in the lineage leading to human. An alternative explanation is that the StSat repeats in chimpanzee and gorilla have different origins and the repeats did not occur in human. The purpose of the present study was quantitative evaluation of the above alternative possibilities by analyzing the nucleotide variation contained in the repeats. We collected large numbers of sequences of repeat units from genome sequence databases of chimpanzee and gorilla, and also bonobo (an African great ape phylogenetically closer to chimpanzee). We then compared the base composition of the repeat units among the 3 species, and found statistically significant similarities in the base composition. These results support the view that the StSat repeats had already formed multiple arrays in the common ancestor of African great apes. It is thus suggested that humans lost StSat repeats which had once grown to multiple arrays.

  17. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  18. AstroSat: From Inception to Realization and Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the idea of AstroSat multi wavelength satellite mission and how it evolved over the next 15 years from a concept to the successful development of instruments for giving concrete shape to this mission, is recounted in this article. AstroSat is the outcome of intense deliberations in the Indian astronomy community leading to a consensus for a multi wavelength Observatory having broad spectral coverage over five decades in energy covering near-UV, far-UV, soft X-ray and hard X-ray bands. The multi wavelength observation capability of AstroSat with a suite of 4 co-aligned instruments and an X-ray sky monitor on a single satellite platform, imparts a unique character to this mission. AstroSat owes its realization to the collaborative efforts of the various ISRO centres, several Indian institutions, and a few institutions abroad which developed the 5 instruments and various sub systems of the satellite. AstroSat was launched on September 28, 2015 from India in a near equatorial 650 km circular orbit. The instruments are by and large working as planned and in the past 14 months more than 200 X-ray and UV sources have been studied with it. The important characteristics of AstroSat satellite and scientific instruments will be highlighted.

  19. PhoneSat In-flight Experience Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Alberto Guillen; Attai, Watson; Oyadomari, Ken Y.; Priscal, Cedric; Schimmin, Rogan S.; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, consumer technology has vastly improved its performances, become more affordable and reduced its size. Modern day smartphones offer capabilities that enable us to figure out where we are, which way we are pointing, observe the world around us, and store and transmit this information to wherever we want. These capabilities are remarkably similar to those required for multi-million dollar satellites. The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center is building a series of CubeSat-size spacecrafts using an off-the-shelf smartphone as its on-board computer with the goal of showing just how simple and cheap space can be. Since the PhoneSat project started, different suborbital and orbital flight activities have proven the viability of this revolutionary approach. In early 2013, the PhoneSat project launched the first triage of PhoneSats into LEO. In the five day orbital life time, the nano-satellites flew the first functioning smartphone-based satellites (using the Nexus One and Nexus S phones), the cheapest satellite (a total parts cost below $3,500) and one of the fastest on-board processors (CPU speed of 1GHz). In this paper, an overview of the PhoneSat project as well as a summary of the in-flight experimental results is presented.

  20. Topside Ionospheric Sounder for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C.; Pratt, J.; Fish, C. S.; Winkler, C.; Pilinski, M.; Azeem, I.; Crowley, G.; Jeppesen, M.; Martineau, R.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will outline the design of a Topside Ionospheric Sounder (TIS) for CubeSats. In the same way that an ionosonde measures the ionospheric profile from the ground, a Topside Sounder measures the ionospheric profile from a location above the F-region peak. The TIS will address the need for increased space situational awareness and environmental monitoring by estimating electron density profiles in the topside of the ionosphere. The TIS will measure topside electron density profiles for plasma frequencies ranging from 0.89 MHz to 28.4 MHz below the satellite altitude. The precision of the measurement will be 5% or 10,000 p/cm^3. The TIS average power consumption will be below 10 W and a mass of less than 10 kg, so it is appropriate for a 6U Cubesat (or multiple of that size). The sounder will operate via a transmitted frequency sweep across the desired plasma frequencies which, upon reception, can be differenced to determine range and density information of the topside ionosphere. The velocity of the spacecraft necessitates careful balancing of range resolution and frequency knowledge requirements as well as novel processing techniques to correctly associate the return signal with the correct plasma frequency. TIS is being designed to provide a low cost, low mass spacecraft that can provide accurate topside profiles of the ionospheric electron density in order to further understanding of ionospheric structure and dynamic processes in the ionosphere.

  1. MarCO CubeSat Model

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-20

    Joel Steinkraus, lead mechanical engineer for the MarCO (Mars Cube One) CubeSat spacecraft, adjusts a model of one of the two spacecraft. The mock-up in the photo is in a configuration to show the deployed position of components that correspond to MarCO's two solar panels and two antennas. During launch, those components will be stowed for a total vehicle size of about 14.4 inches (36.6 centimeters) by 9.5 inches (24.3 centimeters) by 4.6 inches (11.8 centimeters). The briefcase-size MarCO twins were designed to ride along with NASA's next Mars lander, InSight. Its planned March 2016 launch was suspended. InSight -- an acronym for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport -- will study the interior of Mars to improve understanding of the processes that formed and shaped rocky planets, including Earth. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20344

  2. Semisymmetric systems: Hermitian formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchdahl, H. A.

    1995-04-01

    The power series representing the characteristic function of a regular semisymmetric system involves four linearly independent rotational invariants XA (A=1,.. .,4) that jointly satisfy a quadratic identity. When the X A are appropriately chosen, this takes the form -(X1)2-(X2 )2-(X3)2+( X4)2=0 . The XA are thus the components of a null vector in a four-dimensional Euclidean space whose metric is gAB: =diag(-1,-1 ,-1,1) . Such a vector is equivalent to a simple 2-spinor xi alpha . The intrinsic presence of a spin vector in the formalism used hitherto suggests that it might be of advantage to replace the latter with an explicit 2-spinor formalism. A way of doing this is examined.

  3. Guaiac interpretation by non-certified clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kimberly A; Kimura, Stuart I; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2012-09-01

    To assess the ability of non-certified clinicians to interpret guaiac test results. 50 clinicians were shown photographs of 20 guaiac test cards. They were asked to classify these as positive, negative, or uncertain. 31 nurses, 4 clinical assistants, 7 emergency attending MDs, 2 resident MDs, and 6 medical students comprised the study group. Mean correct percentages for 15 clearly positive or negative guaiac test cards ranged from 87% to 96% in each of the above groups. Correct results were lower for five of the borderline positive guaiac cards. This study demonstrates that all clinician groups correctly interpreted the guaiac result most of the time, but there was a moderate error rate. This data supports the Joint Commission standard for this particular point of care test; clinicians interpreting guaiac testing should be trained with demonstrated competency.

  4. Individualized care: perceptions of certified nurse's aides.

    PubMed

    Curry, L; Porter, M; Michalski, M; Gruman, C

    2000-07-01

    Despite substantial attention devoted to the development of individualized care in nursing homes during recent years, empirical research assessing progress is limited. Further, few studies have explored the experiences of certified nurse's aides (CNAs) in this regard. This survey examines the perceptions and experiences of CNAs in providing individualized care. CNAs (n = 254) were asked to describe a number of current practices and obstacles to implementing individualized care in nursing homes. The majority of respondents reported experiencing: flexibility to change daily schedules; supervisor assistance with challenging residents; active participation in care planning; freedom to test new approaches to care; and supervisors who are open to CNA suggestions. Several barriers to individualized care were also described, including: inadequate staffing; poor team communication; staff attitudes; and a lack of knowledge and training in alternative approaches. These findings provide important insights into the supports and obstacles to implementing individualized care in nursing homes from the perspective of CNAs.

  5. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    integrated with other code generators such as RealTime Workshop or even applied to legacy code. Our approach circumvents the historical problems with formal methods by increasing the degree of automation on all levels. The restriction to safety policies (as opposed to arbitrary functional behavior) results in simpler proof problems that can generally be solved by fully automatic theorem proves. An automated linking mechanism between the safety conditions and the code provides some of the traceability mandated by process standards such as DO-178B. An automated explanation mechanism uses semantic markup added by the verification condition generator to produce natural-language explanations of the safety conditions and thus supports their interpretation in relation to the code. It shows an automatically generated certification browser that lets users inspect the (generated) code along with the safety conditions (including textual explanations), and uses hyperlinks to automate tracing between the two levels. Here, the explanations reflect the logical structure of the safety obligation but the mechanism can in principle be customized using different sets of domain concepts. The interface also provides some limited control over the certification process itself. Our long-term goal is a seamless integration of certification, code generation, and manual coding that results in a "certified pipeline" in which specifications are automatically transformed into executable code, together with the supporting artifacts necessary for achieving and demonstrating the high level of assurance needed in the aerospace domain.

  6. Demonstrating the comparability of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Duewer, David L; Lippa, Katrice A; Long, Stephen E; Murphy, Karen E; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Welch, Michael J; Tani, Wataru; Umemoto, Masao

    2009-09-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) enable the meaningful comparison of measurement results over time and place. When CRMs are used to calibrate or verify the performance of a measurement system, results produced by that system can be related through the CRM to well-defined, stable, and globally accessible reference(s). Properly done, this directly establishes the metrological traceability of the results. However, achieving the meaningful comparison of results from measurement systems calibrated and/or verified with different CRMs requires that the different materials truly deliver the same measurand, that is, are "the same" within stated uncertainty except for differences in the level of the analyte of interest. We here detail experimental and data analysis techniques for establishing and demonstrating the comparability of materials. We focus on (1) establishing a uniform interpretation of the common forms of CRM uncertainty statements, (2) estimating consistent measurement system response uncertainties from sometimes inconsistent experimental designs, (3) using "errors-in-variables" analysis methods to evaluate comparability studies and novel graphical tools for communicating results of the evaluation to reviewing authorities and potential CRM customers, and (4) augmenting established comparability studies with new materials using measurements provided by the certifying institution. These experimental and data analytic tools were developed in support of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine's efforts to enhance the reliability of clinical laboratory measurements and are illustrated with potassium and cholesterol measurands of clinical relevance; however, these tools can be applied to any group of materials that deliver the same nominal measurand with stated value and uncertainty.

