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Sample records for formation sacroc unit

  1. SACROC Unit CO{sub 2} flood: Multidisciplinary team improves reservoir management and decreases operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, J.T.; Benvegnu, A.J.; Wingate, T.P.; McKamie, J.D.; Pickard, C.D.; Altum, J.T.

    1996-08-01

    The SACROC Unit of the Kelly-Snyder field is located in the Midland basin. The Midland basin is the eastern most of the Permian Basins of west Texas. This field is the largest of the many prolific, Late Pennsylvanian age carbonate buildups that comprise the Horseshoe Atoll. The field, discovered in 1948, encompasses 50,000 acres and contained an estimated original oil in place of 2.8 billion bbl. Waterflooding operations began in 1954 and CO{sub 2} flooding began in 1972. Cumulative recovery has been more than 1.2 billion bbl. The field contains approximately 1,600 wells with about 400 active producers and 240 active injectors. Recent changes implemented by the team have significantly improved operational efficiency at the unit. In addition, recent geologic investigations have finally began to unravel the complex stratigraphy of the reservoir. In 1992, the economic viability of the SACROC Unit was somewhat uncertain. At that time, a multidisciplinary team was formed to improve operational efficiencies and reservoir performance. Better understanding of reservoir geology from detailed biostratigraphic analysis provided the framework to make effective changes. This paper discusses operational efficiency and reservoir exploitation projects implemented by the team.

  2. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a

  3. Shallow groundwater monitoring at the SACROC oilfield, Scurry County, TX: good news for geologic storage of CO2 despite a complex hydrogeologic and geochemical setting (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, R. C.; Romanak, K.; Yang, C.; Hovorka, S.

    2009-12-01

    of carbonate minerals (2% dolomite) in the clastic Dockum aquifer. Concentrations of most analytes in the Dockum aquifer overlying SACROC are not statistically different from regional water quality. Concentrations of chloride and bromide indicate impacts to Dockum aquifer water quality in areas of SACROC. This is probably a result of outdated (pre-1970’s and therefore pre-CO2 injection) oilfield practices, and accidental release of co-produced brine. Complexity of the hydrogeology, aqueous geochemistry, and even the monitoring approach taken at SACROC has prompted numerous additional questions. However, the overall conclusion remains: There are no systematic impacts to shallow freshwater resources overlying, or in the vicinity of SACROC oilfield, resulting from CO2 injection. So for SACROC, we have answered objective (2) above, but are still working on (1). Data interpretation and modeling to aid design of effective monitoring of future CO2 GS sites using the vast amount of data from SACROC continues. This work has been supported by the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership and Kinder Morgan.

  4. Furthering Chemical and Geophysical Computations: Analysis of SACROC SEM and CT images to obtain pore percentage, size, and connectivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mur, A. J.; Purcell, C. C.; Harbert, W. P.; Soong, Y.; Kutchko, B. G.; Kennedy, S.; McIntryre, D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory of the United States Department of Energy, in collaboration with the Bureau of Economic Geology in Austin, Texas has been involved in an extensive study of the many aspects involved in the injection of CO2 into the 2042 meter deep Permian reef structure at the SACROC field. Subsamples of reef limestone cores used for seismic velocity measurements were obtained. XRD determined the sample to be ~99% Calcite and ~1% Dolomite with a small amount of impurities. Preliminary petrographic slides revealed a vuggy porosity. We acquired CT scans of a SACROC limestone core at the Morgantown NETL site. We also acquired a high pixel resolution (112 MB) SEM secondary electron image of the reef limestone at RJ Lee Group. By using ArcMap , we created a tool that groups grayscale ranges into three categories, cleans boundaries between groups, and produces a polygon map of the macropores, micropores, and matrix. The darkest areas in the SEM image were cavern-like pores and were thus called macropores. Micropores, the brightest regions, are textured micrite faces that create many, small pore spaces. Using ImageJ, the CT and Arc pore maps were analyzed to reveal pore shape statistics. Average pore perimeter, average pore area, and pore connectivity is essential for chemistry experiments that will emulate time exposure of CO2 to limestone. Further, ImageJ allows us to obtain pore orientation information. This is important in understanding the anisotropic conditions that may or may not affect seismic data. The image is 10240x11264 pixels which correspond to ~ 8890.00x9780.00 micrometers. Micro- and macropores combined, there were 613744 pores mapped. Differing statistical methods revealed differing results. For example, the average pore perimeter was ~28 microns while the average pore area was <1 square micron. This inconsistency is due to pores sharing boundaries, being contained by one another, or being lighter colored crystals. We used two

  5. Carbon sequestration monitoring with acoustic double-difference waveform inversion: A case study on SACROC walkaway VSP data

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Fehler, Michael; Malcolm, Alison; Yang, Di

    2011-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration involves large-scale injection of carbon dioxide into underground geologic formations and is considered as a potential approach for mitigating global warming. Changes in reservoir properties resulting from the CO{sub 2} injection and migration can be characterized using waveform inversions of time-lapse seismic data. The conventional approach for analysis using waveform tomography is to take the difference of the images obtained using baseline and subsequent time-lapse datasets that are inverted independently. By contrast, double-difference waveform inversion uses timelapse seismic datasets to jointly invert for reservoir changes. We apply this method to a field time-lapse walkaway VSP data set acquired in 2008 and 2009 for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at an enhanced oil recovery field at SACROC, Texas. The double-difference waveform inversion gives a cleaner and more easily interpreted image of reservoir changes, as compared to that obtained with the conventional scheme. Our results from the applicatoin of acoustic double-difference waveform tomography shows some zones with decreased P-wave velocity within the reservoir due to CO{sub 2} injection and migration.

  6. Assessing the Leakage Potential of CO2 into Ground Water Resources at SACROC, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. H.; Pawar, R. J.; Han, W. S.; McPherson, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we apply CO2-PENS to characterize the long-term CO2 storage performance at SACROC, specifically with respect to potential impacts on ground water resources located above the CO2 injection depth. CO2-PENS is a hybrid process/system model composed of a library of process level modules linked together to allow simulations to span a range of spatial and temporal scales. SACROC is the oldest CO2-EOR operation in the Permian Basin and has been operational for over 35 years. We describe how CO2-PENS is used to couple CO2 migration at three different scales; from a reservoir module, through a borehole leakage module, and into an aquifer impact module. Both the reservoir module and wellbore leakage module are based on abstractions of the underlying physics of multiphase fluid flow, using reductions in complexity to allow fast Monte-Carlo simulation while capturing the behavior of these processes. Finally, we show how results from CO2-PENS can be used to delineate areas that are susceptible to ground water impacts from CO2 leakage and discuss how this information can be used in risk analysis.

  7. Analysis of the Wellbore Seal at Well 49-6 in the SACROC CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Field, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, J. W.; Wigand, M.; Chipera, S.; Woldegabriel, G.; Pawar, R.; Lichtner, P. C.; Wehner, S.; Raines, M.; Guthrie, G. D.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term integrity of wellbore cements is one of the major concerns for geologic sequestration of CO2. This paper presents analyses of cement core recovered from a well used in a long-term CO2 enhanced oil recovery operation. A sidetrack system was used to obtain core from a 55 year-old well with 30 years of CO2 exposure as both an injector and a producer at the SACROC unit (Permian Basin, Texas). The mineralogy, chemistry, and hydrologic properties were evaluated for evidence of degradation by CO2. The recovered samples were located ~ 3 m above the contact with the reservoir. The recovered cement had permeabilities in the milliDarcy range and thus retained its capacity to prevent significant flow of CO2. There was evidence for CO2 migration along the casing-cement and cement-shale interfaces. The casing interface had a 1-2 mm thick rind of calcite-aragonite-halite. The CO2 producing this rind may have traveled up the casing wall or may have infiltrated through the casing threads. The cement in contact with the shale (within 1 cm) was heavily carbonated to an assemblage of calcite, aragonite, vaterite and amorphous alumino-silica residue and was transformed to a distinctive orange color. The heavily carbonated region is separated from less altered cement by a narrow, dense zone of silica and carbonate deposition. The CO2 for this carbonation process migrated from the cement-shale interface where the presence of shale fragments (wall cake) may have provided a fluid pathway. The carbonation reaction was associated with only small changes in the original cement chemistry including an increase in Na2O and decrease in CaO and MgO with a slight enrichment in SiO2. The carbonated zone also has a distinct carbon and oxygen stable isotope signature. Although the observed carbonation was intense, the measured hydrologic properties of the carbonated zone were not significantly different from those of relatively unaltered cement in adjacent parts of the core. Textural

  8. Time-lapse walkaway VSP imaging using reverse-time migration in the angle domain for monitoring CO2 injection at the SACROC EOR field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Huang, H.

    2012-12-01

    Time-lapse walkaway vertical seismic profiling (VSP) surveys can reveal important reservoir changes caused by CO2 injection. We study the capability of time-lapse walkaway VSP imaging using reverse-time migration in the angle-domain for monitoring CO2 injection. During the Phase II project of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, one baseline and one repeat walkaway VSP surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2009, respectively, at the SACROC enhanced oil recovery (EOR) field for monitoring CO2 injection. The datasets were acquired by Baker Atlas in collaboration with Kinder Morgan. In this study, we apply reverse-time migration in the angle domain to the time-lapse walkaway VSP datasets from the SACROC EOR field, and conduct detailed analyses of common-image gathers. Our migration results demonstrate that reverse-time migration in the angle domain produces images of time-lapse walkaway VSP data with a better image quality compared to those obtained using conventional reverse-time migration. The time-lapse image difference along the bottom of the reservoir where CO2 is injected is much more significant than that along the top of the reservoir. This is partially because we use the same baseline velocity model for migrations of both datasets. The reservoir velocity decreases during CO2 injection, leading to slightly change in the migration image location along the bottom of the reservoir for the repeat VSP data.

  9. Eolian sandstone unit of Morrison Formation, central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    The fine-grained quartzarenite that overlies the Sundance Formation in the southwestern Powder River basin, Wind River basin, and southern Bighorn basin is interpreted as being primarily the result of eolian deposition. This unit, often more than 20 m (65.6 ft) thick, is the probable correlative of the Unkpapa Sandstone member of the Morrison Formation of the southeastern Black Hills region. An eolian interpretation is based on the presence of large-scale sets of high-angle, planar cross-stratification. Observed considerable variation in the thickness of the unit is likely to be an expression of the depositional (dune-form) topography rather than the result of later erosion. Discrete dunes are exposed near Thermopolis along the northern margin of the unit: the transitional marine deposits of the uppermost Sundance formation are the most likely source of the wind-transported sand. Stratigraphic and facies relationships and lithologic similarity support correlation of the eolian unit with the Unkpapa Sandstone. Together, the units represent regions of significant eolian deposition within the predominantly fluvial Morrison depositional environment. The properties of the eolian sandstone, its thickness, its superposition above the marine Sundance Formation, and the possibility of its persistence in the subsurface of the southern Powder River basin give it potential as a petroleum reservoir. These anomalous eolian deposits may record the positions of gentle structures developed in central Wyoming and western South Dakota at the onset of, and in association with, Sevier compression.

  10. Household formation by the young in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kent, R J

    1992-10-01

    "A model of household formation by the young is specified and estimated. It was found that the headship rate for the young in the United States depends on income, the cost of housing, the number of families receiving AFDC payments, the age at first marriage for females and for males, and the percentage of males enrolled in college. Household formation by the young is much more sensitive to changes in income and the price of housing than household formation by the entire adult population. The estimated results are used to examine the change in the headship rate from 1961 to 1979 and from 1979 to 1987." excerpt

  11. Stratigraphic correlation of the Late Cretaceous Simsima Formation United Arab Emirates and Akveren Formation, northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, O.; Abu Saima, M.; Ramazanoglu, S.; Arman, H.

    2015-11-01

    Latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) microfossils are used to correlate the carbonate rocks of the Simsima Formation in the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula (Northern Oman Mountains, United Arab Emirates and Oman) with the Akveren Formation in Kandira (northwest Turkey, near Black Sea region). Both formations have characteristically rich planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil faunal assemblages that permit the recognition of the Globotruncanella havanensis Zone and Quadrum sissinghii Zone CC22. The palaeontological data is used to build an appropriate palaeoenvironmental model for the latest Cretaceous Aruma Group in the Oman Mountains foreland basin. The study reveals that the Late Cretaceous formations of UAE and Turkey can be divided into an open marine carbonate shelf facies (planktonic foraminifera/calcareous nannofossil biomicrite) and a shallow-marine carbonate facies (rudistids, coralline algal foraminiferal biomicrite).

  12. Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons die following spinal cord trauma and with neurological disease. Intact axons reinnervate nearby muscle fibers to compensate for the death of motoneurons, but when an entire motoneuron pool dies, there is complete denervation. To reduce denervation atrophy, we have reinnervated muscles in Fisher rats from local transplants of embryonic motoneurons in peripheral nerve. Since growth of axons from embryonic neurons is activity dependent, our aim was to test whether brief electrical stimulation of the neurons immediately after transplantation altered motor unit numbers and muscle properties 10 wk later. All surgical procedures and recordings were done in anesthetized animals. The muscle consequences of motoneuron death were mimicked by unilateral sciatic nerve section. One week later, 200,000 embryonic day 14 and 15 ventral spinal cord cells, purified for motoneurons, were injected into the tibial nerve 10–15 mm from the gastrocnemii muscles as the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. The cells were stimulated immediately after transplantation for up to 1 h using protocols designed to examine differential effects due to pulse number, stimulation frequency, pattern, and duration. Electrical stimulation that included short rests and lasted for 1 h resulted in higher motor unit counts. Muscles with higher motor unit counts had more reinnervated fibers and were stronger. Denervated muscles had to be stimulated directly to evoke contractions. These results show that brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons, in vivo, has long-term effects on motor unit formation and muscle force. This muscle reinnervation provides the opportunity to use patterned electrical stimulation to produce functional movements. PMID:24848463

  13. Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M; Thomas, Christine K

    2014-08-01

    Motoneurons die following spinal cord trauma and with neurological disease. Intact axons reinnervate nearby muscle fibers to compensate for the death of motoneurons, but when an entire motoneuron pool dies, there is complete denervation. To reduce denervation atrophy, we have reinnervated muscles in Fisher rats from local transplants of embryonic motoneurons in peripheral nerve. Since growth of axons from embryonic neurons is activity dependent, our aim was to test whether brief electrical stimulation of the neurons immediately after transplantation altered motor unit numbers and muscle properties 10 wk later. All surgical procedures and recordings were done in anesthetized animals. The muscle consequences of motoneuron death were mimicked by unilateral sciatic nerve section. One week later, 200,000 embryonic day 14 and 15 ventral spinal cord cells, purified for motoneurons, were injected into the tibial nerve 10-15 mm from the gastrocnemii muscles as the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. The cells were stimulated immediately after transplantation for up to 1 h using protocols designed to examine differential effects due to pulse number, stimulation frequency, pattern, and duration. Electrical stimulation that included short rests and lasted for 1 h resulted in higher motor unit counts. Muscles with higher motor unit counts had more reinnervated fibers and were stronger. Denervated muscles had to be stimulated directly to evoke contractions. These results show that brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons, in vivo, has long-term effects on motor unit formation and muscle force. This muscle reinnervation provides the opportunity to use patterned electrical stimulation to produce functional movements.

  14. Observations on biofilm formation in industrial air-cooling units

    SciTech Connect

    Liebert, C.A.; Hood, M.A.; Winter, P.A.; Singleton, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    Observations on biofilm formation in industrial air-cooling units were made over a 60-day operational period. Methods employed included: epifluorescent direct counts of water and slime samples, enumeration of culturable bacteria in water and slime samples, and ultrastructural observations of microbial attachment to formvar coated grids and epoxy resin blocks. Acridine orange direct counts and culturable counts of bacteria in water samples remained constant over the 60-day cycle, while culturable counts in slime samples increased with time. Interfering fluorescent materials present in the slime made accurate direct counts difficult to obtain. Initial increases in numbers of bacteria on formvar coated grids and culturable counts of slime samples were positively correlated with time. However, after 14 days, the formvar deteriorated and direct transmission electron microscopic bacterial counts could no longer be obtained. Submersion of epoxy resin blocks, especially those with pitted surfaces, provided an excellent method for the observation of bacterial attachment and colonization. 21 references, 3 figures.

  15. United theory of planet formation (i): Tandem regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Imaeda, Yusuke

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is the first one of a series of papers that present the new united theory of planet formation, which includes magneto-rotational instability and porous aggregation of solid particles in an consistent way. We here describe the ;tandem; planet formation regime, in which a solar system like planetary systems are likely to be produced. We have obtained a steady-state, 1-D model of the accretion disk of a protostar taking into account the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) and and porous aggregation of solid particles. We find that the disk is divided into an outer turbulent region (OTR), a MRI suppressed region (MSR), and an inner turbulent region (ITR). The outer turbulent region is fully turbulent because of MRI. However, in the range, rout(= 8 - 60 AU) from the central star, MRI is suppressed around the midplane of the gas disk and a quiet area without turbulence appears, because the degree of ionization of gas becomes low enough. The disk becomes fully turbulent again in the range rin(= 0.2 - 1 AU), which is called the inner turbulent region, because the midplane temperature become high enough (>1000 K) due to gravitational energy release. Planetesimals are formed through gravitational instability at the outer and inner MRI fronts (the boundaries between the MRI suppressed region (MSR) and the outer and inner turbuent regions) without particle enhancement in the original nebula composition, because of the radial concentration of the solid particles. At the outer MRI front, icy particles grow through low-velocity collisions into porous aggregates with low densities (down to ∼10-5 gcm-3). They eventually undergo gravitational instability to form icy planetesimals. On the other hand, rocky particles accumulate at the inner MRI front, since their drift velocities turn outward due to the local maximum in gas pressure. They undergo gravitational instability in a sub-disk of pebbles to form rocky planetesimals at the inner MRI front. They are likely

  16. Soil Formation and Distribution in Missouri. Instructional Unit. Conservation Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillon, David A.

    This unit is designed to help vocational agriculture teachers incorporate information on soil formation and the soils geography of Missouri into their curriculum. The unit consists of: (1) a topic outline; (2) general unit objectives; (3) discussions of processes and factors of soil formation, the soils geography of Missouri, and some soil…

  17. Standard formatted data units-control authority procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish a set of minimum and optional requirements for the implementation of Control Authority (CA) organizations within and among the Agencies participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). By satisfying these requirements, the resultant cooperating set of CA organizations will produce a global CA service supporting information transfer with digital data under the Standard Formatted Data Unit (SFDU) concept. This service is primarily accomplished through the registration, permanent archiving, and dissemination of metadata in the form of Metadata Objects (MDO) that assist in the interpretation of data objects received in SFDU form. This Recommendation addresses the responsibilities, services, and interface protocols for a hierarchy of CA organizations. The top level, consisting of the CCSDS Secretariat and its operational agent, is unique and primarily provides a global coordination function. The lower levels are Agency CA organizations that have primary responsibility for the registration, archiving, and dissemination of MDOs. As experience is gained and technology evolves, the CA Procedures will be extended to include enhanced services and their supporting protocols. In particular, it is anticipated that eventually CA organizations will be linked via networks on a global basis, and will provide requestors with online automated access to CA services. While this Recommendation does not preclude such operations, it also does not recommend the specific protocols to be used to ensure global compatibility of these services. These recommendations will be generated as experience is gained.

  18. Recommendations for clinical laboratory science reports regarding properties, units, and symbols: the NPU format.

    PubMed

    Férard, Georges; Dybkaer, René

    2013-05-01

    The document describes the Nomenclature for Properties and Units (NPU) format developed by the joint committee on Nomenclature for Properties and Units of the IFCC and IUPAC. Basic concepts, in particular system, component, kind-of-property, and unit are defined. Generalities concerning quantities and units, and terminological rules are recalled. A constant format is structured for reporting clinical laboratory information. It is adapted for examinations, including measurements, performed in the clinical laboratories. The NPU format follows international recommendations. Using this format, more than 16,000 properties examined in the clinical laboratories have been described. A regularly updated version of the descriptions is available from the IFCC. Examples from different disciplines are given to promote the dissemination of the format. The object of the NPU format is the transfer of examination data without loss of accuracy between the laboratory personnel and the clinicians. The format is well-adapted for comparative and epidemiological studies.

  19. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is BLM's general policy regarding the...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements? For the purpose of more properly conserving...

  20. Sinuous Ridge Cutting Across Geologic Units of the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-18

    Shown here is an exceptionally long sinuous ridge, possibly an inverted fluvial feature, that cuts across newly mapped geologic units of the Medusae Fossae Formation, from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  1. Correlation of regional geohydrologic units to geological formations in southern Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Brenda J.; Imes, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the U.S Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, geologic formations in southern Missouri (index map) were grouped into eight regional geohydrologic units on the basis of relative rock permeability and well yields (imes and Emmett, in press). Geohydrologic unit boundaries do not necessarily coincide with geologic unit boundaries or geologic time lines, but are determined by regional hydrologic properties, which may vary from one area to another.  The geologic formaitons were grouped into the geohydrologic units to determine the hydrologic characteristics of regional aquifer systems and associated regional confining units in parts of Arkansas, Kansas,Missouri, and Oklahoma.  This report presents a correlation of the regional geohydrologic units to corresponding geologic formations in southern Missouri.  Included in the report is a brief geologic history of southern Missouri.

  2. Substantivity of hypochlorous acid-based disinfectant against biofilm formation in the dental unit waterlines

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan, Irfana Fathima; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Lakshminarayanan, L.; Selvarajan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the substantivity of a new disinfectant against biofilm formation in the dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: Twenty dental units were selected for the study and divided into two groups: Group A (dental unit waterlines treated with the disinfectant) and Group B (untreated dental unit waterlines). Biofilm formation was monitored in both groups by removing the one dental unit waterline from each group for the period of 10 days. One inch of the dental unit waterline tube was cut at random site, and the inner lumen of the cut sections was analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) (TESCAN VEGA3 SBU). Results: On examination, SEM images showed that there was no slime layer or bacterial cells seen in cut section for the period of 7 days in the treated dental waterlines, which means that there is no evident of biofilm formation. In the untreated dental unit waterline cut section, slime layer was observed from day 1. Conclusion: Disinfectant solution was proved to be effective for 7 days against biofilm formation. This technique could be used as a valid method for disinfection of dental unit waterlines. PMID:28761244

  3. Weekend Formats in Counsellor Education: A Case Example in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Silliker, S. Alan

    2006-01-01

    Various course and program formats have been developed to better meet the needs of graduate students. One of them is the development of weekend-only courses and programs. This article examines one weekend counsellor education format in the United States, the St. Bonaventure University program offered in the Buffalo (New York) area, in detail. This…

  4. The Sunny Point Formation: a new Upper Cretaceous subsurface unit in the Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balson, Audra E.; Self-Trail, Jean; Terry, Dennis O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper formally defines the Sunny Point Formation, a new Upper Cretaceous subsurface unit confined to the outer Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina. Its type section is established in corehole NH-C-1-2001 (Kure Beach) from New Hanover County, North Carolina. The Sunny Point Formation consists of light-olive-gray to greenish-gray, fine to coarse micaceous sands and light-olive-brown and grayish-red silty, sandy clays. The clay-rich sections typically include ironstone, lignitized wood, root traces, hematite concretions, goethite, limonite, and sphaerosiderites. The Sunny Point Formation is also documented in cores from Bladen County, North Carolina, and from Dorchester and Horry Counties, South Carolina. Previously, strata of the Sunny Point Formation had been incorrectly assigned to the Cape Fear and Middendorf Formations. The Sunny Point occupies a stratigraphic position above the Cenomanian marine Clubhouse Formation and below an upper Turonian unnamed marine unit. Contacts between these units are sharp and unconformable. Calcareous nannofossil and palynomorph analyses indicate that the Sunny Point Formation is Turonian.

  5. Moving and union formation in the transition to adulthood in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bohyun Joy; Snyder, Anastasia R

    2015-03-01

    Although previous research has paid attention to profound changes in union formation among young adults, few studies have incorporated moving events in the estimation of union formation. Moreover, less attention has been given to detailed moving experiences in young adults' life course. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine the relationship between moving and first union formation of young adults in the United States. Moving events are aggregated by distance moved, economic conditions in origin and destination places (i.e. moving within the same county, moving to new counties with better or the same economic conditions, and moving to new counties with worse economic conditions) and the time since a move. Our findings suggest that moving events, regardless of type, are significantly related to first union formation for females while the time since a move is important to union formation of males.

  6. Moving and union formation in the transition to adulthood in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Bohyun Joy; Snyder, Anastasia R.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has paid attention to profound changes in union formation among young adults, few studies have incorporated moving events in the estimation of union formation. Moreover, less attention has been given to detailed moving experiences in young adults’ life course. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine the relationship between moving and first union formation of young adults in the United States. Moving events are aggregated by distance moved, economic conditions in origin and destination places (i.e. moving within the same county, moving to new counties with better or the same economic conditions, and moving to new counties with worse economic conditions) and the time since a move. Our findings suggest that moving events, regardless of type, are significantly related to first union formation for females while the time since a move is important to union formation of males. PMID:26047840

  7. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  8. Unayzah Formation: a new Permian-Carboniferous unit in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sandstones, shales, and thin beds of argillaceous limestone previously included as the basal part of the Permian Khuff Formation were described as the Unayzah Formation by al-Laboun in 1982 and 1986. The type locality (stratotype.) of this formation is in the town of Unayzah, and a reference section was established in the Qusayba area, al-Qasim district, Saudi Arabia. Fossil flora collected from outcrops and palynomorphs obtained from boreholes support a Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age for these strata. The Unayzah Formation is conformably overlain by the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation, whereas its basal contact is marked by a regional angular unconformity with various older units. The Unayzah Formation is widespread in the Greater Arabian basin. The formation represents cyclic transgressive and regressive deposits preceding the Permian regional marine transgression, during which the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation were deposited. This Permian transgression marked a major change in the Sedimentation and evolution of the Greater Arabian basin. The porous sandstones of the Unayzah Formation are important exploration targets because several fields in the eastern and southeastern parts of the Greater Arabian basin produce hydrocarbons from the Unayzah. 11 figures, 1 table.

  9. Synthesis, Properties, and π-Dimer Formation of Oligothiophenes Partially Bearing Orthogonally Fused Fluorene Units.

    PubMed

    Ie, Yutaka; Okamoto, Yuji; Tone, Saori; Aso, Yoshio

    2015-11-09

    A series of oligothiophenes that incorporate cyclopenta[c]thiophene-based units bearing spiro-substituted dialkylfluorene was synthesized. Photophysical measurements indicated that there was no interruption in the conjugation along the oligothiophene backbones, irrespective of the number or position of this unit. Electrochemical measurements showed that the thiophene 7-mers and 11-mer exhibit reversible multi-oxidation waves. The formation of cationic species was clearly observed from UV/Vis/NIR measurements. Furthermore, the UV/Vis/NIR spectra at 223 K under one-electron oxidation conditions revealed that the unsubstituted thiophene or bithiophene units remained in the absence of intermolecular π-π interactions, whereas the formation of π-dimeric species was observed for the thiophene 7-mer containing an unsubstituted terthiophene (U3 ) unit. Theoretical calculations indicated that the combination of the U3 unit and the all-trans conformation decreased the intermolecular steric repulsion between the fused cyclopentene ring and its facing thiophene, which may contribute to the formation of the dimeric structure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit (Middle Devonian), Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, W.

    1988-07-01

    The Middle Devonian Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit is present in the subsurface of North Dakota except where truncated by postdepositional erosion. The carbonate unit thickens from the erosional limit to a maximum thickness of 47.5 m (156 ft) in Renville County and reaches a maximum depth of 3798 m (12,460 ft) below the surface in McKenzie County. In North Dakota, a submarine hardground separates the carbonate unit from the underlying second red bed member of the Dawson Bay Formation. The upper contact with the Souris River Formation is conformable except in those areas where the Dawson Bay Formation was exposed to subaerial erosion prior to deposition of the Souris River sediments. The Dawson Bay carbonate unit is predominantly dolomitic and fossiliferous limestone or fossiliferous dolostone. The carbonate unit can be subdivided into five lithofacies on the basis of characteristic fossil fauna, flora, and other lithologic features. Lithofacies analysis of the Dawson Bay carbonates suggests a shallowing-upward succession of depositional environments and associated energy zones as follows: shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), stromatoporoid biostrome/bioherm (low energy), very shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), restricted shallow epeiric sea (extremely low energy), and shallow epeiric sea shoreline (variable energy). Eogenetic diagenesis includes color-mottling, dolomitization of micrite to microcrystalline dolomite with penecontemporaneous anhydrite replacement of cryptalgal mudstones and boundstones, cementation by sparry calcite, and vuggy porosity development. Mesogenetic diagenesis includes formation of mosaic dolomites, cementation by blocky equant calcite, neomorphism, pressure-solution, fracturing, halite cementation, and hydrocarbon emplacement.

  11. Evidence for an additional uppermost geological unit in the Medusae Fossae Formation, Equatorial Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Samantha; Balme, Matt; Hagermann, Axel

    2013-04-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a geological formation comprising three geological units (members) spread across five principal outcrops. The MFF dominates roughly a quarter of the longitudinal extent of the equatorial region of Mars, extending east-west across a distance of ~ 5,500 km between the southern Elysium Planitia and the Tharsis region. The nature of these materials is often referred to as enigmatic, as their exact origin remains unknown. Harrison et al. (Icarus, 2010) presented new observations of outlying occurrences of MFF materials on the southern highlands, atop the dichotomy boundary. They presented two hypotheses to explain these observation: 1) the MFF had a much larger pre-erosional extent than previously thought or 2) these materials had initially been eroded from the main outcrops of the formation, then transported southward by wind and subsequently reworked. A subsequent extension of this work provided evidence for an even larger extent of outlying MFF materials, particularly around and south of the easternmost portions of the MFF. Here we present these new outlier data, together with new textural classification and facies mapping of this region of the MFF. These data show that MFF outlier textures, whilst external to the main MFF outcrops in many places, are also found superposing large areas of the "main" MFF formations. These data support the first of the two working hypotheses presented, but also suggest that these so-called outlying materials represent a previously unmapped, stratigraphically uppermost unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. We also suggest that, based upon our own morphometric study of yardangs across members and analogue studies by de Silva et al. (Icarus, 2010), these represent a less indurated material than other units of the formation. In the overall context of the origins of the MFF, we find that our data are consistent with the Medusae Fossae materials being a large-scale ignimbrite complex, perhaps with

  12. 31 CFR 595.515 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../resource-center/sanctions/Documents/legal_fee_guide.pdf. (b) Legal defense funds. Effective December 7... outside the United States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. 595.515 Section 595.515... formation of legal defense funds authorized. (a) Payments from funds originating outside the United...

  13. 31 CFR 595.515 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../resource-center/sanctions/Documents/legal_fee_guide.pdf. (b) Legal defense funds. Effective December 7... outside the United States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. 595.515 Section 595.515... formation of legal defense funds authorized. (a) Payments from funds originating outside the United...

  14. 31 CFR 595.515 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../resource-center/sanctions/Documents/legal_fee_guide.pdf. (b) Legal defense funds. Effective December 7... outside the United States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. 595.515 Section 595.515... formation of legal defense funds authorized. (a) Payments from funds originating outside the United...

  15. Depositional model for the San Andres Formation, Roberts unit, Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, E.P. )

    1992-04-01

    The Permian San Andres reservoir at Roberts unit produces from approximately 250 ft of anhydritic dolostones. The reservoir interval, which is more than 500 ft below the top of the San Andres Formation, consists of fossiliferous and pelletal/peloidal dolowackestones and dolopackstones. They were deposited in a shallow-marine environment with local shoaling conditions. Toward the top of the reservoir, intertidal and supratidal deposits interfinger with the subtidal units and form the lateral and overlying seals. A sponge-bryozoan bank lithofacies is recognized within the subtidal deposits at Roberts unit. The banks consist of dolomitized mud-rich boundstones dominated by bryozoans, sponges, and crinoids. Interbedded fossiliferous dolowackestones, dolopackstones, and dolograinstones are common. The restricted nature of the San Andres in the western part of Roberts unit (i.e., shoreward of the banks) indicates that the banks baffled wave energy and inhibited current circulation on the platform, resulting in a mud-dominated, restricted lagoonal facies with very low faunal diversity. The sponge-bryozoan banks occur within a narrow belt across the central part of Roberts unit and continue into the adjacent Willard unit. Their distribution has a distinct northeast-soutwest trend that parallels the subjacent Abo shelf margin reef trend, suggesting that the Abo reef trend influenced subsequent bank development.

  16. Pressure Propagation and Brine Displacement in CO2 Storage Formations: The Role of Sealing Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-12-01

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies are implemented on a large scale, enormous amounts of CO2 will be injected and sequestered underground, which means that large volumes of native brines will be displaced. Provided that there is hydraulic communication to shallow formations, such brine displacement from deep storage reservoirs may impact the hydrologic conditions in fresh-water aquifers, for example affecting groundwater table levels or discharge and recharge zones. In some cases, brines or brackish water may also be displaced into the capture zone of fresh-water wells. To explore the conditions important for pressure propagation and brine displacement, we conduct a simulation study investigating the multiphase processes resulting from CO2 injection into a large multi-layer geologic system comprising of a storage formation and the confining low- permeability sealing units. The pressure changes and transport patterns within the storage formation are evaluated as a function of time and distance from the injection point. We are particularly interested in the role of pressure mitigation and vertical brine flow through the upper and lower sealing units. Several sensitivity cases are therefore considered varying the permeability of the upper and lower sealing units within reasonable ranges. Our results suggest that seal conductivities on the order of 0.1 to 0.001 millidarcy may allow for considerable pressure attenuation in the storage formation by interlayer brine migration, while still providing an effective barrier to CO2 leakage (since they serve as capillary and permeability seals). It is thus important to fully understand the multi-layer characteristics of a storage site if the possible environmental impacts of CO2 injection on fresh-water aquifers are to be investigated. In addition to conducting detailed simulations of the multi-phase processes, we also investigate whether existing analytical solutions for well drawdown in leaky aquifers can

  17. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-09-18

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  18. The role of diagenetic studies in flow-unit modeling: San Andres formation, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, S. )

    1994-03-01

    The Permian San Andres Formation represents one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing intervals of the Permian basin. Dolostone lithofacies intercalated with thin evaporites accommodate highly compartmentalized reservoirs resulting from complex depositional and diagenetic histories. This compartmentalization often facilitates the use of these reservoirs in flow-unit studies. Perhaps more important than the relationship of productive intervals to depositional facies is the degree to which diagenetic processes have influenced reservoir properties. Detailed petrographic evaluation of the reservoir in question, though often overlooked, should be an integral part of flow-unit studies. Once a diagenetic sequence is established, the information may be incorporated in to the facies model to better understand how to subdivide the reservoir. Such an investigation has been conducted on the San Andres Formation in Reeves field of southeastern Yoakum County, Texas. Here, multistage diagenetic overprints are superimposed on depositional facies that vary in degree of lateral extent, thereby complicating the geometries of individual productive zones within the reservoir. Analysis of the reservoir reveals that Reeves San Andres sediments were subjected to dominant diagenetic processes, including dolomitization and sulfate implacement, both of which are major factors in porosity preservation, and a variety of minor processes that have had little effect on reservoir quality. The recognition of diagenetic facies, and understanding of the processes that have created them, and identification of the implications of these processes on reservoir properties is a vital part of any flow-unit study.

