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Sample records for formation predictability maps

  1. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  2. Compressor map prediction tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Arjun; Sznajder, Lukasz; Bennett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    Shell Global Solutions uses an in-house developed system for remote condition monitoring of centrifugal compressors. It requires field process data collected during operation to calculate and assess the machine's performance. Performance is assessed by comparing live results of polytropic head and efficiency versus design compressor curves provided by the Manufacturer. Typically, these design curves are given for specific suction conditions. The further these conditions on site deviate from those prescribed at design, the less accurate the health assessment of the compressor becomes. To address this specified problem, a compressor map prediction tool is proposed. The original performance curves of polytropic head against volumetric flow for varying rotational speeds are used as an input to define a range of Mach numbers within which the non-dimensional invariant performance curve of head and volume flow coefficient is generated. The new performance curves of polytropic head vs. flow for desired set of inlet conditions are then back calculated using the invariant non-dimensional curve. Within the range of Mach numbers calculated from design data, the proposed methodology can predict polytropic head curves at a new set of inlet conditions within an estimated 3% accuracy. The presented methodology does not require knowledge of detailed impeller geometry such as throat areas, blade number, blade angles, thicknesses nor other aspects of the aerodynamic design - diffusion levels, flow angles, etc. The only required mechanical design feature is the first impeller tip diameter. Described method makes centrifugal compressor surveillance activities more accurate, enabling precise problem isolation affecting machine's performance.

  3. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  4. Motion Predicts Clinical Callus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Jacob; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Lujan, Trevor; Peindl, Richard; Kellam, James; Anderson, Donald D.; Lack, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mechanotransduction is theorized to influence fracture-healing, but optimal fracture-site motion is poorly defined. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3-D) fracture-site motion as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis would influence callus formation for a clinical series of supracondylar femoral fractures treated with locking-plate fixation. Methods: Construct-specific FE modeling simulated 3-D fracture-site motion for sixty-six supracondylar femoral fractures (OTA/AO classification of 33A or 33C) treated at a single institution. Construct stiffness and directional motion through the fracture were investigated to assess the validity of construct stiffness as a surrogate measure of 3-D motion at the fracture site. Callus formation was assessed radiographically for all patients at six, twelve, and twenty-four weeks postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses examined the effects of longitudinal motion, shear (transverse motion), open fracture, smoking, and diabetes on callus formation. Construct types were compared to determine whether their 3-D motion profile was associated with callus formation. Results: Shear disproportionately increased relative to longitudinal motion with increasing bridge span, which was not predicted by our assessment of construct stiffness alone. Callus formation was not associated with open fracture, smoking, or diabetes at six, twelve, or twenty-four weeks. However, callus formation was associated with 3-D fracture-site motion at twelve and twenty-four weeks. Longitudinal motion promoted callus formation at twelve and twenty-four weeks (p = 0.017 for both). Shear inhibited callus formation at twelve and twenty-four weeks (p = 0.017 and p = 0.022, respectively). Titanium constructs with a short bridge span demonstrated greater longitudinal motion with less shear than did the other constructs, and this was associated with greater callus formation (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this study of

  5. Kernel-Based Equiprobabilistic Topographic Map Formation.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle MM

    1998-09-15

    We introduce a new unsupervised competitive learning rule, the kernel-based maximum entropy learning rule (kMER), which performs equiprobabilistic topographic map formation in regular, fixed-topology lattices, for use with nonparametric density estimation as well as nonparametric regression analysis. The receptive fields of the formal neurons are overlapping radially symmetric kernels, compatible with radial basis functions (RBFs); but unlike other learning schemes, the radii of these kernels do not have to be chosen in an ad hoc manner: the radii are adapted to the local input density, together with the weight vectors that define the kernel centers, so as to produce maps of which the neurons have an equal probability to be active (equiprobabilistic maps). Both an "online" and a "batch" version of the learning rule are introduced, which are applied to nonparametric density estimation and regression, respectively. The application envisaged is blind source separation (BSS) from nonlinear, noisy mixtures.

  6. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. PMID:24064605

  7. Galaxy Interactions with FIRE: Mapping Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a suite of 75 simulations of galaxies in idealised major mergers (stellar mass ratio ~2.5:1), with a wide range of orbital parameters, to investigate the spatial extent of interaction-induced star formation. Two versions are used, one based on a Kennicult-like subgrid model (Gadget, Springel & Hernquist 2003); the other based on the new Feedback In Realistic Environments model (FIRE, Hopkins et al. 2014). Although the total star formation in galaxy encounters is generally elevated relative to isolated galaxies, we find that this elevation is a combination of intense enhancements within the central kpc and moderately suppressed activity at large galacto-centric radii. This effect appears to be stronger in the older Gadget model. Suppression is the disk is also found in the FIRE runs, but at larger scales. This is because tidal torques are weaker in the newer FIRE model, leading to a more extended nuclear starburt. Our predictions of the radial dependence of triggered star formation, and specifically the suppression of star formation beyond kpc-scales, will be testable with the next generation of integral-field spectroscopic surveys.

  8. Accuracy, resolution, and cost comparisons between small format and mapping cameras for environmental mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras providing acceptable photographs within cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required only large format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be better. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  9. Predicting Droplet Formation on Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, Jacob Alfred

    Centrifugal microfluidics is a widely known research tool for biological sample and water quality analysis. Currently, the standard equipment used for such diagnostic applications include slow, bulky machines controlled by multiple operators. These machines can be condensed into a smaller, faster benchtop sample-to-answer system. Sample processing is an important step taken to extract, isolate, and convert biological factors, such as nucleic acids or proteins, from a raw sample to an analyzable solution. Volume definition is one such step. The focus of this thesis is the development of a model predicting monodispersed droplet formation and the application of droplets as a technique for volume definition. First, a background of droplet microfluidic platforms is presented, along with current biological analysis technologies and the advantages of integrating such technologies onto microfluidic platforms. Second, background and theories of centrifugal microfluidics is given, followed by theories relevant to droplet emulsions. Third, fabrication techniques for centrifugal microfluidic designs are discussed. Finally, the development of a model for predicting droplet formation on the centrifugal microfluidic platform are presented for the rest of the thesis. Predicting droplet formation analytically based on the volumetric flow rates of the continuous and dispersed phases, the ratios of these two flow rates, and the interfacial tension between the continuous and dispersed phases presented many challenges, which will be discussed in this work. Experimental validation was completed using continuous phase solutions of different interfacial tensions. To conclude, prospective applications are discussed with expected challenges.

  10. Model predictive formation control of helicopter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffarian, Mehdi

    In this thesis, a robust formation control framework for formation control of a group of helicopters is proposed and designed. The dynamic model of the helicopter has been developed and verified through simulations. The control framework is constructed using two main control schemes for navigation of a helicopter group in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Two schemes are designed to maintain the position of one helicopter with respect to one or two other neighboring members, respectively. The developed parameters can uniquely define the position of the helicopters with respect to each other and can be used for any other aerial and under water vehicles such as airplanes, spacecrafts and submarines. Also, since this approach is modular, it is possible to use it for desired number and form of the group helicopters. Using the defined control parameters, two decentralized controllers are designed based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) algorithm technique. The framework performance has been tested through simulation of different formation scenarios.

  11. Prediction of collective opinion in consensus formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Jianguo; Pan, Xue; Song, Wen-Jun; Li, Xu-Dong

    2014-12-01

    In the consensus formation dynamics, the effect of leaders and interventions have been widely studied for it has many applications such as in politics and commerce. However, the problem is how to know if it is necessary for one to make an intervention. In this paper, we theoretically propose a method for predicting the tendency and final state of collective opinion. By giving each agent a conviction ci which measures the ability to insist on his opinion, we present an opinion formation model in which agents with high convictions naturally show up properties of the opinion leaders. Results reveal that, although each agent initially gets an opinion evenly distributed in the range [-1, 1], the collective opinion of the steady-state may deviate to the positive or negative direction because of the initial bias of the leaders' opinions. We further get the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship between the collective opinion and the initial bias according to both the experimental and theoretical analysis. Thus, we could predict the final state at the very beginning of the dynamic only if we get the opinions of a small portion of the population. The prediction would afford us more time and opportunities to make reactions and interventions.

  12. Bilingual Knowledge Maps (BiK Maps) as a Presentation Format: Delayed Recall and Training Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, G. Sussane; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    The use of bilingual graphic organizers (bilingual knowledge maps [BiK maps]) as a presentation format was investigated for the acquisition of foreign language vocabulary. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions for the task of studying 32 German-English word pairs. Participants in each condition were trained on either lists or BiK maps…

  13. Can Selforganizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Michael J.; Klose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using delta(z) = z(sub phot) - z(sub spec)) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods

  14. Stochasticity and predictability in terrestrial planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Volker; Grimm, Simon L.; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial planets are thought to be the result of a vast number of gravitational interactions and collisions between smaller bodies. We use numerical simulations to show that practically identical initial conditions result in a wide array of final planetary configurations. This is a result of the chaotic evolution of trajectories which are highly sensitive to minuscule displacements. We determine that differences between systems evolved from virtually identical initial conditions can be larger than the differences between systems evolved from very different initial conditions. This implies that individual simulations lack predictive power. For example, there is not a reproducible mapping between the initial and final surface density profiles. However, some key global properties can still be extracted if the statistical spread across many simulations is considered. Based on these spreads, we explore the collisional growth and orbital properties of terrestrial planets, which assemble from different initial conditions (we vary the initial planetesimal distribution, planetesimal masses, and giant planet orbits.). Confirming past work, we find that the resulting planetary systems are sculpted by sweeping secular resonances. Configurations with giant planets on eccentric orbits produce fewer and more massive terrestrial planets on tighter orbits than those with giants on circular orbits. This is further enhanced if the initial mass distribution is biased to the inner regions. In all cases, the outer edge of the system is set by the final location of the ν6 resonance and we find that the mass distribution peaks at the ν5 resonance. Using existing observations, we find that extrasolar systems follow similar trends. Although differences between our numerical modelling and exoplanetary systems remain, we suggest that CoRoT-7, HD 20003 and HD 20781 may host undetected giant planets.

  15. Bifurcation of learning and structure formation in neuronal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschler, Christian; Faust-Ellsässer, Carmen; Starke, Jens; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-11-01

    Most learning processes in neuronal networks happen on a much longer time scale than that of the underlying neuronal dynamics. It is therefore useful to analyze slowly varying macroscopic order parameters to explore a network's learning ability. We study the synaptic learning process giving rise to map formation in the laminar nucleus of the barn owl's auditory system. Using equation-free methods, we perform a bifurcation analysis of spatio-temporal structure formation in the associated synaptic-weight matrix. This enables us to analyze learning as a bifurcation process and follow the unstable states as well. A simple time translation of the learning window function shifts the bifurcation point of structure formation and goes along with traveling waves in the map, without changing the animal's sound localization performance.

  16. Spatial agreement of predicted results in landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterlacchini, Simone; Ballabio, Cristiano; Blahut, Jan; Masetti, Marco; Sorichetta, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    Landslides occur worldwide in response to a broad variety of natural predisposing conditions and triggering factors that include heavy rainfalls, earthquakes, and human activity. Landslides constitute a serious source of danger causing environmental damage and substantial human and financial losses. At a regional scale, landslide susceptibility zonation constitutes the first effective step to achieve a thorough risk assessment and management and contribute to public safety. For this reason, the predicted susceptibility maps must be carefully analysed and critically reviewed before disseminating the results. The tuning of statistical techniques and the independent validation of the results are already recognized as fundamental steps in any natural hazard study to assess model accuracy and predictive power. Validation also may permit to establish the degree of confidence in the model and to compare results from different models. For this reason, the spatial agreement among susceptibility maps, produced by different models, should also be tested, especially if these models have similar prediction power. This is usually a rather common occurrence as it may happen that two or more maps with similar predictive power may not have the same agreement in term of predicted spatial patterns. This study is aimed at assessing the degree of spatial agreement among different patterns of predicted values in susceptibility maps with almost similar success and prediction rate curves and areas under curves (AUC). A data-driven Bayesian method (Weights of Evidence modelling technique) is applied and the output maps reclassified to compare the predicted results. A relative classification, based on the proportion of area classified as susceptible, is performed. Maps are investigated by Kappa Statistic, Principal Component Analysis, and Distance Weighted Entropy procedures. The results show great differences within the output spatial patterns of the predicted maps and also within the

  17. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  18. Piecewise Mapping in HEVC Lossless Intra-prediction Coding.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Victor; Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Serra-Sagrista, Joan

    2016-05-19

    The lossless intra-prediction coding modality of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard provides high coding performance while allowing frame-by-frame basis access to the coded data. This is of interest in many professional applications such as medical imaging, automotive vision and digital preservation in libraries and archives. Various improvements to lossless intra-prediction coding have been proposed recently, most of them based on sample-wise prediction using Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM). Other recent proposals aim at further reducing the energy of intra-predicted residual blocks. However, the energy reduction achieved is frequently minimal due to the difficulty of correctly predicting the sign and magnitude of residual values. In this paper, we pursue a novel approach to this energy-reduction problem using piecewise mapping (pwm) functions. Specifically, we analyze the range of values in residual blocks and apply accordingly a pwm function to map specific residual values to unique lower values. We encode appropriate parameters associated with the pwm functions at the encoder, so that the corresponding inverse pwm functions at the decoder can map values back to the same residual values. These residual values are then used to reconstruct the original signal. This mapping is, therefore, reversible and introduces no losses. We evaluate the pwm functions on 4×4 residual blocks computed after DPCM-based prediction for lossless coding of a variety of camera-captured and screen content sequences. Evaluation results show that the pwm functions can attain maximum bit-rate reductions of 5.54% and 28.33% for screen content material compared to DPCM-based and block-wise intra-prediction, respectively. Compared to Intra- Block Copy, piecewise mapping can attain maximum bit-rate reductions of 11.48% for camera-captured material.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of mouse hypoglossal motor neuron somatotopic map formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Jae Woong; Salin-Cantegrel, Adele; Dali, Rola; Stifani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Somatic motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus innervate tongue muscles controlling vital functions such as chewing, swallowing and respiration. Formation of functional hypoglossal nerve circuits depends on the establishment of precise hypoglossal motor neuron maps correlating with specific tongue muscle innervations. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling mammalian hypoglossal motor neuron topographic map formation. Here we show that combinatorial expression of transcription factors Runx1, SCIP and FoxP1 defines separate mouse hypoglossal motor neuron groups with different topological, neurotransmitter and calcium-buffering phenotypes. Runx1 and SCIP are coexpressed in ventromedial hypoglossal motor neurons involved in control of tongue protrusion whereas FoxP1 is expressed in dorsomedial motor neurons associated with tongue retraction. Establishment of separate hypoglossal motor neuron maps depends in part on Runx1-mediated suppression of ventrolateral and dorsomedial motor neuron phenotypes and regulation of FoxP1 expression pattern. These findings suggest that combinatorial actions of Runx1, SCIP and FoxP1 are important for mouse hypoglossal nucleus somatotopic map formation.

  20. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    gradients but are insufficient to maintain them because the stress perturbations will dissipate with deformation. Metamorphism can unquestionably cause sufficient rheological change, but only in certain rock types: for example, granitoids have much less capacity for metamorphically induced rheologic change than do mafic rocks. The magnitude of phase geometry variation observed in natural systems suggests that morphological change (e.g., interconnection of weak phases) likely has little direct affect on strength changes, although other textural factors related to diffusion paths and crystallographic orientation could play a significant role. Thermal perturbation, mainly in the form of shear heating, remains potentially powerful but inconclusive. Taken together, these observations indicate that a simple algorithm predicting shear zone formation will not succeed in many geologically relevant instances. One significant reason may be that the inherent lithologic variation at the km scale, such as observed in the Central Gneiss belt, prevents the development of self-organized strain patterns that would form in more rheologically uniform systems.

  1. Different Ocular Dominance Map Formation Influenced by Orientation Preference Columns in Visual Cortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myoung Won; Kim, Seunghwan

    2005-02-01

    In animal experiments, the observed orientation preference and ocular dominance columns in the visual cortex of the brain show various pattern types. Here, we show that the different visual map formations in various species are due to the crossover behavior in anisotropic systems composed of orientational and scalar components such as easy-plane Heisenberg models. We predict the transition boundary between different pattern types with the anisotropy as a main bifurcation parameter, which is consistent with experimental observations.

  2. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  3. Prediction-guided quantization for video tone mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dauphin, Agnès.; Boitard, Ronan; Thoreau, Dominique; Olivier, Yannick; Francois, Edouard; LeLéannec, Fabrice

    2014-09-01

    Tone Mapping Operators (TMOs) compress High Dynamic Range (HDR) content to address Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. However, before reaching the end-user, this tone mapped content is usually compressed for broadcasting or storage purposes. Any TMO includes a quantization step to convert floating point values to integer ones. In this work, we propose to adapt this quantization, in the loop of an encoder, to reduce the entropy of the tone mapped video content. Our technique provides an appropriate quantization for each mode of both the Intra and Inter-prediction that is performed in the loop of a block-based encoder. The mode that minimizes a rate-distortion criterion uses its associated quantization to provide integer values for the rest of the encoding process. The method has been implemented in HEVC and was tested over two different scenarios: the compression of tone mapped LDR video content (using the HM10.0) and the compression of perceptually encoded HDR content (HM14.0). Results show an average bit-rate reduction under the same PSNR for all the sequences and TMO considered of 20.3% and 27.3% for tone mapped content and 2.4% and 2.7% for HDR content.

  4. The Dokuchaev hypothesis as a basis for predictive digital soil mapping (on the 125th anniversary of its publication)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinsky, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    Predictive digital soil mapping is widely used in soil science. Its objective is the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil taxonomic units and quantitative soil properties via the analysis of spatially distributed quantitative characteristics of soil-forming factors. Western pedometrists stress the scientific priority and principal importance of Hans Jenny's book (1941) for the emergence and development of predictive soil mapping. In this paper, we demonstrate that Vasily Dokuchaev explicitly defined the central idea and statement of the problem of contemporary predictive soil mapping in the year 1886. Then, we reconstruct the history of the soil formation equation from 1899 to 1941. We argue that Jenny adopted the soil formation equation from Sergey Zakharov, who published it in a well-known fundamental textbook in 1927. It is encouraging that this issue was clarified in 2011, the anniversary year for publications of Dokuchaev and Jenny.

  5. Predicting scale formation during electrodialytic nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Thompson Brewster, Emma; Ward, Andrew J; Mehta, Chirag M; Radjenovic, Jelena; Batstone, Damien J

    2017-03-01

    Electro-concentration of nutrients from waste streams is a promising technology to enable resource recovery, but has several operational concerns. One key concern is the formation of inorganic scale on the concentrate side of cation exchange membranes when recovering nutrients from wastewaters containing calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and carbonate, commonly present in anaerobic digester rejection water. Electrodialytic nutrient recovery was trialed on anaerobic digester rejection water in a laboratory scale electro-concentration unit without treatment (A), following struvite recovery (B), and following struvite recovery as well as concentrate controlled at pH 5 for scaling control (C). Treatment A resulted in large amount of scale, while treatment B significantly reduced the amount of scale formation with reduction in magnesium phosphates, and treatment C reduced the amount of scale further by limiting the formation of calcium carbonates. Treatment C resulted in an 87 ± 7% by weight reduction in scale compared to treatment A. A mechanistic model for the inorganic processes was validated using a previously published general precipitation model based on saturation index. The model attributed the reduction in struvite scale to the removal of phosphate during the struvite pre-treatment, and the reduction in calcium carbonate scale to pH control resulting in the stripping of carbonate as carbon dioxide gas. This indicates that multiple strategies may be required to control precipitation, and that mechanistic models can assist in developing a combined approach.

  6. Predicting episodic memory formation for movie events

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hanlin; Singer, Jed; Ison, Matias J.; Pivazyan, Gnel; Romaine, Melissa; Frias, Rosa; Meller, Elizabeth; Boulin, Adrianna; Carroll, James; Perron, Victoria; Dowcett, Sarah; Arellano, Marlise; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories are long lasting and full of detail, yet imperfect and malleable. We quantitatively evaluated recollection of short audiovisual segments from movies as a proxy to real-life memory formation in 161 subjects at 15 minutes up to a year after encoding. Memories were reproducible within and across individuals, showed the typical decay with time elapsed between encoding and testing, were fallible yet accurate, and were insensitive to low-level stimulus manipulations but sensitive to high-level stimulus properties. Remarkably, memorability was also high for single movie frames, even one year post-encoding. To evaluate what determines the efficacy of long-term memory formation, we developed an extensive set of content annotations that included actions, emotional valence, visual cues and auditory cues. These annotations enabled us to document the content properties that showed a stronger correlation with recognition memory and to build a machine-learning computational model that accounted for episodic memory formation in single events for group averages and individual subjects with an accuracy of up to 80%. These results provide initial steps towards the development of a quantitative computational theory capable of explaining the subjective filtering steps that lead to how humans learn and consolidate memories. PMID:27686330

  7. Advancements in predictive plasma formation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, Michael A.; Schafgans, Alexander; Brown, Daniel J. W.; Fomenkov, Igor; Rafac, Rob; Brown, Josh; Tao, Yezheng; Rokitski, Slava; Abraham, Mathew; Vargas, Mike; Rich, Spencer; Taylor, Ted; Brandt, David; Pirati, Alberto; Fisher, Aaron; Scott, Howard; Koniges, Alice; Eder, David; Wilks, Scott; Link, Anthony; Langer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    We present highlights from plasma simulations performed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Labs. This modeling is performed to advance the rate of learning about optimal EUV generation for laser produced plasmas and to provide insights where experimental results are not currently available. The goal is to identify key physical processes necessary for an accurate and predictive model capable of simulating a wide range of conditions. This modeling will help to drive source performance scaling in support of the EUV Lithography roadmap. The model simulates pre-pulse laser interaction with the tin droplet and follows the droplet expansion into the main pulse target zone. Next, the interaction of the expanded droplet with the main laser pulse is simulated. We demonstrate the predictive nature of the code and provide comparison with experimental results.

  8. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk Young; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils. PMID:23646290

  9. Two-phase flow regime map predictions under microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, S.B.R.; Mathur, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the widely used models of Taitel-Dukler and Weisman et al. are extrapolated to microgravity levels to compare predicted flow pattern boundaries for horizontal and vertical flows. Efforts have been made to analyze how the two-phase flow models available in the literature predict flow regime transitions in microgravity. The models of Taitel-Dukler and Weisman et al. have been found to be more suitable for extrapolation to a wide range of system parameters than the other two-phase flow regime maps available in the literature. The original criteria for all cases are used to predict the transition lines, except for the transition to dispersed flow regime in case of the Weisman model for horizontal flow. The constant 0.97 on the righthand side of this correlation should be two times that value, i.e., 1.94, in order to match this transition line in their original paper.

  10. Neural map formation in the mouse olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Haruki; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    In the mouse olfactory system, odorants are detected by ~1,000 different odorant receptors (ORs) produced by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Each OSN expresses only one functional OR species, which is referred to as the "one neuron-one receptor" rule. Furthermore, OSN axons bearing the same OR converge to a specific projection site in the olfactory bulb (OB) forming a glomerular structure, i.e., the "one glomerulus-one receptor" rule. Based on these basic rules, binding signals of odorants detected by OSNs are converted to topographic information of activated glomeruli in the OB. During development, the glomerular map is formed by the combination of two genetically programmed processes: one is OR-independent projection along the dorsal-ventral axis, and the other is OR-dependent projection along the anterior-posterior axis. The map is further refined in an activity-dependent manner during the neonatal period. Here, we summarize recent progress of neural map formation in the mouse olfactory system.

  11. Statistical-mechanical analysis of self-organization and pattern formation during the development of visual maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermayer, K.; Blasdel, G. G.; Schulten, K.

    1992-05-01

    We report a detailed analytical and numerical model study of pattern formation during the development of visual maps, namely, the formation of topographic maps and orientation and ocular dominance columns in the striate cortex. Pattern formation is described by a stimulus-driven Markovian process, the self-organizing feature map. This algorithm generates topologically correct maps between a space of (visual) input signals and an array of formal ``neurons,'' which in our model represents the cortex. We define order parameters that are a function of the set of visual stimuli an animal perceives, and we demonstrate that the formation of orientation and ocular dominance columns is the result of a global instability of the retinoptic projection above a critical value of these order parameters. We characterize the spatial structure of the emerging patterns by power spectra, correlation functions, and Gabor transforms, and we compare model predictions with experimental data obtained from the striate cortex of the macaque monkey with optical imaging. Above the critical value of the order parameters the model predicts a lateral segregation of the striate cortex into (i) binocular regions with linear changes in orientation preference, where iso-orientation slabs run perpendicular to the ocular dominance bands, and (ii) monocular regions with low orientation specificity, which contain the singularities of the orientation map. Some of these predictions have already been verified by experiments.

  12. Evaluation of formation water chemistry and scale prediction: Bakken Shale

    DOE PAGES

    Thyne, Geoffrey; Brady, Patrick

    2016-10-24

    Determination of in situ formation water chemistry is an essential component of reservoir management. This study details the use of thermodynamic computer models to calculate reservoir pH and restore produced water analyses for prediction of scale formation. Bakken produced water samples were restored to formation conditions and calculations of scale formation performed. In situ pH is controlled by feldspar-clay equilibria. Calcite scale is readily formed due to changes in pH during pressure drop from in situ to surface conditions. The formation of anhydrite and halite scale, which has been observed, was predicted only for the most saline samples. Finally, inmore » addition, the formation of anhydrite and/or halite may be related to the localized conditions of increased salinity as water is partitioned into the gas phase during production.« less

  13. Evaluation of formation water chemistry and scale prediction: Bakken Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Thyne, Geoffrey; Brady, Patrick

    2016-10-24

    Determination of in situ formation water chemistry is an essential component of reservoir management. This study details the use of thermodynamic computer models to calculate reservoir pH and restore produced water analyses for prediction of scale formation. Bakken produced water samples were restored to formation conditions and calculations of scale formation performed. In situ pH is controlled by feldspar-clay equilibria. Calcite scale is readily formed due to changes in pH during pressure drop from in situ to surface conditions. The formation of anhydrite and halite scale, which has been observed, was predicted only for the most saline samples. Finally, in addition, the formation of anhydrite and/or halite may be related to the localized conditions of increased salinity as water is partitioned into the gas phase during production.

  14. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest formation and land cover maps for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest formation types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland formations. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest formations and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each mapping area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. Mapping forest formations with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest formations, without the aid of ecological zone maps, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in maps of forest formations with comparable or better detail

  15. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  16. Isomorphic semantic mapping of variant call format (VCF2RDF).

    PubMed

    Penha, Emanuel Diego S; Iriabho, Egiebade; Dussaq, Alex; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-10-25

    The move of computational genomics workflows to Cloud Computing platforms is associated with a new level of integration and interoperability that challenges existing data representation formats. The Variant Calling Format (VCF) is in a particularly sensitive position in that regard, with both clinical and consumer-facing analysis tools relying on this self-contained description of genomic variation in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) results. In this report we identify an isomorphic map between VCF and the reference Resource Description Framework. RDF is advanced by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to enable representations of linked data that are both distributed and discoverable. The resulting ability to decompose VCF reports of genomic variation without loss of context addresses the need to modularize and govern NGS pipelines for Precision Medicine. Specifically, it provides the flexibility (i.e. the indexing) needed to support the wide variety of clinical scenarios and patient-facing governance where only part of the VCF data is fitting.

  17. Hansen solubility parameter as a tool to predict cocrystal formation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2011-04-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the miscibility of a drug and coformer, as predicted by Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs), can indicate cocrystal formation and guide cocrystal screening. It was also our aim to evaluate various HSPs-based approaches in miscibility prediction. HSPs for indomethacin (the model drug) and over thirty coformers were calculated according to the group contribution method. Differences in the HSPs between indomethacin and each coformer were then calculated using three established approaches, and the miscibility was predicted. Subsequently, differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the experimental miscibility and cocrystal formation. The formation of cocrystals was also verified using liquid-assisted grinding. All except one of the drug-coformers that were predicted to be miscible were confirmed experimentally as miscible. All tested theoretical approaches were in agreement in predicting miscibility. All systems that formed cocrystals were miscible. Remarkably, two new cocrystals of indomethacin were discovered in this study. Though it may be necessary to test this approach in a wide range of different coformer and drug compound types for accurate generalizations, the trends with tested systems were clear and suggest that the drug and coformer should be miscible for cocrystal formation. Thus, predicting the miscibility of cocrystal components using solubility parameters can guide the selection of potential coformers prior to exhaustive cocrystal screening work.

  18. Search strategy selection in the Morris water maze indicates allocentric map formation during learning that underpins spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jake; Churilov, Leonid; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-03-01

    Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning. Our C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice exhibit quadrant preference in the highly salient cue paradigm but not the low, corresponding with a 120% increase in the odds of a spatial search strategy selection during learning. In contrast, quadrant preference remains absent in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) knockout (KO) mice, who exhibit impaired search strategy selection during spatial learning. Additionally, we also aimed to assess the impact of the quality of the distal cue array on the spatial learning curves of both latency to platform and path length using mixed-effect regression models and found no significant associations or interactions. In contrast, we demonstrated that the spatial learning curve for search strategy selection was absent during training in the low saliency paradigm. Therefore, we propose that allocentric search strategy selection during spatial learning is the learning parameter in mice that robustly indicates the formation of a cognitive map for the escape goal location. These results also suggest that both latency to platform and path length spatial learning curves do not discriminate between allocentric and egocentric spatial learning and do not reliably predict spatial memory formation. We also show that spatial memory, as indicated by the absolute time in the quadrant formerly containing the hidden platform alone (without

  19. Evaluating, predicting and mapping belowground carbon stores in Kenyan mangroves.

    PubMed

    Gress, Selena K; Huxham, Mark; Kairo, James G; Mugi, Lilian M; Briers, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Despite covering only approximately 138 000 km(2) , mangroves are globally important carbon sinks with carbon density values three to four times that of terrestrial forests. A key challenge in evaluating the carbon benefits from mangrove forest conservation is the lack of rigorous spatially resolved estimates of mangrove sediment carbon stocks; most mangrove carbon is stored belowground. Previous work has focused on detailed estimations of carbon stores over relatively small areas, which has obvious limitations in terms of generality and scope of application. Most studies have focused only on quantifying the top 1 m of belowground carbon (BGC). Carbon stored at depths beyond 1 m, and the effects of mangrove species, location and environmental context on these stores, are poorly studied. This study investigated these variables at two sites (Gazi and Vanga in the south of Kenya) and used the data to produce a country-specific BGC predictive model for Kenya and map BGC store estimates throughout Kenya at spatial scales relevant for climate change research, forest management and REDD+ (reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation). The results revealed that mangrove species was the most reliable predictor of BGC; Rhizophora muronata had the highest mean BGC with 1485.5 t C ha(-1) . Applying the species-based predictive model to a base map of species distribution in Kenya for the year 2010 with a 2.5 m(2) resolution produced an estimate of 69.41 Mt C [±9.15 95% confidence interval (C.I.)] for BGC in Kenyan mangroves. When applied to a 1992 mangrove distribution map, the BGC estimate was 75.65 Mt C (±12.21 95% C.I.), an 8.3% loss in BGC stores between 1992 and 2010 in Kenya. The country-level mangrove map provides a valuable tool for assessing carbon stocks and visualizing the distribution of BGC. Estimates at the 2.5 m(2) resolution provide sufficient details for highlighting and prioritizing areas for mangrove conservation and restoration.

  20. The geologic mapping of Venus using C-1 format: Sheets 75N254, 60N263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalimov, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    The results of geologic mapping of Venus, produced on the base of Magellan images, are presented. We submit two C-1 format geologic maps with the appropriate legend. The mapping territory was taken from Venera 15 and 16 missions and geologic maps were composed. Magellan images allow us to divide some types of the plains units to determine the lava flow direction and to map with better accuracy.

  1. Connecting CO intensity mapping to molecular gas and star formation in the epoch of galaxy assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; ...

    2016-01-29

    Intensity mapping, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present predictions for the intensity map and power spectrum of the CO(1–0) line from galaxies atmore » $$z\\sim 2.4$$–2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy–halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial prediction should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the $${L}_{\\mathrm{IR}}$$–$${L}_{\\mathrm{CO}}$$ relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. Furthermore, by probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity mapping could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star formation in high-redshift galaxies.« less

  2. Connecting CO intensity mapping to molecular gas and star formation in the epoch of galaxy assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.

    2016-01-29

    Intensity mapping, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present predictions for the intensity map and power spectrum of the CO(1–0) line from galaxies at $z\\sim 2.4$–2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy–halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial prediction should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the ${L}_{\\mathrm{IR}}$–${L}_{\\mathrm{CO}}$ relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. Furthermore, by probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity mapping could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star formation in high-redshift galaxies.

  3. Heliospheric current sheet inclinations predicted from source surface maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shodhan, S.; Crooker, N. U.; Hughes, W. J.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    The inclinations of the neutral line at the ecliptic plane derived from source surface model maps of coronal fields are measured for the interval from June 1976 to March 1992. The mean and median values of 53 deg and 57 deg are close to the average inclinations determined earlier from minimum variance analyses of solar wind measurements at sector boundaries, but the mode falls in the 80 deg - 90 deg bin. This result, which is based on the model assumptions implicit in deriving the source surface maps, predicts that the heliospheric current sheet typically intersects the ecliptic plane nearly at right angles, even without steepening by stream interaction regions. High inclinations dominate the solar cycle for about 7 years around solar maximum. Dips to lower inclination occur near solar minimum, but high variance admits a wide range of inclinations throughout the cycle. Compared to the smooth solar cycle variation of the maximum latitudinal excursion of the neutral line, often treated as the tilt angle of a flat heliospheric current sheet, the noisy variation of the inclinations reflects the degree to which the neutral line deviates from a sine wave, implying warps and corrugations in the current sheet. About a third of the time the neutral line so deviates that it doubles back in longitude.

  4. Predicting the size of the progeny mapping population required to positionally clone a gene.

    PubMed

    Dinka, Stephen J; Campbell, Matthew A; Demers, Tyler; Raizada, Manish N

    2007-08-01

    A key frustration during positional gene cloning (map-based cloning) is that the size of the progeny mapping population is difficult to predict, because the meiotic recombination frequency varies along chromosomes. We describe a detailed methodology to improve this prediction using rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a model system. We derived and/or validated, then fine-tuned, equations that estimate the mapping population size by comparing these theoretical estimates to 41 successful positional cloning attempts. We then used each validated equation to test whether neighborhood meiotic recombination frequencies extracted from a reference RFLP map can help researchers predict the mapping population size. We developed a meiotic recombination frequency map (MRFM) for approximately 1400 marker intervals in rice and anchored each published allele onto an interval on this map. We show that neighborhood recombination frequencies (R-map, >280-kb segments) extracted from the MRFM, in conjunction with the validated formulas, better predicted the mapping population size than the genome-wide average recombination frequency (R-avg), with improved results whether the recombination frequency was calculated as genes/cM or kb/cM. Our results offer a detailed road map for better predicting mapping population size in diverse eukaryotes, but useful predictions will require robust recombination frequency maps based on sampling more progeny.

  5. The digital geologic map of Wyoming in ARC/INFO format

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, G.N.; Drouillard, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    This geologic map was prepared as part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic maps. The geologic map was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic Map of Wyoming (Love and Christiansen, 1985). Consequently, the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic map projection parameters of the State base map. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector format. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1985 geologic map. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic Map of Wyoming in ARC/INFO Format Open-File Report 94-0425

  6. QSPR for predicting chloroform formation in drinking water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Luilo, G B; Cabaniss, S E

    2011-01-01

    Chlorination is the most widely used technique for water disinfection, but may lead to the formation of chloroform (trichloromethane; TCM) and other by-products. This article reports the first quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the formation of TCM in chlorinated drinking water. Model compounds (n = 117) drawn from 10 literature sources were divided into training data (n = 90, analysed by five-way leave-many-out internal cross-validation) and external validation data (n = 27). QSPR internal cross-validation had Q² = 0.94 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.09 moles TCM per mole compound, consistent with external validation Q2 of 0.94 and RMSE of 0.08 moles TCM per mole compound, and met criteria for high predictive power and robustness. In contrast, log TCM QSPR performed poorly and did not meet the criteria for predictive power. The QSPR predictions were consistent with experimental values for TCM formation from tannic acid and for model fulvic acid structures. The descriptors used are consistent with a relatively small number of important TCM precursor structures based upon 1,3-dicarbonyls or 1,3-diphenols.

  7. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geologic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  8. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geo-logic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  9. The Star Formation in Radio Survey: Mapping Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies with 33GHz Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Dillon; Murphy, Eric J.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Nyland, Kristina; Condon, James J.; Helou, George; Meier, David S.; Ott, Juergen; Schinnerer, Eva; Turner, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We present initial results from the 33GHz phase of the Star Formation in Radio Survey (SFRS), including a gallery of 2" resolution Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images and spatially resolved thermal / synchrotron emission models in a subset of sources. The SFRS is targeting 118 galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming regions in 56 nearby (d < 30Mpc) galaxies included in the Spitzer/SINGS and Herschel/KINGFISH legacy programs. VLA observations of the entire sample have recently been completed at 3GHz (S band), 15GHz (Ku band) and 33GHz (Ka band). For an initial subset of 9 targets, we have also obtained 90GHz ALMA continuum and line imaging during cycle 1 observations.The frequency spacing of our complete radio data set will allow us to accurately measure the radio spectral index of these targets, in order to model the physical processes that produce the radio emission. In particular, 33GHz observations of HII regions probe free-free emission, providing a sensitive, dust-unbiased measure of the current star formation activity in each complex. We can use the differences between 33GHz derived star formation rates and those derived with other tracers such as synchrotron radiation, extinction corrected UV and Hα emission, and infrared luminosity to examine the dependence of each tracer on separately measured variables such as extinction, metallicity and ionizing radiation field strength. Consequently, these data will help calibrate other empirically-derived star formation rate diagnostics that are more easily measured for high redshift studies, and help interpret rest-frame 33GHz observations from a new generation of deep high frequency (>10GHz) radio surveys.As an example of the science that can be done with SFRS data, we have used our images along with an archival 1.4GHz and a new 5GHz VLA image to map the spectral index, spectral curvature, and the separated thermal and synchrotron components of NGC1266, a low level AGN with a mass outflow rate of > 50 M⊙ / yr

  10. An Introduction to B-Cell Epitope Mapping and In Silico Epitope Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Potocnakova, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Identification of B-cell epitopes is a fundamental step for development of epitope-based vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostic tools. Epitope-based antibodies are currently the most promising class of biopharmaceuticals. In the last decade, in-depth in silico analysis and categorization of the experimentally identified epitopes stimulated development of algorithms for epitope prediction. Recently, various in silico tools are employed in attempts to predict B-cell epitopes based on sequence and/or structural data. The main objective of epitope identification is to replace an antigen in the immunization, antibody production, and serodiagnosis. The accurate identification of B-cell epitopes still presents major challenges for immunologists. Advances in B-cell epitope mapping and computational prediction have yielded molecular insights into the process of biorecognition and formation of antigen-antibody complex, which may help to localize B-cell epitopes more precisely. In this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed state-of-the-art experimental methods for B-cell epitope identification, existing databases for epitopes, and novel in silico resources and prediction tools available online. We have also elaborated new trends in the antibody-based epitope prediction. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in identification of B-cell epitopes. PMID:28127568

  11. An Introduction to B-Cell Epitope Mapping and In Silico Epitope Prediction.

    PubMed

    Potocnakova, Lenka; Bhide, Mangesh; Pulzova, Lucia Borszekova

    2016-01-01

    Identification of B-cell epitopes is a fundamental step for development of epitope-based vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostic tools. Epitope-based antibodies are currently the most promising class of biopharmaceuticals. In the last decade, in-depth in silico analysis and categorization of the experimentally identified epitopes stimulated development of algorithms for epitope prediction. Recently, various in silico tools are employed in attempts to predict B-cell epitopes based on sequence and/or structural data. The main objective of epitope identification is to replace an antigen in the immunization, antibody production, and serodiagnosis. The accurate identification of B-cell epitopes still presents major challenges for immunologists. Advances in B-cell epitope mapping and computational prediction have yielded molecular insights into the process of biorecognition and formation of antigen-antibody complex, which may help to localize B-cell epitopes more precisely. In this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed state-of-the-art experimental methods for B-cell epitope identification, existing databases for epitopes, and novel in silico resources and prediction tools available online. We have also elaborated new trends in the antibody-based epitope prediction. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in identification of B-cell epitopes.

  12. Prediction of Standard Enthalpy of Formation by a QSPR Model

    PubMed Central

    Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Gharagheizi, Farhad

    2007-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of formation of 1115 compounds from all chemical groups, were predicted using genetic algorithm-based multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR). The obtained multivariate linear five descriptors model by GA-MLR has correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9830). All molecular descriptors which have entered in this model are calculated from chemical structure of any molecule. As a result, application of this model for any compound is easy and accurate.

  13. Predictions of Thrombus Formation Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamagawa, Masaaki; Matsuo, Sumiaki

    This paper describes the prediction of index of thrombus formation in shear blood flow by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), applying to orifice-pipe blood flow and flow around a cylinder, which is simple model of turbulent shear stress in the high speed rotary blood pumps and complicated geometry of medical fluid machines. The results of the flow field in the orifice-pipe flow using LBM are compared with experimental data and those using finite difference method, and it is found that the reattachment length of the backward facing step flow is predicted as precise as that the experiment and the finite difference method. As for thrombus formation, from the computational data of flow around the cylinder in the channel, the thrombus formation (thickness) is estimated using (1) shear rate and adhesion force (effective distance) to the wall independently, and (2) shear rate function with adhesion force (effective distance), and it is found that the prediction method using shear rate function with adhesion force is more accurate than the method using the former one.

  14. Prediction of Peptide and Protein Propensity for Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Família, Carlos; Dennison, Sarah R.; Quintas, Alexandre; Phoenix, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which peptides and proteins have the potential to undergo amyloid formation and what driving forces are responsible for amyloid-like fiber formation and stabilization remains limited. This is mainly because proteins that can undergo structural changes, which lead to amyloid formation, are quite diverse and share no obvious sequence or structural homology, despite the structural similarity found in the fibrils. To address these issues, a novel approach based on recursive feature selection and feed-forward neural networks was undertaken to identify key features highly correlated with the self-assembly problem. This approach allowed the identification of seven physicochemical and biochemical properties of the amino acids highly associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid-like fibrils (normalized frequency of β-sheet, normalized frequency of β-sheet from LG, weights for β-sheet at the window position of 1, isoelectric point, atom-based hydrophobic moment, helix termination parameter at position j+1 and ΔG° values for peptides extrapolated in 0 M urea). Moreover, these features enabled the development of a new predictor (available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/appnn/index.html) capable of accurately and reliably predicting the amyloidogenic propensity from the polypeptide sequence alone with a prediction accuracy of 84.9 % against an external validation dataset of sequences with experimental in vitro, evidence of amyloid formation. PMID:26241652

  15. Prediction of Peptide and Protein Propensity for Amyloid Formation.

    PubMed

    Família, Carlos; Dennison, Sarah R; Quintas, Alexandre; Phoenix, David A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which peptides and proteins have the potential to undergo amyloid formation and what driving forces are responsible for amyloid-like fiber formation and stabilization remains limited. This is mainly because proteins that can undergo structural changes, which lead to amyloid formation, are quite diverse and share no obvious sequence or structural homology, despite the structural similarity found in the fibrils. To address these issues, a novel approach based on recursive feature selection and feed-forward neural networks was undertaken to identify key features highly correlated with the self-assembly problem. This approach allowed the identification of seven physicochemical and biochemical properties of the amino acids highly associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid-like fibrils (normalized frequency of β-sheet, normalized frequency of β-sheet from LG, weights for β-sheet at the window position of 1, isoelectric point, atom-based hydrophobic moment, helix termination parameter at position j+1 and ΔG° values for peptides extrapolated in 0 M urea). Moreover, these features enabled the development of a new predictor (available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/appnn/index.html) capable of accurately and reliably predicting the amyloidogenic propensity from the polypeptide sequence alone with a prediction accuracy of 84.9 % against an external validation dataset of sequences with experimental in vitro, evidence of amyloid formation.

  16. Structural mapping: how to study the genetic architecture of a phenotypic trait through its formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chunfa; Shen, Lianying; Lv, Yafei; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Xiaoling; Feng, Sisi; Li, Xin; Sui, Yihan; Pang, Xiaoming; Wu, Rongling

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for genetic mapping are to simply associate the genotypes of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the phenotypic variation of a complex trait. A more mechanistic strategy has emerged to dissect the trait phenotype into its structural components and map specific QTLs that control the mechanistic and structural formation of a complex trait. We describe and assess such a strategy, called structural mapping, by integrating the internal structural basis of trait formation into a QTL mapping framework. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been instrumental for describing the structural components of a phenotypic trait and their interactions. By building robust mathematical models on circuit EIS data and embedding these models within a mixture model-based likelihood for QTL mapping, structural mapping implements the EM algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of QTL genotype-specific EIS parameters. The uniqueness of structural mapping is to make it possible to test a number of hypotheses about the pattern of the genetic control of structural components. We validated structural mapping by analyzing an EIS data collected for QTL mapping of frost hardiness in a controlled cross of jujube trees. The statistical properties of parameter estimates were examined by simulation studies. Structural mapping can be a powerful alternative for genetic mapping of complex traits by taking account into the biological and physical mechanisms underlying their formation.

  17. Unbiased atlas formation via large deformations metric mapping.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Peter; Davis, Brad; Joshi, Sarang

    2005-01-01

    The construction of population atlases is a key issue in medical image analysis, and particularly in brain mapping. Large sets of images are mapped into a common coordinate system to study intra-population variability and inter-population differences, to provide voxel-wise mapping of functional sites, and to facilitate tissue and object segmentation via registration of anatomical labels. We formulate the unbiased atlas construction problem as a Fréchet mean estimation in the space of diffeomorphisms via large deformations metric mapping. A novel method for computing constant speed velocity fields and an analysis of atlas stability and robustness using entropy are presented. We address the question: how many images are required to build a stable brain atlas?

  18. POSTERIOR PREDICTIVE MODEL CHECKS FOR DISEASE MAPPING MODELS. (R827257)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disease incidence or disease mortality rates for small areas are often displayed on maps. Maps of raw rates, disease counts divided by the total population at risk, have been criticized as unreliable due to non-constant variance associated with heterogeneity in base population si...

  19. Active plasma source formation in the MAP diode

    SciTech Connect

    Lamppa, K.P.; Stinnett, R.W.; Renk, T.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) program is exploring using ion beams to treat the surface of a wide variety of materials. These experiments have shown that improved corrosion resistance, surface hardening, grain size modification, polishing and surface cleaning can all be achieved using a pulsed 0.4-0.8 MeV ion beam delivering 1-10 J/cm{sup 2}. The Magnetically-confined Anode Plasma (MAP) diode, developed at Cornell University, produces an active plasma which can be used to treat the surfaces of materials. The diode consists of a fast puff valve as the source of gas to produce the desired ions and two capacitively driven B-fields. A slow magnetic field is used for electron insulation and a fast field is used to both ionize the puffed gas and to position the plasma in the proper spatial location in the anode prior to the accelerator pulse. The relative timing between subsystems is an important factor in the effective production of the active plasma source for the MAP diode system. The MAP diode has been characterized using a Langmuir probe to measure plasma arrival times at the anode annulus for hydrogen gas. This data was then used to determine the optimum operating point for the MAP diode on RHEPP-1 accelerator shots. Operation of the MAP diode system to produce an ion beam of 500 kV, 12 kA with 40% efficiency (measured at the diode) has been demonstrated.

  20. Electromagnetic wave method for mapping subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.; Fasching, George E.; Balanis, Constantine A.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for remotely mapping subterranean coal beds prior to and during in situ gasification operations. This method is achieved by emplacing highly directional electromagnetic wave transmitters and receivers in bore holes penetrating the coal beds and then mapping the anomalies surrounding each bore hole by selectively rotating and vertically displacing the directional transmitter in a transmitting mode within the bore hole, and thereafter, initiating the gasification of the coal at bore holes separate from those containing the transmitters and receivers and then utilizing the latter for monitoring the burn front as it progresses toward the transmitters and receivers.

  1. Evidence for the Role of MAP1B in Axon Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Billault, Christian; Avila, Jesus; Cáceres, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Cultured neurons obtained from a hypomorphous MAP1B mutant mouse line display a selective and significant inhibition of axon formation that reflects a delay in axon outgrowth and a reduced rate of elongation. This phenomenon is paralleled by decreased microtubule formation and dynamics, which is dramatic at the distal axonal segment, as well as in growth cones, where the more recently assembled microtubule polymer normally predominates. These neurons also have aberrant growth cone formation and increased actin-based protrusive activity. Taken together, this study provides direct evidence showing that by promoting microtubule dynamics and regulating cytoskeletal organization MAP1B has a crucial role in axon formation. PMID:11452005

  2. Predictive lithological mapping of Canada's North using Random Forest classification applied to geophysical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Grunsky, E. C.

    2015-07-01

    A recent method for mapping lithology which involves the Random Forest (RF) machine classification algorithm is evaluated. Random Forests, a supervised classifier, requires training data representative of each lithology to produce a predictive or classified map. We use two training strategies, one based on the location of lake sediment geochemical samples where the rock type is recorded from a legacy geology map at each sample station and the second strategy is based on lithology recorded from field stations derived from reconnaissance field mapping. We apply the classification to interpolated major and minor lake sediment geochemical data as well as airborne total field magnetic and gamma ray spectrometer data. Using this method we produce predictions of the lithology of a large section of the Hearne Archean - Paleoproterozoic tectonic domain, in northern Canada. The results indicate that meaningful predictive lithologic maps can be produced using RF classification for both training strategies. The best results were achieved when all data were used; however, the geochemical and gamma ray data were the strongest predictors of the various lithologies. The maps generated from this research can be used to compliment field mapping activities by focusing field work on areas where the predicted geology and legacy geology do not match and as first order geological maps in poorly mapped areas.

  3. Prediction of folding pathway and kinetics among plant hemoglobins using an average distance map method.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shunsuke; Alvarez-Salgado, Emma; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Arredondo-Peter, Raúl

    2005-11-15

    Computational methods, such as the ADM (average distance map) method, have been developed to predict folding of homologous proteins. In this work we used the ADM method to predict the folding pathway and kinetics among selected plant nonsymbiotic (nsHb), symbiotic (Lb), and truncated (tHb) hemoglobins (Hbs). Results predicted that (1) folding of plant Hbs occurs throughout the formation of compact folding modules mostly formed by helices A, B, and C, and E, F, G, and H (folding modules A/C and E/H, respectively), and (2) primitive (moss) nsHbs fold in the C-->N direction, evolved (monocot and dicot) nsHbs fold either in the C-->N or N-->C direction, and Lbs and plant tHbs fold in the C-->N direction. We also predicted relative folding rates of plant Hbs from qualitative analyses of the stability of subdomains and classified plant Hbs into fast and moderate folding. ADM analysis of nsHbs predicted that prehelix A plays a role during folding of the N-terminal domain of Ceratodon nsHb, and that CD-loop plays a role in folding of primitive (Physcomitrella and Ceratodon) but not evolved nsHbs. Modeling of the rice Hb1 A/C and E/H modules showed that module E/H overlaps to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis HbO two-on-two folding. This observation suggests that module E/H is an ancient tertiary structure in plant Hbs.

  4. Multiscale Model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Maps Metabolite and Gene Perturbations to Granuloma Sterilization Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Pienaar, Elsje; Matern, William M.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Granulomas are a hallmark of tuberculosis. Inside granulomas, the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis may enter a metabolically inactive state that is less susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding M. tuberculosis metabolism within granulomas could contribute to reducing the lengthy treatment required for tuberculosis and provide additional targets for new drugs. Two key adaptations of M. tuberculosis are a nonreplicating phenotype and accumulation of lipid inclusions in response to hypoxic conditions. To explore how these adaptations influence granuloma-scale outcomes in vivo, we present a multiscale in silico model of granuloma formation in tuberculosis. The model comprises host immunity, M. tuberculosis metabolism, M. tuberculosis growth adaptation to hypoxia, and nutrient diffusion. We calibrated our model to in vivo data from nonhuman primates and rabbits and apply the model to predict M. tuberculosis population dynamics and heterogeneity within granulomas. We found that bacterial populations are highly dynamic throughout infection in response to changing oxygen levels and host immunity pressures. Our results indicate that a nonreplicating phenotype, but not lipid inclusion formation, is important for long-term M. tuberculosis survival in granulomas. We used virtual M. tuberculosis knockouts to predict the impact of both metabolic enzyme inhibitors and metabolic pathways exploited to overcome inhibition. Results indicate that knockouts whose growth rates are below ∼66% of the wild-type growth rate in a culture medium featuring lipid as the only carbon source are unable to sustain infections in granulomas. By mapping metabolite- and gene-scale perturbations to granuloma-scale outcomes and predicting mechanisms of sterilization, our method provides a powerful tool for hypothesis testing and guiding experimental searches for novel antituberculosis interventions. PMID:26975995

  5. Understanding Visual Map Formation through Vortex Dynamics of Spin Hamiltonian Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myoung Won; Kim, Seunghwan

    2004-01-01

    The pattern formation in orientation and ocular dominance columns is one of the most investigated problems in the brain. From a known cortical structure, we build spinlike Hamiltonian models with long-range interactions of the Mexican hat type. These Hamiltonian models allow a coherent interpretation of the diverse phenomena in the visual map formation with the help of relaxation dynamics of spin systems. In particular, we explain various phenomena of self-organization in orientation and ocular dominance map formation including the pinwheel annihilation and its dependency on the columnar wave vector and boundary conditions.

  6. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 8: Satellite snow mapping and runoff prediction handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowley, C. J.; Barnes, J. C.; Rango, A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to update the various snowcover interpretation techniques, document the snow mapping techniques used in the various ASVT study areas, and describe the ways snowcover data have been applied to runoff prediction. Through documentation in handbook form, the methodology developed in the Snow Mapping ASVT can be applied to other areas.

  7. Assess, Map and Predict the Integrity, Resilience, and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This project will provide knowledge and adaptive management techniques to both maintain healthy waters and to improve degraded systems. It will provide scientific support for the National Aquatic Resource Surveys. Results will provide a basis for informed decision making and tools applicable to EPA program office and regional needs at national regional, and local scales. The research products, tools, models, and maps produced will be an excellent means to communicate management options with stakeholders. To share information about SSWR research projects

  8. Predictive lymphatic mapping: a method for mapping lymphatic channels in patients with advanced unilateral lymphedema using indocyanine green lymphography.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Makoto; Seki, Yukio; Hara, Hisako; Iida, Takuya; Oka, Aiko; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Haragi, Makiko; Furniss, Dominic; Hin-Lun, Lawrence; Mitsui, Kito; Murai, Noriyuki; Koshima, Isao

    2014-01-01

    In severe lymphedema, indocyanine green lymphography cannot be used to map lymphatic channels before lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) because linear lymphatics cannot be detected in a severely affected leg. Here, we describe a new method, which we refer to as predictive lymphatic mapping, to predict the location of lymphatics for anastomosis in unilateral lymphedema, thereby improving surgical accuracy and efficiency. The approach consists of marking anatomical landmarks and joining selected landmarks with fixed lines. The distance from these fixed lines to lymphatic channels mapped by indocyanine green lymphography in the unaffected leg is then measured, scaled up based on the difference in circumference between the legs, and transposed to the affected leg. To date, we have used this method in 5 cases of unilateral or asymmetric lymphedema of the lower extremities. In no cases have we failed to find a lymphatic channel suitable for LVA within a 2-cm incision. These results suggest that predictive lymphatic mapping is a useful additional tool for surgeons performing LVA under local anesthesia, which will help to improve the accuracy of incisions and the efficiency of surgery.