  7. Science-Driven NanoSats Design for Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesh, A. T.; Castillo, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    CubeSat-based exploration of Earth has driven the development of miniaturized systems and research-grade instruments. The current performance of CubeSats raises the question of their potential contribution to planetary exploration. Two possible applications can be foreseen. One would take advantage of the readily availability of the CubeSat deployer Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD) for planetary-related observations around Earth (e.g., O/OREOS mission, ExoPlanetSat), and, when propulsion systems develop, for interplanetary exploration. However, the CubeSat formfactor restricts payloads to be in an undeployed volume of 10x10x10 (1U) to 10x20x30 (6U) cm, based on the qualified and accepted P-POD. As a possible alternative, one may leverage the CubeSat-tailored subsystems to operate that platform as a secondary payload on a deep space mission. Whether the CubeSat formfactor constraint might be adjusted to accommodate a broader range of science applications or specific tailoring is required remains to be quantified. Through consultation with a wide range of scientists and engineers, we have examined the possible applications of secondary deep space NanoSats, and what derived requirements stem from these missions. Applications and requirements, together with existing technology, inform on common formfactors that could be useful for future planetary missions. By examining these formfactors, we have identified different categories of NanoSat explorer (additionally imposing discrete requirements on the mothership) that directly support scientific endeavors. In this paper, we outline some of the scientific applications that would drive the NanoSat formfactor design, as well as describe how the requirements affect programmatic issues. Several mission types are considered: passive deployment, active propulsion, targeted landing, and sample return. Each scenario changes the risk posture, and can impose additional considerations. Our goal has been to identify

  8. Expanding CubeSat Capabilities with a Low Cost Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palo, Scott; O'Connor, Darren; DeVito, Elizabeth; Kohnert, Rick; Schaire, Scott H.; Bundick, Steve; Crum, Gary; Altunc, Serhat; Winkert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    CubeSats have developed rapidly over the past decade with the advent of a containerized deployer system and ever increasing launch opportunities. These satellites have moved from an educational tool to teach students about engineering challenges associated with satellite design, to systems that are conducting cutting edge earth, space and solar science. Early variants of the CubeSat had limited functionality and lacked sophisticated attitude control, deployable solar arrays and propulsion. This is no longer the case and as CubeSats mature, such systems are becoming commercially available. The result is a small satellite with sufficient power and pointing capabilities to support a high rate communication system. Communications systems have matured along with other CubeSat subsystems. Originally developed from amateur radio systems, CubeSats have generally operated in the VHF and UHF bands at data rates below 10 kbps (kilobits per second). More recently higher rate UHF systems have been developed, however these systems require a large collecting area on the ground to close the communications link at 3 Mbps (megabits per second). Efforts to develop systems that operate with similar throughput at S-Band (2-4 GHz (gigaherz)) and C-Band (4-8 GHz (gigaherz)) have also recently evolved. In this paper we outline an effort to develop a high rate CubeSat communication system that is compatible with the NASA Near Earth Network and can be accommodated by a CubeSat. The system will include a 200 kbps (kilobits per second) S-Band receiver and a 12.5 Mbps (megabits per second).X-Band transmitter. This paper will focus on our design approach and initial results associated with the 12.5 Mbps (megabits per second) X-band transmitter.

  9. Solar neutron observations with ChubuSat-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutron observation is a key in understanding of ion accerelation mechanism in the Sun surface since neutrons are hardly affected by magnetic field around the Sun and intersteller mediums unlike charged particles. However, there was only a few tenth detections so far since its discovery in 1982. Actually SEDA-AP Fiber detector (FIB) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was suffered from a high neutron background produced by the ISS itself. ChubuSat is a series of 50-kg class microsatellite jointly depeloped by universities (Nagoya university and Daido university) and aerospace companies at the Chubu area of central Japan. The ChubuSat-2 is the second ChubuSat following the ChubuSat-1 which was launched by Russian DNEPR rocket on November 6, 2014. It was selected as one of four piggyback payloads of the X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H in 2014 summer, and will be launched by the H-IIA launch vehcles from from JAXA Tanegashima Space Center (TNSC) in February 2016. The ChubuSat-2 carries a mission instrument, radiation detector (RD). The main mission of ChubuSat-2 is devoted for monitoring neutrons and gamma-rays which can be background source for ASTRO-H celestrial observations with the RD. The mission also involves a function of solar neutron observations which were originally proposed by graduate students who join the leadership development program for space exploration and research, program for leading graduate schools at Nagoya University. The RD has a similar detection area and efficiency to those of the SEDA-AP FIB, but is expected to have lower backgrounthan the ISS thanks to much smaller mass of the micro-satellite. In this paper, we will describe details of ChubuSat-2 satellite and RD, and in-orbit performance of RD.

  10. CubeSat Material Limits for Design for Demise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with re-entry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with re-entry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for re-entry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.

  11. CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Protat, Alain; Bouniol, Dominique; O'Connor, E. J.; Baltink, Henk K.; Verlinde, J.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2011-03-01

    The calibration of the CloudSat spaceborne cloud radar has been thoroughly assessed using very accurate internal link budgets before launch, comparisons with predicted ocean surface backscatter at 94 GHz, direct comparisons with airborne cloud radars, and statistical comparisons with ground-based cloud radars at different locations of the world. It is believed that the calibration of CloudSat is accurate to within 0.5 to 1 dB. In the present paper it is shown that an approach similar to that used for the statistical comparisons with ground-based radars can now be adopted the other way around to calibrate other ground-based or airborne radars against CloudSat and / or detect anomalies in long time series of ground-based radar measurements, provided that the calibration of CloudSat is followed up closely (which is the case). The power of using CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator is demonstrated using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement cloud radar data taken at Barrow, Alaska, the cloud radar data from the Cabauw site, The Netherlands, and airborne Doppler cloud radar measurements taken along the CloudSat track in the Arctic by the RASTA (Radar SysTem Airborne) cloud radar installed in the French ATR-42 aircraft for the first time. It is found that the Barrow radar data in 2008 are calibrated too high by 9.8 dB, while the Cabauw radar data in 2008 are calibrated too low by 8.0 dB. The calibration of the RASTA airborne cloud radar using direct comparisons with CloudSat agrees well with the expected gains and losses due to the change in configuration which required verification of the RASTA calibration.

  12. CubeSat Material Limits For Design for Demise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with reentry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with reentry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for reentry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.

  13. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  14. 7 CFR 205.100 - What has to be certified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.100 What has to be certified. (a) Except for...,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” must be certified according to the...

  15. 7 CFR 205.100 - What has to be certified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.100 What has to be certified. (a) Except for...,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” must be certified according to...

  16. 7 CFR 205.100 - What has to be certified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.100 What has to be certified. (a) Except for...,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” must be certified according to...

  17. 7 CFR 205.100 - What has to be certified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.100 What has to be certified. (a) Except for...,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” must be certified according to...

  18. 76 FR 19310 - Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program AGENCY: Farm Service... Mediation Program. The information collection is necessary to ensure the grant program is being administered... following methods: Mail: Carol Wagner, Certified State Mediation Program Manager, USDA, FSA, Appeals and...

  19. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  20. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  1. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  2. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  3. 47 CFR 15.202 - Certified operating frequency range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certified operating frequency range. 15.202 Section 15.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.202 Certified operating frequency range. Client devices that operate in a...

  4. 77 FR 43535 - Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications... continue to have new ones to assign to parties that wish to certify new equipment. DATES: Effective August....gov . Summary of the Order 1. The Commission operates an equipment authorization program for...

  5. 7 CFR 205.100 - What has to be certified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.100 What has to be certified. (a) Except for...,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” must be certified according to the...

  6. About the EPA Plan to Certify Applicators in Indian Country

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Restricted use pesticides (RUPs) require special care to avoid harming human health or the environment. They can only be sold to or used by certified applicators. The EPA Plan applies to certified applicators who intend to apply RUPs in Indian Country.

  7. Teacher Efficacy of Alternative and Traditionally Certified Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sean Michael

    2012-01-01

    A teacher shortage in the area of special education has led to an increase in the number of alternatively certified special education teachers. Many alternative certification programs focus on content knowledge rather than pedagogical training, allowing many alternatively certified teachers into the classroom with little pedagogical training.…

  8. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants. 504.9 Section 504.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.9... use of natural gas or petroleum, or both, as a primary energy source in any certifying powerplant...

  9. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants. 504.9 Section 504.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.9... use of natural gas or petroleum, or both, as a primary energy source in any certifying powerplant...

  10. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certified local government... INTERIOR PROCEDURES FOR STATE, TRIBAL, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROGRAMS § 61.6 Certified local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification...

  11. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified local government... INTERIOR PROCEDURES FOR STATE, TRIBAL, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROGRAMS § 61.6 Certified local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification...

  12. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified local government... INTERIOR PROCEDURES FOR STATE, TRIBAL, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROGRAMS § 61.6 Certified local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification...

  13. 40 CFR 85.1407 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1407 Section 85.1407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1407... certifier that use of its certified equipment will not cause a substantial increase to urban bus engine...

  14. 40 CFR 85.1407 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1407 Section 85.1407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1407... certifier that use of its certified equipment will not cause a substantial increase to urban bus engine...