  19. Racial Formation in Theory and Practice: The Case of Mexicans in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of social stratification require the categorical definition of an out-group to that can be excluded and exploited. Historically, in the United States, African Americans have been the subject of a systematic process of racial formation to define socially in this fashion. Beginning in the 1970s, however, and accelerating in the 1980s and 1990s, Mexicans were increasingly subject to processes of racialization that have rendered them more exploitable and excludable than ever before. Over the past decade, Mexican Americans moved steadily away from their middle position in the socioeconomic hierarchy and gravitated toward the bottom. This paper describes the basic mechanisms of stratification in the United States and how Mexicans have steadily been racialized to label them socially as a dehumanized and vulnerable out-group. PMID:20814590

  20. Effects of anthropogenic emissions on aerosol formation from isoprene and monoterpenes in the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lu; Guo, Hongyu; Boyd, Christopher M.; Klein, Mitchel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Cerully, Kate M.; Hite, James R.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Knote, Christoph; Olson, Kevin; Koss, Abigail; Goldstein, Allen H.; Hering, Susanne V.; de Gouw, Joost; Baumann, Karsten; Lee, Shan-Hu; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J.; Ng, Nga Lee

    2015-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a substantial fraction of fine particulate matter and has important impacts on climate and human health. The extent to which human activities alter SOA formation from biogenic emissions in the atmosphere is largely undetermined. Here, we present direct observational evidence on the magnitude of anthropogenic influence on biogenic SOA formation based on comprehensive ambient measurements in the southeastern United States (US). Multiple high-time-resolution mass spectrometry organic aerosol measurements were made during different seasons at various locations, including urban and rural sites in the greater Atlanta area and Centreville in rural Alabama. Our results provide a quantitative understanding of the roles of anthropogenic SO2 and NOx in ambient SOA formation. We show that isoprene-derived SOA is directly mediated by the abundance of sulfate, instead of the particle water content and/or particle acidity as suggested by prior laboratory studies. Anthropogenic NOx is shown to enhance nighttime SOA formation via nitrate radical oxidation of monoterpenes, resulting in the formation of condensable organic nitrates. Together, anthropogenic sulfate and NOx can mediate 43–70% of total measured organic aerosol (29–49% of submicron particulate matter, PM1) in the southeastern US during summer. These measurements imply that future reduction in SO2 and NOx emissions can considerably reduce the SOA burden in the southeastern US. Updating current modeling frameworks with these observational constraints will also lead to more accurate treatment of aerosol formation for regions with substantial anthropogenic−biogenic interactions and consequently improve air quality and climate simulations. PMID:25535345

  1. Fuel Efficient Strategies for Reducing Contrail Formations in United States Air Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Y.; Ng, Hok K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a class of strategies for reducing persistent contrail formation in the United States airspace. The primary objective is to minimize potential contrail formation regions by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude in a fuel-efficient way. The results show that the contrail formations can be reduced significantly without extra fuel consumption and without adversely affecting congestion in the airspace. The contrail formations can be further reduced by using extra fuel. For the day tested, the maximal reduction strategy has a 53% contrail reduction rate. The most fuel-efficient strategy has an 8% reduction rate with 2.86% less fuel-burnt compared to the maximal reduction strategy. Using a cost function which penalizes extra fuel consumed while maximizing the amount of contrail reduction provides a flexible way to trade off between contrail reduction and fuel consumption. It can achieve a 35% contrail reduction rate with only 0.23% extra fuel consumption. The proposed fuel-efficient contrail reduction strategy provides a solution to reduce aviation-induced environmental impact on a daily basis.

  2. Sandstone units of the Lee Formation and related strata in eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    Most of the Cumberland Plateau region of southeastern Kentucky is underlain by thick sequences of quartzose sandstone which are assigned for the most part to the Lee Formation. Much new information has been gathered about the Lee and related strata as a result of the cooperative mapping program of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey between 1960 and 1978. This report summarizes the age, lithology, distribution, sedimentary structures, and stratigraphic relations of the sandstone units of the Lee within and between each of three major outcrop belts in Kentucky: Cumberland Mountain, Pine Mountain, and the Pottsville Escarpment area. The Lee Formation generally has been regarded as Early Pennsylvanian in age and separated from Mississippian strata in Kentucky by an unconformity. However, lithostratigraphic units included in the formation as presently defined are broadly time-transgressive and range in age from Late Mississippian in parts of the Cumberland Mountain outcrop belt to Middle Pennsylvanian in the Pottsville Escarpment area. Members of the Lee intertongue with and grade into the underlying Pennington Formation and overlying Breathitt Formation. Sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone members of the Lee of Mississippian age found only in parts of the Cumberland overthrust sheet are closely associated with marine rocks; Pennsylvanian members are mostly associated with continental coal-bearing strata. Sandstone members of the Lee are mostly quartz rich and range from more than 90 percent to more than 99 percent quartz. They are relatively coarse grained, commonly pebbly, and in places conglomeratic. The units are southwest-trending linear or broadly lobate bodies. The Lee Formation is as much as 1,500 ft thick in the type area in Cumberland Mountain where it has been divided into eight members. The Pinnacle Overlook, Chadwell, White Rocks Sandstone, Middlesboro, Bee Rock Sandstone, and Naese Sandstone Members are mostly quartzose

  3. 31 CFR 594.517 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... outside the United States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. 594.517 Section 594.517... States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. (a) Payments from funds originating outside... Incurred in Challenging the Blocking of U.S. Persons in Administrative or Civil Proceedings, which...

  4. 31 CFR 594.517 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outside the United States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. 594.517 Section 594.517... States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. (a) Payments from funds originating outside... Incurred in Challenging the Blocking of U.S. Persons in Administrative or Civil Proceedings, which...

  5. 31 CFR 594.517 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... outside the United States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. 594.517 Section 594.517... States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. (a) Payments from funds originating outside... Incurred in Challenging the Blocking of U.S. Persons in Administrative or Civil Proceedings, which...

  6. 31 CFR 597.513 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... outside the United States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. 597.513 Section 597.513... States and the formation of legal defense funds authorized. (a) Payments from funds originating outside... and Costs Incurred in Challenging the Blocking of U.S. Persons in Administrative or Civil...

  7. Source apportionment of biogenic contributions to ozone formation over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Cohan, Alexander; Pour Biazar, Arastoo; Cohan, Daniel S.

    2017-09-01

    Vegetation is the leading emitter of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a key ingredient for ozone formation. The contribution of biogenic VOC (BVOC) emissions to regional ozone formation needs better quantification so that air quality regulators can effectively design emission control strategies. One of the key uncertainties for modeling BVOC emissions comes from the estimation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reaching canopy. Satellite insolation retrieval data provide an alternative to prognostic meteorological models for representing the spatial and temporal variations of PAR. In this study, biogenic emission estimates generated with the MEGAN and BEIS biogenic emissions models using satellite or prognostic PAR are used to examine the contribution of BVOC to ozone in the United States. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) is applied with Ozone Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT) and brute force zero-out sensitivity runs to quantify the biogenic contributions to ozone formation during May through September 2011. The satellite PAR retrievals are on average lower than modeled PAR and exhibit better agreement with SCAN and SURFRAD network measurements. Using satellite retrievals instead of modeled PAR reduces BEIS and MEGAN estimates of isoprene by an average of 3%-4% and 9%-12%, respectively. The simulations still overestimate observed ground-level isoprene concentrations by a factor of 1.1 for BEIS and 2.6 for MEGAN. The spatial pattern of biogenic ozone contribution diagnosed from OSAT differs from the brute force zero-out sensitivity results, with the former more smoothly distributed and the latter exhibiting peak impacts near metropolitan regions with intense anthropogenic NOx emissions. OSAT tends to apportion less ozone to biogenics as BVOC emissions increase, since that shifts marginal ozone formation toward more NOx-limited conditions. By contrast, zero-out source apportionment of ozone to biogenics increases with BVOC

  8. The Collins Creek and Pleasant Creek Formations: Two new upper cretaceous subsurface units in the Carolina/Georgia Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Prowell, D.C.; Christopher, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper formally defines two new Upper Cretaceous subsurface units in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia: the Collins Creek Formation and the Pleasant Creek Formation. These units are confined to the subsurface of the outer Coastal Plain, and their type sections are established in corehole CHN-820 from Charleston County, S.C. The Collins Creek Formation consists of greenish-gray lignitic sand and dark-greenish-gray sandy clay and is documented in cores from Allendale, Beaufort, Berkeley, Dorchester, Jasper and Marion Counties, South Carolina, and from Screven County, Georgia. Previously, Collins Creek strata had been incorrectly assigned to the Middendorf Formation. These sediments occupy a stratigraphic position between the Turonian/Coniacian Cape Fear Formation (?) below and the proposed upper Coniacian to middle Santonian Pleasant Creek Formation above. The Collins Creek Formation is middle and late Coniacian in age on the basis of calcareous nannofossil and palynomorph analyses. The Pleasant Creek Formation consists of olive-gray sand and dark-greenish-gray silty to sandy clay and is documented in cores from New Hanover County, North Carolina, and Berkeley, Charleston, Dorchester, Horry and Marion Counties, South Carolina. The strata of this unit previously were assigned incorrectly to the Middendorf Formation and (or) the Cape Fear Formation. These sediments occupy a stratigraphic position between the proposed Collins Creek Formation below and the Shepherd Grove Formation above. The Pleasant Creek Formation is late Coniacian and middle Santonian in age, on the basis of its calcareous nannofossil and palynomorph assemblages.

  9. Microfluidic device for the formation of optically excitable, three-dimensional, compartmentalized motor units

    PubMed Central

    Uzel, Sebastien G. M.; Platt, Randall J.; Subramanian, Vidya; Pearl, Taylor M.; Rowlands, Christopher J.; Chan, Vincent; Boyer, Laurie A.; So, Peter T. C.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Motor units are the fundamental elements responsible for muscle movement. They are formed by lower motor neurons and their muscle targets, synapsed via neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The loss of NMJs in neurodegenerative disorders (such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or spinal muscle atrophy) or as a result of traumatic injuries affects millions of lives each year. Developing in vitro assays that closely recapitulate the physiology of neuromuscular tissues is crucial to understand the formation and maturation of NMJs, as well as to help unravel the mechanisms leading to their degeneration and repair. We present a microfluidic platform designed to coculture myoblast-derived muscle strips and motor neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) within a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel. The device geometry mimics the spinal cord–limb physical separation by compartmentalizing the two cell types, which also facilitates the observation of 3D neurite outgrowth and remote muscle innervation. Moreover, the use of compliant pillars as anchors for muscle strips provides a quantitative functional readout of force generation. Finally, photosensitizing the ESC provides a pool of source cells that can be differentiated into optically excitable motor neurons, allowing for spatiodynamic, versatile, and noninvasive in vitro control of the motor units. PMID:27493991

  10. Dolomitization and chertification of the Early Eocene Rus Formation in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Gregory L.; Alsharhan, Abdulrahman S.

    1994-09-01

    The Early Eocene carbonates of the Rus Formation in the Jabal Hafit area near Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, were sampled to study their diagenetic history. These carbonates were cyclically deposited in a shallow water environment, alternating with marls or marly limestones, and are characterized by extensive dolomitization and chertification (with associated glauconitization). The cyclic nature of sedimentation suggests that deposition was eustatically driven. The diagenetic history of the limestones proceeded through the following path: (1) marine cementation of allochems concomitant with formation of micrite envelopes; (2) micritization of peloids, ooids and skeletal grains; (3) neomorphism of formerly high Mg—calcite and aragonite grains to low Mg-calcite; (4) partial to complete dolomitization; (5) partial chertification of both calcite and dolomite; (6) glauconitization of chert; (7) fracturing during shallow burial; and (8) precipitation of late coarse calcite spar or mosaic and saddle (baroque) dolomite spar filling voids and fractures. Porosity is virtually nil in these rocks except for infrequent unfilled fractures, vugs and oomolds, due primarily to cementation and chertification. Biogenic grains are abundant in the limestones with Nummulites sp., Alveolinid and miliolid foraminifera and crinoid ossicles and other echinoderm fragments being most common. The tests of Nummulites sp. are commonly replaced by length-fast chalcedony fibers which are occasionally later replaced by glauconite. Spherulitic and zebraic chalcedony and, more rarely, megaquartz, occur as void-filling cements and fringing chalcedonic fibers frequently rim the tests of skeletal grains. All except the fringing chalcedonic fibers were subject to glauconitization. Prior to the chertification process is an extensive dolomitization period. Rhombic and sucrosic dolomite partially to completely replaced calcite at a relatively early diagenetic stage. Silicification caused the replacement of

  11. Palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology of the rudists in the Shuaiba formation (aptian) United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, A. R. A.; Alsharhan, A. S.

    The rudists of the Shuaiba Formation (Aptian) of the United Arab Emirates are associated with five principal palaeoenvironmental zones: the shelf lagoon, the back barrier slope, the rudist barrier, the barrier foreslope and the open marine. Six principal lithofacies and five distinguishing biofacies are significant to the recognition and delineation of these palaeoenvironments. The rudist development and colonization were preceeded by the development of algal platform. The thickest and most elevated parts of this platform provided a suitable substrate for the attachment and stabilization of individual rudists. The palaeoecology and the distribution of the Shuaiba rudists are comparable to many Cretaceous rudists reported in North America, Europe and the Middle East. Different Types of rudists lived in different palaeoenvironmental zones. In general, the Monopleuridae, Requienidae, and Caprotinidae are less abundant than the Caprinidae. The Monopluridae and Reqiuinidae,predominate in the shelf lagoon and display a patchy distribution vertically and laterally. The main rudists framework-builders are the Caprinidae. They grow in the rudist barrier zone and may be found transported by gravitational collapse into the back barrier slope and the barrier foreslope zones. The Shuaiba rudists are characterized by low diversity and could survive intermittent exposure and withstand fluctuations in temperature and salinity. However, the influx of argillaceous mud and the deposition of the Nahr Umr shales in Late Aptian killed off the Shuaiba rudists of the region.

  12. Modeling of in situ ultrafine atmospheric particle formation in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaydos, Timothy M.; Stanier, Charles O.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2005-04-01

    The creation of new atmospheric particles from in situ nucleation influences climate through cloud-aerosol interactions and may negatively impact human health. Although recent observations show that nucleation is widespread in the eastern United States, the corresponding pathways remain uncertain. Combining extensive field measurements in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with an aerosol dynamics and chemistry model assuming ternary NH3-H2SO4-H2O nuclei formation, we show excellent model-measurement agreement and predictive capability. The ternary NH3-H2SO4-H2O nucleation model is successful in predicting the presence or lack of nucleation on 19 out of 19 days with complete data sets in July 2001 and on 25 out of 29 days in January 2002. Reductions of ammonia emissions are predicted to decrease the frequency of nucleation events during both summer and winter, with a more dramatic effect during the summer. The response to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide during the summer is counterintuitive. Reductions of sulfur dioxide and the resulting sulfate by up to 40% actually increase the frequency of the summer nucleation events. Modeling predicts the opposite effect in winter, with reductions of sulfur dioxide leading to fewer nucleation events.

  13. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  14. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  15. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  16. Upper Cretaceous to Lower Miocene of the Subsilesian Unit (Western Carpathians, Czech Republic): stratotypes of formations revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubík, Miroslav; Franců, Juraj; Gilíková, Helena; Otava, Jiří; Švábenická, Lilian

    2016-06-01

    Type sections/areas for all four formations distinguished in the sedimentary succession of the Subsilesian Unit on Czech territory were revisited and described. New data on lithology, sedimentology, fossil record, biostratigraphy, heavy-minerals and geochemical proxies are based on observations and analysis of these sections. The historical type section of the Frýdek Formation was destroyed during railway construction in 19th century. Outcrops of Campanian to Maastrichtian marls and sandstones on the southwestern slope of "Castle hill" at Frýdek, are proposed as a new type section. The Ostravice riverbed in Frýdlant nad Ostravicí was originally designated as the type area, not mentioning the particular section. This area, even when supplemented with Sibudov Creek, does not show all typical facies of the formation. The outcrops range from lowermost Eocene to Eocene-Oligocene transition. In the original description of the Menilite Formation Glocker mentioned several localities in the area covering the Ždanice, Subsilesian and Silesian units, not mentioning the principal one. The single sections, each not exceeding a thickness of 2 m, are not sufficient to be a type section. Instead of that, we propose the area between Paršovice and Bystřice pod Hostýnem, covering the historical localities, as the type area. The type locality of the Ženklava Formation is an outcrop in an unnamed creek in Ženklava according to the original definition. It seems to be reasonable to extend the type section to the whole 500 m long section of the creek with the outcrops that better illustrate the lithological variability of the formation. New biostratigraphic data allow assignment to late Egerian (Eggenburgian?).

  17. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and their... operating under a unit agreement for the reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof,...

  18. Super viscous oil reservoir formations of Ufa unit of Republic of Tatarstan and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipova, D.; Vafin, R.; Surmashev, R.; Bondareva, O.

    2012-04-01

    Over 450 concentrations of super viscous oils (SVO) were discovered in Tatarstan for the time being. All of them are related to productive deposits of Permian period occurred at depths up to 300-400 metres consisting of terrigenous and carbonate deposits. Described are reservoir formations of the fields where recoverable reserves of SVO are confined by argillo-arenaceous thickness of Ufa terrigenous unit. Studying reservoir properties was based on laboratory analysis of core samples in terms of: Macro- and microscopic description, grain-size analysis, determination of effective porosity, permeability, volumetric and weight oil saturation, carbonate content, mineralogical density. According to macro-analysis data, thickness cross-section presents sandstones with rare interlayer and lenticle of siltstones and clays. The colour of calcareous sandstones varies from grey to black. Incoherent rocks prevail while closely consolidated types are rarely observed. The grain-size analysis revealed that 0.25-0.1 mm size grains are dominated in the sandstone composition, their concentration in rocks amounts to 69% that enables belonging oil rocks to fine-grained sandstones. Reservoir properties of rocks widely vary as follows: Effective porosity varies from 2.4 to 44.5% (average 31.5%), carbonate content from 0.6 to 30.1% (average 6.7%), mineralogical density from 2.3 to 3.3% (average 2.7%), and oil saturation from 0.1 to 14.9 rock weight % (average 7.8%). Reservoir porosities of reservoirs correlate to each other. Correlations between porosities are set in logarithmic values. Good direct correlation dependence (coefficient of correlation 0.5352) was identified between porosity and permeability as well as clear inverse relation between carbonate content and porosity (coefficient of correlation = - 0.7659). More tight positive correlation is observed for Porosity - Mass oil saturation (coefficient of correlation 0. 75087). This correlation indicates that super viscous oils are

  19. Effects of Anthropogenic Emissions on Aerosol Formation from Isoprene and Monoterpenes in the Southeastern United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A research team from Georgia Tech, an EPA research grantee, recently published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on their research studying the effects of human-made pollutants on the formation of SOA.

  20. Development of Man Portable Auxiliary Power Unit using Advanced Large Format Lithium-Ion Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    to equip the user with advanced battery technology, specifically high energy lithium - ion batteries , designed for this application. This paper will...release. EXPERIMENTAL Initial testing of large format (50 AH) Lithium - Ion cells from International Battery , Inc. (IB) was conducted by CERDEC...advanced battery technology, specifically high energy lithium - ion batteries , designed for this application. This paper will discuss the development of

  1. Spatial data in geographic information system format on agricultural chemical use, land use, cropping practices in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial data in geographic information system format described in this report consist of estimates for all counties in the conterminous United States of the annual use of 96 herbicides in 1989; annual sales of nitrogen fertilizer, in tons, for 1985-91; and agricultural expenses, land use, chemical use, livestock holdings, and cropping practices in 1987. The source information, originally in tabular form, is summarized as digital polygon attribute data in the 18 geographic information system spatial data layers (coverages) provided. The information in these coverages can be used in estimating regional agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices and in producing visual displays and mapping relative rates of agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices across broad regions of the United States.

  2. Formation of functional CENP-B boxes at diverse locations in repeat units of centromeric DNA in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kugou, Kazuto; Hirai, Hirohisa; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Koga, Akihiko

    2016-06-13

    Centromere protein B, which is involved in centromere formation, binds to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a nucleotide motif called the CENP-B box. Humans have large numbers of CENP-B boxes in the centromeric repetitive DNA of their autosomes and X chromosome. The current understanding is that these CENP-B boxes are located at identical positions in the repeat units of centromeric DNA. Great apes also have CENP-B boxes in locations that are identical to humans. The purpose of the present study was to examine the location of CENP-B box in New World monkeys. We recently identified CENP-B box in one species of New World monkeys (marmosets). In this study, we found functional CENP-B boxes in CENP-A-assembled repeat units of centromeric DNA in 2 additional New World monkeys (squirrel monkeys and tamarins) by immunostaining and ChIP-qPCR analyses. The locations of the 3 CENP-B boxes in the repeat units differed from one another. The repeat unit size of centromeric DNA of New World monkeys (340-350 bp) is approximately twice that of humans and great apes (171 bp). This might be, associated with higher-order repeat structures of centromeric DNA, a factor for the observed variation in the CENP-B box location in New World monkeys.

  3. Formation of functional CENP-B boxes at diverse locations in repeat units of centromeric DNA in New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kugou, Kazuto; Hirai, Hirohisa; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Koga, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Centromere protein B, which is involved in centromere formation, binds to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a nucleotide motif called the CENP-B box. Humans have large numbers of CENP-B boxes in the centromeric repetitive DNA of their autosomes and X chromosome. The current understanding is that these CENP-B boxes are located at identical positions in the repeat units of centromeric DNA. Great apes also have CENP-B boxes in locations that are identical to humans. The purpose of the present study was to examine the location of CENP-B box in New World monkeys. We recently identified CENP-B box in one species of New World monkeys (marmosets). In this study, we found functional CENP-B boxes in CENP-A-assembled repeat units of centromeric DNA in 2 additional New World monkeys (squirrel monkeys and tamarins) by immunostaining and ChIP-qPCR analyses. The locations of the 3 CENP-B boxes in the repeat units differed from one another. The repeat unit size of centromeric DNA of New World monkeys (340–350 bp) is approximately twice that of humans and great apes (171 bp). This might be, associated with higher-order repeat structures of centromeric DNA, a factor for the observed variation in the CENP-B box location in New World monkeys. PMID:27292628

  4. SOA Formation from Aqueous Processing of BVOCs in the Southeastern United States during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes to climate change and adversely affects human health, but the formation of SOA is poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that aqueous processing of water soluble compounds like glyoxal and glycolaldehyde can help close the gap in our understanding of SOA formation. During June and July of 2013, a comprehensive suite of instruments were deployed at the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) Centreville, AL ground site measuring oxidants, glyoxal and glycolaldehyde as well as their precursors, anthropogenic influence, aerosol properties and meteorology. Results from a zero-dimensional gas phase photochemical model and a zero-dimensional aqueous SOA model will be compared to the observations. Analysis will focus on the modeled contribution of glyoxal and glycolaldehyde in the context of closing the aqueous SOA budget.

  5. Precipitate Formation Potential of Resin Regeneration Effluent in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-10-09

    Calculations performed as part of this study indicate that injection of treated groundwater containing treated regenerant solution has a high potential for precipitate formation that could lead to plugging of formation porosity surrounding the injection well. In the worst case scenario, substantial plugging could occur within a year of the initiation of injection. Some uncertainty is associated with respect to this conclusion. The uncertainty results from the fact that equilibrium with the most stable mineral assemblage cannot always be assumed and that slow precipitation rates could occur and reliable estimates of precipitation kinetics under Hanford aquifer conditions are not available. It is recommended that the potential of calcium phosphate precipitation be investigated further using a combination of laboratory and field investigations.

  6. Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3 + biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, B. R.; Allen, H. M.; Draper, D. C.; Brown, S. S.; Wild, R. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hu, W.; de Gouw, J.; Koss, A.; Cohen, R. C.; Duffey, K. C.; Romer, P.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E.; Takahama, S.; Thornton, J. A.; Lee, B. H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Nguyen, T. B.; Teng, A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Olson, K.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Gas- and aerosol-phase measurements of oxidants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and organic nitrates made during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS campaign, Summer 2013) in central Alabama show that a nitrate radical (NO3) reaction with monoterpenes leads to significant secondary aerosol formation. Cumulative losses of NO3 to terpenes are correlated with increase in gas- and aerosol-organic nitrate concentrations made during the campaign. Correlation of NO3 radical consumption to organic nitrate aerosol formation as measured by aerosol mass spectrometry and thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence suggests a molar yield of aerosol-phase monoterpene nitrates of 23-44 %. Compounds observed via chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) are correlated to predicted nitrate loss to BVOCs and show C10H17NO5, likely a hydroperoxy nitrate, is a major nitrate-oxidized terpene product being incorporated into aerosols. The comparable isoprene product C5H9NO5 was observed to contribute less than 1 % of the total organic nitrate in the aerosol phase and correlations show that it is principally a gas-phase product from nitrate oxidation of isoprene. Organic nitrates comprise between 30 and 45 % of the NOy budget during SOAS. Inorganic nitrates were also monitored and showed that during incidents of increased coarse-mode mineral dust, HNO3 uptake produced nitrate aerosol mass loading at a rate comparable to that of organic nitrate produced via NO3 + BVOCs.

  7. The politics of HPV vaccination policy formation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abiola, Sara E; Colgrove, James; Mello, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the political dimensions of policy formation for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine through case studies of six states: California, Indiana, New Hampshire, New York, Texas, and Virginia. Using thematic content analysis of semistructured key informant interviews with policy stakeholders, newspaper articles, and archival materials, we describe the trajectory of public health policy developments for HPV immunization and analyze key influences on policy outcomes through the theoretical lens of the Multiple Streams framework. Specifically, we examine factors influencing the extent to which HPV was perceived as a problem meriting policy action; political forces that facilitated and impeded policy adoption, including interest-group opposition and structural and ideological features of the states' political environments; and factors affecting which policy alternatives received consideration. We find that effective policy entrepreneurship played a critical role in determining policy outcomes. We conclude by discussing lessons from the case of HPV vaccination for future efforts to craft vaccination policies.

  8. Dynamics of peat accumulation and marl flat formation in a calcareous fen, midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miner, J.J.; Ketterling, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The age and sequence of peat accumulation were investigated at a calcareous fen in northeastern Illinois, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify the processes that form and sustain marl flats, which are areas of marl or tufa substrate within the fen that contain numerous rare plant species. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiocarbon evidence was used to establish the processes and chronology of peat accumulation and erosion adjacent to each marl flat. The age of the base of the peat deposit varies greatly throughout the fen, ranging from 14,679 calibrated years before present (cal. years BP) to nearly modern, indicating that colonization of the sand and gravel substrate by peat occurred throughout the period from the Late Pleistocene to present. Adjacent to one marl flat, trends in basal peat age and thickness show that peat accumulation has progressed laterally inward from both sides, suggesting that the marl flat has been infilling with peat progressively by accumulation at the margins since at least 5,370 cal. years BP or longer. A second marl flat in the fen is surrounded by older, thick peat of differing ages on either edge and is bounded by fresh scarps, indicating that the marl flat currently is expanding laterally by erosion into the preexisting peat blanket. These two examples suggest a continuously repeating process, where erosion of the accumulated peat blanket forms a marl flat, which is later covered by peat accumulation. Trends in basal peat age elsewhere in the fen suggest that other marl flats may have existed in the past that have been completely infilled with peat. This study suggests that marl flat formation is a natural process that has been occurring for millennia, continuously creating habitat for the rare plant species that occupy marl flats. There is no evidence that the marl flats at this site are indicative of anthropogenic disturbance, so that management options for these areas are limited to maintaining the quality and quantity

  9. Design optimization of large-size format edge-lit light guide units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastanin, J.; Lenaerts, C.; Fleury-Frenette, K.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present an original method of dot pattern generation dedicated to large-size format light guide plate (LGP) design optimization, such as photo-bioreactors, the number of dots greatly exceeds the maximum allowable number of optical objects supported by most common ray-tracing software. In the proposed method, in order to simplify the computational problem, the original optical system is replaced by an equivalent one. Accordingly, an original dot pattern is splitted into multiple small sections, inside which the dot size variation is less than the ink dots printing typical resolution. Then, these sections are replaced by equivalent cells with continuous diffusing film. After that, we adjust the TIS (Total Integrated Scatter) two-dimensional distribution over the grid of equivalent cells, using an iterative optimization procedure. Finally, the obtained optimal TIS distribution is converted into the dot size distribution by applying an appropriate conversion rule. An original semi-empirical equation dedicated to rectangular large-size LGPs is proposed for the initial guess of TIS distribution. It allows significantly reduce the total time needed to dot pattern optimization.

  10. Somali prenatal education video use in a United States obstetric clinic: a formative evaluation of acceptability.

    PubMed

    DeStephano, Christopher C; Flynn, Priscilla M; Brost, Brian C

    2010-10-01

    Because of low health literacy and low priority in seeking prenatal information, health education videos were explored for acceptability by Somali refugee women in a clinical setting. Focus groups led to the development of six targeted Somali prenatal education videos. Topics include: preparation for pregnancy, nutrition and exercise, pregnancy myths/facts, the father's role, episiotomies, and caesarean sections. Somali participants were recruited to view programs, and completed an 8-item survey prior to regularly scheduled prenatal appointments. Following the clinical visit, providers completed a 4-item survey indicating the video's helpfulness in facilitating client-provider communication. All study participants "strongly recommended" and rated the videos as "appropriate for Somali clients", 57% indicated the information was "just the right amount," and 60% found the videos "extremely helpful." The primary language spoken at home was Somali (72.7%) and 54.5% indicated Somali as the preferred language to receive health information. Providers indicated 24% of appointments were "more interactive" with 72% finding videos "somewhat" or "extremely helpful." Preliminary results from this pilot study suggest that a video format for prenatal education is acceptable to Somali clients with most clients preferring video health education materials presented in the Somali language. Culturally tailored health education video series for Somali women appear well for use in a clinic setting to facilitate client-provider communication. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of particle formation and number concentration over the United States with WRF-Chem + APM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.; Yu, F.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol nucleation events have been widely observed at various locations around the world and well recognized to dominate the particle number abundance and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in many parts of the troposphere. An advanced particle microphysics model (APM), which has been previously incorporated into a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) and validated against a large set of aerosol measurements (Yu and Luo, 2009; Yu et al., 2010), has been successfully integrated into the Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The size-resolved (sectional) APM model, which distinguishes secondary and primary particles and keeps track of the amount of secondary species coated on each type of primary particles (black carbon, primary organic carbon, dust, and sea salt), is designed to capture key particle properties important for their health and climatic effects while keep the computing cost at a reasonable level. WRF-Chem has 53 tracers for CBM-Z mechanism, and it took 2.2 hours for one day simulations covering a region of 3780×2916 km2 with 27 km horizontal resolutions and 34 layers on an 8-CPU Linux workstation (2.2 Ghz Dual Quad-Core AMD Opteron Processor 2354). The coupled WRF-Chem-APM model has 138 tracers (85 additional tracers associated with APM), and it took 5.02 hours on the same machine for same day simulation with full size-resolved microphysics (nucleation, condensation, coagulation, deposition, and scavenging) and CBM-Z chemistry. The WRF-Chem + APM has been employed to study the formation and growth of particles over the United States, using relevant outputs from GEOS-Chem + APM as initial conditions and boundary conditions. We show that ion-mediated nucleation of sulfuric acid and water can lead to significant new particle formation over the United States and nucleation rates have strongly spatial and temporal variations. The simulated spatial (both horizontal and vertical) distribution of particle

  12. New Conceptual Model for Soil Treatment Units: Formation of Multiple Hydraulic Zones during Unsaturated Wastewater Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Geza, Mengistu; Lowe, Kathryn S; Huntzinger, Deborah N; McCray, John E

    2013-07-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems are commonly used in the United States to reclaim domestic wastewater. A distinct biomat forms at the infiltrative surface, causing resistance to flow and decreasing soil moisture below the biomat. To simulate these conditions, previous modeling studies have used a two-layer approach: a thin biomat layer (1-5 cm thick) and the native soil layer below the biomat. However, the effect of wastewater application extends below the biomat layer. We used numerical modeling supported by experimental data to justify a new conceptual model that includes an intermediate zone (IZ) below the biomat. The conceptual model was set up using Hydrus 2D and calibrated against soil moisture and water flux measurements. The estimated hydraulic conductivity value for the IZ was between biomat and the native soil. The IZ has important implications for wastewater treatment. When the IZ was not considered, a loading rate of 5 cm d resulted in an 8.5-cm ponding. With the IZ, the same loading rate resulted in a 9.5-cm ponding. Without the IZ, up to 3.1 cm d of wastewater could be applied without ponding; with the IZ, only up to 2.8 cm d could be applied without ponding. The IZ also plays a significant role in soil moisture distribution. Without the IZ, near-saturation conditions were observed only within the biomat, whereas near-saturation conditions extended below the biomat with the IZ. Accurate prediction of ponding is important to prevent surfacing of wastewater. The degree of water and air saturation influences pollutant treatment efficiency through residence time, volatility, and biochemical reactions.

  13. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  14. 'Would you eat cultured meat?': Consumers' reactions and attitude formation in Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Marcu, Afrodita; Rutsaert, Pieter; Gaspar, Rui; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, Dave; Barnett, Julie

    2015-04-01

    Cultured meat has evolved from an idea and concept into a reality with the August 2013 cultured hamburger tasting in London. Still, how consumers conceive cultured meat is largely an open question. This study addresses consumers' reactions and attitude formation towards cultured meat through analyzing focus group discussions and online deliberations with 179 meat consumers from Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom. Initial reactions when learning about cultured meat were underpinned by feelings of disgust and considerations of unnaturalness. Consumers saw few direct personal benefits but they were more open to perceiving global societal benefits relating to the environment and global food security. Both personal and societal risks were framed in terms of uncertainties about safety and health, and possible adverse societal consequences dealing with loss of farming and eating traditions and rural livelihoods. Further reflection pertained to skepticism about 'the inevitable' scientific progress, concern about risk governance and control, and need for regulation and proper labeling.

  15. Potentiometric-surface map of water in the Lakota Formation and equivalent units in the northern Great Plains area of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, Gary Wayne

    1982-01-01

    The potentiometric surface of water in the lower Cretaceous Lakota Formation and equivalent units (Cut Bank Sandstone Member , Sunburst Sandstone Member, and Moulton Member of Kootenai formation; Third Cat Creek sandstone of Kootenai Formation; Pryor Conglomerate Member of Kootenai Formation) is shown on a base at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The map is one of a series produced as part of a regional study of aquifers of Cenozoic and Mesozoic age in the northern Great Plains of Montana. The contour interval is 200 feet. Water in the Lakota Formation and equivalent units occurs under water-table and artesian conditions. The direction of regional groundwater movement is east and north from the recharge areas in the Little Belt and Big Snowy Mountains. The average discharge from 20 wells is about 29 gallons per minute and the specific capacity of 18 wells averages 0.75 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown.