  9. Stochastic interaction between neural activity and molecular cues in the formation of topographic maps

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Melinda T.; Feldheim, David A.; Stryker, Michael P.; Triplett, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Topographic maps in visual processing areas maintain the spatial order of the visual world. Molecular cues and neuronal activity both play critical roles in map formation, but their interaction remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that when molecular- and activity-dependent cues are rendered nearly equal in force, they drive topographic mapping stochastically. The functional and anatomical representation of azimuth in the superior colliculus of heterozygous Islet2-EphA3 knock-in (Isl2EphA3/+) mice is variable: maps may be single, duplicated, or a combination of the two. This heterogeneity is not due to genetic differences, since map organizations in individual mutant animals often differ between colliculi. Disruption of spontaneous waves of retinal activity resulted in uniform map organization in Isl2EphA3/+ mice, demonstrating that correlated spontaneous activity is required for map heterogeneity. Computational modeling replicates this heterogeneity, revealing that molecular- and activity-dependent forces interact simultaneously and stochastically during topographic map formation. PMID:26402608

  10. Prediction of Austenite Formation Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, P.; Schmidl, E.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    For the modeling and design of heat treatments, in consideration of the development/ transformation of the microstructure, different material data depending on the chemical composition, the respective microstructure/phases and the temperature are necessary. Material data are, e.g. the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion and transformation data etc. The quality of thermal simulations strongly depends on the accuracy of the material data. For many materials, the required data - in particular for different microstructures and temperatures - are rare in the literature. In addition, a different chemical composition within the permitted limits of the considered steel alloy cannot be predicted. A solution for this problem is provided by the calculation of material data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In the present study, the start and finish temperatures of the transformation from the bcc lattice to the fcc lattice structure of hypoeutectoid steels are calculated using an Artificial Neural Network. An appropriate database containing different transformation temperatures (austenite formation temperatures) to train the ANN is selected from the literature. In order to find a suitable feedforward network, the network topologies as well as the activation functions of the hidden layers are varied and subsequently evaluated in terms of the prediction accuracy. The transformation temperatures calculated by the ANN exhibit a very good compliance compared to the experimental data. The results show that the prediction performance is even higher compared to classical empirical equations such as Andrews or Brandis. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presented ANN is a convenient tool to distinguish between bcc and fcc phases in hypoeutectoid steels.

  11. Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2016-07-01

    In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic mapping techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage maps. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate mapping techniques. Predictive habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The predictive maps were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter maps. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest predictive performances. Spatial predictions of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest predictions to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble mapping techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for predictive habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust predictions, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to prediction outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble mapping approaches have clear value for spatial management.

  12. Gamma Synchronization Influences Map Formation Time in a Topological Model of Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Edward; Arai, Mamiko; Dabaghian, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus plays a crucial role in producing a cognitive map of space—an internalized representation of the animal’s environment. We have previously shown that it is possible to model this map formation using a topological framework, in which information about the environment is transmitted through the temporal organization of neuronal spiking activity, particularly those occasions in which the firing of different place cells overlaps. In this paper, we discuss how gamma rhythm, one of the main components of the extracellular electrical field potential affects the efficiency of place cell map formation. Using methods of algebraic topology and the maximal entropy principle, we demonstrate that gamma modulation synchronizes the spiking of dynamical cell assemblies, which enables learning a spatial map at faster timescales. PMID:27636199

  13. Gamma Synchronization Influences Map Formation Time in a Topological Model of Spatial Learning.

    PubMed

    Basso, Edward; Arai, Mamiko; Dabaghian, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    The mammalian hippocampus plays a crucial role in producing a cognitive map of space-an internalized representation of the animal's environment. We have previously shown that it is possible to model this map formation using a topological framework, in which information about the environment is transmitted through the temporal organization of neuronal spiking activity, particularly those occasions in which the firing of different place cells overlaps. In this paper, we discuss how gamma rhythm, one of the main components of the extracellular electrical field potential affects the efficiency of place cell map formation. Using methods of algebraic topology and the maximal entropy principle, we demonstrate that gamma modulation synchronizes the spiking of dynamical cell assemblies, which enables learning a spatial map at faster timescales.

  14. Vector Topographic Map Data over the BOREAS NSA and SSA in SIF Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains vector contours and other features of individual topographic map sheets from the National Topographic Series (NTS). The map sheet files were received in Standard Interchange Format (SIF) and cover the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. The individual files are stored in compressed Unix tar archives.

  15. Quantitative assessment of computational models for retinotopic map formation

    PubMed Central

    Sterratt, David C; Cutts, Catherine S; Willshaw, David J; Eglen, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular and activity‐based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered map of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which existing computational models can be assessed in an unbiased and quantitative manner against a set of experimental data curated from the mouse retinocollicular system. Our framework facilitates comparison between models, testing new models against known phenotypes and simulating new phenotypes in existing models. We have used this framework to assess four representative models that combine Eph/ephrin gradients and/or activity‐based mechanisms and competition. Two of the models were updated from their original form to fit into our framework. The models were tested against five different phenotypes: wild type, Isl2‐EphA3 ki/ki, Isl2‐EphA3 ki/+, ephrin‐A2,A3,A5 triple knock‐out (TKO), and Math5 −/− (Atoh7). Two models successfully reproduced the extent of the Math5 −/− anteromedial projection, but only one of those could account for the collapse point in Isl2‐EphA3 ki/+. The models needed a weak anteroposterior gradient in the SC to reproduce the residual order in the ephrin‐A2,A3,A5 TKO phenotype, suggesting either an incomplete knock‐out or the presence of another guidance molecule. Our article demonstrates the importance of testing retinotopic models against as full a range of phenotypes as possible, and we have made available MATLAB software, we wrote to facilitate this process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 641–666, 2015 PMID:25367067

  16. The prediction and mapping of geoidal undulations from GEOS-3 altimetry. [gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, W.

    1978-01-01

    From the adjusted altimeter data an approximation to the geoid height in ocean areas is obtained. Methods are developed to produce geoid maps in these areas. Geoid heights are obtained for grid points in the region to be mapped, and two of the parameters critical to the production of an accurate map are investigated. These are the spacing of the grid, which must be related to the half-wavelength of the altimeter signal whose amplitude is the desired accuracy of the contour; and the method adopted to predict the grid values. Least squares collocation was used to find geoid undulations on a 1 deg grid in the mapping area. Twenty maps, with their associated precisions, were produced and are included. These maps cover the Indian Ocean, Southwestern and Northeastern portions of the Pacific Ocean, and Southwest Atlantic and the U.S. Calibration Area.

  17. Activity dependent mechanisms of visual map formation--from retinal waves to molecular regulators.

    PubMed

    Assali, Ahlem; Gaspar, Patricia; Rebsam, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    The refinement of neural connections requires activity-dependent mechanisms in addition to the genetic program initially establishing wiring diagrams. The well-understood organization of the visual system makes it an accessible model for analyzing the contribution of activity in the formation of connectivity. Prior to visual experience, patterned spontaneous activity in the form of retinal waves has an important role for the establishment of eye-specific and retinotopic maps by acting on the refinement of axon arborization. In the present review, which focuses on experimental data obtained in mice and ferrets, we highlight the features of retinal activity that are important for visual map formation and question whether synaptic release and Hebbian based competition rules apply to this system. Recent evidence using genetic tools that allowed the manipulation of different features of neural activity have clarified the controversy on whether activity is instructive or permissive for visual map formation. Furthermore, current evidence strongly suggests that different mechanisms are at play for different types of axons (ipsilateral vs. contralateral), maps (eye-specific vs. retinotopic) or targets. Many molecules that either modulate activity or are modulated by activity are important in the formation of the visual map, such as adenylate cyclase 1, serotonin, or molecules from the immune system. Finally, new players in the game include retrograde messengers signaling from the target cell to the retinal axons as well as microglia that could help to eliminate inappropriate synapses.

  18. Formation of temporal-feature maps by axonal propagation of synaptic learning

    PubMed Central

    Kempter, Richard; Leibold, Christian; Wagner, Hermann; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2001-01-01

    Computational maps are of central importance to a neuronal representation of the outside world. In a map, neighboring neurons respond to similar sensory features. A well studied example is the computational map of interaural time differences (ITDs), which is essential to sound localization in a variety of species and allows resolution of ITDs of the order of 10 μs. Nevertheless, it is unclear how such an orderly representation of temporal features arises. We address this problem by modeling the ontogenetic development of an ITD map in the laminar nucleus of the barn owl. We show how the owl's ITD map can emerge from a combined action of homosynaptic spike-based Hebbian learning and its propagation along the presynaptic axon. In spike-based Hebbian learning, synaptic strengths are modified according to the timing of pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. In unspecific axonal learning, a synapse's modification gives rise to a factor that propagates along the presynaptic axon and affects the properties of synapses at neighboring neurons. Our results indicate that both Hebbian learning and its presynaptic propagation are necessary for map formation in the laminar nucleus, but the latter can be orders of magnitude weaker than the former. We argue that the algorithm is important for the formation of computational maps, when, in particular, time plays a key role. PMID:11274439

  19. Testing assumptions and predictions of star formation theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Samaniego, Alejandro; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; González, Ricardo F.; Kim, Jongsoo

    2014-05-01

    We present numerical simulations of isothermal, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), supersonic turbulence, designed to test various hypotheses frequently assumed in star formation (SF) theories. This study complements our previous one in the non-magnetic (HD) case. We consider three simulations, each with different values of its physical size, rms sonic Mach number M_s, and Jeans parameter J, but so that all three have the same value of the virial parameter and conform with Larson's scaling relations. As in the non-magnetic case, we find that (1) no structures that are both subsonic and super-Jeans are produced; (2) that the fraction of small-scale super-Jeans structures increases when self-gravity is turned on, and the production of very dense cores by turbulence alone is very low. This implies that self-gravity is involved not only in the collapse of Jeans-unstable cores, but also in their formation. (3) We also find that denser regions tend to have a stronger velocity convergence, implying a net inwards flow towards the regions' centres. Contrary to the non-magnetic case, we find that the magnetic simulation with lowest values of M_s and J (respectively, 5 and 2) does not produce any collapsing regions for over three simulation free-fall times, in spite of being both Jeans-unstable and magnetically supercritical. We attribute this result to the combined thermal and magnetic support. Next, we compare the results of our HD and MHD simulations with the predictions from the recent SF theories by Krumholz & McKee, Padoan & Nordlund, and Hennebelle & Chabrier, using expressions recently provided by Federrath & Klessen, which extend those theories to the magnetic case. In both the HD and MHD cases, we find that the theoretical predictions tend to be larger than the SFEff measured in the simulations. In the MHD case, none of the theories captures the suppression of collapse at low values of Jeff by the additional support from the magnetic field. We conclude that randomly driven

  20. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. XVII. Examining Obscured Star Formation with Synthetic Ultraviolet Flux Maps in M31.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Alexia R.; Simones, Jacob E.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Bell, Eric F.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Kapala, Maria; Rosenfield, Philip; Schruba, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We present synthetic far- and near-ultraviolet ({FUV} and {NUV}) maps of M31, both with and without dust reddening. These maps were constructed from spatially resolved star formation histories (SFHs) derived from optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging of resolved stars, taken as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program. We use stellar population synthesis modeling to generate synthetic UV maps with a spatial resolution of ∼100 pc (∼24 arcsec), projected. When reddening is included, these maps reproduce all of the main morphological features in the GALEX imaging, including rings and large star-forming complexes. The predicted UV flux also agrees well with the observed flux, with median ratios between the modeled and observed flux of {{log}}10({f}{FUV}{syn}/{f}{FUV}{obs})=0.03+/- 0.24 and {{log}}10({f}{NUV}{syn}/{f}{NUV}{obs})=-0.03+/- 0.16 in the {FUV} and {NUV}, respectively. This agreement is particularly impressive given that we used only optical photometry to construct these UV maps. Having verified the synthetic reddened maps, we use the dust-free maps to examine properties of obscured flux and star formation. We compare our dust-free and reddened maps of {FUV} flux with the observed GALEX {FUV} flux and {FUV} + 24 μm flux to examine the fraction of obscured flux. We find that the maps of synthetic flux require that ∼90% of the {FUV} flux in M31 is obscured by dust, while the GALEX -based methods suggest that ∼70% of the {FUV} flux is absorbed by dust. This 30% increase in the estimate of the obscured flux is driven by significant differences between the dust-free synthetic {FUV} flux and that derived when correcting the observed {FUV} flux for dust absorption with 24 μm emission observations. The difference is further illustrated when we compare the SFRs derived from the {FUV} + 24 μm flux with the 100 Myr average SFR from the CMD-based SFHs. We find that the 24 μm corrected {FUV} flux underestimates the SFR by a factor of 2.3–2

  1. Exploration of very high spatial resolution data for vegetation mapping using cartographic ontologies: Identifying life forms to mapping formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gallegos, Hugo Benigno

    Vegetation mapping is often considered the process of identifying landscape patterns of individuals or clusters of species or life forms (LF). At the landscape scale, the larger pattern represented by individuals or clusters represents the conceptualization of "vegetation mapping" and can be used as a building block to describe an ecosystem. To represent these building blocks or LF a "common entity (CE)" concept is introduced to represent the components of Formations as described by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) system. The NVC has established protocols to consistently represent plant communities and promote coordinated management, particularly across jurisdictional boundaries. However, it is not a universal standard and the methods of producing detailed maps of vegetation CE from very high spatial resolution (VHR) remote sensing data are important research questions. This research addressed how best to understand and represent plant cover in arid regions, the most effective methods of mapping vegetation cover using high spatial resolution data, how to assess the accuracy of these maps, and their value in establishing more standardized mapping protocols across ecosystems. Utilizing VHR products from the IKONOS and QuickBird sensors the study focused on the Coronado National Memorial and Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona and Los Ajos and Pinacate - Grand Desierto Biosphere Reserves in Mexico. Individual CE were semi-automatically mapped incorporating spectral, textural and geostatistical variables. The results were evaluated across sensors, study sites, and input variables. In addition, multiple methods of acquiring field data for accuracy assessment were evaluated and then an evaluation was made of a semi-automatic determination of Formation based on CE. The results of the study suggest consistency across study sites using the IKONOS data. A comparison between VHR products from the same place is feasible but sensor spectral differences may

  2. Can Self-Organizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M. J.; Klose, C. D.

    2012-03-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo- z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using Δz = zphot - zspec) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods.

  3. Computational Prediction of Protein Function Based on Weighted Mapping of Domains and GO Terms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Zhixia; Guo, Maozu; Dai, Qiguo; Wang, Chunyu; Li, Jin; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method, SeekFun, to predict protein function based on weighted mapping of domains and GO terms. Firstly, a weighted mapping of domains and GO terms is constructed according to GO annotations and domain composition of the proteins. The association strength between domain and GO term is weighted by symmetrical conditional probability. Secondly, the mapping is extended along the true paths of the terms based on GO hierarchy. Finally, the terms associated with resident domains are transferred to host protein and real annotations of the host protein are determined by association strengths. Our careful comparisons demonstrate that SeekFun outperforms the concerned methods on most occasions. SeekFun provides a flexible and effective way for protein function prediction. It benefits from the well-constructed mapping of domains and GO terms, as well as the reasonable strategy for inferring annotations of protein from those of its domains. PMID:24868539

  4. Modified Mercalli Intensity Maps for the 1868 Hayward Earthquake Plotted in ShakeMap Format

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, John; Bundock, Howard

    2008-01-01

    To construct the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) ShakeMap for the 1868 Hayward earthquake, we started with two sets of damage descriptions and felt reports. The first set of 100 sites was compiled by A.A. Bullock in the Lawson (1908) report on the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The second set of 45 sites was compiled by Toppozada et al. (1981) from an extensive search of newspaper archives. We supplemented these two sets of reports with new observations from 30 sites using surveys of cemetery damage, reports of damage to historic adobe structures, pioneer narratives, and reports from newspapers that Toppozada et al. (1981) did not retrieve. The Lawson (1908) and Toppozada et al. (1981) compilations and our contributions are assembled in the Site List.

  5. Formation of temporal-feature maps in the barn owl's auditory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempter, Richard

    2000-03-01

    Computational maps are of central importance to the brain's representation of the outside world. The question of how maps are formed during ontogenetic development is a subject of intense research (Hubel & Wiesel, Proc R Soc B 198:1, 1977; Buonomano & Merzenich, Annu Rev Neurosci 21:149, 1998). The development in the primary visual cortex is in principle well explained compared to that in the auditory system, partly because the mechanisms underlying the formation of temporal-feature maps are hardly understood (Carr, Annu Rev Neurosci 16:223, 1993). Through a modelling study based on computer simulations in a system of spiking neurons a solution is offered to the problem of how a map of interaural time differences is set up in the nucleus laminaris of the barn owl, as a typical example. An array of neurons is able to represent interaural time differences in an orderly manner, viz., a map, if homosynaptic spike-based Hebbian learning (Gerstner et al, Nature 383:76, 1996; Kempter et al, Phys Rev E 59:4498, 1999) is combined with a presynaptic propagation of synaptic modifications (Fitzsimonds & Poo, Physiol Rev 78:143, 1998). The latter may be orders of magnitude weaker than the former. The algorithm is a key mechanism to the formation of temporal-feature maps on a submillisecond time scale.

  6. Two States Mapping Based Time Series Neural Network Model for Compensation Prediction Residual Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Insung; Koo, Lockjo; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to design a model of human bio signal data prediction system for decreasing of prediction error using two states mapping based time series neural network BP (back-propagation) model. Normally, a lot of the industry has been applied neural network model by training them in a supervised manner with the error back-propagation algorithm for time series prediction systems. However, it still has got a residual error between real value and prediction result. Therefore, we designed two states of neural network model for compensation residual error which is possible to use in the prevention of sudden death and metabolic syndrome disease such as hypertension disease and obesity. We determined that most of the simulation cases were satisfied by the two states mapping based time series prediction model. In particular, small sample size of times series were more accurate than the standard MLP model.

  7. The digital geologic map of Colorado in ARC/INFO format, Part C. Explanation sheet database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Gregory N.

    1992-01-01

    This geologic map was prepared as a part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic maps. The geologic map was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic Map of Colorado (Tweto 1979). Consequently the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic map projection parameters of the state base map. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector format. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1979 geologic map. This database was developed on a MicroVAX computer system using VAX V 5.4 nd ARC/INFO 5.0 software. UPDATE: April 1995, The update was done solely for the purpose of adding the abilitly to plot to an HP650c plotter. Two new ARC/INFO plot AMLs along with a lineset and shadeset for the HP650C design jet printer have been included. These new files are COLORADO.650, INDEX.650, TWETOLIN.E00 and TWETOSHD.E00. These files were created on a UNIX platform with ARC/INFO 6.1.2. Updated versions of INDEX.E00, CONTACT.E00, LINE.E00, DECO.E00 and BORDER.E00 files that included the newly defined HP650c items are also included. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic Map of Colorado in ARC/INFO Format Open-File Report 92-050

  8. The digital geologic map of Colorado in ARC/INFO format, Part A. Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Gregory N.

    1992-01-01

    This geologic map was prepared as a part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic maps. The geologic map was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic Map of Colorado (Tweto 1979). Consequently the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic map projection parameters of the state base map. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector format. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1979 geologic map. This database was developed on a MicroVAX computer system using VAX V 5.4 nd ARC/INFO 5.0 software. UPDATE: April 1995, The update was done solely for the purpose of adding the abilitly to plot to an HP650c plotter. Two new ARC/INFO plot AMLs along with a lineset and shadeset for the HP650C design jet printer have been included. These new files are COLORADO.650, INDEX.650, TWETOLIN.E00 and TWETOSHD.E00. These files were created on a UNIX platform with ARC/INFO 6.1.2. Updated versions of INDEX.E00, CONTACT.E00, LINE.E00, DECO.E00 and BORDER.E00 files that included the newly defined HP650c items are also included. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic Map of Colorado in ARC/INFO Format Open-File Report 92-050

  9. Dependence of Initial Value on Pattern Formation for a Logistic Coupled Map Lattice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Guang; Cui, Haoyue

    2016-01-01

    The logistic coupled map lattices (LCML) have been widely investigated as well as their pattern dynamics. The patterns formation may depend on not only fluctuations of system parameters, but variation of the initial conditions. However, the mathematical discussion is quite few for the effect of initial values so far. The present paper is concerned with the pattern formation for a two-dimensional Logistic coupled map lattice, where any initial value can be linear expressed by corresponding eigenvectors, and patterns formation can be determined by selecting the corresponding eigenvectors. A set of simulations are conducted whose results demonstrate the fact. The method utilized in the present paper could be applied to other discrete systems as well. PMID:27382964

  10. Dust temperature maps of the Galactic plane: The Herschel spectral energy distribution fitting with Cloudy predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiali; Huang, Maohai

    2014-04-01

    Context. Dust grains absorb the interstellar far ultra-violet and visible photons and re-emit them in far-infrared (FIR) wavebands. The dust FIR continuum can be predicted by a grid of models using various values of the interstellar radiation field. Aims: We analyze the dust continuum emission in two Hi-GAL science-demonstration phase (SDP) fields using both the radiative transfer code, Cloudy, and the DustEM dust model, to explore the effect of radiative transfer on dust temperature. The 500 μm sub-millimeter excess emission and the very small grain (VSG) contribution to the 70 μm intensity are investigated by spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using the Cloudy model. Methods: By comparing the observation with the model prediction, we derive dust temperature maps of the two SDP fields by fitting the dust SED with 4-band data (SPIRE bands plus PACS 160 μm) using both Cloudy and DustEM models. Considering radiative transfer and grain physics simultaneously, we investigate the existence of a 500 μm excess and estimate the VSG contribution to the 70 μm intensity by fitting the dust SED with 3-band data (160, 250, and 350 μm) and 5-band data (SPIRE and PACS bands), respectively. Results: We confirm that the field with star formation activities have a higher temperature (18.7 ± 0.9 K) than the quiescent region (15.2 ± 0.6 K). We find that the radiative transfer affects the FIR SED of the SDP fields and results in a higher temperature distribution than the dust-only model fit. There is no significant detection of a 500 μm excess in the two SDP fields. The relative contribution from the VSGs to the 70 μm intensity can be up to 50%. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Reduced Herschel maps (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  11. 3-D or median map? Earthquake scenario ground-motion maps from physics-based models versus maps from ground-motion prediction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are two common ways to create a ground-motion map for a hypothetical earthquake: using ground motion prediction equations (by far the more common of the two) and using 3-D physics-based modeling. The former is very familiar to engineers, the latter much less so, and the difference can present a problem because engineers tend to trust the familiar and distrust novelty. Maps for essentially the same hypothetical earthquake using the two different methods can look very different, while appearing to present the same information. Using one or the other can lead an engineer or disaster planner to very different estimates of damage and risk. The reasons have to do with depiction of variability, spatial correlation of shaking, the skewed distribution of real-world shaking, and the upward-curving relationship between shaking and damage. The scientists who develop the two kinds of map tend to specialize in one or the other and seem to defend their turf, which can aggravate the problem of clearly communicating with engineers.The USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) HayWired scenario has addressed the challenge of explaining to engineers the differences between the two maps, and why, in a disaster planning scenario, one might want to use the less-familiar 3-D map.

  12. Online unsupervised formation of cell assemblies for the encoding of multiple cognitive maps.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Utku; Bersini, Hugues; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Molter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Since their introduction sixty years ago, cell assemblies have proved to be a powerful paradigm for brain information processing. After their introduction in artificial intelligence, cell assemblies became commonly used in computational neuroscience as a neural substrate for content addressable memories. However, the mechanisms underlying their formation are poorly understood and, so far, there is no biologically plausible algorithms which can explain how external stimuli can be online stored in cell assemblies. We addressed this question in a previous paper [Salihoglu, U., Bersini, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Molter, C., (2009). A model for the cognitive map formation: Application of the retroaxonal theory. In Proc. IEEE international joint conference on neural networks], were, based on biologically plausible mechanisms, a novel unsupervised algorithm for online cell assemblies' creation was developed. The procedure involved simultaneously, a fast Hebbian/anti-Hebbian learning of the network's recurrent connections for the creation of new cell assemblies, and a slower feedback signal which stabilized the cell assemblies by learning the feedforward input connections. Here, we first quantify the role played by the retroaxonal feedback mechanism. Then, we show how multiple cognitive maps, composed by a set of orthogonal input stimuli, can be encoded in the network. As a result, when facing a previously learned input, the system is able to retrieve the cognitive map it belongs to. As a consequence, ambiguous inputs which could belong to multiple cognitive maps can be disambiguated by the knowledge of the context, i.e. the cognitive map.

  13. Preliminary investigation of Large Format Camera photography utility in soil mapping and related agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Hudnall, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Space Shuttle Large Format Camera (LFC) color, IR/color, and B&W images in large-scale soil mapping is discussed and illustrated with sample photographs from STS 41-6 (October 1984). Consideration is given to the characteristics of the film types used; the photographic scales available; geometric and stereoscopic factors; and image interpretation and classification for soil-type mapping (detecting both sharp and gradual boundaries), soil parent material topographic and hydrologic assessment, natural-resources inventory, crop-type identification, and stress analysis. It is suggested that LFC photography can play an important role, filling the gap between aerial and satellite remote sensing.

  14. NUMERICALLY PREDICTED INDIRECT SIGNATURES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Dobinson, Jack; Carter, Philip J.; Lines, Stefan

    2015-06-10

    The intermediate phases of planet formation are not directly observable due to lack of emission from planetesimals. Planet formation is, however, a dynamically active process resulting in collisions between the evolving planetesimals and the production of dust. Thus, indirect observation of planet formation may indeed be possible in the near future. In this paper we present synthetic observations based on numerical N-body simulations of the intermediate phase of planet formation including a state-of-the-art collision model, EDACM, which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as accretion, erosion, and bouncing events. We show that the formation of planetary embryos may be indirectly observable by a fully functioning ALMA telescope if the surface area involved in planetesimal evolution is sufficiently large and/or the amount of dust produced in the collisions is sufficiently high in mass.

  15. Prediction of Poly(A) Sites by Poly(A) Read Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Bonfert, Thomas; Friedel, Caroline C.

    2017-01-01

    RNA-seq reads containing part of the poly(A) tail of transcripts (denoted as poly(A) reads) provide the most direct evidence for the position of poly(A) sites in the genome. However, due to reduced coverage of poly(A) tails by reads, poly(A) reads are not routinely identified during RNA-seq mapping. Nevertheless, recent studies for several herpesviruses successfully employed mapping of poly(A) reads to identify herpesvirus poly(A) sites using different strategies and customized programs. To more easily allow such analyses without requiring additional programs, we integrated poly(A) read mapping and prediction of poly(A) sites into our RNA-seq mapping program ContextMap 2. The implemented approach essentially generalizes previously used poly(A) read mapping approaches and combines them with the context-based approach of ContextMap 2 to take into account information provided by other reads aligned to the same location. Poly(A) read mapping using ContextMap 2 was evaluated on real-life data from the ENCODE project and compared against a competing approach based on transcriptome assembly (KLEAT). This showed high positive predictive value for our approach, evidenced also by the presence of poly(A) signals, and considerably lower runtime than KLEAT. Although sensitivity is low for both methods, we show that this is in part due to a high extent of spurious results in the gold standard set derived from RNA-PET data. Sensitivity improves for poly(A) sites of known transcripts or determined with a more specific poly(A) sequencing protocol and increases with read coverage on transcript ends. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the approach in a high read coverage scenario by a re-analysis of published data for herpes simplex virus 1. Thus, with current trends towards increasing sequencing depth and read length, poly(A) read mapping will prove to be increasingly useful and can now be performed automatically during RNA-seq mapping with ContextMap 2. PMID:28135292

  16. Geologic Mapping Applications Using THEMIS Data for the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Bender, K. C.; Harris, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a regionally extensive deposit located along the equator of Mars between roughly 130 and 240 E longitude, the origin of which has stimulated a host of published hypotheses. A volcanic or aeolian origin appear most consistent with Viking and MGS data, but other hypotheses remain viable and new data, as from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, is likely to stimulate additional hypotheses of origin. NASA is supporting geologic mapping of portions of the MFF deposits, but it is now quite clear that this on-going mapping will need considerable revision as data from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey become available. The daytime IR THEMIS images hold particularly strong potential for providing a new base on which geologic mapping can be carried out, as illustrated by the examples discussed.

  17. Prediction of Phase Formation in Nanoscale Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Lv, Bailin

    2016-01-01

    In a dynamic nonequilibrium process, the effective heat of formation allows the heat of formation to be calculated as a function of concentrations of the reacting atoms. In this work, we used the effective heat of formation rule to predict the formation and size of compound phases in a nanoscale Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder. We calculated the formation enthalpy and effective formation enthalpy of compounds in the Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, and Ag-Cu systems by using the Miedema model and effective heat of formation. Our results show that, considering the surface effect of the nanoparticle, the effective heat of formation rule successfully predicts the phase formation and sizes of Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 compounds, which agrees well with experimental data.

  18. An Approach for Predicting Essential Genes Using Multiple Homology Mapping and Machine Learning Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Hong-Li; Zhang, Fa-Zhan; Labena, Abraham Alemayehu; Dong, Chuan; Jin, Yan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of essential genes is significant to comprehend the minimal gene sets of cell and discover potential drug targets. In this study, a novel approach based on multiple homology mapping and machine learning method was introduced to predict essential genes. We focused on 25 bacteria which have characterized essential genes. The predictions yielded the highest area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.9716 through tenfold cross-validation test. Proper features were utilized to construct models to make predictions in distantly related bacteria. The accuracy of predictions was evaluated via the consistency of predictions and known essential genes of target species. The highest AUC of 0.9552 and average AUC of 0.8314 were achieved when making predictions across organisms. An independent dataset from Synechococcus elongatus, which was released recently, was obtained for further assessment of the performance of our model. The AUC score of predictions is 0.7855, which is higher than other methods. This research presents that features obtained by homology mapping uniquely can achieve quite great or even better results than those integrated features. Meanwhile, the work indicates that machine learning-based method can assign more efficient weight coefficients than using empirical formula based on biological knowledge. PMID:27660763

  19. Link prediction based on hyperbolic mapping with community structure for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuxi; Wu, Yao; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Link prediction is becoming a concerned topic in the complex network field in recent years. However, the existing link prediction methods are unsatisfactory for processing topological information and have high time complexity. This paper presents a novel method of Link Prediction with Community Structure (LPCS) based on hyperbolic mapping. Different from the existing link prediction methods, to utilize global structure information of the network, LPCS deals with the network from an overall perspective. LPCS takes full advantage of the community structure and its hierarchical organization to map networks into hyperbolic space, and obtains the hyperbolic coordinates which depict the global structure information of the network, then uses hyperbolic distance to describe the similarity between the nodes, finally predicts missing links according to the degree of the similarity between unconnected node pairs. The combination of the hyperbolic geometry framework and the community structure makes LPCS perform well in predicting missing links, and the time complexity of LPCS is linear, which makes LPCS can be applied to handle large scale networks in acceptable time. LPCS outperforms many state-of-the-art link prediction methods in the networks obeying power-law degree distribution.

  20. Landscape prediction and mapping of game fish biomass, an ecosystem service of Michigan rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esselman, Peter C.; Stevenson, R Jan; Lupi, Frank; Riseng, Catherine M.; Wiley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The increased integration of ecosystem service concepts into natural resource management places renewed emphasis on prediction and mapping of fish biomass as a major provisioning service of rivers. The goals of this study were to predict and map patterns of fish biomass as a proxy for the availability of catchable fish for anglers in rivers and to identify the strongest landscape constraints on fish productivity. We examined hypotheses about fish responses to total phosphorus (TP), as TP is a growth-limiting nutrient known to cause increases (subsidy response) and/or decreases (stress response) in fish biomass depending on its concentration and the species being considered. Boosted regression trees were used to define nonlinear functions that predicted the standing crops of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu, panfishes (seven centrarchid species), and Walleye Sander vitreus by using landscape and modeled local-scale predictors. Fitted models were highly significant and explained 22–56% of the variation in validation data sets. Nonlinear and threshold responses were apparent for numerous predictors, including TP concentration, which had significant effects on all except the Walleye fishery. Brook Trout and Smallmouth Bass exhibited both subsidy and stress responses, panfish biomass exhibited a subsidy response only, and Brown Trout exhibited a stress response. Maps of reach-specific standing crop predictions showed patterns of predicted fish biomass that corresponded to spatial patterns in catchment area, water temperature, land cover, and nutrient availability. Maps illustrated predictions of higher trout biomass in coldwater streams draining glacial till in northern Michigan, higher Smallmouth Bass and panfish biomasses in warmwater systems of southern Michigan, and high Walleye biomass in large main-stem rivers throughout the state. Our results allow fisheries managers to examine the biomass

  1. Computational prediction of atomic structures of helical membrane proteins aided by EM maps.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Julio A; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2007-09-15

    Integral membrane proteins pose a major challenge for protein-structure prediction because only approximately 100 high-resolution structures are available currently, thereby impeding the development of rules or empirical potentials to predict the packing of transmembrane alpha-helices. However, when an intermediate-resolution electron microscopy (EM) map is available, it can be used to provide restraints which, in combination with a suitable computational protocol, make structure prediction feasible. In this work we present such a protocol, which proceeds in three stages: 1), generation of an ensemble of alpha-helices by flexible fitting into each of the density rods in the low-resolution EM map, spanning a range of rotational angles around the main helical axes and translational shifts along the density rods; 2), fast optimization of side chains and scoring of the resulting conformations; and 3), refinement of the lowest-scoring conformations with internal coordinate mechanics, by optimizing the van der Waals, electrostatics, hydrogen bonding, torsional, and solvation energy contributions. In addition, our method implements a penalty term through a so-called tethering map, derived from the EM map, which restrains the positions of the alpha-helices. The protocol was validated on three test cases: GpA, KcsA, and MscL.

  2. The effectiveness of digital soil mapping to predict soil properties over low-relief areas.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Zohreh; Salehi, Mohammad Hassan; Jafari, Azam; Borujeni, Isa Esfandiarpoor; Mehnatkesh, Abdolmohammad

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the ability of different digital soil mapping (DSM) approaches to predict some of physical and chemical topsoil properties in the Shahrekord plain of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, Iran. According to a semi-detailed soil survey, 120 soil samples were collected from 0 to 30 cm depth with approximate distance of 750 m. Particle size distribution, coarse fragments (CFs), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, organic carbon (OC), and calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) were determined. Four machine learning techniques, namely, artificial neural networks (ANNs), boosted regression tree (BRT), generalized linear model (GLM), and multiple linear regression (MLR), were used to identify the relationship between soil properties and auxiliary information (terrain attributes, remote sensing indices, geology map, existing soil map, and geomorphology map). Root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean error (ME) were considered to determine the performance of the models. Among the studied models, GLM showed the highest performance to predict pH, EC, clay, silt, sand, and CCE, whereas the best model is not necessarily able to make accurate estimation. According to RMSE%, DSM has a good efficiency to predict soil properties with low and moderate variabilities. Terrain attributes were the main predictors among different studied auxiliary information. The accuracy of the estimations with more observations is recommended to give a better understanding about the performance of DSM approach over low-relief areas.

  3. Predicting the intensity mapping signal for multi-J CO lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham; Sternberg, Amiel E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity mapping signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star formation rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR−M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, we predict a mean CO(1-0) brightness temperature ranging from ∼ 0.6 μK at z = 6 to ∼ 0.03 μK at z = 10 with brightness temperature fluctuations of Δ{sub CO}{sup 2} ∼ 0.1 and 0.005 μK respectively, at k = 0.1 Mpc{sup −1}. In this model, the CO emission signal remains strong for higher rotational levels at z = 6, with ( T{sub CO} ) ∼ 0.3 and 0.05 μK for the CO J = 6arrow5 and CO J = 10arrow9 transitions respectively. Including the effects of CO photodissociation in these molecular clouds, especially at low metallicities, results in the overall reduction in the amplitude of the CO signal, with the low- and high-J lines weakening by 2–20% and 10–45%, respectively, over the redshift range 4 < z < 10.

  4. Genetic mapping and predictive testing for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    SciTech Connect

    Pandit, S.D.; Read, C.; Liu, L.

    1994-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with an estimated prevalance of 20-200 per million persons. It is characterized by the combined occurence of tumors involving two or more endocrine glands, namely the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas and the anterior pituitary. This disorder affects virtually all age groups with an average range of 20-60 years. Linkage analysis mapped the MEN1 locus to 11q13 near the human muscle glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM) locus. Additional genetic mapping and deletion analysis studies have refined the region containing the MEN1 locus to a 3 cM interval flanked by markers PYGM and D11S146/D11S97, a physical distance of approximately 1.5 Mb. We have identified 8 large families segregating MEN1 (71 affected from a population of 389 individuals). A high resolution reference map for the 11q13 region has been constructed using four new microsatellite markers, the CEPH reference (40 family) pedigree resource, and the CRI-MAP program package. Subsequent analyses using the LINKAGE program package and 8 MEN 1 families placed the MEN1 locus within the context of the microsatellite map. This map was used to develop a linkage-based predictive test. These markers have also been used to further refine the interval containing the MEN1 locus from the study of chromosome deletions (loss of heterozygosity, LOH studies) in paired sets of tumor and germline DNA from 87 MEN 1 affected individuals.

  5. The Formation Age of Comets: Predicted Physical and Chemical Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joesph A., III; Hill, H. G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical composition of a comet has always been considered to be a function of where it formed in the nebula. We suggest that the most important factor in determining a comet's chemistry might actually be when it formed. We present specific predictions of correlations between the dust and volatile components to test our hypothesis.

  6. Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum is a high-standing plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing crustal plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes and played an important role in Venus geologic history. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 and Magellan data, resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual topographic and morphologic characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50-75degN, 300-360degE; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi.

  7. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  8. Predictive long-range allele-specific mapping of regulatory variants and target transcripts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kibaick; Lee, Seulkee; Bang, Hyoeun; Choi, Jung Kyoon

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a large number of noncoding associations, calling for systematic mapping to causal regulatory variants and their distal target genes. A widely used method, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for chromatin or expression traits, suffers from sample-to-sample experimental variation and trans-acting or environmental effects. Instead, alleles at heterozygous loci can be compared within a sample, thereby controlling for those confounding factors. Here we introduce a method for chromatin structure-based allele-specific pairing of regulatory variants and target transcripts. With phased genotypes, much of allele-specific expression could be explained by paired allelic cis-regulation across a long range. This approach showed approximately two times greater sensitivity than QTL mapping. There are cases in which allele imbalance cannot be tested because heterozygotes are not available among reference samples. Therefore, we employed a machine learning method to predict missing positive cases based on various features shared by observed allele-specific pairs. We showed that only 10 reference samples are sufficient to achieve high prediction accuracy with a low sampling variation. In conclusion, our method enables highly sensitive fine mapping and target identification for trait-associated variants based on a small number of reference samples.

  9. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; ...

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  10. Map showing structure contours on the top of the upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 2,429 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  11. The high-redshift star formation history from carbon-monoxide intensity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breysse, Patrick C.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate how cosmic star formation history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity maps. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star formation rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of the order of 10 per cent. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star formation. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of the order of 50 per cent on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between two and seven with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity maps and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case, our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5 - 10 per cent, which is highly competitive with current measurements.

  12. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  13. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  14. Using global maps to predict the risk of dengue in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rogers, David J; Suk, Jonathan E; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to quantify the risk to Europe of dengue, following the arrival and spread there of one of dengue's vector species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus. A global risk map for dengue is presented, based on a global database of the occurrence of this disease, derived from electronic literature searches. Remotely sensed satellite data (from NASA's MODIS series), interpolated meteorological data, predicted distribution maps of dengue's two main vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, a digital elevation surface and human population density data were all used as potential predictor variables in a non-linear discriminant analysis modelling framework. One hundred bootstrap models were produced by randomly sub-sampling three different training sets for dengue fever, severe dengue (i.e. dengue haemorrhagic fever, DHF) and all-dengue, and output predictions were averaged to produce a single global risk map for each type of dengue. This paper concentrates on the all-dengue models. Key predictor variables were various thermal data layers, including both day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature, human population density, and a variety of rainfall variables. The relative importance of each may be shown visually using rainbow files and quantitatively using a ranking system. Vegetation Index variables (a common proxy for humidity or saturation deficit) were rarely chosen in the models. The kappa index of agreement indicated an excellent (dengue haemorrhagic fever, Cohen's kappa=0.79 ± 0.028, AUC=0.96 ± 0.007) or good fit of the top ten models in each series to the data (Cohen's kappa=0.73 ± 0.018, AUC=0.94 ± 0.007 for dengue fever and 0.74 ± 0.017, AUC=0.95 ± 0.005 for all dengue). The global risk map predicts widespread dengue risk in SE Asia and India, in Central America and parts of coastal South America, but in relatively few regions of Africa. In many cases these are less extensive predictions than those of other published dengue risk maps

  15. Data modeling for predictive behavior hypothesis formation and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Barnett, Marvin H.; Esslinger, Richard; Grover, David A.; Faucheux, Jeffrey P.; Lamkin, Kenneth

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a novel hypothesis analysis tool building on QUEST and DANCER. Unique is the ability to convert cause/effect relationships into analytical equation transfer functions for exploitation. In this the third phase of our work, we derive Data Models for each unique word and its ontological associated unique words. We form a classical control theory transfer function using the associated words as the input vector and the assigned unique word as the output vector. Each transfer function model can be tested against new evidence to yield new output. Additionally, conjectured output can be passed through the inverse model to predict the requisite case observations required to yield the conjectured output. Hypotheses are tested using circumstantial evidence, notional similarity, evidential strength, and plausibility to determine if they are supported or rejected. Examples of solving for evidence links are provided from tool execution.

  16. Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison...Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation...Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area

  17. Secondary Structure Predictions for Long RNA Sequences Based on Inversion Excursions and MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Yehdego, Daniel T; Zhang, Boyu; Kodimala, Vikram K R; Johnson, Kyle L; Taufer, Michela; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2013-05-01

    Secondary structures of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play important roles in many biological processes including gene expression and regulation. Experimental observations and computing limitations suggest that we can approach the secondary structure prediction problem for long RNA sequences by segmenting them into shorter chunks, predicting the secondary structures of each chunk individually using existing prediction programs, and then assembling the results to give the structure of the original sequence. The selection of cutting points is a crucial component of the segmenting step. Noting that stem-loops and pseudoknots always contain an inversion, i.e., a stretch of nucleotides followed closely by its inverse complementary sequence, we developed two cutting methods for segmenting long RNA sequences based on inversion excursions: the centered and optimized method. Each step of searching for inversions, chunking, and predictions can be performed in parallel. In this paper we use a MapReduce framework, i.e., Hadoop, to extensively explore meaningful inversion stem lengths and gap sizes for the segmentation and identify correlations between chunking methods and prediction accuracy. We show that for a set of long RNA sequences in the RFAM database, whose secondary structures are known to contain pseudoknots, our approach predicts secondary structures more accurately than methods that do not segment the sequence, when the latter predictions are possible computationally. We also show that, as sequences exceed certain lengths, some programs cannot computationally predict pseudoknots while our chunking methods can. Overall, our predicted structures still retain the accuracy level of the original prediction programs when compared with known experimental secondary structure.

  18. Predicting the external formation of callus tissues in oblique bone fractures: idealised and clinical case studies.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, D; MacDonald, B J; McCartney, W T; Synnott, K; O'Byrne, J

    2013-11-01

    It is proposed that the external asymmetric formation of callus tissues that forms naturally about an oblique bone fracture can be predicted computationally. We present an analysis of callus formation for two cases of bone fracture healing: idealised and subject-specific oblique bone fractures. Plane strain finite element (FE) models of the oblique fractures were generated to calculate the compressive strain field experienced by the immature callus tissues due to interfragmentary motion. The external formations of the calluses were phenomenologically simulated using an optimisation style algorithm that iteratively removes tissue that experiences low strains from a large domain. The resultant simulated spatial formation of the healing tissues for the two bone fracture cases showed that the calluses tended to form at an angle equivalent to the angle of the oblique fracture line. The computational results qualitatively correlated with the callus formations found in vivo. Consequently, the proposed methods show potential as a means of predicting callus formation in pre-clinical testing.

  19. Mapping the Star Formation History of the Local Group with NHST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.

    2003-05-01

    The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) is the most fundamental tool for studying the star formation history of nearby stellar populations. Strong constraints on the ages of stellar populations come from CMDs reaching the main sequence, and with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), it is possible to produce such a CMD for stars at any distance within the Local Group. Unfortunately, resolving the main sequence in old populations beyond the satellites of the Milky Way requires an enormous investment of HST time, meaning that only a few pencil beams can be explored within the remaining HST mission. In strong contrast, an 8 meter UV-optical space telescope, diffraction limited at 0.5 microns, could map the star formation history of all galaxies in the Local Group: It would take only one hour to resolve the main sequence in any Local Group galaxy, allowing the exploration of hundreds of sight-lines in a reasonable program.

  20. Urban Mapping and Growth Prediction using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Pune, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, V.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to map the urban area in and around Pune region between the year 1991 and 2010, and predict its probable future growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of 1991, 2001 and 2010 were used for analyzing urban land use class. Urban class was extracted / mapped using supervised classification technique with maximum likelihood classifier. The accuracy assessment was carried out for classified maps. The achieved overall accuracy and Kappa statistics were 86.33 % & 0.76 respectively. Transition probability matrix and area change were obtained using different classified images. A plug-in was developed in QGIS software (open source) based on Markov Chain model algorithm for predicting probable urban growth for the future year 2021. Based on available data set, the result shows that urban area is expected to grow much higher in the year 2021 when compared to 2010. This study provides an insight into understanding of urban growth and aids in subsequent infrastructure planning, management and decision-making.

  1. Gis predictive mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamed Bashier, E; Salih, I; Khatir Sam, A

    2012-09-01

    This study presents the evaluation of absorbed dose in air due to gamma-emitting nuclides from (238)U and (232)Th series, (40)K and (137)Cs and the corresponding geographical information system (GIS) predictive mapping for the Northern State. Activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th , (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples collected from different locations have been measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. On  average, activity concentrations were 19±4 ((238)U), 47±11 ((232)Th), 317±65 ((40)K) and 2.26 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above ground surface was calculated using seven sets of dose rate conversion factors (DRCFs) and the corresponding annual effective dose was estimated. On average, the values obtained fall within a narrow range of 44 and 53 nGy h(-1), indicating that the variation in absorbed dose rate is insignificant for different DRCFs. The corresponding annual effective dose ranged from 53 to 65 µSv y(-1). Using GIS, prediction maps for concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were produced. Also, a map for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increasing from the west towards south-east of the State.

  2. Predictive Brain Mechanisms in Sound-to-Meaning Mapping during Speech Processing.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Bingjiang; Ge, Jianqiao; Niu, Zhendong; Tan, Li Hai; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2016-10-19

    Spoken language comprehension relies not only on the identification of individual words, but also on the expectations arising from contextual information. A distributed frontotemporal network is known to facilitate the mapping of speech sounds onto their corresponding meanings. However, how prior expectations influence this efficient mapping at the neuroanatomical level, especially in terms of individual words, remains unclear. Using fMRI, we addressed this question in the framework of the dual-stream model by scanning native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, a language highly dependent on context. We found that, within the ventral pathway, the violated expectations elicited stronger activations in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus and the ventral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the phonological-semantic prediction of spoken words. Functional connectivity analysis showed that expectations were mediated by both top-down modulation from the left ventral IFG to the anterior temporal regions and enhanced cross-stream integration through strengthened connections between different subregions of the left IFG. By further investigating the dynamic causality within the dual-stream model, we elucidated how the human brain accomplishes sound-to-meaning mapping for words in a predictive manner.

  3. The Formation Age of Comets: Predicted Physical and Chemical Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Dust grains in Herbig Ae/Be stars are continuously replenished by infalling comets. The IR spectra of these cometary grains appear to evolve temporally from initially amorphous astronomical silicates in young protostars to crystalline olivine in much older sources. Crystalline olivine can only be produced from amorphous silicates on a time scale of months-to-years via thermal annealing at temperatures near 1000 K. Since such sustained high temperatures only occur near the central star, dust annealed at 1000 K in inner nebular regions must be continuously transported beyond the nebular snowline to be incorporated into the next generation of cometesimals. The average formation age of a comet can therefore be measured as a ratio of the annealed crystalline olivine dust component to the total dust content of the comet. Comets formed from nearly pristine interstellar materials early in the protostellar nebula stage will contain very little crystalline dust whereas comets formed towards the end of the accretion period will incorporate a much higher percentage of annealed silicate. It is unlikely that only dust grains circulate from the inner to the outer nebula; the gas associated with such dust should also find its way beyond the snowline. Since this gas and dust will have equilibrated in the higher pressure-temperature regime of the inner nebula, it will contain a much higher proportion of hydrocarbons and ammonia than more pristine interstellar ices. Therefore, in addition to a higher fraction of crystalline dust, later forming comets should also contain higher ratios of hydrocarbons to CO and ammonia to N2 than do those formed early in the history of the nebula.

  4. Bayesian Mapping Reveals That Attention Boosts Neural Responses to Predicted and Unpredicted Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Marta I; Rowe, Elise G; Halász, Veronika; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-04-10

    Predictive coding posits that the human brain continually monitors the environment for regularities and detects inconsistencies. It is unclear, however, what effect attention has on expectation processes, as there have been relatively few studies and the results of these have yielded contradictory findings. Here, we employed Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between 2 alternative computational models. The "Opposition" model states that attention boosts neural responses equally to predicted and unpredicted stimuli, whereas the "Interaction" model assumes that attentional boosting of neural signals depends on the level of predictability. We designed a novel, audiospatial attention task that orthogonally manipulated attention and prediction by playing oddball sequences in either the attended or unattended ear. We observed sensory prediction error responses, with electroencephalography, across all attentional manipulations. Crucially, posterior probability maps revealed that, overall, the Opposition model better explained scalp and source data, suggesting that attention boosts responses to predicted and unpredicted stimuli equally. Furthermore, Dynamic Causal Modeling showed that these Opposition effects were expressed in plastic changes within the mismatch negativity network. Our findings provide empirical evidence for a computational model of the opposing interplay of attention and expectation in the brain.

  5. Rapid Long-Range Disynaptic Inhibition Explains the Formation of Cortical Orientation Maps

    PubMed Central

    Antolík, Ján

    2017-01-01

    Competitive interactions are believed to underlie many types of cortical processing, ranging from memory formation, attention and development of cortical functional organization (e.g., development of orientation maps in primary visual cortex). In the latter case, the competitive interactions happen along the cortical surface, with local populations of neurons reinforcing each other, while competing with those displaced more distally. This specific configuration of lateral interactions is however in stark contrast with the known properties of the anatomical substrate, i.e., excitatory connections (mediating reinforcement) having longer reach than inhibitory ones (mediating competition). No satisfactory biologically plausible resolution of this conflict between anatomical measures, and assumed cortical function has been proposed. Recently a specific pattern of delays between different types of neurons in cat cortex has been discovered, where direct mono-synaptic excitation has approximately the same delay, as the combined delays of the disynaptic inhibitory interactions between excitatory neurons (i.e., the sum of delays from excitatory to inhibitory and from inhibitory to excitatory neurons). Here we show that this specific pattern of delays represents a biologically plausible explanation for how short-range inhibition can support competitive interactions that underlie the development of orientation maps in primary visual cortex. We demonstrate this statement analytically under simplifying conditions, and subsequently show using network simulations that development of orientation maps is preserved when long-range excitation, direct inhibitory to inhibitory interactions, and moderate inequality in the delays between excitatory and inhibitory pathways is added.

  6. Fine-mapping of the woolly gene controlling multicellular trichome formation and embryonic development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Taotao; Ye, Zhibiao

    2011-08-01

    Trichomes are small hairs that originate from the epidermal cells of nearly all land plants, and they exist in unicellular and multicellular forms. The regulatory pathway of unicellular trichomes in Arabidopsis is well characterized. However, little is known about the multicellular trichome formation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The woolly (Wo) gene controls multicellular trichome initiation and leads to embryonic lethality when homozygous in tomato. To clone and characterize Wo, the gene was fine-mapped to a DNA fragment of ~200 kb using the map-based cloning strategy. A series of sequence-based molecular markers, including simple sequence repeat, sequence characterized amplified region, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence were utilized in this study. Analysis of the sequence indicated that this region carries 19 putative open reading frames. These results will provide not only the important information for the isolation and characterization of Wo but also the starting point for studying the regulatory pathway responsible for trichome formation and embryonic lethality in tomato.