  15. A Survey of Training Needs of Experienced Certified Addictions Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 208 Certified Addiction Counselors (CAC) and Certified Prevention Specialists (CPS) about education and training topics in the field of alcohol and other drug abuse. Results indicate that CAC/CPS professionals prefer training topics that encompass cultural issues, alternative forms of treatment and relapse prevention delivered in…

  16. The Ethics of Counseling: A National Survey of Certified Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, William T.; Pope, Kenneth S.

    1993-01-01

    Collected national survey data from 579 counselors certified by National Board for Certified Counselors concerning their beliefs about whether each of 88 behaviors was ethical and how confident they were of their judgment. Systematic patterns in responding emerged in regard to age, sex, primary work setting, and degree. Participants indicated…

  17. 76 FR 80741 - TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors AGENCY: Office of the... accordance with Section 717 of the NDAA 2008, that would allow licensed or certified mental health counselors... services. Under current TRICARE requirements, mental health counselors (MHCs) are authorized to practice...

  18. 42 CFR 441.153 - Team certifying need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Team certifying need for services. 441.153 Section 441.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 441.153 Team certifying need for services. Certification under § 441.152 must be made by...

  19. A Survey of Training Needs of Experienced Certified Addictions Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 208 Certified Addiction Counselors (CAC) and Certified Prevention Specialists (CPS) about education and training topics in the field of alcohol and other drug abuse. Results indicate that CAC/CPS professionals prefer training topics that encompass cultural issues, alternative forms of treatment and relapse prevention delivered in…

  20. 27 CFR 478.95 - Certified copy of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified copy of license... Conduct of Business § 478.95 Certified copy of license. The license furnished to each person licensed... the licensee desires an additional copy of the license for certification (instead of making a...

  1. 7 CFR 97.179 - Copies and certified copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies and certified copies. 97.179 Section 97.179... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Fees and Charges § 97.179 Copies and certified copies. (a) Upon request, copies of applications, certificates, or of any records, books, papers, drawings, or photographs in the...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1407 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1407... certifier that use of its certified equipment will not cause a substantial increase to urban bus engine... § 85.1403(b) for all affected urban bus operators as specified in § 85.1401, the notification shall...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1407 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1407... certifier that use of its certified equipment will not cause a substantial increase to urban bus engine... § 85.1403(b) for all affected urban bus operators as specified in § 85.1401, the notification shall...

  4. 7 CFR 762.106 - Preferred and certified lender programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preferred and certified lender programs. 762.106 Section 762.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.106 Preferred and certified...

  5. 7 CFR 762.106 - Preferred and certified lender programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preferred and certified lender programs. 762.106 Section 762.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.106 Preferred and certified...

  6. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants. 504.9 Section 504.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.9... fuel as a primary energy source in a certifying powerplant. (a) NEPA compliance. Except as provided...

  7. 40 CFR 267.117 - How do I certify closure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I certify closure? 267.117 Section 267.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... PERMIT Closure § 267.117 How do I certify closure? Within 60 days of the completion of final closure...

  8. 40 CFR 267.117 - How do I certify closure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I certify closure? 267.117 Section 267.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... PERMIT Closure § 267.117 How do I certify closure? Within 60 days of the completion of final closure...

  9. 40 CFR 267.117 - How do I certify closure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I certify closure? 267.117 Section 267.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... PERMIT Closure § 267.117 How do I certify closure? Within 60 days of the completion of final closure...

  10. 30 CFR 90.203 - Certified person; maintenance and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified person; maintenance and calibration. 90.203 Section 90.203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.203 Certified person; maintenance and calibration. (a...

  11. 42 CFR 441.153 - Team certifying need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Team certifying need for services. 441.153 Section 441.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 441.153 Team certifying need for services. Certification under § 441.152 must be made by terms...

  12. 42 CFR 441.153 - Team certifying need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Team certifying need for services. 441.153 Section 441.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 441.153 Team certifying need for services. Certification under § 441.152 must be made by terms...

  13. 42 CFR 441.153 - Team certifying need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Team certifying need for services. 441.153 Section 441.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 441.153 Team certifying need for services. Certification under § 441.152 must be made by terms...

  14. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria. The... every five years. One of the criteria for a mine operator to certify the qualifications of a coal...

  15. 76 FR 14366 - National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Certified Medical Examiners AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Transportation. ACTION... National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners (NRCME) published on December 1, 2008. In the comments on the NPRM, a commenter inquired as to what a motor carrier had to do to verify that a medical examiner...

  16. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking Or Labeling Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by variety name...

  17. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking Or Labeling Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by variety name...

  18. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking Or Labeling Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by variety name...

  19. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking Or Labeling Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by variety name...

  20. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking Or Labeling Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by variety name...

  1. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  2. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  3. Forecasting Evaluation of WindSat in the Coastal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas F.; Bettenhausen, Mike H.; Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; Richardson, Kim; Jedlovec, Gary; Smith, Matt

    2012-01-01

    WindSat has demonstrated that measurements from polarimetric space-based microwave radiometers can be used to retrieve global ocean surface vector winds. Since the date of launch in 2003, substantial incremental improvements have been made to WindSat data processing, calibration, and retrieval algorithms. The retrievals now have higher resolution, improved wind vector ambiguity removal, and enhanced capability to represent high winds. Utilization of WindSat retrievals (wind vectors, total precipitable water, rainrate and sea surface temperature) will be demonstrated in the context of operational weather forecasting applications, especially the monitoring of topographically-forced winds. Examples will be presented from various parts of the world, including inland seas, midlatitude oceans, the tropics, and the United States. We will illustrate retrievals in extreme high- and extreme low-wind regimes, both of which can be problematic. Rain contamination will be addressed. We will include a comparison of WindSat vector maps to corresponding maps from the QuikScat scatterometer. We will discuss how near-realtime data from WindSat is being transitioned to specific offices within the National Weather Service.

  4. A novel solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) scanning scheme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Yu, Cedric

    2010-08-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image.

  5. A novel solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) scanning scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jin; Yu, Cedric

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. Methods: An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. Results: SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Conclusions: Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image.

  6. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  7. A Comparison of the SOCIT and DebriSat Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausay, E.; Cornejo, A.; Horn, A.; Palma, K.; Sato, T.; Blake, B.; Pistella, F.; Boyle, C.; Todd, N.; Zimmerman, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the differences between, and shares the lessons learned from, two hypervelocity impact experiments critical to the update of Department of Defense (DOD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite breakup models. The procedures as well as the processes of the fourth Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT4) were analyzed and related to the ongoing DebriSat experiment. SOCIT4 accounted for about 90% of the entire satellite mass, but only analyzed approximately 59% with a total of approximately 4,700 fragments. DebriSat aims to recover and analyze 90% of the initial mass and to do so, fragments with at least a longest dimension of 2 mm are collected and processed. DebriSat's use of modern materials, especially carbon fiber, significantly increases the fragment count and to date, there are over 126,000 fragments collected. Challenges, such as procedures and human inputs, encountered throughout the DebriSat experiment are also shared. While, SOCIT4 laid the foundation for the majority of DebriSat processes, the technological advancements since SOCIT4 allow for more accurate, rigorous, and in-depth, procedures that will aid the update of satellite breakup models.

  8. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  9. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Certified cost or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certified cost or pricing...

  10. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21... Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data... Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a) Exceptions...

  11. 40 CFR 1068.261 - What provisions apply for selling or shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified configuration? 1068.261 Section 1068.261... provisions apply for selling or shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified configuration... (f) of this section. (a) Shipping an engine separately from an aftertreatment component that you have...

  12. Teacher quality: a comparison of National Board-certified and non-Board-certified teachers of deaf students.

    PubMed

    Scheetz, Nanci A; Martin, David S

    2006-01-01

    THE STUDY was designed to identify specific components of teacher excellence, focusing initially on the characteristics of the small number of teachers of the deaf who are certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), then comparing those with the characteristics of other teachers identified as master teachers by university faculty in teacher preparation in deafness. Classroom observation, written lesson plans, teacher questionnaires on beliefs, and content analysis of interactive electronic focus groups were used to compare the two groups of teachers. Results indicated similarities between Board-certified and non-Board-certified master teachers in regard to teacher behaviors and commitment to well-founded pedagogical principles. Differences were found in classroom priorities and in the greater level of interconnectivity expressed by Board-certified teachers as the result of becoming Board certified. Recommendations are made for preparing teachers of deaf students.

  13. Job turnover intentions among Certified Pharmacy Technicians.

    PubMed

    Desselle, Shane P

    2005-01-01

    To describe the job withdrawal intentions of a nationwide sample of Certified Pharmacy Technicians (CPhTs). Cross-sectional descriptive design. A random sample of 3,200 CPhTs whose names and contact information were acquired from the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board. Mailed survey. Responses to questions eliciting job withdrawal intentions, reasons for remaining/staying with the employer, and various quality of worklife attitudes. Employment intentions were regressed over quality of worklife and practice environment variables in a forward-conditional logistic regression procedure. Nearly 4 in 5 respondents indicated intentions to remain with the current employer during the next 12 months. Relationships with coworkers, good benefits, and work schedule were frequently cited as reasons to stay. Poor salary, lack of advancement opportunity, and insufficient staffing were cited frequently as factors among those indicating intentions to leave. Mean hourly wages differed among respondents with intention to leave due to salary, those not citing salary as a reason to remain or leave, and those citing salary as a reason for staying. Intention to remain was associated with higher pay, perceived employer support, number of years with the current employer, and lower career turnover intentions, with organizational commitment acting as a powerful mediator for all of the variables. Differences in CPhTs' future employment intentions were described more comprehensively by perceptions of the employing organization than by perceptions of managers/supervisors and coworkers or personal/work environment variables. Implications for pharmacy organizations are discussed.