  16. Ramah Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation - A new stratigraphic unit in the Zuni Basin, west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, O.J.; Stricker, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Nonmarine deposition accompanying and following a regression of the Cretaceous Interior Seaway during late Turonian time left a sedimentary sequence consisting of fluvial channel sandstones, thin overbank sandstones, and paludal shales containing thin coal beds. This unit is herein designated the Ramah Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation. The Ramah Member is locally well exposed in the Zuni Basin of west-central New Mexico where it rests on the Gallup Sandstone (marine) and is overlain by the distinctive, feldspathic Torrivio Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation (formerly of the Gallup Sandstone) Near Ramah, New Mexico the sequence overlies the F member of the Gallup but northward it overlies progressively younger members. These younger members are discrete sand-stone units associated with minor oscillations of relative sea level during a major regional-scale regression. North and east of Puerco Gap, near Gallup. New Mexico, the Ramah Member thins appreciably, and where unmappable it may be included with the Torrivio Member Southward from Gallup in the Zuni Basin. the Ramah locally approaches 150 ft in thickness and contains minable coal beds. The interval was previously referred to as the coal-bearing member of the Gallup (Mapel and Yesberger, 1985) or the Ramah unit (Anderson and Stricker, 1904). In the northern part of the Zuni Basin a problem may exist locally in determinig the top of the Ramah Member. This is due to the presence of fluviel sandstone with coarse-grained facies that looks much the s ame as the Torrivio Member, but underlines it Two criteria may be employed to distiguish the lower sandstone from the Torrivio and properly place it in the strartigraphic succession: (1) the lower sandstone is generally not as feldspathic as the Torrivio nor do the coarse-grained facies contain pebble-size material; and (2) the lower sandstone is not nearly as widespread as the overlying Torrivio. which has a blanket geometry. The type section of the Ramah

  17. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Understand Formation of the Stimson Sedimentary Unit and Altered Fracture Zones at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T.; Rampe, E. B.

    2017-01-01

    Water flowing through sediments at Gale Crater, Mars created environments that were likely habitable, and sampled basin-wide hydrological systems. However, many questions remain about these environments and the fluids that generated them. Measurements taken by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity of multiple fracture zones can help constrain the environments that formed them because they can be compared to nearby associated parent material (Figure 1). For example, measurements of altered fracture zones from the target Greenhorn in the Stimson sandstone can be compared to parent material measured in the nearby Big Sky target, allowing constraints to be placed on the alteration conditions that formed the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target. Similarly, CheMin measurements of the powdered < 150 micron fraction from the drillhole at Big Sky and sample from the Rocknest eolian deposit indicate that the mineralogies are strikingly similar. The main differences are the presence of olivine in the Rocknest eolian deposit, which is absent in the Big Sky target, and the presence of far more abundant Fe oxides in the Big Sky target. Quantifying the changes between the Big Sky target and the Rocknest eolian deposit can therefore help us understand the diagenetic changes that occurred forming the Stimson sedimentary unit. In order to interpret these aqueous changes, we performed reactive transport modeling of 1) the formation of the Big Sky target from a Rocknest eolian deposit-like parent material, and 2) the formation of the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target. This work allows us to test the relationships between the targets and the characteristics of the aqueous conditions that formed the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target, and the Big Sky target from a Rocknest eolian deposit-like parent material.

  18. Geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and Paleocene Fort Union Formation, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honey, J.D.; Hettinger, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation.

  19. Reactive mercury in the troposphere: Model formation and results for Florida, the northeastern United States, and the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillman, Sanford; Marsik, Frank J.; Al-Wali, Khalid I.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Landis, Matthew S.

    2007-12-01

    We describe the development of a model for transport and photochemistry of atmospheric mercury at the regional scale, along with an application to the eastern United States and adjacent Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, and comparison with aircraft-based measurements in Florida. The model is the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) with modifications to include an integrated solution for gas phase and aqueous photochemistry. The expanded chemistry includes O3, NOx, organics, sulfur, halogens and mercury. Divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) is formed slowly through gas phase reactions and removed rapidly by aqueous reactions in cloud water. Model results show that elevated RGM (up to 260 pg m-3) forms intermittently over the Atlantic Ocean in air masses that have a cloud-free history. Aircraft measurements in Florida show RGM varying between 10 and 250 pg m-3 and increasing with altitude, a pattern that is consistent with model results. Ambient RGM would increase by 50% if aqueous reduction reactions were omitted. The model predicts that ambient elemental mercury and RGM anticorrelate in regions where RGM is produced photochemically and correlate in regions dominated by direct emissions. Model results also suggest positive correlations between RGM and SO2, reactive nitrogen and H2O2, which may be used to identify photochemically produced versus directly emitted RGM. RGM in the model is strongly correlated with O3 during pollution events, and ozone formation from anthropogenic precursors is predicted to cause a significant increase in RGM.

  20. Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorber, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

  1. Farmers, Scientists, and Officers of Industry: The Formation and Reformation of Land-Grant Colleges in the Northeastern United States, 1862-1906

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorber, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the formation, reformation, and standardization of land-grant colleges in the Northeastern United States during the last four decades of the nineteenth century. It is a history that explores the turbulent origins of land-grant colleges in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont,…

  2. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (<23%) on a domain-wide basis, despite significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions (65-89% of total VOC emissions). However, the production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic

  3. Self-assembly and gelation of poly(aryl ether) dendrons containing hydrazide units: factors controlling the formation of helical structures.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Partha; Prasad, Edamana

    2015-03-23

    Self-assembly of AB2 and AB3 type low molecular weight poly(aryl ether) dendrons that contain hydrazide units were used to investigate mechanistic aspects of helical structure formation during self-assembly. The results suggest that there are three important aspects that control helical structure formation in such systems with acyl hydrazide/hydrazone linkage: i) J-type aggregation, ii) the hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor ability of the solvent, and iii) the dielectric constant of the solvent. The monomer units self-assemble to form dimer structures through hydrogen-bonding and further assembly of the hydrogen-bonded dimers leads to macroscopic chirality in the present case. Dimer formation was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The self-assembly in the system was driven by hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions. The morphology of the aggregates formed was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the analysis suggests that aprotic solvent systems facilitate helical fibre formation, whereas introduction of protic solvents results in the formation of flat ribbons. This detailed mechanistic study suggests that the self-assembly follows a nucleation-elongation model to form helical structures, rather than the isodesmic model.

  4. Managing the Nuclear Legacy in the United Kingdom: Strategies and Progress in the Formation of a Liabilities Management Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.; Meyers, B.

    2003-02-25

    This presentation describes the status of recent initiatives undertaken by the United Kingdom Government to address the long-standing problems confronting it with regards to discharge of public sector civil nuclear liabilities. It describes the enabling steps taken thus far in the creation of a Liabilities Management Unit (LMU) to prepare the ground for this important work, with specific reference to some of the more technically challenging problems which must be resolved in order to make progress towards cleaning up the UK's nuclear legacy facilities and waste materials. Finally, it addresses some of the approaches proposed by the LMU as it seeks to establish a robust, permanent entity to meet the challenges.

  5. War, Education and State Formation: Problems of Territorial and Political Integration in the United States, 1848-1912

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadie, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    After the Civil War (1861-1865), the United States faced a problem of "reconstruction" similar to that confronted by other nations at the time and familiar to the US since at least the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The problem was one of territorial and political (re)integration: how to take territories that had only recently been…

  6. War, Education and State Formation: Problems of Territorial and Political Integration in the United States, 1848-1912

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadie, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    After the Civil War (1861-1865), the United States faced a problem of "reconstruction" similar to that confronted by other nations at the time and familiar to the US since at least the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The problem was one of territorial and political (re)integration: how to take territories that had only recently been…

  7. Cleveland Diocesan Social Science Program. Social Studies Unit in Formation: A Supplement to the Social Science Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catholic Board of Education, Diocese of Cleveland, OH.

    Historical and cultural world understandings are presented to secondary students in this social studies teaching supplement to guidelines described in documents SO 003 186 and SO 003 188. The objective of the activity units is to encourage the students to become inquirers into the values of the non-western and western world. Emphasis is upon…

  8. 31 CFR 597.513 - Payments from funds originating outside the United States and the formation of legal defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the U.S. financial system should reference this paragraph (a) to avoid the blocking of the transfer... the United States. Effective December 7, 2010, receipts of payment through a U.S. financial...) Prior to receiving payment through a U.S. financial institution for legal services specified in § 597...

  9. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  10. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  11. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units, southeastern California and western Arizona: Implications for the evolution of the proto-Gulf of California and the lower Colorado River

    SciTech Connect

    Buising, A.V. )

    1990-11-10

    Mio-Pliocene sediments of the lower Colorado River area represent the nothernmost well documented extent of the proto-Gulf of California, a tectonically enigmatic marine incursion that occupied much of what is now the Gulf of California region--including the lower Colorado River area and the Salton Trough--as much as 8 m.y. prior to the onset of spreading-and transform-related subsidence in that area. Syndepositional folding of the Bouse Formation and bracketing units is believed to reflect slumping on oversteepened slopes, perhaps exacerbated by episodic tectonic activity. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units record four stages in the evolution of the northern proto-Gulf/lower Colorado River area: (1) dissection of preexisting, detachment fault-controlled topography and localized, interior-drainage alluvial deposition (about 14-9 Ma); (2) regional subsidence and proto-Gulf transgression (perhaps as early as about 8 Ma; not later than about 5.5 Ma); (3) progradation of ancestral Colorado River delta into the northern end of the proto-Gulf basin (prior to about 4.3 Ma); and (4) arrival of throughgoing Colorado fluvial channel (prior to about 3.5-4 Ma). Outcrop relations between the Osborne Wash strata and the Bouse Formation, and the relationship of these units to modern landforms, indicate that topography in the lower Colorado River area has not changed significantly since middle Miocene time. Subsidence of the Bouse basin is believed to have occurred via broad regional downwarping. Timing suggests that incipient proto-Gulf extension in the lower Colorado River area was arrested by the approximately 5-Ma shift to the modern transtensional regime.

  12. Multifunctional switching unit for add/drop, wavelength conversion, format conversion, and WDM multicast based on bidirectional LCoS and SOA-loop architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danshi; Zhang, Min; Qin, Jun; Lu, Guo-Wei; Wang, Hongxiang; Huang, Shanguo

    2014-09-08

    We propose a multifunctional optical switching unit based on the bidirectional liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) architecture. Add/drop, wavelength conversion, format conversion, and WDM multicast are experimentally demonstrated. Due to the bidirectional characteristic, the LCoS device cannot only multiplex the input signals, but also de-multiplex the converted signals. Dual-channel wavelength conversion and format conversion from 2 × 25Gbps differential quadrature phase-shift-keying (DQPSK) to 2 × 12.5Gbps differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in SOA is obtained with only one pump. One-to-six WDM multicast of 25Gbps DQPSK signals with two pumps is also achieved. All of the multicast channels are with a power penalty less than 1.1 dB at FEC threshold of 3.8 × 10⁻³.

  13. Vertebrate fossil-bearing paleosol units (Willwood Formation, Lower Eocene, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.): Implications for taphonomy, biostratigraphy, and assemblage analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the lower 300 m of the fluvial Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming, most large concentrations of vertebrate fossils consist of disarticulated and broken skeletal remains that occur in widespread, tubular, thin (2 cm-1 m) greenish- and bluish-gray mudstones that are low in percentage of free iron, aluminum, and manganese, relatively high in percentages of organic carbon, and often show evidence of clay eluviation. These units lie atop sesquioxide-rich, sometimes clay-illuviated variegated unit (red, yellow, purple, and mottled variants) and are relicts of the A horizons of podzolic spodosols (aquods). The wide distribution of bone fragments, the numerical proportions of bone elements, weathering of the fragments, and biogenic evidence indicate the vertebrate remains accumulated gradually as litter on the surface of the soils and became incorporated into the A horizon. The bones were disarticulated, broken, and otherwise disturbed by the action of scavengers prior to burial. Occurrence of abundant vertebrate remains in discrete, readily identifiable, and widespread paleosol units makes these units valuable biostratigraphic markers (zonules, faunules). Evidence of geologically short-term lag accumulation of the bones is important to assemblage analysis; the paleosol concentrations result from attritional mortalities that more closely reflect composition of the life assemblage than do remains concentrated by fluvial transport or predators. ?? 1981.

  14. Hands in medicine: understanding the impact of competency-based education on the formation of medical students' identities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Catherine; Zaidi, Zareen

    2016-01-01

    There have been critiques that competency training, which defines the roles of a physician by simple, discrete tasks or measurable competencies, can cause students to compartmentalize and focus mainly on being assessed without understanding how the interconnected competencies help shape their role as future physicians. Losing the meaning and interaction of competencies can result in a focus on 'doing the work of a physician' rather than identity formation and 'being a physician.' This study aims to understand how competency-based education impacts the development of a medical student's identity. Three ceramic models representing three core competencies 'medical knowledge,' 'patient care,' and 'professionalism' were used as sensitizing objects, while medical students reflected on the impact of competency-based education on identity formation. Qualitative analysis was used to identify common themes. Students across all four years of medical school related to the 'professionalism' competency domain (50%). They reflected that 'being an empathetic physician' was the most important competency. Overall, students agreed that competency-based education played a significant role in the formation of their identity. Some students reflected on having difficulty in visualizing the interconnectedness between competencies, while others did not. Students reported that the assessment structure deemphasized 'professionalism' as a competency. Students perceive 'professionalism' as a competency that impacts their identity formation in the social role of 'being a doctor,' albeit a competency they are less likely to be assessed on. High-stakes exams, including the United States Medical Licensing Exam clinical skills exam, promote this perception.

  15. Induction of platelet white blood cell (WBC) aggregate formation by platelets and WBCs in red blood cell units.

    PubMed

    Keating, Friederike K; Fung, Mark K; Schneider, David J

    2008-06-01

    Transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) preparations is independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to define mechanisms potentially contributing. The presence of platelets (PLTs), activated PLTs (PLTs expressing P-selectin), PLT-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), and PLT-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs) was determined in vitro with the use of flow cytometry in whole blood from healthy volunteers, in RBCs, and in whole blood after adding aliquots of RBCs. Both prestorage leukoreduced and nonleukoreduced RBCs were analyzed. Nonleukoreduced RBCs were subfractionated with the use of centrifugation and filtration to obtain a RBC-free and a cell-free fraction. Formation of PMAs and PNAs was determined in whole blood after the addition of aliquots of these subfractions. Nonleukoreduced RBCs contained 50 +/- 18 percent of the PLTs found in whole blood from healthy volunteers, and 43 +/- 16 percent of the PLTs were activated. Leukoreduced RBCs contained few PLTs (0.2 +/- 0.1% of volunteer blood). The majority (>60%) of white blood cells (WBCs) in nonleukoreduced RBCs were associated with PLTs. The formation of PMAs and PNAs in whole blood was increased approximately fivefold after addition of nonleukoreduced-RBCs (p < 0.0001) and by less than twofold with leukoreduced RBCs (p = 0.01). Addition of the essentially cell-free fraction of nonleukoreduced RBCs did not increase the formation of PNA or PMA in whole blood significantly. RBC preparations, particularly nonleukoreduced RBCs, contain activated PLTs and PLT-WBC aggregates and induce formation of PLT-WBC aggregates. This may be one mechanism contributing to adverse outcomes linked to transfusions in patients with cardiovascular disease.

  16. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Kanawati, B.; Römpp, A.; Spengler, B.; Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Chaimbault, P.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2008-05-01

    An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC) has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006), we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI) formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46) for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE) and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE). In the present work, we extend our previous study to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE) and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene). Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+)/TOF MS and ESI(+)/TOF MS/MS, and elemental compositions were determined by ESI(+)/FTICR MS and ESI(+)/FTICR MS/MS. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study. Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI) formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74) for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE), trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, and C4H8O2 (mass 88) for trans-4-octene. Analogous fragmentation pathways among the oligomers formed by gas-phase ozonolysis of the different

  17. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary, combined with the reaction kinetic parameters used in the models. A number of studies indicate that the migration of oil and gas in the Cenozoic Gulf of Mexico basin is primarily vertical, occurring along abundant growth faults associated with sediment deposition or along faults associated with salt domes. The USGS Tertiary assessment team developed a geologic model based on recurring regional-scale structural and depositional features in Paleogene strata to define assessment units (AUs). Three general areas, as described in the model, are found in each of the Paleogene stratigraphic intervals assessed: “Stable Shelf,” “Expanded Fault,” and “Slope and Basin Floor” zones. On the basis of this model, three AUs for the Frio Formation were defined: (1) the Frio Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU, containing reservoirs with a mean depth of about 4,800 feet in normally pressured intervals; (2) the Frio Expanded Fault Zone Oil and Gas AU, containing reservoirs with a mean depth of about 9,000 feet in primarily overpressured intervals; and (3) the Frio Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU, which currently has no production but has potential for deep gas resources (>15,000 feet). AUs also were defined for the Hackberry trend, which consists of a slope facies stratigraphically in the middle part of the Frio Formation, and the Anahuac Formation. The Frio Basin Margin AU, an assessment unit extending to the outcrop of the Frio (or basal Miocene), was not quantitatively assessed because of its low potential for production. Two proprietary, commercially available databases containing field and well production information were used in the assessment. Estimates of undiscovered resources for the five AUs were based on a total of 1,734 reservoirs and 586,500 wells producing from the Frio and Anahuac Formations. Estimated total mean values of technically recoverable, undiscovered resources are 172 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 9.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (TCFG), and 542

  18. Disinfection aboard cruise liners and naval units: formation of disinfection by-products using chlorine dioxide in different qualities of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ufermann, Petra; Petersen, Hauke; Exner, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The world-wide deployment of cruise liners and naval units has caused an increased need for the disinfection of drinking water. The main cause for this is the unknown quality of drinking water in foreign harbours--besides the formation of bio-films due to the climatically disadvantageous conditions in the operational area. Water conduits on board are currently disinfected with calcium hypochlorite in case of microbiological contamination. Chemical and physical analyses after disinfection with calcium hypochlorite have shown that organic by-products consisting of trihalomethanes develop in considerable amounts during disinfection. Furthermore, the method is susceptible to handling errors and thus often leads to insufficient disinfection results. Hitherto, the use of other disinfection methods allowed by government regulations, especially chlorine dioxide, is not widely spread. Unlike disinfection with calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide does not lead to the formation of trihalomethanes. Typical disinfection by-products (DBP) are the anions chlorite and chlorate, which are formed in oxidative processes. The formation conditions of these anions have not yet been elucidated. For this reason, the probability of the generation of inorganic by-products after disinfection with chlorine dioxide has been determined, and their occurrence in drinking water on board has been examined with respect to a possible correlation between water quality and the formation of chlorate and chlorite. Therefore, a chromatographic method was developed and validated in order to determine the periodical development of chlorate and chlorite from chorine dioxide in purified water at different pH-values as well as in actual drinking water samples from water conduits on board. The formation of the by-products chlorite and chlorate after disinfection with chlorine dioxide is influenced neither by pH-value nor by chemical properties of the disinfected water. Considering the examined conditions

  19. Family Formation Processes: Assessing the Need for a New Nationally Representative Household Panel Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    The American family has undergone rapid transformation. Careful measurement attention to family formation is important because families are at the heart of numerous decisions, roles, and responsibilities with implications for understanding the well-being of families, adults and children. This paper considers whether there is a need for a new household panel study that addresses family formation. This paper consists of a review of the recent body of population-based, American surveys and finds a considerable gap in the ability to study the implications of families for the health and well-being of Americans. Earlier panel surveys used to assess family life anchored questions around marital events, but changes in family patterns require attention to a more diverse set of family forms. The paper concludes with recommendations for a multi-purpose panel study. The key challenge is to keep to pace with complexity and changes in American family life while at the same time maintaining a parsimonious set of survey questions. PMID:26612969

  20. Radiating Amyloid Fibril Formation on the Surface of Lipid Membranes through Unit-Assembly of Oligomeric Species of α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Hong, Chul-Suk; Lee, Soonkoo; Yang, Jee-Eun; Park, Yong Il; Lee, Daekyun; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Jung, Seunho; Paik, Seung R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lewy body in the substantia nigra is a cardinal pathological feature of Parkinson's disease. Despite enormous efforts, the cause-and-effect relationship between Lewy body formation and the disorder is yet to be explicitly unveiled. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we showed that radiating amyloid fibrils (RAFs) were instantly developed on the surface of synthetic lipid membranes from the β-sheet free oligomeric species of α-synuclein through a unit-assembly process. The burgeoning RAFs were successfully matured by feeding them with additional oligomers, which led to concomitant dramatic shrinkage and disintegration of the membranes by pulling off lipid molecules to the extending fibrils. Mitochondria and lysosomes were demonstrated to be disrupted by the oligomeric α-synuclein via membrane-dependent fibril formation. Conclusion The physical structure formation of amyloid fibrils, therefore, could be considered as detrimental to the cells by affecting membrane integrity of the intracellular organelles, which might be a molecular cause for the neuronal degeneration observed in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23077644

  1. ATTAAA as well as downstream sequences are required for RNA 3'-end formation in the E3 complex transcription unit of adenovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, B M; Wold, W S

    1985-01-01

    We mapped the location of the E3A RNA 3' end site in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2. The procedure used was nuclease-gel analysis with 32P-labeled RNA probes. The poly(A) addition sites were microheterogeneous and were located approximately 17 to 29 nucleotides downstream from an ATTAAA sequence. To identify the sequences that make up the E3A RNA 3' end signal, we constructed five viable virus mutants with deletions in or near the E3A RNA 3' end site. The mutants were analyzed for E3A RNA 3' end formation in vivo. No effect was observed from a 47-base-pair (bp) deletion (dl716) or a 72-bp deletion (dl714) located 22 and 19 nucleotides, respectively, upstream of the ATTAAA. In contrast, E3A RNA 3' end formation was abolished by a 554-bp deletion (dl708) that removes both the ATTAAA and the poly(A) addition sites, a 124-bp deletion (dl713) that removes the ATTAAA but leaves the poly(A) addition sites, and a 65-bp deletion (dl719) that leaves the ATTAAA but removes the poly(A) addition sites. These results indicate that the ATTAAA, as well as downstream sequences, including the poly(A) addition sites, are required for E3A RNA 3' end formation. Images PMID:3018506

  2. The effect of marine isoprene emissions on secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation in the coastal United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, Brett; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The impact of marine isoprene emissions on summertime surface concentrations of isoprene, secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and ozone (O 3) in the coastal areas of the continental United States is studied using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Marine isoprene emission rates are based on the following five parameters: laboratory measurements of isoprene production from phytoplankton under a range of light conditions, remotely-sensed chlorophyll- a concentration ([Chl- a]), incoming solar radiation, surface wind speed, and sea-water optical properties. Model simulations show that marine isoprene emissions are sensitive to meteorology and ocean ecosystem productivity, with the highest rates simulated over the Gulf of Mexico. Simulated offshore surface layer marine isoprene concentration is less than 10 ppt and significantly dwarfed by terrestrial emissions over the continental United States. With the isoprene reactions included in this study, the average contribution of marine isoprene to SOA and O 3 concentrations is predicted to be small, up to 0.004 μg m -3 for SOA and 0.2 ppb for O 3 in coastal urban areas. The light-sensitivity of isoprene production from phytoplankton results in a midday maximum for marine isoprene emissions and a corresponding daytime increase in isoprene and O 3 concentrations in coastal locations. The potential impact of the daily variability in [Chl- a] on O 3 and SOA concentrations is simulated in a sensitivity study with [Chl- a] increased and decreased by a factor of five. Our results indicate that marine emissions of isoprene cause minor changes to coastal SOA and O 3 concentrations. Comparison of model simulations with few available measurements shows that the model underestimates marine boundary layer isoprene concentration. This underestimation is likely due to the limitations in current treatment of marine isoprene emission and a coarse spatial

  3. Characterization of the growth dynamics and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from contaminated platelet units.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamza; Greco-Stewart, Valerie S; Jacobs, Michael R; Yomtovian, Roslyn A; Rood, Ineke G H; de Korte, Dirk; Ramírez-Arcos, Sandra M

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) poses the highest transfusion-associated infectious risk, with Staphylococcus epidermidis being a predominant contaminant. Herein, the growth dynamics of 20 S. epidermidis strains in PCs and regular media were characterized. Strains were categorized as fast (short lag phase) or slow (long lag phase) growers in PCs. All strains were evaluated for the presence of the biofilm-associated icaAD genes by PCR, their capability to produce extracellular polysaccharide (slime) on Congo red agar plates and their ability to form surface-attached aggregates (biofilms) in glucose-supplemented trypticase soy broth (TSBg) using a crystal violet staining assay. A subset of four strains (two slow growers and two fast growers) was further examined for the ability for biofilm formation in PCs. Two of these strains carried the icAD genes, formed slime and produced biofilms in TSBg and PCs, while the other two strains, which did not carry icaAD, did not produce slime or form biofilms in TSBg. Although the two ica-negative slime-negative strains did not form biofilms in media, they displayed a biofilm-positive phenotype in PCs. Although all four strains formed biofilms in PCs, the two slow growers formed significantly more biofilms than the fast growers. Furthermore, growth experiments of the two ica-positive strains in plasma-conditioned platelet bags containing TSBg revealed that a slow grower isolate was more likely to escape culture-based screening than a fast grower strain. Therefore, this study provides novel evidence that links S. epidermidis biofilm formation with slow growth in PCs and suggests that slow-growing biofilm-positive S. epidermidis would be more likely to be missed with automate culture. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Common Formative Assessments Developed through Professional Learning Communities (PLCs): A Case Study to Analyze the Alignment of Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction in a Math PLC at a Title I Middle School in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tory C.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of No Child Left Behind increased performance expectations for students across the United States and compelled teachers to focus on standardized assessments instead of frequent formative assessments to monitor instruction and promote student learning. Common formative assessments (CFAs) help teachers align curriculum, assessment,…

  5. Common Formative Assessments Developed through Professional Learning Communities (PLCs): A Case Study to Analyze the Alignment of Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction in a Math PLC at a Title I Middle School in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tory C.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of No Child Left Behind increased performance expectations for students across the United States and compelled teachers to focus on standardized assessments instead of frequent formative assessments to monitor instruction and promote student learning. Common formative assessments (CFAs) help teachers align curriculum, assessment,…

  6. UNIT, PETROLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

  7. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Kanawati, B.; Römpp, A.; Spengler, B.; Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Chaimbault, P.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2007-10-01

    An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC) has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006), we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI) formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46) for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE) and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE). In the present work, we extend our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006) to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE) and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene). Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+)/MS-TOF and ESI(+)/MS/MS-TOF, and elemental compositions were confirmed by ESI(+)/MS/MS-FTICR. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006). Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI) formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74) for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE), trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, and C4H8O2 (mass 88) for trans-4-octene. Analogous fragmentation pathways among the oligomers formed by gas

  8. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units, southeastern California and western Arizona: Implications for the evolution of the Proto-Gulf of California and the lower Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buising, Anna V.

    1990-11-01

    Mio-Pliocene sediments of the lower Colorado River area represent the northernmost well documented extent of the proto-Gulf of California, a tectonically enigmatic marine incursion that occupied much of what is now the Gulf of California region—including the lower Colorado River area and the Salton Trough—as much as 8 m.y. prior to the onset of spreading-and transform-related subsidence in that area. Fanglomerate and volcanic rocks informally referred to here as the Osborne Wash strata interfinger with the conformably overlying Bouse Formation. The Bouse Formation includes carbonate and coarse terrigenous-clastic basin margin deposits that interfinger laterally with basin fill material; basin fill strata comprise a basal estuarine carbonate unit overlain by fine-grained terrigenous-clastic deltaic deposits. The upper portion of the Bouse interfingers with overlying cobble conglomerates here referred to as the Colorado River gravels. Syndepositional folding of the Bouse Formation and bracketing units is believed to reflect slumping on oversteepened slopes, perhaps exacerbated by episodic tectonic activity. Syndepositional faults show both normal and reverse separation; outcrop relations allow but do not prove a strike-slip component of motion on some structures. Contemporaneous minor faults seem to reflect mutually incompatible stress orientations; this suggests that they record either localized stress fields or localized anomalous responses to regional stresses. Alternatively, they may reflect extension in two directions in the sediment pile overlying the subsiding basin floor. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units record four stages in the evolution of the northern proto-Gulf/lower Colorado River area: (1) dissection of preexisting, detachment fault-controlled topography and localized, interior-drainage alluvial deposition (about 14-9 Ma); (2) regional subsidence and proto-Gulf transgression (perhaps as early as about 8 Ma; not later than about 5.5 Ma); (3

  9. Understanding optimal nutrition among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico: employing formative research to lay the foundation for national birth defects prevention campaigns.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Lisa L Massi; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Valencia, Diana; Correa-Sierra, Elia; Kopfman, Jenifer E

    2007-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year and affected 404 pregnancies in Puerto Rico from 1996 to 2002. Consuming the B vitamin folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs 50%-70%, and recent efforts to reduce NTD rates have focused on increasing the number of childbearing-aged women who take a vitamin containing folic acid every day. As the first stage of formative research in campaign planning, two exploratory, qualitative studies were conducted in order to (a) understand the complexity of vitamin use among women in the United States and Puerto Rico and (b) serve as a foundation on which to develop national communication and education interventions. Also, this information shed light on theories that might be used to guide campaign development. Results indicated that campaign messages designed to increase folic acid use through multivitamin supplementation in the United States must address women's barriers to vitamin use (e.g., cost, time), increase women's perceived need for multivitamins (e.g., identify immediate, tangible results from taking a daily multivitamin), and address the relationship between daily food choices and the need for supplementation. Future campaign messages in Puerto Rico must focus on many of these same issues, in addition to increasing women's knowledge about when folic acid should be taken in relation to pregnancy and addressing women's perceptions that vitamins cause weight gain (an undesirable outcome for most participants). The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed in terms of their contribution to the development of a creative new approach to increase multivitamin consumption among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico.

  10. Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krížna Unit (Malá Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sýkora, Milan; Siblík, Miloš; Soták, Ján

    2011-04-01

    The Upper Triassic carbonates of the Krížna Unit in the eastern part of the Krivánska Malá Fatra Mts contain the unique siliciclastic interbeds. They are developed between the Ramsau Dolomite Formation and the Hauptdolomite Formation, and comprise alternating dark grey shales and pale grey dolomites. Such a shaly-dolomite formation is unknown from the Upper Triassic formations of the Krížna Unit, which makes it possible to define a new lithostratigraphic unit (Tržinovo Formation). The Ramsau Dolomites beneath the Tržinovo Formation contain microfauna of Carnian foraminifers. Therefore, the Carnian age has also been constrained for the Tržinovo Formation, which by the reduced carbonate productivity and enhanced terrigenous influx could be related to the Reingraben Event. This event related to the "Carnian Pluvial Episode" is also inferred in the Tržinovo Formation by the presence of lingulide brachiopods (Lingularia) and spinicaudatan crustaceans (Euestheria). This fauna provides evidence of not fully marine conditions of the Tržinovo Formation, influenced by continental freshwater influx and humid climate.

  11. Hands in medicine: understanding the impact of competency-based education on the formation of medical students’ identities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been critiques that competency training, which defines the roles of a physician by simple, discrete tasks or measurable competencies, can cause students to compartmentalize and focus mainly on being assessed without understanding how the interconnected competencies help shape their role as future physicians. Losing the meaning and interaction of competencies can result in a focus on ‘doing the work of a physician’ rather than identity formation and ‘being a physician.’ This study aims to understand how competency-based education impacts the development of a medical student’s identity. Methods Three ceramic models representing three core competencies ‘medical knowledge,’ ‘patient care,’ and ‘professionalism’ were used as sensitizing objects, while medical students reflected on the impact of competency-based education on identity formation. Qualitative analysis was used to identify common themes. Results Students across all four years of medical school related to the ‘professionalism’ competency domain (50%). They reflected that ‘being an empathetic physician’ was the most important competency. Overall, students agreed that competency-based education played a significant role in the formation of their identity. Some students reflected on having difficulty in visualizing the interconnectedness between competencies, while others did not. Students reported that the assessment structure deemphasized ‘professionalism’ as a competency. Conclusion Students perceive ‘professionalism’ as a competency that impacts their identity formation in the social role of ‘being a doctor,’ albeit a competency they are less likely to be assessed on. High-stakes exams, including the United States Medical Licensing Exam clinical skills exam, promote this perception. PMID:27572244

  12. Biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility and RAPD genotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains isolated from single centre intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Vaněrková, Martina; Mališová, Barbora; Kotásková, Iva; Holá, Veronika; Růžička, Filip; Freiberger, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and serotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains, including the clonal dissemination of particular strains throughout various intensive care units in one medical centre. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) and P. aeruginosa antisera, 22 different genotypes and 8 serotypes were defined among 103 isolates from 48 patients. No direct association between P. aeruginosa strain genotypes and serotypes was observed. RAPD typing in strains with the same serotype revealed different genotypes and, on the contrary, most strains with a different serotype displayed the same amplification pattern. The resulting banding patterns showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity among all isolates from the patients examined, suggesting a non-clonal relationship between isolates from these patients. A higher degree of antibiotic resistance and stronger biofilm production in common genotypes compared to rare ones and genetic homogeneity of the most resistant strains indicated the role of antibiotic pressure in acquiring resistant and more virulent strains in our hospital. In conclusion, genetic characterisation of P. aeruginosa strains using RAPD method was shown to be more accurate in epidemiological analyses than phenotyping.

  13. Investigating ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays in the Northeast United States using photochemical modeling and satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Faust, Eric; Hou, Xiangting; Lee, Pius; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Hedquist, Brent C.; Liao, Kuo-Jen

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates long-term (i.e., 2007-2014) fluctuations in ambient ozone formation regimes for cities adjacent to shale plays in the Northeast United States (U.S.). Ozone air quality in many cities of the Northeast U.S. does not meet the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and understanding ambient ozone formation regimes is essential to develop effective air pollution mitigation strategies for cities violating the air quality standards. Since 2013, the U.S. has become the world's largest producer of tight oil and natural gas from shale rock, and previous studies show that emissions of air pollutant precursors from shale oil and gas-related activities would have the potential to affect ambient ozone air quality in adjacent cities of shale plays. This work leveraged (1) satellite-retrieved column densities of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from multiple instruments (i.e., Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2)); (2) photochemical air quality modeling and sensitivity analysis; and (3) ratios of satellite-retrieved air pollutant column densities to investigate ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays (i.e., Marcellus Shale) in the Northeast U.S. from 2007 to 2014. Our results show that ambient ozone formation in Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. (which are close to Marcellus Shale) was in the NOx -limited or transition regime during the period of study. Ambient ozone formation in New York City was in the transition regime during 2010-2013 and VOC -limited regime during 2007-2009 and in 2014. Based on the result of this study, we conclude that controls NOx emissions would mitigate ozone air pollution from 2007 to 2014 in most of the cities examined in this study. Controls of local VOC emissions would ease ozone air pollution in New York City during the study period. With projected increases in oil and gas production from shale plays in

  14. Stem cells are units of natural selection for tissue formation, for germline development, and in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Irving L

    2015-07-21

    It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer.

  15. Stem cells are units of natural selection for tissue formation, for germline development, and in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Irving L.