  7. Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high

  8. Prediction of heat of formation and related parameters of high energy materials.

    PubMed

    Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Talawar, M B; Anniyappan, M; Venugopalan, S

    2006-05-20

    Heat of formation is one of the most important parameters in the performance prediction of explosive and propellant formulations and their individual ingredients. This paper reports the development of user-friendly computer code for the prediction of heat of formation based on two approaches. In first methodology, the logic of Benson's Group additivity method and in the second method, the logic of Pedley method was used for predicting the heats of formation of high energy materials (HEMs). The predicted heats of formation by Benson method for various classes of high energy materials gave deviation in the range of 2-10%, whereas nearly 10-15% deviation was observed using Pedley methodology in comparison to experimental values. The linear regression coefficient values (R(2)) of 0.9947 and 0.9637 are obtained for heat of formation values predicted by this code using methodologies I and II, respectively. The newly developed code LOTUSES (version 1.3) has been validated by calculating the heats of formation of standard explosives such as TNT, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), RDX, HMX, etc., To the best of our knowledge, no such code is reported in literature which can predict heats of formation values integrated with performance parameters of HEMs belonging to all categories of organic compounds viz. aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic materials. The code can also be used to obtain parameters such as velocity of detonation, C-J pressure, volume of explosion products, power index, temperature of explosion and oxygen balance of HEMs. The code has been developed in Visual Basic having enhanced Windows environment. This software namely LOTUSES 1.3 is an updated version of the earlier ones namely LOTUSES 1.1 and 1.2 which do not cater for the calculation of heat of formation and temperature of explosion of HEMs. LOTUSES 1.3 is, therefore, a totally integrated software for computing most of the vital parameters of HEMs requiring mainly the molecular structural

  9. Predictive Factors and Risk Mapping for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Munyua, Peninah M.; Murithi, R. Mbabu; Ithondeka, Peter; Hightower, Allen; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Anyangu, Samuel A.; Kiplimo, Jusper; Bett, Bernard; Vrieling, Anton; Breiman, Robert F.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2016-01-01

    Background To-date, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred in 38 of the 69 administrative districts in Kenya. Using surveillance records collected between 1951 and 2007, we determined the risk of exposure and outcome of an RVF outbreak, examined the ecological and climatic factors associated with the outbreaks, and used these data to develop an RVF risk map for Kenya. Methods Exposure to RVF was evaluated as the proportion of the total outbreak years that each district was involved in prior epizootics, whereas risk of outcome was assessed as severity of observed disease in humans and animals for each district. A probability-impact weighted score (1 to 9) of the combined exposure and outcome risks was used to classify a district as high (score ≥ 5) or medium (score ≥2 - <5) risk, a classification that was subsequently subjected to expert group analysis for final risk level determination at the division levels (total = 391 divisions). Divisions that never reported RVF disease (score < 2) were classified as low risk. Using data from the 2006/07 RVF outbreak, the predictive risk factors for an RVF outbreak were identified. The predictive probabilities from the model were further used to develop an RVF risk map for Kenya. Results The final output was a RVF risk map that classified 101 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 21 districts as high risk, and 100 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 35 districts as medium risk and 190 divisions (48%) as low risk, including all 97 divisions in Nyanza and Western provinces. The risk of RVF was positively associated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), low altitude below 1000m and high precipitation in areas with solonertz, luvisols and vertisols soil types (p <0.05). Conclusion RVF risk map serves as an important tool for developing and deploying prevention and control measures against the disease. PMID:26808021

  10. Mapping, bayesian geostatistical analysis and spatial prediction of lymphatic filariasis prevalence in Africa.

    PubMed

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest to control or eradicate the major neglected tropical diseases. Accurate modelling of the geographic distributions of parasitic infections will be crucial to this endeavour. We used 664 community level infection prevalence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with eight environmental variables, altitude and population density, and a multivariate Bayesian generalized linear spatial model that allows explicit accounting for spatial autocorrelation and incorporation of uncertainty in input data and model parameters, to construct the first spatially-explicit map describing LF prevalence distribution in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against predictions made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA climate models for 2050 to predict the likely distributions of LF under future climate and population changes. We show that LF prevalence is strongly influenced by spatial autocorrelation between locations but is only weakly associated with environmental covariates. Infection prevalence, however, is found to be related to variations in population density. All associations with key environmental/demographic variables appear to be complex and non-linear. LF prevalence is predicted to be highly heterogenous across Africa, with high prevalences (>20%) estimated to occur primarily along coastal West and East Africa, and lowest prevalences predicted for the central part of the continent. Error maps, however, indicate a need for further surveys to overcome problems with data scarcity in the latter and other regions. Analysis of future changes in prevalence indicates that population growth rather than climate change per se will represent the dominant factor in the predicted increase/decrease and spread of LF on the continent. We indicate that these results could play an important role in aiding the development of strategies that are best able to achieve the goals of parasite elimination locally and globally in a manner that may also account

  11. Mapping, Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Spatial Prediction of Lymphatic Filariasis Prevalence in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest to control or eradicate the major neglected tropical diseases. Accurate modelling of the geographic distributions of parasitic infections will be crucial to this endeavour. We used 664 community level infection prevalence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with eight environmental variables, altitude and population density, and a multivariate Bayesian generalized linear spatial model that allows explicit accounting for spatial autocorrelation and incorporation of uncertainty in input data and model parameters, to construct the first spatially-explicit map describing LF prevalence distribution in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against predictions made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA climate models for 2050 to predict the likely distributions of LF under future climate and population changes. We show that LF prevalence is strongly influenced by spatial autocorrelation between locations but is only weakly associated with environmental covariates. Infection prevalence, however, is found to be related to variations in population density. All associations with key environmental/demographic variables appear to be complex and non-linear. LF prevalence is predicted to be highly heterogenous across Africa, with high prevalences (>20%) estimated to occur primarily along coastal West and East Africa, and lowest prevalences predicted for the central part of the continent. Error maps, however, indicate a need for further surveys to overcome problems with data scarcity in the latter and other regions. Analysis of future changes in prevalence indicates that population growth rather than climate change per se will represent the dominant factor in the predicted increase/decrease and spread of LF on the continent. We indicate that these results could play an important role in aiding the development of strategies that are best able to achieve the goals of parasite elimination locally and globally in a manner that may also account

  12. Geospatial Predictive Modelling for Climate Mapping of Selected Severe Weather Phenomena Over Poland: A Methodological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walawender, Ewelina; Walawender, Jakub P.; Ustrnul, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of the study is to introduce methods for mapping the spatial distribution of the occurrence of selected atmospheric phenomena (thunderstorms, fog, glaze and rime) over Poland from 1966 to 2010 (45 years). Limited in situ observations as well the discontinuous and location-dependent nature of these phenomena make traditional interpolation inappropriate. Spatially continuous maps were created with the use of geospatial predictive modelling techniques. For each given phenomenon, an algorithm identifying its favourable meteorological and environmental conditions was created on the basis of observations recorded at 61 weather stations in Poland. Annual frequency maps presenting the probability of a day with a thunderstorm, fog, glaze or rime were created with the use of a modelled, gridded dataset by implementing predefined algorithms. Relevant explanatory variables were derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and downscaled with the use of a Regional Climate Model. The resulting maps of favourable meteorological conditions were found to be valuable and representative on the country scale but at different correlation ( r) strength against in situ data (from r = 0.84 for thunderstorms to r = 0.15 for fog). A weak correlation between gridded estimates of fog occurrence and observations data indicated the very local nature of this phenomenon. For this reason, additional environmental predictors of fog occurrence were also examined. Topographic parameters derived from the SRTM elevation model and reclassified CORINE Land Cover data were used as the external, explanatory variables for the multiple linear regression kriging used to obtain the final map. The regression model explained 89 % of annual frequency of fog variability in the study area. Regression residuals were interpolated via simple kriging.

  13. Depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping for early prediction of cancer progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; LaFace, Justin; Hartman, Douglas J.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Effective management of patients who are at risk of developing invasive cancer is a primary challenge in early cancer detection. Techniques that can help establish clear-cut protocols for successful triaging of at-risk patients have the potential of providing critical help in improving patient care while simultaneously reducing patient cost. We have developed such a technique for early prediction of cancer progression that uses unstained tissue sections to provide depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of heterogeneity in optical density alterations manifested in precancerous lesions during cancer progression. We present nanoNAM and its application to predicting cancer progression in a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis: ApcMin/+ mice.

  14. Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Chris L.; Autrey, Bradley C.

    2005-09-01

    Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of mapping river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to predict river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these predictions. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were predicted in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality maps. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate prediction results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.

  15. Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Christopher Lyle; Autry, Bradley C.

    2005-07-01

    Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of mapping river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to predict river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these predictions. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were predicted in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality maps. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate prediction results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.

  16. Satellite Mapping of Agricultural Water Requirements in California with the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F. S.; Lund, C.; Johnson, L.; Michaelis, A.; Pierce, L.; Guzman, A.; Hiatt, S.; Purdy, A. J.; Rosevelt, C.; Brandt, W. T.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated agricultural lands can provide water managers and agricultural producers with information that can be used to optimize agricultural water use, especially in regions with limited water supplies. In particular, the timely delivery of information on agricultural crop water requirements has the potential to make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate. We present findings from the development and deployment of a prototype system for irrigation scheduling and management support in California. The system utilizes the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System to integrate satellite observations and meteorological observations to map crop canopy development, basal crop coefficients (Kcb), and evapotranspiration (ETcb) values for multiple crop types in the Central Valley of California at the scale of individual fields. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system and web services. We present the prototype system, including comparisons of estimates of ETcb from the prototype system against estimates of ET from other methods, including surface renewal stations and observations from wireless sensor networks deployed in operational agricultural fields across California. We discuss the potential for integration of ET from energy balance models to support near real-time mapping of consumptive water use and crop water stress.

  17. Predictive Modeling and Mapping of Fish Distributions in Small Streams of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleary, R. J.; Hassan, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    An automated procedure was developed to model spatial fish distributions within small streams in the Foothills of Alberta. Native fish populations and their habitats are susceptible to impacts arising from both industrial forestry and rapid development of petroleum resources in the region. Knowledge of fish distributions and the effects of industrial activities on their habitats is required to help conserve native fish populations. Resource selection function (RSF) models were used to explain presence/absence of fish in small streams. Target species were bull trout, rainbow trout and non-native brook trout. Using GIS, the drainage network was divided into reaches with uniform slope and drainage area and then polygons for each reach were created. Predictor variables described stream size, stream energy, climate and land-use. We identified a set of candidate models and selected the best model using a standard Akaike Information Criteria approach. The best models were validated with two external data sets. Drainage area and basin slope parameters were included in all best models. This finding emphasizes the importance of controlling for the energy dimension at the basin scale in investigations into the effects of land-use on aquatic resources in this transitional landscape between the mountains and plains. The best model for bull trout indicated a relation between the presence of artificial migration barriers in downstream areas and the extirpation of the species from headwater reaches. We produced reach-scale maps by species and summarized this information within all small catchments across the 12,000 km2 study area. These maps had included three categories based on predicted probability of capture for individual reaches. The high probability category had a 78 percent accuracy for correctly predicting both fish present and fish not-present reaches. Basin scale maps highlight specific watersheds likely to support both native bull trout and invasive brook trout, while

  18. Prediction-for-CompAction: navigation in social environments using generalized cognitive maps.

    PubMed

    Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A; Calvo, Carlos; Makarov, Valeri A

    2015-06-01

    The ultimate navigation efficiency of mobile robots in human environments will depend on how we will appraise them: merely as impersonal machines or as human-like agents. In the latter case, an agent may take advantage of the cooperative collision avoidance, given that it possesses recursive cognition, i.e., the agent's decisions depend on the decisions made by humans that in turn depend on the agent's decisions. To deal with this high-level cognitive skill, we propose a neural network architecture implementing Prediction-for-CompAction paradigm. The network predicts possible human-agent collisions and compacts the time dimension by projecting a given dynamic situation into a static map. Thereby emerging compact cognitive map can be readily used as a "dynamic GPS" for planning actions or mental evaluation of the convenience of cooperation in a given context. We provide numerical evidence that cooperation yields additional room for more efficient navigation in cluttered pedestrian flows, and the agent can choose path to the target significantly shorter than a robot treated by humans as a functional machine. Moreover, the navigation safety, i.e., the chances to avoid accidental collisions, increases under cooperation. Remarkably, these benefits yield no additional load to the mean society effort. Thus, the proposed strategy is socially compliant, and the humanoid agent can behave as "one of us."

  19. Performance prediction of four-contact vertical Hall-devices using a conformal mapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huang; Yue, Xu; Yufeng, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Instead of the conventional design with five contacts in the sensor active area, innovative vertical Hall devices (VHDs) with four contacts and six contacts are asymmetrical in structural design but symmetrical in the current flow that can be well fit for the spinning current technique for offset elimination. In this article, a conformal mapping calculation method is used to predict the performance of asymmetrical VHD embedded in a deep n-well with four contacts. Furthermore, to make the calculation more accurate, the junction field effect is also involved into the conformal mapping method. The error between calculated and simulated results is less than 5% for the current-related sensitivity, and approximately 13% for the voltage-related sensitivity. This proves that such calculations can be used to predict the optimal structure of the vertical Hall-devices. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Nos. BK20131379, BK20141431) and the Graduate Research and Innovation Projects of Jiangsu Province (No. SJLX_0373).

  20. Dynamics of Hollow Atom Formation in Intense X-Ray Pulses Probed by Partial Covariance Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasinski, L. J.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Mucke, M.; Squibb, R. J.; Siano, M.; Eland, J. H. D.; Linusson, P.; v. d. Meulen, P.; Salén, P.; Thomas, R. D.; Larsson, M.; Foucar, L.; Ullrich, J.; Motomura, K.; Mondal, S.; Ueda, K.; Osipov, T.; Fang, L.; Murphy, B. F.; Berrah, N.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Schorb, S.; Messerschmidt, M.; Glownia, J. M.; Cryan, J. P.; Coffee, R. N.; Takahashi, O.; Wada, S.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.; Feifel, R.

    2013-08-01

    When exposed to ultraintense x-radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) the innermost electronic shell can efficiently be emptied, creating a transient hollow atom or molecule. Understanding the femtosecond dynamics of such systems is fundamental to achieving atomic resolution in flash diffraction imaging of noncrystallized complex biological samples. We demonstrate the capacity of a correlation method called “partial covariance mapping” to probe the electron dynamics of neon atoms exposed to intense 8 fs pulses of 1062 eV photons. A complete picture of ionization processes competing in hollow atom formation and decay is visualized with unprecedented ease and the map reveals hitherto unobserved nonlinear sequences of photoionization and Auger events. The technique is particularly well suited to the high counting rate inherent in FEL experiments.

  1. Mapping the formation areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kogerler, Paul

    2012-05-18

    The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {MoV/VI154/176} archetypes, and a {MoV/VI368} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to mapping the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the formation of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {MoV/VI368} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates.

  2. Decoding the Formation of New Semantics: MVPA Investigation of Rapid Neocortical Plasticity during Associative Encoding through Fast Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Atir-Sharon, Tali; Gilboa, Asaf; Hazan, Hananel; Koilis, Ester; Manevitz, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Neocortical structures typically only support slow acquisition of declarative memory; however, learning through fast mapping may facilitate rapid learning-induced cortical plasticity and hippocampal-independent integration of novel associations into existing semantic networks. During fast mapping the meaning of new words and concepts is inferred, and durable novel associations are incidentally formed, a process thought to support early childhood's exuberant learning. The anterior temporal lobe, a cortical semantic memory hub, may critically support such learning. We investigated encoding of semantic associations through fast mapping using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis. Subsequent memory performance following fast mapping was more efficiently predicted using anterior temporal lobe than hippocampal voxels, while standard explicit encoding was best predicted by hippocampal activity. Searchlight algorithms revealed additional activity patterns that predicted successful fast mapping semantic learning located in lateral occipitotemporal and parietotemporal neocortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, successful explicit encoding could be classified by activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices. We propose that fast mapping promotes incidental rapid integration of new associations into existing neocortical semantic networks by activating related, nonoverlapping conceptual knowledge. In healthy adults, this is better captured by unique anterior and lateral temporal lobe activity patterns, while hippocampal involvement is less predictive of this kind of learning. PMID:26257961

  3. AlgPred: prediction of allergenic proteins and mapping of IgE epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sudipto; Raghava, G. P. S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study a systematic attempt has been made to integrate various approaches in order to predict allergenic proteins with high accuracy. The dataset used for testing and training consists of 578 allergens and 700 non-allergens obtained from A. K. Bjorklund, D. Soeria-Atmadja, A. Zorzet, U. Hammerling and M. G. Gustafsson (2005) Bioinformatics, 21, 39–50. First, we developed methods based on support vector machine using amino acid and dipeptide composition and achieved an accuracy of 85.02 and 84.00%, respectively. Second, a motif-based method has been developed using MEME/MAST software that achieved sensitivity of 93.94 with 33.34% specificity. Third, a database of known IgE epitopes was searched and this predicted allergenic proteins with 17.47% sensitivity at specificity of 98.14%. Fourth, we predicted allergenic proteins by performing BLAST search against allergen representative peptides. Finally hybrid approaches have been developed, which combine two or more than two approaches. The performance of all these algorithms has been evaluated on an independent dataset of 323 allergens and on 101 725 non-allergens obtained from Swiss-Prot. A web server AlgPred has been developed for the predicting allergenic proteins and for mapping IgE epitopes on allergenic proteins (). AlgPred is available at . PMID:16844994

  4. Feature maps driven no-reference image quality prediction of authentically distorted images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Bovik, Alan C.

    2015-03-01

    Current blind image quality prediction models rely on benchmark databases comprised of singly and synthetically distorted images, thereby learning image features that are only adequate to predict human perceived visual quality on such inauthentic distortions. However, real world images often contain complex mixtures of multiple distortions. Rather than a) discounting the effect of these mixtures of distortions on an image's perceptual quality and considering only the dominant distortion or b) using features that are only proven to be efficient for singly distorted images, we deeply study the natural scene statistics of authentically distorted images, in different color spaces and transform domains. We propose a feature-maps-driven statistical approach which avoids any latent assumptions about the type of distortion(s) contained in an image, and focuses instead on modeling the remarkable consistencies in the scene statistics of real world images in the absence of distortions. We design a deep belief network that takes model-based statistical image features derived from a very large database of authentically distorted images as input and discovers good feature representations by generalizing over different distortion types, mixtures, and severities, which are later used to learn a regressor for quality prediction. We demonstrate the remarkable competence of our features for improving automatic perceptual quality prediction on a benchmark database and on the newly designed LIVE Authentic Image Quality Challenge Database and show that our approach of combining robust statistical features and the deep belief network dramatically outperforms the state-of-the-art.

  5. Deep Learning to Predict the Formation of Quinone Species in Drug Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tyler B; Swamidass, S Joshua

    2017-02-20

    Many adverse drug reactions are thought to be caused by electrophilically reactive drug metabolites that conjugate to nucleophilic sites within DNA and proteins, causing cancer or toxic immune responses. Quinone species, including quinone-imines, quinone-methides, and imine-methides, are electrophilic Michael acceptors that are often highly reactive and comprise over 40% of all known reactive metabolites. Quinone metabolites are created by cytochromes P450 and peroxidases. For example, cytochromes P450 oxidize acetaminophen to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, which is electrophilically reactive and covalently binds to nucleophilic sites within proteins. This reactive quinone metabolite elicits a toxic immune response when acetaminophen exceeds a safe dose. Using a deep learning approach, this study reports the first published method for predicting quinone formation: the formation of a quinone species by metabolic oxidation. We model both one- and two-step quinone formation, enabling accurate quinone formation predictions in nonobvious cases. We predict atom pairs that form quinones with an AUC accuracy of 97.6%, and we identify molecules that form quinones with 88.2% AUC. By modeling the formation of quinones, one of the most common types of reactive metabolites, our method provides a rapid screening tool for a key drug toxicity risk. The XenoSite quinone formation model is available at http://swami.wustl.edu/xenosite/p/quinone .

  6. A stochastic simulation framework for the prediction of strategic noise mapping and occupational noise exposure using the random walk approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Lim Ming; Haron, Zaiton; Yahya, Khairulzan; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces.

  7. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  8. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  9. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    PubMed

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  10. MAPPING CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors. PMID:25642017

  11. Ab initio and template-based prediction of multi-class distance maps by two-dimensional recursive neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Ian; Baù, Davide; Martin, Alberto JM; Mooney, Catherine; Vullo, Alessandro; Pollastri, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Background Prediction of protein structures from their sequences is still one of the open grand challenges of computational biology. Some approaches to protein structure prediction, especially ab initio ones, rely to some extent on the prediction of residue contact maps. Residue contact map predictions have been assessed at the CASP competition for several years now. Although it has been shown that exact contact maps generally yield correct three-dimensional structures, this is true only at a relatively low resolution (3–4 Å from the native structure). Another known weakness of contact maps is that they are generally predicted ab initio, that is not exploiting information about potential homologues of known structure. Results We introduce a new class of distance restraints for protein structures: multi-class distance maps. We show that Cα trace reconstructions based on 4-class native maps are significantly better than those from residue contact maps. We then build two predictors of 4-class maps based on recursive neural networks: one ab initio, or relying on the sequence and on evolutionary information; one template-based, or in which homology information to known structures is provided as a further input. We show that virtually any level of sequence similarity to structural templates (down to less than 10%) yields more accurate 4-class maps than the ab initio predictor. We show that template-based predictions by recursive neural networks are consistently better than the best template and than a number of combinations of the best available templates. We also extract binary residue contact maps at an 8 Å threshold (as per CASP assessment) from the 4-class predictors and show that the template-based version is also more accurate than the best template and consistently better than the ab initio one, down to very low levels of sequence identity to structural templates. Furthermore, we test both ab-initio and template-based 8 Å predictions on the CASP7 targets

  12. Improving visualisation and prediction performance of supervised self-organising map by modified contradiction resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2015-01-01

    We have previously proposed a new type of information-theoretic method where a neuron is evaluated by itself (self-evaluation) and by its surrounding neurons (outer-evaluation). If contradiction between different types of evaluation exists, it is reduced as much as possible. In the present paper, we try to separate self- and outer-evaluation more explicitly and introduce the importance of neurons. First, we separate self- and outer-evaluation to enhance the characteristics shared by the two types of evaluation. Second, we introduce the importance of neurons in evaluation. By using a limited number of important neurons in evaluation, we expect the main characteristics in input patterns to emerge. We applied this contradiction resolution to two types of data, namely, the Senate data and the Euro-yen exchange rates. In both data sets, experimental results confirmed that improved prediction performance was obtained. Prediction performance was better than that obtained by the conventional self-organising map (SOM) and radial basis function networks. In addition, final representations obtained by contradiction resolution were easier to interpret than those given by the conventional SOM. Experimental results confirmed that improved interpretation and visualisation were accompanied by improved prediction performance.

  13. Predicting and mapping potential Whooping Crane stopover habitat to guide site selection for wind energy projects.

    PubMed

    Belaire, J Amy; Kreakie, Betty J; Keitt, Timothy; Minor, Emily

    2014-04-01

    Migratory stopover habitats are often not part of planning for conservation or new development projects. We identified potential stopover habitats within an avian migratory flyway and demonstrated how this information can guide the site-selection process for new development. We used the random forests modeling approach to map the distribution of predicted stopover habitat for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana), an endangered species whose migratory flyway overlaps with an area where wind energy development is expected to become increasingly important. We then used this information to identify areas for potential wind power development in a U.S. state within the flyway (Nebraska) that minimize conflicts between Whooping Crane stopover habitat and the development of clean, renewable energy sources. Up to 54% of our study area was predicted to be unsuitable as Whooping Crane stopover habitat and could be considered relatively low risk for conflicts between Whooping Cranes and wind energy development. We suggest that this type of analysis be incorporated into the habitat conservation planning process in areas where incidental take permits are being considered for Whooping Cranes or other species of concern. Field surveys should always be conducted prior to construction to verify model predictions and understand baseline conditions.

  14. Predictive risk mapping of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Saskatchewan horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha Y; Waldner, Cheryl; Berke, Olaf

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model using equine data from geographically limited surveillance locations to predict risk categories for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in horses in all geographic locations across the province of Saskatchewan. The province was divided geographically into low-, medium-, or high-risk categories for WNV, based on available serology information from 923 horses obtained through 4 studies of WNV infection in horse populations in Saskatchewan. Discriminant analysis was used to build models using the observed risk of WNV in horses and geographic division-specific environmental data as well as to predict the risk category for all areas, including those beyond the surveillance zones. High-risk areas were indicated by relatively lower rainfall, higher temperatures, and a lower percentage of area covered in trees, water, and wetland. These conditions were most often identified in the southwest corner of the province. Environmental conditions can be used to identify those areas that are at highest risk for WNV. Public health managers could use prediction maps, which are based on animal or human information and developed from annual early season meteorological information, to guide ongoing decisions about when and where to focus intervention strategies for WNV.

  15. Predicting Career Indecision in College Students: The Roles of Identity Formation and Parental Relationship Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Antonia L.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates students' identity formation and perceptions of parental acceptance and encouragement of independence as predictors of career indecision. Four measurements were administered to 169 undergraduate students for the study. Results show career indecision was predicted by higher identity moratorium, less maternal acceptance, and fewer years…

  16. The Salient Map Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method: Powerful potential as a formative assessment in the biomedical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, Laura Anne

    This dissertation consists of two studies: 1) development and characterization of the Salient Map Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method as a formative assessment tool and 2) a case study exploring how a paramedic instructor's beliefs about learners affect her utilization of the SMART method and vice versa. The first study explored: How can a novel concept map analysis method be designed as an effective formative assessment tool? The SMART method improves upon existing concept map analysis methods because it does not require hierarchically structured concept maps and it preserves the rich content of the maps instead of reducing each map down to a numerical score. The SMART method is performed by comparing a set of students' maps to each other and to an instructor's map. The resulting composite map depicts, in percentages and highlighted colors, the similarities and differences between all of the maps. Some advantages of the SMART method as a formative assessment tool include its ability to highlight changes across time, problematic or alternative conceptions, and patterns of student responses at a glance. Study two explored: How do a paramedic instructor's beliefs about students and learning affect---and become affected by---her use of the SMART method as a formative assessment tool? This case study of Angel, an expert paramedic instructor, begins to address a gap in the emergency medical services (EMS) education literature, which contains almost no research on teachers or pedagogy. Angel and I worked together as participant co-researchers (Heron & Reason, 1997) exploring the affordances of the SMART method. This study, based on those interactions with Angel, involved using open coding to identify themes (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) from Angel's views of students and use of the SMART method. Angel views learning as a sense-making process. She has a multi-faceted view of her students as novices and invests substantial time trying to understand their concept

  17. Large-scale mapping and predictive modeling of submerged aquatic vegetation in a shallow eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Havens, Karl E; Harwell, Matthew C; Brady, Mark A; Sharfstein, Bruce; East, Therese L; Rodusky, Andrew J; Anson, Daniel; Maki, Ryan P

    2002-04-09

    A spatially intensive sampling program was developed for mapping the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) over an area of approximately 20,000 ha in a large, shallow lake in Florida, U.S. The sampling program integrates Geographic Information System (GIS) technology with traditional field sampling of SAV and has the capability of producing robust vegetation maps under a wide range of conditions, including high turbidity, variable depth (0 to 2 m), and variable sediment types. Based on sampling carried out in August-September 2000, we measured 1,050 to 4,300 ha of vascular SAV species and approximately 14,000 ha of the macroalga Chara spp. The results were similar to those reported in the early 1990s, when the last large-scale SAV sampling occurred. Occurrence of Chara was strongly associated with peat sediments, and maximal depths of occurrence varied between sediment types (mud, sand, rock, and peat). A simple model of Chara occurrence, based only on water depth, had an accuracy of 55%. It predicted occurrence of Chara over large areas where the plant actually was not found. A model based on sediment type and depth had an accuracy of 75% and produced a spatial map very similar to that based on observations. While this approach needs to be validated with independent data in order to test its general utility, we believe it may have application elsewhere. The simple modeling approach could serve as a coarse-scale tool for evaluating effects of water level management on Chara populations.

  18. Mapping as a tool for predicting the risk of anthrax outbreaks in Northern Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nsoh, Ayamdooh Evans; Kenu, Ernest; Forson, Eric Kofi; Afari, Edwin; Sackey, Samuel; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Yebuah, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anthrax is a febrile soil-born infectious disease that can affect all warm-blooded animals including man. Outbreaks of anthrax have been reported in northern region of Ghana but no concerted effort has been made to implement risk-based surveillance systems to document outbreaks so as to implement policies to address the disease. We generated predictive maps using soil pH, temperature and rainfall as predictor variables to identify hotspot areas for the outbreaks. Methods A 10-year secondary data records on soil pH, temperature and rainfall were used to create climate-based risk maps using ArcGIS 10.2. The monthly mean values of rainfall and temperature for ten years were calculated and anthrax related evidence based constant raster values were created as weights for the three factors. All maps were generated using the Kriging interpolation method. Results There were 43 confirmed outbreaks. The deaths involved were 131 cattle, 44 sheep, 15 goats, 562 pigs with 6 human deaths and 22 developed cutaneous anthrax. We found three strata of well delineated distribution pattern indicating levels of risk due to suitability of area for anthrax spore survival. The likelihood of outbreaks occurrence and reoccurrence was higher in Strata I, Strata II and strata III respectively in descending order, due to the suitability of soil pH, temperature and rainfall for the survival and dispersal of B. anthracis spore. Conclusion The eastern corridor of Northern region is a Hots spot area. Policy makers can develop risk based surveillance system and focus on this area to mitigate anthrax outbreaks and reoccurrence. PMID:28149439

  19. Predictive Mapping of Human Risk for West Nile Virus (WNV) Based on Environmental and Socioeconomic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rochlin, Ilia; Turbow, David; Gomez, Frank; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Campbell, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) human risk map was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000–2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk map. In 2005–2010, 41 out of 46 (89%) of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases) or in close proximity (11 cases) to the WNV high risk areas predicted by the 2000–2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases. PMID:21853103

  20. Predictive mapping of human risk for West Nile virus (WNV) based on environmental and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Turbow, David; Gomez, Frank; Ninivaggi, Dominick V; Campbell, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) human risk map was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000-2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk map. In 2005-2010, 41 out of 46 (89%) of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases) or in close proximity (11 cases) to the WNV high risk areas predicted by the 2000-2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases.

  1. Completing the Mapping of the W3 Giant Molecular Cloud; Testing Models and the Importance of Triggered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Toby; Allsopp, James; Jones, Huw

    2006-05-01

    It is proposed to complete the R. Gehrz's mapping of W3 at both IRAC and MIPS 24um wavelengths. W3 is an outer galaxy Giant Molecular Cloud comprising of two regions; a quiescent, spontaneously star forming region and a region compressed by the W4 OB association containing the majority of star formation and all of the high mass star formation. Currently only the high-density region, Lada( put date) is mapped, but for a scientifically-valid comparision between the triggered and spontaneous modes we require the remainder of the cloud to be mapped. Triggered star formation is vitally important as it provides a mechanism for understanding the massive disparity between the low star formation efficiencies of galaxies such as our own andmore violent events such as galaxy mergers. Currently we have mapped the majority of the cloud at 850 um using SCUBA and the whole cloud using the CO(J=1-0) with the 12CO, 13CO and C18O isotomers. From these studies we have identified and measured the masses of 230 clumps. Without Spitzer data we have no way of determining which of these clumps have formed stars. This project forms the final crucial piece which when added to our current observations of the mass in the cloud will quantify the local star formation efficiency for each region. This is the first part of an ongoing much larger study into triggered star formation. We used Aztec (1.1mm continuum) on the JCMT in January 2006 to map two more clouds and Spitzer data on these from other observers has either been recently released or is about to be. In 2007, we will expand on the knowledge gained from this with the SCUBA2 JCMT Galactic Plane Survey (JPS) in which we are collaborators.

  2. Magnetic field inversions at 1 AU: Comparisons between mapping predictions and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Owens, M. J.; Neudegg, D.; Lobzin, V. V.; Steward, G.

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale magnetic field configurations are important for the transport of solar wind strahl electrons, which are suprathermal and directed along the field outward from the Sun. Strahl electrons are routinely used to infer not only the field configurations between the Sun and Earth but also local field structures, i.e., field inversions, where the magnetic field is locally folded back or inverted. Using solar wind data from ACE observations and a 2-D data-driven solar wind model with nonzero azimuthal magnetic field at the solar wind source surface, magnetic field lines are mapped between the Sun and Earth and beyond, in the solar equatorial plane. Standard verification metrics are used to assess, for five solar rotations at different phases of solar cycle 23, the performance of the mapping predictions for observed inversions, which are inferred from solar wind suprathermal electrons and magnetic fields measured by ACE. The probability of detection is consistently ≈0.70 across the different phases. The success ratio, the Hanssen-Kuipers skill score, and the Heidke skill score are ≈0.55-0.70 for the four rotations in the rising, solar maximum, and declining phases, but ≈0.35-0.60 for the rotation near solar minimum, during which almost half of the samples have undetermined field configurations. Our analyses confirm the persistence of inversions throughout solar cycle 23, suggest for most observed inversions a solar/coronal origin at the wind's source surface or below, and predict that inversions should be less common for larger heliocentric distance r ˜> 3 AU than for smaller r.

  3. New method for prediction of shale gas content in continental shale formation using well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Zhe; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Shao, Yu; Liao, Wei; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    Shale needs to contain a sufficient amount of gas to make it viable for exploitation. The continental heterogeneous shale formation in the Yan-chang (YC) area is investigated by firstly measuring the shale gas content in a laboratory and then investigating use of a theoretical prediction model. Key factors controlling the shale gas content are determined, and a prediction model for free gas content is established according to the equation of gas state and a new petrophysical volume model. Application of the Langmuir volume constant and pressure constant obtained from results of adsorption isotherms is found to be limited because these constants are greatly affected by experimental temperature and pressures. Therefore, using measurements of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic theory, the influence of temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), and mineralogy on Langmuir volume constants and pressure constants are investigated in detail. A prediction model for the Langmuir pressure constant with a correction of temperatures is then established, and a prediction model for the Langmuir volume constant with correction of temperature, TOC, and quartz contents is also proposed. Using these corrected Langmuir constants, application of the Langmuir model determined using experimental adsorption isotherms is extrapolated to reservoir temperature, pressure, and lithological conditions, and a method for the prediction of shale gas content using well logs is established. Finally, this method is successfully applied to predict the shale gas content of the continental shale formation in the YC area, and practical application is shown to deliver good results with high precision.

  4. Mapping of Sand Types and Dune Morphologies in the Aeolis Dorsa Region, Western Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. S.; Burr, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    Preliminary mapping of low- and high-albedo sand deposits in the Aeolis Dorsa region, Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), suggests sand transport from the north, consistent with sand source(s) in Elysium Mons, the Cerberus plains, or the MFF itself.

  5. A linkage map of maize x teosinte zea luxurians and identification of qtls controlling root aerenchyma formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-hundred and ninety five F2 individuals, derived from a cross between maize inbred line B73 x Zea luxurians, were subjected to a 107 SSR marker based QTL analysis for aerenchyma cell formation that covered 1,331 cM across all ten maize and Zea luxurians chromosomes. Composite interval mapping a...

  6. Miedema Calculator: A thermodynamic platform for predicting formation enthalpies of alloys within framework of Miedema's Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. F.; Zhang, S. H.; He, Z. J.; Jing, J.; Sheng, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    The theoretical background and implementation of "Miedema Calculator", a thermodynamic platform for predicting formation enthalpies of various alloys within framework of Miedema's theory, is summarized and presented. Several user-friendly interfaces are designed for the following major functional modules, i.e. the formation enthalpies of binary intermetallic compounds based on the original Miedema's model and two more improved ones, the chemical, elastic and structural enthalpies of solid solutions, the formation enthalpies of amorphous alloys, the volume corrections upon alloying, and the formation enthalpies of ternary alloys based on various geometrical models. Various models and methods have been justified and implemented into the platform together with the unified model parameters and properties for each element as a basic database. A set of critical tests and evaluations have been performed on each module, providing its efficiency and validation for a fast screening of thermodynamic properties of various alloys.

  7. Accurate De Novo Prediction of Protein Contact Map by Ultra-Deep Learning Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Renyu

    2017-01-01

    -assisted models also have much better quality than template-based models especially for membrane proteins. The 3D models built from our contact prediction have TMscore>0.5 for 208 of the 398 membrane proteins, while those from homology modeling have TMscore>0.5 for only 10 of them. Further, even if trained mostly by soluble proteins, our deep learning method works very well on membrane proteins. In the recent blind CAMEO benchmark, our fully-automated web server implementing this method successfully folded 6 targets with a new fold and only 0.3L-2.3L effective sequence homologs, including one β protein of 182 residues, one α+β protein of 125 residues, one α protein of 140 residues, one α protein of 217 residues, one α/β of 260 residues and one α protein of 462 residues. Our method also achieved the highest F1 score on free-modeling targets in the latest CASP (Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction), although it was not fully implemented back then. Availability http://raptorx.uchicago.edu/ContactMap/ PMID:28056090

  8. A set of nearest neighbor parameters for predicting the enthalpy change of RNA secondary structure formation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhi John; Turner, Douglas H.; Mathews, David H.

    2006-01-01

    A complete set of nearest neighbor parameters to predict the enthalpy change of RNA secondary structure formation was derived. These parameters can be used with available free energy nearest neighbor parameters to extend the secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences to temperatures other than 37°C. The parameters were tested by predicting the secondary structures of sequences with known secondary structure that are from organisms with known optimal growth temperatures. Compared with the previous set of enthalpy nearest neighbor parameters, the sensitivity of base pair prediction improved from 65.2 to 68.9% at optimal growth temperatures ranging from 10 to 60°C. Base pair probabilities were predicted with a partition function and the positive predictive value of structure prediction is 90.4% when considering the base pairs in the lowest free energy structure with pairing probability of 0.99 or above. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between the predicted melting temperatures of RNA sequences and the optimal growth temperatures of the host organism. This indicates that organisms that live at higher temperatures have evolved RNA sequences with higher melting temperatures. PMID:16982646

  9. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  10. Unsupervised and self-mapping category formation and semantic object recognition for mobile robot vision used in an actual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madokoro, H.; Tsukada, M.; Sato, K.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an unsupervised learning-based object category formation and recognition method for mobile robot vision. Our method has the following features: detection of feature points and description of features using a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), selection of target feature points using one class support vector machines (OC-SVMs), generation of visual words using self-organizing maps (SOMs), formation of labels using adaptive resonance theory 2 (ART-2), and creation and classification of categories on a category map of counter propagation networks (CPNs) for visualizing spatial relations between categories. Classification results of dynamic images using time-series images obtained using two different-size robots and according to movements respectively demonstrate that our method can visualize spatial relations of categories while maintaining time-series characteristics. Moreover, we emphasize the effectiveness of our method for category formation of appearance changes of objects.

  11. Potentiometric-surface map of water in the Judith River Formation in the Northern Great Plains area of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    The potentiometric surface of the Judith River Formation is mapped at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The map is one of a series produced as part of a regional study of aquifers of Cenozoic and Mesozoic age in the northern Great Plains of Montana. The contour interval is 200 feet. Water in the Judith River Formation occurs under water-table and artesian conditions. The direction of regional ground-water movement is from west to east. Water is discharged from the Judith River Formation to the Milk River from near Havre, Montana, to Malta and to the Missouri River south of the Bearpaw and Little Rocky Mountains. The average discharge from 236 wells is about 10 gallons per minute, and the specific capacity of 186 wells averages 0.66 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. (USGS)

  12. A program for the conversion of The National Map data from proprietary format to resource description framework (RDF)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulen, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan J.; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    To expand data functionality and capabilities for users of The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey, data sets for six watersheds and three urban areas were converted from the Best Practices vector data model formats to Semantic Web data formats. This report describes and documents the conver-sion process. The report begins with an introduction to basic Semantic Web standards and the background of The National Map. Data were converted from a proprietary format to Geog-raphy Markup Language to capture the geometric footprint of topographic data features. Configuration files were designed to eliminate redundancy and make the conversion more efficient. A SPARQL endpoint was established for data validation and queries. The report concludes by describing the results of the conversion.

  13. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy. PMID:26473739

  14. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy.

  15. Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, John D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Kraus, Stefan; Baron, Fabien; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Dong, Ruobing; Isella, Andrea; Merand, Antoine; Michael, Ernest; Minardi, Stefano; Mozurkewich, David; Petrov, Romain; Rinehart, Stephen; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Vasisht, Gautam; Wishnow, Ed; Young, John; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-08-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) Project has formed a Technical Working Group (TWG) to explore possible facility architectures to meet the primary PFI science goal of imaging planet formation in situ in nearby starforming regions. The goals of being sensitive to dust emission on solar system scales and resolving the Hill-sphere around forming giant planets can best be accomplished through sub-milliarcsecond imaging in the thermal infrared. Exploiting the 8-13 micron atmospheric window, a ground-based long-baseline interferometer with approximately 20 apertures including 10km baselines will have the necessary resolution to image structure down 0.1 milliarcseconds (0.014 AU) for T Tauri disks in Taurus. Even with large telescopes, this array will not have the sensitivity to directly track fringes in the mid-infrared for our prime targets and a fringe tracking system will be necessary in the near-infrared. While a heterodyne architecture using modern mid-IR laser comb technology remains a competitive option (especially for the intriguing 24 and 40μm atmospheric windows), the prioritization of 3-5μm observations of CO/H2O vibrotational levels by the PFI-Science Working Group (SWG) pushes the TWG to require vacuum pipe beam transport with potentially cooled optics. We present here a preliminary study of simulated L- and N-band PFI observations of a realistic 4-planet disk simulation, finding 21x2.5m PFI can easily detect the accreting protoplanets in both L and N-band but can see non-accreting planets only in L band. We also find that even an ambitious PFI will lack sufficient surface brightness sensitivity to image details of the fainter emission from dust structures beyond 5 AU, unless directly illuminated or heated by local energy sources. That said, the utility of PFI at N-band is highly dependent on the stage of planet formation in the disk and we require additional systematic studies in conjunction with the PFI-SWG to better understand the science capabilities

  16. Comparison of Northern Ireland radon maps based on indoor radon measurements and geology with maps derived by predictive modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Young, M

    2011-03-15

    Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential mapping method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for mapping radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential map generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the map based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential predicted from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-prediction could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air.

  17. Maps showing formation temperatures and configurations of the tops of the Minnelusa Formation and the Madison Limestone, Powder River basin, Wyoming, Montana, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, William J.; Kilty, Kevin Thomas; Knottek, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    This report is part of a study to describe the hydrogeologic framework needed to evaluate the water resources of the Paleozoic age aquifers in the Northern Great Plains coal region. Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota have indicated that these aquifers might provide a significant percentage of the water requirements for coal development. Geologic and water-temperature data for the Minnelusa Formation of Permian and Pennsylvanian age and for the Madison Limestone (Group where it is subdivided) of Mississippian and locally late Devonian age , and their equivalents, were compiled and interpreted. Maps were produced showing the altitude and ground-water temperatures of the top of these formations. The altitude (configuration) maps show the depth and position of the formations throughout the area. Temperature maps can be used to calculate changes in the viscosity of water caused by large temperature differences. The viscosity differences will be useful in adjusting calculated transmissivity aquifer values (the rate at which water can be transmitted through an aquifer). (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars (MC-8 SE and MC-23 NW) and the Northern Lowlands of Venus (V-16 and V-15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of a mapping project supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, funding for which became available on July 18, focusing on the mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. The report also briefly discusses the status of maps of Venus and Ascraeus Mons, begun under previous NASA grants but which are still in progress.

  19. Simple Computation of the Heat of Formation and Density from Theoretically Predicted Values

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    or the Gutowski model (20), which is applicable only for 1:1 salts . Both the Jenkins and Gutowski models correlate the molecular volume to the...can be obtained for non-1:1 salts , assuming one had knowledge of the crystal structure, the Jenkins methodology allows for a completely predictive...tool for the determination of solid-phase heats of formation of molecular energetic salts without requiring this information. Surprisingly, the

  20. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  1. Using dose-surface maps to predict radiation-induced rectal bleeding: a neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike

    2009-09-01

    The incidence of late-toxicities after radiotherapy can be modelled based on the dose delivered to the organ under consideration. Most predictive models reduce the dose distribution to a set of dose-volume parameters and do not take the spatial distribution of the dose into account. The aim of this study was to develop a classifier predicting radiation-induced rectal bleeding using all available information on the dose to the rectal wall. The dose was projected on a two-dimensional dose-surface map (DSM) by virtual rectum-unfolding. These DSMs were used as inputs for a classification method based on locally connected neural networks. In contrast to fully connected conventional neural nets, locally connected nets take the topology of the input into account. In order to train the nets, data from 329 patients from the RT01 trial (ISRCTN 47772397) were split into ten roughly equal parts. By using nine of these parts as a training set and the remaining part as an independent test set, a ten-fold cross-validation was performed. Ensemble learning was used and 250 nets were built from randomly selected patients from the training set. Out of these 250 nets, an ensemble of expert nets was chosen. The performances of the full ensemble and of the expert ensemble were quantified by using receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) curves. In order to quantify the predictive power of the shape, ensembles of fully connected conventional neural nets based on dose-surface histograms (DSHs) were generated and their performances were quantified. The expert ensembles performed better than or equally as well as the full ensembles. The area under the ROC curve for the DSM-based expert ensemble was 0.64. The area under the ROC curve for the DSH-based expert ensemble equalled 0.59. This difference in performance indicates that not only volumetric, but also morphological aspects of the dose distribution are correlated to rectal bleeding after radiotherapy. Thus, the shape of the dose

  2. Thalamic theta phase alignment predicts human memory formation and anterior thalamic cross-frequency coupling.

    PubMed

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rugg, Michael D; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2015-05-20

    Previously we reported electrophysiological evidence for a role for the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) in human memory formation (Sweeney-Reed et al., 2014). Theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC) predicted successful memory formation, with the involvement of gamma oscillations suggesting memory-relevant local processing in the ATN. The importance of the theta frequency range in memory processing is well-established, and phase alignment of oscillations is considered to be necessary for synaptic plasticity. We hypothesized that theta phase alignment in the ATN would be necessary for memory encoding. Further analysis of the electrophysiological data reveal that phase alignment in the theta rhythm was greater during successful compared with unsuccessful encoding, and that this alignment was correlated with the CFC. These findings support an active processing role for the ATN during memory formation.

  3. Thermochemistry for silicic acid formation reaction: Prediction of new reaction pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Das, Abhijit K.

    2009-08-01

    Reaction between SiO 2 and water has been studied extensively using ab initio methods. The mechanism for formation of metasilicic acid SiO(OH) 2 and orthosilicic acid Si(OH) 4 has been explored and a new pathway for formation of Si(OH) 4 is predicted. Heats of reaction ( ΔrH298∘) and heats of formation ( ΔfH298∘) at 298 K for the related reactions and species calculated at two different theoretical levels G3B3 and G3MP2B3 agree well with the literature values. It is found that when SiO 2 reacts simultaneously with two water molecules, the thermodynamic as well as kinetic feasibility of the process is much greater than that when SiO 2 reacts with one molecule of water.

  4. Pattern formation in a model for mountain pine beetle dispersal: linking model predictions to data.

    PubMed

    Strohm, S; Tyson, R C; Powell, J A

    2013-10-01

    Pattern formation occurs in a wide range of biological systems. This pattern formation can occur in mathematical models because of diffusion-driven instability or due to the interaction between reaction, diffusion, and chemotaxis. In this paper, we investigate the spatial pattern formation of attack clusters in a system for Mountain Pine Beetle. The pattern formation (aggregation) of the Mountain Pine Beetle in order to attack susceptible trees is crucial for their survival and reproduction. We use a reaction-diffusion equation with chemotaxis to model the interaction between Mountain Pine Beetle, Mountain Pine Beetle pheromones, and susceptible trees. Mathematical analysis is utilized to discover the spacing in-between beetle attacks on the susceptible landscape. The model predictions are verified by analysing aerial detection survey data of Mountain Pine Beetle Attack from the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. We find that the distance between Mountain Pine Beetle attack clusters predicted by our model closely corresponds to the observed attack data in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. These results clarify the spatial mechanisms controlling the transition from incipient to epidemic populations and may lead to control measures which protect forests from Mountain Pine Beetle outbreak.

  5. Prediction of CT Substitutes from MR Images Based on Local Diffeomorphic Mapping for Brain PET Attenuation Correction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yang, Wei; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Zhentai; Zhong, Liming; Huang, Meiyan; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-10-01

    Attenuation correction is important for PET reconstruction. In PET/MR, MR intensities are not directly related to attenuation coefficients that are needed in PET imaging. The attenuation coefficient map can be derived from CT images. Therefore, prediction of CT substitutes from MR images is desired for attenuation correction in PET/MR.

  6. Mapping Medusae Fossae Formation materials in the southern highlands of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S. K.; Balme, M. R.; Hagermann, A.; Murray, J. B.; Muller, J.-P.

    2010-10-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is an extensive deposit (2.2 × 10 6 km 2, Bradley, B.A., Sakimoto, S.E.H., Frey, H., Zimbelman, J.R. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 5058) of wind-eroded material of widely debated origin, which unconformably overlies a considerable area of the crustal dichotomy boundary on Mars. The MFF shows a variety of layering patterns, erosional styles and channel-like forms and has been mapped into five main outcrops and three geological members according to exposure and stratigraphy (Scott, D.H., Tanaka, K.L., 1986. USGS Map I-1802-A; Greeley, R., Guest, J.E., 1987. Map I-1802-B; Zimbelman, J.R., Crown, D., Jenson, D., 1996. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXVII. Abstract #1748.). Away from the three main lobes are numerous outliers of MFF materials. These have mainly been reported in the northern lowlands regions (Keszthelyi, L., Jaeger, W.L., and HiRISE team, 2008. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXIX. Abstract #2420.) but few studies have examined the possibility of MFF outliers on high ground south of the dichotomy boundary. We have searched Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle (MOC NA) images for outliers in this region. Our observations show that there are many MFF outliers on the southern highlands. The characteristics of the outliers indicate materials which overlie the underlying terrain for they appear widely in dips, craters and topographic lows. The surfaces are typified by yardang fields and have a similar patchy and discontinuous nature to materials of the upper member of the MFF. Most have consistent lineation orientations across the wider area which match the dominant orientation of yardangs in the main MFF outcrops. Furthermore, elevation data shows that the maximum, minimum and mean elevations of these newly discovered outliers are closest to those of the upper member of the MFF. We therefore conclude that these deposits are MFF outliers and that they probably represent remnant upper member material. We suggest that there might be two possible

  7. Genetic mapping and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants defective in the formation of extracellular proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wretlind, B; Pavlovskis, O R

    1984-01-01

    We isolated 15 mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO which were defective in the formation of certain extracellular proteins, such as elastase, staphylolytic enzyme, and lipase ( Xcp mutants). The mutations were mapped on the chromosome by conjugation and transduction. The locations were xcp -1 near 0', with the gene order cys-59- xcp -1- proB , and loci xcp -2, xcp -3, and xcp -31 at 35', with the gene order trpC , D- xcp -3/ xcp -31- xcp -2- argC . Loci xcp -4 and xcp -41 through xcp -44 were cotransducible with proA at 40'; loci xcp -5, xcp -51, xcp -52, and xcp53 were located at 55', with the gene order leu-10- trpF -met-9010- xcp -53- xcp -5/ xcp -51/ xcp+ ++-52, and xcp -6 was located at 65' to 70', between catA and mtu-9002. Nine mutations ( xcp -2, xcp -3, xcp -31, xcp -4, and xcp -41 through xcp -45) caused decreased production of extracellular enzymes. Six strains with mutations xcp -1, xcp -5, xcp -51, xcp -52, xcp -53, and xcp -6 produced cell-bound exoproteins and had defective release mechanisms. The regulation of production of alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase C is different from other exoproteins , such as elastase, but they all seem to share a common release mechanism. Alkaline protease had separate mechanisms for regulation and release, since this protease was found in culture supernatants of all but one of the mutants, and none of the strains had cell-bound enzyme. PMID:6427194

  8. Predicting total organic halide formation from drinking water chlorination using quantitative structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Luilo, G B; Cabaniss, S E

    2011-10-01

    Chlorinating water which contains dissolved organic matter (DOM) produces disinfection byproducts, the majority of unknown structure. Hence, the total organic halide (TOX) measurement is used as a surrogate for toxic disinfection byproducts. This work derives a robust quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the TOX formation potential of model compounds. Literature data for 49 compounds were used to train the QSPR in moles of chlorine per mole of compound (Cp) (mol-Cl/mol-Cp). The resulting QSPR has four descriptors, calibration [Formula: see text] of 0.72 and standard deviation of estimation of 0.43 mol-Cl/mol-Cp. Internal and external validation indicate that the QSPR has good predictive power and low bias (‰<‰1%). Applying this QSPR to predict TOX formation by DOM surrogates - tannic acid, two model fulvic acids and two agent-based model assemblages - gave a predicted TOX range of 136-184 µg-Cl/mg-C, consistent with experimental data for DOM, which ranged from 78 to 192 µg-Cl/mg-C. However, the limited structural variation in the training data may limit QSPR applicability; studies of more sulfur-containing compounds, heterocyclic compounds and high molecular weight compounds could lead to a more widely applicable QSPR.

  9. Mapping and prediction of coal workers' pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Li, W.H.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-08-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CXXT in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p {lt} 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p {lt} 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p {lt} 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p {lt} 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p {lt} 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailability. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scale mining.

  10. Using self-organizing maps to determine observation threshold limit predictions in highly variant data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paganoni, C.A.; Chang, K.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    A significant data quality challenge for highly variant systems surrounds the limited ability to quantify operationally reasonable limits on the data elements being collected and provide reasonable threshold predictions. In many instances, the number of influences that drive a resulting value or operational range is too large to enable physical sampling for each influencer, or is too complicated to accurately model in an explicit simulation. An alternative method to determine reasonable observation thresholds is to employ an automation algorithm that would emulate a human analyst visually inspecting data for limits. Using the visualization technique of self-organizing maps (SOM) on data having poorly understood relationships, a methodology for determining threshold limits was developed. To illustrate this approach, analysis of environmental influences that drive the abundance of a target indicator species (the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum) provided a real example of applicability. The relationship between salinity and temperature and abundance of F. duorarum is well documented, but the effect of changes in water quality upstream on pink shrimp abundance is not well understood. The highly variant nature surrounding catch of a specific number of organisms in the wild, and the data available from up-stream hydrology measures for salinity and temperature, made this an ideal candidate for the approach to provide a determination about the influence of changes in hydrology on populations of organisms.

  11. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  12. Mapping and prediction of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.

  13. Multispectral Thermal Imagery and Its Application to the Geologic Mapping of the Koobi Fora Formation, Northwestern Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Mary K.

    2005-12-01

    The Koobi Fora Formation in northwestern Kenya has yielded more hominin fossils dated between 2.1 and 1.2 Ma than any other location on Earth. This research was undertaken to discover the spectral signatures of a portion of the Koobi Fora Formation using imagery from the DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite. Creation of a digital geologic map from MTI imagery was a secondary goal of this research. MTI is unique amongst multispectral satellites in that it co-collects data from 15 spectral bands ranging from the visible to the thermal infrared with a ground sample distance of 5 meters per pixel in the visible and 20 meters in the infrared. The map was created in two stages. The first was to correct the base MTI image using spatial accuracy assessment points collected in the field. The second was to mosaic various MTI images together to create the final Koobi Fora map. Absolute spatial accuracy of the final map product is 73 meters. The geologic classification of the Koobi Fora MTI map also took place in two stages. The field work stage involved location of outcrops of different lithologies within the Koobi Fora Formation. Field descriptions of these outcrops were made and their locations recorded. During the second stage, a linear spectral unmixing algorithm was applied to the MTI mosaic. In order to train the linear spectra unmixing algorithm, regions of interest representing four different classes of geologic material (tuff, alluvium, carbonate, and basalt), as well as a vegetation class were defined within the MTI mosaic. The regions of interest were based upon the aforementioned field data as well as overlays of geologic maps from the 1976 Iowa State mapping project. Pure spectra were generated for each class from the regions of interest, and then the unmixing algorithm classified each pixel according to relative percentage of classes found within the pixel based upon the pure spectra values. A total of four unique combinations of geologic classes

  14. MAPping the Ndc80 loop in cancer: A possible link between Ndc80/Hec1 overproduction and cancer formation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ngang Heok; Toda, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Mis-regulation (e.g. overproduction) of the human Ndc80/Hec1 outer kinetochore protein has been associated with aneuploidy and tumourigenesis, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Recent studies have identified the ubiquitous Ndc80 internal loop as a protein-protein interaction platform. Binding partners include the Ska complex, the replication licensing factor Cdt1, the Dam1 complex, TACC-TOG microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and kinesin motors. We review the field and propose that the overproduction of Ndc80 may unfavourably absorb these interactors through the internal loop domain and lead to a change in the equilibrium of MAPs and motors in the cells. This sequestration will disrupt microtubule dynamics and the proper segregation of chromosomes in mitosis, leading to aneuploid formation. Further investigation of Ndc80 internal loop-MAPs interactions will bring new insights into their roles in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and tumourigenesis.

  15. Formative use of select-and-fill-in concept maps in online instruction: Implications for students of different learning styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Charles William

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the formative use of Select and Fill-In (SAFI) maps in online instruction and the cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses of students to their use. In particular, the implications of their use with students of different learning styles was considered. The research question investigated in this qualitative study was: How do students of different learning styles respond to online instruction in which SAFI maps are utilized? This question was explored by using an emergent, collective case study. Each case consisted of community college students who shared a dominant learning style and were enrolled in an online course in environmental studies. Cases in the study were determined using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Seven forms of data were collected during the study. During the first phase of data collection, dominant learning style and background information on student experience with concept mapping and online instruction was determined. In the second phase of data collection, participants completed SAFI maps and quiz items that corresponded to the content of the maps. Achievement data on the map activities and quiz and student responses to a post-SAFI survey and questionnaire were recorded to identify learner cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses to the tasks. Upon completion of data collection, cases were constructed and compared across learning styles. Cases are presented using the trends, across participants sharing the same dominant learning style, in achievement, behaviors and attitudes as seen in the evidence present in the data. Triangulation of multiple data sources increased reliability and validity, through cross-case analyses, and produced a thick description of the relationship between the cases for each learning style. Evidence suggesting a cognitive response to the SAFI tasks was inconsistent across cases. However, learners with an affinity towards reflective learning

  16. First USGS urban seismic hazard maps predict the effects of soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.; Gomberg, J.S.; Schweig, E.S.; Waldron, B.A.; Tucker, K.