  14. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Atlas launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The design and requirements for the proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite experiment, which is to be launched by Atlas I, are examined. The COLD-SAT experiments are categorized as class I and II; class I involves technology related to space transportation missions and class II represents alternative fluid management operations and data. The hardware for the COLD-SAT experiments consists of three hydrogen tanks contained in the experimental module; the experimental module is connected to a three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus, and thrusters are positioned on the forward and aft ends of the spacecraft and on the cylindrical portion of the experimental module. The components and systems of the experiment module and the types of experiments that can be conducted in each tank are described. Diagrams of the spacecraft configuration are provided.

  15. Space Weather Mission of SmartSat Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akioka, M.; Miyake, W.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ohtaka, K.; Kimura, S.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    2009-06-01

    The SmartSat Program is a collaborative program of government agency (NICT,JAXA) and private sector (MHI) in Japan to develop small satellite about 200 Kg. The space weather experiment of the SmartSat consists of Wide Field CME Imager (WCI), Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA), and mission processor (MP). Both of the instruments will be principal components of the L5 mission. WCI is a imager to track CME as far as earth orbit. CME brightness near earth orbit is expected 1E-15 solar brightness or 1/200 of zodiacal light brightness. To observe such a extreme faint target, we are developing wide field of view camera with very high sensitivity and large dynamic range. These highly challenging experiment and demonstration will be implemented in SmartSat program.

  16. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Asmolova, Olha; McHarg, Matthew G.; Quiller, Trey; Maldonado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The US Air Force Academy of Physics has built FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny circular dimples etched into a Kapton sheet. The membrane its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control, recording electronics are packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, extending out and pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be directed at the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. We will present details of the optical configuration, operation and performance of the flight telescope which has been made ready for launch in early 2017.

  17. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Atlas launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The design and requirements for the proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite experiment, which is to be launched by Atlas I, are examined. The COLD-SAT experiments are categorized as class I and II; class I involves technology related to space transportation missions and class II represents alternative fluid management operations and data. The hardware for the COLD-SAT experiments consists of three hydrogen tanks contained in the experimental module; the experimental module is connected to a three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus, and thrusters are positioned on the forward and aft ends of the spacecraft and on the cylindrical portion of the experimental module. The components and systems of the experiment module and the types of experiments that can be conducted in each tank are described. Diagrams of the spacecraft configuration are provided.

  18. iSat Surface Charging and Thruster Plume Interactions Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Willis, E.; Minow, J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is designing the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) cubesat mission to demonstrate operations of an iodine electric thruster system. The spacecraft will be deployed as a secondary payload from a launch vehicle which has not yet been identified so the program must plan for the worst case environments over a range of orbital inclinations. We present results from a NASA and Air Force Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP-2K) surface charging calculation used to evaluate the effects of charging on the spacecraft and to provide the charging levels at other locations in orbit for a thruster plume interaction analysis for the iSAT mission. We will then discuss results from the thruster interactions analysis using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC). The results of these analyses are being used by the iSAT program for a range of environments that could be encountered when the final mission orbit is selected.

  19. A Comparison of the SOCIT and DebriSat Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausay, Erick; Blake, Brandon; Boyle, Colleen; Cornejo, Alex; Horn, Alexa; Palma, Kirsten; Pistella, Frank; Sato, Taishi; Todd, Naromi; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, Marlon; Huynh, Thomas; Opiela, John; Krisko, Paula H.; Cowardin, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the differences between, and shares the lessons learned from, two hypervelocity impact experiments critical to the update of orbital debris environment models. The procedures and processes of the fourth Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT) were analyzed and related to the ongoing DebriSat experiment. SOCIT was the first hypervelocity impact test designed specifically for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It targeted a 1960's U.S. Navy satellite, from which data was obtained to update pre-existing NASA and DOD breakup models. DebriSat is a comprehensive update to these satellite breakup models- necessary since the material composition and design of satellites have evolved from the time of SOCIT. Specifically, DebriSat utilized carbon fiber, a composite not commonly used in satellites during the construction of the US Navy Transit satellite used in SOCIT. Although DebriSat is an ongoing activity, multiple points of difference are drawn between the two projects. Significantly, the hypervelocity tests were conducted with two distinct satellite models and test configurations, including projectile and chamber layout. While both hypervelocity tests utilized soft catch systems to minimize fragment damage to its post-impact shape, SOCIT only covered 65% of the projected area surrounding the satellite, whereas, DebriSat was completely surrounded cross-range and downrange by the foam panels to more completely collect fragments. Furthermore, utilizing lessons learned from SOCIT, DebriSat's post-impact processing varies in methodology (i.e., fragment collection, measurement, and characterization). For example, fragment sizes were manually determined during the SOCIT experiment, while DebriSat utilizes automated imaging systems for measuring fragments, maximizing repeatability while minimizing the potential for human error. In addition to exploring these variations in methodologies and processes, this paper also presents the

  20. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident.

  1. HaloSat: A CubeSat to Map the Distribution of Baryonic Matter in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Drew M.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately half of predicted baryonic matter in the Milky Way remains unidentified. One possible explanation for the location of this missing matter is in an extended Galactic halo. HaloSat is a CubeSat that aims to constrain the mass and distribution of the halo’s baryonic matter by obtaining an all-sky map of O VII and O VIII emission in the hot gas associated with the halo of the Milky Way. HaloSat offers an improvement in the quality of measurements of oxygen line emission over existing X-ray observatories and an observation plan dedicated to mapping the hot gas in the Galactic halo. In addition to the missing baryon problem, HaloSat will assign a portion of its observations to the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) in order to calibrate models of SCWX emission. We present here the current status of HaloSat and the progression of instrument development in anticipation of a 2018 launch.

  2. Mathematical and Formalized Epistemologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, Robert

    A mathematical epistemology at the macroscopic level is proposed, based on the process of perception represented by an observation operator. The linear case introduces a Volterra composition with the two extreme cases of multiplication and convolution. Presented in terms of observation operators, are introduced the concepts of epistemological indiscernibility and of epistemological inverse transfer. The case of perception of duration is considered, as well as time-space selection and time-space filtering, which give rise to rather general modelings of familiar observation devices. If the observing system also has the ability to decide, a pragmatic operator, the product of observation and decision operators, may be introduced. It generates pragmatic indiscernibility and pragmatic inverse transfers. The resulting actions modify the evolution of the supersystem composed of the system and its environment, thereby creating a feedback loop allowing the construction of a mathematical epistemo-praxiology, which may be seen as a step toward other formal epistemologies not restricted to the macroscopic domain.

  3. Mars Moons Prospector Mission with CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Bogdan; Nayak, Mikey; Allen, Brett; Bourke, Justin; Casariego, Gabriela; Gosselin, Steven; Hiester, Evan; Maier, Margaret; Melchert, Jeanmarie; Patel, Chitrang; Reis, Leslie; Smith, Gregory; Snow, Travis; Williams, Sarah; Franquiz, Francsico

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary design of a low-cost Discovery class mission for prospecting Mars moons Phobos and Deimos is undertaken as capstone senior design class in spacecraft design. The mission design is centred on a mothership that carries a dozen of 12U CubeSats, each of 22x22x34cm in size and 24kg in mass. The mothership is equipped with a set of instruments for the investigation of regolith samples, similar to those with identical functions on the Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rovers. The mothership also serves as a telecommunication hub with Earth. Six of the CubeSats have the role of touching down and picking up soil samples for delivery to the mothership for analysis and the six have the role of visually inspecting the moon at close proximity in visible and near and mid infrared light and deploying instruments on the surface of the moons. A suite of miniaturized instruments are investigated for deployment on the CubeSats. The CubeSats are designed to dock with the mothership to be refueled and they heavily leverage the design of the ARAPAIMA (www.eraucubesat.org) proximity operations 6U CubeSat currently in development at ERAU for the Air Force University Nanosatellite Program. The concept of operations envisions the launch of the mothership as a primary payload on a Mars transfer trajectory. After performing a Mars capture maneuver the mothership undertakes autonomous aerobraking to achieve a highly elliptic orbit with the apoapsis at Deimos altitude of 23,460km. Further maneuvering places the mothership in a relative orbit about Deimos from which the CubeSats are deployed. Once the investigation of Deimos is completed the mothership retrieves its CubeSats and maneuver to achieve a relative orbit about Phobos. An investigation similar to that of Deimos is performed. If the mass margins allow it then an extended mission will attempt to confirm the presence of a dust ring between Phobos and Deimos and conduct multi-point atmospheric investigations with supplemental 3U

  4. LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1990-01-01

    The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

  5. Radiation Tolerant, FPGA-Based SmallSat Computer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaMeres, Brock J.; Crum, Gary A.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Tolerant, FPGA-based SmallSat Computer System (RadSat) computing platform exploits a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with real-time partial reconfiguration to provide increased performance, power efficiency and radiation tolerance at a fraction of the cost of existing radiation hardened computing solutions. This technology is ideal for small spacecraft that require state-of-the-art on-board processing in harsh radiation environments but where using radiation hardened processors is cost prohibitive.