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer. PMID:26195745

  16. Petrographic report on samples from units 4 and 5 salt, lower San Andres formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, L.M.; Hopping, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on samples of salt-bearing rock from a potential repository site in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The samples are from Permian Units 4 and 5 salt, Lower San Andres Formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. The mineralogic and petrographic data were obtained from polished thin sections cut parallel to the axis of the core for each sample. The polished thin sections were examined in order to determine the abundances of soluble (halite) and insoluble components (anhydrite, clay, carbonate, quartz, gypsum, etc.). The information reported here includes mineral associations (detrital, authigenic, cement, alteration, etc.), texture, grain size, and sedimentary fabrics. The report also includes representative photomicrographs with superimposed bar scales. Photomicrographs of polished thin sections have the up-core direction designated. X-ray diffraction was also used for identification of soluble and insoluble minerals. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mangala Valles, Mars: A reassessment of formation processes based on a new geomorphological and stratigraphic analysis of the geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Mangala Valles has always been viewed as the typical outflow channel formed by catastrophic floods of water. A new analysis has shown that the geomorphological traces of fluvial or lacustrine processes within Mangala Valles can be better explained by fluid lava flooding the channels and filling pre-existing impact craters. As for the circum-Chryse outflow channels, where no clear source of water or mechanism able to replenish water at its hydraulic head is observed, there is no geologic trace of a sudden removal of a volume of water (ice) necessary to carve Mangala Valles. Neither maars nor rootless cones, typical volcanic features indicative of interaction between lava and ground ice, were found. Past works suggested that the formation of Mangala Valles occurred in late Amazonian age when the climate of Mars was similar to that seen today, that is absolutely not liquid water friendly. The present work shows how the origin of Mangala Valles may go back to Noachian or even Pre-Noachian when other studies have concluded that the climate was not liquid water friendly. Even assuming limited periods of obliquity favourable to liquid water in the history of Mars, which is at odds with the widespread presence of unaltered olivine and jarosite, it is very difficult to find plausible mechanisms of aquifer recharge or signs of catastrophic water release at the Notch of Mangala Valles that could feed the multiple episodes, or even a single episode, of fluvial flooding suggested in the literature. This evidence and other analysis will show that the presence of water and, eventually, ground ice is not incontrovertible in the equatorial regions and should not be given for granted as commonly done so far in the literature. The geomorphological analysis of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) images provided in this paper, combined with THEMIS and MOLA data, show how Mangala Fossa, from which Mangala Valles originated as a breakout, is an erosional channel formed by the flow of

  18. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Ohio River Valley corridor in the Appalachian Basin, which underlies large concentrations of CO{sub 2} emission sources. In addition, some wells in the Michigan basin are included. Assessment of the geologic and petrophysical properties of zones of interest has been conducted. Although a large number of formations have been evaluated across the geologic column, the primary focus has been on evaluating the Cambrian sandstones (Mt. Simon, Rose Run, Kerbel) and carbonates layers (Knox Dolomite) as well as on the Silurian-Devonian carbonates (Bass Island, Salina) and sandstones (Clinton, Oriskany, Berea). Factors controlling the development of porosity and permeability, such as the depositional setting have been explored. In northern Michigan the Bass Islands Dolomite appears to have favorable reservoir development. In west central Michigan the St. Peter sandstone exhibits excellent porosity in the Hart and Feuring well and looks promising. In Southeastern Kentucky in the Appalachian Basin, the Batten and Baird well provided valuable data on sequestration potential in organic shales through adsorption. In central and eastern Ohio and western West Virginia, the majority of the wells provided an insight to the complex geologic framework of the relatively little known Precambrian through Silurian potential injection targets. Although valuable data was acquired and a number of critical data gaps were filled through this effort, there are still many challenges ahead and questions that need answered. The lateral extent to which favorable potential injection conditions exist in most reservoirs is still generally uncertain. The prolongation of the characterization of regional geologic framework through partnership would continue to build confidence and greatly benefit the overall CO{sub 2} sequestration effort.

  19. Imaging-Assisted Large-Format Breast Pathology: Program Rationale and Development in a Nonprofit Health System in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, F. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Modern breast imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, provides an increasingly clear depiction of breast cancer extent, often with suboptimal pathologic confirmation. Pathologic findings guide management decisions, and small increments in reported tumor characteristics may rationalize significant changes in therapy and staging. Pathologic techniques to grossly examine resected breast tissue have changed little during this era of improved breast imaging and still rely primarily on the techniques of gross inspection and specimen palpation. Only limited imaging information is typically conveyed to pathologists, typically in the form of wire-localization images from breast-conserving procedures. Conventional techniques of specimen dissection and section submission destroy the three-dimensional integrity of the breast anatomy and tumor distribution. These traditional methods of breast specimen examination impose unnecessary limitations on correlation with imaging studies, measurement of cancer extent, multifocality, and margin distance. Improvements in pathologic diagnosis, reporting, and correlation of breast cancer characteristics can be achieved by integrating breast imagers into the specimen examination process and the use of large-format sections which preserve local anatomy. This paper describes the successful creation of a large-format pathology program to routinely serve all patients in a busy interdisciplinary breast center associated with a community-based nonprofit health system in the United States. PMID:23316372

  20. Mojave-Yavapai boundary zone, southwestern United States: A rifting model for the formation of an isotopically mixed crustal boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duebendorfer, Ernest M.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Fry, Bill

    2006-08-01

    The boundary between the Paleoproterozoic Mojave and Yavapai crustal provinces in the southwestern United States is a 75-km-wide zone characterized by complex, isotopically mixed (Pb) crust, similar to other transitional crustal and lithospheric boundaries worldwide. Mojave crust is more isotopically evolved than the juvenile crust of the Yavapai province, indicating an older crustal component. Several areas of isotopically juvenile rocks within and near the boundary zone correspond to exposures of coeval >1.73 Ga supracrustal rocks that contain pillow basalts and bimodal metavolcanic sequences. We suggest that regions of juvenile crust within the Mojave province and its boundary zone represent rift basins, produced by extension or transtension near the eastern margin of the province, into which primitive basaltic lavas and bimodal volcanic sequences were erupted. The largest region of juvenile material within the boundary zone is bound to the west by a series of coincident, N-trending isotopic, geochemical, metamorphic, and geophysical discontinuities that may represent a fundamental, buried crustal structure, perhaps a rift margin. We propose that the distinct isotopic signature of the boundary zone persisted through subsequent deformational events, including the one that juxtaposed the two provinces. If our model for the formation of the boundary zone is correct, its isotopically mixed character is at least partly an artifact of the precollision history of the eastern Mojave province, and may not solely reflect the processes that juxtaposed the two provinces. Formation of new crust by rifting may represent an underappreciated form of crustal growth during the Paleoproterozoic that is distinct from arc accretion. Models for the formation of complex crustal boundary zones must consider the early, prejuxtaposition history of terranes in interpreting their geochemical and geophysical characteristics.

  1. Contributions of Selected Biogenic and Aromatic Compounds to the Formation of Tropospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol over Several Sites in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaoui, M.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Lewandowski, M.; Offenberg, J. H.; Corse, E. W.; Gerald, T.; Edney, E.

    2009-12-01

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently undertook an integrated laboratory and field research effort to better understand the contribution of biogenic and aromatic hydrocarbons to the formation of submicron ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In the laboratory, isoprene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, 1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, benzene, and toluene were individually irradiated under a wide range of conditions in a photochemical reaction chamber in the presence of nitrogen oxide (NOx). These hydrocarbons are thought to contribute to ambient SOA formation. In field studies conducted in Research Triangle Park, NC; Duke Forest in Chapel Hill, NC; Atlanta, GA; Pensacola, FL; Birmingham and Centerville, AL; Riverside, CA; Detroit, MI; Northbrook, East St. Louis and Bondville, IL; and Cincinnati, OH, ambient PM2.5 samples were collected for various periods between 2003 and 2006. The SOA collected from these laboratory experiments and the ambient PM2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) concentration and for organic tracer compounds by GC-MS using BSTFA derivatization for their identification and quantification. An organic tracer-based method was developed for estimating ambient SOA concentrations from individual SOA precursors to allow an assessment of SOA model predictions with ambient data. The results show that several major reaction products detected in SOA formed in the laboratory photooxidations were among the major compounds detected in field samples, effectively connecting laboratory and field results. Using the tracer-based method, the contributions of isoprene and monoterpenes to SOA formation show strong seasonal dependencies. However, no clear seasonal variations were observed for sesquiterpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. The contribution of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol to ambient SOA was found to be not only season dependent but also higher in locations dominated by conifers, which are

  2. Fishes and tetrapods in the upper pennsylvanian (kasimovian) cohn coal member of the mattoon formation of illinois, United States: Systematics, paleoecology, and paleoenvironments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, D.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Benton, M.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate assemblage is reported from the Upper Pennsylvanian (mid-to upper Kasimovian) Cohn Coal Member of the Mattoon Formation of southeast Illinois, United States. Teeth, scales, and spines of xenacanth (Dicentrodus, Orthacanthus, Triodus, Xenacanthus) and euselachian (Sphenacanthus) sharks dominate the assemblage. Less common are the teeth, scales, and centra of holocephalan (Helodus) and actinopterygian fishes, together with rare tetrapod (mainly pelycosaur) phalanges and centra. The assemblage occurs within a broad, shallow channel incised into a prominent Vertisol. The channel is interpreted as having been cut during a seasonally dry glacial phase when sea level was low, but filled during a subsequent transgression triggered by deglaciation. We interpret this as a brackish water (estuarine) assemblage, based on the co-occurrence of the vertebrate material with spirorbids (putative microconchids) and paleoecological inferences gleaned from a critical analysis of the literature dealing with Pennsylvanian fish ecology. This interpretation is broadly consistent with taphonomic data and the results of 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis of shark material. The pelycosaur material may have been reworked from the lowstand Vertisol, however, and these animals occupied dryland niches that developed during glacial phases. ?? 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the balance of forces governing the formation of a guanine tetrad—a common structural unit of G-quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Mateusz; Kleist, Cyprian; Czub, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are nucleic acid conformations of guanine-rich sequences, in which guanines are arranged in the square-planar G-tetrads, stacked on one another. G4 motifs form in vivo and are implicated in regulation of such processes as gene expression and chromosome maintenance. The structure and stability of various G4 topologies were determined experimentally; however, the driving forces for their formation are not fully understood at the molecular level. Here, we used all-atom molecular dynamics to probe the microscopic origin of the G4 motif stability. By computing the free energy profiles governing the dissociation of the 3′-terminal G-tetrad in the telomeric parallel-stranded G4, we examined the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of a single G-tetrad, as a common structural unit of G4 DNA. Our results indicate that the energetics of guanine association alone does not explain the overall stability of the G-tetrad and that interactions involving sugar–phosphate backbone, in particular, the constrained minimization of the phosphate–phosphate repulsion energy, are crucial in providing the observed enthalpic stabilization. This enthalpic gain is largely compensated by the unfavorable entropy change due to guanine association and optimization of the backbone topology. PMID:26980278

  4. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  5. The single grain fusion dating approach: Determining the factors that control white mica 40Ar/39Ar age formation during HP metamorphism of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uunk, Bertram; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2017-04-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar dating is a proven powerful tool for constraining the timing and rate of metamorphism, deformation and exhumation. However, for high-pressure metamorphic rocks dating often results in wide age ranges, which are not in agreement with constraints from other isotopic systems, indicating that geological and chemical processes complicate straightforward 40Ar/39Ar dating. Despite hosting one of the largest geochronological datasets in the world, the Cycladic Blueschist Unit in Greece is presently one of the focal areas in the discussion on the interpretation of metamorphic 40Ar/39Ar ages. Previous phengite multi grain step heating experiments commonly yielded undulating age spectra ranging between 20 - 60 Ma. While some studies attempt to assign geological significance to these ages, others argue the ages are geologically meaningless and the result of the interplay between partial diffusive resetting and continued crystallization. By taking an alternative approach of multiple single grain fusion experiments, this study investigates age heterogeneity between samples of contrasting metamorphic facies, rheology and strain from the Cycladic islands of Syros and Sifnos. Comparing the size and shape of single grain fusion age distributions at the grain, rock, outcrop and island scale allows determination of the scale at which different age-forming processes operate. Resulting ages show a previously unreported consistent variation between different outcrops, moving from the eclogite-blueschist facies (55-45 Ma) to greenschist overprinting (40-30 Ma). This indicates that outcrop scale homogeneous resetting is the dominant processes for age formation in the CBU. Single grain age variation at the sample and outcrop scale is only limited to 10 Ma, indicating a smaller but observable role for local age perturbing processes of incomplete resetting, continued (re)crystallization or infiltration of excess argon. Some of the partially overprinted samples show

  6. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  7. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  8. United States Environmental Protection Agency perchlorate method 332.0 via microbore and capillary chromatographic formats: statistical evaluation of the use of (18)O-perchlorate internal standard with deionized-water matrices.

    PubMed

    Vanatta, L E; Slingsby, R W

    2009-08-01

    A statistically sound evaluation is made of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's perchlorate Method 332.0 by tandem ion chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Two microbore formats and one capillary format are used with a deionized-water matrix. The evaluation is made for raw peak-area data and for analyte responses scaled by the internal standard, over an analyte concentration range of 0.25 to 200 microg/L. Results indicate that: (i) the internal-standard signal is suppressed by the analyte in both microbore formats; (ii) the analyte signal is not affected by the internal standard; (iii) models for the calibration curves usually contain bias; (iv) the measurement uncertainty is similar in magnitude for both the peak-area- and ratio-based curves.

  9. Composition and origin of the Apennine Bench Formation. [pre-mare light plains unit along some Imbrium basin margins near Apollo 15 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    Integration of stratigraphic relationships, geologic setting, surface morphology and remote sensing data suggest that the Apennine Bench Formation is composed of post-Imbrium basin volcanic KREEP basalt flows. This KREEP volcanism occurred shortly after the time of Imbrium basin formation and may have been triggered by the large basin impact which could have provided the structural 'plumbing' through which magma could reach the surface. There are indications that the Apennine Bench Formation may represent the largest surface exposure of highland (nonmare) volcanism preserved on the lunar surface and, as such, provides valuable insight into early lunar crustal processes.

  10. Examining the role of NOx and acidity on organic aerosol formation through predictions of key isoprene aerosol species in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene is a significant contributor to organic aerosol in the Southeastern United States. Later generation isoprene products, specifically isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) and methacryloylperoxynitrate (MPAN), have been identified as SOA precursors. The contribution of each pathway ...

  11. Examining the role of NOx and acidity on organic aerosol formation through predictions of key isoprene aerosol species in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene is a significant contributor to organic aerosol in the Southeastern United States. Later generation isoprene products, specifically isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) and methacryloylperoxynitrate (MPAN), have been identified as SOA precursors. The contribution of each pathway ...

  12. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  13. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the shale gas prospectivity of the Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation in the onshore Gulf Coast region, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Scott, Kristina; Valentine, Brett J.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work by the U.S. Geological Survey indicated that the Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation contains an estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable unconventional gas resource of 8.8 trillion cubic ft in the Maverick Basin, South Texas. Cumulative gas production from horizontal wells in the core area of the emerging play has exceeded 5 billion cubic ft since 2008. However, very little information is available to characterize the Pearsall Formation as an unconventional gas resource beyond the Maverick Basin in the greater Gulf Coast region. Therefore, this reconnaissance study examines spatial distribution, thickness, organic richness and thermal maturity of the Pearsall Formation in the onshore U.S. Gulf states using wireline logs and drill cuttings sample analysis. Spontaneous potential and resistivity curves of approximately forty wireline logs from wells in five Gulf Coast states were correlated to ascertain the thickness of the Pearsall Formation and delineate its three members: Pine Island Shale, James Limestone or Cow Creek Limestone, and Bexar Shale, in ascending stratigraphic order. In Florida and Alabama the Pearsall Formation is up to about 300 ft thick; in Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and East Texas, thickness is up to as much as 800 ft. Drill cuttings sampled from 11 wells at depths ranging from 4600 to 19,600 feet subsurface indicate increasingly oxygenated depositional environments (predominance of red shale) towards the eastern part of the basin. Cuttings vary widely in lithology but indicate interbedded clastics and limestones throughout the Pearsall Formation, consistent with previous regional studies. Organic petrographic and geochemical analyses of 17 cutting samples in the Pearsall Formation indicate a wide range in thermal maturity, from immature (0.43% Ro [vitrinite reflectance]) in paleo-high structural locations to the peak oil window (0.99% Ro) in the eastern portion of the Gulf Coast Basin. This is in contrast to dry gas

  15. Small-angle X-ray scattering study of conditions for the formation of growth units of protein crystals in lysozyme solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakova, Yu. A.; Ilina, K. B.; Konarev, P. V.; Kryukova, A. E.; Marchenkova, M. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Volkov, V. V.; Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    The structural composition of lysozyme solutions favorable for the formation of the tetragonal form of protein crystals was studied by synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering depending on the protein concentration and the temperature. Along with lysozyme monomers, dimers and octamers are found in crystallization solutions; the octamer content increases with an increase in the protein concentration.

  16. Formation of Epoxide Derived SOA and Gas-Phase Acids through Aqueous Aerosol Processing in the Southeastern United States during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skog, K.; Teng, A.; Nguyen, T. B.; Nguyen, K.; Suda, S. R.; Xu, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Feiner, P. A.; Zhang, L.; Olson, K. F.; Koss, A.; Wild, R. J.; St Clair, J.; Crounse, J.; Baumann, K.; Wennberg, P. O.; Petters, M.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Ng, N. L.; Brune, W. H.; De Gouw, J. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Brown, S. S.; Edgerton, E. S.; McNeill, V. F.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes to climate and adversely affects human health, but the formation of SOA is poorly understood. Recent studies have proposed that aqueous processing of water-soluble compounds like glyoxal and IEPOX can help explain the abundance of organosulfates, higher oxygen to carbon ratios, and SOA abundance. A comprehensive set of ambient gas- and aerosol-phase data was collected during June and July of 2013 as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the Centreville, AL ground site. Both gas-phase photochemistry and aqueous-phase aerosol chemistry were modeled using a zero-dimensional box model. While it has been suggested that glyoxal can contribute to aqueous aerosol through the formation of acids and higher-molecular-weight compounds, it did not produce enhanced aqSOA concentrations. Instead, processing of aqueous glyoxal resulted in the production of gas-phase acids. AqSOA consisted almost entirely of epoxide processing products, mainly from the processing of IEPOX to methyl tetrol, and the organosulfate. In addition, the pinene oxides contributed to the formation of aqSOA, through the formation of organosulfates, diols, and organonitrates. These data are consistent with the abundance of IEPOX and pinene oxide organonitrate derived SOA seen at this site.

  17. A Formative Evaluation of Me Now, Unit I, Digestion and Circulation, Life Sciences for the Educable Mentally Handicapped Intermediate Grades (11-13 years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James T.; Tolman, Richard R.

    In order to evaluate Unit I (Digestion and Circulation) of the Me Now series of Life Sciences for the Educable Mentally Handicapped, 139 students in an experimental group (mean IQ 72.04; mean CA 144.9 months) and 154 control subjects (mean IQ 70.2; mean CA 148.3 months) were pre- and post-tested following instruction in the Me Now series…

  18. A Formative Evaluation of Me Now, Unit I, Digestion and Circulation, Life Sciences for the Educable Mentally Handicapped Intermediate Grades (11-13 years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James T.; Tolman, Richard R.

    In order to evaluate Unit I (Digestion and Circulation) of the Me Now series of Life Sciences for the Educable Mentally Handicapped, 139 students in an experimental group (mean IQ 72.04; mean CA 144.9 months) and 154 control subjects (mean IQ 70.2; mean CA 148.3 months) were pre- and post-tested following instruction in the Me Now series…

  19. Influence of atmospheric dispersion and new particle formation events on ambient particle number concentration in Rochester, United States, and Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Evans, Greg J; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David; Utell, Mark J

    2006-04-01

    Continuous measurements of particle number concentrations were performed in Rochester, NY, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada during the 2003 calendar year. Strong seasonal dependency in particle number concentration was observed at two sites. The average number concentration of ambient particles was 9670 +/- 6960 cm(-3) in Rochester, whereas in Toronto the average number of particles was 28,010 +/- 13,350 cm(-3). The particle number concentrations were higher in winter months than in summer months by a factor of 1.5 in Rochester and 1.6 in Toronto. In general, there were also distinct diurnal variations of aerosol number concentration. The highest weekdays/weekends ratio of number concentration was typically observed during the rush-hour period in winter months with a ratio of 2.1 in Rochester and 2.0 in Toronto. The correlation in the total particle number concentrations between the two urban sites was stronger in winter because of the common urban traffic patterns, but weaker in summer because of local sulfur dioxide (SO2)-related particle formation events in Rochester in the summer. Strong morning particle formation events were frequently observed during colder winter months. Good correlations between particle number and carbon monoxide (CO) as well as temperature suggested that motorvehicle emissions lead to the formation of new particles as the exhaust mixes with the cold air. Regional nucleation and growth events frequently occurred in April. Local SO2-related particle formation events most frequently occurred in August. SO2 and UV-B were highly correlated with particle concentration, suggesting a high association of photochemical processes with these local events. A high directionality in a northerly direction was observed for particle number and SO2, indicating the influence of point sources located north of Rochester.

  20. Pore-Water Quality in the Clay-Silt Confining Units of the Lower Miocene Kirkwood Formation and Hypothetical Effects on Water Quality in the Atlantic City 800-Foot Sand, Northeastern Cape May County, New Jersey, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; Keller, Elizabeth A.; Defawe, Rose M.

    2006-01-01

    Pore water was extracted from clay-silt core samples collected from a borehole at Ocean View, west of Sea Isle City, in northeastern Cape May County, New Jersey. The borehole intersects the lower Miocene Kirkwood Formation, which includes a thick sand and gravel unit between two clay-silt units. The sand and gravel unit forms a major confined aquifer in the region, known as the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the major source of potable water along the Atlantic Coast of southern New Jersey. The pore water from the core is of interest because the borehole intersects the aquifer in an area where the ground water is sodium-rich and sulfidic. Locally in the aquifer in central and southern Cape May County, sodium concentrations are near the New Jersey secondary drinking-water standard of 50 mg/L (milligrams per liter), and typically are greater than 30 mg/L, but chloride and sulfate do not approach their respective secondary drinking-water standards except in southernmost Cape May County. Pore waters from the confining units are suspected to be a source of sodium, sulfur, and chloride to the aquifer. Constituent concentrations in filtered pore-water samples were determined using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analytical technique to facilitate the determination of low-level concentrations of many trace constituents. Calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate, calcium-chloride-sulfate, calcium-sulfate, and sodium-sulfate-chloride-bicarbonate type waters characterize samples from the deepest part of the confining unit directly overlying the aquifer (termed the 'lower' confining unit). A sodium-chloride-sulfate type water is dominant in the composite confining unit below the aquifer. Sodium, chloride, and sulfate became increasingly dominant with depth. Pore water from the deepest sample recovered (1,390 ft (feet) below land surface) was brackish, with concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate of 5,930, 8,400, and 5,070 mg/L, respectively. Pore-water samples

  1. Characterizing fog and the physical mechanisms leading to its formation during precipitation in a coastal area of the northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Robert M.

    The presence of fog has impacts in areas as varied as public safety and health, economic issues for the transportation industry, health of ecosystems and modification of ambient aerosols. Despite scientific and technological advances, the accurate prediction of fog remains a formidable challenge. The goals of this research consist of identifying and characterizing the various fog regimes in the New York City region and gaining a better understanding of the physical mechanisms influencing the life cycle of fog, with an emphasis on the most common type. This is accomplished through analyses of historical data and observations from sensors deployed at a site in the region, complemented by numerical model simulations. Fog is found to be a superposition of five different types, each exhibiting distinct features in its spatial and temporal variability. Precipitation fog is the most common, with its formation generally taking place as light rain or drizzle falls into saturated low level inversions. Fog formation involves precipitating drops departing from equilibrium and remaining warmer than the ambient air of the inversion. These drops continue evaporating even in a saturated environment, creating supersaturated conditions and activation of cloud condensation nuclei. The existence of non-equilibrium raindrops is theoretically described and investigated with a detailed microphysical model. Simulations are performed and observations taken during a precipitation fog event are analyzed to obtain a quantitative assessment of the key role of rainfall evaporation in the formation of supersaturated conditions and fog.

  2. Strain accommodated by brittle failure in adjacent units of the Monterey Formation, U.S.A.: scale effects and evidence for uniform displacement boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Michael R.; Engelder, Terry

    1995-09-01

    Extensional strain accommodated by brittle deformation was measured in adjacent mudstone and dolostone units at Arroyo Burro beach, California. The dolostone failed in effective tension whereas the mudstone failed in shear, both in response to the same extensional tectonic event. In the mudstone unit initial bed-length and fault-displacement methods document extensional strains of 6.6% ± 0.3% and 6.0% ± 0.3%, respectively. Upon adjusting the displacement estimates according to theoretical fault displacement population analysis, the corrected strain becomes 9.7% ± 0.3% for the mudstone. Measurements of vein apertures in the dolostone document extensional strain that varies according to scale, with outcrop vein scanlines indicating a strain of 3.4% ± 0.1%, and thin-section scanlines yielding a strain of 5.8% ± 0.2. Applying theoretical fault displacement population analysis to vein apertures in dolostone shows that small veins below the detection limit of outcrop surveys contribute significantly to fracture-related strain within the dolostone. This difference in extensional strain may arise because veins measured in outcrop extend across the entire bed height and thus are controlled by the dolostone mechanical layer thickness, whereas microscopic veins measured in thin-section terminate without regard to a bounding layer. The corrected dolostone strain becomes 10.2% ± 1.0%, matching the revised strain calculated in the adjacent mudstone unit and indicating uniform displacement boundary conditions for the two markedly different lithologies. The ~10% extensional strain at Arroyo Burro indicates significant strike-parallel (NW-SE) extension accommodated by brittle failure during development of the western Transverse Ranges fold and thrust belt.

  3. Long-term consequences of surgical brain injury - characteristics of the neurovascular unit and formation and demise of the glial scar in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata; Chrapusta, Stanisław J; Sulejczak, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures often involve, as a result of the surgeon approaching the diseased region, unavoidable trauma to the adjacent, non-diseased brain structures. Because of the priority of removing the immediate threats to health or life that underlie such interventions, side effects of surgical brain injuries were not given much attention until recently. The cause-and-effect association of the eventual delayed cognitive and/or neurological deficits is often obscure due to substantial potential of the brain for compensatory changes, long life span in man, and aging-related phenomena. However, animal and human studies have demonstrated that physical insults to the brain can initiate a cascade of changes that results, in the long run, in massive neurodegeneration and brain atrophy. Here we present a review of morphological and ultrastructural findings obtained mostly in a rat model of surgical neocortex injury, with consideration of the current view of this region as a network of specific neurovascular units. The neurovascular unit is a dynamic assembly consisting of a capillary vessel, pericytes, neurons and capillary-bound astrocytes. The integrity of this building block and the interactions between its component parts are responsible, among other things, for the proper functioning of the blood-brain barrier, brain blood circulation and the brain as a whole, and its dysregulation is associated with many CNS pathologies. The studies performed in the rat model of surgical brain injury presented in this review have brought new interesting findings regarding the consequences of such damage to the (ultra)structure and hence presumably to the function of the unit. These findings may have some relevance to human clinical situations.

  4. Advanced stimulation technology deployment program: Unocal Corporation, Dakota and Mesaverde formations, Rincon Unit, San Juan Basin. Topical report, June 1995-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.A.; Weijers, L.; Minner, W.A.

    1996-06-01

    Pinnacle Technologies successfully deployed AST to numerous engineers from Unocal. Unocal estimated an 11% reduction in completion costs after implementing AST on their hydraulic fracture treatments in the Rincon Unit, New Mexico, resulting in a total cost savings of $850,000 on 25 wells. Despite the poorer geology of the newly completed wells, well productivity was equivalent to the older wells with `conventional` fracture treatment designs. Pressure build-up tests also confirmed the improved fracture treatment results: propped fractures of AST-treatments appeared at least twice as long as fractures from conventional treatments, even though completion costs have been reduced.

  5. The role of international institutions in the formation of international bioethical law: UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly attempt to govern human cloning.

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, Chamundeeswari

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the international governance of human reproductive cloning. Noting that bioethics is a new field of engagement for international lawyers, it recounts some of the institutional developments in bioethical law making. The role of UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly is scrutinized and the author discusses the relative merits of the institutions' governance of human reproductive cloning. The author suggests that some international institutions and mechanisms are better suited than others for bioethical law making. The 2005 General Assembly resolution on human cloning is analysed in this context.

  6. Paleomagnetism of the Late Triassic Petrified Forest Formation, Chinle Group, western United States: Further evidence of “large” rotation of the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Maureen B.; Lucas, Spencer G.

    2000-11-01

    Paleomagnetic poles and magnetostratigraphy were obtained from the late Carnian and early Norian Petrified Forest Formation. The remanent magnetization characteristics of this variegated claystones formation are correlated closely with stratal color; red strata display univectorial magnetizations directed to the origin of orthogonal axes plots between 300° and 630°C, whereas progressively greater overlap in magnetization component stabilities is exhibited by purple, blue, and green strata. Rock-magnetic, petrographic, and microprobe investigations indicate that detrital titanohematite is the carrier of much of the characteristic magnetization, with a smaller contribution from magnetite in green and portions of the red strata. Eight magnetic polarity intervals were observed in three quarters of the formation (155 m) good correlation is observed with the coeval portion of the Newark Supergroup. Paleopoles from the late Carnian Blue Mesa and the early Norian Painted Desert Members of the Petrified Forest Formation are identical and agree well with other Chinle Group paleopoles from the Colorado Plateau; the tight cluster formed by all poles indicates that little or no apparent polar wander (APW) with respect to North America occurred during the Late Triassic (late Carnian through Rhaetian time). In addition, Chinle Group paleopoles derived from strata located on the North American (NA) craton also are tightly grouped and indicative of a paucity of significant APW through the Late Triassic. With that same observation from the coeval Newark Supergroup, three independent Late Triassic data sets from different tectonic settings in NA indicate minimal or no APW during more than 20 m.y. The combination of the vertebrate fauna and magnetostratigraphy within the Chinle Group provides a high degree of age control, allowing comparisons among coeval Colorado Plateau (CP) and NA craton paleopoles at about a 250-500 kyr level. CP Chinle Group paleopoles are displaced 9±3

  7. Glaciation and saline-freshwater mixing as a possible cause of cave formation in the eastern midcontinent region of the United States: A conceptual model

    SciTech Connect

    Panno, S.V. ); Bourcier, W.L. )

    1990-08-01

    We present a hypothesis for the formation of caves and associated karst features near the southern margins of the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins. Spatial and temporal relations among intracratonic basins, karstic terrain, and continental glaciation suggest that Pleistocene glaciation may have initiated the discharge of saline waters from the margins of these basins. Glaciation-induced discharge of saline waters could result from the consolidation of sediments due to the overlying pressure of glacial ice, and flushing of underlying aquifers as a result of bottom melting in recharge areas of basic aquifers. The upward migration of basin-derived saline waters into near-surface aquifers would result in the mixing of saline waters with infiltrating glacial meltwater and meteoric water. The development of a vertically restricted zone of mixing of saline and fresh water in limestone aquifers would result in the dissolution of limestone; this mechanism could be responsible for the formation, or at least the initiation of, some caves and associated karst features in the midcontinent region.

  8. Probing into regional O3 and particulate matter pollution in the United States: 2. An examination of formation mechanisms through a process analysis technique and sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wen, Xin-Yu; Wang, Kai; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2009-11-01

    Following a comprehensive model evaluation in part 1, this part 2 paper describes results from 1 year process analysis and a number of sensitivity simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system aimed to understand the formation mechanisms of O3 and PM2.5, their impacts on global environment, and implications for pollution control policies. Process analyses show that the most influential processes for O3 in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are vertical and horizontal transport, gas-phase chemistry, and dry deposition and those for PM2.5 are primary PM emissions, horizontal transport, PM processes, and cloud processes. Exports of O3 and Ox from the U.S. PBL to free troposphere occur primarily in summer and at a rate of 0.16 and 0.65 Gmoles day-1, respectively. In contrast, export of PM2.5 is found to occur during all seasons and at rates of 25.68-34.18 Ggrams day-1, indicating a need to monitor and control PM2.5 throughout the year. Among nine photochemical indicators examined, the most robust include PH2O2/PHNO3, HCHO/NOy, and HCHO/NOz in winter and summer, H2O2/(O3 + NO2) in winter, and NOy in summer. They indicate a VOC-limited O3 chemistry in most areas in winter, but a NOx-limited O3 chemistry in most areas except for major cities in April-November, providing a rationale for nationwide NOx emission control and integrated control of NOx and VOCs emissions for large cities during high O3 seasons (May-September). For sensitivity of PM2.5 to its precursors, the adjusted gas ratio provides a more robust indicator than that without adjustment, especially for areas with insufficient sulfate neutralization in winter. NH4NO3 can be formed in most of the domain. Integrated control of emissions of PM precursors such as SO2, NOx, and NH3 are necessary for PM2.5 attainment. Among four types of VOCs examined, O3 formation is primarily affected by isoprene and low molecular weight anthropogenic VOCs, and PM2.5 formation is affected largely by

  9. Asteroid mega-impacts and Precambrian banded iron formations: 2.63 Ga and 2.56 Ga impact ejecta/fallout at the base of BIF/argillite units, Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2007-02-01

    The temporal association between late Archaean to earliest Proterozoic asteroid impact ejecta/fallout units and overlying banded iron formations suggests that, in some instances, these impacts were closely followed by significant transformation in the nature of source terrains of the sediments. The Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL) [B.M. Simonson, D. Davies, S.W. Hassler, Discovery of a layer of probable impact melt spherules in the late Archean Jeerinah Formation, Fortescue Group, Western Australia. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 47 (2000) 315-325; B.M. Simonson, S.W. Hassler, Revised correlations in the early Precambrian Hamersley Basin based on a horizon of resedimented impact spherules. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 44 (1997) 37-48; B.M. Simonson, B.P. Glass, Spherule layers - records of ancient impacts. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 32 (2004) 329-361; A.Y. Glikson, Early Precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Astrobiology 4 (2001) 19-50; S.W. Hassler, B.M. Simonson, D.Y. Sumner, D. Murphy, Neoarchaean impact spherule layers in the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups, Western Australia: stratigraphic and depositional implications of re-correlation. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 52 (2005) 759-772; B. Rasmussen, C. Koeberl, Iridium anomalies and shocked quartz in a late Archean spherule layer from the Pilbara Craton: new evidence for a major asteroid impact at 2.63 Ga. Geology 32 (2004) 1029-1032; B. Rasmussen, T.S. Blake, I.R. Fletcher, U-Pb zircon age constraints on the Hamersley spherule beds: Evidence for a single 2.63 Ga Jeerinah-Carawine impact ejecta layer. Geology, 33 (2005) 725-728.] overlies an argillite-dominated unit (Jeerinah Formation, 2684 ± 6 Ma [A.F. Trendall, W. Compston, D.R. Nelson, J.R. deLaeter, V.C. Bennett, SHRIMP zircon ages constraining the depositional chronology of the Hamersley Group, Western

  10. Do ages of authigenic K-feldspar date the formation of Mississippi valley-type Pb-Zn deposits, central and southeastern United States?: Pb isotopic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M.; Kunk, M.J.; Hearn, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions have been determined for authigenic overgrowths and detrital cores of K-feldspar from Cambrian sedimentary rocks in Texas, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania (group 1) and southeastern Missouri (group 2). Overgrowths and cores were separated by abrasion and analyzed separately. The disparity in Pb isotopic ratios of group 1 overgrowths and Pb in nearby Mississippi Valley-type deposits implies that the regional authigenic K-feldspar event was not synchronous with ore deposition in the southeastern United States. In contrast, Pb isotopic ratios from group 2 authigenic K-feldspar are similar to ratios in ores of southeastern Missouri, suggesting a genetic relation in late Paleozoic time. -from Authors

  11. Chain folding controlled by an isomeric repeat unit: helix formation versus random aggregation in acetylene-bridged carbazole-bipyridine co-oligomers.