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic and scenario urban seismic hazard maps have been produced for Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee covering a six-quadrangle area of the city. The nine probabilistic maps are for peak ground acceleration and 0.2 s and 1.0 s spectral acceleration and for 10%, 5%, and 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Six scenario maps for these three ground motions have also been generated for both an M7.7 and M6.2 on the southwest arm of the New Madrid seismic zone ending at Marked Tree, Arkansas. All maps include the effect of local geology. Relative to the national seismic hazard maps, the effect of the thick sediments beneath Memphis is to decrease 0.2 s probabilistic ground motions by 0-30% and increase 1.0 s probabilistic ground motions by ???100%. Probabilistic peak ground accelerations remain at levels similar to the national maps, although the ground motion gradient across Shelby County is reduced and ground motions are more uniform within the county. The M7.7 scenario maps show ground motions similar to the 5%-in-50-year probabilistic maps. As an effect of local geology, both M7.7 and M6.2 scenario maps show a more uniform seismic ground-motion hazard across Shelby County than scenario maps with constant site conditions (i.e., NEHRP B/C boundary).

  17. Predictive Malaria Risk and Uncertainty Mapping in Nchelenge District, Zambia: Evidence of Widespread, Persistent Risk and Implications for Targeted Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Chaponda, Mike; Shields, Timothy; Lupiya, James; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Mulenga, Modest; Moss, William J.; Curriero, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria risk maps may be used to guide policy decisions on whether vector control interventions should be targeted and, if so, where. Active surveillance for malaria was conducted through household surveys in Nchelenge District, Zambia from April 2012 through December 2014. Households were enumerated based on satellite imagery and randomly selected for study enrollment. At each visit, participants were administered a questionnaire and a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Logistic regression models were used to construct spatial prediction risk maps and maps of risk uncertainty. A total of 461 households were visited, comprising 1,725 participants, of whom 48% were RDT positive. Several environmental features were associated with increased household malaria risk in a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for seasonal variation. The model was validated using both internal and external evaluation measures to generate and assess root mean square error, as well as sensitivity and specificity for predicted risk. The final, validated model was used to predict and map malaria risk including a measure of risk uncertainty. Malaria risk in a high, perennial transmission setting is widespread but heterogeneous at a local scale, with seasonal variation. Targeting malaria control interventions may not be appropriate in this epidemiological setting. PMID:26416106

  18. Subpixel mapping on remote sensing imagery using a prediction model combining wavelet transform and radial basis function neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Guo, Zhongyang; Zhang, Liquan; Xu, Wencheng

    2009-12-01

    Soft classification methods can be used for mixed-pixel classification on remote sensing imagery by estimating different land cover class fractions of every pixel. However, the spatial distribution and location of these class components within the pixel remain unknown. To map land cover at subpixel scale and increase the spatial resolution of land cover classification maps, in this paper, a prediction model combining wavelet transform and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural network, abbreviated as Wavelet-RBFNN, is constructed by predicting high-frequency wavelet coefficients from low-frequency coefficients at the same resolution with RBF network and taking wavelet coefficients at coarser resolution as training samples. According to different land cover class fraction images obtained from mixed-pixel classification, based on the assumption of neighborhood dependence of wavelet coefficients, subpixel mapping on remote sensing imagery can be accomplished through two steps, i.e., prediction of land cover class compositions within subpixels and hard classification. The experimental results obtained with artificial images, QuickBird image and Landsat 7 ETM+ image indicate that the subpixel mapping method proposed in this paper can successfully produce super-resolution land cover classification maps from remote sensing imagery, outperforming cubic B-spline and Kriging interpolation method in visual effect and prediction accuracy. The Wavelet-RBFNN model can also be applied to simulate higher spatial resolution image, and automatically identify and locate land cover targets at the subpixel scales, when the cost and availability of high resolution imagery prohibit its use in many areas of work.

  19. Predictive maps for stochastic nonaffine stiffening and damage in fibrous networks.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, A S; Zhang, Liang; Stiefel, Judah; Purohit, Prashant K; Joshi, Shailendra P

    2014-02-01

    The macroscopic responses of synthetic and natural filamentous networks are determined by a combination of microstructure and filament properties. Biofilament networks such as those of actin and fibrin have become vehicles for studying important concepts in mechanics such as rigidity percolation, linearity and nonlinearity, isotropy and anisotropy, affinity and nonaffinity, hardening and softening, bending and stretching transitions, etc. In this work, we consider generic fibrous network architectures to map out their mechanical responses over a wide range of filament properties. Using the finite element method, we perform two-dimensional simulations of discrete networks subjected to shear deformation. These simulations encompass stochastic effects arising from network topology (filament arrangement, orientation, and length distribution) and the thermally activated crosslink scission. We study the mechanics of these random networks up to a strain of 10%, including damage that is induced by crosslink scission. The response is nonlinear and the initial elastic modulus alone is not sufficient to give an understanding about the overall response. We show that the nonlinear elastic response of the network can be captured using a few parameters that depend on some well known length scales in network mechanics. For networks with filament density above the rigidity percolation threshold, by increasing filament density and bending stiffness, we observe a crossover from the bending dominated elastically compliant stiffening regime to a stretching dominated rigid nonstiffening regime. We show that in the bending dominated regime there are large deviations from the predictions of affine continuum theories. We also give a simple qualitative model for describing the contours of the incubation strain which marks the onset of damage in networks.

  20. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  1. Prediction of optimal folding routes of proteins that satisfy the principle of lowest entropy loss: dynamic contact maps and optimal control.

    PubMed

    Arkun, Yaman; Erman, Burak

    2010-10-12

    An optimization model is introduced in which proteins try to evade high energy regions of the folding landscape, and prefer low entropy loss routes during folding. We make use of the framework of optimal control whose convenient solution provides practical and useful insight into the sequence of events during folding. We assume that the native state is available. As the protein folds, it makes different set of contacts at different folding steps. The dynamic contact map is constructed from these contacts. The topology of the dynamic contact map changes during the course of folding and this information is utilized in the dynamic optimization model. The solution is obtained using the optimal control theory. We show that the optimal solution can be cast into the form of a Gaussian Network that governs the optimal folding dynamics. Simulation results on three examples (CI2, Sso7d and Villin) show that folding starts by the formation of local clusters. Non-local clusters generally require the formation of several local clusters. Non-local clusters form cooperatively and not sequentially. We also observe that the optimal controller prefers "zipping" or small loop closure steps during folding. The folding routes predicted by the proposed method bear strong resemblance to the results in the literature.

  2. Predicting brittle zones in the Bakken Formation using well logs and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecher, Michael E.

    The oil-in-place estimate for the Bakken Formation has varied from 10 billion barrels in 1974 to 503 billion barrels in 1999. However, only a small fraction of this estimate is recoverable due to the formation having very low porosity and permeability. Implementation of hydraulic fracture stages along horizontal wells in the Bakken has been productive. Recently, identification of zones where the formation is brittle has been used to improve hydraulic fracture stimulation efficiency in an effort to improve production. The first goal for this thesis is to identify a correlation between brittleness and production data by using elastic moduli and normalized production values. The hypothesis for this study is that rock with a low Poisson's ratio and high Young's modulus will be more brittle and will ultimately produce a higher amount of oil than more ductile rock. The next goal was to create and test a method to identify brittle zones with high normalized production in a 3D seismic data set without well control using producing wells from outside the survey with dipole sonic logs from the Bakken Formation. Correlations between normalized production values and elastic moduli were subsequently identified. Cumulative first-four-months' production was found to have the best correlation to the elastic moduli. Correlations of normalized production values and Poisson's ratio showed that sections of the middle Bakken with low Poisson's ratio yield higher normalized production values. Correlations of Young's modulus and normalized production showed that middle Bakken zones with low Young's modulus have higher normalized production values. However, when using additional wells that were not used for well-to-3D seismic correlations, the correlation shows that higher Young's modulus yield higher normalized production. The correlation with additional wells best represented the data and agrees with the initial hypothesis. Brittle zones were mapped in a 3D seismic data set by

  3. Prediction of subsidence: Relationship between lowering of formation pressure and subsidence due to fluid withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Serebryakov, V.A.; Chilingar, G.V.

    2000-06-01

    Abnormally low formation pressures develop in petroleum reservoirs during intensive oil and gas production or in aquifers as a result of water extraction. A simple method is presented for calculating (predicting) the amount of compaction (and resulting subsidence) from the pressure drop in formation due to production, i.e., the increase in the effective pressure p{sub e} (p{sub e} = p{sub t} {minus} p{sub p}, where p{sub t} is the total overburden pressure and p{sub p} is the fluid or pore pressure). This work is based on extensive data collected in Russia. For example, large petroliferous areas in Western Siberia became marshlands as a result of fluid withdrawal. One should remember that sophisticated methods, such as FSMT (direct measurement of rock compaction by wireline tools in situ) and GPS (measurement of surface subsidence by satellite microwave Doppler techniques), are not yet available in many areas of the world.

  4. Theoretical predictions of hydrolysis and complex formation of the heaviest elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershina, V.

    2000-07-01

    In the presentation, investigations of hydrolysis and complex formation of group 4, 5 and 6 elements, including the transactinide elements 104, 105 and 106 are described. They were carried out on the basis of results of relativistic calculations of the electronic structure of various hydrated, hydrolyzed and complex compounds of these elements using the fully relativistic ab initio density functional method with the GGA approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Predictions of equilibria of hydrolysis or complex formation reactions have been made using a model which enables determination of free energy changes of the reactions as changes in the ionic and covalent contributions to the binding molecular energy separately. Those contributions were calculated using the Mulliken analysis of the electronic density distribution.

  5. A Principle for the Formation of the Spatial Structure of Cortical Feature Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermayer, K.; Ritter, H.; Schulten, K.

    1990-11-01

    Orientation-selective cells in the striate cortex of higher animals are organized as a hierarchical topographic map of two stimulus features: (i) position in visual space and (ii) orientation. We show that the observed structure of the topographic map can arise from a principle of continuous mapping. For the realization of this principle we use a mathematical model that can be interpreted as an adaptive process changing a set of synaptic weights, or synaptic connection strengths, between two layers of cells. The patterns of orientation preference and selectivity generated by the model are similar to the patterns seen in the visual cortex of macaque monkey and cat and correspond to a neural projection that maps a more than two-dimensional feature space onto a two-dimensional cortical surface under the constraint that shape and position of the receptive fields of the neurons vary smoothly over the cortical surface.

  6. Novel methods for predicting gas-particle partitioning during the formation of secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wania, F.; Lei, Y. D.; Wang, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Goss, K.-U.

    2014-12-01

    Several methods have been presented in the literature to predict an organic chemical's equilibrium partitioning between the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) component of aerosol and the gas phase, Ki,WIOM, as a function of temperature. They include (i) polyparameter linear free energy relationships calibrated with empirical aerosol sorption data, as well as (ii) the solvation models implemented in SPARC and (iii) the quantum-chemical software COSMOtherm, which predict solvation equilibria from molecular structure alone. We demonstrate that these methods can be used to predict Ki,WIOM for large numbers of individual molecules implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, including those with multiple functional groups. Although very different in their theoretical foundations, these methods give remarkably consistent results for the products of the reaction of normal alkanes with OH, i.e. their partition coefficients Ki,WIOM generally agree within one order of magnitude over a range of more than ten orders of magnitude. This level of agreement is much better than that achieved by different vapour pressure estimation methods that are more commonly used in the SOA community. Also, in contrast to the agreement between vapour pressure estimates, the agreement between the Ki,WIOM estimates does not deteriorate with increasing number of functional groups. Furthermore, these partitioning coefficients Ki,WIOM predicted SOA mass yields in agreement with those measured in chamber experiments of the oxidation of normal alkanes. If a Ki,WIOM prediction method was based on one or more surrogate molecules representing the solvation properties of the mixed OM phase of SOA, the choice of those molecule(s) was found to have a relatively minor effect on the predicted Ki,WIOM, as long as the molecule(s) are not very polar. This suggests that a single surrogate molecule, such as 1-octanol or a hypothetical SOA structure proposed by Kalberer et al. (2004), may often be

  7. Novel methods for predicting gas-particle partitioning during the formation of secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wania, F.; Lei, Y. D.; Wang, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Goss, K.-U.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods have been presented in the literature to predict an organic chemical's equilibrium partitioning between the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) component of aerosol and the gas phase, Ki, WIOM as a function of temperature. They include (i) polyparameter linear free energy relationships calibrated with empirical aerosol sorption data, as well as (ii) the solvation models implemented in SPARC and (iii) the quantum-chemical software Cosmotherm, which predict solvation equilibria from molecular structure alone. We demonstrate that these methods can be used to predict Ki, WIOM for large numbers of individual molecules implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, including those with multiple functional groups. Although very different in their theoretical foundations, these methods give remarkably consistent results for the products of the reaction of normal alkanes with OH, i.e. their partition coefficients Ki, WIOM generally agree within one order of magnitude over a range of more than ten orders of magnitude. This level of agreement is much better than that achieved by different vapour pressure estimation methods that are more commonly used in the SOA community. Also, in contrast to the agreement between vapour pressure estimates, that between the Ki, WIOM estimates does not deteriorate with increasing number of functional groups. Furthermore, these partitioning coefficients Ki, WIOM are found to predict the SOA mass yield in chamber experiments of the oxidation of normal alkanes as good or better than a vapour pressure based method. If a Ki, WIOM prediction method was based on one or more surrogate molecules representing the solvation properties of the mixed OM phase of SOA, the choice of those molecule(s) was found to have a relatively minor effect on the predicted Ki, WIOM, as long as the molecule(s) are not very polar. This suggests that a single surrogate molecule, such as 1-octanol or a hypothetical SOA structure proposed by

  8. A thermodynamic prediction for microporosity formation in aluminum-rich Al-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirier, D. R.; Yeum, K.; Maples, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    A computer model is used to predict the formation and degree of microporosity in a directionally solidified Al-4.5 wt pct Cu alloy, considering the interplay between solidification shrinkage and gas porosity. Macrosegregation theory is used to determine the local pressure within the interdendritic liquid. Results show interdendritic porosity for initial hydrogen contents in the 0.03-1 ppm range, and none below contents of 0.03. An increase in either the thermal gradient or the solidification rate is show to decrease the amount of interdendritic porosity.

  9. Three-Dimensional Geologic Map of Northern California: A Foundation for Earthquake Simulations and Other Predictive Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachens, R. C.; Simpson, R. W.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.; Brocher, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    Detailed, realistic models of the subsurface are needed for predicting damage patterns from future earthquakes and simulating other phenomena affecting human safety and well being. The simple models used in the past are no longer adequate. In support of a planned simulation of the ground shaking from the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we constructed a three-dimensional (3D) geologic map of northern California that consists of specific geologic units separated by discrete boundaries. It is based on a century of geologic mapping, 50 years of gravity and magnetic surveying, double-difference relocated seismicity, seismic soundings, P-wave tomography, and well logs. The map is a rules-based construction composed of faults that break the map volume into fault blocks, which in turn are populated with geologic units defined by surfaces that represent their tops. The rules define how the faults and tops truncate one another. The map is easily updated as new information becomes available. The 3D map is made up of two related parts. An inner detailed map of central California centered on San Francisco extends from Clear Lake to Monterey, from the edge of the continental shelf to the western Great Valley, and to a depth of 45 km. This is embedded in a less detailed regional map that extends from north of Cape Mendocino to Parkfield, from the ocean basin to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges, and also to a depth of 45 km. The detailed map volume is broken by 25 major faults including the active San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras faults. The fault blocks are populated with geologic units in the following groups: water, Plio-Quaternary deposits, Tertiary (or undifferentiated Cenozoic) sedimentary and volcanic deposits, Mesozoic sedimentary or plutonic rocks, mafic lower crust, and mantle rocks. The primary purpose of the regional map is: 1) to provide coverage of the entire reach of the San Andreas Fault that ruptured in 1906 (including the major

  10. The GIS layers of the "International Hydrogeological Map of Europe 1:1,500,000" in a vector format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duscher, Klaus; Günther, Andreas; Richts, Andrea; Clos, Patrick; Philipp, Uta; Struckmeier, Wilhelm

    2015-12-01

    The map series of the International Hydrogeological Map of Europe at a scale of 1:1,500,000 (IHME1500) has been completed by the publication of the last two map sheets in August 2013. Altogether, the 25 sheets of the IHME1500 provide the first coherent overview of groundwater resources in Europe. The map displays productivity and lithology of potential aquifer systems. Some of the additional map contents relating to groundwater are presented only regionally. The most relevant features of IHME1500 are compiled in two seamless geographic information system (GIS) layers in shapefile format: (1) showing groundwater resources characterised by a basic aquifer typology, including a lithological description and areas of seawater intrusion, and (2) reproducing major tectonic fractures. The superficial lithology information was harmonised by implementing a lithological taxonomy and a multi-step aggregation. An enhancement of the GIS layers is envisaged through the release of updates, which will be distinguished by consecutive version numbers. The continent-wide harmonised presentation of contents constitutes the main feature of the IHME1500 GIS layers. This qualifies the spatial dataset as a basic tool for hydrogeological assessments aiming primarily at transboundary issues. Map scale and the manufacture date of the analogue base impose restrictions on the application of the IHME1500 vector data. A set of examples describes the initial use of the GIS layers in research projects and illustrates potential fields of application. The IHME1500 lithology layer establishes a spatial dataset suitable for the continent-wide evaluation of geological surface processes like the susceptibility to landslides.

  11. Role of Excessive Autophagy Induced by Mechanical Overload in Vein Graft Neointima Formation: Prediction and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Ming-Jer; Li, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, Kirk K.; Chien, Shu; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the interplays between the mechanical and molecular bases for vein graft restenosis. We elucidated the stenosis initiation using a high-frequency ultrasonic (HFU) echogenicity platform and estimated the endothelium yield stress from von-Mises stress computation to predict the damage locations in living rats over time. The venous-arterial transition induced the molecular cascades for autophagy and apoptosis in venous endothelial cells (ECs) to cause neointimal hyperplasia, which correlated with the high echogenicity in HFU images and the large mechanical stress that exceeded the yield strength. The ex vivo perfusion of arterial laminar shear stress to isolated veins further confirmed the correlation. EC damage can be rescued by inhibiting autophagy formation using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Pretreatment of veins with 3-MA prior to grafting reduced the pathological increases of echogenicity and neointima formation in rats. Therefore, this platform provides non-invasive temporal spatial measurement and prediction of restenosis after venous-arterial transition as well as monitoring the progression of the treatments. PMID:26915560

  12. Role of Excessive Autophagy Induced by Mechanical Overload in Vein Graft Neointima Formation: Prediction and Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Ming-Jer; Li, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, Kirk K.; Chien, Shu; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2016-02-01

    Little is known regarding the interplays between the mechanical and molecular bases for vein graft restenosis. We elucidated the stenosis initiation using a high-frequency ultrasonic (HFU) echogenicity platform and estimated the endothelium yield stress from von-Mises stress computation to predict the damage locations in living rats over time. The venous-arterial transition induced the molecular cascades for autophagy and apoptosis in venous endothelial cells (ECs) to cause neointimal hyperplasia, which correlated with the high echogenicity in HFU images and the large mechanical stress that exceeded the yield strength. The ex vivo perfusion of arterial laminar shear stress to isolated veins further confirmed the correlation. EC damage can be rescued by inhibiting autophagy formation using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Pretreatment of veins with 3-MA prior to grafting reduced the pathological increases of echogenicity and neointima formation in rats. Therefore, this platform provides non-invasive temporal spatial measurement and prediction of restenosis after venous-arterial transition as well as monitoring the progression of the treatments.

  13. Role of Excessive Autophagy Induced by Mechanical Overload in Vein Graft Neointima Formation: Prediction and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Ming-Jer; Li, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, Kirk K; Chien, Shu; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2016-02-26

    Little is known regarding the interplays between the mechanical and molecular bases for vein graft restenosis. We elucidated the stenosis initiation using a high-frequency ultrasonic (HFU) echogenicity platform and estimated the endothelium yield stress from von-Mises stress computation to predict the damage locations in living rats over time. The venous-arterial transition induced the molecular cascades for autophagy and apoptosis in venous endothelial cells (ECs) to cause neointimal hyperplasia, which correlated with the high echogenicity in HFU images and the large mechanical stress that exceeded the yield strength. The ex vivo perfusion of arterial laminar shear stress to isolated veins further confirmed the correlation. EC damage can be rescued by inhibiting autophagy formation using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Pretreatment of veins with 3-MA prior to grafting reduced the pathological increases of echogenicity and neointima formation in rats. Therefore, this platform provides non-invasive temporal spatial measurement and prediction of restenosis after venous-arterial transition as well as monitoring the progression of the treatments.

  14. A global model of thunderstorm electricity and the prediction of whistler duct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Stansbery, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model is created to calculate the electric field and current that flow from a thunderstorm source into the global electrical circuit. The model includes a hemisphere in which the thunderstorm is located, an equalization layer, and a passive magnetic conjugate hemisphere. To maintain the fair weather electric field, the output current from the thunderstorm is allowed to spread out in the ionosphere or flow along the magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere. The vertical current is constant up to approximately 65 km, decays and is redirected horizontally in the ionosphere. Approximately half of the current that reaches the ionosphere flows along magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere while the rest is spread out in the ionosphere and redirected to the fair weather portion of the storm hemisphere. Our results show that it is important to include a realistic model of the equalization layer to evaluate the role of thunderstorm charging of the global circuit. The mapping of thunderstorm electric fields at middle and subauroral latitudes into the magnetic equatorial plane is studied. The geomagnetic field lines are assumed to be dipolar above approximately 150 km. The horizontal electric field computed in the ionosphere by our model is of sufficient size and shape for the formation of electron density irregularities in the magnetosphere. The mechanism involves a localized convection of ionization tubes by ExB drift. It is shown that the horizontal range of the electric field disturbance in the ionosphere must be within approximately 160 km to produce density irregularities necessary for the formation of whistler ducts. Although the electric field strength at ionospheric heights depends sensitively on the conductivity profile, the results presented show that whistler duct formation is possible by thunderstorm generated electric fields.*

  15. Modeling and predicting the biofilm formation of Salmonella Virchow with respect to temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Ariafar, M Nima; Buzrul, Sencer; Akçelik, Nefise

    2016-03-01

    Biofilm formation of Salmonella Virchow was monitored with respect to time at three different temperature (20, 25 and 27.5 °C) and pH (5.2, 5.9 and 6.6) values. As the temperature increased at a constant pH level, biofilm formation decreased while as the pH level increased at a constant temperature, biofilm formation increased. Modified Gompertz equation with high adjusted determination coefficient (Radj(2)) and low mean square error (MSE) values produced reasonable fits for the biofilm formation under all conditions. Parameters of the modified Gompertz equation could be described in terms of temperature and pH by use of a second order polynomial function. In general, as temperature increased maximum biofilm quantity, maximum biofilm formation rate and time of acceleration of biofilm formation decreased; whereas, as pH increased; maximum biofilm quantity, maximum biofilm formation rate and time of acceleration of biofilm formation increased. Two temperature (23 and 26 °C) and pH (5.3 and 6.3) values were used up to 24 h to predict the biofilm formation of S. Virchow. Although the predictions did not perfectly match with the data, reasonable estimates were obtained. In principle, modeling and predicting the biofilm formation of different microorganisms on different surfaces under various conditions could be possible.

  16. Numerical Model Predictions for Autogenic Fluvial Terrace Formation and Comparison to Natural River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, A. B. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Terraces cut into bedrock (strath) and sediment (fill-cut) offer key constraints on river evolution over millennial timescales, and are often interpreted to form during phases of increased river vertical incision driven by changes in climate or tectonics. Yet all actively meandering channels evolve their shapes through spatial and temporal changes in lateral erosion rates. Therefore, the sparsest requirement for a meandering river to generate terraces is that the intrinsically unsteady lateral erosion rate be coupled with relief generation by vertical incision, which need not be unsteady. In principle, this basic mechanism for terrace formation by meandering rivers should be possible in all fluvial environments, including for valleys with strath or fill-cut terraces, and may overprint signals from external drivers. We have used a numerical model of a vertically incising, meandering river to identify the age and geometric properties of autogenic terraces. Simulations indicate that autogenic terraces form with a recurrence timescale, set by the rate of relief generation, which may overlap with timescales for climate change. The autogenic terraces also have predictable geometries that can include slope proportional to the ratio of vertical incision rate to lateral erosion rate, pairing, and continuous along-valley extent. We compare these simulation results to data for terrace age and geometry from several well studied natural river valleys that span a wide range in terrace sizes and geometries, rock types, tectonic settings, incision rates, and hypothesized formation mechanisms. In cases, terrace age and geometric properties are consistent with formation by meandering with constant vertical incision rates. These similarities suggest that efforts to distinguish terraces that record signals from climatic and tectonic drivers are best focused on environments where terrace ages and geometries are far different than would be predicted by a constant vertical incision model.

  17. A distributed model predictive control (MPC) fault reconfiguration strategy for formation flying satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahani, N. R.; Khorasani, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an active distributed (also referred to as semi-decentralised) fault recovery control scheme is proposed that employs inaccurate and unreliable fault information into a model-predictive-control-based design. The objective is to compensate for the identified actuator faults that are subject to uncertainties and detection time delays, in the attitude control subsystems of formation flying satellites. The proposed distributed fault recovery scheme is developed through a two-level hierarchical framework. In the first level, or the agent level, the fault is recovered locally to maintain as much as possible the design specifications, feasibility, and tracking performance of all the agents. In the second level, or the formation level, the recovery is carried out by enhancing the entire team performance. The fault recovery performance of our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) scheme is compared with two other alternative schemes, namely the centralised and the decentralised fault recovery schemes. It is shown that the distributed (semi-decentralised) fault recovery scheme satisfies the recovery design specifications and also imposes lower fault compensation control effort cost and communication bandwidth requirements as compared to the centralised scheme. Our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) scheme also outperforms the achievable performance capabilities of the decentralised scheme. Simulation results corresponding to a network of four precision formation flight satellites are also provided to demonstrate and illustrate the advantages of our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) fault recovery strategy.

  18. Predicting Galaxy Star Formation Rates via the Co-evolution of Galaxies and Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2014-03-06

    In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, and as such, that more quiescent galaxies reside in older halos. This simple model has been remarkably successful at predicting color-based galaxy statistics at low redshift as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To further test this method with observations, we present new SDSS measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star forming galaxy samples. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also employ a galaxy group finder and show that our model is able to predict: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR-dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an approx r-.15 slope, independent of environment. The accurate prediction for the spatial distribution of satellites is intriguing given the fact that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite, contrary to most galaxy evolution models. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.

  19. Isopach map of the interval from surface elevation to the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  20. Map showing contours on the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  1. Numerical shake prediction for Earthquake Early Warning: data assimilation, real-time shake-mapping, and simulation of wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Aoki, S.

    2014-12-01

    In many methods of the present Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems, hypocenter and magnitude are determined quickly and then strengths of ground motions are predicted. The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (MW9.0), however, revealed some technical issues with the conventional methods: under-prediction due to the large extent of the fault rupture, and over-prediction due to confusion of the system by multiple aftershocks occurred simultaneously. To address these issues, a new concept is proposed for EEW: applying data assimilation technique, present wavefield is estimated precisely in real time (real-time shake mapping) and then future wavefield is predicted time-evolutionally using physical process of seismic wave propagation. Information of hypocenter location and magnitude are not required, which is basically different from the conventional method. In the proposed method, data assimilation technique is applied to estimate the current spatial distribution of wavefield, in which not only actual observation but also anticipated wavefield predicted from one time-step before are used. Real-time application of the data assimilation technique enables us to estimate wavefield in real time, which corresponds to real-time shake mapping. Once present situation is estimated precisely, we go forward to the prediction of future situation using simulation of wave propagation. The proposed method is applied to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (MW9.0) and the 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake (Mw6.7). Future wavefield is precisely predicted, and the prediction is improved with shortening the lead time: for example, the error of 10 s prediction is smaller than that of 20 s, and that of 5 s is much smaller. By introducing this method, it becomes possible to predict ground motion precisely even for cases of the large extent of fault rupture and the multiple simultaneous earthquakes. The proposed method is based on a simulation of physical process from the precisely estimated present condition. This

  2. A priori performance prediction in pharmaceutical wet granulation: testing the applicability of the nucleation regime map to a formulation with a broad size distribution and dry binder addition.

    PubMed

    Kayrak-Talay, Defne; Litster, James D

    2011-10-14

    In this study, Hapgood's nucleation regime map (Hapgood et al., 2003) was tested for a formulation that consists of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of broad size distribution and a fine dry binder. Gabapentin was used as the API and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as the dry binder with deionized water as the liquid binder. The formulation was granulated in a 6l Diosna high shear granulator. The effect of liquid addition method (spray, dripping), liquid addition rate (29-245 g/min), total liquid content (2, 4 and 10%), and impeller speed (250 and 500 rpm) on the granule size distribution and lump formation were investigated. Standard methods were successfully used to characterize the process parameters (spray drop size, spray geometry and powder surface velocity) for calculating the dimensionless spray flux. However, the addition of dry binder had a very strong effect on drop penetration time that could not be predicted from simple capillary flow considerations. This is most likely due to preferential liquid penetration into the fine pores related to the dry binder particles and subsequent partial softening and dissolution of the binder. For systems containing a dry binder or other amorphous powders, it is recommended that drop penetration time be measured directly for the blended formulation and then scaled to the drop size during spraying. Using these approaches to characterize the key dimensionless groups (dimensionless spray flux and drop penetration time), Hapgood's nucleation regime map was successfully used to predict a priori the effect of process conditions on the quality of the granule size distribution as measured by lump formation and the span of the size distribution, both before and after wet massing for range of conditions studied. Wider granule size distributions and higher amount of lumps were obtained moving from intermediate to mechanical dispersion regime. Addition of the liquid in the dripping mode gave the broadest size distribution

  3. Cell Based Associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in predictive mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourlière, Bruno; Pakyuz-Charrier, Evren; Cassard, Daniel; Barbanson, Luc; Gumiaux, Charles

    2015-05-01

    Cell Based Association is an innovative mineral favorability procedure designed to answer special needs of the mining industry in data wise critical situations where usual favorability methods may not yield satisfactory results. Those situations relate to input data quality (e.g. clustered points, mixed and scarce data, approximate location) or some assumptions that are considered unreasonable (e.g. map areas relevance, conditional independence). The principle of CBA consists in replacing polygons of geological units with a square cell grid (hence the 'cell-based'). Each cell contains a range of units ('association') that are binary coded in terms of their presence (1) or absence (0) within study area. The loss of resolution inherent to this procedure is compensated by the enriched information contained in each cell owing to the notion of (lithological) association. Lithological associations are considered as binary spectra and as such are classified using Ascendant Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) thus obtaining a synthetic map of lithological associations. The prospectivity map shows as favourable the cells of the same AHC classes that the ones including mineral occurrences. It was observed that CBA can distinguish between different ore deposit varieties from a blended mineral occurrences data set. CBA can theoretically include any spatialized data (e.g. geophysics, structural data) as an extra variable to specify classification and narrow favourable areas. Doing so would make it an independent favorability mapping procedure and is still under development. Cell size in a grid is a critical parameter of the procedure; it must be compatible with the looked-for phenomena and should have a sufficient lithological variability. In addition to its use for producing favorability maps, a CBA-derived map could help in understanding the background information contained in geological maps. CBA can also be applied to other fields, such as agriculture and urban planning

  4. Mapping agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to predict offsite movement of agrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Ronald E.; Freeland, Robert S.; Ammons, J. T.; Leonard, L. L.

    2000-04-01

    Offsite movement of waterborne agrochemicals is increasingly targeted as a nonpoint source of water quality degradation. Our research has indicated that subsurface water movement is variable and site-specific, and that a small soil volume frequently conducts a large volume of flow. This concentrated flow is usually caused by soil morphology, and it often results in water moving rapidly offsite from certain areas of fields; little or no lateral subsurface flow may occur in other areas. Identifying these subsurface regions is difficult using conventional soil survey and vadose zone sampling techniques. In this study, traditional surveying is combined with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) mapping to identify areas with high potential for subsurface offsite movement of agrochemicals, optimizing these identification techniques, and expanding the mapping procedures to make them useful at the field-scale for agricultural production practices. Conclusions from this research are: (1) EMI mapping provides rapid identification of areas of soil with a high potential for offsite movement of subsurface water, (2) GPR mapping of areas identified by EMI mapping provides a means to identify features that are known to conduct concentrated lateral flow of water, and (3) combining the capabilities of EMI and GPR instrumentation make possible the surveys of large areas that would otherwise be impossible or unfeasible to characterize.

  5. Corticothalamic phase synchrony and cross-frequency coupling predict human memory formation.

    PubMed

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Juergen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Esslinger, Christine; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2014-12-23

    The anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) is thought to play an important role in a brain network involving the hippocampus and neocortex, which enables human memories to be formed. However, its small size and location deep within the brain have impeded direct investigation in humans with non-invasive techniques. Here we provide direct evidence for a functional role for the ATN in memory formation from rare simultaneous human intrathalamic and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings from eight volunteering patients receiving intrathalamic electrodes implanted for the treatment of epilepsy, demonstrating real-time communication between neocortex and ATN during successful memory encoding. Neocortical-ATN theta oscillatory phase synchrony of local field potentials and neocortical-theta-to-ATN-gamma cross-frequency coupling during presentation of complex photographic scenes predicted later memory for the scenes, demonstrating a key role for the ATN in human memory encoding.

  6. Corticothalamic phase synchrony and cross-frequency coupling predict human memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Juergen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Esslinger, Christine; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) is thought to play an important role in a brain network involving the hippocampus and neocortex, which enables human memories to be formed. However, its small size and location deep within the brain have impeded direct investigation in humans with non-invasive techniques. Here we provide direct evidence for a functional role for the ATN in memory formation from rare simultaneous human intrathalamic and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings from eight volunteering patients receiving intrathalamic electrodes implanted for the treatment of epilepsy, demonstrating real-time communication between neocortex and ATN during successful memory encoding. Neocortical-ATN theta oscillatory phase synchrony of local field potentials and neocortical-theta-to-ATN-gamma cross-frequency coupling during presentation of complex photographic scenes predicted later memory for the scenes, demonstrating a key role for the ATN in human memory encoding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05352.001 PMID:25535839

  7. Predicted formation of superconducting platinum-hydride crystals under pressure in the presence of molecular hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duck Young; Scheicher, Ralph H; Pickard, Chris J; Needs, R J; Ahuja, R

    2011-09-09

    Noble metals adopt close-packed structures at ambient pressure and rarely undergo structural transformation at high pressures. Platinum (Pt) is normally considered to be unreactive and is therefore not expected to form hydrides under pressure. We predict that platinum hydride (PtH) has a lower enthalpy than its constituents solid Pt and molecular hydrogen at pressures above 21.5 GPa. PtH transforms to a hexagonal close-packed or face-centered cubic (fcc) structure between 70 and 80 GPa. Linear response calculations indicate that PtH is a superconductor at these pressures with a critical temperature of about 10-25 K. These findings help to shed light on recent observations of pressure-induced metallization and superconductivity in hydrogen-rich materials. We show that the formation of fcc noble metal hydrides under pressure is common and examine the possibility of superconductivity in these materials.

  8. Brief Report: Fast Mapping Predicts Differences in Concurrent and Later Language Abilities Among Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Venker, Courtney E; Kover, Sara T; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated whether the ability to learn word-object associations following minimal exposure (i.e., fast mapping) was associated with concurrent and later language abilities in children with ASD. Children who were poor learners at age 3½ had significantly lower receptive language abilities than children who successfully learned the new words, both concurrently (n = 59) and 2 years later (n = 53), lending ecological validity to experimental fast-mapping tasks. Fast mapping comprehension at age 3½ was associated with better language outcomes regardless of whether children had produced the new words. These findings highlight the importance of investigating processes of language learning in children with ASD. Understanding these processes will enable the development of maximally effective strategies for supporting word learning.

  9. Spatial risk prediction and mapping of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, G; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tanner, M; Vounatsou, P; Utzinger, J

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to examine risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire, and (2) to carry forward spatial risk prediction and mapping at non-sampled locations. First, demographic and socio-economic data were obtained from 3818 children, aged 6-16 years, from 55 schools. Second, a single stool sample was examined from each child by the Kato-Katz technique to assess infection status of S. mansoni and its intensity. Third, remotely sensed environmental data were derived from satellite imagery and digitized ground maps. With these databases a comprehensive geographical information system was established. Bayesian variogram models were applied for spatial risk modelling and prediction. The infection prevalence of S. mansoni was 38.9%, ranging from 0% to 89.3% among schools. Results showed that age, sex, the richest wealth quintile, elevation and rainfall explained the geographical variation of the school prevalences of S. mansoni infection. The goodness of fit of different spatial models revealed that age, sex and socio-economic status had a stronger influence on infection prevalence than environmental covariates. The generated risk map can be used by decision-makers for the design and implementation of schistosomiasis control in this setting. If successfully validated elsewhere, this approach can guide control programmes quite generally.

  10. A-DROP: A predictive model for the formation of oil particle aggregates (OPAs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C.; Geng, Xiaolong; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2016-01-01

    Oil–particle interactions play a major role in removal of free oil from the water column. We present a new conceptual–numerical model, A-DROP, to predict oil amount trapped in oil–particle aggregates. A new conceptual formulation of oil–particle coagulation efficiency is introduced to account for the effects of oil stabilization by particles, particle hydrophobicity, and oil–particle size ratio on OPA formation. A-DROP was able to closely reproduce the oil trapping efficiency reported in experimental studies. The model was then used to simulate the OPA formation in a typical nearshore environment. Modeling results indicate that the increase of particle concentration in the swash zone would speed up the oil–particle interaction process; but the oil amount trapped in OPAs did not correspond to the increase of particle concentration. The developed A-DROP model could become an important tool in understanding the natural removal of oil and developing oil spill countermeasures by means of oil–particle aggregation.

  11. Mapping of independent V3 envelope determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 macrophage tropism and syncytium formation in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Chesebro, B; Wehrly, K; Nishio, J; Perryman, S

    1996-01-01

    The V3 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein is known to have a major influence on macrophage tropism as well as the ability to cause syncytium formation or fusion in CD4-positive lymphocyte cultures. Using infectious molecular HIV-1 clones, a series of mutant clones was created which allowed detailed mapping of V3 amino acid positions involved in these properties. In these experiments the non-syncytium-inducing phenotype in T cells did not always correlate with macrophage tropism. Macrophage tropism appeared to depend on the presence of certain combinations of amino acids at five specific positions within and just outside of the V3 loop itself, whereas syncytium formation in lymphocytes was influenced by substitution of particular residues at two to four positions within V3. In most cases, different V3 amino acid positions were found to independently influence macrophage tropism and syncytium formation in T cells and position 13 was the only V3 location which appeared to simultaneously influence both macrophage tropism and syncytium formation in lymphocytes. PMID:8971043

  12. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activates Ras-GTP complex formation and establishes a Ras, Raf, MAP kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Benn, J; Schneider, R J

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus produces a small (154-amino acid) transcriptional transactivating protein, HBx, which is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for HBx activity and its possible influence on cell proliferation have remained obscure. A number of studies suggest that HBx may stimulate transcription by indirectly activating transcription factors, possibly by influencing cell signaling pathways. We now present biochemical evidence that HBx activates Ras and rapidly induces a cytoplasmic signaling cascade linking Ras, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), leading to transcriptional transactivation. HBx strongly elevates levels of GTP-bound Ras, activated and phosphorylated Raf, and tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated MAP kinase. Transactivation of transcription factor AP-1 by HBx is blocked by inhibition of Ras or Raf activities but not by inhibition of Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C. HBx was also found to stimulate DNA synthesis in serum-starved cells. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein therefore stimulates Ras-GTP complex formation and promotes downstream signaling through Raf and MAP kinases, and may influence cell proliferation. Images PMID:7937954

  13. Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation predicts relationship formation in real life social networks

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others’ feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies predicted growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members’ reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from formation of their accounts revealed that use of IER predicted greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person’s thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26483718

  14. Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation predicts relationship formation in real life social networks.

    PubMed

    Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others' feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies predicted growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members' reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from formation of their accounts revealed that use of IER predicted greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person's thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes.

  15. Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Adam C.; Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ruff, James S.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2015-01-01

    Communication signals are key regulators of social networks, and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odors of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behavior, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analyzing expression levels before, during, and after competition for reproductive resources over three days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is predictive of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species. PMID:25867293

  16. Mapping Physical Formats to Logical Models to Extract Data and Metadata: The Defuddle Parsing Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.; Myers, James D.

    2006-07-25

    Scientists, fueled by the desire for systems-level understanding of phenomena, increasingly need to share their results across multiple disciplines. Accomplishing this requires data to be annotated, contextualized, and readily searchable and translated into other formats. While these requirements can be addressed by custom programming or obviated by community standardization, neither approach has ‘solved’ the problem. In this paper, we describe a complementary approach – a general capability for articulating the format of arbitrary textual and binary data using a logical data model, expressed in XML-Schema, which can be used to provide annotation and context, extract metadata, and enable translation. This work is based on the draft specification for the Data Format Description Language and our open source “Defuddle” parser. We present an overview of the specification, detail the design of Defuddle, and discuss the benefits and challenges of this general approach to enabling discovery and sharing of diverse data sets.

  17. Haplotype mapping and sequence analysis of the mouse Nramp gene predict susceptibility to infection with intracellular parasites

    SciTech Connect

    Malo, D.; Hu, Jinxin; Schurr, E.

    1994-09-01

    The mouse chromosome 1 locus Bcg (Ity, Lsh) controls the capacity of the tissue macrophage to restrict the replication of antigenically unrelated intracellular parasites and therefore determines the natural resistance (BCG-R, dominant) or susceptibility (BCG-S, recessive) of inbred mouse strains to infection with diverse pathogens. We have used a positional cloning strategy based on genetic and physical mapping, YAC cloning, and exon trapping to isolate a candidate gene for Beg (Nramp) that encodes a predicted macrophage-specific transport protein. We have analyzed a total of 27 inbred mouse strains of BCG-R and BCG-S phenotypes for the presence of nucleotide sequence variations within the coding portion of Nramp and have carried out haplotype typing of the corresponding chromosome 1 region in these mice, using 11 additional polymorphic markers mapping in the immediate vicinity of Nramp. cDNA cloning and nucleotide sequencing identified 5 nucleotide sequence variations within Nramp in the inbred strains.

  18. Brief Report: Fast Mapping Predicts Differences in Concurrent and Later Language Abilities among Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether the ability to learn word-object associations following minimal exposure (i.e., fast mapping) was associated with concurrent and later language abilities in children with ASD. Children who were poor learners at age 3½ had significantly lower receptive language abilities than children who successfully learned the new…

  19. Modeling Career Counselor Decisions with Artificial Neural Networks: Predictions of Fit across a Comprehensive Occupational Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Andrew D.; Bizot, Elizabeth B.; Hendershot, Peggy E.; Barton, Margaret G.; Garvin, Mary K.; Kraemer, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Career recommendations were made based on aptitude scores of 335 high school freshmen. Artificial neural networks were used to map recommendations to 12 occupational clusters. Overall accuracy of neural networks (.80) approached that of discriminant function analysis (.84). The two methods had different strengths and weaknesses. (SK)

  20. Potential of EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for the prediction of common surface soil properties and expected accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Foerster, Saskia; Steinberg, Andreas; Stevens, Antoine; Segl, Karl

    2016-04-01

    There is a renewed awareness of the finite nature of the world's soil resources, growing concern about soil security, and significant uncertainties about the carrying capacity of the planet. As a consequence, soil scientists are being challenged to provide regular assessments of soil conditions from local through to global scales. However, only a few countries have the necessary survey and monitoring programs to meet these new needs and existing global data sets are out-of-date. A particular issue is the clear demand for a new area-wide regional to global coverage with accurate, up-to-date, and spatially referenced soil information as expressed by the modeling scientific community, farmers and land users, and policy and decision makers. Soil spectroscopy from remote sensing observations based on studies from the laboratory scale to the airborne scale has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative prediction of key soil surface properties in local areas for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions such as low vegetation cover and low water content. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors in the next 3 to 5 years (EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global mapping and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. Nevertheless, the capabilities to extend the soil properties current spectral modeling from local to regional scales are still to be demonstrated using robust methods. In particular, three central questions are at the forefront of research nowadays: a) methodological developments toward improved algorithms and operational tools for the extraction of soil properties, b) up scaling from the laboratory into space domain, and c) demonstration of the potential of upcoming satellite systems and expected accuracy of soil maps. In this study, airborne imaging spectroscopy data from several test sites are used to simulate EnMAP satellite images at 30 m scale. Then, different soil

  1. The Choice between MapMan and Gene Ontology for Automated Gene Function Prediction in Plant Science

    PubMed Central

    Klie, Sebastian; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Gene Ontology (GO), the analysis of high-throughput data has become tightly coupled with the use of ontologies to establish associations between knowledge and data in an automated fashion. Ontologies provide a systematic description of knowledge by a controlled vocabulary of defined structure in which ontological concepts are connected by pre-defined relationships. In plant science, MapMan and GO offer two alternatives for ontology-driven analyses. Unlike GO, initially developed to characterize microbial systems, MapMan was specifically designed to cover plant-specific pathways and processes. While the dependencies between concepts in MapMan are modeled as a tree, in GO these are captured in a directed acyclic graph. Therefore, the difference in ontologies may cause discrepancies in data reduction, visualization, and hypothesis generation. Here provide the first systematic comparative analysis of GO and MapMan for the case of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with respect to their structural properties and difference in distributions of information content. In addition, we investigate the effect of the two ontologies on the specificity and sensitivity of automated gene function prediction via the coupling of co-expression networks and the guilt-by-association principle. Automated gene function prediction is particularly needed for the model plant Arabidopsis in which only half of genes have been functionally annotated based on sequence similarity to known genes. The results highlight the need for structured representation of species-specific biological knowledge, and warrants caution in the design principles employed in future ontologies. PMID:22754563

  2. Graded functional diffusion map-defined characteristics of apparent diffusion coefficients predict overall survival in recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Lai, Albert; Mischel, Paul S; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Lalezari, Shadi; Schmainda, Kathleen M; Pope, Whitney B

    2011-10-01

    Diffusion imaging has shown promise as a predictive and prognostic biomarker in glioma. We assessed the ability of graded functional diffusion maps (fDMs) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) characteristics to predict overall survival (OS) in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with bevacizumab. Seventy-seven patients with recurrent GBMs were retrospectively examined. MRI scans were obtained before and approximately 6 weeks after treatment with bevacizumab. Graded fDMs were created by registering datasets to each patient's pretreatment scan and then performing voxel-wise subtraction between post- and pretreatment ADC maps. Voxels were categorized according to the degree of change in ADC within pretreatment fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and contrast-enhancing regions of interest (ROIs). We found that the volume of tissue showing decreased ADC within both FLAIR and contrast-enhancing regions stratified OS (log-rank, P < .05). fDMs applied to contrast-enhancing ROIs more accurately predicted OS compared with fDMs applied to FLAIR ROIs. Graded fDMs (showing voxels with decreased ADC between 0.25 and 0.4 µm(2)/ms) were more predictive of OS than traditional (single threshold) fDMs, and the predictive ability of graded fDMs could be enhanced even further by adding the ADC characteristics from the fDM-classified voxels to the analysis (log-rank, P < .001). These results demonstrate that spatially resolved diffusion-based tumor metrics are a powerful imaging biomarker of survival in patients with recurrent GBM treated with bevacizumab.

  3. The effect of shyness on children's formation and retention of novel word-object mappings.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Matt; Westermann, Gert

    2016-12-05

    This study set out to examine whether shyness, an aversion to novelty and unfamiliar social situations, can affect the processes that underlie early word learning. Twenty-four-month-old children (n =32) were presented with sets of one novel and two familiar objects, and it was found that shyer children were less likely to select a novel object as the referent of a novel label. Furthermore, not-shy children then showed evidence of retaining these novel mappings, but shy children did not. These findings suggest that shy children's aversion to novelty and to the unfamiliar context can impact on their word learning.

  4. Joint-multiple family linkage analysis predicts within-family variation better than single-family analysis of the maize nested association mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping has been used to dissect the genetic architecture of a trait and predict phenotypes for marker-assisted selection. Many QTL mapping studies in plants have been limited to one biparental family population. Joint analysis of multiple biparental families offers an ...

  5. A brain region-specific predictive gene map for autism derived by profiling a reference gene set.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Swanwick, Catherine Croft; Johnson, Nicole; Menashe, Idan; Basu, Saumyendra N; Bales, Michael E; Banerjee-Basu, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Molecular underpinnings of complex psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain largely unresolved. Increasingly, structural variations in discrete chromosomal loci are implicated in ASD, expanding the search space for its disease etiology. We exploited the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD to derive a predictive map of candidate genes by an integrated bioinformatics approach. Using a reference set of 84 Rare and Syndromic candidate ASD genes (AutRef84), we built a composite reference profile based on both functional and expression analyses. First, we created a functional profile of AutRef84 by performing Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis which encompassed three main areas: 1) neurogenesis/projection, 2) cell adhesion, and 3) ion channel activity. Second, we constructed an expression profile of AutRef84 by conducting DAVID analysis which found enrichment in brain regions critical for sensory information processing (olfactory bulb, occipital lobe), executive function (prefrontal cortex), and hormone secretion (pituitary). Disease specificity of this dual AutRef84 profile was demonstrated by comparative analysis with control, diabetes, and non-specific gene sets. We then screened the human genome with the dual AutRef84 profile to derive a set of 460 potential ASD candidate genes. Importantly, the power of our predictive gene map was demonstrated by capturing 18 existing ASD-associated genes which were not part of the AutRef84 input dataset. The remaining 442 genes are entirely novel putative ASD risk genes. Together, we used a composite ASD reference profile to generate a predictive map of novel ASD candidate genes which should be prioritized for future research.

  6. Primary Visual Cortex as a Saliency Map: A Parameter-Free Prediction and Its Test by Behavioral Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhaoping, Li; Zhe, Li

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) represent a saliency map of the visual field to exogenously guide attention. This hypothesis has so far provided only qualitative predictions and their confirmations. We report this hypothesis’ first quantitative prediction, derived without free parameters, and its confirmation by human behavioral data. The hypothesis provides a direct link between V1 neural responses to a visual location and the saliency of that location to guide attention exogenously. In a visual input containing many bars, one of them saliently different from all the other bars which are identical to each other, saliency at the singleton’s location can be measured by the shortness of the reaction time in a visual search for singletons. The hypothesis predicts quantitatively the whole distribution of the reaction times to find a singleton unique in color, orientation, and motion direction from the reaction times to find other types of singletons. The prediction matches human reaction time data. A requirement for this successful prediction is a data-motivated assumption that V1 lacks neurons tuned simultaneously to color, orientation, and motion direction of visual inputs. Since evidence suggests that extrastriate cortices do have such neurons, we discuss the possibility that the extrastriate cortices play no role in guiding exogenous attention so that they can be devoted to other functions like visual decoding and endogenous attention. PMID:26441341

  7. Geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and Paleocene Fort Union Formation, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honey, J.D.; Hettinger, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation.

  8. Predictable nonwandering localization of covariant Lyapunov vectors and cluster synchronization in scale-free networks of chaotic maps.

    PubMed

    Kuptsov, Pavel V; Kuptsova, Anna V

    2014-09-01

    Covariant Lyapunov vectors for scale-free networks of Hénon maps are highly localized. We revealed two mechanisms of the localization related to full and phase cluster synchronization of network nodes. In both cases the localization nodes remain unaltered in the course of the dynamics, i.e., the localization is nonwandering. Moreover, this is predictable: The localization nodes are found to have specific dynamical and topological properties and they can be found without computing of the covariant vectors. This is an example of explicit relations between the system topology, its phase-space dynamics, and the associated tangent-space dynamics of covariant Lyapunov vectors.

  9. Analysis and prediction of lightning strike distributions associated with synoptic map types over Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Reap, R.M.

    1994-08-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of lightning activity associated with specific synoptic regimes of low-level wind flow were analyzed as part of an experiment to develop improved statistical thunderstorm forecasts for Florida. The synoptic regimes were identified by means of a linear correlation technique that was used to perform pattern classification or `map typing` of 18- and 30-h sea level pressure forecasts from the National Meteorological Center`s Nested Grid Model (NGM). Lightning location data for the 1987-90 warm seasons were subsequently analyzed on a 12-km grid to determine the thunderstorm distribution for each of the predetermined map types. The analysis revealed organized coastal maxima in lightning activity related to land-sea-breeze convergence zones that form in direct response to the low-level wind flow. Surface effects were also indicated by the persistent minima in lightning activity over Lake Okeechobee and by the lightning maxima found in regions with shoreline curvature favoring localized convergence. Experimental thunderstorm probability equations for Florida were subsequently developed from climatological lightning frequencies and NGM forecast fields. The lightning frequencies were combined with the K stability index to form interactive predictors that take into account the temporal and spatial variations in lightning occurrence for each map type but modulate the climatology in response to the daily large-scale synoptic situation. The statistical forecast equations were developed for each map type in an attempt to simulate the effects of small-scale processes, such as land-sea-breeze convergence zones, on the subsequent development of peninsular-scale convection.

  10. Berkeley Prize: Mapping the Fuel for Star Formation in Early Universe Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas, which is relatively rare in galaxies like the Milky Way, which form only a few new stars per year. Massive galaxies in the distant universe formed stars much more rapidly. Was star formation more efficient in the past, and/or were early galaxies richer in molecular gas? The answer was elusive when our instruments could probe molecules only in the most luminous and rare objects such as mergers and quasars. But a new survey of molecular gas in typical massive star-forming galaxies at redshifts from about 1.2 to 2.3 (corresponding to when the universe was 24% to 40% of its current age) reveals that distant star-forming galaxies were indeed molecular-gas rich and that the star-formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch.

  11. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  12. MAP Kinase-Mediated Negative Regulation of Symbiotic Nodule Formation in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hojin; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Hwang, Ildoo

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play critical roles in various cellular events in plants, including stress responses, innate immunity, hormone signaling, and cell specificity. MAPK-mediated stress signaling is also known to negatively regulate nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interactions, but the molecular mechanism of the MAPK signaling cascades underlying the symbiotic nodule development remains largely unknown. We show that the MtMKK5-MtMPK3/6 signaling module negatively regulates the early symbiotic nodule formation, probably upstream of ERN1 (ERF Required for Nodulation 1) and NSP1 (Nod factor Signaling Pathway 1) in Medicago truncatula. The overexpression of MtMKK5 stimulated stress and defense signaling pathways but also reduced nodule formation in M. truncatula roots. Conversely, a MAPK specific inhibitor, U0126, enhanced nodule formation and the expression of an early nodulation marker gene, MtNIN. We found that MtMKK5 directly activates MtMPK3/6 by phosphorylating the TEY motif within the activation loop and that the MtMPK3/6 proteins physically interact with the early nodulation-related transcription factors ERN1 and NSP1. These data suggest that the stress signaling-mediated MtMKK5/MtMPK3/6 module suppresses symbiotic nodule development via the action of early nodulation transcription factors. PMID:28152300

  13. Formation, Mechanisms, and Predictability of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw in Ensemble AGCM Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Meiji; Kushnir, Yochanan; Nakamura, Hisashi; Yamane, Shozo; Zebiak, Stephen E.