  6. NASA CloudSat Looks Hurricane Nichole in the Eye

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-14

    NASA's CloudSat satellite completed an eye overpass of Hurricane Nicole on Oct. 12, 2016, at 10:55 a.m. PDT (17:55 UTC) as the storm was moving toward Bermuda. At the time the system had sustained winds of 109 miles per hour (95 knots), with a minimum pressure of 962 millibars. CloudSat viewed the system just as it was going through a period of intensification (from 98 miles per hour, or 85 knots, to 121 miles per hour (105 knots) during a 12-hour period. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21098

  7. LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1990-01-01

    The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

  8. Preliminary analysis of a radiobiological experiment for LifeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Nealy, John E.; Hardy, Alva C.; Atwell, William; Schimmerling, Walter

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of performing radiation life science experiments on a dedicated satellite (LifeSat) in space, a combined effort in radiation physics and radiation dosimetry, in addition to radiation biology, is clearly required to ensure that meaningful biological experiments can be performed. To better understand the relationship of these disciplines, some possible LifeSat missions are examined. As a trial biological system, tumorigenesis is considered in the Harderian gland of mice, a system of sufficient radiosensitivity for which relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is well defined by laboratory experiments.

  9. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  10. CryoSat Plus For Oceans: an ESA Project for CryoSat-2 Data Exploitation Over Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Clarizia, M.; Roca, M.; Gommenginger, C. P.; Naeije, M. C.; Labroue, S.; Picot, N.; Fernandes, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Cancet, M.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA CryoSat-2 mission is the first space mission to carry a space-borne radar altimeter that is able to operate in the conventional pulsewidth-limited (LRM) mode and in the novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the Cryosat-2 mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter also presents the possibility of demonstrating significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications, based on expected performance enhancements which include improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution. With this scope in mind, the "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) Project, dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 Data over ocean, supported by the ESA STSE (Support To Science Element) programme, brings together an expert European consortium comprising: DTU Space, isardSAT, National Oceanography Centre , Noveltis, SatOC, Starlab, TU Delft, the University of Porto and CLS (supported by CNES),. The objectives of CP4O are: - to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of Cryosat-2 data over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for sea-floor mapping. - to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter , and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. - to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised. In particular four themes will be addressed: -Open Ocean Altimetry: Combining GOCE Geoid Model with CryoSat Oceanographic LRM Products for the retrieval of CryoSat MSS/MDT model over open ocean surfaces and for analysis of mesoscale and large scale prominent open ocean features. Under this priority the project will also foster the exploitation of the finer resolution and higher SNR of novel CryoSat SAR Data to detect short spatial scale open ocean features. -High Resolution Polar

  11. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Vourch, Clement J.; Drysdale, Timothy D.; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-10-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five “tones” with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB community and (iii) the Amateur Satellite Service bands in the Table of Frequency Allocations used by the Federal Communications Commission. CalSat would be placed in a polar orbit allowing visibility from observatories in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Summit Station in Greenland, and the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Atacama Desert in Chile and the South Pole. CalSat also would be observable by balloon-borne instruments launched from a range of locations around the world. This global visibility makes CalSat the only source that can be observed by all terrestrial and sub-orbital observatories, thereby providing a universal standard that permits comparison between experiments using appreciably different measurement approaches.

  12. 43 CFR 44.23 - How does the Department certify payment computations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Certified Public Accountant, or an independent public accountant, that the statement has been audited in... guidelines that State auditors, independent Certified Public Accountants, or independent public accountants...

  13. 43 CFR 44.23 - How does the Department certify payment computations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Certified Public Accountant, or an independent public accountant, that the statement has been audited in... guidelines that State auditors, independent Certified Public Accountants, or independent public accountants...

  14. 43 CFR 44.23 - How does the Department certify payment computations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Certified Public Accountant, or an independent public accountant, that the statement has been audited in... guidelines that State auditors, independent Certified Public Accountants, or independent public accountants...

  15. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  16. The Shrinking Black-White Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Recent research shows that the SAT II test is a much better predictor of college success than the standard SAT. In recent years, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on the wide variety of academic subjects (particularly chemistry, world history, and biology) that are measured by the SAT II test. (SM)

  17. The Effect of Personality Preferences on the 2005 Version of the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrs, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers suggest the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is biased toward certain personality types. Extant literature lacked examination of personality constructs and their relationship with SAT scores of the newly revised SAT. The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the Sensing and Intuition…

  18. The Effect of Personality Preferences on the 2005 Version of the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrs, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers suggest the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is biased toward certain personality types. Extant literature lacked examination of personality constructs and their relationship with SAT scores of the newly revised SAT. The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the Sensing and Intuition…

  19. Deep first formal concept search.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis.

  20. Deep First Formal Concept Search

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis. PMID:25254232

  1. Regulation of Controlled Substance Prescribing: An Overview for Certified Nurse-Midwives and Certified Midwives.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Kathryn

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the regulation of prescriptive authority and prescribing practices conducted by individual states, the prescription of controlled substances is also regulated at the federal level by the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). While there are variations in state laws relative to controlled substance prescribing, federal law is uniform across states as established by the Controlled Substances Act (21 United States Code § 801-890) and the DEA Regulations (Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations). The only controlled substance for which states have authorized use that is outside the regulations set forth in the Controlled Substances Act is marijuana for the treatment of certain medical conditions. A review of statutes and administrative rules for all 50 states and the District of Columbia revealed that certified midwives (CMs) are authorized to prescribe controlled substances only in the state of New York, and there are variations across states in the regulation of controlled substance prescribing by certified nurse-midwives (CNMs). The purpose of this article is to examine the federal regulation of controlled substance prescribing by the US DEA and common variations in state regulations relative to controlled substance prescribing. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  3. 7 CFR 205.661 - Investigation of certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.661 Investigation of... regulations of this part concerning production and handling operations certified as organic by the...

  4. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  5. 7 CFR 205.661 - Investigation of certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.661 Investigation of... regulations of this part concerning production and handling operations certified as organic by the...

  6. 7 CFR 205.661 - Investigation of certified operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.661 Investigation of... regulations of this part concerning production and handling operations certified as organic by the...

  7. A Missed Opportunity: Master's Education for Certified Nurse Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.; Morrison, Candis

    1997-01-01

    Describes Johns Hopkins's Nurse Practitioner Certificate to Master's Program for certified nurse practitioners who lacked master's-level credentials. the program features challenge mechanisms whereby students can acquire credits by examination or portfolio development. (SK)

  8. Certified mail fails to reach an Emergency Department population.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James R; Stephens, Sheila; Summers, Richard L

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if correspondence sent by regular mail would be delivered more often than correspondence sent by certified mail. Correspondence was prospectively randomized and mailed by United States Postal Service using either regular mail service or certified mail service. Mailings were analyzed based on patient demographic information, whether or not mail was returned, and the reason for the return. Certified mail was sent to 145 patients; 58 (40%) of the mailings were returned. Wrong addresses accounted for only 23 (16%) of these, whereas the addressee never claimed 35 (24%). Regular mail was sent to 126 patients, and 19 (15%) of the letters were returned. Wrong addresses accounted for 18 (14%) of these letters, and only 1 (1%) was refused for delivery. In conclusion, when compared with certified mail, regular mail is a more effective means of reaching patients with follow-up information after an Emergency Department visit.

  9. 19 CFR 115.6 - Designated Certifying Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Northchase Drive, Houston, Texas 77060-6008; (2) International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc., 321 West 44th Street... Register North America, Inc., 1401 Enclave Parkway, Suite 200, Houston, Texas 77077, as a Certifying...

  10. 19 CFR 115.6 - Designated Certifying Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Northchase Drive, Houston, Texas 77060-6008; (2) International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc., 321 West 44th Street... Register North America, Inc., 1401 Enclave Parkway, Suite 200, Houston, Texas 77077, as a Certifying...

  11. 19 CFR 115.6 - Designated Certifying Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Northchase Drive, Houston, Texas 77060-6008; (2) International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc., 321 West 44th Street... Register North America, Inc., 1401 Enclave Parkway, Suite 200, Houston, Texas 77077, as a Certifying...

  12. 19 CFR 115.6 - Designated Certifying Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Northchase Drive, Houston, Texas 77060-6008; (2) International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc., 321 West 44th Street... Register North America, Inc., 1401 Enclave Parkway, Suite 200, Houston, Texas 77077, as a Certifying...

  13. 19 CFR 115.6 - Designated Certifying Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Northchase Drive, Houston, Texas 77060-6008; (2) International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc., 321 West 44th Street... Register North America, Inc., 1401 Enclave Parkway, Suite 200, Houston, Texas 77077, as a Certifying...

  14. 40 CFR 85.2115 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certification of that part; and (v) A description of the tests, techniques, procedures, and results utilized to... certified part will not cause a substantial increase to vehicle emissions in any normal driving mode...

  15. 40 CFR 85.2115 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certification of that part; and (v) A description of the tests, techniques, procedures, and results utilized to... certified part will not cause a substantial increase to vehicle emissions in any normal driving mode...

  16. 40 CFR 85.2115 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certification of that part; and (v) A description of the tests, techniques, procedures, and results utilized to... certified part will not cause a substantial increase to vehicle emissions in any normal driving mode...

  17. 40 CFR 85.2115 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certification of that part; and (v) A description of the tests, techniques, procedures, and results utilized to... certified part will not cause a substantial increase to vehicle emissions in any normal driving mode...

  18. 40 CFR 85.2115 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) At least 45 days prior to the sale of any certified automotive aftermarket part, notification of... copies of the notification and any subsequent industry comments on any such notification shall be...

  19. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... generally closed in New York City, then the certified daily rate for the last preceding business day shall.... The daily buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York...

  20. 45 CFR 155.225 - Certified application counselors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... coverage selection process; (2) Assist individuals and employees to apply for coverage in a QHP through the... an artificial or prerecorded voice, except in cases where the individual certified...