    PubMed

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Suresh, Cherumuttathu H; Philips, Divya S; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2013-07-01

    An unprecedented, positional effect of the isomeric repeat unit on chain folding in donor–acceptor-linked oligomers, which contain alternating bipyridine and carbazole moieties that are connected through an acetylinic linkage, is reported. 4,4′-Linked oligomer 1 adopts an intrachain helical conformation (CD-active) in CHCl3/MeCN (20:80 v/v), whereas oligomer 2, which contains an isomeric 6,6′-linkage, forms interchain randomly coiled aggregates (CD-inactive). The substitution position plays a significant role in controlling the variations in electronic effects and dipole moments around the bipyridyl moiety, which are responsible for this observed phenomenon. Two model compounds of oligomers 1 and 2 (3 and 4, respectively) were prepared and their properties were compared. A systematic investigation of the photophysical and CD properties of these structures, as well as theoretical studies, support our conclusions.

  12. Investigations into the vertical distribution of PCDDs and mineralogy in three ball clay cores from the United States exhibiting the natural formation pattern.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Damien; Tysklind, Mats; Irvine, Robert L; Burns, Peter C; Andersson, Rolf

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we report the PCDD and mineralogical results from the analyses of 27 different samples from three ball clay cores from different locations in Kentucky and Tennessee. One goal of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between the mineralogy of the ball clay samples and the PCDD concentrations and/or homologue profiles in each sample. Samples from each of the three cores exhibited the natural formation profile with extremely high PCDD concentrations with low and mostly undetectable levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The maximum toxic equivalents (TEQs) for Cores C-E were 2500, 440, and 15,000 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively. Although there does not seem to be a direct correlation between mineralogy and PCDD concentrations or homologue profiles, the mineralogy of Core C is substantially different than that of Cores D and E, which may in part explain the differences in congener patterns we observed among the three cores.

  13. Uniting ripple-formation theory under water and winds: A universal scaling relation for the wavelength of fluid-drag ripples across fluids and planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Ewing, R. C.; McElroy, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Current ripples form on riverbeds and on the seafloor from viscous drag exerted by water flow over sand and are thought to be absent in subaerial systems, where ripple formation is dominated by a mechanism involving the impacting and splashing of sand grains. A fluid-drag mechanism, however, is not precluded in subaerial conditions and was originally hypothesized by R. A. Bagnold. Despite decades of observations in the field and in the laboratory, no universal scaling relation exists to predict the size of fluid-drag ripples. We combine dimensional analysis and a new extensive data compilation to develop a relationship and predict the equilibrium wavelength of current ripples. Our analysis shows that ripples are spaced farther apart when formed by more viscous fluids, smaller bed shear velocities, in coarser grains, or for smaller sediment specific gravity. Our scaling relation also highlights the abrupt transition between current ripples and subaqueous dunes, and thus allows for a process-based segregation of ripples from dunes. When adjusting for subaerial conditions, we predict the formation of decimeter-scale wind-drag ripples on Earth and meter-scale wind-drag ripples on Mars. The latter are ubiquitous on the Red Planet, and are found to co-exist with smaller decimeter-scale ripples, which we interpret as impact ripples. Because the predicted scale of terrestrial wind-drag ripples overlaps with that of impact ripples, it is possible that wind-drag ripples exist on Earth too, but are not recognized as such. When preserved in rocks, fluid-drag ripple stratification records flow directions and fluid properties that are crucial to constrain paleo-environments. Our new theory allows for predictions of ripple size, perhaps in both fluvial and eolian settings, and thus potentially represents a powerful tool for paleo-environmental reconstructions on different planetary bodies.

  14. Assessment of the types of catheter infectivity caused by Candida species and their biofilm formation. First study in an intensive care unit in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Seddiki, Sidi Mohammed Lahbib; Boucherit-Otmani, Zahia; Boucherit, Kebir; Badsi-Amir, Souad; Taleb, Mourad; Kunkel, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial candidiasis remains a potential risk in intensive care units (ICUs), wherein Candida albicans is most responsible for its occurrence. Equally, non-C. albicans species, especially C. glabrata, are also involved. These infections are frequently associated with biofilms that contaminate medical devices, such as catheters. These biofilms constitute a significant clinical problem, and cause therapeutic failures, because they can escape the immune response and considerably decrease sensitivity to antifungal therapy. The diagnosis of catheter-related candidiasis is difficult; however, the differentiation between an infection of the catheter (or other medical implant) and a simple contamination is essential to start an antifungal treatment. Among the methods used for this type of study is the Brun-Buisson method, but this method only examines the infectivity of catheters caused by bacteria. For this reason, we wanted to adapt this method to the yeast cells of Candida spp. To assess the various types of infectivity of catheters (contamination, colonization, or infection) and their corresponding rates, as well as the responsible yeast species, we conducted our study, between February 2011 and January 2012, in the ICU at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria; during this study, we took photographic images of the tongue of one patient and of that patient’s implanted orobronchial catheter. In addition, catheters contaminated by C. albicans biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23345986

  15. Influence of coarse lag formation on the mechanics of sediment pulse dispersion in a mountain stream, Squire Creek, North Cascades, Washington, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummer, Chris J.; Montgomery, David R.

    2006-07-01

    Mountain channels closely coupled to landslide-prone hillslopes often exhibit bed surface grain sizes coarser than transportable by annual high flows. Coarse particles within poorly sorted sediment delivered to channels by mass-wasting processes may not be readily transported as bed load and can consequently form lag deposits that influence the morphology, hydraulic roughness, and sediment storage within mountain channel networks. A tracer study and comparison of supply and bed grain size distributions from a valley-spanning landslide in the North Cascades of Washington state were used to derive relations between shear stress and the probability of particle entrainment and erosion from the sediment pulse. Rapid bed surface armoring formed a relatively immobile lag deposit within 2 years. Covering of 20% of the bed by lag boulders with <5% probability of entrainment was sufficient to retard vertical incision and force considerable channel widening during a flood with an 8- to 152-year recurrence discharge on locally gauged streams. Our results imply that numerical models of sediment pulse evolution that do not explicitly incorporate the influence of lag formation may substantially overestimate long-term dispersion rates. The grain size distribution and lithology of a sediment input relative to the flow competence of the receiving channel are important factors influencing the rates and mechanisms of sediment pulse dispersion and the sediment capacitance provided by coarse-grained sediment pulses in mountain drainage basins.

  16. Spatial and seasonal variations of fine particle water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) over the Southeastern United States: implications for secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, Z.; Hecobian, A.; Zheng, M.; Frank, N. H.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the Southeastern US is investigated by analyzing the spatial-temporal distribution of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and other PM2.5 components from 900 archived 24 h Teflon filters collected at 15 urban or rural EPA Federal Reference Method (FRM) network sites throughout 2007. Online measurements of WSOC at an urban/rural-paired site in Georgia in the summer of 2008 are contrasted to the filter data. Based on FRM filters, excluding biomass-burning events (levoglucosan < 50 ng m-3), WSOC and sulfate were highly correlated with PM2.5 mass and both comprised a large mass fraction of PM2.5 (13% and 35%, respectively). Sulfate and WSOC both tracked ambient temperature throughout the year, suggesting the temperature effects were mainly on the photochemical processes that lead to secondary formation. FRM WSOC, and to a lesser extent sulfate, were spatially homogeneous throughout the region, yet WSOC was moderately enhanced (27%) in locations of greater predicted isoprene emissions in summer. A Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis identified two major source types for the summer WSOC; 22% of the WSOC were associated with ammonium sulfate, and 56% of the WSOC was associated with brown carbon and oxalate. A small urban excess of FRM WSOC (10%) was observed in the summer of 2007, however, comparisons of online WSOC measurements at one urban/rural pair (Atlanta/Yorkville) in August 2008 showed substantially greater difference in WSOC (31%) relative to the FRM data, suggesting a low bias for urban filters. The measured Atlanta urban excess, combined with the estimated boundary layer heights, gave an estimated Atlanta daily WSOC production rate in August of 0.55 mg C m-2 h-1 between mid-morning and mid-afternoon. This study characterizes the regional nature of fine particles in the Southeastern US, confirming the importance of secondary organic aerosol and the roles of both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions.

  17. Redescription and Phylogenetic Placement of †Hemicalypterus weiri Schaeffer, 1967 (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) from the Triassic Chinle Formation, Southwestern United States: New Insights into Morphology, Ecological Niche, and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The actinopterygian fish †Hemicalypterus weiri Schaeffer, 1967 is herein redescribed and rediagnosed based on new information collected from reexamination of museum specimens as well as examination of recently collected specimens from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of San Juan County, Utah, United States. †Hemicalypterus is distinguishable by its deep, disc-shaped compressed body; ganoid-scaled anterior half and scaleless posterior half; spinose, prominent dorsal and ventral ridge scales anterior to dorsal and anal fins; hem-like dorsal and anal fins with rounded distal margins; small mouth gape; and specialized, multicuspid dentition. This type of dentition, when observed in extant fishes, is often associated with herbivory, and †Hemicalypterus represents the oldest known ray-finned fish to have possibly exploited an herbivorous trophic feeding niche. A phylogenetic analysis infers a placement of †Hemicalypterus within †Dapediiformes, with †Dapediiformes being recovered as sister to Ginglymodi within holostean actinopterygians. PMID:27657923

  18. Mesenchymal stromal cells, colony-forming unit fibroblasts, from bone marrow of untreated advanced breast and lung cancer patients suppress fibroblast colony formation from healthy marrow.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Erica Leonor; Labovsky, Vivian; La Russa, Vincent; Vallone, Valeria Fernández; Honegger, Alba Elizabeth; Belloc, Carlos Gabriel; Wen, Huei Chi; Bordenave, Raúl Horacio; Bullorsky, Eduardo Oscar; Feldman, Leonardo; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra

    2010-03-01

    We have shown that bone marrow (BM) from untreated advanced lung and breast cancer patients (LCP and BCP) have a reduced number of colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Factors that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of CFU-F are produced by the patients' BM microenvironment. We have now examined whether conditioned media (CM) from patients' CFU-F-derived stromal cells also inhibits the colony-forming efficiency (CFE) of CFU-F in primary cultures from healthy volunteers (HV)-BM. Thus the number and proliferation potential of HV-CFU-F were also found to be decreased and similar to colony numbers and colony size of patients' CFU-F. Stromal cells from both of these types of colonies appeared relatively larger and lacked the characteristic spindle morphology typically seen in healthy stromal cells. We developed an arbitrary mesenchymal stromal cell maturational index by taking three measures consisting of stromal cell surface area, longitudinal and horizontal axis. All stromal indices derived from HV-CFU-F grown in patients' CM were similar to those from stromal elements derived from patients' CFU-F. These indices were markedly higher than stromal indices typical of HV-CFU-F cultured in healthy CM or standard medium [alpha-medium plus 20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS)]. Patients' CM had increased concentrations of the CFU-F inhibitor, GM-CSF, and low levels of bFGF and Dkk-1, strong promoters of self-renewal of MSCs, compared to the levels quantified in CM from HV-CFU-F. Moreover, the majority of patients' MSCs were unresponsive in standard medium and healthy CM to give CFU-F, indicating that the majority of mesenchymal stromal cells from patients' CFU-F are locked in maturational arrest. These results show that alterations of GM-CSF, bFGF, and Dkk-1 are associated with deficient cloning and maturation arrest of CFU-F. Defective autocrine and paracrine mechanisms may be involved in the BM microenvironments of

  19. Aqueous-Phase Mechanism for Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Isoprene: Application to the Southeast United States and Co-Benefit of SO2 Emission Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Krechmer, J.; Zhu, L.; Kim, P. S.; Miller, C. C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake coefficients (gamma) for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations over the Southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) over the Southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2) react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway) and HO2 (low-NOx pathway), leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of total fine organic aerosol (OA) and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation). Isoprene SOA production is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58% of isoprene SOA) from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28%) from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation), but decrease more strongly as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate 42 on aerosol acidity and volume). The US EPA projects 2013-2025 decreases in anthropogenic emissions of 34% for NOx (leading to 7

  20. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Krechmer, J.; Zhu, L.; Kim, P. S.; Miller, C. C.; Fisher, J. A.; Travis, K.; Yu, K.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Arkinson, H. L.; Pye, H. O. T.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.; McNeill, V. F.

    2016-02-01

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake coefficients (γ) for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations over the southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) over the southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2) react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway) and HO2 (low-NOx pathway), leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of total fine organic aerosol (OA) and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation). Isoprene SOA production is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA) from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 %) from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation), but decrease more strongly as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) projects 2013-2025 decreases in anthropogenic emissions of

  1. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the Southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Krechmer, J.; Zhu, L.; Kim, P. S.; Miller, C. C.; Fisher, J. A.; Travis, K.; Yu, K.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Arkinson, H. L.; Pye, H. O. T.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.; McNeill, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake probabilities (γ) for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations over the Southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) over the Southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2) react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway) and HO2 (low-NOx pathway), leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of OA and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation). The yield is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA) from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 %) from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the indirect effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume, rather than a direct mechanistic role for sulfate. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation), but decrease as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume). The US EPA projects 2013-2025 decreases in anthropogenic emissions of 34 % for NOx (leading to

  2. A record of more than 500,000 years of large-volume travertine formation in the southwestern United States and links between paleohydrology, paleoclimate, and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Embid, E.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Polyak, V.; Asmerom, Y.; Ricketts, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 springs and associated travertine deposits offer a unique tool to better understand Cenozoic paleohydrology and paleoclimate in the context of geomorphic and neotectonic evolution of the southwestern United States. Travertine accumulations represent places of persistent and significant mantle CO2 degassing in high discharge spring systems that are found along faults and above magmatic systems. They complement speleothem records from the same regions in that they can provide better links to the surface geomorphic and neotectonic systems. New Mexico and Arizona host several exceptionally well-preserved, large-volume travertine deposits that extend from 10 - 60 km2, with thicknesses ranging from 15 to more than 60 m. Precise U-series and stable isotope analyses are underway for large travertine platforms at Mesa del Oro, NM (~27 km2), Riley North and South Mesa, NM (~60 km2), Mesa Aparejo/Belen Quarries, NM (~13 km2), and Springerville, AZ (~30 km2). New ages for the travertine deposits at Mesa del Oro are 56 ka, 253 ka, 361 ka, and more than 500 ka. The travertine deposits at Riley North and South Mesa are older than 500 ka and 207/287 ka, respectively. At Mesa Aparejo, travertine ages are 312 ka and more than 500 ka. U/Th dates from Springerville, AZ show that major travertine accumulations occurred over several time intervals: 36-100 ka, 200-280 ka and 300-350 ka. Stable isotope analyses overlap substantially, exhibiting high δ13C values, +2.0% to +8.3%, and δ18O values that range from -13.5% to -4%. High δ13C values are interpreted to be caused by rapid CO2 degassing while the range of δ18O values is interpreted to represent changing water temperatures and mixing trends of groundwater. U-series data show that travertine deposition at all of these localities overlapped temporally and that major aggradation and high volume deposition was not steady, but occurred episodically at 36-100, 200-280, and 300-380 ka. Times of high accumulation rates are interpreted

  3. Lithofacies and Diagenetic Controls on Formation-scale Mechanical, Transport, and Sealing Behavior of Caprocks: A Case Study of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone, Farnsworth Unit, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, N. A.; Heath, J. E.; Mozley, P.; Dewers, T. A.; Cather, M.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of caprock sealing behavior for secure CO2 storage is a multiscale endeavor. Sealing behavior arises from the nano-scale capillarity of pore throats, but sealing lithologies alone do not guarantee an effective seal since bypass systems, such as connected, conductive fractures can compromise the integrity of the seal. We apply pore-to-formation-scale data to characterize the multiscale caprock sealing behavior of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone. This work is part of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration's Phase III project at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. The caprock formations overlie the Morrow sandstone, the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of over one million metric tons of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. Methods include: focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy; laser scanning confocal microscopy; electron and optical petrography; multi-stress path mechanical testing and constitutive modeling; core examinations of sedimentary structures and fractures; and a noble gas profile for formation-scale transport of the sealing lihologies and the reservoir. We develop relationships between diagenetic characteristics of lithofacies to mechanical and petrophysical measurements of the caprocks. The results are applied as part of a caprock sealing behavior performance assessment. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. A late Miocene-early Pliocene chain of lakes fed by the Colorado River: Evidence from Sr, C, and O isotopes of the Bouse Formation and related units between Grand Canyon and the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roskowski, J.A.; Patchett, P.J.; Spencer, J.E.; Pearthree, P.A.; Dettman, D.L.; Faulds, J.E.; Reynolds, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report strontium isotopic results for the late Miocene Hualapai Limestone of the Lake Mead area (Arizona-Nevada) and the latest Miocene to early Pliocene Bouse Formation and related units of the lower Colorado River trough (Arizona-California-Nevada), together with parallel oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses of Bouse samples, to constrain the lake-overflow model for integration of the Colorado River. Sr iso topic analyses on the basal 1-5 cm of marl, in particular along a transect over a range of altitude in the lowest-altitude basin that contains freshwater, brackish, and marine fossils, document the 87Sr/86Sr of first-arriving Bouse waters. Results reinforce the similarity between the 87Sr/86Sr of Bouse Formation carbonates and present-day Colorado River water, and the systematic distinction of these values from Neogene marine Sr. Basal Bouse samples show that 87Sr/86Sr decreased from 0.7111 to values in the range 0.7107-0.7109 during early basin filling. 87Sr/86Sr values from a recently identified marl in the Las Vegas area are within the range of Bouse Sr ratios. 87Sr/86Sr values from the Hualapai Limestone decrease upsection from 0.7195 to 0.7137, in the approach to a time soon after 6 Ma when Hualapai deposition ceased and the Colorado River became established through the Lake Mead area. Bouse Formation ??18O values range from -12.9??? to +1.0??? Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB), and ??13C between -6.5??? and +3.4??? VPDB. Negative ??18O values appear to require a continental origin for waters, and the trend to higher ??18O suggests evaporation in lake waters. Sr and stable isotopic results for sectioned barnacle shells and from bedding planes of the marine fish fossil Colpichthys regis demonstrate that these animals lived in saline freshwater, and that there is no evidence for incursions of marine water, either long-lived or brief in duration. Lack of correlation of Sr and O isotopic variations in the same samples also argue strongly against systematic

  5. A Unit on Federalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Karen Coston

    1987-01-01

    Presents a teaching unit which will enable secondary students to differentiate between unitary, federal, and confederate forms of government; list factors leading to the formation of the U.S. federal system of government; and understand how different structures of government result in different degrees of freedom, responsibilities, and…

  6. Units in Nutrition for the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Raymond M., Ed.

    Contained are units on nutrition that have been prepared and tested by several elementary teachers, elementary supervisors, and school food service supervisors. The units do not follow a set format. Typically, the aim of a unit is first stated, followed by concepts to be developed, and the description of activities for the unit. Sometimes there is…

  7. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  8. Concerning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlinger, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    SI units come in two distinct types: fundamental (kilogram, meter) and descriptive (atom, molecule). Proper/improper uses of atom/molecule from historical cases are presented followed by a re-introduction of a light "wave (cycle)" unit and the clearly defined photon model which is deduced. Also examines omission of the fundamental unit "radon."…

  9. Concerning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlinger, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    SI units come in two distinct types: fundamental (kilogram, meter) and descriptive (atom, molecule). Proper/improper uses of atom/molecule from historical cases are presented followed by a re-introduction of a light "wave (cycle)" unit and the clearly defined photon model which is deduced. Also examines omission of the fundamental unit "radon."…

  10. Formative Automated Computer Testing (FACT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nicoll; Hughes, Janet; Rowe, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a tool, FACT (Formative Automated Computer Testing), to formatively assess information technology skills of college students in the United Kingdom. Topics include word processing competency; tests designed by tutors and delivered via a network; and results of an evaluation that showed students preferred automated…

  11. Formative Automated Computer Testing (FACT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nicoll; Hughes, Janet; Rowe, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a tool, FACT (Formative Automated Computer Testing), to formatively assess information technology skills of college students in the United Kingdom. Topics include word processing competency; tests designed by tutors and delivered via a network; and results of an evaluation that showed students preferred automated…

  12. The Use of SI Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Standards Institution, London (England).

    This booklet (referred to as PD 5686:1969) replaces the 1967 edition by including subsequent recommendations of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM). The International System of Units (SI) is described and rules are given for the formation of derived units and decimal…

  13. Unit Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of unit cells using clear plastic cubes which can be disassembled, and one inch cork balls of various colors, which can be cut in halves, quarters, or eighths, and glued on the inside face of the cube, thus simulating a unit cell. (MLH)

  14. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  15. Unit Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of unit cells using clear plastic cubes which can be disassembled, and one inch cork balls of various colors, which can be cut in halves, quarters, or eighths, and glued on the inside face of the cube, thus simulating a unit cell. (MLH)

  16. Galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.

    1984-11-01

    Implications of the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large and small angular scales for galaxy formation are reviewed. In primeval adiabatic fluctuations, a universe dominated by cold, weakly interacting nonbaryonic matter, e.g., the massive photino is postulated. A possible signature of photino annihilation in our galactic halo involves production of cosmic ray antiprotons. If the density is near its closure value, it is necessary to invoke a biasing mechanism for suppressing galaxy formation throughout most of the universe in order to reconcile the dark matter density with the lower astronomical determinations of the mean cosmological density. A mechanism utilizing the onset of primordial massive star formation to strip gaseous protogalaxies is described. Only the densest, early collapsing systems form luminous galaxies. (ESA)

  17. Comet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  18. Educational Policy and the Choice of Language in Linguistically Complex South African Schools. Formative Decision-Making by Significant Language Professionals and Governing Bodies. Education Policy Unit (Natal) Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David

    A 1996 South African law vested elementary/secondary school governing bodies with formation of school policy concerning both language(s) used for instruction and those selected for second-language study. The study reported here investigated the perceptions of language teachers, principals, and governing body members on language policy, policy…

  19. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  20. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  1. Dynamics of rock varnish formation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Harrington, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of rock varnish from the southwestern United States suggest that the Mn-phase in rock varnish has neither the chemistry nor the crystal structure of birnessite. Rather, the Mn-rich phase is non-crystalline and contains Ba, Ca, Fe, Al, and P. Unknowns concerning the formation of this non-crystalline Mn phase must be resolved before researchers are able to define chemical parameters of rock varnish formation based upon conditions of formation of the Mn phase. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Laser color recording unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  3. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that most single stars should have rocky planets in orbit about them; the frequency of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Models for the formation of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches are discussed.

  4. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments. They predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  5. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ∼ 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  6. Planet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1993-01-01

    Models of planetary formation are developed using the present single example of a planetary system, supplemented by limited astrophysical observations of star-forming regions and circumstellar disks. The solar nebula theory and the planetesimal hypothesis are discussed. The latter is found to provide a viable theory of the growth of the terrestrial planets, the cores of the giant planets, and the smaller bodies present in the solar system. The formation of solid bodies of planetary size should be a common event, at least around young stars which do not have binary companions orbiting at planetary distances. Stochastic impacts of large bodies provide sufficient angular momentum to produce the obliquities of the planets. The masses and bulk compositions of the planets can be understood in a gross sense as resulting from planetary growth within a disk whose temperature and surface density decreased with distance from the growing sun.

  7. Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  8. Inter-ligand azo (N=N) unit formation and stabilization of a Co(II)-diradical complex via metal-to-ligand dπ-pπ* back donation: synthesis, characterization, and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Richa; Ghorai, Samir; Sarmah, Amrit; Tiwari, Archana; Roy, Ram Kinkar; Mukherjee, Chandan

    2015-02-28

    An azide (-N3) group attached at the -ortho carbon atom to the aniline moiety of 2-anilino-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol formed a diradical-containing Co(II) complex via inter-ligand azo (N=N) bond formation. Metal-to-ligand (azo), dπ-to-pπ* back donation stabilized the metal in its lower oxidation state.

  9. Army Transformation to Expeditionary Formations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    potatoes " of the United States Army. This is what our nation depends on and expects a land based anned force to be. No formation currently on this...is something to be said about form and functionality. Briefly this, kudos to Army leadership by reducing the level of maintenance ( starching , sewing

  10. Teaching an Endangered Species Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Joan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a student speech activity can serve as a culminating exercise in a unit on endangered species. Offers suggestions and guidelines for researching, formatting, and delivering the speech. A table is also included explaining the causes and prevention of species endangerment. (ML)

  11. Teaching an Endangered Species Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Joan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a student speech activity can serve as a culminating exercise in a unit on endangered species. Offers suggestions and guidelines for researching, formatting, and delivering the speech. A table is also included explaining the causes and prevention of species endangerment. (ML)

  12. Amphiplex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Shannon; Laaser, Jennifer; Lodge, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Polymer-micelle complexes are currently under heavy investigation due to their potential applications in targeted drug delivery and gene therapy, yet the dynamics of the complex formation is still relatively unstudied. By varying the ratios of poly(styrene sulfonate) chains and cationic poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(styrene) micelles and the ionic strength of the system, we created a variety of complex configurations of different sizes and charges. The complexes were characterized dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements which provided information regarding the hydrodynamic radius, distribution of sizes, and effective charge.

  13. Corrélation stratigraphique entre les unités oligo-miocènes de Tunisie centrale et le NumidienStratigraphic correlation between the Numidian formation (North Tunisia) and Oligo Miocene deposits of central Tunisia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaich, Chokri; Hooyberghs, Herman-Jean-François; Durlet, Christophe; Renard, Maurice

    2000-10-01

    Sedimentologic and biostratigraphic studies from the Oligocene to Middle Miocene deposits, exposed in central and north Tunisia, lead to a sequence stratigraphy subdivision of these deposits into several third order depositional sequences. The north-south correlations show that the detrital quartz pebbles appeared much later in central Tunisia (within a 'fluvial-deltaic' complex), than in the Numidian in northern Tunisia (characterised by deep submarine channels filled with high density turbidites). Thus, in central Tunisia, the Fortuna Formation (from Rupelian to Lower Burdigalian) could not have supplied Numidian sands from the Saharan region as has been proposed by several authors.

  14. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  15. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  16. Habit formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  17. Habit formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  18. System for fracturing an underground geologic formation

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2017-03-14

    An explosive system for fracturing an underground geologic formation adjacent to a wellbore can comprise a plurality of explosive units comprising an explosive material contained within the casing, and detonation control modules electrically coupled to the plurality of explosive units and configured to cause a power pulse to be transmitted to at least one detonator of at least one of the plurality of explosive units for detonation of the explosive material. The explosive units are configured to be positioned within a wellbore in spaced apart positions relative to one another along a string with the detonation control modules positioned adjacent to the plurality of explosive units in the wellbore, such that the axial positions of the explosive units relative to the wellbore are at least partially based on geologic properties of the geologic formation adjacent the wellbore.

  19. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…

  20. Awareness Geometry. Mathematics-Methods Program Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Donald R., Jr.; And Others

    This unit is 1 of 12 developed for the university classroom portion of the Mathematics-Methods Program (MMP), created by the Indiana University Mathematics Education Development Center (MEDC) as an innovative program for the mathematics training of prospective elementary school teachers (PSTs). Each unit is written in an activity format that…

  1. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  2. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  3. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  4. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  5. Modeling an air pollution episode in northwestern United States: identifying the effect of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compound emission changes on air pollutants formation using direct sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P; Trail, Marcus; Hu, Yongtao; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2012-10-01

    Air quality impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions from major sources over the northwestern United States are simulated. The comprehensive nested modeling system comprises three models: Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ), Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE). In addition, the decoupled direct method in three dimensions (DDM-3D) is used to determine the sensitivities of pollutant concentrations to changes in precursor emissions during a severe smog episode in July of 2006. The average simulated 8-hr daily maximum O3 concentration is 48.9 ppb, with 1-hr O3 maxima up to 106 ppb (40 km southeast of Seattle). The average simulated PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm) concentration at the measurement sites is 9.06 microg m(-3), which is in good agreement with the observed concentration (8.06 microg m(-3)). In urban areas (i.e., Seattle, Vancouver, etc.), the model predicts that, on average, a reduction of NO(x) emissions is simulated to lead to an increase in average 8-hr daily maximum O3 concentrations, and will be most prominent in Seattle (where the greatest sensitivity is -O.2 ppb per % change of mobile sources). On the other hand, decreasing NO(x) emissions is simulated to decrease the 8-hr maximum O3 concentrations in remote and forested areas. Decreased NO(x) emissions are simulated to slightly increase PM2.5 in major urban areas. In urban areas, a decrease in VOC emissions will result in a decrease of 8-hr maximum O3 concentrations. The impact of decreased VOC emissions from biogenic, mobile, nonroad, and area sources on average 8-hr daily maximum O3 concentrations is up to 0.05 ppb decrease per % of emission change, each. Decreased emissions of VOCs decrease average PM2.5 concentrations in the entire modeling domain. In major cities, PM2.5 concentrations are more sensitive to emissions of VOCs from biogenic sources than other

  6. Thematic Science Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jean M.; Cliatt, Mary Jo Puckett

    1990-01-01

    Described are four interdisciplinary units entitled "A Very Fishy Unit,""Building Healthy Bodies Unit,""Hands-On Plants Units," and "Butterflies Spell Beauty Unit." Each unit contains science activities, skills and concepts covered, and activities that cover other disciplines. (KR)

  7. History of United States Energy. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended as a supplement to the units "Oil: Fuel of the Past" and "Coal: Fuel of the Past, Hope of the Future," this 3-4 day unit contains three activities which briefly explain the chronological development of energy resources and the formation and development of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The…

  8. History of United States Energy. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended as a supplement to the units "Oil: Fuel of the Past" and "Coal: Fuel of the Past, Hope of the Future," this 3-4 day unit contains three activities which briefly explain the chronological development of energy resources and the formation and development of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The…

  9. AMHARIC BASIC COURSE. UNITS 51-60, READER, GLOSSARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OBOLENSKY, SERGE; AND OTHERS

    THE FIRST 10 UNITS OF THIS SECOND VOLUME OF THE AMHARIC BASIC COURSE FOLLOW THE SAME GENERAL FORMAT OF THE PREVIOUS VOLUME IN PRESENTING FURTHER BASIC SENTENCES, DRILLS, AND NARRATIVES. AT THE END OF UNIT 60, AMHARIC ORTHOGRAPHY IS INTRODUCED. SUCCEEDING UNITS, COMPRISING THE READER, ARE WRITTEN IN AMHARIC SCRIPT ONLY. THE GLOSSARY, WHICH IS…

  10. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky inner...

  11. 7 CFR 51.605 - Good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good heart formation. 51.605 Section 51.605... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.605 Good heart formation. Good heart formation means that the stalk has a reasonable number of stocky inner heart branches for...

  12. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky...

  13. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky...

  14. 7 CFR 51.605 - Good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good heart formation. 51.605 Section 51.605... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.605 Good heart formation. Good heart formation means that the stalk has a reasonable number of stocky inner heart branches...

  15. 7 CFR 51.605 - Good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good heart formation. 51.605 Section 51.605... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.605 Good heart formation. Good heart formation means that the stalk has a reasonable number of stocky inner heart branches...

  16. Short Note on Units: Planetary Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-03-01

    While the emphasis on SI units in introductory physics textbooks has mercifully eliminated the use of English units, the exclusion of other systems of units is not necessary. For years physicists have simplified calculations by doing things like setting ℏ = c = 1. We could not imagine putting 4πɛ0 into the formulas for Bohr orbits.1

  17. Short Note on Units: Planetary Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    While the emphasis on SI units in introductory physics textbooks has mercifully eliminated the use of English units, the exclusion of other systems of units is not necessary. For years physicists have simplified calculations by doing things like setting [h-bar] = c = 1. We could not imagine putting 4[pi][epsilon][subscript 0] into the formulas for…

  18. Short Note on Units: Planetary Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    While the emphasis on SI units in introductory physics textbooks has mercifully eliminated the use of English units, the exclusion of other systems of units is not necessary. For years physicists have simplified calculations by doing things like setting [h-bar] = c = 1. We could not imagine putting 4[pi][epsilon][subscript 0] into the formulas for…

  19. A new hospital general practice teaching unit.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, R G

    1991-05-06

    The formation of the latest General Practice Teaching Unit in an Australian hospital is part of a national trend to teach undergraduates and post-graduates about some parts of general practice using patients separated at triage from the accident and emergency departments. Planning this unit required much negotiating between several institutions and a set of guidelines on organisational relationships was created. Innovative features of the Modbury General Practice Teaching Unit include payment of teachers to attend compulsory medical education workshops, dividing the Family Medicine Programme trainee's time between the unit and a neighbouring practice and payment of non-academic general practitioner teachers by the South Australian Government, which eliminates the risk that service interferes with teaching. The Modbury General Practice Teaching Unit is currently the only hospital based unit of this kind in South Australia.

  20. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  1. Accelerating Malware Detection via a Graphics Processing Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Processing Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 PE Portable Executable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 COFF Common Object File Format...operating systems for the future [Szo05]. The PE format is an updated version of the common object file format ( COFF ) [Mic06]. Microsoft released a new...pro.mspx, Accessed July 2010, 2001. 79 Mic06. Microsoft. Common object file format ( coff ). MSDN, November 2006. Re- vision 4.1. Mic07a. Microsoft

  2. Learning unit: Thin lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, L.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Learning unit: Thin lenses "Why objects seen through lenses are sometimes upright and sometimes reversed" Nita Laura Simona National College of Arts and Crafts "Constantin Brancusi", Craiova, Romania 1. GEOMETRIC OPTICS. 13 hours Introduction (models, axioms, principles, conventions) 1. Thin lenses (Types of lenses. Defining elements. Path of light rays through lenses. Image formation. Required physical quantities. Lens formulas). 2. Lens systems (Non-collated lenses. Focalless systems). 3. Human eye (Functioning as an optical system. Sight defects and their corrections). 4. Optical instruments (Characteristics exemplified by a magnifying glass. Paths of light rays through a simplified photo camera. Path of light rays through a classical microscope) (Physics curriculum for the IXth grade/ 2011). This scenario exposes a learning unit based on experimental sequences (defining specific competencies), as a succession of lessons started by noticing a problem whose solution assumes the setup of an experiment under laboratory conditions. Progressive learning of theme objectives are realised with sequential experimental steps. The central cognitive process is the induction or the generalization (development of new knowledge based on observation of examples or counterexamples of the concept to be learnt). Pupil interest in theme objectives is triggered by problem-situations, for example: "In order to better see small objects I need a magnifying glass. But when using a magnifier, small object images are sometimes seen upright and sometimes seen reversed!" Along the way, pupils' reasoning will converge to the idea: "The image of an object through a lens depends on the relative distances among object, lens, and observer". Associated learning model: EXPERIMENT Specific competencies: derived from the experiment model, in agreement with the following learning unit steps I. Evoking - Anticipation: Size of the problem, formulation of hypotheses and planning of experiment. II

  3. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  4. United sail windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Labrador, G.A.