    2005-05-01

    The potential predictability associated with the remote influence of midlatitude tropospheric anomalies over the North Pacific or the North Atlantic, via a seesawlike interannual oscillation between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic lows (AL and IL, respectively) is investigated. Data from a 24-member ensemble of 50-yr atmospheric general circulation model simulation forced with observed sea surface temperature (SST) conditions are analyzed by separating the total simulated fluctuations into the external component forced by the prescribed SST and the internal component generated by atmospheric internal dynamics. The AL-IL seesaw can be identified in both the external and internal components of the variability. In the external variability, determined through the ensemble mean, the seesaw is gradually formed from December to March through the development of a Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern-like wave train, remotely forced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The amplitudes of the externally forced North Atlantic anomalies are only about half as large as the North Pacific anomalies. The potential predictability of the Atlantic anomalies, defined as the ratio of the SST-forced variance to the total variance, does not exceed the 20% level. In the internal component of the variability, determined from the deviations of each ensemble member from the ensemble mean, the negative correlation between the AL and IL anomalies is modest but persistent through winter. It is confirmed that, regardless of the polarity of the AL-IL seesaw, the IL anomalies are formed through eastward wave activity propagation of the stationary Rossby wave train emanating from the AL region in the form of what may be called a “PNAA pattern,” the extension of the PNA-like wave train into the Atlantic. Thus, the midwinter development of North Pacific anomalies is found to be a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the seesaw formation. The persistence of the North Pacific

  14. The role of predictive models in the formation of auditory streams.

    PubMed

    Denham, S L; Winkler, I

    2006-01-01

    Sounds provide us with useful information about our environment which complements that provided by other senses, but also poses specific processing problems. How does the auditory system distentangle sounds from different sound sources? And what is it that allows intermittent sound events from the same source to be associated with each other? Here we review findings from a wide range of studies using the auditory streaming paradigm in order to formulate a unified account of the processes underlying auditory perceptual organization. We present new computational modelling results which replicate responses in primary auditory cortex [Fishman, Y.I., Arezzo, J.C., Steinschneider, M., 2004. Auditory stream segregation in monkey auditory cortex: effects of frequency separation, presentation rate, and tone duration. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 1656-1670; Fishman, Y. I., Reser, D. H., Arezzo, J.C., Steinschneider, M., 2001. Neural correlates of auditory stream segregation in primary auditory cortex of the awake monkey. Hear. Res. 151, 167-187] to tone sequences. We also present the results of a perceptual experiment which confirm the bi-stable nature of auditory streaming, and the proposal that the gradual build-up of streaming may be an artefact of averaging across many subjects [Pressnitzer, D., Hupé, J. M., 2006. Temporal dynamics of auditory and visual bi-stability reveal common principles of perceptual organization. Curr. Biol. 16(13), 1351-1357.]. Finally we argue that in order to account for all of the experimental findings, computational models of auditory stream segregation require four basic processing elements; segregation, predictive modelling, competition and adaptation, and that it is the formation of effective predictive models which allows the system to keep track of different sound sources in a complex auditory environment.

  15. Permeability evolution of fractured limestone due to reactive flow: Observation and prediction of wormhole formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Fitts, J. P.; Crandall, D.; McIntyre, D.; Peters, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fractures in porous media provide preferential pathways for flow and solute transport. Their hydraulic properties are critical parameters for determining fluid migration and leakage, and are subject to alterations when exposed to reactive flow, e.g. CO2-acidfied brine in the case of carbon storage. Our previous studies have shown how mineral heterogeneity could lead to increased roughness that mitigates the increase in fracture permeability. This study shows that, even in rocks with mineral homogeneity, fracture geometry is subject to complex alterations. In this presentation, we report an experimental study of CO2-acidified brine in fractured Indiana Limestone, with comprehensive characterization of effluent chemistry analyzed by ICP-OES, and 3D geometry evolution using micro-computed topography (xCT). Significant carbonate dissolution was observed but the reaction extent revealed by the effluent chemistry was less than what was predicted by simple reaction transport models. xCT imaging revealed the formation of wormhole channels in the fracture, and the channels grew larger downstream and more prominent over time. Using the fracture geometries derived from the xCT images, we simulated the flow field and inferred the evolution of fracture hydraulic properties. To interpret the process of wormholing and its impacts on fracture hydraulic properties, we used reactive transport modeling to simulate the interplay between fracture geometry, fluid flow and geochemical reactions. Our simulations predicted that wormholes were formed in fractures with initial roughness representative of natural subsurface systems. The presence of wormholes caused a disproportionately larger permeability increase than would be expected given the extent of volume change.

  16. Differential effects of two types of formative assessment in predicting performance of first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    Formative assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This study investigates how performance on two different modes of formative assessment relate to each other and to performance on summative assessments in an integrated, medical-school environment. Two types of formative assessment were administered to 146 first-year medical students each week over 8 weeks: a timed, closed-book component to assess factual recall and image recognition, and an un-timed, open-book component to assess higher order reasoning including the ability to identify and access appropriate resources and to integrate and apply knowledge. Analogous summative assessments were administered in the ninth week. Models relating formative and summative assessment performance were tested using Structural Equation Modeling. Two latent variables underlying achievement on formative and summative assessments could be identified; a "formative-assessment factor" and a "summative-assessment factor," with the former predicting the latter. A latent variable underlying achievement on open-book formative assessments was highly predictive of achievement on both open- and closed-book summative assessments, whereas a latent variable underlying closed-book assessments only predicted performance on the closed-book summative assessment. Formative assessments can be used as effective predictive tools of summative performance in medical school. Open-book, un-timed assessments of higher order processes appeared to be better predictors of overall summative performance than closed-book, timed assessments of factual recall and image recognition.

  17. The Use of Fluid Mechanics to Predict Regions of Microscopic Thrombus Formation in Pulsatile VADs.

    PubMed

    Topper, Stephen R; Navitsky, Michael A; Medvitz, Richard B; Paterson, Eric G; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Slattery, Margaret J; Deutsch, Steven; Rosenberg, Gerson; Manning, Keefe B

    2014-03-01

    We compare the velocity and shear obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a pulsatile ventricular assist device (VAD) to further test our thrombus predictive methodology using microscopy data from an explanted VAD. To mimic physiological conditions in vitro, a mock circulatory loop is used with a blood analog that matched blood's viscoelastic behavior at 40% hematocrit. Under normal physiologic pressures and for a heart rate of 75 bpm, PIV data is acquired and wall shear maps are produced. The resolution of the PIV shear rate calculations are tested using the CFD and found to be in the same range. A bovine study, using a model of the 50 cc Penn State V-2 VAD, for 30 days at a constant beat rate of 75 beats per minute (bpm) provides the microscopic data whereby after the 30 days, the device is explanted and the sac surface analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and, after immunofluorescent labeling for platelets and fibrin, confocal microscopy. Areas are examined based on PIV measurements and CFD, with special attention to low shear regions where platelet and fibrin deposition are most likely to occur. Data collected within the outlet port in a direction normal to the front wall of the VAD shows that some regions experience wall shear rates less than 500 s(-1), which increases the likelihood of platelet and fibrin deposition. Despite only one animal study, correlations between PIV, CFD, and in vivo data show promise. Deposition probability is quantified by the thrombus susceptibility potential, a calculation to correlate low shear and time of shear with deposition.

  18. Genesis of Pre-Hurricane Felix (2007). Part 2; Warm Core Formation, Precipitation Evolution, and Predictability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, zhuo; Montgomery M. T.; Dunkerton, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part study examining the simulated formation of Atlantic Hurricane Felix (2007) in a cloud-representing framework. Here several open issues are addressed concerning the formation of the storm's warm core, the evolution and respective contribution of stratiform versus convective precipitation within the parent wave's pouch, and the sensitivity of the development pathway reported in Part I to different model physics options and initial conditions. All but one of the experiments include ice microphysics as represented by one of several parameterizations, and the partition of convective versus stratiform precipitation is accomplished using a standard numerical technique based on the high-resolution control experiment. The transition to a warm-core tropical cyclone from an initially cold-core, lower tropospheric wave disturbance is analyzed first. As part of this transformation process, it is shown that deep moist convection is sustained near the pouch center. Both convective and stratiform precipitation rates increase with time. While stratiform precipitation occupies a larger area even at the tropical storm stage, deep moist convection makes a comparable contribution to the total rain rate at the pregenesis stage, and a larger contribution than stratiform processes at the storm stage. The convergence profile averaged near the pouch center is found to become dominantly convective with increasing deep moist convective activity there. Low-level convergence forced by interior diabatic heating plays a key role in forming and intensifying the near-surface closed circulation, while the midlevel convergence associated with stratiform precipitation helps to increase the midlevel circulation and thereby contributes to the formation and upward extension of a tropospheric-deep cyclonic vortex. Sensitivity tests with different model physics options and initial conditions demonstrate a similar pregenesis evolution. These tests suggest that the genesis

  19. Mapping ECoG channel contributions to trajectory and muscle activity prediction in human sensorimotor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Yasuhiko; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Shin, Duk; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Tanaka, Masataka; Fukuma, Ryohei; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hirata, Masayuki; Koike, Yasuharu

    2017-01-01

    Studies on brain-machine interface techniques have shown that electrocorticography (ECoG) is an effective modality for predicting limb trajectories and muscle activity in humans. Motor control studies have also identified distributions of “extrinsic-like” and “intrinsic-like” neurons in the premotor (PM) and primary motor (M1) cortices. Here, we investigated whether trajectories and muscle activity predicted from ECoG were obtained based on signals derived from extrinsic-like or intrinsic-like neurons. Three participants carried objects of three different masses along the same counterclockwise path on a table. Trajectories of the object and upper arm muscle activity were predicted using a sparse linear regression. Weight matrices for the predictors were then compared to determine if the ECoG channels contributed more information about trajectory or muscle activity. We found that channels over both PM and M1 contributed highly to trajectory prediction, while a channel over M1 was the highest contributor for muscle activity prediction. PMID:28361947

  20. Mapping ECoG channel contributions to trajectory and muscle activity prediction in human sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yasuhiko; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Shin, Duk; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Tanaka, Masataka; Fukuma, Ryohei; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hirata, Masayuki; Koike, Yasuharu

    2017-03-31

    Studies on brain-machine interface techniques have shown that electrocorticography (ECoG) is an effective modality for predicting limb trajectories and muscle activity in humans. Motor control studies have also identified distributions of "extrinsic-like" and "intrinsic-like" neurons in the premotor (PM) and primary motor (M1) cortices. Here, we investigated whether trajectories and muscle activity predicted from ECoG were obtained based on signals derived from extrinsic-like or intrinsic-like neurons. Three participants carried objects of three different masses along the same counterclockwise path on a table. Trajectories of the object and upper arm muscle activity were predicted using a sparse linear regression. Weight matrices for the predictors were then compared to determine if the ECoG channels contributed more information about trajectory or muscle activity. We found that channels over both PM and M1 contributed highly to trajectory prediction, while a channel over M1 was the highest contributor for muscle activity prediction.

  1. Early Prediction of Cancer Progression by Depth-Resolved Nanoscale Mapping of Nuclear Architecture from Unstained Tissue Specimens.

    PubMed

    Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V; LaFace, Justin; Leibowitz, Brian; Yu, Jian; Brand, Randall E; Hartman, Douglas J; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-15

    Early cancer detection currently relies on screening the entire at-risk population, as with colonoscopy and mammography. Therefore, frequent, invasive surveillance of patients at risk for developing cancer carries financial, physical, and emotional burdens because clinicians lack tools to accurately predict which patients will actually progress into malignancy. Here, we present a new method to predict cancer progression risk via nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of unstained tissue sections based on the intrinsic density alteration of nuclear structure rather than the amount of stain uptake. We demonstrate that nanoNAM detects a gradual increase in the density alteration of nuclear architecture during malignant transformation in animal models of colon carcinogenesis and in human patients with ulcerative colitis, even in tissue that appears histologically normal according to pathologists. We evaluated the ability of nanoNAM to predict "future" cancer progression in patients with ulcerative colitis who did and did not develop colon cancer up to 13 years after their initial colonoscopy. NanoNAM of the initial biopsies correctly classified 12 of 15 patients who eventually developed colon cancer and 15 of 18 who did not, with an overall accuracy of 85%. Taken together, our findings demonstrate great potential for nanoNAM in predicting cancer progression risk and suggest that further validation in a multicenter study with larger cohorts may eventually advance this method to become a routine clinical test.

  2. Mapping the star formation history of Mrk 86. II. Stellar populations and global interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, continuation of Gil de Paz et al. (Paper I), we derive the main properties of the stellar populations in the Blue Compact Dwarf galaxy Mrk 86. Ages, stellar masses, metallicites and burst strengths have been obtained using the combination of Monte Carlo simulations, a maximum likelihood estimator and Cluster and Principal Component Analysis. The three stellar populations detected show well defined properties. We have studied the underlying stellar population, which shows an age between 5-13 Gyr and no significant color gradients. The intermediate aged (30 Myr old) central starburst show a very low dust extinction with high burst strength and high stellar mass content ( ~ 9x106 Msun). Finally, the properties of 46 low-metallicity ( ~ 1/10 Zsun ) star-forming regions were also studied. The properties derived suggest that the most recent star-forming activity in Mrk 86 was triggered by the evolution of a superbubble originated at the central starburst by the energy deposition of stellar winds and supernova explosions. This superbubble produced the blowout of a fraction of the interstellar medium at distances of about 1 kpc with high gas surface densities, leading to the activation of the star formation. Finally, different mechanisms for the star formation triggering in this massive central starburst are studied, including the merging with a low mass companion and the interaction with UGC 4278. We have assumed a distance to Mrk 86 of 6.9 Mpc.

  3. Numerical modeling of the flow in intracranial aneurysms: prediction of regions prone to thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Rayz, V L; Boussel, L; Lawton, M T; Acevedo-Bolton, G; Ge, L; Young, W L; Higashida, R T; Saloner, D

    2008-11-01

    The deposition of intralumenal thrombus in intracranial aneurysms adds a risk of thrombo-embolism over and above that posed by mass effect and rupture. In addition to biochemical factors, hemodynamic factors that are governed by lumenal geometry and blood flow rates likely play an important role in the thrombus formation and deposition process. In this study, patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of blood flow were constructed from MRA data for three patients who had fusiform basilar aneurysms that were thrombus free and then proceeded to develop intralumenal thrombus. In order to determine whether features of the flow fields could suggest which regions had an elevated potential for thrombus deposition, the flow was modeled in the baseline, thrombus-free geometries. Pulsatile flow simulations were carried out using patient-specific inlet flow conditions measured with MR velocimetry. Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood behavior was considered. A strong similarity was found between the intra-aneurysmal regions with CFD-predicted slow, recirculating flows and the regions of thrombus deposition observed in vivo in the follow-up MR studies. In two cases with larger aneurysms, the agreement between the low velocity zones and clotted-off regions improved when non-Newtonian blood behavior was taken into account. A similarity was also found between the calculated low shear stress regions and the regions that were later observed to clot.

  4. Prediction of Hot Tear Formation in Vertical DC Casting of Aluminum Billets Using a Granular Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Drezet, J.-M.; Phillion, A. B.; Rappaz, M.

    2013-09-01

    A coupled hydromechanical granular model aimed at predicting hot tear formation and stress-strain behavior in metallic alloys during solidification is applied to the semicontinuous direct chill casting of aluminum alloy round billets. This granular model consists of four separate three-dimensional (3D) modules: (I) a solidification module that is used for generating the solid-liquid geometry at a given solid fraction, (II) a fluid flow module that is used to calculate the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid, (III) a semisolid deformation module that is based on a combined finite element/discrete element method and simulates the rheological behavior of the granular structure, and (IV) a failure module that simulates crack initiation and propagation. To investigate hot tearing, the granular model has been applied to a representative volume within the direct chill cast billet that is located at the bottom of the liquid sump, and it reveals that semisolid deformations imposed on the mushy zone open the liquid channels due to localization of the deformation at grains boundaries. At a low casting speed, only individual pores are able to form in the widest channels because liquid feeding remains efficient. However, as the casting speed increases, the flow of liquid required to compensate for solidification shrinkage also increases and as a result the pores propagate and coalesce to form a centerline crack.

  5. CSO Bolocam 1.1 mm Continuum Mapping of the Braid Nebula Star Formation Region in Cygnus OB7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspin, Colin; Beck, Tracy L.; Davis, Chris J.; Froebrich, Dirk; Khanzadyan, Tigran; Magakian, Tigran Yu.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Movsessian, Tigran A.; Mitchison, Sharon; Nikogossian, Elena G.; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Smith, Michael D.

    2011-04-01

    We present a 1.1 mm map of the Braid Nebula star formation region in Cygnus OB7 taken using Bolocam on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Within the 1 deg2 covered by the map, we have detected 55 cold dust clumps all of which are new detections. A number of these clumps are coincident with IRAS point sources although the majority are not. Some of the previously studied optical/near-IR sources are detected at 1.1 mm. We estimate total dust/gas masses for the 55 clumps together with peak visual extinctions. We conclude that over the whole region, approximately 20% of the clumps are associated with IRAS sources suggesting that these are protostellar objects. The remaining 80% are classed as starless clumps. In addition, both FU Orionis (FUor) like objects in the field, the Braid Star and HH 381 IRS, are associated with strong millimeter emission. This implies that FUor eruptions can occur at very early stages of pre-main-sequence life. Finally, we determine that the cumulative clump mass function for the region is very similar to that found in both the Perseus and ρ Ophiuchus star-forming regions.

  6. Formation Mechanisms, Structure, and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings: An Approach Toward Process Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Ghabchi, A.; Valarezo, A.; Sampath, S.; Liu, X.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2014-08-01

    Our study focuses on understanding the damage tolerance and performance reliability of WC-CoCr coatings. In this paper, the formation of HVOF-sprayed tungsten carbide-based cermet coatings is studied through an integrated strategy: First-order process maps are created by using online-diagnostics to assess particle states in relation to process conditions. Coating properties such as hardness, wear resistance, elastic modulus, residual stress, and fracture toughness are discussed with a goal to establish a linkage between properties and particle characteristics via second-order process maps. A strong influence of particle state on the mechanical properties, wear resistance, and residual stress stage of the coating was observed. Within the used processing window (particle temperature ranged from 1687 to 1831 °C and particle velocity from 577 to 621 m/s), the coating hardness varied from 1021 to 1507 HV and modulus from 257 to 322 GPa. The variation in coating mechanical state is suggested to relate to the microstructural changes arising from carbide dissolution, which affects the properties of the matrix and, on the other hand, cohesive properties of the lamella. The complete tracking of the coating particle state and its linking to mechanical properties and residual stresses enables coating design with desired properties.

  7. Beyond Brain Mapping: Using Neural Measures to Predict Real-World Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Elliot T.; Falk, Emily B.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of social science in general, and of psychology in particular, is to understand and predict human behavior. Psychologists have traditionally used self-report measures and performance on laboratory tasks to achieve this end. However, these measures are limited in their ability to predict behavior in certain contexts. We argue that current neuroscientific knowledge has reached a point where it can complement other existing psychological measures in predicting behavior and other important outcomes. This brain-as-predictor approach integrates traditional neuroimaging methods with measures of behavioral outcomes that extend beyond the immediate experimental session. Previously, most neuroimaging experiments focused on understanding basic psychological processes that could be directly observed in the laboratory. However, recent experiments have demonstrated that brain measures can predict outcomes (e.g., purchasing decisions, clinical outcomes) over longer timescales in ways that go beyond what was previously possible with self-report data alone. This approach can be used to reveal the connections between neural activity in laboratory contexts and longer-term, ecologically valid outcomes. We describe this approach and discuss its potential theoretical implications. We also review recent examples of studies that have used this approach, discuss methodological considerations, and provide specific guidelines for using it in future research. PMID:24478540

  8. Geologic Map of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata and Coal Stratigraphy of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Rawlins-Little Snake River Area, South-Central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.; Ellis, M.S.; Barclay, C.S.V.; East, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a map and detailed descriptions of geologic formations for a 1,250 square mile region in the Rawlins-Little Snake River coal field in the eastern part of the Washakie and Great Divide Basins of south-central Wyoming. Mapping of geologic formations and coal beds was conducted at a scale of 1:24,000 and compiled at a scale of 1:100,000. Emphasis was placed on coal-bearing strata of the China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described and well logs were examined to determine the lateral continuity of individual coal beds; the coal-bed stratigraphy is shown on correlation diagrams. A structure contour and overburden map constructed on the uppermost coal bed in the China Butte Member is also provided.

  9. Prediction of terrestrial gamma dose rate based on geological formations and soil types in the Johor State, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; bin Hamzah, Khaidzir; Alajerami, Yasser; Moharib, Mohammed; Saeed, Ismael

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to predict and estimate unmeasured terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR) using statistical analysis methods to derive a model from the actual measurement based on geological formation and soil type. The measurements of TGDR were conducted in the state of Johor with a total of 3873 measured points which covered all geological formations, soil types and districts. The measurements were taken 1 m above the soil surface using NaI [Ti] detector. The measured gamma dose rates ranged from 9 nGy h(-1) to 1237 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 151 nGy h(-1). The data have been normalized to fit a normal distribution. Tests of significance were conducted among all geological formations and soil types, using the unbalanced one way ANOVA. The results indicated strong significant differences due to the different geological formations and soil types present in Johor State. Pearson Correlation was used to measure the relations between gamma dose rate based on geological formation and soil type (D(G,S)) with the gamma dose rate based on geological formation (D(G)) or soil type (D(s)). A very good correlation was found between D(G,S) and D(G) or D(G,S) and D(s). A total of 118 pairs of geological formations and soil types were used to derive the statistical contribution of geological formations and soil types to gamma dose rates. The contribution of the gamma dose rate from geological formation and soil type were found to be 0.594 and 0.399, respectively. The null hypotheses were accepted for 83% of examined data, therefore, the model could be used to predict gamma dose rates based on geological formation and soil type information.

  10. Vertical fault mapping within the Gutingkeng Formation of southern Taiwan: implications for sub-aerial mud diapir tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, J. R.; Lee, Y.; Ching, K.

    2012-12-01

    Vertical faults were mapped around the periphery of the mudstone-rich Plio-Pleistocene Gutingkeng Formation (Gtk) in southern Taiwan. The faults are manifested as black colored, penetrating shear bands that intersect bedding planes of the Gtk (shear band dips range from 60 - 90 degrees; shear band thicknesses range from several centimeters to several meters). Thin (1-2cm), friable calcite veins were found locally within the shear bands and often contain weakly developed slickensides. Where available, the sense of shear of these faults show consistent interior upward motion of the Gtk. The Chishan Fault is the southeastern bounding structure of the Gtk and where exposed, near-vertical shear bands were observed with a normal sense of shear (west-side-up). In addition, three exploratory cores drilled in 2010 along the western edge of the hanging wall of the Chishan Fault did not intersect the fault or the Gtk after nearly 200 meters of drilling. This suggests that the main Chishan Fault may not be a typical top-to-the-west reverse fault as previously mapped and does not fit the typical fold and thrust geometry that is prevalent in the western foothills of Taiwan. Instead, we interpret the collective field evidence to suggest that the Chishan Fault is a near vertical structure that is accommodating uplift of the Gtk, similar to mechanism by which sub-aqueous mud diapirs grow. A chain of mud diapirs is located off the southeastern coast of Taiwan and the Gtk may be the onshore extension of this chain. The sub-aerial mud diapir hypothesis is further supported by recent leveling data collected across the Gtk that shows the largest vertical uplift in the region to be centered within the Gtk. Finally, observations at the western end of the Highway 3 tunnel through the Chishan fault and overlying Wushan Formation indicate that there is recent west side (footwall) uplift along the Chishan Fault. The vertical faults mapped within the Gtk are significant for they may provide

  11. Predictive mapping of seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans off the Pacific Coast of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menza, Charles; Leirness, Jeffery B.; White, Tim; Winship, Arliss; Kinlan, Brian P.; Kracker, Laura; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Ballance, Lisa; Becker, Elizabeth; Forney, Karin A.; Barlow, Jay; Adams, Josh; Pereksta, David; Pearson, Scott; Pierce, John; Jeffries, Steven J.; Calambokidis, John; Douglas, Annie; Hanson, Bradford C.; Benson, Scott R.; Antrim, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This research supports the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Zone Management Program, a voluntary partnership between the federal government and U.S. coastal and Great Lakes states and territories authorized by the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 to address national coastal issues. The act provides the basis for protecting, restoring, and responsibly developing our nation’s diverse coastal communities and resources. To meet the goals of the CZMA, the national program takes a comprehensive approach to coastal resource management – balancing the often competing and occasionally conflicting demands of coastal resource use, economic development, and conservation. A wide range of issues are addressed through the program, including coastal development, water quality, public access, habitat protection, energy facility siting, ocean governance and planning, coastal hazards, and climate change. Accurate maps of seabird and marine mammal distributions are an important tool for making informed management decisions that affect all of these issues. 

  12. MAPPING THE GAS TURBULENCE IN THE COMA CLUSTER: PREDICTIONS FOR ASTRO-H

    SciTech Connect

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.

    2016-02-01

    Astro-H will be able for the first time to map gas velocities and detect turbulence in galaxy clusters. One of the best targets for turbulence studies is the Coma cluster, due to its proximity, absence of a cool core, and lack of a central active galactic nucleus. To determine what constraints Astro-H will be able to place on the Coma velocity field, we construct simulated maps of the projected gas velocity and compute the second-order structure function, an analog of the velocity power spectrum. We vary the injection scale, dissipation scale, slope, and normalization of the turbulent power spectrum, and apply measurement errors and finite sampling to the velocity field. We find that even with sparse coverage of the cluster, Astro-H will be able to measure the Mach number and the injection scale of the turbulent power spectrum—the quantities determining the energy flux down the turbulent cascade and the diffusion rate for everything that is advected by the gas (metals, cosmic rays, etc.). Astro-H will not be sensitive to the dissipation scale or the slope of the power spectrum in its inertial range, unless they are outside physically motivated intervals. We give the expected confidence intervals for the injection scale and the normalization of the power spectrum for a number of possible pointing configurations, combining the structure function and velocity dispersion data. Importantly, we also determine that measurement errors on the line shift will bias the velocity structure function upward, and show how to correct this bias.

  13. Mapping the Gas Turbulence in the Coma Cluster: Predictions for Astro-H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Zhuravleva, I.

    2016-01-01

    Astro-H will be able for the first time to map gas velocities and detect turbulence in galaxy clusters. One of the best targets for turbulence studies is the Coma cluster, due to its proximity, absence of a cool core, and lack of a central active galactic nucleus. To determine what constraints Astro-H will be able to place on the Coma velocity field, we construct simulated maps of the projected gas velocity and compute the second-order structure function, an analog of the velocity power spectrum. We vary the injection scale, dissipation scale, slope, and normalization of the turbulent power spectrum, and apply measurement errors and finite sampling to the velocity field. We find that even with sparse coverage of the cluster, Astro-H will be able to measure the Mach number and the injection scale of the turbulent power spectrum-the quantities determining the energy flux down the turbulent cascade and the diffusion rate for everything that is advected by the gas (metals, cosmic rays, etc.). Astro-H will not be sensitive to the dissipation scale or the slope of the power spectrum in its inertial range, unless they are outside physically motivated intervals. We give the expected confidence intervals for the injection scale and the normalization of the power spectrum for a number of possible pointing configurations, combining the structure function and velocity dispersion data. Importantly, we also determine that measurement errors on the line shift will bias the velocity structure function upward, and show how to correct this bias.

  14. Online or Face-to-Face Learning? Exploring the Personal Factors that Predict Students' Choice of Instructional Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the growth of online learning, little is known about the personal factors that predict student decisions to enroll in online courses. This study examined the relations between several personal factors and students' choice of instructional format. After completing an online course, service academy undergraduates (N = 564) completed…

  15. Radar monitoring of hydrology in Maryland's forested coastal plain wetlands: Implications for predicted climate change and improved mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner Lang, Megan

    Wetlands provide important services to society but Mid-Atlantic wetlands are at high risk for loss, with forested wetlands being especially vulnerable. Hydrology (flooding and soil moisture) controls wetland function and extent but it may be altered due to changes in climate and anthropogenic influence. Wetland hydrology must better understood in order to predict and mitigate the impact of these changes. Broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor using ground-based and traditional remote sensing methods. C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could improve the capability to monitor forested wetland hydrology but the abilities and limitations of these data need further investigation. This study examined: (1) the link between climate and wetland hydrology; (2) the ability of ENVISAT SAR (C-HH and C-VV) data to monitor inundation and soil moisture in forested wetlands; (3) limitations inherent to C-band data (incidence angle, polarization, and phenology) when monitoring forested wetland hydrology; and (4) the accuracy of forested wetland maps produced using SAR data. The study was primarily conducted near the Patuxent River in Maryland but the influence of incidence angle was considered along the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This study showed: (1) climate was highly correlated with wetland inundation; (2) significant differences in C-VV and C-HH backscatter existed between forested areas of varying hydrology (uplands and wetlands) throughout the year; (3) C-HH backscatter was better correlated to hydrology than C-VV backscatter; (4) correlations were stronger during the leaf-off season; (5) the difference in backscatter between flooded and non-flooded areas did not sharply decline with incidence angle, as predicted; and (6) maps produced using SAR data had relatively high accuracy levels. Based on these findings, I concluded that hydrology is influenced by climate at the study site, and C-HH data should be able to monitor changes in

  16. Inter-residue spatial distance map prediction by using integrating GA with RBFNN.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Zheng; Huang, De-Shuang

    2004-12-01

    The spatial ordering information of amino acid residue in protein primary sequence is an important determinant of protein three-dimensional structure. In this paper, we describe a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), whose hidden centers and basis function widths are optimized by a genetic algorithm (GA), for the purpose of predicting three dimensional spatial distance location from primary sequence information. Experimental evidence on soybean protein sequences indicates the utility of this approach.

  17. Mapping developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: trajectories of risk predict perpetration and victimization.

    PubMed

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L; Vernon, Lynette; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-05-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of known correlates of cyber-aggression: problem behavior, (low) self-esteem, and depressed mood, in a large and diverse sample of youth (N = 1,364; 54.6% female; 12-14 years old at T1). Findings demonstrate that developmental increases in problem behavior across grades 8-10 predict both cyber-perpetration and victimization in grade 11. Developmental decreases in self-esteem also predicted both grade 11 perpetration and victimization. Finally, early depressed mood predicted both perpetration and victimization later on, regardless of developmental change in depressed mood in the interim. Our results reveal a clear link between risky developmental trajectories across the early high school years and later cyber-aggression and imply that mitigating trajectories of risk early on may lead to decreases in cyber-aggression at a later date.

  18. Growth, inactivation and histamine formation of Morganella psychrotolerans and Morganella morganii - development and evaluation of predictive models.

    PubMed

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-12-10

    Mathematical models for growth, heat inactivation and histamine formation by Morganella psychrotolerans and Morganella morganii were studied to evaluate the importance of these bacteria in seafood. Curves for growth and histamine formation by M. psychrotolerans in broth and seafood were generated at constant and changing storage temperatures (n=12). Observed and predicted times to formation of 100, 500 and 2000 ppm histamine were used for evaluation of an existing M. psychrotolerans histamine formation model [Emborg, J., Dalgaard, P., 2008-this issue-this issue. Modelling and predicting the growth and histamine formation by Morganella psychrotolerans. International Journal of Food Microbiology. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.08.016] Growth rates for M. psychrotolerans and M. morganii were determined at different constant temperatures from 0 degrees C to 42.5 degrees C whereas heat inactivation was studied between 37.5 degrees C and 60 degrees C. A M. morganii growth and histamine formation model was developed by combining these new data (growth rate model) and data from the existing literature (maximum population density and yield factor for histamine formation). The developed M. morganii model was evaluated by comparison of predicted growth and histamine formation with data from the existing literature. Observed and predicted growth rates for M. psychrotolerans, at constant temperatures, were similar with bias- and accuracy factor values of 1.15 and 1.45, respectively (n=11). On average times to formation of critical concentrations of histamine by M. psychrotolerans were acceptably predicted but the model was not highly accurate. Nevertheless, predictions seemed useful to support decisions concerning safe shelf-life in relation to formulation, storage and distribution of chilled seafood. Parameters for the effect of temperature on growth and inactivation of M. psychrotolerans and M. morganii differed markedly with Tmin of -8.3 to -5.9 degrees C vs. 0.3 to 2

  19. Incremental and Predictive Utility of Formative Assessment Methods of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Amanda M.; Hintze, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Formative assessment measures are commonly used in schools to assess reading and to design instruction accordingly. The purpose of this research was to investigate the incremental and concurrent validity of formative assessment measures of reading comprehension. It was hypothesized that formative measures of reading comprehension would contribute…

  20. Prediction and diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma using nuclear magnetic resonance-based serum metabolomics and self-organizing maps

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Ji, Jiansong; Zhao, Liangcai; Chen, Minjiang; Shi, An; Pan, Linlin; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Huajie; Dong, Baijun; Gao, Hongchang

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at an early stage is challenging, but it provides the best chance for cure. We aimed to develop a predictive diagnostic method for early-stage RCC based on a biomarker cluster using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based serum metabolomics and self-organizing maps (SOMs). We trained and validated the SOM model using serum metabolome data from 104 participants, including healthy individuals and early-stage RCC patients. To assess the predictive capability of the model, we analyzed an independent cohort of 22 subjects. We then used our method to evaluate changes in the metabolic patterns of 23 RCC patients before and after nephrectomy. A biomarker cluster of 7 metabolites (alanine, creatine, choline, isoleucine, lactate, leucine, and valine) was identified for the early diagnosis of RCC. The trained SOM model using a biomarker cluster was able to classify 22 test subjects into the appropriate categories. Following nephrectomy, all RCC patients were classified as healthy, which was indicative of metabolic recovery. But using a diagnostic criterion of 0.80, only 3 of the 23 subjects could not be confidently assessed as metabolically recovered after nephrectomy. We successfully followed-up 17 RCC patients for 8 years post-nephrectomy. Eleven of these patients who diagnosed as metabolic recovery remained healthy after 8 years. Our data suggest that a SOM model using a biomarker cluster from serum metabolome can accurately predict early RCC diagnosis and can be used to evaluate postoperative metabolic recovery. PMID:27463020

  1. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G.; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm-based infections that are difficult to eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic cells. Developing treatments against biofilms requires an understanding of bacterial biofilm-specific physiological traits. Research efforts have started to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying biofilm development. However, many aspects of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosa metabolic network and gene expression profiles. Specifically, we computed metabolite concentration differences between known mutants with altered biofilm formation and the wild-type strain to predict drug targets against P. aeruginosa biofilms. We also simulated the altered metabolism driven by gene expression changes between biofilm and stationary growth-phase planktonic cultures. Our analysis suggests that the synthesis of important biofilm-related molecules, such as the quorum-sensing molecule Pseudomonas quinolone signal and the exopolysaccharide Psl, is regulated not only through the expression of genes in their own synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we investigated why mutants defective in anthranilate degradation have an impaired ability to form biofilms. Alternative to a previous hypothesis that this biofilm reduction is caused by a decrease in energy production, we proposed that the dysregulation of the synthesis of secondary metabolites derived from anthranilate and chorismate is what impaired the biofilms of these mutants. Notably, these insights generated through our kinetic model-based approach are not accessible from previous constraint-based model analyses of P. aeruginosa biofilm

  2. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-10-01

    A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm-based infections that are difficult to eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic cells. Developing treatments against biofilms requires an understanding of bacterial biofilm-specific physiological traits. Research efforts have started to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying biofilm development. However, many aspects of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosa metabolic network and gene expression profiles. Specifically, we computed metabolite concentration differences between known mutants with altered biofilm formation and the wild-type strain to predict drug targets against P. aeruginosa biofilms. We also simulated the altered metabolism driven by gene expression changes between biofilm and stationary growth-phase planktonic cultures. Our analysis suggests that the synthesis of important biofilm-related molecules, such as the quorum-sensing molecule Pseudomonas quinolone signal and the exopolysaccharide Psl, is regulated not only through the expression of genes in their own synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we investigated why mutants defective in anthranilate degradation have an impaired ability to form biofilms. Alternative to a previous hypothesis that this biofilm reduction is caused by a decrease in energy production, we proposed that the dysregulation of the synthesis of secondary metabolites derived from anthranilate and chorismate is what impaired the biofilms of these mutants. Notably, these insights generated through our kinetic model-based approach are not accessible from previous constraint-based model analyses of P. aeruginosa biofilm

  3. Predicting the formation and the dispersion of toxic combustion products from the fires of dangerous substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevrlý, V.; Bitala, P.; Danihelka, P.; Dobeš, P.; Dlabka, J.; Hejzlar, T.; Baudišová, B.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Natural events, such as wildfires, lightning or earthquakes represent a frequent trigger of industrial fires involving dangerous substances. Dispersion of smoke plume from such fires and the effects of toxic combustion products are one of the reference scenarios expected in the framework of major accident prevention. Nowadays, tools for impact assessment of these events are rather missing. Detailed knowledge of burning material composition, atmospheric conditions, and other factors are required in order to describe quantitatively the source term of toxic fire products and to evaluate the parameters of smoke plume. Nevertheless, an assessment of toxic emissions from large scale fires involves a high degree of uncertainty, because of the complex character of physical and chemical processes in the harsh environment of uncontrolled flame. Among the others, soot particle formation can be mentioned as still being one of the unresolved problems in combustion chemistry, as well as decomposition pathways of chemical substances. Therefore, simplified approach for estimating the emission factors from outdoor fires of dangerous chemicals, utilizable for major accident prevention and preparedness, was developed and the case study illustrating the application of the proposed method was performed. ALOFT-FT software tool based on large eddy simulation of buoyant fire plumes was employed for predicting the local toxic contamination in the down-wind vicinity of the fire. The database of model input parameters can be effectively modified enabling the simulation of the smoke plume from pool fires or jet fires of arbitrary flammable (or combustible) gas, liquid or solid. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic via the project LD11012 (in the frame of the COST CM0901 Action) and the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (project no. SPII 1a10 45/70).

  4. Looking Back and Looking Forward: Reprising the Promise and Predicting the Future of Formation Flying and Spaceborne GPS Navigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Dennehy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective consideration of two 15-year old Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) technology 'vision' predictions will be the focus of this paper. A look back analysis and critique of these late 1990s technology roadmaps out-lining the future vision, for two then nascent, but rapidly emerging, GN&C technologies will be performed. Specifically, these two GN&C technologies were: 1) multi-spacecraft formation flying and 2) the spaceborne use and exploitation of global positioning system (GPS) signals to enable formation flying. This paper reprises the promise of formation flying and spaceborne GPS as depicted in the cited 1999 and 1998 papers. It will discuss what happened to cause that promise to be mostly unfulfilled and the reasons why the envisioned formation flying dream has yet to become a reality. The recent technology trends over the past few years will then be identified and a renewed government interest in spacecraft formation flying/cluster flight will be highlighted. The authors will conclude with a reality-tempered perspective, 15 years after the initial technology roadmaps were published, predicting a promising future of spacecraft formation flying technology development over the next decade.

  5. REGIONAL PARADOX FORMATION STRUCTURE AND ISOCHORE MAPS, BLANDING SUB-BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan; Thomas C. Chidsey Jr.; David E. Eby

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field (figure 1). However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  6. The sediment composition and predictive mapping of facies on the Propeller Mound—A cold-water coral mound (Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindel, Katrin; Titschack, Jürgen; Dorschel, Boris; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Freiwald, André

    2010-10-01

    , and video-data. This method is tested for the first time for CWC ecosystems and provides areal estimates of the predicted facies, as well as suggests further occurrences of living coral frameworks, coral rubble, and dropstones, which are not discovered in the area yet. Thus, sediment composition analysis combined with facies prediction mapping might provide a potential new tool to estimate living CWC occurrences and sediment/facies distributions on CWC mounds, which is an important prerequisite for budget calculations and definition of marine protected areas, and which will improve our understanding of CWC mound formation.

  7. Incorporation of satellite remote sensing pan-sharpened imagery into digital soil prediction and mapping models to characterize soil property variability in small agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E.; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil prediction models based on spectral indices from some multispectral images are too coarse to characterize spatial pattern of soil properties in small and heterogeneous agricultural lands. Image pan-sharpening has seldom been utilized in Digital Soil Mapping research before. This research aimed to analyze the effects of pan-sharpened (PAN) remote sensing spectral indices on soil prediction models in smallholder farm settings. This research fused the panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands of WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, and Landsat 8 images in a village in Southern India by Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Intensity-Hue-Saturation methods. Random Forest was utilized to develop soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) prediction models by incorporating multiple spectral indices from the PAN and MS images. Overall, our results showed that PAN remote sensing spectral indices have similar spectral characteristics with soil TN and Kex as MS remote sensing spectral indices. There is no soil prediction model incorporating the specific type of pan-sharpened spectral indices always had the strongest prediction capability of soil TN and Kex. The incorporation of pan-sharpened remote sensing spectral data not only increased the spatial resolution of the soil prediction maps, but also enhanced the prediction accuracy of soil prediction models. Small farms with limited footprint, fragmented ownership and diverse crop cycle should benefit greatly from the pan-sharpened high spatial resolution imagery for soil property mapping. Our results show that multiple high and medium resolution images can be used to map soil properties suggesting the possibility of an improvement in the maps' update frequency. Additionally, the results should benefit the large agricultural community through the reduction of routine soil sampling cost and improved prediction accuracy.

  8. An anterior temporal face patch in human cortex, predicted by macaque maps

    PubMed Central

    Rajimehr, Reza; Young, Jeremy C.; Tootell, Roger B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that primate visual cortex has a specialized architecture for processing discrete object categories such as faces. Human fMRI studies have described a localized region in the fusiform gyrus [the fusiform face area (FFA)] that responds selectively to faces. In contrast, in nonhuman primates, electrophysiological and fMRI studies have instead revealed 2 apparently analogous regions of face representation: the posterior temporal face patch (PTFP) and the anterior temporal face patch (ATFP). An earlier study suggested that human FFA is homologous to the PTFP in macaque. However, in humans, no obvious homologue of the macaque ATFP has been demonstrated. Here, we used fMRI to map face-selective sites in both humans and macaques, based on equivalent stimuli in a quantitative topographic comparison. This fMRI evidence suggests that such a face-selective area exists in human anterior inferotemporal cortex, comprising the apparent homologue of the fMRI-defined ATFP in macaques. PMID:19179278

  9. Predicting Hip Fracture Type With Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study.

    PubMed

    Treece, Graham M; Gee, Andrew H; Tonkin, Carol; Ewing, Susan K; Cawthon, Peggy M; Black, Dennis M; Poole, Kenneth E S

    2015-11-01

    Hip fracture risk is known to be related to material properties of the proximal femur, but fracture prediction studies adding richer quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measures to dual-energy X-ray (DXA)-based methods have shown limited improvement. Fracture types have distinct relationships to predictors, but few studies have subdivided fracture into types, because this necessitates regional measurements and more fracture cases. This work makes use of cortical bone mapping (CBM) to accurately assess, with no prior anatomical presumptions, the distribution of properties related to fracture type. CBM uses QCT data to measure the cortical and trabecular properties, accurate even for thin cortices below the imaging resolution. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study is a predictive case-cohort study of men over 65 years old: we analyze 99 fracture cases (44 trochanteric and 55 femoral neck) compared to a cohort of 308, randomly selected from 5994. To our knowledge, this is the largest QCT-based predictive hip fracture study to date, and the first to incorporate CBM analysis into fracture prediction. We show that both cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular BMD are significantly different in fracture cases versus cohort, in regions appropriate to fracture type. We incorporate these regions into predictive models using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios, and logistic regression to estimate area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Adding CBM to DXA-based BMD leads to a small but significant (p < 0.005) improvement in model prediction for any fracture, with AUC increasing from 0.78 to 0.79, assessed using leave-one-out cross-validation. For specific fracture types, the improvement is more significant (p < 0.0001), with AUC increasing from 0.71 to 0.77 for trochanteric fractures and 0.76 to 0.82 for femoral neck fractures. In contrast, adding DXA-based BMD to a CBM-based predictive model

  10. Predicting Hip Fracture Type With Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Andrew H; Tonkin, Carol; Ewing, Susan K; Cawthon, Peggy M; Black, Dennis M; Poole, Kenneth ES

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hip fracture risk is known to be related to material properties of the proximal femur, but fracture prediction studies adding richer quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measures to dual‐energy X‐ray (DXA)‐based methods have shown limited improvement. Fracture types have distinct relationships to predictors, but few studies have subdivided fracture into types, because this necessitates regional measurements and more fracture cases. This work makes use of cortical bone mapping (CBM) to accurately assess, with no prior anatomical presumptions, the distribution of properties related to fracture type. CBM uses QCT data to measure the cortical and trabecular properties, accurate even for thin cortices below the imaging resolution. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study is a predictive case‐cohort study of men over 65 years old: we analyze 99 fracture cases (44 trochanteric and 55 femoral neck) compared to a cohort of 308, randomly selected from 5994. To our knowledge, this is the largest QCT‐based predictive hip fracture study to date, and the first to incorporate CBM analysis into fracture prediction. We show that both cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular BMD are significantly different in fracture cases versus cohort, in regions appropriate to fracture type. We incorporate these regions into predictive models using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios, and logistic regression to estimate area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Adding CBM to DXA‐based BMD leads to a small but significant (p < 0.005) improvement in model prediction for any fracture, with AUC increasing from 0.78 to 0.79, assessed using leave‐one‐out cross‐validation. For specific fracture types, the improvement is more significant (p < 0.0001), with AUC increasing from 0.71 to 0.77 for trochanteric fractures and 0.76 to 0.82 for femoral neck fractures. In contrast, adding DXA‐based BMD to a

  11. Direct mapping rather than motor prediction subserves modulation of corticospinal excitability during observation of actions in real time

    PubMed Central

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Mc Cabe, Sofia I.; Villalta, Jorge I.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Motor facilitation refers to the specific increment in corticospinal excitability (CSE) elicited by the observation of actions performed by others. To date, the precise nature of the mechanism at the basis of this phenomenon is unknown. One possibility is that motor facilitation is driven by a predictive process reminiscent of the role of forward models in motor control. Alternatively, motor facilitation may result from a model-free mechanism by which the basic elements of the observed action are directly mapped onto their cortical representations. Our study was designed to discern these alternatives. To this aim, we recorded the time course of CSE for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during observation of three grasping actions in real time, two of which strongly diverged in kinematics from their natural (invariant) form. Although artificially slow movements used in most action observation studies might enhance the observer's discrimination performance, the use of videos in real time is crucial to maintain the time course of CSE within the physiological range of daily actions. CSE was measured at 4 time points within a 240-ms window that best captured the kinematic divergence from the invariant form. Our results show that CSE of the FDI, not the ADM, closely follows the functional role of the muscle despite the mismatch between the natural and the divergent kinematics. We propose that motor facilitation during observation of actions performed in real time reflects the model-free coding of perceived movement following a direct mapping mechanism. PMID:25810483

  12. Direct mapping rather than motor prediction subserves modulation of corticospinal excitability during observation of actions in real time.

    PubMed

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Villalta, Jorge I; Grafton, Scott T; Della-Maggiore, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Motor facilitation refers to the specific increment in corticospinal excitability (CSE) elicited by the observation of actions performed by others. To date, the precise nature of the mechanism at the basis of this phenomenon is unknown. One possibility is that motor facilitation is driven by a predictive process reminiscent of the role of forward models in motor control. Alternatively, motor facilitation may result from a model-free mechanism by which the basic elements of the observed action are directly mapped onto their cortical representations. Our study was designed to discern these alternatives. To this aim, we recorded the time course of CSE for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during observation of three grasping actions in real time, two of which strongly diverged in kinematics from their natural (invariant) form. Although artificially slow movements used in most action observation studies might enhance the observer's discrimination performance, the use of videos in real time is crucial to maintain the time course of CSE within the physiological range of daily actions. CSE was measured at 4 time points within a 240-ms window that best captured the kinematic divergence from the invariant form. Our results show that CSE of the FDI, not the ADM, closely follows the functional role of the muscle despite the mismatch between the natural and the divergent kinematics. We propose that motor facilitation during observation of actions performed in real time reflects the model-free coding of perceived movement following a direct mapping mechanism.

  13. Development of a predicted physical map of microsatellite locus positions for pinnipeds, with wider applicability to the Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Amy J; Brauning, Rudiger; Schultz, Jennifer K; Kennedy, Martin A; Slate, Jon; Gemmell, Neil J

    2011-05-01

    Understanding genetic variation responsible for phenotypic differences in natural populations is significantly hampered by a lack of genomic data for many species. Levels of variation can, however, be estimated using microsatellite markers, which may be useful for relating individual fitness to genetic diversity. Prior studies have demonstrated correlations between heterozygosity and individual fitness in some species. These correlations are sometimes driven by a subset of markers, and it is unclear whether this is because those markers best reflect genome-wide heterozygosity, or whether they are linked to fitness-related genes. Differentiating between these scenarios is hindered when the genomic location of markers is unknown. Here, we develop a predicted genomic map of pinniped microsatellite loci based on conservation of primary sequence and genomic location between dog, cat and giant panda. We mapped 210 of 260 (81%) microsatellites from pinnipeds to locations in dog, cat and giant panda genomes. Based on the demonstrable synteny between the genomes of closely related taxa within the Carnivora, we use these data to identify those microsatellites with the greatest chance of cross-species amplification success and demonstrate successful amplification of 21 of 26 loci for cat, dog and two seal species. We also demonstrate the potential to identify candidate genes that may underpin the functional relationship with individual fitness. Overall, we show that this approach provides a rapid and robust method to elucidate genome organisation for nonmodel organisms and have established a resource that facilitates further genetic research on pinnipeds that also has wider applicability to other carnivores.

  14. Connectivity mapping (ssCMap) to predict A20-inducing drugs and their antiinflammatory action in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Malcomson, Beth; Wilson, Hollie; Veglia, Eleonora; Thillaiyampalam, Gayathri; Barsden, Ruth; Donegan, Shauna; El Banna, Amal; Elborn, Joseph S.; Ennis, Madeleine; Kelly, Catriona; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Schock, Bettina C.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by chronic and exaggerated inflammation in the airways. Despite recent developments to therapeutically overcome the underlying functional defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, there is still an unmet need to also normalize the inflammatory response. The prolonged and heightened inflammatory response in CF is, in part, mediated by a lack of intrinsic down-regulation of the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway. We have previously identified reduced expression of the NF-κB down-regulator A20 in CF as a key target to normalize the inflammatory response. Here, we have used publicly available gene array expression data together with a statistically significant connections’ map (sscMap) to successfully predict drugs already licensed for the use in humans to induce A20 mRNA and protein expression and thereby reduce inflammation. The effect of the predicted drugs on A20 and NF-κB(p65) expression (mRNA) as well as proinflammatory cytokine release (IL-8) in the presence and absence of bacterial LPS was shown in bronchial epithelial cells lines (16HBE14o−, CFBE41o−) and in primary nasal epithelial cells from patients with CF (Phe508del homozygous) and non-CF controls. Additionally, the specificity of the drug action on A20 was confirmed using cell lines with tnfαip3 (A20) knockdown (siRNA). We also show that the A20-inducing effect of ikarugamycin and quercetin is lower in CF-derived airway epithelial cells than in non-CF cells. PMID:27286825

  15. 5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal Predictive 3D Maps of Large-Scale Cultural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity

  16. Rift Valley Fever Prediction and Risk Mapping: 2014-2015 Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Extremes in either direction (+-) of precipitation temperature have significant implications for disease vectors and pathogen emergence and spread Magnitude of ENSO influence on precipitation temperature cannot be currently predicted rely on average history and patterns. Timing of event and emergence disease can be exploited (GAP) in to undertake vector control and preparedness measures. Currently - no risk for ecologically-coupled RVFV activity however we need to be vigilant during the coming fall season due the ongoing buildup of energy in the central Pacific Ocean. Potential for the dual-use of the RVF Monitor system for other VBDs Need to invest in early ground surveillance and the use of rapid field diagnostic capabilities for vector identification and virus isolation.

  17. Sphingoid Base Metabolism in Yeast: Mapping Gene Expression Patterns Into Qualitative Metabolite Time Course Predictions

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Can qualitative metabolite time course predictions be inferred from measured mRNA expression patterns? Speaking against this possibility is the large number of ‘decoupling’ control points that lie between these variables, i.e. translation, protein degradation, enzyme inhibition and enzyme activation. Speaking for it is the notion that these control points might be coordinately regulated such that action exerted on the mRNA level is informative of action exerted on the protein and metabolite levels. A simple kinetic model of sphingoid base metabolism in yeast is postulated. When the enzyme activities in this model are modulated proportional to mRNA expression levels measured in heat shocked yeast, the model yields a transient rise and fall in sphingoid bases followed by a permanent rise in ceramide. This finding is in qualitative agreement with experiments and is thus consistent with the aforementioned coordinated control system hypothesis. PMID:18629242

  18. Prediction of Growth Factor-Dependent Cleft Formation During Branching Morphogenesis Using A Dynamic Graph-Based Growth Model.

    PubMed

    Dhulekar, Nimit; Ray, Shayoni; Yuan, Daniel; Baskaran, Abhirami; Oztan, Basak; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the problem of describing and predicting cleft formation during the early stages of branching morphogenesis in mouse submandibular salivary glands (SMG) under the influence of varied concentrations of epidermal growth factors (EGF). Given a time-lapse video of a growing SMG, first we build a descriptive model that captures the underlying biological process and quantifies the ground truth. Tissue-scale (global) and morphological features related to regions of interest (local features) are used to characterize the biological ground truth. Second, we devise a predictive growth model that simulates EGF-modulated branching morphogenesis using a dynamic graph algorithm, which is driven by biological parameters such as EGF concentration, mitosis rate, and cleft progression rate. Given the initial configuration of the SMG, the evolution of the dynamic graph predicts the cleft formation, while maintaining the local structural characteristics of the SMG. We determined that higher EGF concentrations cause the formation of higher number of buds and comparatively shallow cleft depths. Third, we compared the prediction accuracy of our model to the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg (GGH) model, an on-lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, under a specific energy function parameter set that allows new rounds of de novo cleft formation. The results demonstrate that the dynamic graph model yields comparable simulations of gland growth to that of the GGH model with a significantly lower computational complexity. Fourth, we enhanced this model to predict the SMG morphology for an EGF concentration without the assistance of a ground truth time-lapse biological video data; this is a substantial benefit of our model over other similar models that are guided and terminated by information regarding the final SMG morphology. Hence, our model is suitable for testing the impact of different biological parameters involved with the process of branching morphogenesis in silico, while

  19. Prediction of Growth Factor Dependent Cleft Formation During Branching Morphogenesis Using A Dynamic Graph-Based Growth Model

    PubMed Central

    Dhulekar, Nimit; Ray, Shayoni; Yuan, Daniel; Baskaran, Abhirami; Oztan, Basak; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the problem of describing and predicting cleft formation during the early stages of branching morphogenesis in mouse submandibular salivary glands (SMG) under the influence of varied concentrations of epidermal growth factors (EGF). Given a time-lapse video of a growing SMG, first we build a descriptive model that captures the underlying biological process and quantifies the ground truth. Tissue-scale (global) and morphological features related to regions of interest (local features) are used to characterize the biological ground truth. Second, we devise a predictive growth model that simulates EGF-modulated branching morphogenesis using a dynamic graph algorithm, which is driven by biological parameters such as EGF concentration, mitosis rate, and cleft progression rate. Given the initial configuration of the SMG, the evolution of the dynamic graph predicts the cleft formation, while maintaining the local structural characteristics of the SMG. We determined that higher EGF concentrations cause the formation of higher number of buds and comparatively shallow cleft depths. Third, we compared the prediction accuracy of our model to the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg (GGH) model, an on-lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, under a specific energy function parameter set that allows new rounds of de novo cleft formation. The results demonstrate that the dynamic graph model yields comparable simulations of gland growth to that of the GGH model with a significantly lower computational complexity. Fourth, we enhanced this model to predict the SMG morphology for an EGF concentration without the assistance of a ground truth time-lapse biological video data; this is a substantial benefit of our model over other similar models that are guided and terminated by information regarding the final SMG morphology. Hence, our model is suitable for testing the impact of different biological parameters involved with the process of branching morphogenesis in silico, while

  20. Geologic mapping as a method for the construction of a detailed and testable lithostratigraphic model for the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, L. A.; Martz, J. W.; Parker, W.; Raucci, J.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in Petrified Forest National Park represents some of the most intensively studied Upper Triassic strata in western North America. Five stratigraphic members are exposed within the park, from oldest to youngest: the Mesa Redondo, Blue Mesa, Sonsela, Petrified Forest, and Owl Rock Members. Despite numerous stratigraphic studies of the Chinle Formation and two attempts at mapping the park over the past sixty years, sandstone marker beds in the Sonsela Member at the north and south ends of the park were still poorly mapped and correlated. Studies in the years 2002 and 2006 claimed that two sandstones which previous workers had considered to lie at different stratigraphic levels (the Jasper Forest Bed and the Flattops One sandstones in the Martha’s Butte beds) were actually correlative. This correlation resulted in a three-part division of the Sonsela Member and had a major impact on vertebrate biostratigraphy. In a recent attempt to resolve confusions regarding Chinle Formation lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, we have completely walked out lithologic contacts through most of the park. The resulting new geologic map, revised lithostratigraphic model, and associated data resolves the 2002 and 2006 miscorrelations by demonstrating that the Jasper Forest Bed capping Blue Mesa and Agate Mesa and Flattops One sandstones (Martha’s Butte beds) are stratigraphically distinct, resulting in a thicker and more complex five-part model for the Sonsela Member, and considerably modifying the vertebrate biostratigraphy. New geologic mapping also resulted in a detailed lithostratigraphic framework for the northern park which has previously been poorly understood, and several important new marker beds, including a purple-gray bed that represents the base of the Owl Rock Member. The revised geologic map is an ArcGIS product that includes an updated lithostratigraphic model for the Chinle Formation, fossil localities, and hyperlinks to labeled

  1. Global prediction of abyssal hill roughness statistics for use in ocean models from digital maps of paleo-spreading rate, paleo-ridge orientation, and sediment thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.; Arbic, Brian K.