  1. A Better SAT Starts with a Better College Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, John

    2014-01-01

    It is so easy to criticize the SAT that most observers overlook the weaknesses of its architect, the College Board. This author contents that, until the latter is replaced, however, the former will never be fixed. The College Board has every incentive to create a complex, stressful, expensive college admissions system. Because it is accountable to…

  2. S.A.T. Drop: Let's Ban the Bomb Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Questions radiological physicist Ernest J. Sternglass's theory that links falling Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores in the 1960s and '70s to nuclear weapons testing in the late '40s, the '50s, and early '60s. Notes other scientists' contention that Sternglass's theory only establishes a correlation, not a cause and effect relationship. (JBM)

  3. An Assessment of the Dimensionality of SAT-Mathematical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Ida M.; Dorans, Neil J.

    Six editions of Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M) were factor analyzed using confirmatory and exploratory methods. Confirmatory factor analyses (using the LISREL VI program) were conducted on correlation matrices among item parcels--sums of scores on a small subset of items. Item parcels were constructed to yield correlation matrices…

  4. Smart Sat experiment for the L5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akioka, M.; Ohtaka, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Miyake, W.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    We have proposed the L5 mission for space weather research and operational forecasting experiment. The spacecraft will be deployed at the L5 Point of the Sun - Earth system for remote sensing of the Sun and the interplanetary space and for in situ measurement of the solar wind plasma and high energy solar particle event. For the L5 mission, CRL and JAXA develop wide field imager for CME tracking and advanced high energy particle sensor. We plan orbital demonstration in near earth orbit before the L5 mission as the Smart Sat program. The Smart Sat is a pair of small satellites about 150Kg, which will be a collaborative program of government agency (CRL,JAXA) and private sector (MHI) in Japan. The space weather experiment of the Smart Sat consists of Wide field imager for CME tracking (WCI) and Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment (SEDA). Both of the instruments will be principal components of the L5 mission. In this article, we report an overview of the space weather experiment of Smart Sat program.

  5. SmartSat Experiment for the L5 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsuma, T.; Akioka, M.; Ohtaka, K.; Miyake, W.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    2004-12-01

    We have planned the L5 mission for space weather research and operational forecasting experiment. In this mission, a spacecraft will be deployed at the L5 point of the Sun - Earth system for remote sensing of the Sun and the interplanetary space, and for in-situ measurements of the solar wind plasma and high energy particles. For this mission, NICT and JAXA develop wide field imager for tracking CME propagation from the Sun to the Earth and advanced high-energy particle sensor for monitoring of solar particle events, respectively. Before proceeding the L5 mission, we are planning orbital demonstration in GTO using a platform of small satellite, called "SmartSat". The SmartSat program is a collaborative program of government agencies (NICT and JAXA), and a private company (Mitsubishi Heavy Industry) in Japan. The wide field coronal imager (WCI) and space environment data acquisition experiment (SEDA) will be tested by this program as the space weather experiment, since both of the instruments will be principal components of the L5 mission. The SmartSat is planned to be launched by 2007, about 1 year after the launch of STEREO spacecrafts. Therefore, we are expecting the coordinated observation with STEREO mission. In this paper, we will report an overview of the space weather experiment in SmartSat program.

  6. Two Professors Retake the SAT: Is It a Good Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Christopher; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, two professors retake the college-entrance exam and arrive at very different conclusions about its performance. Even though Christopher Harper has worked as a college professor for 15 years, he decided last winter to take the SAT and ACT examinations that his students needed to enter the institution where he teaches, Temple…

  7. NexSat: Previewing NPOESS/VIIRS Imagery Capabilities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Steven D.; Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; Kent, John; Turk, F. Joseph; Lee, Thomas F.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Richardson, Kim; Wade, Robert; Hoffman, Carl

    2006-04-01

    Under the auspices of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's (NPOESS) Integrated Program Office (IPO), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed "NexSat" (http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/nexsat_pages/nexsat_home.html public-access online demonstration over the continental United States (CONUS) of near-real-time environmental products highlighting future applications from the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Based on a collection of operational and research-grade satellite observing systems, Nex-Sat products include the detection, enhancement, and where applicable, physical retrieval of deep convection, low clouds, light sources at night, rainfall, snow cover, aircraft contrails, thin cirrus layers, dust storms, and cloud/ aerosol properties, all presented in the context of value-added imagery. The purpose of NexSat is threefold: 1) to communicate the advanced capabilities anticipated from VIIRS, 2) to present this information in near-real time for use by forecasters, resource managers, emergency response teams, civic planners, the aviation community, and various government agencies, and 3) to augment the NRL algorithm development multisensor/model-fusion test bed for accelerated transitions to operations during the NPOESS era. This paper presents an overview of NexSat, highlighting selected products from the diverse meteorological phenomenology over the CONUS.

  8. Beyond Individual Differences: Exploring School Effects on SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the complex, hierarchical relation among school characteristics, individual differences in academic achievement, extracurricular activities, and socioeconomic background on performance on the verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Using multilevel structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we…

  9. A University Looks at the College Board's Redesigned SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronné Patrick

    2014-01-01

    As an institution that receives close to 50,000 applications for the 2,800 spaces for the first-year entering class, Northeastern University took special interest in the College Board's March 5 announcement on the SAT redesign. In this article, associate vice president of enrollment and dean of admissions at Northeastern, Ronné Turner, describes…

  10. S.A.T. Drop: Let's Ban the Bomb Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Questions radiological physicist Ernest J. Sternglass's theory that links falling Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores in the 1960s and '70s to nuclear weapons testing in the late '40s, the '50s, and early '60s. Notes other scientists' contention that Sternglass's theory only establishes a correlation, not a cause and effect relationship. (JBM)

  11. CloudSat Reflectivity Data Visualization Inside Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Wright, John R.; Falcon, Pedro C.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented methods to rapidly produce visualization and outreach products from CloudSat data for science and the media These methods combine data from several sources in the product generation process In general, the process can be completely automatic, producing products and notifying potential users

  12. CloudSat Reflectivity Data Visualization Inside Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Wright, John R.; Falcon, Pedro C.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented methods to rapidly produce visualization and outreach products from CloudSat data for science and the media These methods combine data from several sources in the product generation process In general, the process can be completely automatic, producing products and notifying potential users

  13. WindSat Global Soil Moisture Retrieval and Validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A physically based six-channel land algorithm is developed to simultaneously retrieve the global soil moisture, vegetation water content and land surface temperature. The algorithm is based on a maximum-likelihood estimation and uses WindSat passive microwave data at 10, 18.7 and 37 GHz. The global ...

  14. A University Looks at the College Board's Redesigned SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronné Patrick

    2014-01-01

    As an institution that receives close to 50,000 applications for the 2,800 spaces for the first-year entering class, Northeastern University took special interest in the College Board's March 5 announcement on the SAT redesign. In this article, associate vice president of enrollment and dean of admissions at Northeastern, Ronné Turner, describes…

  15. The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Noel, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Reuter, Max; Burrows, John P.; Jurado Lozano, Pedro Jose; Meijer, Yasjka; Loescher, Armin; Acarreta, Juan R.; Sturm, Philipp; Tesmer, Volker; Sanchez Monero, Ana Maria; Atapuerca Rodreiguez de Dios, Francisco Javier; Toledano Sanchez, Daniel; Boesch, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the CarbonSat mission is to improve our knowledge on natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4. CarbonSat was one of the two candidate missions selected for definition studies for becoming Earth Explorer 8 (EE8).The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator (CSE2ES) simulates the full data flow of the mission with a set of modules embedded in ESA's generic simulation framework OpenSF. A Geometry Module (GM) defines the orbital geometry and related parameters. A Scene Generation Module (SGM) provides simulated radiances and irradiances for the selected scenes. The Level 1 Module (L1M) compromises the instrument simulator and the Level 1b processor, and provide as main output calibrated spectra. The L1M is implemented in two versions, reflecting the instrument concepts from the two competing industrial system studies. The Level 2 Retrieval Module (L2M) performs the retrieval from the input level 1b spectra to the atmospheric parameters (CO2 and CH4).In this paper, we show sensitivity studies with respect to atmospheric parameters, simulations along the orbit and a case study for the detection of a point source emitting carbon dioxide. In summary, the end-to-end simulation with CSE2ES proves the capability of the CarbonSat concept to reach its requirements.

  16. Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

  17. A Better SAT Starts with a Better College Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, John

    2014-01-01

    It is so easy to criticize the SAT that most observers overlook the weaknesses of its architect, the College Board. This author contents that, until the latter is replaced, however, the former will never be fixed. The College Board has every incentive to create a complex, stressful, expensive college admissions system. Because it is accountable to…

  18. The COLD-SAT experiment for cryogenic fluid management technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, J. P.; Vento, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft design experiments are described. COLD-SAT will be placed into an initial 1300 km circular orbit by an Atlas commercial launch vehicle. Electric power, experiment control and data management, attitude control, and propulsive accelarations for the experiments will be provided by the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus. To provide data on the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved, low levels of accelaration will be created. The COLD-SAT experiment will be configured into a module. The spacecraft experiment module will include three liquid hydrogen tanks; fluid transfer, pressurization and venting equipment; and instrumentation. Since the largest tank has helium-purged MLI to prevent ingress and freezing of air on the launchpad, it will contain all the liquid hydrogen at the point of launching. The hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas will load and top off this tank. Atlas, with its liquid hydrogen upper stage, large payload fairing, and large launch margin, simplifies COLD-SAT design and integration.