    1988-07-12

    This windmill provides low cost energy out of the wind in the form of compressed air, etc, by maximizing wind-contact at the least cost construction and maintenance, at the least cost of project site - making the ''Output/Cost Ratio'' very high. This is done by making the sails very large using light fabrics with aluminum or bamboo frames forming a square face, supported by light strong ropes, by arranging the sails on a single file close to one after the other at erect posture free to clip to the right or to the left, forming a long procession line transverse to the wind which is in close loop with another long procession line parallel to it but moving to the opposite direction, to produce a very large windmill without the need of additional set up units of windmills; by carrying the large sails high about the ground for better wind-contact thru a two level Aerial Cable Railway by means of a deep-groove roller wheel attached to the top end and to the bottom end of each sail-mast; by separating the two parallel lines of sails at least 100 feet apart for better wind-contact thru the use of set of three Terminal Gear Wheels at a Half-Hexagonal formation that hold the end loops of the Power Cable Chain being tugged by each sail; by making the windmill work during strong winds and storing the energy in compressed air tunnels, elevated water.

  5. Biofilm and dental unit waterlines.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, Jolanta

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic biofilms, which are well-organized communities of microorganisms, are widespread in nature. They constitute a major problem in many environmental, industrial and medical settings. The use of advanced techniques has revealed biofilm structure, formation and ecology. Special attention was given to the build-up of biofilm in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), which are small-bore flexible plastic tubing to bring water to different handpieces. They are coated with well-established biofilms. Active biofilm is a source of microbial contamination of DUWLs water. The safety of dental treatment requires a good quality of the water used. The knowledge of nature, formation and the ways to eliminate the biofilm is the first step towards reducing health risk, both for patients and dental personnel. The article reviews these issues.

  6. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  7. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    PubMed Central

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production. PMID:21687599

  8. [Pathogenesis of adhesions formation after intraabdominal operations].

    PubMed

    Voskanian, S É; Kyzlasov, P S

    2011-01-01

    The article describes the pathogenesis of adhesions formation after intraabdominal operations. Described predisposing factors leading of which is mechanical trauma, resulting from the use of surgical instruments, rough manipulations during surgery, damage to the mesothelium by dry gauze etc, which cause the adhesions. The pathogenesis of adhesions formation after intraabdominal surgery is presented in outline form, which described the changes occurring in the body starting with combination of predisposing factors and ending with the development of adhesions with blood vessels by 7-12 days after surgery. At the genetic level predisposition to adhesions formation and development of adhesive disease is treated as a manifestation of rapid acetylation phenotype, in which the intensity of fibrin formation exceeds normal rate of its catabolism. Thus, according to modem concepts, adhesive disease is a separate nosologic unit that dictates the necessity of its detailed study, development and introduction new universal methods of preventing the adhesions formation after intraabdominal operations.

  9. Unit cost of Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, R; Nguyen, T H; Chen, T M

    2010-04-01

    Appropriate pricing for medical services of not-for-profit hospital is necessary. The prices should be fair to the public and should be high enough to cover the operative costs of the organization. The purpose of this study was to determine the cost and unit cost of medical services performed at the Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit (MDU), Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas-MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX from the healthcare provider's perspective. MDU costs were retrieved from the Financial Department for fiscal year 2006. The patients' statistics were acquired from medical records for the same period. Unit cost calculation was based on the official method of hospital accounting. The overall unit cost for each patient visit was $673.99 United States dollar (USD). The detailed unit cost of nurse visit, new patient visit, follow-up visit, consultation, Mohs and non-Mohs procedure were, respectively, $368.27, $580.09, $477.82, $585.52, $1,086.12 and $858.23 USD. With respect to a Mohs visit, the unit cost per lesion and unit cost per stage were $867.89 and $242.30 USD respectively. Results from this retrospective study provide information that may be used for pricing strategy and resource allocation by the administrative board of MDU.

  10. Dental unit waterlines disinfection using hypochlorous acid-based disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan, Irfana Fathima; Kandaswamy, D; Srikanth, Padma; Narayana, L Lakshmi; Selvarajan, R

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a new disinfectant to disinfect the dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: New dental unit waterlines were installed in 13 dental chairs, and biofilm was allowed to grow for 10 days. Disinfection treatment procedure was carried out in the 12 units, and one unit was left untreated. The dental unit waterlines were removed and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) (TESCAN VEGA3 SBU). Result: On examination, SEM images showed that there was no slime layer or bacterial cells seen in any of the 12 cut sections obtained from the treated dental waterlines which mean that there was no evident of biofilm formation. Untreated dental unit waterlines showed a microbial colonization with continuous filamentous organic matrix. There was significant biofilm formation in the control tube relative to the samples. Conclusion: The tested disinfectant was found to be effective in the removal of biofilm from the dental unit waterlines. PMID:27563184

  11. Formative Evaluation in the Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Formative evaluation emphasizes continuous assessment within a unit of study. There are many ways which may be used by the reading teacher to ascertain pupil achievement: teacher observation, a checklist of important reading behaviors, rating scales, anecdotal statements, teacher written tests, class discussions, self evaluation forms,…

  12. The Mass Media: An Integrated Unit. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Barry

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to a critical study of the mass media is presented in this journal insert, which also provides a format for planning an integrated unit. The main section of the insert focuses on seven questions and their answers concerning: (1) selection of the topic, (2) justifying a mass media curriculum, (3) entry experience, (4)…

  13. [The politics of migration policies in the United States].

    PubMed

    Keely, C B

    1993-04-01

    The author reviews the political processes behind the formation of policies regulating immigration to the United States. The impacts of the end of the Cold War, the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement, and rapidly changing worldwide technologies are assessed.

  14. HEATS OF FORMATION OF THE FLUOBORATES OF LITHIUM, SODIUM AND POTASSIUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FLUOBORATES , *THERMOCHEMISTRY, * LITHIUM COMPOUNDS, *SODIUM COMPOUNDS, *POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, THERMOCHEMISTRY, THERMOCHEMISTRY, THERMOCHEMISTRY, HEAT OF FORMATION, HEAT OF SOLUTION, FLUORIDES, CALORIMETRY, UNITED KINGDOM.

  15. Montezuma Formation of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, W.H.; Sen Gupta, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Montezuma Formation of the Nicoya Peninsula is one of the better known Neogene stratigraphic units of the Pacific side of Costa Rica. Past workers have reported its age to be Miocene-Pliocene or Miocene-Quaternary, and its environment of deposition to be inner shelf. The planktonic foraminiferal record of the unit in the type locality, however, places it firmly in the Lower Pliocene (Globorotalia margaritae zones). Furthermore, benthic such as Bolivina interjuncta var. bicostata, Epistominella exigua, and E. pacifica indicate that the sedimentation occurred at depths no shallower than the outermost shelf. No drastic faunal turnovers are observed within the formation; a cluster analysis of various Neogene samples from the Nicoya Peninsula and other Pacific areas of Costa Rica demonstrate an overall uniformity of the Montezuma fauna. The frequency trends of certain species, particularly of Epistominella exigua, however, suggest a transgression, the assemblage in the upper part of the section definitely representing upper bathyal depths. Judging by the present elevation of Montezuma outcrops, this part of Costa Rica has been uplifted at least 300 meters in the past 5 m.y.

  16. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  17. United States housing, 2012

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  18. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  19. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  20. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  1. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery (ORCR), as well as increased accessibility to unit costs inside and outside the ORCR.

  2. "The Outsiders": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Chad

    This thematic curriculum unit on the adolescent novel, "The Outsiders" (S.E. Hinton) discusses issues that are relevant to students' lives and important to their future decisions. In the unit, students will discuss issues relevant to the novel and will use the novel as a bridge to analyze their own lives. The unit, with an overall theme…

  3. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  4. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  5. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  6. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  7. Infants' Formation and Use of Categories to Segregate Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Amy; Dueker, Gwenden; Lockhead, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Four-and-a-half-month-old infants' ("N"=100) category formation and use was studied in a series of five experiments. For each experiment, the test events featured a display composed of a cylinder and a box. Previous research showed that this display is not clearly parsed as a single unit or as two separate units by infants of this age. Immediately…

  8. Formative Evaluation as a Social Process: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon-Cox, Leslie; Holzner, Burkart

    This paper reports the results of a case study of the process of formative evaluation in the development of one unit of Individualized Science (IS). It is an analytic description of the curriculum project's experiences in formative evaluation rather than an evaluative critique. Following an introductory explanation, the IS program and the IS…

  9. Identity Formation in Turkish and American Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Oskay, Gulter

    1995-01-01

    Compared associations of family decision making, identity formation, and self-esteem in Turkish and American late adolescents. Questionnaire results from 82 university students in Turkey and 101 American students in the United States show both groups are more similar than different in their level of identity formation. Differences were found in…

  10. Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) Data Formatting Tool (HDFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HSPF data formatting and unit conversion tool has two seperate applications: a web-based application and a desktop application. The tool was developed to aid users in formatting data for HSPF stormwater modeling applications. Unlike traditional HSPF modeling applications, sto...

  11. Serine one-carbon catabolism with formate overflow

    PubMed Central

    Meiser, Johannes; Tumanov, Sergey; Maddocks, Oliver; Labuschagne, Christiaan Fred; Athineos, Dimitris; Van Den Broek, Niels; Mackay, Gillian M.; Gottlieb, Eyal; Blyth, Karen; Vousden, Karen; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Vazquez, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Serine catabolism to glycine and a one-carbon unit has been linked to the anabolic requirements of proliferating mammalian cells. However, genome-scale modeling predicts a catabolic role with one-carbon release as formate. We experimentally prove that in cultured cancer cells and nontransformed fibroblasts, most of the serine-derived one-carbon units are released from cells as formate, and that formate release is dependent on mitochondrial reverse 10-CHO-THF synthetase activity. We also show that in cancer cells, formate release is coupled to mitochondrial complex I activity, whereas in nontransformed fibroblasts, it is partially insensitive to inhibition of complex I activity. We demonstrate that in mice, about 50% of plasma formate is derived from serine and that serine starvation or complex I inhibition reduces formate synthesis in vivo. These observations transform our understanding of one-carbon metabolism and have implications for the treatment of diabetes and cancer with complex I inhibitors. PMID:27819051

  12. Unit: Light Forms Images, Inspection Set, National Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The core portion of this trial unit developed by the Australian Science Education Project provides activities from which students gain experience in the formation of images by water and glass lenses. Additional optional sections of the unit contain suggested activities and questions which lead to a study of mirrors, refraction, eyes and…

  13. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  14. Unit: Charge, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print. Reference No. 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This physical science unit from the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP) focuses on electrostatics. After students complete the activities contained in the core of the unit, they have six optional activities to pursue: How do charged objects behave? (conductors, insulators, charged objects); What is blue? (formation of copper ion); Putting…

  15. Unit: Charge, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print. Reference No. 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This physical science unit from the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP) focuses on electrostatics. After students complete the activities contained in the core of the unit, they have six optional activities to pursue: How do charged objects behave? (conductors, insulators, charged objects); What is blue? (formation of copper ion); Putting…

  16. Incorporating Critical Thinking Into a Secondary-School Wellness Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Carrillo, Deanna

    2000-01-01

    Documents how to plan and teach critical thinking skills within the framework of a 15-lesson wellness unit for secondary students, discussing theoretical rational and unit development and offering sample lesson plans, describing a four-step format for introducing thinking skills, which involves: introducing the skill, practicing the skill,…

  17. Addition and Subtraction. Mathematics-Methods Program Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, John F.; And Others

    This unit is 1 of 12 developed for the university classroom portion of the Mathematics-Methods Program (MMP), created by the Indiana University Mathematics Education Development Center (MEDC) as an innovative program for the mathematics training of prospective elementary school teachers (PSTs). Each unit is written in an activity format that…

  18. Architectural studies of Jurassic-Cretaceous fluvial units, Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Miall, A.D.; Bromley, M.H.; Cowan, E.J.; Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1989-03-01

    A sixfold hierarchy of architectural elements and bounding surfaces evolved from outcrop studies of three fluvial units: Westwater Canyon member (WCM), Morrison Formation, Upper Jurassic; Torrivio sandstone member (TSM), Gallup Sandstone, Upper Cretaceous, northwestern New Mexico; and Kayenta Formation (KF), Lower Jurassic, southwestern Colorado. This hierarchy is discussed.

  19. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, Jeffrey P.

    2014-02-19

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3438 sites and 569 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  20. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, Jeffrey P.

    2013-02-13

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3427 sites and 564 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  1. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, Jeffrey P.

    2012-02-29

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2012 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3389 sites and 540 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  2. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  3. Preliminary correlation of geologic units in three coreholes along the Savannah River in Burke and Screven Counties, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Falls, W.F. ); Prowell, D.C. ); Edwards, L.E.; Frederiksen, N.O.; Gibson, T.G.; Bybell, L.M.; Gohn, G.S. )

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary lithologic and paleontologic correlations of geologic units in three deep coreholes along the Savannah River in Burke and Screven Counties in Georgia show four Upper Cretaceous units and five Tertiary units in a dip-oriented cross section. The basal unit of the Upper Cretaceous section consists of nonmarine sediments and is stratigraphically equivalent to the Cape Fear Formation. The next two successive units vary from nonmarine and marginal-marine sediments in up-dip areas to more marine sediments in down-dip areas. These strata are equivalent to the Middendorf Formation and the Black Creek Group. The uppermost unit of the Cretaceous sediments is present only in the down-dip cores and consists predominantly of marginal-marine sediments. This unit is probably equivalent to the Peedee Formation in South Carolina. Units in the Tertiary sediments include at least two Paleocene units, two middle Eocene units, and an upper Eocene unit. The lower unit in the Paleocene, the Ellenton Formation, consists of marginal-marine and marine clays and sands, whereas, the upper unit in the Paleocene consists of nonmarine kaolinitic clays and coarse sands and is probably equivalent to the Williamsburg Formation. The two middle Eocene units consist of marine sands, clays, and limestones and are correlative with the Congaree and Santee Formation. The upper Eocene unit, the Barnwell Group, includes marginal-marine clays and sands in up-dip areas and marine sands, clays and limestones in down-dip areas.

  4. Thermal Decomposition of Copper (II) Calcium (II) Formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, A. G.; Polla, G.; de Perazzo, P. K.; Lanza, H.; de Benyacar, M. A. R.

    1996-05-01

    The presence of different stages in the thermal decomposition process of CuCa(HCOO) 4has been established by means of TGA at different heating rates, X-ray powder diffraction of quenched samples, and DSC methods. During the first stage, decomposition of one of the two copper formate structural units contained in the unit cell takes place. The presence of CuCa 2(HCOO) 6has been detected. Calcium formate structural units break down at higher temperatures; the last decomposition peak corresponds to the appearance of different calcium-copper oxides.

  5. Tropical cyclone formation

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. )

    1993-01-15

    The physics of tropical cyclone formation is not well understood, and more is known about the mature hurricane than the formative mechanisms that produce it. It is believed part of the reason for this can be traced to insufficient upper-level atmospheric data. Recent observations suggest that tropical cyclones are initiated by asymmetric interactions associated with migratory upper-level potential vorticity disturbances and low-level disturbances. Favored theories of cyclones formation, however, focus on internal processes associated with cumulus convection and/or air-sea interaction. This work focuses on external mechanisms of cyclone formation and, using both a two- and three-dimensional moist geostrophic momentum model, investigates the role of upper-level potential vorticity disturbances on the formation process. A conceptual model of tropical cyclone formation is proposed, and implications of the theory are discussed. 71 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Update: nail unit dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Campbell L; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-01-01

    Nail unit dermatopathology is a growing field filled with many challenges. Many advances in this field have been made in the last 5 years. This review article provides an update on new information and studies published in that period of time. We divided these works into different sections, including clinical and pathologic challenges in diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, nail unit biopsy and processing techniques, normal nail unit histology, nail plate structural and growth pathology, metabolic disease, inflammatory conditions, onychomycosis, benign growths, malignant growths, and dyschromias. Specific highlights include advances in the marking and orientation of nail unit biopsies for improved histologic interpretation, improved nail plate softening techniques, new methods for histologic evaluation of onychomycosis, descriptions of newly described benign growths unique to the nail unit, and the morphologic and immunohistochemical distinction between benign and malignant pigmented lesions of the nail unit.

  7. Managing Highway Maintenance: Maintenance Activities, Work Units, and Classifying Work, Unit 6, Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit explains how maintenance work should be described, measured, and classified. It is designed for supervisors who need to know the mechanics of describing work. The format is a programed, self-instruction approach in which information is presented in progressive segments or…

  8. Associative memory cells: Formation, function and perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Hui; Cui, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Associative learning and memory are common activities in life, and their cellular infrastructures constitute the basis of cognitive processes. Although neuronal plasticity emerges after memory formation, basic units and their working principles for the storage and retrieval of associated signals remain to be revealed. Current reports indicate that associative memory cells, through their mutual synapse innervations among the co-activated sensory cortices, are recruited to fulfill the integration, storage and retrieval of multiple associated signals, and serve associative thinking and logical reasoning. In this review, we aim to summarize associative memory cells in their formation, features and functional impacts. PMID:28408978

  9. SIRTF and star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Frank H.

    1988-01-01

    Four problems in the field of star formation that can be attacked to advantage with SIRTF are discussed: (1) the patterns of star formation in spiral galaxies, (2) the physical mechanism for bimodal star formation, (3) the nature of bipolar outflows from young stellar objects, and (4) the birth of brown dwarfs. In each case, SIRTF can provide the crucial combination of high angular resolution with great sensitivity over a broad range of wavelengths that is needed to address the relevant issues.

  10. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  11. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  12. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  13. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  14. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  15. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  16. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  17. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  18. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  19. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  20. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  1. Micelle Formation in Liquid Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Joseph M; Atherton, John H; Page, Michael I

    2015-07-17

    Perfluorinated long chain alkyl amides aggregate in liquid ammonia with increasing concentration which reflects micelle-type formation based on changes in (19)F NMR chemical shifts. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) decrease with increasing chain length and give Kleven parameters A = 0.18 and B = 0.19. The micelles catalyze the ammonolysis of esters in liquid ammonia. The corresponding perfluorinated long chain alkyl carboxylates form ion pairs in liquid ammonia, but the equilibrium dissociation constants indicate favorable interactions between the chains in addition to the electrostatic forces. These perfluorinated carboxylates form micelles in aqueous solution, and their cmc's generate a Kleven B-value = 0.52 compared with 0.30 for the analogous alkyl carboxylates. The differences in hydrophobicity of CH2 and CF2 units in water and liquid ammonia are discussed, as is the possible relevance to life forms in liquid ammonia.

  2. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph; Norman, Colin E-mail: norman@stsci.edu

    2009-07-20

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  3. Ice Formation on Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, L

    1939-01-01

    This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.

  4. Understanding Alliance Formation Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    different periods. The thesis concludes that alliance formation behaviors differ depending on the prevailing system- level conditions in the different...historical periods, especially under conditions of war and peace and based on the polarity of the international system. The approach presented in the...alliance formation, historical periods, geographical proximity, trade exchange, regime type, national material capability, system-level conditions 15

  5. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  6. School Formative Feedback Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven instructional improvement relies on developing coherent systems that allow school staff to generate, interpret, and act upon quality formative information on students and school programs. This article offers a formative feedback system model that captures how school leaders and teachers structure artifacts and practices to create…

  7. School Formative Feedback Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven instructional improvement relies on developing coherent systems that allow school staff to generate, interpret, and act upon quality formative information on students and school programs. This article offers a formative feedback system model that captures how school leaders and teachers structure artifacts and practices to create…

  8. Formative Evaluation Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of formative evaluation highlights alternative formative evaluation methods and tools and explains their advantages, disadvantages, and applicable contexts. Methods described include two-on-one evaluation; think-aloud protocols; computer interviewing; self-evaluation; panel reviews; evaluation meetings; computer journals and networks;…

  9. Formative Assessment in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  10. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  11. Formative Assessment in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  12. Composite stabilizer unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ebaugh, L.R.; Sadler, C.P.; Carter, G.D.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabilizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  13. Unit on Existentialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  14. Instructional Film Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Isabel; And Others

    This booklet is a compendium of instructional units designed to supplement and thereby increase the effectiveness of 39 16mm films related to Mexican American studies available on loan from the Mexican American Curriculum Office. Units and films deal with a variety of topics such as applying for a job; arts, crafts, and architecture of Mexico;…

  15. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  16. Composite stabilizer unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ebaugh, L.R.; Sadler, C.P.; Carter, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabilizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  17. Neighbors United for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  18. Camp Unit Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultsman, John T.; Cottrell, Richard L.

    This document provides a set of generalized guidelines for the design of units in large family campgrounds. Managers of recreational lands have two responsibilities and goals: to protect the natural resources, and to provide an enjoyable experience for users. With these goals in mind, unique variables to each unit such as shade, site aesthetics,…

  19. Camp Unit Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultsman, John T.; Cottrell, Richard L.

    This document provides a set of generalized guidelines for the design of units in large family campgrounds. Managers of recreational lands have two responsibilities and goals: to protect the natural resources, and to provide an enjoyable experience for users. With these goals in mind, unique variables to each unit such as shade, site aesthetics,…

  20. Composite stabilizer unit

    DOEpatents

    Ebaugh, Larry R.; Sadler, Collin P.; Carter, Gary D.

    1992-01-01

    An improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabillizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  1. The United Nations University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salam, Abdus

    1973-01-01

    Reports the progress already made toward the establishment of a postgraduate international university under United Nations auspices. The resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly provides a concise statement of the nature and aims of the United Nations University, which is likely to start operating in 1974. (JR)

  2. Units of Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Carol M.; And Others

    Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…

  3. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  6. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  7. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  8. Labour Studies Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Eric; And Others

    The nine units highlight the history, activities, values, and aspirations of the Canadian labor force. The program's purpose is to help secondary school social studies students develop a more objective appreciation of labor and of labor's role in Canadian social history. The first unit, "Union Today," analyzes contemporary union activity…

  9. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  10. The Age of the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a complicated and discontinuous formation located in the southern parts of Elysium Planitia and Amazonis Planitia (130°-230°E and 12°S-12°N), covering an area of approximately 2.1 x 106 km2 and having an estimated volume of 1.4 x 106 km3 [1]. It is thought to have been deposited during the Amazonian period [2,3]. However, much of the cratering record may have been erased as friable units were eroded and long-buried terrains exhumed [4-6]. The formation is characterized by large accumulations of fine-grained, friable deposits and evidence of large amounts of erosion. There are many theories regarding the emplacement of this formation; recently the literature has focused on three possibilities: ignimbrites, ash fall, and aeolian dust. Some modified and inverted fluvial channels have been found within the deposit [7,8], (Fig. 1), indicating that there was some fluvial activity during or after the emplacement of the MFF. If the MFF is among the youngest surficial deposits on Mars [9], it is implied that meandering, channelized flow must have extended into the Amazonian, a significant constraint when considering the atmospheric evolution of the planet through time. Because of the wide implications that these findings have for the evolution of Mars and the Martian atmosphere, it is instructive to re-examine the evidence for the Amazonian age of the MFF. The initial conclusion comes from two main arguments: the relatively few superposed craters on the unit, and the superposition of the MFF on young lowland lava deposits [1, 9]. Using new high resolution data, we reexamine the relationships both within the MFF and with respect to adjacent units. Cratering Record The cratering record of the MFF and other easily eroded units has often been deemed unreliable [4, 10, 12], but it continues to be cited as evidence for the formation's young age. Throughout the MFF, pedestal craters, inverted craters, and remnant knobs can be

  11. Geohydrologic units of the Gulf Coastal Plain in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.C.; Broom, M.E.; Bush, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes geohydrologic units of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary Systems and of the Paleozoic Era in the Gulf Coastal Plain in Arkansas. Structure contour maps on top of the Paleozoic rocks, Trinity Group, Tokio Formation, Nacatoch Sand, Midway Group, Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Cane River Formation. Sparta Sand, and the Memphis Sand are included. Thickness maps of the Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Cane River Formation, Sparta Sand, and the Memphis Sand and maps showing lines of equal dissolved-solids concentrations of the Nacatoch Sand, Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Cane River Formation, and Sparta Sand are also included. The dissolved-solids maps are at about a 1:2 million scale. All other maps are at a 1:1 million scale. Brief descriptions of the geohydrologic units mentioned above and of the Cook Mountain and Cockfield Formations and the Jackson Group are also included. (USGS)

  12. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Fragmentation of interstellar clouds and star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1982-01-01

    The principal issues are addressed: the fragmentation of molecular clouds into units of stellar mass and the impact of star formation on molecular clouds. The observational evidence for fragmentation is summarized, and the gravitational instability described of a uniform spherical cloud collapsing from rest. The implications are considered of a finite pressure for the minimum fragment mass that is attainable in opacity-limited fragmentation. The role of magnetic fields is discussed in resolving the angular momentum problem and in making the collapse anisotropic, with notable consequences for fragmentation theory. Interactions between fragments are described, with emphasis on the effect of protostellar winds on the ambient cloud matter and on inhibiting further star formation. Such interactions are likely to have profound consequences for regulating the rate of star formation and on the energetics and dynamics of molecular clouds.

  14. Riboflavin Deficiency in Rats Decreases de novo Formate Production but Does Not Affect Plasma Formate Concentration.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Luke; Lamarre, Simon G; daSilva, Robin P; Jacobs, René L; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2017-03-01

    Background: The one-carbon metabolism pathway is highly dependent on a number of B vitamins in order to provide one-carbon units for purine and thymidylate biosynthesis as well as homocysteine remethylation. Previous studies have examined folate and vitamin B-12 deficiency and their effects on formate metabolism; as of yet, to our knowledge, no studies on the effects of riboflavin deficiency on formate metabolism have been published.Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of riboflavin deficiency on formate metabolism.Methods: Weanling male rats were randomly assigned either to control, riboflavin-replete (RR) or to experimental, riboflavin-deficient (RD) versions of the AIN-93G diet for 13 d, at which time a constant infusion of [(13)C]-formate was carried out to ascertain the effects of deficiency on formate production. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure plasma formate concentration and [(13)C]-formate enrichment. HPLC, LC-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS, and enzymatic assays were used for the measurement of one-carbon precursors and other metabolites.Results: RD rats had significantly lower rates of formate production (15%) as well as significantly reduced hepatic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity (69%) and protein concentration (54%) compared with RR rats. There was no difference in plasma formate concentrations between the groups. Plasma serine, a potential one-carbon precursor, was significantly higher in RD rats (467 ± 73 μM) than in RR rats (368 ± 52 μM).Conclusions: Although deficiencies in folate and vitamin B-12 lead to major changes in plasma formate concentrations, riboflavin deficiency results in no significant difference; this disagrees with the prediction of a published mathematical model. Our observation of a lower rate of formate production is consistent with a role for flavoproteins in this process. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Challenges in planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are the following: (1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; (2) the growth of the first planetesimals; (3) orbital migration driven by interactions between protoplanets and gaseous disk; (4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and (5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  16. Wood formation in Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, Annabelle; Laurans, Françoise; Arnaud, Dominique; Breton, Christian; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles

    2010-04-01

    Wood formation is a complex biological process, involving five major developmental steps, including (1) cell division from a secondary meristem called the vascular cambium, (2) cell expansion (cell elongation and radial enlargement), (3) secondary cell wall deposition, (4) programmed cell death, and (5) heartwood formation. Thanks to the development of genomic studies in woody species, as well as genetic engineering, recent progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wood formation. In this review, we will focus on two different aspects, the lignification process and the control of microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres, as they are both key features of wood material properties.

  17. The Unit of Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Boeck, William L.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    For the past century, scientists have made quantitative measurements of lightning discharges. In the process, they refined the definition of a lightning unit, or basic quantum of lightning, in order to base it on observable parameters. Although many components of a lightning discharge have been identified, lightning usually occur in groups of discharges or pulses that, although complex, can be organized into units of flashes. This unit definition is based mainly on measurements of lightning from electric field, video, and ground flash lightning locating networks. More recent instrumentation with various combinations of high sensitivity, high temporal, or high spatial resolution often measure signals produced by lightning that do not cleanly divide into flashes. The data from these systems indicate the need or a more fundamental unit for lightning. Such a unit would be of benefit for both basic understanding of lightning and comparing lightning information between instruments. Without a common lightning unit definition, intercomparisons are difficult. For an example, the Lightning Detection And Ranging system (LDAR) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have detected ,flash' rates as high as 600 per minute while analysis based on the Advanced Ground Based Field Mill network (AGBFM) detect only 33 "flashes" per minute in the same area and time periods. The satellite based Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) sometimes see single "flashes" that last longer than 10 seconds. Such long duration flashes are not found in electric field records or ground strike location system data sets. The unit of lightning should be based on the fundamental components of the lightning discharge. This should make the unit as generally applicable as possible. For example, studies of NO(x) production by lightning depend on parameters of the individual lightning channels and not the summary flash characteristics. For such studies, the best unit of lightning may be

  18. CONVERT 15 WELLS TO BORS PUMPING UNITS AND TEST/COMPARE TO CONVENTIONAL UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Walter B. North

    2003-02-04

    A new type of fluid lifting equipment called Balanced Oil Recovery System (trade named BORS Lift{trademark}) was installed on several idle oil wells to demonstrate the operating efficiency of this innovative equipment technology. The BORS Lift system is designed to bring oil to the surface without the accompanying formation water. The BORS Lift system uses an innovative strap mechanism that takes oil from the top of the downhole oilwater column and lifts it to the surface, eliminating production of the formation water. Eliminating salt water production could potentially increase oil production, reduce operational costs, benefit the environment, and cut salt water disposal costs. Although the BORS Lift units did not function as intended, lessons learned during the course of the field demonstration project resulted in improvements in the technology and redesign of subsequent generation BORS Lift units which are reported to have significantly improved their performance characteristics. BORS Lift units were installed on 15 temporarily abandoned wells which had been shut down due to low oil production, high water production, and uneconomic operating conditions. The wells had been producing with artificial lift at a high watercut from a shallow (850-900 feet), pressure depleted oil sand reservoir prior to being shut down. The electrical motor driven BORS Lift units provided a possible approach for economically returning the shallow, low-volume oil wells to production. The BORS Lift units used in this field demonstration were designed to recover up to roughly 22 barrels of fluid per day from depths ranging to 1,700 feet, ideal for many marginal stripper well operations. The BORS units were first-production-model test units, operated under oil field conditions for the first time, and were naturally expected to experience some design problems. From the onset, the operator experienced mechanical, design, and operational problems with the BORS Lift units and was unable to

  19. Stratigraphic revision and depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous Toreva Formation in the northern Black Mesa area, Navajo and Apache counties, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Franczyk, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two units previously included in the upper part of the Toreva Formation in northern Black Mesa have been assigned new stratigraphic names. One unit previously assigned to the Toreva is reassigned to the Wepo Formation. This report describes the sedimentology of the Toreva Formation and these new units and the depositional history of the Black Mesa area during middle Turonian through early Santonian time. Correlations are made among these units on Black Mesa and Cretaceous sequences in southern Utah and western New Mexico.

  20. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Treesearch

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  1. Tree-Fruit Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Robert C.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    Designed as a guide for teachers in planning and conducting young and adult farmer classes, the unit covers the basic areas of tree-fruit production. The format of the 10-lesson unit allows for the utilization of the problem-solving and discussion methods of teaching. The major objective of the unit is to develop the ability to effectively…

  2. Managing Highway Maintenance: Standards for Maintenance Work, Part 2, Unit 8, Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit describes the ways maintenance standards are developed and some of the factors which are considered in setting standards; the preceding unit on standards (part 1) should be completed before reading this unit. The format is a programed, self-instruction approach in which…

  3. Circumstellar grain formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draine, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Dust formation around cool giant and supergiant stars is examined in terms of grain formulation. Optical properties of small clusters, molecular physics of cluster nucleation and growth, circumstellar mass flows, and their application to alpha Ori are discussed.

  4. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  5. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  6. Determining if Active Learning through a Formative Assessment Process Translates to Better Performance in Summative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosas, Aidan Bradley; Raju, Shiwani Rani; Schuett, Burkhardt Siegfried; Chuck, Jo-Anne; Millar, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment used in a level 2 unit, Immunology, gave outcomes that were both surprising and applicable across disciplines. Four formative tests were given and reviewed during class time. The students' attitudes to formative assessment were evaluated using questionnaires and its effectiveness in closing the gap was measured by the…

  7. Determining if Active Learning through a Formative Assessment Process Translates to Better Performance in Summative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosas, Aidan Bradley; Raju, Shiwani Rani; Schuett, Burkhardt Siegfried; Chuck, Jo-Anne; Millar, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment used in a level 2 unit, Immunology, gave outcomes that were both surprising and applicable across disciplines. Four formative tests were given and reviewed during class time. The students' attitudes to formative assessment were evaluated using questionnaires and its effectiveness in closing the gap was measured by the…

  8. Exothermic brazing units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Caig, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Units are used for repairing and assembling stainless steel tubing. Heat generated by chemical reaction is used to melt brazing alloy and bonded area is not contaminated by the reactants or by-products of the reaction.

  9. Associative list processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  10. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  11. Electrosurgical unit analyzers.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    Electrosurgical unit (ESU) analyzers automate the testing and inspection of the output circuits and safety features of ESUs. They perform testing that would otherwise require several other pieces of equipment, as well as considerably more time and greater technician expertise. They are used largely by clinical engineering departments for routine inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) procedures and, less often, for accident investigations and troubleshooting. In this Evaluation, we tested three ESU analyzers from three suppliers. We rated all three analyzers Acceptable and ranked them in two groupings. In ranking the units, we placed the greatest weight on ease of use for routine ESU inspections, and gave additional consideration to versatility for advanced applications such as ESU research. The unit in Group 1 was the easiest to use, especially for infrequent users. The units in Group 2 were satisfactory but require more frequent use to maintain proficiency and to avoid user errors.

  12. Intensive Care Unit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common safety and health topics: Bloodborne Pathogens Working Space Slips/Trips/Falls Latex Allergy Equipment Hazards Workplace ... or Body Substance Isolation . Back to Top Working Space Potential Hazard Intensive care units (ICU's), particularly neonatal ...

  13. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  14. Graphics Processor Units (GPUs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will include information about Graphics Processor Units (GPUs) technology, NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) tasks, The test setup, test parameter considerations, lessons learned, collaborations, a roadmap, NEPP partners, results to date, and future plans.

  15. Voltage verification unit

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Edward J [Virginia Beach, VA

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  16. United Leukodystrophy Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for his ... Read More 26 June 2017 5K & Volleyball The United Leukodystrophy Foundation sends out a great ... Nebraska, the Sinnott Sand Bar ran its annual volleyball tournament, ... Read More 22 June 2017 Michelle Fingeroot ...