    Abyssal hills are the dominant small-scale roughness fabric over much of the ocean floor. Created at mid-ocean ridges by combined volcanic and tectonic processes, they are rafted away by plate spreading and modified through time by mass wasting and sedimentation. Abyssal hills are morphological indicators of spreading rate and direction: they are lineated parallel to the ridge at the time of formation, and their heights and widths are inversely correlated to spreading rate. Knowledge of abyssal hill roughness statistics is important for high-resolution models, including models of internal wave generation and mixing driven by tidal and low-frequency flows over the rough bottom. In this paper we present a prediction of abyssal hill roughness statistical parameters world-wide via relationships for the average statistical properties of abyssal hills as a function of spreading rate and direction, and for the modification to these roughness parameters as a function of sediment thickness. These relationships are constrained by new publicly-available digital maps of paleo-spreading rate and direction, and sediment thickness. We also develop a new method for generating synthetic topography with variable statistical properties over a grid, and present an example of synthetic abyssal hill roughness generated for the North Atlantic on a 1/2-min grid.

  2. MAPPING SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL FORMAT COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small format 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to map blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...

  3. MAPS OF MASSIVE CLUMPS IN THE EARLY STAGE OF CLUSTER FORMATION: TWO MODES OF CLUSTER FORMATION, COEVAL OR NON-COEVAL?

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Aya E.; Saito, Masao; Mauersberger, Rainer; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kurono, Yasutaka; Naoi, Takahiro

    2013-03-10

    We present maps of seven young massive molecular clumps within five target regions in C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) line emission, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. These clumps, which are not associated with clusters, lie at distances between 0.7 and 2.1 kpc. We find C{sup 18}O clumps with radii of 0.5-1.7 pc, masses of 470-4200 M{sub Sun }, and velocity widths of 1.4-3.3 km s{sup -1}. All of the clumps are massive and approximately in virial equilibrium, suggesting they will potentially form clusters. Three of our target regions are associated with H II regions (CWHRs), while the other two are unassociated with H II regions (CWOHRs). The C{sup 18}O clumps can be classified into two morphological types: CWHRs with a filamentary or shell-like structure and spherical CWOHRs. The two CWOHRs have systematic velocity gradients. Using the publicly released WISE database, Class I and Class II protostellar candidates are identified within the C{sup 18}O clumps. The fraction of Class I candidates among all YSO candidates (Class I+Class II) is {>=}50% in CWHRs and {<=}50% in CWOHRs. We conclude that effects from the H II regions can be seen in (1) the spatial distributions of the clumps: filamentary or shell-like structure running along the H II regions; (2) the velocity structures of the clumps: large velocity dispersion along shells; and (3) the small age spreads of YSOs. The small spreads in age of the YSOs show that the presence of H II regions tends to trigger coeval cluster formation.

  4. An attempt to theoretically predict third-phase formation in the dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/dodecane/water/nitric acid extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    LeFrancois, L.; Tondre, C.; Belnet, F.; Noel, D.

    1999-03-01

    The formation of a third phase in solvent extraction (due to splitting of the organic phase into two layers) often occurs when the aqueous phase is highly concentrated in acids. This has been reported with the extraction system dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/n-dodecane/water/nitric acid, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. Whereas many experimental efforts have been made to investigate the effects of different parameters on third-phase formation, very few attempts have been made to predict this phenomenon on theoretical grounds. Because the part played by aggregation of the extractant molecules is recognized, the authors propose a new predictive approach based on the use of the Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions, which had been successfully applied for the prediction of phase separation phenomena in nonionic surfactant solutions. The authors show that this model can provide an excellent prediction of the demixing curve (in the absence of metal ions) when establishing the relation between the interaction parameter {chi}{sub 12} calculated from this theory and the nitric acid content of the aqueous phase. Apparent values of the solubility parameter {delta}{sub 2} of the diamide extractant at different acid loadings have been calculated, from which the effect of the nature of the diluent can also be very nicely predicted.

  5. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures.

  6. Preliminary geologic mapping of Cretaceous and Tertiary formations in the eastern part of the Little Snake River coal field, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haacke, Jon E.; Barclay, C. S. Venable; Hettinger, Robert D.

    2016-09-30

    In the 1970s and 1980s, C.S. Venable Barclay conducted geologic mapping of areas primarily underlain by Cretaceous coals in the eastern part of the Little Snake River coal field (LSR) in Carbon County, southwest Wyoming. With some exceptions, most of the mapping data were never published. Subsequently, after his retirement from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), his field maps and field notebooks were archived in the USGS Field Records. Due to a pending USGS coal assessment of the Little Snake River coal field area and planned geological mapping to be conducted by the Wyoming State Geological Survey, Barclay’s mapping data needed to be published to support these efforts. Subsequently, geologic maps were scanned and georeferenced into a geographic information system, and project and field notes were scanned into Portable Document Format (PDF) files. Data for seventeen 7½-minute quadrangles are presented in this report. This publication is solely intended to compile the mapping data as it was last worked on by Barclay and provides no interpretation or modification of his work.

  7. Multimodel Predictive System for Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Saline Formation Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zan; Small, Mitchell J; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2013-02-05

    The prediction of carbon dioxide solubility in brine at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration (i.e., high temperature, pressure, and salt concentration (T-P-X)) is crucial when this technology is applied. Eleven mathematical models for predicting CO{sub 2} solubility in brine are compared and considered for inclusion in a multimodel predictive system. Model goodness of fit is evaluated over the temperature range 304–433 K, pressure range 74–500 bar, and salt concentration range 0–7 m (NaCl equivalent), using 173 published CO{sub 2} solubility measurements, particularly selected for those conditions. The performance of each model is assessed using various statistical methods, including the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Different models emerge as best fits for different subranges of the input conditions. A classification tree is generated using machine learning methods to predict the best-performing model under different T-P-X subranges, allowing development of a multimodel predictive system (MMoPS) that selects and applies the model expected to yield the most accurate CO{sub 2} solubility prediction. Statistical analysis of the MMoPS predictions, including a stratified 5-fold cross validation, shows that MMoPS outperforms each individual model and increases the overall accuracy of CO{sub 2} solubility prediction across the range of T-P-X conditions likely to be encountered in carbon sequestration applications.

  8. Multimodel predictive system for carbon dioxide solubility in saline formation waters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zan; Small, Mitchell J; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2013-02-05

    The prediction of carbon dioxide solubility in brine at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration (i.e., high temperature, pressure, and salt concentration (T-P-X)) is crucial when this technology is applied. Eleven mathematical models for predicting CO(2) solubility in brine are compared and considered for inclusion in a multimodel predictive system. Model goodness of fit is evaluated over the temperature range 304-433 K, pressure range 74-500 bar, and salt concentration range 0-7 m (NaCl equivalent), using 173 published CO(2) solubility measurements, particularly selected for those conditions. The performance of each model is assessed using various statistical methods, including the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Different models emerge as best fits for different subranges of the input conditions. A classification tree is generated using machine learning methods to predict the best-performing model under different T-P-X subranges, allowing development of a multimodel predictive system (MMoPS) that selects and applies the model expected to yield the most accurate CO(2) solubility prediction. Statistical analysis of the MMoPS predictions, including a stratified 5-fold cross validation, shows that MMoPS outperforms each individual model and increases the overall accuracy of CO(2) solubility prediction across the range of T-P-X conditions likely to be encountered in carbon sequestration applications.

  9. Abiotic proxies for predictive mapping of nearshore benthic assemblages: implications for marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Jennifer; Steneck, Robert S; Brady, Damian C

    2017-03-01

    ). Integrating modeled predictions with existing GIS layers for abiotic conditions allowed us to scale up important assemblage attributes to define key foundational ecological principles of MSP and to find priority regions where some bottom-disturbing activities would have minimal impact to benthic assemblages. We conclude that abiotic proxies can be strong forcing functions for the assembly of marine communities and therefore useful tools for spatial extrapolations of marine assemblages in congested (heavily used) nearshore habitats.

  10. Prebiotic Atmospheric Chemistry on Titan: Formation Kinetics via Ab Initio Calculations for Potential Energy Surface (PES) Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Dayana; Mebel, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    It has been recently shown that Titan provides a unique perspective in our solar system: its atmosphere is comparable to a model of prebiotic Earth's. Provided the organic cationic and anionic molecular species identified by the Cassini spacecraft, this research characterizes reaction pathways for the reactions of methyl derivatives of the cyclopropenyl cation, the methyl cation with methyl- and dimethyl-acetylene, and reactions of resonance structures of protonated acrylonitrile with CH2NH. Isomerization and dissociation reactions involving methyl-cyclopropenyl cations, the perinaphthenyl cation and anion, and cations of pyrimidine and purine precursors of nucleobases will be examined to locate reaction pathways, intermediates, transition states, and products of the reactions. Gaussian '09 software is used for ab initio calculations to map out the PES. Geometry optimizations and vibrational frequency computations are preformed via the double-hybrid density functional B2PLYP-D3. Single-point energies are refined by use of the explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster CCSD(T)-F12 method. Rate constants are calculated using microcanonical RRKM theory, and pressure effects evaluated used the Master Equation approach; these allow for prediction of absolute rate constants and product branching ratios at different pressures and temperatures.

  11. Potentiometric-surface map of water in the Lakota Formation and equivalent units in the northern Great Plains area of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, Gary Wayne

    1982-01-01

    The potentiometric surface of water in the lower Cretaceous Lakota Formation and equivalent units (Cut Bank Sandstone Member , Sunburst Sandstone Member, and Moulton Member of Kootenai formation; Third Cat Creek sandstone of Kootenai Formation; Pryor Conglomerate Member of Kootenai Formation) is shown on a base at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The map is one of a series produced as part of a regional study of aquifers of Cenozoic and Mesozoic age in the northern Great Plains of Montana. The contour interval is 200 feet. Water in the Lakota Formation and equivalent units occurs under water-table and artesian conditions. The direction of regional groundwater movement is east and north from the recharge areas in the Little Belt and Big Snowy Mountains. The average discharge from 20 wells is about 29 gallons per minute and the specific capacity of 18 wells averages 0.75 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown.

  12. Is there more valuable information in PWI datasets for a voxel-wise acute ischemic stroke tissue outcome prediction than what is represented by typical perfusion maps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Siemonsen, Susanne; Dalski, Michael; Verleger, Tobias; Kemmling, Andre; Fiehler, Jens

    2014-03-01

    The acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause for death and disability in the industry nations. In case of a present acute ischemic stroke, the prediction of the future tissue outcome is of high interest for the clinicians as it can be used to support therapy decision making. Within this context, it has already been shown that the voxel-wise multi-parametric tissue outcome prediction leads to more promising results compared to single channel perfusion map thresholding. Most previously published multi-parametric predictions employ information from perfusion maps derived from perfusion-weighted MRI together with other image sequences such as diffusion-weighted MRI. However, it remains unclear if the typically calculated perfusion maps used for this purpose really include all valuable information from the PWI dataset for an optimal tissue outcome prediction. To investigate this problem in more detail, two different methods to predict tissue outcome using a k-nearest-neighbor approach were developed in this work and evaluated based on 18 datasets of acute stroke patients with known tissue outcome. The first method integrates apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion parameter (Tmax, MTT, CBV, CBF) information for the voxel-wise prediction, while the second method employs also apparent diffusion coefficient information but the complete perfusion information in terms of the voxel-wise residue functions instead of the perfusion parameter maps for the voxel-wise prediction. Overall, the comparison of the results of the two prediction methods for the 18 patients using a leave-one-out cross validation revealed no considerable differences. Quantitatively, the parameter-based prediction of tissue outcome led to a mean Dice coefficient of 0.474, while the prediction using the residue functions led to a mean Dice coefficient of 0.461. Thus, it may be concluded from the results of this study that the perfusion parameter maps typically derived from PWI datasets include all

  13. Joint-multiple family linkage analysis predicts within-family variation better than single-family analysis of the maize nested association mapping population.

    PubMed

    Ogut, F; Bian, Y; Bradbury, P J; Holland, J B

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has been used to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits and predict phenotypes for marker-assisted selection. Many QTL mapping studies in plants have been limited to one biparental family population. Joint analysis of multiple biparental families offers an alternative approach to QTL mapping with a wider scope of inference. Joint-multiple population analysis should have higher power to detect QTL shared among multiple families, but may have lower power to detect rare QTL. We compared prediction ability of single-family and joint-family QTL analysis methods with fivefold cross-validation for 6 diverse traits using the maize nested association mapping population, which comprises 25 biparental recombinant inbred families. Joint-family QTL analysis had higher mean prediction abilities than single-family QTL analysis for all traits at most significance thresholds, and was always better at more stringent significance thresholds. Most robust QTL (detected in >50% of data samples) were restricted to one family and were often not detected at high frequency by joint-family analysis, implying substantial genetic heterogeneity among families for complex traits in maize. The superior predictive ability of joint-family QTL models despite important genetic differences among families suggests that joint-family models capture sufficient smaller effect QTL that are shared across families to compensate for missing some rare large-effect QTL.

  14. Mapping a stellar disk into a boxy bulge: The outside-in part of the Milky Way bulge formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Gómez, A.; van Damme, L.; Combes, F.; Hallé, A.; Semelin, B.; Lehnert, M. D.; Katz, D.

    2014-07-01

    By means of idealized, dissipationless N-body simulations that follow the formation and subsequent buckling of a stellar bar, we study the characteristics of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges and compare them with the properties of the stellar populations in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. The main results of our modeling, valid for the general family of boxy/peanut shaped bulges, are the following: (i) Because of the spatial redistribution in the disk initiated at the epoch of bar formation, stars from the innermost regions to the outer Lindblad resonance (OLR) of the stellar bar are mapped into a boxy bulge. (ii) The contribution of stars to the local bulge density depends on their birth radius: stars born in the innermost disk tend to dominate the innermost regions of the boxy bulge, while stars originating closer to the OLR are preferably found in the outer regions of the boxy/peanut structure. (iii) Stellar birth radii are imprinted in the bulge kinematics: the larger the birth radii of stars ending up in the bulge, the greater their rotational support and the higher their line-of-sight velocity dispersions (but note that this last trend depends on the bar viewing angle). (iv) The higher the classical bulge-over-disk ratio, the larger its fractional contribution of stars at large vertical distance from the galaxy midplane. Comparing these results with the properties of the stellar populations of the MW bulge recently revealed by the ARGOS survey, we conclude that (I) the two most metal-rich populations of the MW bulge, labeled A and B in the ARGOS survey, originate in the disk, with the population of A having formed on average closer to the Galaxy center than the population of component B; (II) a massive (B/D ~ 0.25) classical spheroid can be excluded for the MW, thus confirming previous findings that the MW bulge is composed of populations that mostly have a disk origin. On the basis of their chemical and kinematic characteristics, the results of our modeling suggest that

  15. MAP3K8/TPL-2/COT is a potential predictive marker for MEK inhibitor treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Gruosso, Tina; Garnier, Camille; Abelanet, Sophie; Kieffer, Yann; Lemesre, Vincent; Bellanger, Dorine; Bieche, Ivan; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Mieulet, Virginie; Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a silent disease with a poor prognosis that urgently requires new therapeutic strategies. In low-grade ovarian tumours, mutations in the MAP3K BRAF gene constitutively activate the downstream kinase MEK. Here we demonstrate that an additional MAP3K, MAP3K8 (TPL-2/COT), accumulates in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSCs) and is a potential prognostic marker for these tumours. By combining analyses on HGSC patient cohorts, ovarian cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that MAP3K8 controls cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating key players in G1/S transition and adhesion dynamics. In addition, we show that the MEK pathway is the main pathway involved in mediating MAP3K8 function, and that MAP3K8 exhibits a reliable predictive value for the effectiveness of MEK inhibitor treatment. Our data highlight key roles for MAP3K8 in HGSC and indicate that MEK inhibitors could be a useful treatment strategy, in combination with conventional chemotherapy, for this disease. PMID:26456302

  16. Maps showing generalized structure contours on the tops of the Wasatch and Green River Formations, geologic sections, and contours of thickness of the Green River Formation, southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1979-01-01

    These maps were prepared as part of a hydrologic investigation in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado. (See index map.) Most of the study area of 2,350 square miles is underlain by consolidated rocks of Tertiary age – the Wasatch, Green River, and Uinta Formations. The Green River Formation contains thick beds of oil shale, which are of considerable economic importance as a potential source of petroleum products. Cashion (1967, pl. 1) showed detailed structure contours on the top of the thickest of the oil-shale beds – the Mahogany bed. The generalized structure contours shoe=wn on sheet 1 for the tops of the Wasatch and Green River Formations were prepared to serve as a guide to further data acquisition. Structural high or low areas, which could affect the direction of ground-water movement, would be considered in planning future test wells. The generalized map of the Green River formation (sheet 2) could be an indication of changes in aquifer thickness, and this would also serve as a guide for future test drilling.

  17. Baseline frontostriatal-limbic connectivity predicts reward-based memory formation.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Janne M; Dayan, Eran; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-12-01

    Reward mediates the acquisition and long-term retention of procedural skills in humans. Yet, learning under rewarded conditions is highly variable across individuals and the mechanisms that determine interindividual variability in rewarded learning are not known. We postulated that baseline functional connectivity in a large-scale frontostriatal-limbic network could predict subsequent interindividual variability in rewarded learning. Resting-state functional MRI was acquired in two groups of subjects (n = 30) who then trained on a visuomotor procedural learning task with or without reward feedback. We then tested whether baseline functional connectivity within the frontostriatal-limbic network predicted memory strength measured immediately, 24 h and 1 month after training in both groups. We found that connectivity in the frontostriatal-limbic network predicted interindividual variability in the rewarded but not in the unrewarded learning group. Prediction was strongest for long-term memory. Similar links between connectivity and reward-based memory were absent in two control networks, a fronto-parieto-temporal language network and the dorsal attention network. The results indicate that baseline functional connectivity within the frontostriatal-limbic network successfully predicts long-term retention of rewarded learning.

  18. Remote Sensing and GIS Based Risk Index Map For Predicting Forest Fire Danger - Evaluation From Forestry Datasets, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V. K.; Badarinath, K. V. S.

    Forest fires constitute one of the most serious ecological as well as environmental problems affecting most vegetation zones across the world, including India. In this study, we evaluated forest fire risk for sixteen different forest and vegetation types of India. Data from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NOAA AVHRR data has been integrated with bioclimatic data and fuel value index to quantify the forest fire risk. Biomass data for different forest types in different pools has been used as ancillary data. In using the fuel value index, calorific value of wood content for 60 species has been collected and aggregated, for specific species. Results from NDVI and precipitation correlations were found to be highly significant for tropical dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests. Spatial patterns in NDVI closely followed seasonal trends in precipitation for most of the forests. An integrated GIS framework with biophysical, biomass, thermo chemical and bioclimatic parameters allowed the calculation of risk indices for the different forest types. The methodology followed in the study and the maps produced are found to be useful for evaluating forest fire risk and for predicting forest fire danger in different vegetation zones in India.

  19. On the integration of HydroProg and FloodMap: towards real-time inundation predictions in the upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dapeng; Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Latocha, Agnieszka; Parzoch, Krzysztof; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarizes attempts to link the HydroProg system for issuing the real-time warnings against hydrologic hazards (research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 of the National Science Centre of Poland) with the hydrodynamic FloodMap model. HydroProg itself integrates hydrometeorological gauging networks with dissimilar hydrologic models in order to deliver multiple river stage prognoses and their multimodel ensemble prediction. FloodMap uses HydroProg-delivered forecasts and, along with data on topography and bed profiles, produces short-term (3-hour) prognoses of inundation. The research is carried out in five test sites located in the upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland), where the HydroProg-Klodzko prototype is experimentally implemented, and is steadily providing the users with experimental prognoses of river stages (www.klodzko.hydroprog.uni.wroc.pl). The successful implementation of HydroProg in Klodzko County is due to the partnership with its authorities who developed and maintain the Local System for Flood Monitoring (Lokalny System Oslony Przeciwpowodziowej - LSOP). For the purpose of HydroProg-FloodMap integration we selected: (1) three hydrograph prediction approaches offered by HydroProg-Klodzko, (2) five specific peak flow events, and (3) five test sites along four mountainous rivers of the study area, focusing on 3-hour hydrograph predictions. The calibration of the FloodMap model is based on an overbank flow reconstruction, produced as a result of mapping geomorphological consequences of the flood that occurred in the Zelazno site on 26-28 June 2009. The discussion as to whether the calibrated model can be extrapolated and used in the remaining test sites is also provided. By utilizing FloodMap with observed water depth data we produce simulated inundation, which we verify against the orthophoto images acquired by the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Subsequently, we again run the FloodMap model with the HydroProg-delivered prognoses of

  20. Establishment of an in silico phospholipidosis prediction method using descriptors related to molecular interactions causing phospholipid-compound complex formation.

    PubMed

    Haranosono, Yu; Nemoto, Shingo; Kurata, Masaaki; Sakaki, Hideyuki

    2016-04-01

    Although phospholipidosis (PLD) often affects drug development, there is no convenient in vitro or in vivo test system for PLD detection. In this study, we developed an in silico PLD prediction method based on the PLD-inducing mechanism. We focused on phospholipid (PL)-compound complex formation, which inhibits PL degradation by phospholipase. Thus, we used some molecular interactions, such as electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and intermolecular forces, between PL and compounds as descriptors. First, we performed descriptor screening for intermolecular force and then developed a new in silico PLD prediction using descriptors related to molecular interactions. Based on the screening, we identified molecular refraction (MR) as a descriptor of intermolecular force. It is known that ClogP and most-basic pKa can be used for PLD prediction. Thereby, we developed an in silico prediction method using ClogP, most-basic pKa, and MR, which were related to hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions, and intermolecular forces. In addition, a resampling method was used to determine the cut-off values for each descriptor. We obtained good results for 77 compounds as follows: sensitivity = 95.8%, specificity = 75.9%, and concordance = 88.3%. Although there is a concern regarding false-negative compounds for pKa calculations, this predictive ability will be adequate for PLD screening. In conclusion, the mechanism-based in silico PLD prediction method provided good prediction ability, and this method will be useful for evaluating the potential of drugs to cause PLD, particularly in the early stage of drug development, because this method only requires knowledge of the chemical structure.

  1. Use of a Routh-Russel deformation map to achieve film formation of a latex with a high glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Edurne; Paulis, María; Barandiaran, María Jesús; Keddie, Joseph L

    2013-02-12

    In the film formation of latex, particle deformation can occur by processes of wet sintering, dry sintering, or capillary action. When latex films dry nonuniformly and when particles deform and coalesce while the film is still wet, a detrimental skin layer will develop at the film surface. In their process model, Routh and Russel proposed that the operative particle deformation mechanism can be determined by the values of control parameters on a deformation map. Here, the film formation processes of three methyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate copolymer latexes with high glass transition temperatures (T(g)), ranging from 45 to 64 °C, have been studied when heated by infrared radiation. Adjusting the infrared (IR) power density enables the film temperature, polymer viscosity, and evaporation rate during latex film formation to be controlled precisely. Different polymer particle deformation mechanisms have been demonstrated for the same latex under a variety of film formation process conditions. When the temperature is too high, a skin layer develops. On the other hand, when the temperature is too low, particles deform by dry sintering, and the process requires extended time periods. The deduced mechanisms can be interpreted and explained by the Routh-Russel deformation maps. Film formation of hard (high T(g)) coatings is achieved without using coalescing aids that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is a significant technical achievement.

  2. Assessing Changes in High School Students' Conceptual Understanding through Concept Maps before and after the Computer-Based Predict-Observe-Explain (CB-POE) Tasks on Acid-Base Chemistry at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Fatma; Ayas, Alipasa

    2015-01-01

    Although concept maps have been used as alternative assessment methods in education, there has been an ongoing debate on how to evaluate students' concept maps. This study discusses how to evaluate students' concept maps as an assessment tool before and after 15 computer-based Predict-Observe-Explain (CB-POE) tasks related to acid-base chemistry.…

  3. Prediction of Fracture Initiation Pressure and Fracture Geometries in Elastic Isotropic and Anisotropic Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Zou, Y. S.; Liu, S.; Liu, G. Q.; Jing, Y. Z.; Ehlig-Economides, C. A.

    2017-03-01

    Laminated formation structures in shale formations may have elastic anisotropic properties, including Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, that impact hydraulic fracturing treatment execution. Fracture initiation pressures and geometries are affected by these properties, especially in cased and in perforated horizontal wells. After initiation, stress concentration around the wellbore may cause the creation of longitudinal fractures (LFs) in the near-wellbore zone that reorient to transverse fractures (TFs) beyond this region. In this case, severe fracture kinking may occur that may hinder the transport of proppants and reduce well productivity. We developed an analytical model based on linear fracture mechanics theory to study the effect of perforation geometries on the initiation fracture pattern. Elastic anisotropy and well deviations were incorporated into simulations. Our simulation results show that when the perforation depth is in a specific range under normal fault regime, the initiation pressures for LFs can be smaller than the maximum horizontal stress σH. This behavior is significant for a smaller σH /σv ratio, but it vanishes for a larger σH /σv ratio. With increasing formation elastic anisotropy (K_{aniso}), the initiation pressures for both LFs and TFs increase, and the critical perforation depth is decreased. Considering the well deviation, the well azimuth and inclination angles affect initiation pressures for both longitudinal and transverse fractures. Results show how perforation depth, shale elastic anisotropy, and well orientation affect fracture initiation patterns. This paper provides a framework for well completion designs and well orientation designs to minimize the fracture kinking in the near-wellbore region in shale formations.

  4. Kinetic Study to Predict Sigma Phase Formation in Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Daniella Caluscio; Magnabosco, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    This work presents an improved kinetic study of sigma phase formation during isothermal aging between 973 K and 1223 K (700 °C and 950 °C), based on Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (K-J-M-A) model, established from volume fraction of sigma phase determined in backscattered electron images over polished surfaces of aged samples. The kinetic study shows a change in the main mechanism of sigma formation between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C), from a nucleation-governed stage to a diffusion-controlled growth-coarsening stage, confirmed by a double inclination in K-J-M-A plots and microstructural observations. A single inclination in K-J-M-A plots was observed for the 1223 K (950 °C) aging temperature, showing that kinetic behavior in this temperature is only related to diffusion-controlled growth of sigma phase. The estimated activation energies for the nucleation of sigma phase are close to the molybdenum diffusion in ferrite, probably the controlling mechanism of sigma phase nucleation. The proposed time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram shows a "double c curve" configuration, probably associated to the presence of chi-phase formed between 973 K and 1073 K (700 °C and 800 °C), which acts as heterogeneous nuclei for sigma phase formation in low aging temperatures.

  5. Suitability of Organic Matter Surrogates to Predict Trihalomethane Formation in Drinking Water Sources.

    PubMed

    Pifer, Ashley D; Fairey, Julian L

    2014-03-01

    Broadly applicable disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor surrogate parameters could be leveraged at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) to curb formation of regulated DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), fluorescence excitation/emission wavelength pairs (IEx/Em), and the maximum fluorescence intensities (FMAX) of components from parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were evaluated as total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) precursor surrogate parameters. A diverse set of source waters from eleven DWTPs located within watersheds underlain by six different soil orders were coagulated with alum at pH 6, 7, and 8, resulting in 44 sample waters. DOC, UV254, IEx/Em, and FMAX values were measured to characterize dissolved organic matter in raw and treated waters and THMs were quantified following formation potential tests with free chlorine. For the 44 sample waters, the linear TTHMFP correlation with UV254 was stronger (r(2)=0.89) than I240/562 (r(2)=0.81, the strongest surrogate parameter from excitation/emission matrix pair picking), FMAX from a humic/fulvic acid-like PARAFAC component (r(2)=0.78), and DOC (r(2)=0.75). Results indicate that UV254 was the most accurate TTHMFP precursor surrogate parameter assessed for a diverse group of raw and alum-coagulated waters.

  6. Suitability of Organic Matter Surrogates to Predict Trihalomethane Formation in Drinking Water Sources

    PubMed Central

    Pifer, Ashley D.; Fairey, Julian L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Broadly applicable disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor surrogate parameters could be leveraged at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) to curb formation of regulated DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), fluorescence excitation/emission wavelength pairs (IEx/Em), and the maximum fluorescence intensities (FMAX) of components from parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were evaluated as total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) precursor surrogate parameters. A diverse set of source waters from eleven DWTPs located within watersheds underlain by six different soil orders were coagulated with alum at pH 6, 7, and 8, resulting in 44 sample waters. DOC, UV254, IEx/Em, and FMAX values were measured to characterize dissolved organic matter in raw and treated waters and THMs were quantified following formation potential tests with free chlorine. For the 44 sample waters, the linear TTHMFP correlation with UV254 was stronger (r2=0.89) than I240/562 (r2=0.81, the strongest surrogate parameter from excitation/emission matrix pair picking), FMAX from a humic/fulvic acid-like PARAFAC component (r2=0.78), and DOC (r2=0.75). Results indicate that UV254 was the most accurate TTHMFP precursor surrogate parameter assessed for a diverse group of raw and alum-coagulated waters. PMID:24669183

  7. Using novel acoustic and visual mapping tools to predict the small-scale spatial distribution of live biogenic reef framework in cold-water coral habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Clippele, L. H.; Gafeira, J.; Robert, K.; Hennige, S.; Lavaleye, M. S.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Roberts, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    Cold-water corals form substantial biogenic habitats on continental shelves and in deep-sea areas with topographic highs, such as banks and seamounts. In the Atlantic, many reef and mound complexes are engineered by Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral. In this study, a variety of mapping approaches were used at a range of scales to map the distribution of both cold-water coral habitats and individual coral colonies at the Mingulay Reef Complex (west Scotland). The new ArcGIS-based British Geological Survey (BGS) seabed mapping toolbox semi-automatically delineated over 500 Lophelia reef `mini-mounds' from bathymetry data with 2-m resolution. The morphometric and acoustic characteristics of the mini-mounds were also automatically quantified and captured using this toolbox. Coral presence data were derived from high-definition remotely operated vehicle (ROV) records and high-resolution microbathymetry collected by a ROV-mounted multibeam echosounder. With a resolution of 0.35 × 0.35 m, the microbathymetry covers 0.6 km2 in the centre of the study area and allowed identification of individual live coral colonies in acoustic data for the first time. Maximum water depth, maximum rugosity, mean rugosity, bathymetric positioning index and maximum current speed were identified as the environmental variables that contributed most to the prediction of live coral presence. These variables were used to create a predictive map of the likelihood of presence of live cold-water coral colonies in the area of the Mingulay Reef Complex covered by the 2-m resolution data set. Predictive maps of live corals across the reef will be especially valuable for future long-term monitoring surveys, including those needed to understand the impacts of global climate change. This is the first study using the newly developed BGS seabed mapping toolbox and an ROV-based microbathymetric grid to explore the environmental variables that control coral growth on cold-water coral

  8. A study on the use of empirical models to predict the formation of acrylamide in potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Knol, Jeroen J; Viklund, Gunilla A I; Linssen, Jozef P H; Sjöholm, Ingegerd M; Skog, Kerstin I; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2008-03-01

    The formation of acrylamide in potato crisps was fitted by empirical mathematical models. Potato slices were fried under the same experimental conditions for different times. Besides the content of precursors in the raw potato slices, acrylamide and water content in the potato crisps were quantified after predetermined times (2-6 min). The temperature developments in the surrounding oil and outer cell layer of the potato slices were monitored, giving more insight in the frying process and making future comparisons between studies possible. The pattern found for the formation of acrylamide, which was similar to earlier studies, was fitted to three empirical models. Statistical methods were used to compare the performance of the models, with the "Logistic-Exponential" and "Empirical" model performing equally well. The obtained model parameters were in the range of earlier reported studies, although this comparison is not unequivocal as the experimental conditions differed between studies. The precision of parameter estimates was problematic; this should be improved by better experimental design. Nevertheless, the approach of this study will make it possible to truly compare acrylamide formation patterns and model parameters in the future, with the ability to develop a tool to predict acrylamide formation in potato crisps.

  9. Fast high-resolution prediction of multi-phase flow in fractured formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, George Shu Heng; Finsterle, Stefan; Zhang, Yingqi

    2016-02-01

    The success of a thermal water flood for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends on a detailed representation of the geometrical and hydraulic properties of the fracture network, which induces discrete, channelized flow behavior. The resulting high-resolution model is typically computationally very demanding. Here, we use the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Mapping Method to reconstruct high-resolution solutions based on efficient low-resolution solutions. The method requires training a reduced order model (ROM) using high- and low-resolution solutions determined for a relatively short simulation time. For a cyclic EOR operation, the oil production rate and the heterogeneous structure of the oil saturation are accurately reproduced even after 105 cycles, reducing the computational cost by at least 85%. The method described is general and can be potentially utilized with any multiphase flow model.

  10. Prediction of nucleosome DNA formation potential and nucleosome positioning using increment of diversity combined with quadratic discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Pei, Zhiyong; Liu, Jia; Qin, Sheng; Cai, Lu

    2010-11-01

    In this work, a novel method was developed to distinguish nucleosome DNA and linker DNA based on increment of diversity combined with quadratic discriminant analysis (IDQD), using k-mer frequency of nucleotides in genome. When used to predict DNA potential for forming nucleosomes, the model achieved a high accuracy of 94.94%, 77.60%, and 86.81%, respectively, for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, and Drosophila melanogaster. The area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of our classifier was 0.982 for S. cerevisiae. Our results indicate that DNA sequence preference is critical for nucleosome formation potential and is likely conserved across eukaryotes. The model successfully identified nucleosome-enriched or nucleosome-depleted regions in S. cerevisiae genome, suggesting nucleosome positioning depends on DNA sequence preference. Thus, IDQD classifier is useful for predicting nucleosome positioning.

  11. Predictive mapping of soil organic carbon in wet cultivated lands using classification-tree based models: the case study of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens H; Bøcher, Peder K; Greve, Mette B; Larsen, René; McCloy, Keith

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important carbon stocks globally and has large potential to affect global climate. Distribution patterns of SOC in Denmark constitute a nation-wide baseline for studies on soil carbon changes (with respect to Kyoto protocol). This paper predicts and maps the geographic distribution of SOC across Denmark using remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GISs) and decision-tree modeling (un-pruned and pruned classification trees). Seventeen parameters, i.e. parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, mean curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, flow accumulation, specific catchment area, tangent slope, tangent curvature, steady-state wetness index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI) and Soil Color Index (SCI) were generated to statistically explain SOC field measurements in the area of interest (Denmark). A large number of tree-based classification models (588) were developed using (i) all of the parameters, (ii) all Digital Elevation Model (DEM) parameters only, (iii) the primary DEM parameters only, (iv), the remote sensing (RS) indices only, (v) selected pairs of parameters, (vi) soil type, parent material and landscape type only, and (vii) the parameters having a high impact on SOC distribution in built pruned trees. The best constructed classification tree models (in the number of three) with the lowest misclassification error (ME) and the lowest number of nodes (N) as well are: (i) the tree (T1) combining all of the parameters (ME=29.5%; N=54); (ii) the tree (T2) based on the parent material, soil type and landscape type (ME=31.5%; N=14); and (iii) the tree (T3) constructed using parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, tangent slope and SCI (ME=30%; N=39). The produced SOC maps at 1:50,000 cartographic scale using these trees are highly matching with coincidence values equal to 90.5% (Map T1

  12. Prediction of contaminant migration around radioactive waste repositories in salt formations in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wollrath, J.

    1995-12-31

    With rock salt as host formation of a radioactive waste repository density effects on the groundwater movement have to be considered. Therefore, the assumptions, results and difficulties of modelling groundwater movement and taking into account density effects are presented and discussed with reference to the calculations performed for the Gorleben repository. The results are compared to results obtained in the safety analyses for the Konrad repository. It is shown that the consideration of variable groundwater density increases groundwater travel times and hence slows down the transport of contaminants from the repository location to the ground surface.

  13. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412

  14. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-08-13

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs.

  15. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: can we trust aperture corrections to predict star formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, S. N.; Bryant, J. J.; Croom, S. M.; Hopkins, A. M.; Schaefer, A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Allen, J. T.; Brough, S.; Cecil, G.; Cortese, L.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Taylor, E. N.

    2016-01-01

    In the low-redshift Universe (z < 0.3), our view of galaxy evolution is primarily based on fibre optic spectroscopy surveys. Elaborate methods have been developed to address aperture effects when fixed aperture sizes only probe the inner regions for galaxies of ever decreasing redshift or increasing physical size. These aperture corrections rely on assumptions about the physical properties of galaxies. The adequacy of these aperture corrections can be tested with integral-field spectroscopic data. We use integral-field spectra drawn from 1212 galaxies observed as part of the SAMI Galaxy Survey to investigate the validity of two aperture correction methods that attempt to estimate a galaxy's total instantaneous star formation rate. We show that biases arise when assuming that instantaneous star formation is traced by broad-band imaging, and when the aperture correction is built only from spectra of the nuclear region of galaxies. These biases may be significant depending on the selection criteria of a survey sample. Understanding the sensitivities of these aperture corrections is essential for correct handling of systematic errors in galaxy evolution studies.

  16. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Variant Interacts with Intervention Delivery Format in Predicting Intervention Outcomes for Youth with Conduct Problems.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Lochman, John E; Dishion, Thomas; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline; Qu, Lixin

    2017-03-16

    Coping Power is an evidence-based preventive intervention program for youth with aggressive behavior problems that has traditionally been delivered in small group formats. Because of concerns about iatrogenic effects secondary to aggregation of high risk youth, the current study examined whether genetic risk may moderate intervention outcome when youth were randomly assigned to group versus individual formats of an intervention. The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been associated with social behavior and may influence susceptibility to social reinforcement in general and deviant peer influence in particular. One variant of OXTR (rs2268493) was examined in 197 fourth-grade African-American children (64% male) who were randomly assigned to Group Coping Power or Individual Coping Power (Lochman et al. 2015). Longitudinal assessments of teacher- and parent-reported behavior were collected through a 1-year follow-up. Growth curve analyses revealed a genotype by delivery format interaction. Youth with the A/A genotype demonstrated reductions in externalizing problems over the course of the intervention regardless of intervention format. In contrast, carriers of the G allele receiving the group-based intervention showed little improvement during the intervention and a worsening of symptoms during the follow-up year, while those receiving the individual format demonstrated reductions in externalizing problems. Given the associations between this OXTR variant and social bonding, carriers of the G allele may be more sensitive to social rewards from deviant peers in the group setting. This study suggests that genetic factors may be useful in predicting which type of intervention will be most effective for a particular individual.

  17. Optic flow instructs retinotopic map formation through a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Hollis T.

    2014-01-01

    Retinotopic maps are plastic in response to changes in sensory input; however, the experience-dependent instructive cues that organize retinotopy are unclear. In animals with forward-directed locomotion, the predominant anterior to posterior optic flow activates retinal ganglion cells in a stereotyped temporal to nasal sequence. Here we imaged retinotectal axon arbor location and structural plasticity to assess map refinement in vivo while exposing Xenopus tadpoles to visual stimuli. We show that the temporal sequence of retinal activity driven by natural optic flow organizes retinotopy by regulating axon arbor branch dynamics, whereas the opposite sequence of retinal activity prevents map refinement. Our study demonstrates that a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information controls experience-dependent topographic map plasticity. This organizational principle is likely to apply to other sensory modalities and projections in the brain. PMID:25385606

  18. Optic flow instructs retinotopic map formation through a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Masaki; Cline, Hollis T

    2014-11-25

    Retinotopic maps are plastic in response to changes in sensory input; however, the experience-dependent instructive cues that organize retinotopy are unclear. In animals with forward-directed locomotion, the predominant anterior to posterior optic flow activates retinal ganglion cells in a stereotyped temporal to nasal sequence. Here we imaged retinotectal axon arbor location and structural plasticity to assess map refinement in vivo while exposing Xenopus tadpoles to visual stimuli. We show that the temporal sequence of retinal activity driven by natural optic flow organizes retinotopy by regulating axon arbor branch dynamics, whereas the opposite sequence of retinal activity prevents map refinement. Our study demonstrates that a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information controls experience-dependent topographic map plasticity. This organizational principle is likely to apply to other sensory modalities and projections in the brain.

  19. Quantitative model for predicting lymph formation and muscle compressibility in skeletal muscle during contraction and stretch

    PubMed Central

    Causey, Laura; Cowin, Stephen C.; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is widely perceived as nearly incompressible despite the fact that blood and lymphatic vessels within the endomysial and perimysial spaces undergo significant changes in diameter and length during stretch and contraction. These fluid shifts between fascicle and interstitial compartments have proved extremely difficult to measure. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework based on a space-filling hexagonal fascicle array to provide predictions of the displacement of blood and lymph into and out of the muscle’s endomysium and perimysium during stretch and contraction. We also use this model to quantify the distribution of blood and initial lymphatic (IL) vessels within a fascicle and its perimysial space using data for the rat spinotrapezius muscle. On average, there are 11 muscle fibers, 0.4 arteriole/venule pairs, and 0.2 IL vessels per fascicle. The model predicts that the blood volume in the endomysial space increases 24% and decreases 22% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively. However, these significant changes in blood volume in the endomysium produce a change of only ∼2% in fascicle cross-sectional area. In contrast, the entire muscle deviates from isovolumetry by 7% and 6% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively, largely attributable to the significantly larger blood volume changes that occur in the perimysial space. This suggests that arcade blood vessels in the perimysial space provide the primary pumping action required for the filling and emptying of ILs during muscular contraction and stretch. PMID:22615376

  20. Diabetes and elevated urea level predict for uretero-ileal stricture after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit formation

    PubMed Central

    Hoag, Nathan; Papa, Nathan; Beharry, Bhawanie Koonj; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Chiu, Danny; Sengupta, Shomik; Bolton, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benign uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture is a significant complication following radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. We examined risk factors for stricture formation to predict those at greatest stricture risk. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients undergoing radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion between 2002 and 2012. Demographic data and patient variables were analyzed to determine risk factors for uretero-ileal stricture using multivariate logistic regression. Results Over the study period, 133 patients underwent cystectomy and ileal conduit formation, with 14 (10.5%) developing uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture. Diabetes and elevated serum urea level (defined as >7.1 mmol/L) were associated with increased risk for development of uretero-ileal stricture (odds ratio 4.31 and 4.28, respectively; p<0.05 for each). Conclusions In this patient cohort, diabetes and elevated serum urea level were predictive for the development of uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture. Further prospective study with larger patient samples is required. PMID:28360953

  1. Chemical Category Formation and Read-Across for the Prediction of Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Steven J.

    The aim of this chapter is to outline the principles of chemical category formation and the use of read-across methods to fill data gaps to aid regulatory toxicological decision making. The chapter outlines the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) principles for the design of a chemical category. This section aims to give a flavour of the steps that need to be considered when forming a chemical category. This is followed by a description of the advantages that considering chemicals within categories bring in risk assessment. The importance of how to define chemical similarity and several commonly used methods is discussed. Finally a brief review of the limited literature available showing actual examples of read-across methods is presented

  2. A novel predictive model for formation enthalpies of Si and Ge hydrides with propane- and butane-like structures.

    PubMed

    Weng, C; Kouvetakis, J; Chizmeshya, A V G

    2011-04-15

    Butane- and propane-like silicon-germanium hydrides and chlorinated derivatives represent a new class of precursors for the fabrication of novel metastable materials at low-temperature regimes compatible with selective growth and commensurate with the emerging demand for the reduced thermal budgets of complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration. However, predictive simulation studies of the growth process and reaction mechanisms of these new compounds, needed to accelerate their deployment and fine-tune the unprecedented low-temperature and low-pressure synthesis protocols, require experimental thermodynamic data, which are currently unavailable. Furthermore, traditional quantum chemistry approaches lack the accuracy needed to treat large molecules containing third-row elements such as Ge. Accordingly, here we develop a method to accurately predict the formation enthalpy of these compounds using atom-wise corrections for Si, Ge, Cl, and H. For a test set of 15 well-known hydrides of Si and Ge and their chlorides, such as Si(3)H(8), Ge(2)H(6), SiGeH(6), SiHCl(3), and GeCl(4), our approach reduces the deviations between the experimental and predicted formation enthalpies obtained from complete basis set (CBS-QB3), G2, and B3LPY thermochemistry to levels of 1-3 kcal/mol, or a factor of ∼5 over the corresponding uncorrected values. We show that our approach yields results comparable or better than those obtained using homodesmic reactions while circumventing the need for thermochemical data of the associated reaction species. Optimized atom-wise corrections are then used to generate accurate enthalpies of formation for 39 pure Si-Ge hydrides and a selected group of 20 chlorinated analogs, of which some have recently been synthesized for the first time. Our corrected enthalpies perfectly reproduce the experimental stability trends of heavy butane-like compounds containing Ge. This is in contrast to the direct application of the CBS-QB3 method, which yields

  3. On vegetation mapping in Alaska using LANDSAT imagery with primary concerns for method and purpose in satellite image-based vegetation and land-use mapping and the visual interpretation of imagery in photographic format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A simulated color infrared LANDSAT image covering the western Seward Peninsula was used for identifying and mapping vegetation by direct visual examination. The 1:1,083,400 scale print used was prepared by a color additive process using positive transparencies from MSS bands 4, 5, and 7. Seven color classes were recognized. A vegetation map of 3200 sq km area just west of Fairbanks, Alaska was made. Five colors were recognized on the image and identified to vegetation types roughly equivalent to formations in the UNESCO classification: orange - broadleaf deciduous forest; gray - needleleaf evergreen forest; light violet - subarctic alpine tundra vegetation; violet - broadleaf deciduous shrub thicket; and dull violet - bog vegetation.

  4. Prediction of Bond Dissociation Energies/Heats of Formation for Diatomic Transition Metal Compounds: CCSD(T) Works.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zongtang; Vasiliu, Monica; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A

    2017-03-14

    It was recently reported ( J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2015 , 11 , 2036 - 2052 ) that the coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples method, CCSD(T), should not be used as a benchmark tool for the prediction of dissociation energies (heats of formation) for the first row transition metal diatomics based on a comparison with the experimental thermodynamic values for a set of 20 diatomics. In the present work the bond dissociation energies as well as the heats of formation for those diatomics have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon approach at the CCSD(T)/complete basis set (CBS) level of theory including scalar relativistic corrections and correlation of the outer shell of core electrons in addition to the valence electrons. Revised experimental values for the hydrides are presented that are based on new heterolytic R-H bond dissociation energies, which are needed for analysis of the mass spectrometry experiments. The agreement between the calculated bond dissociation energies and the revised experimental values of the hydrides is good. Good agreement of the calculated bond dissociation energies/heats of formation is also found for most of the chlorides, oxides, and sulfides given the experimental error bars from experiment and those of the transition metal atoms in the gas phase. Thus, reliable results can be achieved by the CCSD(T) method at the CBS limit. The use of PW91 orbitals for the CCSD(T) calculations improves the predictions for some compounds with large T1 diagnostics at the HF-CCSD(T) level. The optimized bond distances and calculated vibrational frequencies for the diatomics also agree well with the available experimental values.

  5. Controlled formation of polymer nanocapsules with high diffusion-barrier properties and prediction of encapsulation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Ines; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2015-01-02

    Polymer nanocapsules with high diffusion-barrier performance were designed following simple thermodynamic considerations. Hindered diffusion of the enclosed material leads to high encapsulation efficiencies (EEs), which was demonstrated based on the encapsulation of highly volatile compounds of different chemical natures. Low interactions between core and shell materials are key factors to achieve phase separation and a high diffusion barrier of the resulting polymeric shell. These interactions can be characterized and quantified using the Hansen solubility parameters. A systematic study of our copolymer system revealed a linear relationship between the Hansen parameter for hydrogen bonding (δh ) and encapsulation efficiencies which enables the prediction of encapsulated amounts for any material. Furthermore EEs of poorly encapsulated materials can be increased by mixing them with a mediator compound to give lower overall δh values.

  6. Underground Excavation Behaviour of the Queenston Formation: Tunnel Back Analysis for Application to Shaft Damage Dimension Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perras, Matthew A.; Wannenmacher, Helmut; Diederichs, Mark S.

    2015-07-01

    The Niagara Tunnel Project (NTP) is a 10.1 km long water-diversion tunnel in Niagara Falls, Ontario, which was excavated by a 7.2 m radius tunnel boring machine. Approximately half the tunnel length was excavated through the Queenston Formation, which locally is a shale to mudstone. Typical overbreak depths ranged between 2 and 4 m with a maximum of 6 m observed. Three modelling approaches were used to back analyse the brittle failure process at the NTP: damage initiation and spalling limit, laminated anisotropy modelling, and ubiquitous joint approaches. Analyses were conducted for three tunnel chainages: 3 + 000, 3 + 250, and 3 + 500 m because the overbreak depth increased from 2 to 4 m. All approaches produced similar geometries to those measured. The laminated anisotropy modelling approach was able to produced chord closures closest to those measured, using a joint normal to shear stiffness ratio between 1 and 2. This understanding was applied to a shaft excavation model in the Queenston Formation at the proposed Deep Geological Repository (DGR) site for low and intermediate level nuclear waste storage in Canada. The maximum damage depth was 1.9 m; with an average of 1.0 m. Important differences are discussed between the tunnel and shaft orientation with respect to bedding. The models show that the observed normalized depth of failure at the NTP would over-predict the depth of damage expected in the Queenston Formation at the DGR.

  7. On a report that the 2012 M = 6.0 earthquake in Italy was predicted after seeing an unusual cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. N.; Masci, F.; Love, J. J.

    2014-09-01

    Several recently published reports have suggested that semi-stationary linear-cloud formations might be causally precursory to earthquakes. We examine the report of Guangmeng and Jie (2013), who claim to have predicted the 2012 M = 6.0 earthquake in the Po Valley of northern Italy after seeing a satellite image showing a linear-cloud formation over the eastern Apennine Mountains of central Italy. From inspection of four years of satellite images we find numerous examples of linear-cloud formations over Italy. A simple test shows no obvious statistical relationship between the occurrence of these cloud formations and earthquakes that occurred in and around Italy. All of the linear-cloud formations we have identified in satellite images, including that which Guangmeng and Jie (2013) claim to have used to predict the 2012 earthquake, appear to be orographic - formed by the interaction of moisture-laden wind flowing over mountains. Guangmeng and Jie (2013) have not clearly stated how linear-cloud formations can be used to predict the size, location, and time of an earthquake, and they have not published an account of all of their predictions (including any unsuccessful predictions). We are skeptical of the validity of the claim by Guangmeng and Jie (2013) that they have managed to predict any earthquakes

  8. On a report that the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in Italy was predicted after seeing an unusual cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. N.; Masci, F.; Love, J. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several recently published reports have suggested that semi-stationary linear-cloud formations might be causally precursory to earthquakes. We examine the report of Guangmeng and Jie (2013), who claim to have predicted the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in the Po Valley of northern Italy after seeing a satellite photograph (a digital image) showing a linear-cloud formation over the eastern Apennine Mountains of central Italy. From inspection of 4 years of satellite images we find numerous examples of linear-cloud formations over Italy. A simple test shows no obvious statistical relationship between the occurrence of these cloud formations and earthquakes that occurred in and around Italy. All of the linear-cloud formations we have identified in satellite images, including that which Guangmeng and Jie (2013) claim to have used to predict the 2012 earthquake, appear to be orographic - formed by the interaction of moisture-laden wind flowing over mountains. Guangmeng and Jie (2013) have not clearly stated how linear-cloud formations can be used to predict the size, location, and time of an earthquake, and they have not published an account of all of their predictions (including any unsuccessful predictions). We are skeptical of the validity of the claim by Guangmeng and Jie (2013) that they have managed to predict any earthquakes.

  9. On a report that the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in Italy was predicted after seeing an unusual cloud formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.N.; Masci, F; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Several recently published reports have suggested that semi-stationary linear-cloud formations might be causally precursory to earthquakes. We examine the report of Guangmeng and Jie (2013), who claim to have predicted the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in the Po Valley of northern Italy after seeing a satellite photograph (a digital image) showing a linear-cloud formation over the eastern Apennine Mountains of central Italy. From inspection of 4 years of satellite images we find numerous examples of linear-cloud formations over Italy. A simple test shows no obvious statistical relationship between the occurrence of these cloud formations and earthquakes that occurred in and around Italy. All of the linear-cloud formations we have identified in satellite images, including that which Guangmeng and Jie (2013) claim to have used to predict the 2012 earthquake, appear to be orographic – formed by the interaction of moisture-laden wind flowing over mountains. Guangmeng and Jie (2013) have not clearly stated how linear-cloud formations can be used to predict the size, location, and time of an earthquake, and they have not published an account of all of their predictions (including any unsuccessful predictions). We are skeptical of the validity of the claim by Guangmeng and Jie (2013) that they have managed to predict any earthquakes.