  19. CubeSats failures caused by space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourencena Caldas Franke, Lucas; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Santos Cupertino Durao, Otavio; Lopes Costa, Lucas; Escobar Burger, Eduardo; Zolar Gehlen Bohrer, Rubens; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli

    When a satellite is in orbit, it remains in direct contact with a hostile environment. An analyzes of possible failures that have occurred with CubeSat class satellites due to this exposure is presented. These small satellites have 10cm cubic form and about 1.33 kilograms, they have all subsystems integrated on a single module that fits in the available intern volume, using high technology of miniaturization. Generally, this satellites are launched at a 650km (LEO) altitude orbits. At this range, one of the biggest problems that may affect satellites is the precipitation of charged particles, and this may cause the failure of subsystems and magnetic interference in equipments, with emphasis to natural causes as the impact of solar activity (the solar cycle, solar flares, coronal mass ejection, etc.) and the interference of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly, knowing that the majority of CubeSat's orbits intersect at some point the acting anomaly region. The analysis consist of a statistical survey of thirty nine CubeSats already launched, taking into account their actual conditions, giving results of the most common causes and issues that have occurred with them, including the relationship with larger satellites of all kinds, thus contributing for the success and optimization of future CubeSats missions.

  20. Space-Based Optical Communications with CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Monica L.; Nguyen, Anh Ngoc; Frost, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Optical communication systems use lasers to encode and transmit data with higher speed and density than traditional radio frequency (RF)-based communications. Smaller antennas, lower power requirements, and increased spectrum availability enable optical communications to be integrated into CubeSats more easily than radios, enabling afford-able communications solutions for future NASA missions.

  1. Two Professors Retake the SAT: Is It a Good Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Christopher; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, two professors retake the college-entrance exam and arrive at very different conclusions about its performance. Even though Christopher Harper has worked as a college professor for 15 years, he decided last winter to take the SAT and ACT examinations that his students needed to enter the institution where he teaches, Temple…

  2. Behind the SAT-Optional Movement: Context and Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The advent of the modern form of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), brought to bear by the combination of the Educational Testing Service (ETS) and Harvard's former president James Bryant Conant (Lemann 1999), was designed to promote the recognition of talent and intellect, wherever they may be found. Their aim was to provide greater educational…

  3. Malaria Early Warning: The MalarSat project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, M.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Martínez, D.; Torrent, M.; Aponte, J.; Nunez, F.; Garcia, J.

    2009-04-01

    Malaria is one of the major public health challenges undermining development in the world. The aim of MalarSat Project is to provide a malaria risks infection maps at global scale using Earth Observation data to support and prevent epidemic episodes. The proposed service for creating malaria risk maps would be critically useful to improve the efficiency in insecticide programs, vaccine campaigns and the logistics epidemic treatment. Different teams have already carried out studies in order to exploit the use of Earth Observation (EO) data with epidemiology purposes. In the case of malaria risk maps, it has been shown that meteorological data is not sufficient to fulfill this objective. In particular being able to map the malaria mosquito habitat would increase the accuracy of risk maps. The malaria mosquitoes mainly reproduce in new water puddles of very reduced dimensions (about 1 meter wide). There is no instrument that could detect such small patches of water unless there are many of them spread in an area of several hundreds of meters. MalarSat aims at using the radar altimeter data from the EnviSat, RA-2, to try and build indicators of mosquitoes existence. This presentation will show the scientific objectives and principles of the MalarSat project.

  4. Project ELaNa and NASA's CubeSat Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett Lee

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA program to use expendable lift vehicles (ELVs) to launch nanosatellites for the purpose of enhancing educational research. The Education Launch of Nanosatellite (ELaNa) project, run out of the Launch Services Program is requesting proposals for CubeSat type payload to provide information that will aid or verify NASA Projects designs while providing higher educational research

  5. Analysis of WindSat Data over Arctic Sea Ice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The radiation of the 3rd and 4th Stokes components emitted by Arctic sea ice and observed by the spaceborne fully polarimetric radiometer WindSat is investigated. Two types of analysis are carried out, spatial (maps of different quadrants of azimuth look angles) and temporal (time series of daily av...

  6. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  7. CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite-based research mission collaborate with informal education programs bringing atmospheric research to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, D.; Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2003-04-01

    Informal Education is an integral part of the Education and Public Outreach programs developed for both CloudSat and CALIPSO; two satellite-based research missions co-manifested for launch in 2004 and scheduled to be included in the NASA "A-Train". Incorporated in the efforts of both missions are partnerships with informal organizations whose aim is to assist with educating the general public regarding the specific goals of each mission. The A-Train will consist of six satellites flying in close proximity, providing combined detailed observations about the condition of Earth and assisting scientists with making predictions related to climate change. CloudSat will use radar and provide a global survey of cloud properties to improve cloud models and the accuracy of weather forecasts. CALIPSO will use Lidar to detect size and distribution of aerosols to aid in improving our understanding of the role aerosols and clouds play in Earth's climate system. NASA values the incorporation of outreach programs both formal and informal in each of their missions. Specific to the CloudSat and CALIPSO outreach programs is a unique partnership with informal organizations aimed at promoting life long learners and an educated general public. These informal education programs have been designed to include collaborations with Science &Technology Centers, National Parks, and Public Broadcasting Networks. CloudSat and CALIPSO currently work with several Science Centers in the development of demonstrations, education programs, and exhibits as well as the National Parks System in the development of education packets and web-based materials for their Junior Ranger and Parks as Classrooms programs. Also included in the CloudSat and CALIPSO informal programs is the production of radio and video segments available for public broadcasts and the development of a web-based learning community that includes online explorations for the public. Each of these informal programs will have a long

  8. The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator: Standards of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    A student in a Lamaze Childbirth Educator Program expresses concern that some Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators (LCCE educators) do not teach classes that reflect Lamaze standards. In this column, the ethical and professional standards of the LCCE educator and the challenges the childbirth educator experiences while practicing in the current maternity-care environment are presented and discussed. Lamaze International's Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators provides guidance when dealing with these challenges. PMID:18408808

  9. Validation Experiments supporting the CryoSat-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.; Davidson, M.; Wingham, D.

    2009-12-01

    The primary goals of CryoSat are to derive improved estimates of the rates of change concerning land ice elevation and sea ice thickness and freeboard of the Earth’s land and marine ice fields. Validating such retrievals derived from a phase coherent pulse-width limited polar observing radar altimeter such as SIRAL, the primary payload of CryoSat, is not a simple one. In order to understand all the respective error co-variances it is necessary to acquire many different types of in-situ measurements (GPR, neutron probe density profiles, drilled and electromagnetic derived sea-ice thicknesses, for example) in highly inhospitable regions of the cryosphere at times of the year to detect relevant signals. In order to correlate retrievals from CryoSat with the in-situ data it was decided early in the CryoSat development that an aircraft borne radar altimeter with similar functionality to SIRAL would provide the necessary link, albeit on the smaller scale, and provide pre-launch incite into expected performances. In 2001 ESA commenced the development of its own prototype radar altimeter that mimics the functionality of SIRAL to be operated along-side an airborne laser scanner. Similar to SIRAL, but with subtle functional differences, the airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) has now been the centre piece instrument for a number of large scale land and sea ice field campaigns in the Arctic during spring and autumn 2004 and 2006 and 2008. Additional smaller science/test campaigns have taken place in March 2003 (Svalbard), March 2005 (Bay of Bothnia), March 2006 (Western Greenland) and April 2007 (CryoVEx 2007 in Svalbard). It is a credit to all parties that constitute the CryoSat Validation and Retrieval Team (CVRT) for the coordination, planning, acquisition of in-situ and airborne measurements and the subsequent processing and distributing of its data for analysis. CVRT has a robust infrastructure in place for validating and providing measures of

  10. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  11. X-Band CubeSat Communication System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunc, Serhat; Kegege, Obadiah; Bundick, Steve; Shaw, Harry; Schaire, Scott; Bussey, George; Crum, Gary; Burke, Jacob C.; Palo, Scott; O'Conor, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Today's CubeSats mostly operate their communications at UHF- and S-band frequencies. UHF band is presently crowded, thus downlink communications are at lower data rates due to bandwidth limitations and are unreliable due to interference. This research presents an end-to-end robust, innovative, compact, efficient and low cost S-band uplink and X-band downlink CubeSat communication system demonstration between a balloon and a Near Earth Network (NEN) ground system. Since communication systems serve as umbilical cords for space missions, demonstration of this X-band communication system is critical for successfully supporting current and future CubeSat communication needs. This research has three main objectives. The first objective is to design, simulate, and test a CubeSat S- and X-band communication system. Satellite Tool Kit (STK) dynamic link budget calculations and HFSS Simulations and modeling results have been used to trade the merit of various designs for small satellite applications. S- and X-band antennas have been tested in the compact antenna test range at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to gather radiation pattern data. The second objective is simulate and test a CubeSat compatible X-band communication system at 12.5Mbps including S-band antennas, X-band antennas, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) /GSFC transmitter and an S-band receiver from TRL-5 to TRL-8 by the end of this effort. Different X-band communication system components (antennas, diplexers, etc.) from GSFC, other NASA centers, universities, and private companies have been investigated and traded, and a complete component list for the communication system baseline has been developed by performing analytical and numerical analysis. This objective also includes running simulations and performing trades between different X-band antenna systems to optimize communication system performance. The final objective is to perform an end-to-end X-band CubeSat communication system

  12. CloudSat Anomaly Recovery and Operational Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona; Vane, Deborah; Livermore, Thomas; Rokey, Mark; Barthuli, Marda; Gravseth, Ian J.; Pieper, Brian; Rodzinak, Aaron; Silva, Steve; Woznick, Paul; hide

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, NASA's pioneering cloud profiling radar satellite, CloudSat, experienced a battery anomaly that placed it into emergency mode and rendered it operations incapable. All initial attempts to recover the spacecraft failed as the resultant power limitations could not support even the lowest power mode. Originally part of a six-satellite constellation known as the "A-Train", CloudSat was unable to stay within its assigned control box, posing a threat to other A-Train satellites. CloudSat needed to exit the constellation, but with the tenuous power profile, conducting maneuvers was very risky. The team was able to execute a complex sequence of operations which recovered control, conducted an orbit lower maneuver, and returned the satellite to safe mode, within one 65 minute sunlit period. During the course of the anomaly recovery, the team developed several bold, innovative operational strategies. Details of the investigation into the root-cause and the multiple approaches to revive CloudSat are examined. Satellite communication and commanding during the anomaly are presented. A radical new system of "Daylight Only Operations" (DO-OP) was developed, which cycles the payload and subsystem components off in tune with earth eclipse entry and exit in order to maintain positive power and thermal profiles. The scientific methodology and operational results behind the graduated testing and ramp-up to DO-OP are analyzed. In November 2011, the CloudSat team successfully restored the vehicle to consistent operational collection of cloud radar data during sunlit portions of the orbit. Lessons learned throughout the six-month return-to-operations recovery effort are discussed and offered for application to other R&D satellites, in the context of on-orbit anomaly resolution efforts.