  17. Display formats manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The standards and procedures for the generation of operational display formats to be used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) display control system are presented. The required effort, forms, and fundamentals for the design, specifications, and production of display formats are identified. The principles of display design and system constraints controlling the creation of optimum operational displays for mission control are explained. The basic two types of MCC display systems for presenting information are described.

  18. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  19. Formation of Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Under the support of NASA Origins grant, we studied the formation of gaps in protoplanetary disks due the tidal interaction between a fully grown protoplanet and protostellar disk. The result of this study is published in the Astrophysical Journal, (vol 514, 344-367, 1999) and in several conference proceedings. The main focus of this work is to analyze planet-disk interaction during the final stages of protoplanetary formation.

  20. Dust Devil Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, S.; Jemmett-Smith, B.; Fenton, L.; Lorenz, R.; Takemi, T.; Ito, J.; Tyler, D.

    2016-11-01

    The essential dynamical characteristic of convective vortices, including dust devils, is a highly localized vorticity tube that extends into the vertical. This chapter is concerned with both the generation of vorticity and the subsequent focusing of that vorticity into a tight vortex, and with the environmental conditions that are conducive to the formation of convective vortices in general and dust devils in particular. A review of observations, theory, and modeling of dust devil formation is provided.

  1. Water sample filtration unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skougstad, M.W.; Scarbro, G.F.

    1968-01-01

    A readily portable, all plastic, pressure filtration unit is described which greatly facilitates rapid micropore membrane field filtration of up to several liters of water with a minimum risk of inorganic chemical alteration or contamination of the sample. The unit accommodates standard 10.2-cm. (4-inch) diameter filters. The storage and carrying case serves as a convenient filter stand for both field and laboratory use.

  2. Auxiliary Power Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    Auxiliary Power Units Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports ...1. REPORT DATE 17 NOV 2010 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Auxiliary Power Units 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  3. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  4. Indexes of pumps for oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimov, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    As reported previously, a series of oil field pumping units has been developed with power outputs of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kW, designed for injecting working fluids in cementing operations in oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing of formations, washing out sand plugs, and other production operations. The units are designed for the use of three-plunger pumps with individual power outputs of 125 or 500 kW. In the 250- and 1000-kW units, two such pumps are used. The 1000-kW pumping unit serves mainly for deep-penetration hydraulic fracturing of formations, and also for fracturing deep formations. The hydraulic fracturing process does not require the use of units with two pumps; this has been demonstrated by experience, both here and in other countries. All units intended for use in hydraulic fracturing are built with a single pump, transmission, and drive. Pumping units for well cementing must have two pumps that will give a high delivery rate. At the start of the operation, a single pump can be used to feed water into the cement mixer, with the second pump used to transfer the cement slurry to the well. Then both pumps are connected to the slurry injection line. The operation of these pumps is described.

  5. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  6. DEPOSITIONAL RELATIONS OF UMPQUA AND TYEE FORMATIONS (EOCENE), SOUTHWESTERN OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Umpqua Formation (as herein restricted) consists of as much as 10,000 ft of mudstone, sandstone, and conglomerate of nonmarine to deep marine origin. A basaltic basement that underlies the sedimentary rocks in most of the area and was formerly included in the Umpqua is herein considered a separate unit and assigned to the Siletz River Volcanics. A proposal to subdivide the Umpqua into three unconformity-bounded formations in the area west of Roseburg, Oregon, is not recognized in this report because of questionable correlations and limited extent of some units. The Tyee Formation, which conformably overlies the Umpqua, is a predominantly sandstone unit about 6,000 ft thick, deposited in environments ranging from shallow marine and nonmarine deltaic on the south, to slope and deep marine basinal to the north. Deposition across the Umpqua-Tyee boundary contact represents a change in tectonic setting. Refs.

  7. Temporal Self-organization in Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-04-01

    We report on the discovery of a relation between the number of star formation (SF) peaks per unit time, νpeak, and the size of the temporal smoothing window function, Δt, used to define the peaks: νpeakvpropΔt 1 - phi (phi ~ 1.618). This relation holds over the range of Δt = 10-1000 Myr that can be reliably computed here, using a large sample of galaxies obtained from a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. This means that the temporal distribution of SF peaks in galaxies as a population is fractal with a Hausdorff fractal dimension equal to phi - 1. This finding reveals, for the first time, that the superficially chaotic process of galaxy formation is underlined by temporal self-organization up to at least one gigayear. It is tempting to suggest that, given the known existence of spatial fractals (such as the power-law two-point function of galaxies), there is a joint spatio-temporal self-organization in galaxy formation. From an observational perspective, it will be urgent to devise diagnostics to probe the SF histories of galaxies with good temporal resolution to facilitate a test of this prediction. If confirmed, it would provide unambiguous evidence for a new picture of galaxy formation that is interaction driven, cooperative, and coherent in and between time and space. Unravelling its origin may hold the key to understanding galaxy formation.

  8. Resolving the Star Formation in Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladders, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The fundamental unit of star formation in the Universe is neither a star, nor a galaxy, but a star forming region with a typical scale of at most 100s of parsecs. Even at full HST resolution, these regions are unresolved beyond rather modest redshifts. HST has - and continues to be - heavily invested in studies of distant galaxies, yet has been fundamentally unable to study the relevant physical scales of star formation in the distant Universe. We propose here to overcome this resolution barrier by imaging a total of 73 strongly lensed galaxies at z~1-3 discovered in the SDSS. The combination of the exquisite image quality of HST with the magnification boost due to strong lensing will allow robust measurements of the sizes, luminosities, star formation rates and stellar populations of individual star-forming clumps in these galaxies, providing the first ever comprehensive data on star formation at its fundamental scale over the entire peak of the star formation history in the Universe. The proposed observations build on the extensive legacy of HST deep fields - including the ongoing MCT CANDELS program. A number of ancillary science goals - not least amongst them the study of the lensing systems proper - are also enabled by the proposed data.

  9. Positronium Formation in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D. R.

    1970-01-01

    Positronium formation in muscle at +4°C and -4°C was examined by the measurement of the angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation. Since the positronium formation rate in ice is considerably higher than it is in water, there should be a comparable increase in the positronium formation rate in muscle tissue if recent speculation that cellular water is ordered in a semicrystalline icelike state is correct. Comparison of the angular correlation from muscle at +4°C with that from water at +4°C shows no enhancement of the positronium formation rate. Frozen muscle at -4°C shows an enhancement of the positronium formation rate of approximately half that found in ice at -4°C, indicating that most cellular water undergoes a normal water-ice transition when frozen. It is concluded therefore that cell water in muscle is not ordered in a hexagonal icelike structure. While the results are consistent with the hypothesis that cell water is in the liquid state, the hypothesis that cell water is ordered in an undetermined close packed structure which transforms to the hexagonal ice structure at or near 0°C cannot be ruled out. PMID:5436881

  10. Formation of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    The origin of the earth is discussed in the context of the formation of the sun and the planets, and a standard model for such a formation assuming gravitational instability in a dense interstellar molecular cloud is outlined, along with the most significant variant of the model in which the loss of the nebular gas occurred after the formation of the earth. The formation of the sun and solar nebulae is addressed, and the coagulation of grains and the formation of small planetesimals are covered, along with the gravitational accumulation of planetesimals into planetary embryos and final stages of accumulation - embryos of planets. It is pointed out that the final stage of accumulation consists of the collision of these embryos; because of their large size, particularly after their further growth, these collisions represent giant impacts. It is concluded that the earth was initially an extremely hot and melted planet, surrounded by a fragile atmosphere and subject to violent impacts by bodies of the size of Ceres and even the moon.

  11. Vascular Lumen Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell–cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved. PMID:22474612

  12. Knob heights within circum-Caloris geologic units on Mercury: Interpretations of the geologic history of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackiss, S. E.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Ernst, C. M.; McBeck, J. A.; Seelos, K. D.

    2015-11-01

    The circum-Caloris geologic units show morphology consistent with ejecta-derived formation, however crater counts suggest the units formed after the basin. To determine if the surrounding units are directly related to basin formation or products of later volcanic resurfacing events, we measured the heights and densities of knobs in 22 study regions to the east of the Caloris basin in three geologic units circumferential to the basin: the Odin Formation, the Van Eyck Formation, and the Smooth Plains Formation. In these study regions the size and concentration of ejecta blocks generally decrease away from the crater rim. The morphology that superposes the knobs and the distribution of knob heights within each study region suggests that the knobs were deposited as ejecta and later embayed by one or multiple volcanic events. The distribution of knob height and concentration indicates that the knobs within the circum-Caloris units are related to the formation of the basin.

  13. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  14. Three conceptual units for behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy

    1987-01-01

    Three generic units for behavior are examined in terms of their background: an if-then unit for stimulus and response (S-R), a holistic unit for Kantor's behavior segment, and an AB-because-of-C unit for Skinner's three-term contingency. The units are distinguished in terms of their respective historical backgrounds, causal modes, advantages, and disadvantages. The ways in which these units may be compatible are discussed. PMID:22477957

  15. Matching soil grid unit resolutions with polygon unit scales for DNDC modelling of regional SOC pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. D.; Yu, D. S.; Ni, Y. L.; Zhang, L. M.; Shi, X. Z.

    2015-03-01

    Matching soil grid unit resolution with polygon unit map scale is important to minimize uncertainty of regional soil organic carbon (SOC) pool simulation as their strong influences on the uncertainty. A series of soil grid units at varying cell sizes were derived from soil polygon units at the six map scales of 1:50 000 (C5), 1:200 000 (D2), 1:500 000 (P5), 1:1 000 000 (N1), 1:4 000 000 (N4) and 1:14 000 000 (N14), respectively, in the Tai lake region of China. Both format soil units were used for regional SOC pool simulation with DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) process-based model, which runs span the time period 1982 to 2000 at the six map scales, respectively. Four indices, soil type number (STN) and area (AREA), average SOC density (ASOCD) and total SOC stocks (SOCS) of surface paddy soils simulated with the DNDC, were attributed from all these soil polygon and grid units, respectively. Subjecting to the four index values (IV) from the parent polygon units, the variation of an index value (VIV, %) from the grid units was used to assess its dataset accuracy and redundancy, which reflects uncertainty in the simulation of SOC. Optimal soil grid unit resolutions were generated and suggested for the DNDC simulation of regional SOC pool, matching with soil polygon units map scales, respectively. With the optimal raster resolution the soil grid units dataset can hold the same accuracy as its parent polygon units dataset without any redundancy, when VIV < 1% of all the four indices was assumed as criteria to the assessment. An quadratic curve regression model y = -8.0 × 10-6x2 + 0.228x + 0.211 (R2 = 0.9994, p < 0.05) was revealed, which describes the relationship between optimal soil grid unit resolution (y, km) and soil polygon unit map scale (1:x). The knowledge may serve for grid partitioning of regions focused on the investigation and simulation of SOC pool dynamics at certain map scale.

  16. Revised age and structural interpretations of Nuka Formation at Nuka Ridge, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tailleur, I.L.; Mamet, B.L.; Dutro, J.T.

    1973-01-01

    New collections of foraminifers and macrofossils from Nuka Ridge, the type area of the enigmatic Nuka Formation, demonstrate that the type Nuka Formation is not a continuous stratigraphic sequence as originally described. Paleontologic evidence indicates the presence of a structurally repeated sequence at Nuka Ridge consisting of Upper Mississippian (Meramec and younger) strata overlain by Permian beds which, in turn, are succeeded by Triassic(?) and Cretaceous rocks. Mississippian calcareous mudstone and limestone units are correlated with the Lisburne Group; microcline-bearing arkose units with Mississippian and Permian macrofossils and microfossils represent the Nuka Formation; units of chert are inferred to be of Permian and Triassic age; and wacke at the top of the sequence resembles unnamed wacke assigned to the Cretaceous elsewhere. These new data and their interpretations indicate that the type section of the Nuka Formation is inadequate. The standard for the Nuka Formation is therefore referred to a newly measured section of the middle arkosic unit of the old section.

  17. Observsational Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Fung, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Planets form in gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding newborn stars. As such, the most direct way to learn how they form from observations, is to directly watch them forming in disks. In the past, this was very difficult due to a lack of observational capabilities; as such, planet formation was largely a subject of pure theoretical astrophysics. Now, thanks to a fleet of new instruments with unprecedented resolving power that have come online recently, we have just started to unveil features in resolve images of protoplanetary disks, such as gaps and spiral arms, that are most likely associated with embedded (unseen) planets. By comparing observations with theoretical models of planet-disk interactions, the masses and orbits of these still forming planets may be constrained. Such planets may help us to directly test various planet formation models. This marks the onset of a new field — observational planet formation. I will introduce the current status of this field.

  18. Equilibrium Star Cluster Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2006-04-01

    We argue that rich star clusters take at least several local dynamical times to form and so are quasi-equilibrium structures during their assembly. Observations supporting this conclusion include morphologies of star-forming clumps, momentum flux of protostellar outflows from forming clusters, age spreads of stars in the Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) and other clusters, and the age of a dynamical ejection event from the ONC. We show that these long formation timescales are consistent with the expected star formation rate in turbulent gas, as recently evaluated by Krumholz & McKee. Finally, we discuss the implications of these timescales for star formation efficiencies, the disruption of gas by stellar feedback, mass segregation of stars, and the longevity of turbulence in molecular clumps.

  19. Universal thermoelectric unit

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M.I.; Engalychev, A.E.; Zaitsev, V.K.; Kaliazin, A.E.; Solomkin, F.Y.

    1994-08-10

    The problems of energy supply of low power electric devices very often can be solved with thermoelectric generator even with low coefficient of performance, when other electric energy sources are not convenient. The problems of thermoelectric and construction choice for such generators are discussed in the paper. A series of domestic thermoelectric generators was designed by the authors. The work is based on designing an universal thermoelectric unit---a battery which consist of ten thermoelements. The coefficient of performance of the unit is about 4%. Any thermoelectric generator can be made as a combination of these units. Principal opportunity of production such thermoelectric generators on industrial scale was proved. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. Constraints on Exomoon Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Miki; Genda, Hidenori; Asphaug, Erik; Ida, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    It has been widely accepted that the Earth’s moon formed by a giant impact during the late stage of the planetary formation process. The giant impact led to the formation of a debris disk around the Earth from which the Moon accreted. This type of satellite formation is considered to be common not only in the solar system (e.g., the Pluto-Charon system) but also in extrasolar systems (e.g. Ogihara & Ida 2009). However, no detailed research has been conducted on impact-induced exomoon formation. Wada et al. (2006) suggest that a vapor-rich disk is dynamically unstable and that it may not be suitable for moon formation. If this is the case, the mass and composition of a planet may affect the satellite formation process. Here, we show results from giant impact simulations of planets with various masses and compositions. We use the model suggested by Nakajima & Stevenson (2014) to estimate the vapor mass fractions of the disks. We find that the more massive and the more ice-rich the planet is, the higher the vapor mass fraction of the disk becomes. This indicates there is an upper limit of the planetary mass to form an impact-induced moon and the limit depends on the planetary composition. This upper limit is a few Earth masses for a rocky planet, and about an Earth mass for an icy planet. These results are consistent with the models that Earth’s and Pluto’s satellites formed by impacts. Although no exomoon has been detected yet, our model may be used to predict whether an observed terrestrial exoplanet could potentially have one or multiple impact-induced exomoons.

  1. Engram formation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, “engrams” or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis) may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions. To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves (a) epigenetic changes, (b) altered neuronal activities, and (c) changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP). However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal) and a wave-like (glial) computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  2. Formation of Saturn's spokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical requirements of the Goertz and Morfill (1983) model of the formation of spokes in the rings of Saturn are analyzed. Consideration is given to model predictions of dust particle size distribution, the optical depth of the spokes, and the radial speed of spoke evolution. It is shown that the electrostatic levitation of singly charged dust particles would be sufficient to cause the spokes to form. The maximum formation time for spokes of more than 10,000 km radial length is estimated to be less than five minutes. Observations of the scattering properties of the spokes showed general agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  3. Sensitivity Data File Formats

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.

    2016-04-01

    The format of the TSUNAMI-A sensitivity data file produced by SAMS for cases with deterministic transport solutions is given in Table 6.3.A.1. The occurrence of each entry in the data file is followed by an identification of the data contained on each line of the file and the FORTRAN edit descriptor denoting the format of each line. A brief description of each line is also presented. A sample of the TSUNAMI-A data file for the Flattop-25 sample problem is provided in Figure 6.3.A.1. Here, only two profiles out of the 130 computed are shown.

  4. Gaussian entanglement of formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, M.M.; Giedke, G.; Krueger, O.; Werner, R. F.; Cirac, J.I.

    2004-05-01

    We introduce a Gaussian version of the entanglement of formation adapted to bipartite Gaussian states by considering decompositions into pure Gaussian states only. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian operations and provide a simplified computation for states of arbitrary many modes. For the case of one mode per site the remaining variational problem can be solved analytically. If the considered state is in addition symmetric with respect to interchanging the two modes, we prove additivity of the considered entanglement measure. Moreover, in this case and considering only a single copy, our entanglement measure coincides with the true entanglement of formation.

  5. Geomorphic Units on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Solomonidou, Anezina; Radebaugh, Jani

    2015-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the surface of Titan in unprecedented detail. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode on the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is able to penetrate clouds and haze to provide high resolution (~350 m spatial resolution at best) views of the surface geology. The instrument's other modes (altimetry, scatterometry, radiometry) also provide valuable data for interpreting the geology, as do other instruments on Cassini, in particular, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Continuing the initial work described in Lopes et al. (2010, Icarus, 212, 744-750), we have established the major geomorphologic unit classes on Titan using data from flybys Ta through T92 (October 2004-July 2013). We will present the global distribution of the major classes of units and, where there are direct morphological contacts, describe how these classes of units relate to each other in terms of setting and emplacement history. The classes of units are mountainous/hummocky terrains, plains, dunes, labyrinthic terrains and lakes. The oldest classes of units are the mountainous/hummocky and the labyrinthic terrains. The mountainous/hummocky terrains consist of mountain chains and isolated radar-bright terrains. The labyrinthic terrains consist of highly incised dissected plateaux with medium radar backscatter. The plains are younger than both mountainous/hummocky and labyrinthic unit classes. Dunes and lakes are the youngest unit classes on Titan; no contact is observed between the dunes and lakes but it is likely that both processes are still active. We have identified individual features such as craters, channels, and candidate cryovolcanic features. Characterization and comparison of the properties of the unit classes and the individual features with data from radiometry, ISS, and VIMS provides information on their composition and possible provenance. We can use these correlations to also infer global

  6. Geomorphic Units on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Malaska, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the surface of Titan in unprecedented detail. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode on the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is able to penetrate clouds and haze to provide high resolution (~350 m spatial resolution at best) views of the surface geology. The instrument's other modes (altimetry, scatterometry, radiometry) also provide valuable data for interpreting the geology, as do other instruments on Cassini, in particular, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Continuing the initial work described in Lopes et al. (2010, Icarus, 212, 744-750), we have established the major geomorphologic unit classes on Titan using data from flybys Ta through T92 (October 2004-July 2013). We will present the global distribution of the major classes of units and, where there are direct morphological contacts, describe how these classes of units relate to each other in terms of setting and emplacement history. The classes of units are mountainous/hummocky terrains, plains, dunes, labyrinthic terrains and lakes. The oldest classes of units are the mountainous/hummocky and the labyrinthic terrains. The mountainous/hummocky terrains consist of mountain chains and isolated radar-bright terrains. The labyrinthic terrains consist of highly incised dissected plateaux with medium radar backscatter. The plains are younger than both mountainous/hummocky and labyrinthic unit classes. Dunes and lakes are the youngest unit classes on Titan; no contact is observed between the dunes and lakes but it is likely that both processes are still active. We have identified individual features such as craters, channels, and candidate cryovolcanic features. Characterization and comparison of the properties of the unit classes and the individual features with data from radiometry, ISS, and VIMS provides information on their composition and possible provenance. We can use these correlations to also infer global

  7. TRW utility demonstration unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. During this report period, activity continued to address the total program funding shortfall. Ideas and responsibilities for further evaluation have been put forward to reduce the shortfall. In addition, an effort aimed at gaining additional program sponsorships, was initiated.

  8. Perceptions and practices of U.S. dental schools regarding curriculum integrated format and traditional format licensure exams.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shamik; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Donoff, R Bruce; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2013-08-01

    The dental licensure exam in the United States has evolved over the past ten years, and two formats-the traditional format and curriculum integrated format-are now available for students to satisfy licensure requirements. The objective of this study was to examine the differences and relative merits of the two formats. A twenty-five-question survey was distributed to the fifty-seven U.S. dental schools at the time. The survey included both quantitative and discrete variables and followed a strategic sequential order. The first set of questions sought to determine what type of board preparatory/mock exam each dental school offered, and the next set of questions asked which licensure exam each school formally offered. The final questions were qualitative in nature and aimed to determine the school representatives' opinions about the curriculum integrated format versus traditional format. Of the fifty-seven schools contacted, thirty-seven agreed to participate (response rate=64.9 percent). Fourteen schools reported that they administer the traditional format only and twelve administer the curriculum integrated format only, while eleven offer both. Thirty-two schools offered mock board exams to their graduating students, and twenty-four of those said their mock exams were identical in format to the actual qualifying clinical exams offered at their institution. The respondents reported no significant advantage to preparing for the curriculum integrated format examination as compared to the traditional format examination with regards to number of clock hours taken from regular curriculum time. In reporting on this study, this article provides an overview of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two examination formats used for the dental licensure process in the United States.

  9. SI Units to be Used in Place of Imperial Units and Old Metric Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A table lists the following quantities in imperial units, old metric units, and SI units: mass, force, energy, torque, power, pressure, temperature, thermal conductivity, frequency, dynamic viscosity, and kinematic viscosity. (MLH)

  10. SI Units to be Used in Place of Imperial Units and Old Metric Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A table lists the following quantities in imperial units, old metric units, and SI units: mass, force, energy, torque, power, pressure, temperature, thermal conductivity, frequency, dynamic viscosity, and kinematic viscosity. (MLH)

  11. Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

  12. Formation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Fred; Jacobsen, Douglas; Jacobsen, Rhonda Hustedt; Thatamanil, John J.; Porterfield, Amanda; Moore, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    What is the relationship between the academic knowledge of the guild and the formation of students in the classroom? This Forum gathers four essays originally presented at a Special Topics Session at the 2009 conference of the American Academy of Religion (Atlanta, Georgia), with a brief introductory essay by Fred Glennon explaining the genesis of…

  13. Formation of planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, Stuart J.

    1991-01-01

    Formation of planetesimals is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) nebular structure; (2) aerodynamics of the solid bodies in the nebula; (3) problems with gravitational instability; (4) particle growth by coagulation; properties of fractal aggregates; and (5) coagulation and settling of fractal aggregates.

  14. The Formation of Trihalomethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, R. Rhodes; Umphres, Mark D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are a number of factors important in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) including the nature of aquatic humus and the influences of preozonation, bromide, pH, and chlorine. A brief investigation is also conducted into the kinetics of the THM reaction. Several major research needs are represented. (CS)

  15. Formation of Freirian Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Phyllis

    This paper is written for people who are already familiar with the philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire's liberatory education and are interested in creating a formation program for adult education facilitators using his ideas. The author describes the paper as "a collection of thoughts, of things to consider," when organizing such…

  16. The Formation of Trihalomethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, R. Rhodes; Umphres, Mark D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are a number of factors important in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) including the nature of aquatic humus and the influences of preozonation, bromide, pH, and chlorine. A brief investigation is also conducted into the kinetics of the THM reaction. Several major research needs are represented. (CS)

  17. 500+ Writing Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests a multitude of ideas for students to communicate their ideas in writing using the language of mathematics. Includes a sampling of 500+ writing formats, 67 abbreviated writing assignments, and three complete assignments along with a sample student response to each. Sample assignments include advice column, biographical sketch, commercial,…

  18. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  19. Technobabble: File Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    Considers the confusion of over 20 different kinds of graphics programs. Briefly distinguishes between some of the more popular graphics formats (Photoshop, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, PICT, and EPS), and describes the benefits and disadvantages of each in the context of journalism education. (SC)

  20. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network 'purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  1. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network `purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  2. Perspectives on Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Walter H.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between policy formation and research is explored. Three theories accounting for the non-utilization of research, ways in which research is utilized by administrators, and situational factors influencing use are covered. Implications for future action within an increasingly political framework are presented. (SW)

  3. Formation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Fred; Jacobsen, Douglas; Jacobsen, Rhonda Hustedt; Thatamanil, John J.; Porterfield, Amanda; Moore, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    What is the relationship between the academic knowledge of the guild and the formation of students in the classroom? This Forum gathers four essays originally presented at a Special Topics Session at the 2009 conference of the American Academy of Religion (Atlanta, Georgia), with a brief introductory essay by Fred Glennon explaining the genesis of…

  4. 500+ Writing Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests a multitude of ideas for students to communicate their ideas in writing using the language of mathematics. Includes a sampling of 500+ writing formats, 67 abbreviated writing assignments, and three complete assignments along with a sample student response to each. Sample assignments include advice column, biographical sketch, commercial,…

  5. Technobabble: File Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    Considers the confusion of over 20 different kinds of graphics programs. Briefly distinguishes between some of the more popular graphics formats (Photoshop, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, PICT, and EPS), and describes the benefits and disadvantages of each in the context of journalism education. (SC)

  6. S-nitrosothiol formation.

    PubMed

    Carver, Jeannean; Doctor, Allan; Zaman, Khalequz; Gaston, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Protein and peptide S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are involved in guanylate cyclase-independent signaling associated with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation. As a general rule, SNO formation requires the presence of an electron acceptor such as Cu2+. Various proteins have been identified that catalyze SNO formation, including NOS itself, ceruloplasmin, and hemoglobin. Biochemical evidence suggests the existence of other SNO synthases and NOS-associated proteins involved in SNO formation following NOS activation. Indeed, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic consensus motifs have been identified that favor protein S-nitrosylation. Inorganic SNO formation appears also to occur in biological systems at low pH levels and/or in membranes. Once formed, SNOs localized to specific cellular compartments signal specific effects, ranging from gene regulation to ion channel gating. Indeed, the number of cellular and physiological functions appreciated to be regulated through SNO synthesis, localization, and catabolism is increasing. Although research into SNO biosynthesis is in its infancy, the importance of this field of biochemistry has been confirmed repeatedly by investigators from a broad spectrum of disciplines.

  7. FORMATION OF 2-METHYL TETROLS AND 2-METHYLGLYCERIC ACID IN SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM LABORATORY IRRADIATED ISOPRENE/NO X/SO 2/AIR MIXTURES AND THEIR DETECTION IN AMBIENT PM 2.5 SAMPLES COLLECTED IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of isoprene/NOx/air irradiation experiments, carried out in both the absence and presence of SO2, were conducted to assess whether isoprene contributes to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In the absence of SO2 , the SOA yield of 0.002 was low. However, in th...

  8. FORMATION OF 2-METHYL TETROLS AND 2-METHYLGLYCERIC ACID IN SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM LABORATORY IRRADIATED ISOPRENE/NO X/SO 2/AIR MIXTURES AND THEIR DETECTION IN AMBIENT PM 2.5 SAMPLES COLLECTED IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of isoprene/NOx/air irradiation experiments, carried out in both the absence and presence of SO2, were conducted to assess whether isoprene contributes to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In the absence of SO2 , the SOA yield of 0.002 was low. However, in th...

  9. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-06-01

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

  10. Planter unit test stand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  11. Teletype test unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, R. H.; Beall, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Device may be used to facilitate testing and fault isolation in teletype and modem systems that are used for communication by people who having hearing disabilities. Unit uses CMOS digital integrated circuitry which may be operated from relatively inexpensive battery of any voltage from 3 to 18 volts.

  12. Police. An Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.

    This unit examines four topic areas related to police: rules and enforcement, police discretion, variety of police tasks, and police differences among societies as products of certain social pressures. High-school students learn about the police as an institution that responds to social and historical pressures. Students study police systems in…

  13. CEU [Continuing Education Unit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Basic Education Region V Staff Development Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) is a means of recording and accounting non-credit programs and activities which are professional in nature. Seven criteria have been established to assure the professionalism and quality of instruction. The criteria concern the need, objectives, and rationale of the activity; the course planning and…

  14. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  15. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  16. Theme Unit: Mayflower Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Mackie

    2001-01-01

    This Thanksgiving theme unit has students learn about mathematics and history by studying the voyage of the Mayflower. Students can study how many children sailed on the Mayflower, how big the ship was, and how long the voyage was. They can also solve Mayflower word problems and create recipes of food the Pilgrims would have eaten. An instructor…

  17. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  18. Four Corners, United States

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-17

    This image from NASA Terra satellite shows the only place in the United States where four states come together: the four corners area in the western U.S. At a barren, desert location, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico share a common point.

  19. The Gang Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, M. Phineas

    The unit deals with the violent gang, not the social or delinquent gang. It is aimed at junior high and senior high school students. The student for whom violent gangs are an urgent, everyday concern should gain perspectives that will help him cope with the problem personally. Other students should be able to correct misconceptions and to deepen…

  20. Sickle Cell Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    Included in this high school biology unit on sickle cell anemia are the following materials: a synopsis of the history of the discovery and the genetic qualities of the disease; electrophoresis diagrams comparing normal, homozygous and heterozygous conditions of the disease; and biochemical characteristics and population genetics of the disease. A…

  1. [Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Two of these three pamphlets describe methods of teaching young elementary school children the principles of sampling. Tiles of five colors are added to a tub and children sample these randomly; using the tiles as units for a graph, they draw a representation of the population. Pooling results leads to a more reliable sample. Practice is given in…

  2. Economic Geography Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    Initially designed for social studies students in grades 4-6 in the Black Hills area of South Dakota, the purpose of the unit is to help students see the relationships among all the workers and natural resources within the state. It is also intended to help students realize the ways the area in which they live is affected by the climate,…

  3. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  4. Whale Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  5. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  6. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  7. Theme Unit: Veggie Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Presents a selection of activities for a cross-curricular unit based on vegetables. Activities address vocabulary, language arts, social studies, and health education. A student reproducible presents a tossed salad game. Game cards can be incorporated into the other activities. A poster describes plant parts that are edible. A sidebar offers…

  8. Sandwich Courses, United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Malcolm

    1990-01-01

    Describes the history and current status of sandwich courses offered by all polytechnics and many colleges and universities in the United Kingdom--in which periods of full-time, academically related employment alternate with periods of formal coursework. Topics include responsibilities for placement, pay, assessment, and international placements.…

  9. NOVA SCIENCE UNIT 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    THE MAJOR CONCEPT OF THE UNIT IS THAT SOMETHING MUST BE DONE TO PARTICLES IN ORDER TO STUDY THEM. ATOMS ARE COMPOSED OF TWO KINDS OF CHARGED PARTICLES--PROTONS AND ELECTRONS. ANY DIFFERENCE IN THEIR NUMBERS RESULTS IN A CHARGED BODY. IF ENOUGH CHARGED BODIES ARE PRODUCED, THEY WILL AFFECT CHARGE DETECTORS. CONCLUSIONS CAN BE DRAWN FROM THE…

  10. A Unit in Axiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbstein, Moritz

    1971-01-01

    Axiology is a branch of philosophy devoted to worth." A unit of study is described utilizing group discussion in the developing of awareness in students of the value of scientific theories and their own standards of judgement as well as the standards of others. (Author/TS)

  11. Outdoorsman, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The second of three units of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program introduces more advanced camping and survival techniques for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Backpacking, finding food in the wild, making a fire without matches, lashing techniques, axemanship, finding your way (with and without a compass), making a…

  12. Extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.; Rouen, M. N.; Lutz, C. C.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) consisted of a highly mobile, anthropomorphic pressure vessel and a portable life support system. The EMU used for the first lunar landing is described along with the changes made in the EMU design during the program to incorporate the results of experience and to provide new capabilities. The performance of the EMU is discussed.

  13. At Home Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Vicky E., Comp.

    Based on a federally funded project involving 80 children (1-4 years old) with a variety of intellectual, social, emotional, and/or physical handicaps, the manual contains 12 units for home instruction of young handicapped and non handicapped children. Included are listings of overall objectives and suggested activities to promote language, gross…

  14. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  15. NOVA SCIENCE UNIT 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    THE MAJOR CONCEPT OF THE UNIT IS THAT SOMETHING MUST BE DONE TO PARTICLES IN ORDER TO STUDY THEM. ATOMS ARE COMPOSED OF TWO KINDS OF CHARGED PARTICLES--PROTONS AND ELECTRONS. ANY DIFFERENCE IN THEIR NUMBERS RESULTS IN A CHARGED BODY. IF ENOUGH CHARGED BODIES ARE PRODUCED, THEY WILL AFFECT CHARGE DETECTORS. CONCLUSIONS CAN BE DRAWN FROM THE…

  16. Insects. Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, Kathee

    This book is a captivating whole-language thematic unit about the study of insects, relating it to our understanding of the past and our hopes for using our knowledge in the present to balance the ecosystem in the future. It contains a wide variety of lesson ideas and reproducible pages designed for use with intermediate students. At its core,…

  17. Teletype test unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, R. H.; Beall, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Device may be used to facilitate testing and fault isolation in teletype and modem systems that are used for communication by people who having hearing disabilities. Unit uses CMOS digital integrated circuitry which may be operated from relatively inexpensive battery of any voltage from 3 to 18 volts.

  18. Insects. Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, Kathee

    This book is a captivating whole-language thematic unit about the study of insects, relating it to our understanding of the past and our hopes for using our knowledge in the present to balance the ecosystem in the future. It contains a wide variety of lesson ideas and reproducible pages designed for use with intermediate students. At its core,…

  19. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Instruction - 3.04 Post Office Box 33695 30 Fort Lewia , Washington 98433-0695 (206) 967-4601 1 2 GOVERNMENT’S REQUESTED JURY INSTRUCTION NO. 3 4 The...33695 30 JQUASH BENCH WARRANT Fort Lewia , Washington 98433-0695 ,PAGE 1 (206) 967-4601 1 MAGISTRATE BURGESS 2 3 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT WESTERN

  20. Wyoming Government, Unit VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

  1. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

  2. Outdoorsman, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The first of three units of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program is designed to teach basic campcraft skills and to promote environmental awareness for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The manual contains information and instruction on; special responsibilities in the outdoors (including conservation and clean up),…

  3. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  4. Sickle Cell Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    Included in this high school biology unit on sickle cell anemia are the following materials: a synopsis of the history of the discovery and the genetic qualities of the disease; electrophoresis diagrams comparing normal, homozygous and heterozygous conditions of the disease; and biochemical characteristics and population genetics of the disease. A…

  5. Women's Rights Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  6. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  7. Whale Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  8. Changes in unit structures and infanticide observed in Arsi geladas.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Belay, Gurja; Iwamoto, Toshitaka

    2003-07-01

    In 1989 a new gelada baboon ( Theropithecus gelada) population was found in Arsi, on the opposite side of the Rift Valley to that of the known gelada populations of Semien and Showa. Previous comparisons of units of the band at Gado Goro, Arsi, in the same season in consecutive years, indicated that unit structure is less stable among Arsi geladas as compared to the Semien population. Gelada units of the band at Gado-Goro were studied for 7 months in order to investigate the processes of social changes. Changes in unit structure were observed. Provisioning was carried out for 1.5 months at the beginning of the 7-month study period, in order to capture and obtain blood samples from the geladas. Following this, changes in male leadership of some units were observed, presumably as a consequence of the capture. However, natural changes also occurred. One change in unit structure occurred after a female gave birth, and changes in another unit occurred after the disappearance of the leader male. These changes involved female desertion of a unit, her subsequent transfer to a male unit, and culminated in the formation of a unit consisting of one female and one male. One successful and one attempted case of unification of units, and one case of change of a unit leader male are reported. These changes occurred among eight resident units in a period of 7 months (196 female months). Though the types of social changes were not much different from previous observations in Semien National Park, their frequencies seemed to be much higher. The characteristics of Arsi gelada social changes are proposed to be related to the small size of the units. We also describe a new confirmed case and one suspected case of infanticide, as well as one case of abortion at the time of male leader change.