  10. Use of HμREL Human Coculture System for Prediction of Intrinsic Clearance and Metabolite Formation for Slowly Metabolized Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Ia; Vedin, Charlotta; Abrahamsson, Anna; Winiwarter, Susanne; Darnell, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Design of slowly metabolized compounds is an important goal in many drug discovery projects. Standard hepatocyte suspension intrinsic clearance (CLint) methods can only provide reliable CLint values above 2.5 μL/min/million cells. A method that permits extended incubation time with maintained performance and metabolic activity of the in vitro system is warranted to allow in vivo clearance predictions and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static HμREL coculture of human hepatocytes with stromal cells to be set up in-house as a standard method for in vivo clearance prediction and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. Fourteen low CLint compounds were incubated for 3 days, and seven intermediate to high CLint compounds and a cocktail of cytochrome P450 (P450) marker substrates were incubated for 3 h. In vivo clearance was predicted for 20 compounds applying the regression line approach, and HμREL coculture predicted the human intrinsic clearance for 45% of the drugs within 2-fold and 70% of the drugs within 3-fold of the clinical values. CLint values as low as 0.3 μL/min/million hepatocytes were robustly produced, giving 8-fold improved sensitivity of robust low CLint determination, over the cutoff in hepatocyte suspension CLint methods. The CLint values of intermediate to high CLint compounds were at similar levels both in HμREL coculture and in freshly thawed hepatocytes. In the HμREL coculture formation rates for five P450-isoform marker reactions, paracetamol (CYP1A2), 1-OH-bupropion (CYP2B6), 4-OH-diclofenac (CYP2C9), and 1-OH-midazolam (3A4) were within the range of literature values for freshly thawed hepatocytes, whereas 1-OH-bufuralol (CYP2D6) formation rate was lower. Further, both phase I and phase II metabolites were detected and an increased number of metabolites were observed in the HμREL coculture compared to hepatocyte suspension. In conclusion, HμREL coculture can

  11. Predicting diagenetic history and reservoir quality in the Frio Formation of Brazoria County, Texas and Pleasant Bayou test wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, W.R.; Richmann, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Good-quality geothermal reservoirs displaying secondary porosity exist on the upper Texas coast (Brazoria County), site of the Pleasant Bayou No. 1 and No. 2 wells, and are attributed to a moderately stable mineral assemblage, normal geothermal gradients, and low in situ pH. Major authigenic minerals are calcite, quartz, and kaolinite. Detrital feldspar has been extensively albitized at depth. Major diagenetic events overlapped, occurring in the general order-precipitation of calcite, formation of quartz overgrowths, albitization, leaching of calcite to form secondary porosity, and precipitation of kaolinite. Seventeen Brazoria County water analyses including two from the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well were thermodynamically tested. Predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics add new insight on mineral stabilities and are consistent with the paragenetic sequence developed from petrographic data. Early precipitation of calcite at shallow depths of burial is predicted. Low temperture and low in situ pH explain the general absence of chlorite. The use of solution-mineral equilibria as a predictor of reservoir quality is inconclusive, but well-defined clustering of waters indicates that identification of regional trends will probably be possible. Shallow waters may be the key to predicting reservoir quality at depth.

  12. Stresses and fractures in the Frontier Formation, Green River Basin, predicted from basin-margin tectonic element interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Natural fractures and in situ stresses commonly dictate subsurface reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, as well as the effectiveness of stimulation techniques in low-permeability, natural gas reservoirs. This paper offers an initial prediction for the orientations of the fracture and stress systems in the tight gas reservoirs of the Frontier Formation, in the Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming. It builds on a previous report that addressed fractures and stresses in the western part of the basin and on ideas developed for the rest of the basin, using the principle that thrust faults are capable of affecting the stress magnitudes and orientations in little-deformed strata several hundreds of kilometers in front of a thrust. The prediction of subsurface stresses and natural fracture orientations is an undertaking that requires the willingness to revise models as definitive data are acquired during drilling. The predictions made in this paper are offered with the caveat that geology in the subsurface is always full of surprises.

  13. Predicting Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Hierarchical Multiscale Interactions During the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Nargis(2008)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B.-W.; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W. K.; Atlas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Very severe cyclonic storm Nargis devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, caused tremendous damage and numerous fatalities, and became one of the 10 deadliest tropical cyclones (TCs) of all time. To increase the warning time in order to save lives and reduce economic damage, it is important to extend the lead time in the prediction of TCs like Nargis. As recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputing technology have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, the ability of a global mesoscale model to predict TC genesis in the Indian Ocean is examined in this study with the aim of improving simulations of TC climate. High-resolution global simulations with real data show that the initial formation and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically predicted up to 5 days in advance. Preliminary analysis suggests that improved representations of the following environmental conditions and their hierarchical multiscale interactions were the key to achieving this lead time: (1) a westerly wind burst and equatorial trough, (2) an enhanced monsoon circulation with a zero wind shear line, (3) good upper-level outflow with anti-cyclonic wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, and (4) low-level moisture convergence.

  14. Detailed geologic field mapping and radiometric dating of the Abanico Formation in the Principal Cordillera, central Chile: Evidence of protracted volcanism and implications for Cenozoic tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosolf, J.; Gans, P. B.; Wyss, A. R.; Cottle, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Many aspects of the long-term evolution of intra-arc processes remain poorly understood, including temporal trends in magmatism, temporal and spatial patterns of volcanism, and styles of arc deformation. The Abanico Formation in the Principal Cordillera of central Chile is a thick, well-exposed section of volcanogenic strata providing a superb locale for the investigation of continental arc dynamics over a 60+ myr timescale. In this study, eight new litho-stratigraphic members of the Abanico Formation are described and mapped in the Río Tinguiririca river area. Mapping and field observations show the Abanico Formation measures up to ~2.5 km in composite stratigraphic thickness. The lower ~1.1 km of the section (> 46 Ma) is dominated by andesitic breccias interbedded with andesite, basaltic andesite, and olivine basalt lavas. The upper 1.4 km of the section (< 46 Ma) consists of volcaniclastic sandstone interbedded with abundant dacitic tuffs and minor andesite, basaltic andesite, and basalt flows. Nineteen new LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages and ten new 40Ar/39Ar whole rock and plagioclase ages obtained for the Abanico Formation clarify ambiguous field relationships and provide a robust chrono-stratigraphic framework spanning ~72 to 11 Ma; these new ages significantly revise the maximum mid-Tertiary age for the Abanico Formation previously established by the mammal fossil record. The map units are cut by numerous dacitic to gabbroic dikes and sills with ages spanning the Eocene to Pliocene. The Abanico Formation is overlain in angular unconformity by Pliocene and Quaternary volcanics composed mainly of andesite, basaltic andesite, and basalt lavas. A strong deformational overprint has tilted, folded, and faulted the Abanico map units. Fold axes and reverse faults, both east and west directed, are generally N-S trending. Reverse faults achieve up to ~50 Ma of stratigraphic separation, placing Campanian strata on Miocene rocks with up to ~2 km of vertical throw. The

  15. Drug use Discrimination Predicts Formation of High-Risk Social Networks: Examining Social Pathways of Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Rudolph, Abby; Kim, BoRin; Lewis, Crystal M

    2016-12-26

    Experiences of discrimination, or social marginalization and ostracism, may lead to the formation of social networks characterized by inequality. For example, those who experience discrimination may be more likely to develop drug use and sexual partnerships with others who are at increased risk for HIV compared to those without experiences of discrimination. This is critical as engaging in risk behaviors with others who are more likely to be HIV positive can increase one's risk of HIV. We used log-binomial regression models to examine the relationship between drug use, racial and incarceration discrimination with changes in the composition of one's risk network among 502 persons who use drugs. We examined both absolute and proportional changes with respect to sex partners, drug use partners, and injecting partners, after accounting for individual risk behaviors. At baseline, participants were predominately male (70%), black or Latino (91%), un-married (85%), and used crack (64%). Among those followed-up (67%), having experienced discrimination due to drug use was significantly related to increases in the absolute number of sex networks and drug networks over time. No types of discrimination were related to changes in the proportion of high-risk network members. Discrimination may increase one's risk of HIV acquisition by leading them to preferentially form risk relationships with higher-risk individuals, thereby perpetuating racial and ethnic inequities in HIV. Future social network studies and behavioral interventions should consider whether social discrimination plays a role in HIV transmission.

  16. Single-colour diagnostics of the mass-to-light ratio - I. Predictions from galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Zuntz, Joe

    2013-05-01

    Accurate galaxy stellar masses are crucial to better understand the physical mechanisms driving the galaxy formation process. We use synthetic star formation and metal enrichment histories predicted by the GALFORM galaxy formation model to investigate the precision with which various colours (ma - mb) can alone be used as diagnostics of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. As an example, we find that, at z = 0, the intrinsic (Bf435w - Vf606w) colour can be used to determine the intrinsic rest-frame V-band stellar mass-to-light ratio (log 10ΓV = log 10[(M/M⊙)/(LV/LV⊙)]) with a precision of σlgΓ ≃ 0.06 when the initial mass function and redshift are known beforehand. While the presence of dust, assuming a universal attenuation curve, can have a systematic effect on the inferred mass-to-light ratio using a single-colour relation, this is typically small as it is often possible to choose a colour for which the dust reddening vector is approximately aligned with the (ma - mb)-log 10ΓV relation. The precision with which the stellar mass-to-light ratio can be recovered using a single-colour diagnostic rivals implementations of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using more information but in which simple parametrizations of the star formation and metal enrichment histories are assumed. To facilitate the wide use of these relations, we provide the optimal observer frame colour to estimate the stellar mass-to-light ratio, along with the associated parameters, as a function of redshift (0 < z < 1.5) for two sets of commonly used filters.

  17. Quantitative predictions on auxin-induced polar distribution of PIN proteins during vein formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Alim, K; Frey, E

    2010-10-01

    The dynamic patterning of the plant hormone auxin and its efflux facilitator the PIN protein are the key regulators for the spatial and temporal organization of plant development. In particular auxin induces the polar localization of its own efflux facilitator. Due to this positive feedback, auxin flow is directed and patterns of auxin and PIN arise. During the earliest stage of vein initiation in leaves auxin accumulates in a single cell in a rim of epidermal cells from which it flows into the ground meristem tissue of the leaf blade. There the localized auxin supply yields the successive polarization of PIN distribution along a strand of cells. We model the auxin and PIN dynamics within cells with a minimal canalization model. Solving the model analytically we uncover an excitable polarization front that triggers a polar distribution of PIN proteins in cells. As polarization fronts may extend to opposing directions from their initiation site, we suggest a possible resolution to the puzzling occurrence of bipolar cells, thus we offer an explanation for the development of closed, looped veins. Employing non-linear analysis, we identify the role of the contributing microscopic processes during polarization. Furthermore, we deduce quantitative predictions on polarization fronts establishing a route to determine the up to now largely unknown kinetic rates of auxin and PIN dynamics.

  18. A novel approach of remaining discharge energy prediction for large format lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-03-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack remaining discharge energy is a crucial challenge to the battery energy storage systems. In this paper, a new method of battery pack remaining discharge energy estimation is proposed using the recursive least square-unscented Kalman filter. To predict the remaining discharge energy precisely, the inconsistency of the battery pack caused by different working temperatures is taken into consideration and the degree of battery inconsistency is quantified based on mathematical methods of statistics. In addition, the recursive least square is applied to identify the parameters of the battery pack model on-line and the unscented Kalman filter is employed in battery pack remaining discharge energy and energy utilization ratio estimation. The experimental results in terms of battery states estimation under the new European driving cycle and real driven profiles, with the root mean square error less than 0.01, further verify that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack remaining discharge energy with high accuracy. What's more, the relationship between the pack energy utilization ratio and the degree of battery inconsistency is summarized in the paper.

  19. Accurate ab initio predictions of ionization energies and heats of formation for the 2-propyl, phenyl, and benzyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K.-C.; Ng, C. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The ionization energies (IEs) for the 2-propyl (2-C3H7), phenyl (C6H5), and benzyl (C6H5CH2) radicals have been calculated by the wave-function-based ab initio CCSD(T)/CBS approach, which involves the approximation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit at the coupled cluster level with single and double excitations plus quasiperturbative triple excitation [CCSD(T)]. The zero-point vibrational energy correction, the core-valence electronic correction, and the scalar relativistic effect correction have been also made in these calculations. Although a precise IE value for the 2-C3H7 radical has not been directly determined before due to the poor Franck-Condon factor for the photoionization transition at the ionization threshold, the experimental value deduced indirectly using other known energetic data is found to be in good accord with the present CCSD(T)/CBS prediction. The comparison between the predicted value through the focal-point analysis and the highly precise experimental value for the IE(C6H5CH2) determined in the previous pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) study shows that the CCSD(T)/CBS method is capable of providing an accurate IE prediction for C6H5CH2, achieving an error limit of 35 meV. The benchmarking of the CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C6H5CH2) prediction suggests that the CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C6H5) prediction obtained here has a similar accuracy of 35 meV. Taking into account this error limit for the CCSD(T)/CBS prediction and the experimental uncertainty, the CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C6H5) value is also consistent with the IE(C6H5) reported in the previous HeI photoelectron measurement. Furthermore, the present study provides support for the conclusion that the CCSD(T)/CBS approach with high-level energy corrections can be used to provide reliable IE predictions for C3-C7 hydrocarbon radicals with an uncertainty of +/-35 meV. Employing the atomization scheme, we have also computed the 0 K (298 K) heats of formation in kJ/mol at the CCSD(T)/CBS level for 2-C3H7

  20. Atlas Based Segmentation and Mapping of Organs at Risk from Planning CT for the Development of Voxel-Wise Predictive Models of Toxicity in Prostate Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Oscar; Dowling, Jason; Cazoulat, Guillaume; Simon, Antoine; Salvado, Olivier; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Haigron, Pascal

    The prediction of toxicity is crucial to managing prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT). This prediction is classically organ wise and based on the dose volume histograms (DVH) computed during the planning step, and using for example the mathematical Lyman Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) model. However, these models lack spatial accuracy, do not take into account deformations and may be inappropiate to explain toxicity events related with the distribution of the delivered dose. Producing voxel wise statistical models of toxicity might help to explain the risks linked to the dose spatial distribution but is challenging due to the difficulties lying on the mapping of organs and dose in a common template. In this paper we investigate the use of atlas based methods to perform the non-rigid mapping and segmentation of the individuals' organs at risk (OAR) from CT scans. To build a labeled atlas, 19 CT scans were selected from a population of patients treated for prostate cancer by radiotherapy. The prostate and the OAR (Rectum, Bladder, Bones) were then manually delineated by an expert and constituted the training data. After a number of affine and non rigid registration iterations, an average image (template) representing the whole population was obtained. The amount of consensus between labels was used to generate probabilistic maps for each organ. We validated the accuracy of the approach by segmenting the organs using the training data in a leave one out scheme. The agreement between the volumes after deformable registration and the manually segmented organs was on average above 60% for the organs at risk. The proposed methodology provides a way to map the organs from a whole population on a single template and sets the stage to perform further voxel wise analysis. With this method new and accurate predictive models of toxicity will be built.

  1. Adsorption of binary gas mixtures in heterogeneous carbon predicted by density functional theory: on the formation of adsorption azeotropes.

    PubMed

    Ritter, James A; Pan, Huanhua; Balbuena, Perla B

    2010-09-07

    Classical density functional theory (DFT) was used to predict the adsorption of nine different binary gas mixtures in a heterogeneous BPL activated carbon with a known pore size distribution (PSD) and in single, homogeneous, slit-shaped carbon pores of different sizes. By comparing the heterogeneous results with those obtained from the ideal adsorbed solution theory and with those obtained in the homogeneous carbon, it was determined that adsorption nonideality and adsorption azeotropes are caused by the coupled effects of differences in the molecular size of the components in a gas mixture and only slight differences in the pore sizes of a heterogeneous adsorbent. For many binary gas mixtures, selectivity was found to be a strong function of pore size. As the width of a homogeneous pore increases slightly, the selectivity for two different sized adsorbates may change from being greater than unity to less than unity. This change in selectivity can be accompanied by the formation of an adsorption azeotrope when this same binary mixture is adsorbed in a heterogeneous adsorbent with a PSD, like in BPL activated carbon. These results also showed that the selectivity exhibited by a heterogeneous adsorbent can be dominated by a small number of pores that are very selective toward one of the components in the gas mixture, leading to adsorption azeotrope formation in extreme cases.

  2. New model of retinocollicular mapping predicts the mechanisms of axonal competition and explains the role of reverse molecular signaling during development.

    PubMed

    Grimbert, François; Cang, Jianhua

    2012-07-11

    Precise connections in the brain result from elaborate processes during development. In the visual system, axonal projections from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) onto the superior colliculus form a precise retinotopic map. Studies have revealed that the development of retinocollicular maps involves three main factors: graded expression of molecular guidance cues such as EphAs and ephrin-As, activity-dependent processes driven by spontaneous activity in RGCs, and different forms of axonal competition. In this study, we developed a new, versatile model including these factors. We first modeled the selective arborization of RGC axons, mediated by EphA/ephrin-A signaling, without assuming that this initial process instructed the map's final topology. We also derived an integro-differential equation modeling a second, dynamic phase in which activity-dependent plasticity of axonal arbors combined with their competition for collicular resources can deeply remodel the topology of immature maps. Our model hence challenges the view that retinotopic maps are instructed by matching molecular gradients and then merely refined by activity-dependent processes. We reproduce fine features of retinotopic map development in wild-type and various transgenic mice, allowing a new understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Our model predicts that competition is not based on comparisons of axonal EphA receptor levels but rather relies on the optimization of collicular resources mediated by neurotrophic receptors such as p75(NTR). Our model finally clarifies the elusive role of reverse signaling between retinal ephrin-As and collicular EphAs by reproducing for the first time the phenotypes of two mouse genotypes in which this function is altered.

  3. Genomic variation by whole-genome SNP mapping arrays predicts time-to-event outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a comparison of CLL and HapMap genotypes.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Carmen D; Coombes, Kevin R; Majewski, Tadeusz; Barron, Lynn L; Lerner, Susan; Sargent, Rachel L; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Keating, Michael J; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2013-03-01

    Genomic abnormalities, such as deletions in 11q22 or 17p13, are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that unknown regions of copy number variation (CNV) affect clinical outcome and can be detected by array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We compared SNP genotypes from 168 untreated patients with CLL with genotypes from 73 white HapMap controls. We identified 322 regions of recurrent CNV, 82 of which occurred significantly more often in CLL than in HapMap (CLL-specific CNV), including regions typically aberrant in CLL: deletions in 6q21, 11q22, 13q14, and 17p13 and trisomy 12. In univariate analyses, 35 of total and 11 of CLL-specific CNVs were associated with unfavorable time-to-event outcomes, including gains or losses in chromosomes 2p, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 7q, 11p, 11q, and 17p. In multivariate analyses, six CNVs (ie, CLL-specific variations in 11p15.1-15.4 or 6q27) predicted time-to-treatment or overall survival independently of established markers of prognosis. Moreover, genotypic complexity (ie, the number of independent CNVs per patient) significantly predicted prognosis, with a median time-to-treatment of 64 months versus 23 months in patients with zero to one versus two or more CNVs, respectively (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)). In summary, a comparison of SNP genotypes from patients with CLL with HapMap controls allowed us to identify known and unknown recurrent CNVs and to determine regions and rates of CNV that predict poorer prognosis in patients with CLL.

  4. Mapping geomorphic process domains to predict hillslope sediment size distribution using remotely-sensed data and field sampling, Inyo Creek, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclere, S.; Sklar, L. S.; Genetti, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The size distribution of sediments produced on hillslopes and supplied to channels depends on the geomorphic processes that weather, detach and transport rock fragments down slopes. Little in the way of theory or data is available to predict patterns in hillslope size distributions at the catchment scale from topographic and geologic maps. Here we use aerial imagery and a variety of remote sensing techniques to map and categorize geomorphic landscape units (GLUs) by inferred sediment production process regime, across the steep mountain catchment of Inyo Creek, eastern Sierra Nevada, California. We also use field measurements of particle size and local geomorphic attributes to test and refine GLU determinations. Across the 2 km of relief in this catchment, landcover varies from bare bedrock cliffs at higher elevations to vegetated, regolith-covered convex slopes at lower elevations. Hillslope gradient could provide a simple index of sediment production process, from rock spallation and landsliding at highest slopes, to tree-throw and other disturbance-driven soil production processes at lowest slopes. However, many other attributes are needed for a more robust predictive model, including elevation, curvature, aspect, drainage area, and color. We combine tools from ArcGIS, ERDAS Imagine and Envi with groundtruthing field work to find an optimal combination of attributes for defining sediment production GLUs. Key challenges include distinguishing: weathered from freshly eroded bedrock, boulders from intact bedrock, and landslide deposits from talus slopes. We take advantage of emerging technologies that provide new ways of conducting fieldwork and comparing field data to mapping solutions. In particular, cellphone GPS is approaching the accuracy of dedicated GPS systems and the ability to geo-reference photos simplifies field notes and increases accuracy of later map creation. However, the predictive power of the GLU mapping approach is limited by inherent uncertainty

  5. Studies on the tempo of bubble formation in recently cavitated vessels: a model to predict the pressure of air bubbles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-06-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84 K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above.

  6. The SOA formation model combined with semiempirical quantum chemistry for predicting UV-Vis absorption of secondary organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Jang, Myoseon; Oliferenko, Alexander; Pillai, Girinath G; Katritzky, Alan R

    2012-07-07

    A new model for predicting the UV-visible absorption spectra of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been developed. The model consists of two primary parts: a SOA formation model and a semiempirical quantum chemistry method. The mass of SOA is predicted using the PHRCSOA (Partitioning Heterogeneous Reaction Consortium Secondary Organic Aerosol) model developed by Cao and Jang [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44, 727]. The chemical composition is estimated using a combination of the kinetic model (MCM) and the PHRCSOA model. The absorption spectrum is obtained by taking the sum of the spectrum of each SOA product calculated using a semiempirical NDDO (Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap)-based method. SOA was generated from the photochemical reaction of toluene or α-pinene at different NO(x) levels (low NO(x): 24-26 ppm, middle NO(x): 49 ppb, high NO(x): 104-105 ppb) using a 2 m(3) indoor Teflon film chamber. The model simulation reasonably agrees with the measured absorption spectra of α-pinene SOA but underestimates toluene SOA under high and middle NO(x) conditions. The absorption spectrum of toluene SOA is moderately enhanced with increasing NO(x) concentrations, while that of α-pinene SOA is not affected. Both measured and calculated UV-visible spectra show that the light absorption of toluene SOA is much stronger than that of α-pinene SOA.

  7. Lyman-α emitters in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation: predictions for VLT/MUSE surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, T.; Guiderdoni, B.; Blaizot, J.

    2016-02-01

    The VLT/Multi Unit Spectrograph Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectrograph can detect Lyα emitters (LAE) in the redshift range 2.8 ≲ z ≲ 6.7 in a homogeneous way. Ongoing MUSE surveys will notably probe faint Lyα sources that are usually missed by current narrow-band surveys. We provide quantitative predictions for a typical wedding-cake observing strategy with MUSE based on mock catalogues generated with a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation coupled to numerical Lyα radiation transfer models in gas outflows. We expect ≈1500 bright LAEs (FLyα ≳ 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) in a typical shallow field (SF) survey carried over ≈100 arcmin2 , and ≈2000 sources as faint as 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 in a medium-deep field (MDF) survey over 10 arcmin2 . In a typical deep field (DF) survey of 1 arcmin2 , we predict that ≈500 extremely faint LAEs (FLyα ≳ 4 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2) will be found. Our results suggest that faint Lyα sources contribute significantly to the cosmic Lyα luminosity and SFR budget. While the host haloes of bright LAEs at z ≈ 3 and 6 have descendants with median masses of 2 × 1012 and 5 × 1013 M⊙, respectively, the faintest sources detectable by MUSE at these redshifts are predicted to reside in haloes which evolve into typical sub-L* and L* galaxy haloes at z = 0. We expect typical DF and MDF surveys to uncover the building blocks of Milky Way-like objects, even probing the bulk of the stellar mass content of LAEs located in their progenitor haloes at z ≈ 3.

  8. Mapping the spatial patterns of field traffic and traffic intensity to predict soil compaction risks at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duttmann, Rainer; Kuhwald, Michael; Nolde, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil compaction is one of the main threats to cropland soils in present days. In contrast to easily visible phenomena of soil degradation, soil compaction, however, is obscured by other signals such as reduced crop yield, delayed crop growth, and the ponding of water, which makes it difficult to recognize and locate areas impacted by soil compaction directly. Although it is known that trafficking intensity is a key factor for soil compaction, until today only modest work has been concerned with the mapping of the spatially distributed patterns of field traffic and with the visual representation of the loads and pressures applied by farm traffic within single fields. A promising method for for spatial detection and mapping of soil compaction risks of individual fields is to process dGPS data, collected from vehicle-mounted GPS receivers and to compare the soil stress induced by farm machinery to the load bearing capacity derived from given soil map data. The application of position-based machinery data enables the mapping of vehicle movements over time as well as the assessment of trafficking intensity. It also facilitates the calculation of the trafficked area and the modeling of the loads and pressures applied to soil by individual vehicles. This paper focuses on the modeling and mapping of the spatial patterns of traffic intensity in silage maize fields during harvest, considering the spatio-temporal changes in wheel load and ground contact pressure along the loading sections. In addition to scenarios calculated for varying mechanical soil strengths, an example for visualizing the three-dimensional stress propagation inside the soil will be given, using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to construct 2D or 3D maps supporting to decision making due to sustainable field traffic management.

  9. Predicting Formation Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali

    2014-05-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to

  10. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.

  11. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.

  12. USING LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY AND PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES PREDICTIONS TO MAP WATERSHEDS THAT ARE VULNERABLE TO NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development have mapped and interpreted landscape-scale (i.e., broad scale) ecological metrics among watersheds in the upper White River watershed, producing the first geospatial models of water quality vulnerabili...

  13. What, if anything, are topological maps for?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart P; Bednar, James A

    2015-06-01

    What, if anything, is the functional significance of spatial patterning in cortical feature maps? We ask this question of four major theories of cortical map formation: self-organizing maps, wiring optimization, place coding, and reaction-diffusion. We argue that (i) self-organizing maps yield spatial patterning only as a by-product of efficient mechanisms for developing environmentally appropriate distributions of feature preferences, (ii) wiring optimization assumes rather than explains a map-like organization, (iii) place-coding mechanisms can at best explain only a subset of maps in functional terms, and (iv) reaction-diffusion models suggest two factors in the evolution of maps, the first based on efficient development of feature distributions, and the second based on generating feature-specific long-range recurrent cortical circuitry. None of these explanations for the existence of topological maps requires spatial patterning in maps to be useful. Thus despite these useful frameworks for understanding how maps form and how they are wired, the possibility that patterns are merely epiphenomena in the evolution of mammalian neocortex cannot be rejected. The article is intended as a nontechnical introduction to the assumptions and predictions of these four important classes of models, along with other possible functional explanations for maps.

  14. Self-consistent mapping: Effect of local environment on formation of magnetic moment in α -FeSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhandun, V. S.; Zamkova, N. G.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Sandalov, I. S.

    2017-02-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem establishes a basis for mapping the exact energy functional to a model one provided that their charge densities coincide. We suggest to use a mapping in a similar spirit, but here the parameters of the formulated multiorbital model should minimize the difference between the self-consistent charge and spin densities. The analysis of the model allows for detailed understanding of the role played by different parameters of the model in the physics of interest. After finding the areas of interest in the phase diagram of the model, we return to the ab initio calculations and check if the effects discovered are confirmed or not. Because of the last controlling step, we call this approach hybrid self-consistent mapping approach (HSCMA). As an example of the approach we present a study of the effect of silicon atoms substitution by the iron atoms and vice versa on the magnetic properties in the iron silicide α -FeSi2 . We find that while the stoichiometric α -FeSi2 is nonmagnetic, the substitutions generate different magnetic structures depending on the type of local environment of the substitutional Fe atoms. Besides, contrary to the commonly accepted statement that the destruction of the magnetic moment is controlled only by the number of Fe-Si nearest neighbors, we find that actually it is controlled by the Fe-Fe next-nearest-neighbor hopping parameter. This finding led us to the counterintuitive conclusion: an increase of Si concentration in Fe1 -xSi2+x ordered alloys may lead to ferromagnetism. The calculation within GGA-to-DFT confirms this conclusion.

  15. Genomic Variation by Whole-Genome SNP Mapping Arrays Predicts Time-to-Event Outcome in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Schweighofer, Carmen D.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Majewski, Tadeusz; Barron, Lynn L.; Lerner, Susan; Sargent, Rachel L.; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G.; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Keating, Michael J.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic abnormalities, such as deletions in 11q22 or 17p13, are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that unknown regions of copy number variation (CNV) affect clinical outcome and can be detected by array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We compared SNP genotypes from 168 untreated patients with CLL with genotypes from 73 white HapMap controls. We identified 322 regions of recurrent CNV, 82 of which occurred significantly more often in CLL than in HapMap (CLL-specific CNV), including regions typically aberrant in CLL: deletions in 6q21, 11q22, 13q14, and 17p13 and trisomy 12. In univariate analyses, 35 of total and 11 of CLL-specific CNVs were associated with unfavorable time-to-event outcomes, including gains or losses in chromosomes 2p, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 7q, 11p, 11q, and 17p. In multivariate analyses, six CNVs (ie, CLL-specific variations in 11p15.1-15.4 or 6q27) predicted time-to-treatment or overall survival independently of established markers of prognosis. Moreover, genotypic complexity (ie, the number of independent CNVs per patient) significantly predicted prognosis, with a median time-to-treatment of 64 months versus 23 months in patients with zero to one versus two or more CNVs, respectively (P = 3.3 × 10−8). In summary, a comparison of SNP genotypes from patients with CLL with HapMap controls allowed us to identify known and unknown recurrent CNVs and to determine regions and rates of CNV that predict poorer prognosis in patients with CLL. PMID:23273604

  16. Using simulated maps to interpret the geochemistry, formation and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated maps of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The maps therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the mapped area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability maps where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers

  17. Propensity for biofilm formation by clinical isolates from urinary tract infections: developing a multifactorial predictive model to improve antibiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria José; Barreira, João C M; Carvalho, Inês; Trinta, Luis; Perreira, Liliana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Pintado, Manuela

    2014-03-01

    A group of biofilm-producing bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections was evaluated, identifying the main factors contributing to biofilm formation. Among the 156 isolates, 58 (37.2%) were biofilm producers. The bacterial species (P<0.001), together with patient's gender (P = 0.022), were the factors with the highest influence for biofilm production. There was also a strong correlation of catheterization with biofilm formation, despite being less significant (P = 0.070) than species or gender. In fact, some of the bacteria isolated were biofilm producers in all cases. With regard to resistance profile among bacterial isolates, β-lactam antibiotics presented the highest number of cases/percentages--ampicillin (32/55.2%), cephalothin (30/51.7%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (22/37.9%)--although the carbapenem group still represented a good therapeutic option (2/3.4%). Quinolones (nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors) also showed high resistance percentages. Furthermore, biofilm production clearly increases bacterial resistance. Almost half of the biofilm-producing bacteria showed resistance against at least three different groups of antibiotics. Bacterial resistance is often associated with catheterization. Accordingly, intrinsic (age and gender) and extrinsic (hospital unit, bacterial isolate and catheterization) factors were used to build a predictive model, by evaluating the contribution of each factor to biofilm production. In this way, it is possible to anticipate biofilm occurrence immediately after bacterial identification, allowing selection of a more effective antibiotic (among the susceptibility options suggested by the antibiogram) against biofilm-producing bacteria. This approach reduces the putative bacterial resistance during treatment, and the consequent need to adjust antibiotherapy.

  18. A predictive penetrative fracture mapping method from regional potential field and geologic datasets, southwest Colorado Plateau, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Some aquifers of the southwest Colorado Plateau, U.S.A., are deeply buried and overlain by several impermeable units, and thus recharge to the aquifer is probably mainly by seepage down penetrative fracture systems. This purpose of this study was to develop a method to map the location of candidate deep penetrative fractures over a 120,000 km2 area using gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data together with surficial fracture data. The resulting database constitutes a spatially registered estimate of recharge location. Candidate deep fractures were obtained by spatial correlation of horizontal gradient and analytic signal maxima of gravity and magnetic anomalies vertically with major surficial lineaments obtained from geologic, topographic, side-looking airborne radar, and satellite imagery. The maps define a sub-set of possible penetrative fractures because of limitations of data coverage and the analysis technique. The data and techniques employed do not yield any indication as to whether fractures are open or closed. Correlations were carried out using image processing software in such a way that every pixel on the resulting grids was coded to uniquely identify which datasets correlated. The technique correctly identified known deep fracture systems and many new ones. Maps of the correlations also define in detail the tectonic fabrics of the Southwestern Colorado Plateau. Copyright ?? The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences; TERRAPUB.

  19. Mapping forest functional type in a forest-shrubland ecotone using SPOT imagery and predictive habitat distribution modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The availability of land cover data at local scales is an important component in forest management and monitoring efforts. Regional land cover data seldom provide detailed information needed to support local management needs. Here we present a transferable framework to model forest cover by major plant functional type using aerial photos, multi-date Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) imagery, and topographic variables. We developed probability of occurrence models for deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved evergreen forest using logistic regression in the southern portion of the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion. The model outputs were combined into a synthesis map depicting deciduous and coniferous forest cover type. We evaluated the models and synthesis map using a field-validated, independent data source. Results showed strong relationships between forest cover and model variables, and the synthesis map was accurate with an overall correct classification rate of 0.87 and Cohen’s kappa value of 0.81. The results suggest our method adequately captures the functional type, size, and distribution pattern of forest cover in a spatially heterogeneous landscape.

  20. Comparison of BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity mapping and DSC MR perfusion imaging for prediction of neurovascular uncoupling potential in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jay J; Zacà, Domenico

    2012-08-01

    The coupling mechanism between neuronal firing and cerebrovascular dilatation can be significantly compromised in cerebral diseases, making it difficult to identify eloquent cortical areas near or within resectable lesions by using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Several metabolic and vascular factors have been considered to account for this lesion-induced neurovascular uncoupling (NVU), but no imaging gold standard exists currently for the detection of NVU. However, it is critical in clinical fMRI studies to evaluate the risk of NVU because the presence of NVU may result in false negative activation that may result in inadvertent resection of eloquent cortex, resulting in permanent postoperative neurologic deficits. Although NVU results from a disruption of one or more components of a complex cellular and chemical neurovascular coupling cascade (NCC) MR imaging is only able to evaluate the final step in this NCC involving the ultimate cerebrovascular response. Since anything that impairs cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) will necessarily result in NVU, regardless of its effect more proximally along the NCC, we can consider mapping of CVR as a surrogate marker of NVU potential. We hypothesized that BOLD breath-hold (BH) CVR mapping can serve as a better marker of NVU potential than T2* Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast gadolinium perfusion MR imaging, because the latter is known to only reflect NVU risk associated with high grade gliomas by determining elevated relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to tumor angiogenesis. However, since low and intermediate grade gliomas are not associated with such tumoral hyperperfusion, BOLD BH CVR mapping may be able to detect such NVU potential even in lower grade gliomas without angiogenesis, which is the hallmark of glioblastomas. However, it is also known that glioblastomas are associated with variable NVU, since angiogenesis may not always result in NVU. Perfusion

  1. Developing LED UV fluorescence sensors for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Jin, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wu, Chen-Fei; Lu, Hai; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-04-15

    Online monitoring dissolved organic matter (DOM) is urgent for water treatment management. In this study, high performance size exclusion chromatography with multi-UV absorbance and multi-emission fluorescence scans were applied to spectrally characterize samples from 16 drinking water sources across Yangzi River and Huai River Watersheds. The UV absorbance indices at 254 nm and 280 nm referred to the same DOM components and concentration, and the 280 nm UV light could excite both protein-like and humic-like fluorescence. Hence a novel UV fluorescence sensor was developed out using only one UV280 light-emitting diode (LED) as light source. For all samples, enhanced coagulation was mainly effective for large molecular weight biopolymers; while anion exchange further substantially removed humic substances. During chlorination tests, UVA280 and UVA254 showed similar correlations with yields of disinfection byproducts (DBPs); the humic-like fluorescence obtained from LED sensors correlated well with both trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids yields, while the correlation between protein-like fluorescence and trihalomethanes was relatively poor. Anion exchange exhibited more reduction of DBPs yields as well as UV absorbance and fluorescence signals than enhanced coagulation. The results suggest that the LED UV fluorescence sensors are very promising for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment.

  2. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of a predicted coiled-coil proline-rich protein immunogenic in meningioma patients.

    PubMed

    Heckel, D; Brass, N; Fischer, U; Blin, N; Steudel, I; Türeci, O; Fackler, O; Zang, K D; Meese, E

    1997-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that tumor expressed genes induce immune responses in cancer patients. To identify meningioma expressed antigens, we established a meningioma expression library which was screened with autologous serum. Out of 20 positive cDNA clones eight share high sequence homologies as determined by sequence analysis. These eight clones can be grouped into three classes which differ in length and which are characterized by specific sequence variations. The longest open reading frame was found to be 2412 bp encoding an immunoreactive antigen termed meningioma expressed antigen 6 (MEA6). Using five sequence specific primer pairs, somatic hybrid panel mapping revealed locations of the three classes on several human chromosomes including chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 13 and 14. The mapping results were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. RT-PCR showed consistent expression of all classes in several meningiomas and additional tissues using the same set of primer pairs as for chromosomal mapping. The expression data were confirmed by northern blot analysis. For the predicted amino acid sequence BLASTX revealed a homology to a human C219-reactive peptide which was previously isolated by an antibody directed against p-glycoprotein. Sequence properties of the MEA protein include an acidic activation domain, a proline-rich region and two coiled-coil domains indicating protein binding and activation functions.

  3. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Marlies; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du; Singer, Oliver C.; Berkefeld, Joachim

    2013-08-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing and Hydrological Modeling for Flood Inundation Mapping in Lake Victoria Basin: Implications for Hydrologic Prediction in Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y.; Wang, J.; Yilmaz, K. K.; Gourley, J. J.; Adler, R. F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Irwin, D.

    2009-12-01

    Floods are among the most catastrophic natural disasters around the globe impacting human lives and infrastructure. Implementation of a flood prediction system can potentially reduce these losses. Typically, the set up and calibration of a hydrologic model requires in situ observations (e.g. rain gauges and stream gauges). Satellite remote sensing data have emerged as viable alternatives or supplements to in situ observations due to their coverage over ungauged regions. The focus of this study is to utilize the best available satellite products and integrate them in a state-of-the-art hydrologic model to characterize the spatial extent of flooding and associated hazards over sparsely-gauged or ungauged basins. This study presents a methodology based entirely on satellite remote sensing data to calibrate a hydrologic model, simulate the spatial extent of flooding, and evaluate the probability of detecting inundated areas. A raster-based distributed hydrologic model, CREST, was implemented for the Nzoia basin, a sub-basin of Lake Victoria (Africa). MODIS- and ASTER-based flood inundation maps were retrieved over the region and used to benchmark the distributed hydrologic model simulations of streamflow and inundation areas. The analysis showed the applicability of integrating satellite data products as input for a distributed hydrological model as well as direct estimation of flood extent maps. The quantification of flooding spatial extent through orbital sensors can help to evaluate hydrologic models and hence potentially improve hydrologic prediction and flood management strategies in ungauged catchments.

  5. Mapping and predicting malaria transmission in the People's Republic of China, using integrated biology-driven and statistical models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Qi; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Malone, John B; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Tanner, Marcel; Vounatsou, Penelope; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission patterns in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). An integrated modeling approach was employed, combining biological and statistical models. A Delphi approach was used to determine environmental factors that govern malaria transmission. Key factors identified (i.e. temperature, rainfall and relative humidity) were utilized for subsequent mapping and modeling purposes. Yearly growing degree days, annual rainfall and effective yearly relative humidity were extracted from a 15-year time series (1981-1995) of daily environmental data readily available for 676 locations in P.R. China. A suite of eight multinomial regression models, ranging from the null model to a fully saturated one were constructed. Two different information criteria were used for model ranking, namely the corrected Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. Mapping was based on model output data, facilitated by using ArcGIS software. Temperature was found to be the most important environmental factor, followed by rainfall and relative humidity in the Delphi evaluation. However, relative humidity was found to be more important than rainfall and temperature in the ranking list according to the three single environmental factor regression models. We conclude that the distribution of the mosquito vector is mainly related to relative humidity, which thus determines the extent of malaria transmission. However, in regions with relative humidity >60%, temperature is the major driver of malaria transmission intensity. By integrating biology-driven models with statistical regression models, reliable risk maps indicating the distribution of transmission and the intensity can be produced. In a next step, we propose to integrate social and health systems factors into our modeling approach, which should provide a platform for rigorous surveillance and monitoring progress towards P

  6. Probabilistic Prediction Of Intraseasonal Oscillations Of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall In Extended-range Scale Using A Self-organizing Map Based Ensemble Forecasting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, N.; Sahai, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Joseph, S.; Goswami, B.

    2012-12-01

    Organizing Map, which can effectively extract various shades of the convectively coupled intraseasonal oscillation of rainfall (e.g. active, break, normal conditions and their transitions) in a better way without directly involving rainfall. This technique incorporates the uncertainties in the prediction scheme arises due to the selection of- lead/lag pentads, lattice dimension, parameters and years in the training period. The forecast is being developed for the monsoon core zone of India.

  7. Multinomial Logistic Regression Predicted Probability Map To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2014-11-01

    Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.

  8. Testing the potential for predictive modeling and mapping and extending its use as a tool for evaluating management scenarios and economic valuation in the Baltic Sea (PREHAB).

    PubMed

    Lindegarth, Mats; Bergström, Ulf; Mattila, Johanna; Olenin, Sergej; Ollikainen, Markku; Downie, Anna-Leena; Sundblad, Göran; Bučas, Martynas; Gullström, Martin; Snickars, Martin; von Numers, Mikael; Svensson, J Robin; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated performance of species distribution models for predictive mapping, and how models can be used to integrate human pressures into ecological and economic assessments. A selection of 77 biological variables (species, groups of species, and measures of biodiversity) across the Baltic Sea were modeled. Differences among methods, areas, predictor, and response variables were evaluated. Several methods successfully predicted abundance and occurrence of vegetation, invertebrates, fish, and functional aspects of biodiversity. Depth and substrate were among the most important predictors. Models incorporating water clarity were used to predict increasing cover of the brown alga bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus and increasing reproduction area of perch Perca fluviatilis, but decreasing reproduction areas for pikeperch Sander lucioperca following successful implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Despite variability in estimated non-market benefits among countries, such changes were highly valued by citizens in the three Baltic countries investigated. We conclude that predictive models are powerful and useful tools for science-based management of the Baltic Sea.

  9. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  10. Ion-pair formation dynamics of F(2) at 18.385 eV studied by velocity map imaging method.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yusong; Zhou, Chang; Mo, Yuxiang

    2007-11-01

    We studied the ion-pair formation dynamics of F2 at 18.385 eV (67.439 nm) using the velocity map imaging method. It was found that there are two dissociation channels corresponding to production of F(+)((1)D(2)) + F(-)((1)S(0)) and F(+)((3)P(j)) + F(-)((1)S(0)). The measured center-of-mass translational energy distribution shows that about 98% of the dissociation occurs via the F(+)((1)D(2)) channel. The measured angular distributions of the photofragments indicate that dissociation for the F(+)((3)P(j)) channel occurs via predissociation of Rydberg states converging to F(2)(+)(A(2)Pi(u)) and dissociation for the F(+)((1)D(2)) channel involves mainly a direct perpendicular transition into the ion-pair state, or X(1)Sigma(g)(+) --> 2(1)Pi(u), which is also supported by the transition dipole moment calculations .

  11. Evaluation of Ground-Motion Modeling Techniques for Use in Global ShakeMap - A Critique of Instrumental Ground-Motion Prediction Equations, Peak Ground Motion to Macroseismic Intensity Conversions, and Macroseismic Intensity Predictions in Different Tectonic Settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Regional differences in ground-motion attenuation have long been thought to add uncertainty in the prediction of ground motion. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that regional differences in ground-motion attenuation may not be as significant as previously thought and that the key differences between regions may be a consequence of limitations in ground-motion datasets over incomplete magnitude and distance ranges. Undoubtedly, regional differences in attenuation can exist owing to differences in crustal structure and tectonic setting, and these can contribute to differences in ground-motion attenuation at larger source-receiver distances. Herein, we examine the use of a variety of techniques for the prediction of several ground-motion metrics (peak ground acceleration and velocity, response spectral ordinates, and macroseismic intensity) and compare them against a global dataset of instrumental ground-motion recordings and intensity assignments. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether existing ground-motion prediction techniques are applicable for use in the U.S. Geological Survey's Global ShakeMap and Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER). We seek the most appropriate ground-motion predictive technique, or techniques, for each of the tectonic regimes considered: shallow active crust, subduction zone, and stable continental region.

  12. DAM - detection and mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Integrated set of manual procedures, computer programs, and graphic devices processes multispectral scanner data from orbiting Landsat into precisely registered and formatted maps of surface water and other resources at variety of scales, sheet formats, and tick intervals.

  13. Evaluating drug delivery with salt formation: Drug disproportionation studied in situ by ATR-FTIR imaging and Raman mapping.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-01-01

    Two different vibrational spectroscopic approaches, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging and Raman mapping, were used to investigate the components within a tablet containing an ionised drug during dissolution experiments. Delivering certain drugs in their salt form is a method that can be used to improve the bioavailability and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble materials. However, these ionised species have a propensity to covert back to their thermodynamically favourable free acid or base forms. Dissolution experiments of the ionised drug in different aqueous media resulted in conversion to the more poorly soluble free acid form, which is detrimental for controlled drug release. This study investigates the chemical changes occurring to formulations containing a development ionised drug (37% by weight), in different aqueous pH environments. Firstly, dissolution in a neutral medium was studied, showing that there was clear release of ionised monosodium form of the drug from the tablet as it swelled in the aqueous medium. There was no presence of any drug in the monohydrate free acid form detected in these experiments. Dissolution in an acidic (0.1M HCl) solution showed disproportionation forming the free acid form. Disproportionation occurred rapidly upon contact with the acidic solution, initially resulting in a shell of the monohydrate free acid form around the tablet edges. This slowed ingress of the solution into the tablet before full conversion of the ionised form to the free acid form was characterised in the spectroscopic data.

  14. Non-twist map bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island formation in saturated 3D MHD equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.

    2015-11-01

    Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist maps. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.

  15. Isopach and isoresource maps for oil shale deposits in the Eocene Green River Formation for the combined Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The in-place oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and the Uinta Basin of western Colorado and eastern Utah are estimated at 1.53 trillion barrels and 1.32 trillion barrels, respectively. The oil shale strata were deposited in a single large saline lake, Lake Uinta, that covered both basins and the intervening Douglas Creek arch, an area of comparatively low rates of subsidence throughout the history of Lake Uinta. Although the Green River Formation is largely eroded for about a 20-mile area along the crest of the arch, the oil shale interval is similar in both basins, and 17 out of 18 of the assessed oil shale zones are common to both basins. Assessment maps for these 17 zones are combined so that the overall distribution of oil shale over the entire extent of Lake Uinta can be studied. The combined maps show that throughout most of the history of Lake Uinta, the richest oil shale was deposited in the depocenter in the north-central part of the Piceance Basin and in the northeast corner of the Uinta Basin where it is closest to the Piceance Basin, which is the only area of the Uinta Basin where all of the rich and lean oil shale zones, originally defined in the Piceance Basin, can be identified. Both the oil shale and saline mineral depocenter in the Piceance Basin and the richest oil shale area in the Uinta Basin were in areas with comparatively low rates of subsidence during Lake Uinta time, but both areas had low rates of clastic influx. Limiting clastic influx rather than maximizing subsidence appears to have been the most important factor in producing rich oil shale.

  16. Flow network QSAR for the prediction of physicochemical properties by mapping an electrical resistance network onto a chemical reaction poset.

    PubMed

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Klein, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    Usual quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are computed from unstructured input data, by using a vector of molecular descriptors for each chemical in the dataset. Another alternative is to consider the structural relationships between the chemical structures, such as molecular similarity, presence of certain substructures, or chemical transformations between compounds. We defined a class of network-QSAR models based on molecular networks induced by a sequence of substitution reactions on a chemical structure that generates a partially ordered set (or poset) oriented graph that may be used to predict various molecular properties with quantitative superstructure-activity relationships (QSSAR). The network-QSAR interpolation models defined on poset graphs, namely average poset, cluster expansion, and spline poset, were tested with success for the prediction of several physicochemical properties for diverse chemicals. We introduce the flow network QSAR, a new poset regression model in which the dataset of chemicals, represented as a reaction poset, is transformed into an oriented network of electrical resistances in which the current flow results in a potential at each node. The molecular property considered in the QSSAR model is represented as the electrical potential, and the value of this potential at a particular node is determined by the electrical resistances assigned to each edge and by a system of batteries. Each node with a known value for the molecular property is attached to a battery that sets the potential on that node to the value of the respective molecular property, and no external battery is attached to nodes from the prediction set, representing chemicals for which the values of the molecular property are not known or are intended to be predicted. The flow network QSAR algorithm determines the values of the molecular property for the prediction set of molecules by applying Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's current law to the poset

  17. From litter decomposition to soil organic matter formation: using leaf traits to predict dissolved organic carbon leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Jennifer; Parton, William; Calderon, Francisco; Guilbert, Kathleen; Campbell, Nell; Cotrufo, M. Francesca

    2014-05-01

    New evidence suggests that leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during litter decomposition is a major process by which decomposing litter forms stabilized soil organic matter (Cotrufo et al. 2013). Understanding this DOC flux based on plant leaf litter traits would strengthen our ability to predict ecosystem carbon (C) cycling across different vegetation types. In this study we aim to quantify the proportional relationship between CO2 and DOC partitioning during decomposition of fresh leaf litter from five different plant species, alfalfa, ash, bluestem grass, oak and pine, ranging in structural and chemical composition. The results from this laboratory incubation show a clear relationship between the lignin to cellulose ratios of litter and DOC to CO2 partitioning during four distinct phases of litter decomposition. For example, bluestem grass litter with a low lignin to cellulose ratio loses almost 50% of its C as DOC whereas pine needles with a high lignin to cellulose ratio loses much less C as DOC, indicating a potential ligno-cellulose complexation effect on carbon use efficiency and CO2 vs. DOC fluxes during litter decomposition. DOC production also decreases with time during decomposition, correlating with increasing lignin to cellulose ratios and decreasing availability of soluble, non-structural, leaf compounds (based on FTIR analysis). Initial DOC leaching can be predicted based on the amount of labile fraction in each litter type. Field data using stable isotope labeled bluestem grass show that while 18% of the surface litter C lost in 18 months of decomposition enters the soil, over 50% of litter derived C in the soil is recovered in mineral associated heavy SOM fractions, not as litter fragments in the light fraction, confirming the relative importance of the DOC flux of C from the litter layer to the soil for soil organic matter formation. These results are being used to parameterize a new litter decomposition sub-model to more accurately

  18. Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The area of the Meskhent Tessera quadrangle (V-3, 50-75degN, 60-120degE, Fig. 1) corresponds to a transition zone from the uplands of Ishtar Terra to the west to the lowlands of Atalanta Planitia to the east. The topographic configuration, gravity signature, and presence of large tesserae in Ishtar Terra are consistent with extensive areas of thickened crust and tectonically stabilized lithosphere representing ancient and now extinct regimes of mantle convection. The gravity and topographic characteristics of Atalanta Planitia have been cited as evidence for large-scale mantle downwelling. Thus, the region of Meskhent Tessera quadrangle represents an important sample for the study of the regional history of long-wavelength topography (highlands, midlands, and lowlands), interaction between the downwelling and areas of thickened crust/lithosphere, formation of associated tectonic features, and emplacement of volcanic plains.

  19. Comprehensive mapping and characteristic regimes of aerosol effects on the formation and evolution of pyro-convective clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, D.; Cheng, Y.; Reutter, P.; ...

    2015-09-21

    Here, a recent parcel model study (Reutter et al., 2009) showed three deterministic regimes of initial cloud droplet formation, characterized by different ratios of aerosol concentrations (NCN) to updraft velocities. This analysis, however, did not reveal how these regimes evolve during the subsequent cloud development. To address this issue, we employed the Active Tracer High Resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM) with full microphysics and extended the model simulation from the cloud base to the entire column of a single pyro-convective mixed-phase cloud. A series of 2-D simulations (over 1000) were performed over a wide range of NCN and dynamic conditions. Themore » integrated concentration of hydrometeors over the full spatial and temporal scales was used to evaluate the aerosol and dynamic effects. The results show the following. (1) The three regimes for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation in the parcel model (namely aerosol-limited, updraft-limited, and transitional regimes) still exist within our simulations, but net production of raindrops and frozen particles occurs mostly within the updraft-limited regime. (2) Generally, elevated aerosols enhance the formation of cloud droplets and frozen particles. The response of raindrops and precipitation to aerosols is more complex and can be either positive or negative as a function of aerosol concentrations. The most negative effect was found for values of NCN of ~ 1000 to 3000 cm–3. (3) The nonlinear properties of aerosol–cloud interactions challenge the conclusions drawn from limited case studies in terms of their representativeness, and ensemble studies over a wide range of aerosol concentrations and other influencing factors are strongly recommended for a more robust assessment of the aerosol effects.« less

  20. Comprehensive mapping and characteristic regimes of aerosol effects on the formation and evolution of pyro-convective clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D.; Cheng, Y.; Reutter, P.; Trentmann, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Spichtinger, P.; Nordmann, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Poschl, U.; Su, H.

    2015-09-21

    Here, a recent parcel model study (Reutter et al., 2009) showed three deterministic regimes of initial cloud droplet formation, characterized by different ratios of aerosol concentrations (NCN) to updraft velocities. This analysis, however, did not reveal how these regimes evolve during the subsequent cloud development. To address this issue, we employed the Active Tracer High Resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM) with full microphysics and extended the model simulation from the cloud base to the entire column of a single pyro-convective mixed-phase cloud. A series of 2-D simulations (over 1000) were performed over a wide range of NCN and dynamic conditions. The integrated concentration of hydrometeors over the full spatial and temporal scales was used to evaluate the aerosol and dynamic effects. The results show the following. (1) The three regimes for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation in the parcel model (namely aerosol-limited, updraft-limited, and transitional regimes) still exist within our simulations, but net production of raindrops and frozen particles occurs mostly within the updraft-limited regime. (2) Generally, elevated aerosols enhance the formation of cloud droplets and frozen particles. The response of raindrops and precipitation to aerosols is more complex and can be either positive or negative as a function of aerosol concentrations. The most negative effect was found for values of NCN of ~ 1000 to 3000 cm–3. (3) The nonlinear properties of aerosol–cloud interactions challenge the conclusions drawn from limited case studies in terms of their representativeness, and ensemble studies over a wide range of aerosol concentrations and other influencing factors are strongly recommended for a more robust assessment of the aerosol effects.

  1. Predicting density functional theory total energies and enthalpies of formation of metal-nonmetal compounds by linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deml, Ann M.; O'Hayre, Ryan; Wolverton, Chris; Stevanović, Vladan

    2016-02-01

    The availability of quantitatively accurate total energies (Etot) of atoms, molecules, and solids, enabled by the development of density functional theory (DFT), has transformed solid state physics, quantum chemistry, and materials science by allowing direct calculations of measureable quantities, such as enthalpies of formation (Δ Hf ). Still, the ability to compute Etot and Δ Hf values does not, necessarily, provide insights into the physical mechanisms behind their magnitudes or chemical trends. Here, we examine a large set of calculated Etot and Δ Hf values obtained from the DFT+U -based fitted elemental-phase reference energies (FERE) approach [V. Stevanović, S. Lany, X. Zhang, and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B 85, 115104 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.115104] to probe relationships between the Etot/Δ Hf of metal-nonmetal compounds in their ground-state crystal structures and properties describing the compound compositions and their elemental constituents. From a stepwise linear regression, we develop a linear model for Etot, and consequently Δ Hf , that reproduces calculated FERE values with a mean absolute error of ˜80 meV/atom. The most significant contributions to the model include calculated total energies of the constituent elements in their reference phases (e.g., metallic iron or gas phase O2), atomic ionization energies and electron affinities, Pauling electronegativity differences, and atomic electric polarizabilities. These contributions are discussed in the context of their connection to the underlying physics. We also demonstrate that our Etot/Δ Hf model can be directly extended to predict the Etot and Δ Hf of compounds outside the set used to develop the model.