  13. LEDsats: LEO CubeSats with LEDs for Optical Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, P.; Cutler, J.; Piergentili, F.; Santoni, F.; Arena, L.; Cardona, T.; Cowardin, H.; Lee, C.; Sharma, S.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a project to launch 1U CubeSats equipped with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for optical tracking with ground-based telescopes. Active illumination on the satellites increases tremendously the number of passes where the LEO satellite is visible when the ground-based telescope is in darkness. The restriction that the satellite is in direct Sun is removed, and so tracking can take place all night long rather than just in twilight. The inspiration for this project came from the Japanese CubeSat FITSAT-1 that carried red and green high-powered LED arrays, and was clearly visible from the ground with small telescopes. There are two goals: 1) increase the accuracy and precision of LEO orbits by increasing the number and length of passes that satellite is visible, and 2) minimize the confusion between objects in the case of multiple CubeSats being launched at the same time. Technical issues to be discussed include the power level required for detection by small (20 - 40 cm) ground based telescopes, the optimum flash pattern for astrometry against star fields, and the timing of the flash pattern to millisecond or better accuracy and precision. We propose to deploy two such LEDsats simultaneously from the International Space Station: the first to be built at the University of Michigan, and the second to be built at Sapienza University Rome. One experiment is to see how we can distinguish these two CubeSats shortly after deployment solely from optical tracking, and so the CubeSats will have different flash patterns.

  14. CloudSat Anomaly Recovery and Operational Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona; Vane, Deborah; Livermore, Thomas; Rokey, Mark; Barthuli, Marda; Gravseth, Ian J.; Pieper, Brian; Rodzinak, Aaron; Silva, Steve; Woznick, Paul; Nayak, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, NASA's pioneering cloud profiling radar satellite, CloudSat, experienced a battery anomaly that placed it into emergency mode and rendered it operations incapable. All initial attempts to recover the spacecraft failed as the resultant power limitations could not support even the lowest power mode. Originally part of a six-satellite constellation known as the "A-Train", CloudSat was unable to stay within its assigned control box, posing a threat to other A-Train satellites. CloudSat needed to exit the constellation, but with the tenuous power profile, conducting maneuvers was very risky. The team was able to execute a complex sequence of operations which recovered control, conducted an orbit lower maneuver, and returned the satellite to safe mode, within one 65 minute sunlit period. During the course of the anomaly recovery, the team developed several bold, innovative operational strategies. Details of the investigation into the root-cause and the multiple approaches to revive CloudSat are examined. Satellite communication and commanding during the anomaly are presented. A radical new system of "Daylight Only Operations" (DO-OP) was developed, which cycles the payload and subsystem components off in tune with earth eclipse entry and exit in order to maintain positive power and thermal profiles. The scientific methodology and operational results behind the graduated testing and ramp-up to DO-OP are analyzed. In November 2011, the CloudSat team successfully restored the vehicle to consistent operational collection of cloud radar data during sunlit portions of the orbit. Lessons learned throughout the six-month return-to-operations recovery effort are discussed and offered for application to other R&D satellites, in the context of on-orbit anomaly resolution efforts.

  15. Shields-1, A SmallSat Radiation Shielding Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, D. Laurence, III; Kim, Wousik; Cutler, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Shields CubeSat initiative is to develop a configurable platform that would allow lower cost access to Space for materials durability experiments, and to foster a pathway for both emerging and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radiation shielding technologies to gain spaceflight heritage in a relevant environment. The Shields-1 will be Langleys' first CubeSat platform to carry out this mission. Radiation shielding tests on Shields-1 are planned for the expected severe radiation environment in a geotransfer orbit (GTO), where advertised commercial rideshare opportunities and CubeSat missions exist, such as Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). To meet this objective, atomic number (Z) graded radiation shields (Zshields) have been developed. The Z-shield properties have been estimated, using the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) radiation shielding computational modeling, to have 30% increased shielding effectiveness of electrons, at half the thickness of a corresponding single layer of aluminum. The Shields-1 research payload will be made with the Z-graded radiation shields of varying thicknesses to create dose-depth curves to be compared with baseline materials. Additionally, Shields-1 demonstrates an engineered Z-grade radiation shielding vault protecting the systems' electronic boards. The radiation shielding materials' performances will be characterized using total ionizing dose sensors. Completion of these experiments is expected to raise the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of the tested atomic number (Z) graded materials. The most significant contribution of the Z-shields for the SmallSat community will be that it enables cost effective shielding for small satellite systems, with significant volume constraints, while increasing the operational lifetime of ionizing radiation sensitive components. These results are anticipated to increase the development of CubeSat hardware design for increased mission lifetimes, and enable

  16. Spacecraft Charging Analysis of a CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging occurs when charged particles from the surrounding space plasma environment contact a spacecraft and unequal charging currents result in a net charge density accumulation on or in spacecraft materials. Charging becomes a threat when differential potentials between two points on the spacecraft or between the spacecraft and the ambient space environment build to the level that electric fields associated with the potentials exceed the electric breakdown strength of the spacecraft materials and electrostatic discharge arcs are generated. Electrostatic discharges resulting from spacecraft charging can adversely affect telemetry and cause irreparable damage to electronics. Other spacecraft charging effects include damage of solar arrays and thermal protection, enhancement of contamination of surfaces, and degradation of optics. Typically, the large government and commercial space programs include spacecraft charging analysis as part of the design process. CubeSat projects, however, usually do not have the time or funding to include a spacecraft charging analysis due to their low budget and quick-turnaround requirements. CubeSat projects also tend to rely heavily on commercial "off-the-shelf" products, many of which are not qualified for use in space, and are particularly vulnerable to the effects of the space environment. As the demand for longer and more complex CubeSat missions increases, it is becoming more and more important to consider the effects of spacecraft charging in the design process. Results of surface charging analysis using Nascap-2k on a typical CubeSat design for a polar orbit scenario are illustrated. These results show that for a polar orbiting CubeSat, spacecraft charging could be an issue and steps should be taken to mitigate the effects for these small satellites.

  17. Deriving Safety Cases for the Formal Safety Certification of Automatically Generated Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basir, Nurlida; Denney, Ewen; Basir, Nurlida

    2009-01-01

    We present an approach to systematically derive safety cases for automatically generated code from information collected during a formal, Hoare-style safety certification of the code. This safety case makes explicit the formal and informal reasoning principles, and reveals the top-level assumptions and external dependencies that must be taken into account; however, the evidence still comes from the formal safety proofs. It uses a generic goal-based argument that is instantiated with respect to the certified safety property (i.e., safety claims) and the program. This will be combined with a complementary safety case that argues the safety of the framework itself, in particular the correctness of the Hoare rules with respect to the safety property and the trustworthiness of the certification system and its individual components. Keywords: Automated code generation, Hoare logic, formal code certification, safety case, Goal Structuring Notation.

  18. Deriving Safety Cases for the Formal Safety Certification of Automatically Generated Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basir, Nurlida; Denney, Ewen; Basir, Nurlida

    2009-01-01

    We present an approach to systematically derive safety cases for automatically generated code from information collected during a formal, Hoare-style safety certification of the code. This safety case makes explicit the formal and informal reasoning principles, and reveals the top-level assumptions and external dependencies that must be taken into account; however, the evidence still comes from the formal safety proofs. It uses a generic goal-based argument that is instantiated with respect to the certified safety property (i.e., safety claims) and the program. This will be combined with a complementary safety case that argues the safety of the framework itself, in particular the correctness of the Hoare rules with respect to the safety property and the trustworthiness of the certification system and its individual components. Keywords: Automated code generation, Hoare logic, formal code certification, safety case, Goal Structuring Notation.

  19. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Andersen, Ole; Cancet, Mathilde; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Martin, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry, which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, Envisat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  20. To Be or Not to Be Certified.

    PubMed

    Suskie, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    The pathway to professional development does not require a start or end date. Professional development is a perpetual process that is set into motion the day you first ask "why?" or "how?" Anyone who has spent time with a toddler knows that the endless pursuit of knowledge and, therefore, intellectual growth starts at a very young age. As we mature, we refine our questions beyond the whys and hows and start the professional development journey. Throughout each academic pursuit, we accomplish another rung on the ladder of our achievements. As we graduate from kindergarten, grade school, high school, and college, we easily point to the parchment most of these ceremonious events yield. Once we start our careers, though, what do we have to show for our professional development efforts? The mountains of literature provide a constant reminder of what you have left to learn. Most professions provide a formal pathway to aid in professional development, and medical practice management is no exception. The certification and fellowship program and process available from the Medical Group Management Association provides a system to map your journey of professional development--complete with its own version of parchment. This article explains why you would want to pursue professional development in the form of certification and Fellowship.