  2. Hidden sector hydrogen as dark matter: Small-scale structure formation predictions and the importance of hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Kwa, Anna; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2016-12-01

    We study the atomic physics and the astrophysical implications of a model in which the dark matter is the analog of hydrogen in a secluded sector. The self-interactions between dark matter particles include both elastic scatterings as well as inelastic processes due to a hyperfine transition. The self-interaction cross sections are computed by numerically solving the coupled Schrödinger equations for this system. We show that these self-interactions exhibit the right velocity dependence to explain the low dark matter density cores seen in small galaxies while being consistent with all constraints from observations of clusters of galaxies. For a viable solution, the dark hydrogen mass has to be in the 10-100 GeV range and the dark fine-structure constant has to be larger than 0.01. This range of model parameters requires the existence of a dark matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early universe to set the relic abundance of dark matter. For this range of parameters, we show that significant cooling losses may occur due to inelastic excitations to the hyperfine state and subsequent decays, with implications for the evolution of low-mass halos and the early growth of supermassive black holes. Cooling from excitations to higher n levels of dark hydrogen and subsequent decays is possible at the cluster scale, with a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we show that the minimum halo mass is in the range of 1 03.5 to 1 07M⊙ for the viable regions of parameter space, significantly larger than the typical predictions for weakly interacting dark matter models. This pattern of observables in cosmological structure formation is unique to this model, making it possible to rule in or rule out hidden sector hydrogen as a viable dark matter model.

  3. An Integrated Modeling Approach for Predicting Process Maps of Residual Stress and Distortion in a Laser Weld: A Combined CFD-FE Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Richard P.; Panwisawas, Chinnapat; Sovani, Yogesh; Perumal, Bama; Ward, R. Mark; Brooks, Jeffery W.; Basoalto, Hector C.

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding has become an important joining methodology within a number of industries for the structural joining of metallic parts. It offers a high power density welding capability which is desirable for deep weld sections, but is equally suited to performing thinner welded joints with sensible amendments to key process variables. However, as with any welding process, the introduction of severe thermal gradients at the weld line will inevitably lead to process-induced residual stress formation and distortions. Finite element (FE) predictions for weld simulation have been made within academia and industrial research for a number of years, although given the fluid nature of the molten weld pool, FE methodologies have limited capabilities. An improvement upon this established method would be to incorporate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model formulation prior to the FE model, to predict the weld pool shape and fluid flow, such that details can be fed into FE from CFD as a starting condition. The key outputs of residual stress and distortions predicted by the FE model can then be monitored against the process variables input to the model. Further, a link between the thermal results and the microstructural properties is of interest. Therefore, an empirical relationship between lamellar spacing and the cooling rate was developed and used to make predictions about the lamellar spacing for welds of different process parameters. Processing parameter combinations that lead to regions of high residual stress formation and high distortion have been determined, and the impact of processing parameters upon the predicted lamellar spacing has been presented.

  4. Making exchange entitlements operational: the food economy approach to famine prediction and the RiskMap computer program.

    PubMed

    Seaman, J

    2000-06-01

    The effect of production failure or some other shock on household income and food supply depends upon: (a) the pattern of household income, and (b) its ability to compensate for any deficit which may have occurred, for example, by the sale of assets or finding additional paid employment. The corollary is that the prediction of the likely effect of some event on the future state of the economy or food supply of a population of households requires an understanding of the economy of the households concerned and the economic context to which these relate. This paper describes an attempt to develop an approach to prediction using a dynamic model of economy based on quantitative descriptions of household economy obtained by systematic rapid field-work and summarises the experience of the use of this approach to date.

  5. Connecting gene expression data from connectivity map and in silico target predictions for small molecule mechanism-of-action analysis.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Aakash Chavan; Perualila-Tan, Nolen; Kasim, Adetayo; Drakakis, Georgios; Liggi, Sonia; Brewerton, Suzanne C; Mason, Daniel; Bodkin, Michael J; Evans, David A; Bhagwat, Aditya; Talloen, Willem; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Shkedy, Ziv; Bender, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Integrating gene expression profiles with certain proteins can improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms in protein-ligand binding. This paper spotlights the integration of gene expression data and target prediction scores, providing insight into mechanism of action (MoA). Compounds are clustered based upon the similarity of their predicted protein targets and each cluster is linked to gene sets using Linear Models for Microarray Data. MLP analysis is used to generate gene sets based upon their biological processes and a qualitative search is performed on the homogeneous target-based compound clusters to identify pathways. Genes and proteins were linked through pathways for 6 of the 8 MCF7 and 6 of the 11 PC3 clusters. Three compound clusters are studied; (i) the target-driven cluster involving HSP90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and tanespimycin induces differential expression for HSP90-related genes and overlap with pathway response to unfolded protein. Gene expression results are in agreement with target prediction and pathway annotations add information to enable understanding of MoA. (ii) The antipsychotic cluster shows differential expression for genes LDLR and INSIG-1 and is predicted to target CYP2D6. Pathway steroid metabolic process links the protein and respective genes, hypothesizing the MoA for antipsychotics. A sub-cluster (verepamil and dexverepamil), although sharing similar protein targets with the antipsychotic drug cluster, has a lower intensity of expression profile on related genes, indicating that this method distinguishes close sub-clusters and suggests differences in their MoA. Lastly, (iii) the thiazolidinediones drug cluster predicted peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, acyl CoA desaturase and significant differential expression of genes ANGPTL4, FABP4 and PRKCD. The targets and genes are linked via PPAR signalling pathway and induction of apoptosis, generating a hypothesis for the MoA of

  6. Predicting Novel Antitumor Agents: 3D-Pharmacophore Mapping of β-N-biaryl Ether Sulfonamide-Based Hydroxamates as Potentially MMP-2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Turra, Kely; Pineda Rivelli, Diogo; Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Silvia; Fernanda Mesquita Pasqualoto, Kerly

    2014-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a group of enzymes related to extracelular matrix remodeling. Some types of MMP are overexpressed by malignant tumors, mainly the MMP-2 subtype, and have been associated to cancer invasiveness and metastasis. A receptor-independent (RI) 4D-QSAR formalism was applied, herein, to a set of forty β-N-biaryl ether sulfonamide hydroxamates, previously reported as potent MMP-2 inhibitors, in order to map 3D-pharmacophore models and predict novel antitumor agents. The best RI 4D-QSAR model was statistically significant (N=30, r(2) =0.93, q(2) =0.88, five occupancy descriptors (GCOD), LSE=0.04, LOF=0.11, outliers=0), robust and not obtained by chance. The external predictability was 75 % (test set; N=8). A different orientation (binding mode) in the MMP-2 catalytic site was suggested regarding the most hydrophobic portion (R1 ) of the compounds' structure. Compounds were predicted and their inhibitory activity against MMP-2 was calculated by using the optimum RI 4D-QSAR model. The findings have provided interesting information to drive the designing and synthesis of novel potentially MMP-2 inhibitors against melanoma invasion.

  7. Herschel/HIFI Spectral Mapping of C+, CH+, and CH in Orion BN/KL: The Prevailing Role of Ultraviolet Irradiation in CH+ Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Patrick W.; Gupta, Harshal; Nagy, Zsofia; Pearson, John C.; Ossenkopf-Okada, Volker; Falgarone, Edith; Lis, Dariusz C.; Gerin, Maryvonne; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David A.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2016-09-01

    The CH+ ion is a key species in the initial steps of interstellar carbon chemistry. Its formation in diverse environments where it is observed is not well understood, however, because the main production pathway is so endothermic (4280 K) that it is unlikely to proceed at the typical temperatures of molecular clouds. We investigate the formation of this highly reactive molecule with the first velocity-resolved spectral mapping of the CH+ J = 1-0, 2-1 rotational transitions, three sets of CH Λ-doubled triplet lines, 12C+ and 13C+ {}2{P}3/2{{--}}2{P}1/2, and CH3OH 835 GHz E-symmetry Q-branch transitions, obtained with Herschel/HIFI over a region of ≈12 arcmin2 centered on the Orion BN/KL source. We present the spatial morphologies and kinematics, cloud boundary conditions, excitation temperatures, column densities, and 12C+ optical depths. Emission from all of C+, CH+, and CH is indicated to arise in the diluted gas, outside the explosive, dense BN/KL outflow. Our models show that UV irradiation provides favorable conditions for steady-state production of CH+ in this environment. Surprisingly, no spatial or kinematic correspondences of the observed species are found with H2 S(1) emission tracing shocked gas in the outflow. We propose that C+ is being consumed by rapid production of CO to explain the lack of both C+ and CH+ in the outflow. Hence, in star-forming environments containing sources of shocks and strong UV radiation, a description of the conditions leading to CH+ formation and excitation is incomplete without including the important—possibly dominant—role of UV irradiation.

  8. Mapping the targeted membrane pore formation mechanism by solution NMR: the nisin Z and lipid II interaction in SDS micelles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te; Breukink, Eefjan; de Kruijff, Ben; Kaptein, Robert; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; van Nuland, Nico A J

    2002-06-18

    Nisin is an example of type-A lantibiotics that contain cyclic lanthionine rings and unusual dehydrated amino acids. Among the numerous pore-forming antimicrobial peptides, type-A lantibiotics form an unique family of post-translationally modified peptides. Via the recognition of cell wall precursor lipid II, nisin has the capacity to form pores against Gram-positive bacteria with an extremely high activity in the nanomolar (nM) range. Here we report a high-resolution NMR spectroscopy study of nisin/lipid II interactions in SDS micelles as a model membrane system in order to elucidate the mechanism of molecular recognition at residue level. The binding to lipid II was studied through (15)N-(1)H HSQC titration, backbone amide proton temperature coefficient analysis, and heteronuclear (15)N[(1)H]-NOE relaxation dynamics experiments. Upon the addition of lipid II, significant changes were monitored in the N-terminal part of nisin. An extremely low amide proton temperature coefficient (Delta delta/Delta T) was found for the amide proton of Ala3 (> -0.1 ppb/K) in the complex form. This suggests tight hydrogen bonding and/or isolation from the bulk solvent for this residue. Large chemical shift perturbations were also observed in the first two rings. In contrast, the C-terminal part of nisin was almost unaffected. This part of the molecule remains flexible and solvent-exposed. On the basis of our results, a multistep pore-forming mechanism is proposed. The N-terminal part of nisin first binds to lipid II, and a subsequent structural rearrangement takes place. The C-terminal part of nisin is possibly responsible for the activation of the pore formation. In light of the emerging antibiotic resistance problems, an understanding of the specific recognition mechanism of nisin with lipid II at the residue specific level may therefore aid in the development of novel antibiotics.

  9. Predictive models for water sources with high susceptibility for bromine-containing disinfection by-product formation: implications for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Birt, James; McGree, James; Knight, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    This study examines a matrix of synthetic water samples designed to include conditions that favour brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) formation, in order to provide predictive models suitable for high Br-DBP forming waters such as salinity-impacted waters. Br-DBPs are known to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, in general, and their formation may be favoured by routine water treatment practices such as coagulation/flocculation under specific conditions; therefore, circumstances surrounding their formation must be understood. The chosen factors were bromide concentration, mineral alkalinity, bromide to dissolved organic carbon (Br/DOC) ratio and Suwannee River natural organic matter concentration. The relationships between these parameters and DBP formation were evaluated by response surface modelling of data generated using a face-centred central composite experimental design. Predictive models for ten brominated and/or chlorinated DBPs are presented, as well as models for total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total dihaloacetonitriles (tDHANs), and bromide substitution factors for the THMs and DHANs classes. The relationships described revealed that increasing alkalinity and increasing Br/DOC ratio were associated with increasing bromination of THMs and DHANs, suggesting that DOC lowering treatment methods that do not also remove bromide such as enhanced coagulation may create optimal conditions for Br-DBP formation in waters in which bromide is present.

  10. An assessment of the impact of the 2003 EPRI ground-motion prediction models on the USGS national seismic-hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-motion attenuation relations have an important impact on seismic hazard analyses. Ground-motion modeling is particularly sensitive to assumptions about wave-propagation attenuation (crustal Q and geometrical spreading), as well as source and site conditions. Studies of path attenuation from earthquakes in eastern North America (ENA) provide insights into the appropriateness of specific attenuation relations. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (2003, 2004) study combines published ENA ground-motion attenuation relations into four model forms: single-corner, double-corner, hybrid-empirical, and finite-fault. When substituted in the U.S. Geological Survey 2002 national seismic hazard maps for the five ENA relations originally used in those hazard calculations, the EPRI (2003) relations predict similar ground motions and hazard at short periods (0.5 sec), relative to the 2002 national maps. A major reason for this difference is due to the crustal seismic-wave attenuation model assumed in a few of the ENA relations combined into the EPRI (2003, 2004) models. Although appropriate differences in geometrical spreading models among ENA relations can also be significant, a few ENA relations have 1-Hz Q-values (Q0) that are below the EPRI (1993) consensus range for Q0 when coupled with a geometrical spreading of R-0.5. The EPRI (2003, 2004) single-corner relation is strongly influenced by the inclusion of ENA relations with assumed Q0 below the EPRI (1993) range, which explains much of the discrepancy in predictions at longer periods.

  11. Challenges of predicting the potential distribution of a slow-spreading invader: a habitat suitability map for an invasive riparian tree

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential spread of invasive species is essential for land managers to prevent their establishment and restore impacted habitat. Habitat suitability modeling provides a tool for researchers and managers to understand the potential extent of invasive species spread. Our goal was to use habitat suitability modeling to map potential habitat of the riparian plant invader, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). Russian olive has invaded riparian habitat across North America and is continuing to expand its range. We compiled 11 disparate datasets for Russian olive presence locations (n = 1,051 points and 139 polygons) in the western US and used Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to develop two habitat suitability maps for Russian olive in the western United States: one with coarse-scale water data and one with fine-scale water data. Our models were able to accurately predict current suitable Russian olive habitat (Coarse model: training AUC = 0.938, test AUC = 0.907; Fine model: training AUC = 0.923, test AUC = 0.885). Distance to water was the most important predictor for Russian olive presence in our coarse-scale water model, but it was only the fifth most important variable in the fine-scale model, suggesting that when water bodies are considered on a fine scale, Russian olive does not necessarily rely on water. Our model predicted that Russian olive has suitable habitat further west from its current distribution, expanding into the west coast and central North America. Our methodology proves useful for identifying potential future areas of invasion. Model results may be influenced by locations of cultivated individuals and sampling bias. Further study is needed to examine the potential for Russian olive to invade beyond its current range. Habitat suitability modeling provides an essential tool for enhancing our understanding of invasive species spread.

  12. Real Time Monitoring of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Disinfection By-Product Formation Potential in a Surface Water Treatment Plant with Simulaneous UV-VIS Absorbance and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes a method based on simultaneous absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping for rapidly and accurately monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration and disinfection by-product formation potential for surface water sourced drinking water treatment. The method enables real-time monitoring of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), absorbance at 254 nm (UVA), the Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) as well as the Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethane (THM) Formation Potential (SDS-THMFP) for the source and treated water among other component parameters. The method primarily involves Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) decomposition of the high and lower molecular weight humic and fulvic organic component concentrations. The DOC calibration method involves calculating a single slope factor (with the intercept fixed at 0 mg/l) by linear regression for the UVA divided by the ratio of the high and low molecular weight component concentrations. This method thus corrects for the changes in the molecular weight component composition as a function of the source water composition and coagulation treatment effects. The SDS-THMFP calibration involves a multiple linear regression of the DOC, organic component ratio, chlorine residual, pH and alkalinity. Both the DOC and SDS-THMFP correlations over a period of 18 months exhibited adjusted correlation coefficients with r2 > 0.969. The parameters can be reported as a function of compliance rules associated with required % removals of DOC (as a function of alkalinity) and predicted maximum contaminant levels (MCL) of THMs. The single instrument method, which is compatible with continuous flow monitoring or grab sampling, provides a rapid (2-3 minute) and precise indicator of drinking water disinfectant treatability without the need for separate UV photometric and DOC meter measurements or independent THM determinations.

  13. Geographic information systems (GIS) for geologic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.C. . Center for Environmental Research Information)

    1993-03-01

    The computer-based Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful and versatile tool for preparation of geologic maps. Using GIS different types of geographically oriented information can be displayed on a common base in a flexible format that facilitates examination of relationships between the types of information. In addition, text-based and graphic information (attributes) from separate databases can be attached to points, lines or areas within the different map layers. Although GIS has enormous potential for geologic mapping, it must be used with care. Key considerations when using GIS include realistic representation of the geology, choice of an appropriate scale for the maps, and comparison of the computer-generated maps with field observations to maintain quality control. In building multilayer GIS maps, the data sources must be at a scale appropriate to the intended use. Information derived from diverse sources must be examined carefully to assure that it is valid at the scale of representation required. Examples of GIS products created for one purpose, but potentially misused for a different purpose, include formation contacts (lines) on a regional geologic map scaled up for a facility siting study or well locations on a small-scale location map subsequently contoured for contaminant plume prediction at a very large scale. In using GIS to prepare geologic maps, it is essential to have a clear rationale for the map and use an appropriate scale to depict the various layers of information. The authors of GIS-based geologic maps must be aware that the attractive, polished appearance of their products may tempt some end users to stretch and misinterpret the information displayed.

  14. National Atlas maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1991-01-01

    The National Atlas of the United States of America was published by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1970. Its 765 maps and charts are on 335 14- by 19-inch pages. Many of the maps span facing pages. It's worth a quick trip to the library just to leaf through all 335 pages of this book. Rapid scanning of its thematic maps yields rich insights to the geography of issues of continuing national interest. On most maps, the geographic patterns are still valid, though the data are not current. The atlas is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. The maps dated after 1970 are either revisions of original atlas maps, or new maps published in atlas format. The titles of the separate maps are listed here.

  15. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the BMP antagonist gremlin by site-directed mutagenesis based on predictive modelling.

    PubMed

    Tatsinkam, Arnold Junior; Mulloy, Barbara; Rider, Christopher C

    2015-08-15

    Gremlin is a member of the CAN (cerberus and DAN) family of secreted BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) antagonists and also an agonist of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor-2. It is critical in limb skeleton and kidney development and is re-expressed during tissue fibrosis. Gremlin binds strongly to heparin and heparan sulfate and, in the present study, we sought to investigate its heparin-binding site. In order to explore a putative non-contiguous binding site predicted by computational molecular modelling, we substituted a total of 11 key arginines and lysines located in three basic residue sequence clusters with homologous sequences from cerberus and DAN (differential screening selected gene abberative in neuroblastoma), CAN proteins which lack basic residues in these positions. A panel of six Myc-tagged gremlin mutants, MGR-1-MGR-6 (MGR, mutant gremlin), each containing different combinations of targeted substitutions, all showed markedly reduced affinity for heparin as demonstrated by their NaCl elution on heparin affinity chromatography, thus verifying our predictions. Both MGR-5 and MGR-6 retained BMP-4-binding activity comparable to that of wild-type gremlin. Low-molecular-mass heparin neither promoted nor inhibited BMP-4 binding. Finally, glutaraldehyde cross-linking demonstrated that gremlin forms non-covalent dimers, similar behaviour to that of DAN and also PRDC (protein related to cerberus and DAN), another CAN protein. The resulting dimer would possess two heparin-binding sites, each running along an exposed surface on the second β-strand finger loop of one of the monomers.

  16. Mapping gas-phase organic reactivity and concomitant secondary organic aerosol formation: chemometric dimension reduction techniques for the deconvolution of complex atmospheric data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyche, K. P.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Rickard, A. R.; McFiggans, G. B.; Jenkin, M. E.; Bloss, W. J.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    Highly non-linear dynamical systems, such as those found in atmospheric chemistry, necessitate hierarchical approaches to both experiment and modelling in order to ultimately identify and achieve fundamental process-understanding in the full open system. Atmospheric simulation chambers comprise an intermediate in complexity, between a classical laboratory experiment and the full, ambient system. As such, they can generate large volumes of difficult-to-interpret data. Here we describe and implement a chemometric dimension reduction methodology for the deconvolution and interpretation of complex gas- and particle-phase composition spectra. The methodology comprises principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and positive least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These methods are, for the first time, applied to simultaneous gas- and particle-phase composition data obtained from a comprehensive series of environmental simulation chamber experiments focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) photooxidation and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We primarily investigated the biogenic SOA precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool and β-caryophyllene. The chemometric analysis is used to classify the oxidation systems and resultant SOA according to the controlling chemistry and the products formed. Results show that "model" biogenic oxidative systems can be successfully separated and classified according to their oxidation products. Furthermore, a holistic view of results obtained across both the gas- and particle-phases shows the different SOA formation chemistry, initiating in the gas-phase, proceeding to govern the differences between the various BVOC SOA compositions. The results obtained are used to describe the particle composition in the context of the oxidised gas-phase matrix. An extension of the technique, which incorporates into the statistical models data from anthropogenic (i

  17. Maps showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; Mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Maps are presented showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana.

  18. easyPAC: A Tool for Fast Prediction, Testing and Reference Mapping of Degenerate PCR Primers from Alignments or Consensus Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, David

    2012-01-01

    The PCR-amplification of unknown homologous or paralogous genes generally relies on PCR primers predicted from multi sequence alignments. But increasing sequence divergence can induce the need to use degenerate primers which entails the problem of testing the characteristics, unwanted interactions and potential mispriming of degenerate primers. Here I introduce easyPAC, a new software for the prediction of degenerate primers from multi sequence alignments or single consensus sequences. As a major innovation, easyPAC allows to apply all customary primer test procedures to degenerate primer sequences including fast mapping to reference files. Thus, easyPAC simplifies and expedites the designing of specific degenerate primers enormously. Degenerate primers suggested by easyPAC were used in PCR amplification with subsequent de novo sequencing of TDRD1 exon 11 homologs from several representatives of the haplorrhine primate phylogeny. The results demonstrate the efficient performance of the suggested primers and therefore show that easyPAC can advance upcoming comparative genetic studies.

  19. A Multiscale Study of Tropical Cyclone Formation, Structure Change, and Predictability in the Western North Pacific Region and TCS08 Experiment Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    Wang 2008). This ‘ Marsupial Paradigm’ and is focused on three key hypotheses: H1: The intersection of the wave trough and critical layer is the...hypothesized that the ‘ Marsupial Paradigm’ is operative in the Western Pacific sector and that easterly waves are a more common formation mechanism than...8217 Marsupial Forecast’ accurately predicted typhoon Nuri’s eventual genesis location, while the global models maintained an open wave and failed to

  20. Fusion Geographic Information System Data with State-of-the-art Atmospheric Systems: Application to Methane Source Mapping over the Marcellus Shale formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Barkley, Z.; Cervone, G.; Lauvaux, T.; Deng, A.; Sarmiento, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas production from multiple shale formations has increased significantly in the last decade. More particularly, a growing number of unconventional wells is the result of intense drilling in the Marcellus shale area. The Marcellus shale production represents a third of the production of natural gas in the entire US. This unprecedented increase could lead to additional fugitive methane (CH4) emissions at a level that remains highly uncertain. If natural gas is to replace less energy-efficient fossil fuels, the emissions during the production phase ought to be relatively small. However, the magnitude and the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions from unconventional wells in the Marcellus shale remains poorly documented. The novelty of this research consists in coupling various sources of information to map accurately the methane emissions, combining Geographical Information System (GIS) data, atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases, and atmospheric modeling tools. We first collected various GIS data to estimate CH4 emissions caused by the shale gas industry, such as wells, facilities, and pipelines, with the other major contributors such as wetlands, farming activities, and soils. We present our projection methods to generate model input in gridded format while preserving the distribution and magnitude of the emissions and assembling a diverse database. The projection tools for GIS data are generalized to the use of GIS data in atmospheric modeling systems. We then present the atmospheric concentrations simulated by the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, used to represent the transport and the dispersion of CH4 emissions. We compare the WRF model results to aircraft measurements collected during a 3-week campaign to identify missing sources in our initial inventory. We finally propose a new approach to identify the area at the surface that could potentially influence the aircraft measurements using spatial analysis of particle footprints. This

  1. Sinkhole Precursors and Formation Mechanism along the Dead Sea Shorelines, Israel, Analyzed by InSAR, Field Mapping, Water Analysis and Elastic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, R. N.; Baer, G.; Avni, Y.; Shviro, M.; Atzori, S.

    2014-12-01

    The water level of the Dead Sea (Israel and Jordan) has been dropping at an increasing rate since the 1960s, exceeding a meter per year during the last decade. This water-level drop has triggered the formation of sinkholes and land subsidence along the Dead Sea shorelines, resulting in severe economic loss and infrastructural damage. We demonstrate the use of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements from COSMO-SkyMed images, combined with an airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Elevation Model to detect sinkhole-related subsidence. In several locations, precursory subsidence tens to more than a hundred meters wide, at rates between 0.5 and 2 mm/day started a few months to more than a year before an actual collapse of a sinkhole. The sinkholes, a few meters wide and up to 25 m deep, form generally at the perimeter of the subsiding areas. By means of a simplified model representing a distributed closure of a sill-like crack, we estimate the cavity volume occupied by the subsiding sedimentary overburden and explain the spatial relationships between the gradual surface subsidence and the sinkholes. The subsiding areas and successive sinkholes in a specific site migrate laterally, possibly due to progressive dissolution and widening of the underlying cavities. Combining InSAR measurements with sinkhole mapping and chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater and surface water, we find a new mode of sinkhole formation. The sinkholes initiate by dissolution of a 10-20 m deep and 5-15 m thick halite layer by fresh groundwater. The process continues and accelerates as flash-floods are drained by existing or by newly formed sinkholes, the subsurface salt layer dissolves rapidly, the overlying ground subsides, and salt-saturated water seeps out downstream of the draining sinkholes. The number of sinkholes and the rates and dimensions of subsidence increase significantly during and immediately after the flood events, and decay

  2. Support vector regression-guided unravelling: antioxidant capacity and quantitative structure-activity relationship predict reduction and promotion effects of flavonoids on acrylamide formation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mengmeng; Wei, Yan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We used the support vector regression (SVR) approach to predict and unravel reduction/promotion effect of characteristic flavonoids on the acrylamide formation under a low-moisture Maillard reaction system. Results demonstrated the reduction/promotion effects by flavonoids at addition levels of 1–10000 μmol/L. The maximal inhibition rates (51.7%, 68.8% and 26.1%) and promote rates (57.7%, 178.8% and 27.5%) caused by flavones, flavonols and isoflavones were observed at addition levels of 100 μmol/L and 10000 μmol/L, respectively. The reduction/promotion effects were closely related to the change of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ΔTEAC) and well predicted by triple ΔTEAC measurements via SVR models (R: 0.633–0.900). Flavonols exhibit stronger effects on the acrylamide formation than flavones and isoflavones as well as their O-glycosides derivatives, which may be attributed to the number and position of phenolic and 3-enolic hydroxyls. The reduction/promotion effects were well predicted by using optimized quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) descriptors and SVR models (R: 0.926–0.994). Compared to artificial neural network and multi-linear regression models, SVR models exhibited better fitting performance for both TEAC-dependent and QSAR descriptor-dependent predicting work. These observations demonstrated that the SVR models are competent for predicting our understanding on the future use of natural antioxidants for decreasing the acrylamide formation. PMID:27586851

  3. Support vector regression-guided unravelling: antioxidant capacity and quantitative structure-activity relationship predict reduction and promotion effects of flavonoids on acrylamide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mengmeng; Wei, Yan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    We used the support vector regression (SVR) approach to predict and unravel reduction/promotion effect of characteristic flavonoids on the acrylamide formation under a low-moisture Maillard reaction system. Results demonstrated the reduction/promotion effects by flavonoids at addition levels of 1–10000 μmol/L. The maximal inhibition rates (51.7%, 68.8% and 26.1%) and promote rates (57.7%, 178.8% and 27.5%) caused by flavones, flavonols and isoflavones were observed at addition levels of 100 μmol/L and 10000 μmol/L, respectively. The reduction/promotion effects were closely related to the change of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ΔTEAC) and well predicted by triple ΔTEAC measurements via SVR models (R: 0.633–0.900). Flavonols exhibit stronger effects on the acrylamide formation than flavones and isoflavones as well as their O-glycosides derivatives, which may be attributed to the number and position of phenolic and 3-enolic hydroxyls. The reduction/promotion effects were well predicted by using optimized quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) descriptors and SVR models (R: 0.926–0.994). Compared to artificial neural network and multi-linear regression models, SVR models exhibited better fitting performance for both TEAC-dependent and QSAR descriptor-dependent predicting work. These observations demonstrated that the SVR models are competent for predicting our understanding on the future use of natural antioxidants for decreasing the acrylamide formation.

  4. Epoxide pathways improve model predictions of isoprene markers and reveal key role of acidity in aerosol formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene significantly contributes to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States where biogenic hydrocarbons mix with anthropogenic emissions. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model is updated to predict isoprene aerosol from epoxides produced under both ...

  5. Predictive-like distribution mapping using Google Earth: reassessment of the distribution of the bromeligenous frog, Scinax v-signatus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Helio Ricardo; Alves-Silva, Ricardo

    2013-01-29

    The hylid frog Scinax perpusillus species group comprises 13 species that share, in addition to a few morphological features, reproduction that occurs exclusively associated with bromeliads. Among the species in the group, Scinax v-signatus (Lutz, 1968) is one of the few with a relatively large geographic distribution, occurring in association with bromeliads growing on granitic outcrops above 800 m along the Serra dos Órgãos (a local designation of Serra do Mar) in the Atlantic forest, State of Rio de Janeiro. Here we demonstrate that previous assessment of the distribution of this species was overestimated, and reevaluate the available data on its occurrence. The distributional data analyzed was based on three levels of evidence. First, we assessed the distribution of the bromeliad, Alcantarea imperialis (Carrière) Harms, which is used by S. v-signatus at the type locality. We plotted potential occurrence data for this plant using Google Earth (GE) by visually inspecting GE images in search of indications of granitic outcrops where groups and large individual bromeliads could be identified. Second, we plotted the distribution of these plants and that of the frog based on locality data taken from the literature and voucher specimens in natural history collections and checked for congruence between these sets of data. Third, as a second test of accuracy of this methodology we visited four new localities indicated by the bromeliad-occurrence GE prediction map and searched for the occurrence of both the frog and the bromeliad. This simple process has proven efficient and accurate in finding new collecting sites and determining the distribution of the two involved taxa. We discuss this and other possibilities of using Google Earth as a tool for mapping and discovering the distribution of organisms and habitats. Furthermore, this study has shed light on a more accurate and realistic estimate of the distribution of Scinax v-signatus with implications for the

  6. Hybrid equation/agent-based model of ischemia-induced hyperemia and pressure ulcer formation predicts greater propensity to ulcerate in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Alexey; Mi, Qi; Tzen, Yi-Ting; Brienza, David; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are costly and life-threatening complications for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). People with SCI also exhibit differential blood flow properties in non-ulcerated skin. We hypothesized that a computer simulation of the pressure ulcer formation process, informed by data regarding skin blood flow and reactive hyperemia in response to pressure, could provide insights into the pathogenesis and effective treatment of post-SCI pressure ulcers. Agent-Based Models (ABM) are useful in settings such as pressure ulcers, in which spatial realism is important. Ordinary Differential Equation-based (ODE) models are useful when modeling physiological phenomena such as reactive hyperemia. Accordingly, we constructed a hybrid model that combines ODEs related to blood flow along with an ABM of skin injury, inflammation, and ulcer formation. The relationship between pressure and the course of ulcer formation, as well as several other important characteristic patterns of pressure ulcer formation, was demonstrated in this model. The ODE portion of this model was calibrated to data related to blood flow following experimental pressure responses in non-injured human subjects or to data from people with SCI. This model predicted a higher propensity to form ulcers in response to pressure in people with SCI vs. non-injured control subjects, and thus may serve as novel diagnostic platform for post-SCI ulcer formation.

  7. Mapping "old" versus "young" piñon-juniper stands with a predictive topo-climatic model in north-central New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, B. F.; Romme, W.H.; Allen, C. D.

    2008-01-01

    Piñon pine and juniper woodlands in the southwestern United States are often represented as an expanding and even invasive vegetation type, a legacy of historic grazing, and culpable in the degradation of western rangelands. A long-standing emphasis on forage production, in combination with recent hazard fuel concerns, has prompted a new era of woodland management with stated restoration objectives. Yet the extent and dynamics of piñon–juniper communities that predate intensive Euro-American settlement activities are poorly known or understood, while the intrinsic ecological, aesthetic, and economic values of old-growth woodlands are often overlooked. Historical changes in piñon–juniper stands include two related, but poorly differentiated processes: recent tree expansion into grass- or shrub-dominated (i.e., non-woodland) vegetation and thickening or infilling of savanna or mosaic woodlands predating settlement. Our work addresses the expansion pattern, modeling the occurrence of “older” savanna and woodland stands extant prior to 1850 in contrast to “younger” piñon–juniper growth of more recent, postsettlement origin. We present criteria in the form of a diagnostic key for distinguishing “older,” pre-Euro-American settlement piñon–juniper from “younger” (post-1850) stands and report results of predictive modeling and mapping efforts within a north-central New Mexico study area. Selected models suggest a primary role for soil moisture in the current distribution of “old” vs. “young” piñon–juniper stands. Presettlement era woodlands are shown to occupy a discrete ecological space, defined by the interaction of effective (seasonal) moisture with landform setting and fine-scale (soil/water) depositional patterns. “Older” stands are generally found at higher elevations or on skeletal soils in upland settings, while “younger” stands (often dominated by one-seed juniper, Juniperus monosperma) are most common at lower

  8. Predictability of the Meteorological Conditions Favourable to Radiative Fog Formation During the 2011 ParisFog Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    Radiative fog formation is a complex phenomenon involving local physical and microphysical processes that take place when particular meteorological conditions occur. This study aims at quantifying the ability of a regional numerical weather model to analyze and forecast the conditions favourable to radiative fog formation at an instrumental site in the Paris area. Data from the ParisFog campaign have been used in order to quantify the meteorological conditions favorable to radiative fog formation (pre-fog conditions) by setting threshold values on the key meteorological variables driving this process: 2-m temperature tendency, 10-m wind speed, 2-m relative humidity and net infrared flux. Data from the ParisFog observation periods of November 2011 indicate that use of these thresholds leads to the detection of 87 % of cases in which radiative fog formation was observed. In order to evaluate the ability of a regional weather model to reproduce adequately these conditions, the same thresholds are applied to meteorological model fields in both analysis and forecast mode. It is shown that, with this simple methodology, the model detects 74 % of the meteorological conditions finally leading to observed radiative fog, and 48 % 2 days in advance. Finally, sensitivity tests are conducted in order to evaluate the impact of using larger time or space windows on the forecasting skills.

  9. Differential Effects of Two Types of Formative Assessment in Predicting Performance of First-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F.; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Formative assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This…

  10. Trial-by-Trial Modulation of Associative Memory Formation by Reward Prediction Error and Reward Anticipation as Revealed by a Biologically Plausible Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Kristoffer C; Müller, Julia; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. Individual sensitivities to reward and punishment have been found to influence the activation of the dopaminergic reward system and could therefore help explain these seemingly discrepant results. Here, we used a novel associative memory task combined with computational modeling and showed independent effects of reward-delivery and reward-anticipation on memory. Strikingly, the computational approach revealed positive influences from both reward delivery, as mediated by prediction error magnitude, and reward anticipation, as mediated by magnitude of expected value, even in the absence of behavioral effects when analyzed using standard methods, i.e., by collapsing memory performance across trials within conditions. We additionally measured trait estimates of reward and punishment sensitivity and found that individuals with increased reward (vs. punishment) sensitivity had better memory for associations encoded during positive (vs. negative) prediction errors when tested after 20 min, but a negative trend when tested after 24 h. In conclusion, modeling trial-by-trial fluctuations in the magnitude of reward, as we did here for prediction errors and expected value computations, provides a comprehensive and biologically plausible description of

  11. Trial-by-Trial Modulation of Associative Memory Formation by Reward Prediction Error and Reward Anticipation as Revealed by a Biologically Plausible Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Aberg, Kristoffer C.; Müller, Julia; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. Individual sensitivities to reward and punishment have been found to influence the activation of the dopaminergic reward system and could therefore help explain these seemingly discrepant results. Here, we used a novel associative memory task combined with computational modeling and showed independent effects of reward-delivery and reward-anticipation on memory. Strikingly, the computational approach revealed positive influences from both reward delivery, as mediated by prediction error magnitude, and reward anticipation, as mediated by magnitude of expected value, even in the absence of behavioral effects when analyzed using standard methods, i.e., by collapsing memory performance across trials within conditions. We additionally measured trait estimates of reward and punishment sensitivity and found that individuals with increased reward (vs. punishment) sensitivity had better memory for associations encoded during positive (vs. negative) prediction errors when tested after 20 min, but a negative trend when tested after 24 h. In conclusion, modeling trial-by-trial fluctuations in the magnitude of reward, as we did here for prediction errors and expected value computations, provides a comprehensive and biologically plausible description of

  12. Prediction of scuffing failure based on competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal: Application to lubricated sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutiongco, Eric C.; Chung, Yip-Wah

    1994-07-01

    A method for predicting scuffing failure based on the competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal has been developed and applied to the sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel with poly-alpha-olefin as the lubricant. Oxide formation rates were determining using static oxidation tests on coupons of 52100 steel covered with poly-alpha-olefin at temperatures of 140 C to 250 C. Oxide removal rates were determined at different combinations of initial average nominal contact pressures (950 MPa to 1578 MPa) and sliding velocities (0.4 m/s to 1.8 m/s) using a ball-on-disk vacuum tribotester. The nominal asperity flash temperatures generated during the wear tests were calculated and the temperatures corresponding to the intersection of the the Arrhenius plots of oxide formation and removal rates were determined and taken as the critical failure temperatures. The pressure-velocity failure transition diagram was constructed by plotting the critical failure temperatures along isotherms of average nominal asperity flash temperatures calculated at different combinations of contact stress and sliding speed. The predicted failure transition curve agreed well with experimental scuffing data.

  13. Use of SDWBA predictions for acoustic volume backscattering and the Self-Organizing Map to discern frequencies identifying Meganyctiphanes norvegica from mesopelagic fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, M.; Calise, L.

    2016-04-01

    To acoustically assess the biomass of multiple species or taxa within a survey region, the volume backscatter data should be apportioned to the constituent sound scatterers. Typically, measured backscatter is attributed to certain species using predictions at different frequencies, mostly based on the difference in scattering at the frequencies of 38 and 120 kHz (dual frequency method). We used the full version of the stochastic distortedwave Born approximation (SDWBA) model to predict backscatter spectra for Meganyctiphanes norvegica and to explore the sensitivities of ΔMVBS to the model parameters, e.g. acoustic frequency and incidence angle, and animal density and sound speed contrast, length, and shape. The orientation is almost the unique parameter responsible for variation, with fatness affecting longer lengths. We present a summary of ΔMVBS that can serve as the basis for identification algorithms. Next, we simulate the scenario encountered in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean) where Northern krill are mixed with mesopelagic fish species (bristlemouths and lanternfishes), which are modeled with a prolate spheroid model. Simulated numerical data are employed to emulate the discrimination process with the most common identification techniques and typical survey frequencies. The importance of using density-independent techniques for acoustic classification is highlighted. Finally, an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), is used to cluster these theoretical data and identify the frequencies that provide, in this case, the most classification potential. The simulation results confirm that pairs of frequencies spanning the Rayleigh and geometric scattering regimes of the targets are the most useful for clustering; a minimum of four frequencies are necessary to separate the three species, while three frequencies are able to differentiate krill from mesopelagic fish species.

  14. Molecular tendrils feeding star formation in the Eye of the Medusa. The Medusa merger in high resolution 12CO 2-1 maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, S.; Aalto, S.; Lindroos, L.; Muller, S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Beswick, R. J.; Petitpas, G.; Jütte, E.

    2014-09-01

    Studying molecular gas properties in merging galaxies gives us important clues to the onset and evolution of interaction-triggered starbursts. NGC 4194 (the Medusa merger) is particularly interesting to study, since its FIR-to-CO luminosity ratio rivals that of ultraluminous galaxies (ULIRGs), despite its lower luminosity compared to ULIRGs, which indicates a high star formation efficiency (SFE) that is relative to even most spirals and ULIRGs. We study the molecular medium at an angular resolution of 0.65'' × 0.52'' (~120 × 98 pc) through our observations of 12CO 2-1 emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We compare our 12CO 2-1 maps with the optical Hubble Space Telescope and high angular resolution radio continuum images to study the relationship between molecular gas and the other components of the starburst region. The molecular gas is tracing the complicated dust lane structure of NGC 4194 with the brightest emission being located in an off-nuclear ring-like structure with ~320 pc radius, the Eye of the Medusa. The bulk CO emission of the ring is found south of the kinematical center of NGC 4194. The northern tip of the ring is associated with the galaxy nucleus, where the radio continuum has its peak. Large velocity widths associated with the radio nucleus support the notion of NGC 4194 hosting an active galactic nucleus. A prominent, secondary emission maximum in the radio continuum is located inside the molecular ring. This suggests that the morphology of the ring is partially influenced by massive supernova explosions. From the combined evidence, we propose that the Eye of the Medusa contains a shell of swept up material where we identify a number of giant molecular associations. We propose that the Eye may be the site of an efficient starburst of 5-7 M⊙ yr-1, but it would still constitute only a fraction of the 30-50 M⊙ yr-1 star formation rate of the Medusa. Furthermore, we find that ~50% of the molecular mass of NGC 4194 is found in

  15. Mapping gas-phase organic reactivity and concomitant secondary organic aerosol formation: chemometric dimension reduction techniques for the deconvolution of complex atmospheric datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyche, K. P.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Rickard, A. R.; McFiggans, G. B.; Jenkin, M. E.; Bloss, W. J.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Highly non-linear dynamical systems, such as those found in atmospheric chemistry, necessitate hierarchical approaches to both experiment and modeling in order, ultimately, to identify and achieve fundamental process-understanding in the full open system. Atmospheric simulation chambers comprise an intermediate in complexity, between a classical laboratory experiment and the full, ambient system. As such, they can generate large volumes of difficult-to-interpret data. Here we describe and implement a chemometric dimension reduction methodology for the deconvolution and interpretation of complex gas- and particle-phase composition spectra. The methodology comprises principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and positive least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These methods are, for the first time, applied to simultaneous gas- and particle-phase composition data obtained from a comprehensive series of environmental simulation chamber experiments focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) photooxidation and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We primarily investigated the biogenic SOA precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool and β-caryophyllene. The chemometric analysis is used to classify the oxidation systems and resultant SOA according to the controlling chemistry and the products formed. Furthermore, a holistic view of results across both the gas- and particle-phases shows the different SOA formation chemistry, initiating in the gas-phase, proceeding to govern the differences between the various BVOC SOA compositions. The results obtained are used to describe the particle composition in the context of the oxidized gas-phase matrix. An extension of the technique, which incorporates into the statistical models data from anthropogenic (i.e. toluene) oxidation and "more realistic" plant mesocosm systems, demonstrates that such an ensemble of chemometric mapping has the potential to be

  16. Mapping the homotypic binding sites in CD31 and the role of CD31 adhesion in the formation of interendothelial cell contacts

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    CD31 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily consisting of six Ig- related domains. It is constitutively expressed by platelets, monocytes, and some lymphocytes, but at tenfold higher levels on vascular endothelial cells. CD31 has both homotypic and heterotypic adhesive properties. We have mapped the homotypic binding sites using a deletion series of CD31-Fc chimeras and a panel of anti-CD31 monoclonal antibodies. An extensive surface of CD31 is involved in homotypic binding with domains 2 and 3 and domains 5 and 6 playing key roles. A model consistent with the experimental data is that CD31 on one cell binds to CD31 on an apposing cell in an antiparallel interdigitating mode requiring full alignment of the six domains of each molecule. In addition to establishing intercellular homotypic contacts. CD31 binding leads to augmented adhesion via beta 1 integrins. The positive cooperation between CD31 and beta 1 integrins can occur in heterologous primate cells (COS cells). The interaction is specific to both CD31 and beta 1 integrins. Neither intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM- 1)/leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LCAM-1) nor neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)/NCAM adhesion leads to recruitment of beta 1 integrin adhesion pathways. Establishment of CD31 contacts have effects on the growth and morphology of endothelial cells. CD31(D1-D6)Fc inhibits the growth of endothelial cells in culture. In addition, papain fragments of anti-CD31 antibodies (Fab fragments) disrupt interendothelial contact formation and monolayer integrity when intercellular contacts are being formed. The same reagents are without effect once these contacts have been established, suggesting that CD31- CD31 interactions are critically important only in the initial phases of intercellular adhesion. PMID:7534767

  17. Prediction of Formation of Amorphous Alloys During Annealing of Ti-binary Alloys and Validation of the Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-22

    several titanium binary alloys and also in some other alloys such as niobium binary systems. The following observations have been made: (a) the formation...Annealing of Titanium Binary Alloys and Validation of the Same 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA48690810005 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...thermodynamics of the phenomenon of this inverse melting in Ti-binary alloys and validate the same. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Thermodynamics, Titanium Alloy

  18. Prediction of successive steps of SOM formation in aggregates and density fractions based on the 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Aggregate formation is a key process of soil development, which promotes carbon (C) stabilization by hindering decomposition of particulate organic matter (POM) and its interactions with mineral particles. C stabilization processes lead to 13C fractionation and consequently to various δ13C values of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions. Differences in δ13C within the aggregates and fractions may have two reasons: 1) preferential stabilization of organic compounds with light or heavy δ13C and/or 2) stabilization of organic materials after passing one or more microbial utilization cycles, leading to heavier δ13C in remaining C. We hypothesized that: 1) 13C enrichment between the SOM fractions corresponds to successive steps of SOM formation; 2) 13C fractionation (but not the δ13C signature) depends mainly on the transformation steps and not on the C precursors. Consequently, minimal differences between Δ13C of SOM fractions between various ecosystems correspond to maximal probability of the SOM formation pathways. We tested these hypotheses on three soils formed from cover loam during 45 years of growth of coniferous or deciduous forests or arable crops. Organic C pools in large macroaggregates, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates were fractionated sequentially for four density fractions to obtain free POM with ρ

  19. Characterization of dissolved organic matter for prediction of trihalomethane formation potential in surface and sub-surface waters.

    PubMed

    Awad, John; van Leeuwen, John; Chow, Christopher; Drikas, Mary; Smernik, Ronald J; Chittleborough, David J; Bestland, Erick

    2016-05-05

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters used for drinking purposes can vary markedly in character dependent on their sources within catchments. The character of DOM further influences the formation of disinfection by products when precursor DOM present in drinking water reacts with chlorine during disinfection. Here we report the development of models that describe the formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMFP) dependent on the character of DOM in waters from discrete catchments with specific land-use and soil textures. DOM was characterized based on UV absorbance at 254 nm, apparent molecular weight and relative abundances of protein-like and humic-like compounds. DOM character and Br concentration (up to 0.5 mg/L) were used as variables in models (R(2)>0.93) of THMFP, which ranged from 19 to 649 μg/L. Chloroform concentration (12-594 μg/L) and relative abundance (27-99%) were first modeled (R(2)>0.85) and from these, the abundances of bromodichloromethane and chlorodibromomethane estimated using power and exponential functions, respectively (R(2)>0.98). From these, the abundance of bromoform is calculated. The proposed model may be used in risk assessment of catchment factors on formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water, in context of treatment efficiency for removal of organic matter.

  20. Control over the strength of connections between modules: a double dissociation between stimulus format and task revealed by Granger causality mapping in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Britt; Soliman, Sherif; O'Malley, Shannon; Danckert, James; Besner, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical and computational work with the localist dual route reading model and results from behavioral studies, Besner et al. (2011) proposed that the ability to perform tasks that require overriding stimulus-specific defaults (e.g., semantics when naming Arabic numerals, and phonology when evaluating the parity of number words) necessitate the ability to modulate the strength of connections between cognitive modules for lexical representation, semantics, and phonology on a task- and stimulus-specific basis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate this account by assessing changes in functional connectivity while participants performed tasks that did and did not require such stimulus-task default overrides. The occipital region showing the greatest modulation of BOLD signal strength for the two stimulus types was used as the seed region for Granger causality mapping (GCM). Our GCM analysis revealed a region of rostromedial frontal cortex with a crossover interaction. When participants performed tasks that required overriding stimulus type defaults (i.e., parity judgments of number words and naming Arabic numerals) functional connectivity between the occipital region and rostromedial frontal cortex was present. Statistically significant functional connectivity was absent when the tasks were the default for the stimulus type (i.e., parity judgments of Arabic numerals and reading number words). This frontal region (BA 10) has previously been shown to be involved in goal-directed behavior and maintenance of a specific task set. We conclude that overriding stimulus-task defaults requires a modulation of connection strengths between cognitive modules and that the override mechanism predicted from cognitive theory is instantiated by frontal modulation of neural activity of brain regions specialized for sensory processing.

  1. Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for the CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirović, Selma; Scharler, Robert; Kilpinen, Pia; Obernberger, Ingwald

    2010-12-01

    While reasonably accurate in simulating gas phase combustion in biomass grate furnaces, CFD tools based on simple turbulence-chemistry interaction models and global reaction mechanisms have been shown to lack in reliability regarding the prediction of NOx formation. Coupling detailed NOx reaction kinetics with advanced turbulence-chemistry interaction models is a promising alternative, yet computationally inefficient for engineering purposes. In the present work, a model is proposed to overcome these difficulties. The model is based on the Realizable k-ɛ model for turbulence, Eddy Dissipation Concept for turbulence-chemistry interaction and the HK97 reaction mechanism. The assessment of the sub-models in terms of accuracy and computational effort was carried out on three laboratory-scale turbulent jet flames in comparison with the experimental data. Without taking NOx formation into account, the accuracy of turbulence modelling and turbulence-chemistry interaction modelling was systematically examined on Sandia Flame D and Sandia CO/H2/N2 Flame B to support the choice of the associated models. As revealed by the Large Eddy Simulations of the former flame, the shortcomings of turbulence modelling by the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach considerably influence the prediction of the mixing-dominated combustion process. This reduced the sensitivity of the RANS results to the variations of turbulence-chemistry interaction models and combustion kinetics. Issues related to the NOx formation with a focus on fuel bound nitrogen sources were investigated on a NH3-doped syngas flame. The experimentally observed trend in NOx yield from NH3 was correctly reproduced by HK97, whereas the replacement of its combustion subset by that of a detailed reaction scheme led to a more accurate agreement, but at increased computational costs. Moreover, based on results of simulations with HK97, the main features of the local course of the NOx formation processes were

  2. Development of a Mathematical Code to Predict Thermal Degradation of Fuel and Deposit Formation in a Fuel System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    MDTCAP 5,7 7 0A DCLML",," pROCESSING SHEIET srx is 5X.!iiACSTD AD- A225 415 WRDC-TR-90-2084 DEVELOPMENT OF A MATHEMATICAL CODE TO PREDICT THERMAL...R. (1983) "Studies of the Mechanism of Turbine Fuel Instability," Colorado School of Mines, NASA CR -167963. Daniel, S. R. (1985) "Jet Fuel Instability

  3. Development of base maps' role in soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

    2014-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

  4. Prediction of acrylamide formation in biscuits based on fingerprint data generated by ambient ionization mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Capuano, Edoardo; Gökmen, Vural; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of the potential of high-throughput direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) fingerprinting and multivariate regression analysis in prediction of the extent of acrylamide formation in biscuit samples prepared by various recipes and baking conditions. Information-rich mass spectral fingerprints were obtained by analysis of biscuit extracts for preparation of which aqueous methanol was used. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the acquired data revealed an apparent clustering of samples according to the extent of heat-treatment applied during the baking of the biscuits. The regression model for prediction of acrylamide in biscuits was obtained by partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis of the data matrix representing combined positive and negative ionization mode fingerprints. The model provided a least root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) equal to an acrylamide concentration of 5.4 μg kg(-1) and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 14.8 μg kg(-1). The results obtained indicate that this strategy can be used to accurately predict the amounts of acrylamide formed during baking of biscuits. Such rapid estimation of acrylamide concentration can become a useful tool in evaluation of the effectivity of processes aiming at mitigation of this food processing contaminant. However, the robustness this approach with respect to variability in the chemical composition of ingredients used for preparation of biscuits should be tested further.

  5. Autophagy Defects Suggested by Low Levels of Autophagy Activator MAP1S and High Levels of Autophagy Inhibitor LRPPRC Predict Poor Prognosis of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianhan; Zhong, Weide; Huang, Hai; He, Huichan; Jiang, Funeng; Chen, Yanru; Yue, Fei; Zou, Jing; Li, Xun; He, Yongzhong; You, Pan; Yang, Weiqiang; Lai, Yiming; Wang, Fen; Liu, Leyuan

    2016-01-01

    MAP1S (originally named C19ORF5) is a widely distributed homolog of neuronal-specific MAP1A and MAP1B, and bridges autophagic components with microtubules and mitochondria to affect autophagosomal biogenesis and degradation. Mitochondrion-associated protein LRPPRC functions as an inhibitor for autophagy initiation to protect mitochondria from autophagy degradation. MAP1S and LRPPRC interact with each other and may collaboratively regulate autophagy although the underlying mechanism is yet unknown. Previously, we have reported that LRPPRC levels serve as a prognosis marker of patients with prostate adenocarcinomas (PCA), and that patients with high LRPPRC levels survive a shorter period after surgery than those with low levels of LRPPRC. MAP1S levels are elevated in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocelular carcinomas in wildtype mice and the exposed MAP1S-deficient mice develop more malignant hepatocellular carcinomas. We performed immunochemical analysis to evaluate the co-relationship among the levels of MAP1S, LRPPRC, P62, and γ-H2AX. Samples were collected from wildtype and prostate-specific PTEN-deficient mice, 111 patients with PCA who had been followed up for 10 years and 38 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia enrolled in hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The levels of MAP1S were generally elevated so the MAP1S-mediated autophagy was activated in PCA developed in either PTEN-deficient mice or patients than their respective benign tumors. The MAP1S levels among patients with PCA vary dramatically, and patients with low MAP1S levels survive a shorter period than those with high MAP1S levels. Levels of MAP1S in collaboration with levels of LRPPRC can serve as markers for prognosis of prostate cancer patients. PMID:25043940

  6. Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). 2. The predicted effects of relative humidity on aerosol formation in the alpha-pinene-, beta-pinene-, sabinene-, delta 3-carene-, and cyclohexene-ozone systems.

    PubMed

    Seinfeld, J H; Erdakos, G B; Asher, W E; Pankow, J F

    2001-05-01

    Atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through the gas/particle (G/P) partitioning of the oxidation products. Since water is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, the extent of the partitioning for any individual organic product depends not only on the amounts and properties of the partitioning organic compounds, but also on the amount of water present. Predicting the effects of water on the atmospheric G/P distributions of organic compounds is, therefore, central to understanding SOA formation. The goals of the current work are to gain understanding of how increases in RH affect (1) overall SOA yields, (2) water uptake by SOA, (3) the behaviors of individual oxidation products, and (4) the fundamental physical properties of the SOA phase that govern the G/P distribution of each of the oxidation products. Part 1 of this series considered SOA formation from five parent hydrocarbons in the absence of water. This paper predicts how adding RH to those systems uniformly increases both the amount of condensed organic mass and the amount of liquid water in the SOA phase. The presence of inorganic components is not considered. The effect of increasing RH is predict