  9. Teaching about the United Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the 50th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. Articles deal with aspects of the United Nations and include suggestions for teaching about the United Nations and using various teaching materials. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Celebrating United Nations Day" (Ken Osborne); (2)…

  10. Units that Make It Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey

    1985-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) or the metric system contains related units which make science simpler for students and teachers. By emphasizing descriptive units, requiring unit use throughout calculations, and using negative exponents, teachers can help students have a better understanding of energy, pressure, and mass concepts. (DH)

  11. Midwayan (Paleocene) pollen correlations in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1991-01-01

    The Midwayan Stage of the eastern United States is divided into three new pollen zones, the Pseudoplicapollis serana, Tricolpites asper and Caryapollenites prodromus interval zones. Pollen data support the presence of an unconformity between the Rhems and Williamsburg Formations of South Carolina. The base of the Aquia Formation of Virginia and Maryland is slightly younger than the top of the Naheola Formation of Alabama. The Midwayan-Sabinian stage boundary is probably of late NP5 age and is probably only slightly younger than the important range base of Carya<29??m pollen. -from Author

  12. Revision of middle Proterozoic Yellowjacket Formation, central Idaho, and revision of Cretaceous Slim Sam Formation, Elkhorn mountains area, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysdal, Russell G.

    2000-01-01

    The Yellowjacket Formation is restricted to the strata originally assigned to it by Ross (1934). The Yellowjacket, the conformably overlying Hoodoo Quartzite, and succeeding unnamed argillaceous quartzite unit form a genetically related sequence that lies in a structural block delimited on the northeast by the Iron Lake fault. Directly northeast of the fault, strata currently assigned by others to the lower subunit of the Yellowjacket are correlated with the Apple Creek Formation in the Lemhi Range. Mapping in the western part of the Lemhi Range shows that the Apple Creek Formation lies depositionally above the Big Creek Formation and that no rocks of the Yellowjacket-Hoodoo unnamed unit stratigraphic sequence are present. In contrast, in the area of the Yellowjacket mapped by Ross (1934) and the area directly northeast of the Iron Lake Fault, the Big Creek Formation is absent, even though it is 2,700 m thick in the Lemhi Range. These data indicate that the Iron Lake Fault juxtaposed the Yellowjacket-Hoodoo-unnamed unit sequence against non-Yellowjacket strata to the northeast. The Upper Cretaceous Slim Sam Formation of the Elkhorn Mountains area is revised. Strata of the lower part are correlated with the regionally recognized marine Telegraph Creek Formation and the overlying marine to marginal marine Eagle Sandstone. Only lower strata of the Eagle are present in the study area and they are preserved discontinously. The nonmarine volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the upper part of the Slim Sam as originally defined retain the name Slim Sam Formation. These rocks, mainly of sedimentary origin, are genetically related to the Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics. The lower contact of the Slim Sam (restricted) is unconformable above the Eagle Sandstone or more commonly above the Telegraph Creek Formation. The upper contact is conformable with the Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics.

  13. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  14. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  15. Biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Timmaraju, Venkata Arun; Theophilus, Priyanka A S; Balasubramanian, Kunthavai; Shakih, Shafiq; Luecke, David F; Sapi, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are microbial communities held together by an extracellular polymeric substance matrix predominantly composed of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. We had previously shown that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative organism of Lyme disease in the United States is capable of forming biofilms in vitro. Here, we investigated biofilm formation by B. afzelii and B. garinii, which cause Lyme disease in Europe. Using various histochemistry and microscopy techniques, we show that B. afzelii and B. garinii form biofilms, which resemble biofilms formed by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. High-resolution atomic force microscopy revealed similarities in the ultrastructural organization of the biofilms form by three Borrelia species. Histochemical experiments revealed a heterogeneous organization of exopolysaccharides among the three Borrelia species. These results suggest that biofilm formation might be a common trait of Borrelia genera physiology.

  16. Paleontology and deposition of the Phosphoria Formation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, B.R.; Collinson, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Phosphoria Formation and related rocks were deposited in an interior sag basin developed in the Cordilleran miogeocline of western North America. Deposition can be characterized as a fringing bank complex on a carbonate ramp. Conodont-brachiopod biostratigraphy provides a sufficient relative time framework for correlation of the many units. These age correlations and the distribution of fossils, plus the biofacies of conodonts and brachiopods in particular, indicate that phosphate deposition was a cool-water, deeper ramp facies that transgressed over the carbonate bank twice, representing the Meade Peak and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation. Conodont data that substantiate the above are presented, and a new genus and species, Sweetina triticum, is described. -Authors

  17. National Atlas of the United States Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The "National Atlas of the United States of America®", published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1970, is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. Maps dated after 1970 and before 1997 are either revisions of original atlas maps or new maps published in the original atlas format. The USGS and its partners in government and industry began work on a new "National Atlas" in 1997. Though most new atlas products are designed for the World Wide Web, we are continuing our tradition of printing high-quality maps of America. In 1998, the first completely redesigned maps of the "National Atlas of the United States®" were published.

  18. Format-Preserving Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

    Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

  19. Formation of bacterial nanocells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainshtein, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Ekaterina; Suzina, Natalia; Ariskina, Elena; Voronkov, Vadim

    1998-07-01

    Existence of nanobacteria received increasing attention both in environmental microbiology/geomicro-biology and in medical microbiology. In order to study a production of nanoforms by typical bacterial cells. Effects of different physical factors were investigated. Treatment of bacterial cultures with microwave radiation, or culturing in field of electric current resulted in formation a few types of nanocells. The number and type of nanoforms were determined with type and dose of the treatment. The produced nanoforms were: i) globules, ii) clusters of the globules--probably produced by liaison, iii) nanocells coated with membrane. The viability of the globules is an object opened for doubts. The nanocells discovered multiplication and growth on solidified nutrient media. The authors suggest that formation of nanocells is a common response of bacteria to stress-actions produced by different agents.

  20. Cosmological structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the current forefront problem of physical cosmology, the formation of structures (galaxies, clusters, great walls, etc.) in the universe is presented. Solutions require two key ingredients: (1) matter; and (2) seeds. Regarding the matter, it now seems clear that both baryonic and non-baryonic matter are required. Whether the non-baryonic matter is hot or cold depends on the choice of seeds. Regarding the seeds, both density fluctuations and topological defects are discussed. The combination of isotropy of the microwave background and the recent observations indicating more power on large scales have severly constrained, if not eliminated, Gaussian fluctuations with equal power on all scales, regardless of the eventual resolution of both the matter and seed questions. It is important to note that all current structure formation ideas require new physics beyond SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1).

  1. Dust Formation and Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Dmitry

    Recent infrared and sub-millimeter observations have opened up a new window in dust evolution studies. High angular resolution of Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes from near to far-infrared wavelengths allows observing dust emission in galactic and extragalactic star-forming complexes, covering a broad range of metallicities, radiation field properties, etc. A wide-scale picture of dust evolution starts to arise from these observations. In my contribution I will try to cover major recent advances in studies of dust formation and destruction, including such topics as a diverse role of supernovae in dust evolution, possibility of dust formation and/or growth in molecular clouds, and VSG and PAH evolution in HII regions and complexes.

  2. Prominence Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  3. Cosmic structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edumund

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the prevailing paradigm for how galaxies and larger structures formed in the universe: gravitational instability. Basic observational facts are summarized to motivate the standard cosmological framework underlying most detailed investigations of structure formation. The observed univers approaches spatial uniformity on scales larger than about 10(exp 26) cm. On these scales gravitational dynamics is almost linear and therefore relatively easy to relate to observations of large-scale structure. On smaller scales cosmic structure is complicated not only by nonlinear gravitational clustering but also by nonlinear nongravitational gas dynamical processes. The complexity of these phenomena makes galaxy formation one of the grand challenge problems of the physical sciences. No fully satisfactory theory can presently account in detail for the observed cosmic structure. However, as this article summarizes, significant progress has been made during the last few years.

  4. Formation of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments. They predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  5. Cosmic structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edumund

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the prevailing paradigm for how galaxies and larger structures formed in the universe: gravitational instability. Basic observational facts are summarized to motivate the standard cosmological framework underlying most detailed investigations of structure formation. The observed univers approaches spatial uniformity on scales larger than about 10(exp 26) cm. On these scales gravitational dynamics is almost linear and therefore relatively easy to relate to observations of large-scale structure. On smaller scales cosmic structure is complicated not only by nonlinear gravitational clustering but also by nonlinear nongravitational gas dynamical processes. The complexity of these phenomena makes galaxy formation one of the grand challenge problems of the physical sciences. No fully satisfactory theory can presently account in detail for the observed cosmic structure. However, as this article summarizes, significant progress has been made during the last few years.

  6. Tetrahedron Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petruzzo, Charles; Guzman, Jose

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the preliminary development of a general optimization procedure for tetrahedron formation control. The maneuvers are assumed to be impulsive and a multi-stage optimization method is employed. The stages include (1) targeting to a fixed tetrahedron location and orientation, and (2) rotating and translating the tetrahedron. The number of impulsive maneuvers can also be varied. As the impulse locations and times change, new arcs are computed using a differential corrections scheme that varies the impulse magnitudes and directions. The result is a continuous trajectory with velocity discontinuities. The velocity discontinuities are then used to formulate the cost function. Direct optimization techniques are employed. The procedure is applied to the NASA Goddard Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission to compute preliminary formation control fuel requirements.

  7. Tritiated ammonia formation

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-03-01

    A rate equation that closely simulates experimental data has been developed. this rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T{sub 2} and N{sub 2} to form NT{sub 3} is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants.

  8. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  9. Formation of transient lamellipodia.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Falcke, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cell motility driven by actin polymerization is pivotal to the development and survival of organisms and individual cells. Motile cells plated on flat substrates form membrane protrusions called lamellipodia. The protrusions repeatedly appear and retract in all directions. If a lamellipodium is stabilized and lasts for some time, it can take over the lead and determine the direction of cell motion. Protrusions traveling along the cell perimeter have also been observed. Their initiation is in some situations the effect of the dynamics of the pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to actin filament nucleation, e.g. in chemotaxis. However, lamellipodia are also formed in many cells incessantly during motion with a constant state of the signaling pathways upstream from nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), or spontaneously in resting cells. These observations strongly suggest protrusion formation can also be a consequence of the dynamics downstream from NPFs, with signaling setting the dynamic regime but not initiating the formation of individual protrusions. A quantitative mechanism for this kind of lamellipodium dynamics has not been suggested yet. Here, we present a model exhibiting excitable actin network dynamics. Individual lamellipodia form due to random supercritical filament nucleation events amplified by autocatalytic branching. They last for about 30 seconds to many minutes and are terminated by filament bundling, severing and capping. We show the relevance of the model mechanism for experimentally observed protrusion dynamics by reproducing in very good approximation the repetitive protrusion formation measured by Burnette et al. with respect to the velocities of leading edge protrusion and retrograde flow, oscillation amplitudes, periods and shape, as well as the phase relation between protrusion and retrograde flow. Our modeling results agree with the mechanism of actin bundle formation during lamellipodium retraction suggested by Burnette et al. and

  10. Formation of Transient Lamellipodia

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Falcke, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cell motility driven by actin polymerization is pivotal to the development and survival of organisms and individual cells. Motile cells plated on flat substrates form membrane protrusions called lamellipodia. The protrusions repeatedly appear and retract in all directions. If a lamellipodium is stabilized and lasts for some time, it can take over the lead and determine the direction of cell motion. Protrusions traveling along the cell perimeter have also been observed. Their initiation is in some situations the effect of the dynamics of the pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to actin filament nucleation, e.g. in chemotaxis. However, lamellipodia are also formed in many cells incessantly during motion with a constant state of the signaling pathways upstream from nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), or spontaneously in resting cells. These observations strongly suggest protrusion formation can also be a consequence of the dynamics downstream from NPFs, with signaling setting the dynamic regime but not initiating the formation of individual protrusions. A quantitative mechanism for this kind of lamellipodium dynamics has not been suggested yet. Here, we present a model exhibiting excitable actin network dynamics. Individual lamellipodia form due to random supercritical filament nucleation events amplified by autocatalytic branching. They last for about 30 seconds to many minutes and are terminated by filament bundling, severing and capping. We show the relevance of the model mechanism for experimentally observed protrusion dynamics by reproducing in very good approximation the repetitive protrusion formation measured by Burnette et al. with respect to the velocities of leading edge protrusion and retrograde flow, oscillation amplitudes, periods and shape, as well as the phase relation between protrusion and retrograde flow. Our modeling results agree with the mechanism of actin bundle formation during lamellipodium retraction suggested by Burnette et al. and

  11. Solar array switching unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Jr., Calvin L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A solar array switching (SASU) unit (22) according to the present invention includes a control system (24), a solar cell array (26) and switch circuits (28). The SASU unit (22) is associated with a power card (30) for receiving an output from the array (26). The array (26) has a number (0.5Y) of rows (38) each of which includes a pair of cell strings (42) separated by one of the switch circuits (28). Each of the strings (42) includes a number (X) of cells in electrical series. The SASU (22) switches the array (26) between a short string configuration where the array (26) effectively includes Y strings of X length, and a long string configuration where the array (26) effectively includes 0.5Y strings of 2X length. The SASU (22) thereby facilitates the use of solar power for space missions where solar intensity, operating temperature or other factors vary significantly.

  12. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Hugh R.; Meltzer, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  13. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  14. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Hartmann, John L.

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  15. Planetary gear unit

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes a planetary gear unit for the transmission of a motor vehicle, comprising: a first planetary gear unit which includes a pinion shaft, a planet pinion rotatably mounted on the pinion shaft, a sun gear engaging the planet pinion, and an arm member supporting the pinion shaft and having an extending portion extending to a point adjacent the sun gear; a thrust washer contacting the arm member, the thrust washer having radiating conduit means formed on a contacting surface thereof so as to communicate an inner circumference of the extending portion of the arm member with the pinion shaft, the pinion shaft having a conduit formed therein so as to communicate with the radiating conduit means with an inner surface of the planet pinion wherein the radiating conduit means further comprises uniform spaced bevel surfaces and grooves in communication with the bevel surfaces.

  16. Regenerable biocide delivery unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is used on the Space Shuttle to impart an iodine residual to the drinking water to maintain microbial control. Approximately twenty MCV locations have been identified in the Space Station Freedom design, each with a 90-day life. This translates to 2400 replacement units in 30 years of operation. An in situ regeneration concept has been demonstrated that will reduce this replacement requirement to less than 300 units based on data to date. A totally automated system will result in significant savings in crew time, resupply requirements, and replacement costs. An additional feature of the device is the ability to provide a concentrated biocide source (200 mg/liter of I2) that can be used to superiodinate systems routinely or after a microbial upset.

  17. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  18. Chemistry of planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Sarah Elaine

    2008-02-01

    This thesis explores how the chemical environment in which planets develop influences planet formation. The total solid mass, gas/solid ratio, and specific ice inventory of protoplanetary disks can dramatically alter the planet's formation timescale, core/atmosphere mass ratio, and atmosphere composition. We present the results of three projects that probe the links between solar nebula composition and giant planet formation. The first project offers evidence that stars with planets exhibit statistically significant silicon and nickel enrichment over the general metal-rich population. To test whether this prediction is compatible with the core accretion theory of planet formation, we construct new numerical simulations of planet formation by core accretion that establish the timescale on which a planet forming at 5 AU reaches rapid gas accretion, t rga , as a function of solid surface density s solid : ( t rga /1 Myr) = (s solid /25.0 g cm -2 ) - 1.44 . This relation enables us to construct Monte Carlo simulations that predict the fraction of star-disk systems that form planets as a function of [Fe/H], [Si/Fe], disk mass, outer disk radius and disk lifetime. Our simulations reproduce both the known planet-metallicity correlation and the planet-silicon correlation reported in this paper. The simulations predict that 15% of Solar-type stars form Jupiter-mass planets, in agreement with 12% predicted from extrapolation of the observed planet frequency-semimajor axis distribution. Despite the success of our Monte Carlo simulation of the planet-silicon correlation at predicting the properties of extrasolar Jovian planets, there is still no in situ core accretion simulation that can successfully account for the formation of Saturn, Uranus or Neptune within the observed 2-3 Myr lifetimes of protoplanetary disks. Since solid accretion rate is directly proportional to the available planetesimal surface density, one way to speed up planet formation is to take a full inventory

  19. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  20. Tetrahedron Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent instrument platforms for electromagnetic and plasma studies. A minimum of four spacecraft - to establish a volume - is required to study some of the key regions of a planetary magnetic field. The usefulness of the measurements recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron orbital evolution. This paper considers the preliminary development of a general optimization procedure for tetrahedron formation control. The maneuvers are assumed to be impulsive and a multi-stage optimization method is employed. The stages include targeting to a fixed tetrahedron orientation, rotating and translating the tetrahedron and/or varying the initial and final times. The number of impulsive maneuvers citn also be varied. As the impulse locations and times change, new arcs are computed using a differential corrections scheme that varies the impulse magnitudes and directions. The result is a continuous trajectory with velocity discontinuities. The velocity discontinuities are then used to formulate the cost function. Direct optimization techniques are employed. The procedure is applied to the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) to compute preliminary formation control fuel requirements.

  1. [The formative causation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis of formative causation proposed by Rupert Sheldrake in 1981, affirms that morphogenetic fields play a causal role in the development and maintenance of the forms of systems at all levels of complexity and that nature is governed by habits. All animals and plants draw upon and contribute to the collective memory of their species. The author suggested that memory is inherent in nature and it is transmitted by a process called morphic resonance and works through fields called morphic fields. The hypothesis of formative causation accounts for the repetition of forms but does not explain how the first example of any given form originally came into being. Despite the advances in molecular biology, morphogenesis continues to elude a molecular explanation and seems to depend on morphogenetic fields. The hypothesis of formative causation interprets many physical and biological phenomena in a way radically different than those proposed by existing theories. According to this hypothesis the conscious self can be thought of as interacting with morphic fields in order to be connected with the external environment and with the state of the body in consciously controlled activity.

  2. Stabilizing clayey formations

    SciTech Connect

    Lipowski, S. A.; Miskel Jr., J. J.; Schick, M. J.

    1985-03-19

    Process for treating a clayey geological formation to prevent, inhibit or reduce swelling or migrating of clay particles in a formation by treating the formation with an effective amount of a quaternized oligomer which is the reaction product of a polyamine having a primary amino group and a tertiary amino group with a difunctional reactant to form a precondensate monomer which is then chain extended and quaternized by reaction with a dihalogenated hydrocarbon ether. A preferred oligomer is a product of: (I) about 1.0 mole of a precondensate which is the reaction product of (A) from about 2.0 to about 3.0 mole of a polyamine having a primary amino group and a tertiary amino group, the polyamine having a non-cyclic backbone containing between 1 and 6 carbon atoms, with (B) about 1.0 mole of a difunctional reactant which is a diester of a mixture of dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, glutaric and succinic acid, with (II) from about 1.0 to about 1.2 mole of a chain extender such as dichloroethylether. Process is useful in oil producing operations.

  3. Primordial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Gibson, Carl H.

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion at the time of plasma neutralization 380,000 years after the big bang. Most have been frozen and invisible, but are now manifesting themselves in numerous ways as sensitive modern space telescopes become operational. Their key detection signature is their thermal emission spectrum, pegged at the 13.8 degrees Kelvin triple point of hydrogen, the baryonic dark matter (Staplefeldt et al. 1999).

  4. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

  5. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  7. Laser system preset unit

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, William L.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic circuit is provided which may be used to preset a digital display unit of a Zeeman-effect layer interferometer system which derives distance measurements by comparing a reference signal to a Doppler signal generated at the output of the interferometer laser head. The circuit presets dimensional offsets in the interferometer digital display by electronically inducing a variation in either the Doppler signal or the reference signal, depending upon the direction of the offset, to achieve the desired display preset.

  8. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  9. Bipartite units of nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel; Wolf, Stefan

    2011-10-15

    Imagine a task in which a group of separated players aim to simulate a statistic that violates a Bell inequality. Given measurement choices the players shall announce an output based solely on the results of local operations--which they can discuss before the separation--on shared random data and shared copies of a so-called unit correlation. In the first part of this paper we show that in such a setting the simulation of any bipartite correlation, not containing the possibility of signaling, can be made arbitrarily accurate by increasing the number of shared Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes. This establishes the PR box as a simple asymptotic unit of bipartite nonlocality. In the second part we study whether this property extends to the multipartite case. More generally, we ask if it is possible for separated players to asymptotically reproduce any nonsignaling statistic by local operations on bipartite unit correlations. We find that nonadaptive strategies are limited by a constant accuracy and that arbitrary strategies on n resource correlations make a mistake with a probability greater or equal to c/n, for some constant c.

  10. How Teachers Can Use PE Metrics for Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisette, Jennifer L.; Franck, D. Marian

    2012-01-01

    Two forms of assessment, summative and formative, are the primary means by which teachers determine student progress and achievement. Summative assessments help teachers determine what students have learned at the end of a unit of instruction. They are often used to help teachers determine whether their instruction was effective or to grade…

  11. Biomass publications of the forest operations research unit: A synthesis

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; Renee Ayala; [Compilers

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Operations Unit of the Southern Research Station has been studying biomass-related topics since 1977. This CD aids the reader by organizing these publications in one easy-to-use CD. This CD is comprised of an executive summary, two bibliographies, individual publications (in PDF format), and a keyword listing. The types of publications included on this CD...

  12. Unit: Rocks from Sediments, Inspection Set, First Trial Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    Four compulsory introductory activities involving learning to use a stream tray, observing the relationship between water speed and entraining, transporting and depositing sediments, studying the formation of sedimentary rocks, and examining several types of sedimentary rocks are completed by all students using the unit prepared for Australian…

  13. School Expenditures and Student Achievement: Evidence for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Rati

    2004-01-01

    Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function in the fixed-effects format to explore further the nexus between school expenditure and student achievement in the United States. Five main points are noted. First, the effect of per-pupil expenditure is positive and carries high statistical significance in some…

  14. The European Currency Unit: An Economical, Financial, and Political Currency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strysick, Pam

    Intended to provide a basic understanding of the history and complexity of a relatively new foreign currency measure, this paper briefly describes the history leading to the formation of the European Economic Community (EEC), its objectives, its governance structure, and its development of the European Currency Unit (ECU) as a means of stabilizing…

  15. The Beginnings of Communication Study in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The history of communication research in the United States is reviewed in this paper through an extensive look at the lives of four men who made significant contributions to the field: Harold Lasswell, Kurt Lewin, Paul Lazarsfeld, and Carl Hovland. The pattern of institute formation in the social sciences is briefly reviewed to explain the…

  16. SOA from BVOCs in the Southeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic hydrocarbons contribute to organic aerosol in the southeast United States. In this work, we represent aerosol formation from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes in CMAQ and compare to data from the Southeast Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Sensitivity simulatio...

  17. Unit: Rocks from Sediments, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    Four compulsory introductory activities, involving learning to use a stream tray, observing the relationship between water speed and entraining, transporting and depositing sediments, studying the formation of sedimentary rocks, and examining several types of sedimentary rocks, are completed by all students using the unit prepared for Australian…

  18. Unit: Rocks from Sediments, Inspection Set, First Trial Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    Four compulsory introductory activities involving learning to use a stream tray, observing the relationship between water speed and entraining, transporting and depositing sediments, studying the formation of sedimentary rocks, and examining several types of sedimentary rocks are completed by all students using the unit prepared for Australian…

  19. Unit: Rocks from Sediments, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    Four compulsory introductory activities, involving learning to use a stream tray, observing the relationship between water speed and entraining, transporting and depositing sediments, studying the formation of sedimentary rocks, and examining several types of sedimentary rocks, are completed by all students using the unit prepared for Australian…

  20. Forest conditions and trends in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This section describes current conditions and trends for the 20 Northern States by focusing on selected characteristics associated with forest sustainability. Its format is based upon a set of 64 indicators within 7 broad criteria that the United States and 11 other countries have adopted under the auspices of the Montréal Process Working Group on Criteria and...

  1. Managing Highway Maintenance: Budget Preparation, Unit 9, Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit describes the essential steps in developing a maintenance budget, or performance budget, based on the work to be done. It is designed for field engineers and supervisors who assist department officials in preparing work programs and budgets. The format is a programed,…

  2. School Expenditures and Student Achievement: Evidence for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Rati

    2004-01-01

    Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function in the fixed-effects format to explore further the nexus between school expenditure and student achievement in the United States. Five main points are noted. First, the effect of per-pupil expenditure is positive and carries high statistical significance in some…

  3. SOA from BVOCs in the Southeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic hydrocarbons contribute to organic aerosol in the southeast United States. In this work, we represent aerosol formation from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes in CMAQ and compare to data from the Southeast Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Sensitivity simulatio...

  4. Radon potential, geologic formations, and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Andrews, William M.; Overfield, Bethany L.; Robertson, Heather; Wiggins, Amanda; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to radon is associated with approximately 10% of U.S. lung cancer cases. Geologic rock units have varying concentrations of uranium, producing fluctuating amounts of radon. This exploratory study examined the spatial and statistical associations between radon values and geological formations to illustrate potential population-level lung cancer risk from radon exposure. Method This was a secondary data analysis of observed radon values collected in 1987 from homes (N = 309) in Kentucky and geologic rock formation data from the Kentucky Geological Survey. Radon value locations were plotted on digital geologic maps using ArcGIS and linked to specific geologic map units. Each map unit represented a package of different types of rock (e.g., limestone and/or shale). Log-transformed radon values and geologic formation categories were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Results Observed radon levels varied significantly by geologic formation category. Of the 14 geologic formation categories in north central Kentucky, four were associated with median radon levels, ranging from 8.10 to 2.75 pCi/L. Conclusion Radon potential maps that account for geologic factors and observed radon values may be superior to using observed radon values only. Knowing radon-prone areas could help target population-based lung cancer prevention interventions given the inequities that exist related to radon. PMID:26844090

  5. 40 CFR 60.3047 - Where and in what format must I keep my records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004... remaining 3 years. (b) All records must be available in either paper copy or computer-readable format that...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2180 - Where and in what format must I keep my records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November... available onsite in either paper copy or computer-readable format that can be printed upon request, unless...

  7. State Budgets, Unit Allocations, and Unit Emissions Rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) provides information that supports EPA’s determination of state emissions budgets, unit-level allocations, direct control rate limits, and new unit set-asides for the Transport Rule proposal.

  8. 26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is still in operation. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Unit Reconstitutions: Combat Stress as an Indicator of Unit Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    UNIT RECONSTITUTIONS: COMBAT STRESS AS AN INDICATOR OF UNIT EFFECTIVENESS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...Unit Effectiveness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Portis, Stoney L., Major, U.S. Army...positing that unit effectiveness varies with the steps military leaders take to incorporate COSC into reconstitution plans. I then test my theory using

  10. Model of kimberlite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrovitsky, Sergey; Fiveyskaya, Lyudmila

    2013-04-01

    The critical goals in recognizing the nature of kimberlites are to find out: (1) the primary composition of melt of these rocks and (2) the principal processes of evolution of primary composition of kimberlites while ascending from mantle depth towards earth surface. Suppose, that the primary composition of kimberlite melt-fluid was in fact the composition of asthenosphere melt geochemically being close to alkaline-basalt (Hi-µ) saturated with high CO2. The genetic relation of kimberlites with basaltoids is indicated by a spatial and temporal affinity of their formation (Carlson et al, 2006; Lehmann et al, 2010; Tappe et al, 2012), similarity of the pattern of incompatible elements distribution, presence of megacryst minerals in alkaline basaltoids, Pyr-Alm garnet included, and finally, model calculation of parent melt composition for low-Cr megacryst minerals; it showed this composition to be typical for the alkaline basaltoid (Jones, 1980). At the asthenosphere level there was differentiation of basaltoid melt-fluid which was responsible for formation of its different parts with varying melt to fluid ratio and possibly varying content of alkalis (K2O). The outbreak of asthenosphere substance through lithosphere mantle proceeded by different scenarios: (a) With a noticeable dominance of fluid component kimberlites were formed by the capture and contamination of high-Mg, high-Cr rocks of lithosphere mantle that caused formation of high-Mg kimberlites. That corresponds to model of Russell (2012). (b) With a considerable proportion of melt phase depending on saturation in fluid there formed magnesium-ferriferous and ferriferous-titaniferous petrochemical types of kimberlites. There is no doubt that in formation of these kimberlite types the contamination of lithosphere material was the case, at the much lower level than in formation of high-Mg kimberlites. This model logically explains steady differences of petrochemistry of kimberlites making up clusters of

  11. Automatic delineation of geomorphological slope units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    Slope units are portions of land surface, defined by the general requirement of maximizing homogeneity within a single unit and heterogeneity between different units, but whose formal characterization and practical delineation has been done in different ways. This is often justified by the statement that the slope unit partitioning of a territory can be used to describe a variety of landforms and processes, and for the assessment of natural hazards. As a result, they need to be tailored according to the specific model in use. This may result in an ambiguous definition of such objects, while an objective definition is highly desirable, which would also allow their reproducibility. We have developed a publicly accessible Web Processing Service (WPS) with the aim of incrementally achieve a satisfactory definition of slope unit. The service allows any user to connect to a CNR-IRPI (Perugia) server, upload his own Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and optional additional data, specify parameters constraining the size and aspect of slope units, and quickly obtain the result in a layer in vector format. The calculation is performed using a parallel algorithm, resulting in a processing time short enough to allow the user to tune the input parameters, repeating the process for a sufficient number of times in order to obtain a satisfactory result. We use quantitative criteria to define and draw the slope units, depending on the input parameters. The algorithm starts from a hydrologically consistent partition of the study area into half-basins with a large number of contributing DEM cells. Each of the half-basins is then checked against a few requirements: maximum area required by the user and maximum standard deviation of the aspect on two orthogonal directions. Those specific half-basin that do not meet the requirements are partitioned further, requiring a lower number of contributing cells. The process is iterated until no half-basin exceeds the user-specified thresholds. Our

  12. What initiated planetesimal formation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Hogan, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The physical structure of primitive (chondritic) meteorites, even after some geological processing and modification, is thought by most to contain clues as to the first stage of accretion of solid matter into objects that might be called planetesimals. However, theoretical understanding of the processes responsible for this important stage is shaky. We note what we believe are fundamental obstacles for the Goldreich-Ward version of rapid and direct planetesimal formation via gravitational instability in a settled particle layer, and describe an alternative scenario which might lead from grainy nebula gas to primitive planetesimals in a way that has intriguing connections to the meteorite evidence.

  13. Multiple star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis, I present a study of the formation and evolution of stars, particularly multiple stellar systems. Binary stars provide a key constraint on star formation because any successful model should reproduce the mass-dependent frequency, distribution of separations, and distribution of mass ratios. I have pursued a number of surveys for different ranges of parameter space, all yielding one overarching conclusion: binary formation is fundamentally tied to mass. Solar-mass stars have a high primordial binary frequency (50%--75%) and a wide range of separations (extending to >10,000 AU), but as the system mass decreases, the frequency and separation distribution also decrease. For brown dwarfs, binaries are rare (~10%--15%) and have separations of <5 AU. Inside of this outer separation cutoff, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat for solar-mass stars, and perhaps for lower-mass systems. Solar-mass binary systems appear to have a flat mass ratio distribution, but for primary masses <0.3 Msun, the distribution becomes increasingly biased toward similar-mass companions. My results also constrain the binary formation timescale and the postformation evolutionary processes that sculpt binary populations. The dynamical interaction timescale in sparse associations like Taurus and Upper Sco is far longer than their ages, which suggests that those populations are dynamically pristine. However, binary systems in denser clusters undergo significant dynamical processing that strips outer binary companions; the difference in wide binary properties between my sample and the field is explained by the composite origin of the field population. I also have placed the individual components of young binary systems on the HR diagram in order to infer their coevality. In Taurus, binary systems are significantly more coeval (Δτ~0.5 Myr) than the association as a whole (Δτ~3--5 Myr). Finally, my survey of young very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs found no planetary

  14. Modeling river delta formation

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, Hansjörg; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2007-01-01

    A model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced by using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore, our model is capable of simulating the rich dynamics related to the switching of the mouth of the river delta. The simulation results are then compared with geological records for the Mississippi River. PMID:17940031

  15. Galaxy formation and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, Lennox L.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of high z quasars and radio galaxies tells us that galaxy formation began at z greater than 5, but leaves unanswered the question of when the bulk of galaxies formed. Recent near infrared number counts of galaxies strongly favor a cosmological geometry with q(sub 0) = 0.5 and lambda = 0. Such a model grossly underpredicts blue galaxy counts. Spectroscopy shows that the excess blue galaxies at B = 24 are dwarfs at z approximately equals 0.4 which are no longer seen at the present time. These dwarfs must contain a large amount of baryonic matter which is not included in current estimates of baryonic omega .

  16. Galaxy formation and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, Lennox L.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of high-z quasars and radio galaxies indicates that galaxy formation began at z greater than 5, but leaves unanswered the question of when the bulk of galaxies formed. Recent near-infrared number counts of galaxies strongly favor a cosmological geometry with q0 = 0.5 and Lambda = 0. Such a model grossly underpredicts blue galaxy counts. Spectroscopy shows that the excess blue galaxies at B = 24 are dwarfs at z = 0.4, which are no longer seen at the present time. These dwarfs must contain a large amount of baryonic matter which is not included in current estimates of baryonic Omega.

  17. Flexible formation configuration for terrain following flight: Formation keeping constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, Simon

    This work suggests a control method for the terrain-following formation motion of a group of communicating autonomous agents. The presented approach centers on defining a suitable set of constraints for formation keeping task that shall be fulfilled while agents are negotiating an unknown terrain toward the predefined goal location. It allows agents to maintain a general geometric formation shape, while allowing each individual formation member freedom of maneuver, required for terrain collision free motion. Formation structure is defined with the use of virtual leader. Formation keeping constraints are defined with plane surfaces, specified relative to position and navigation vector of the virtual leader. Formation navigation and guidance constraints are defined using navigation vectors of formation members and the virtual leader. Alternative designs for the constraints derived with parabolic, cone, and cylindrical surfaces are considered. Formation control is derived using the Udwadia-Kalaba equation, following corresponding approach to the development of control methods for constraint based dynamical systems, including leader-follower systems defined using geometric constraints. Approach to terrain following motion requiring agents to stay within bounds of cylindrical corridor volumes built around their respective navigation vectors is assumed. Individual formation primitives and multi-level, hierarchical, formation structures are considered. Simulations, based on three degrees of freedom nonlinear model of an agent, performed using Mathematica and specifically developed combined Maya-Mathematica modeling and simulation system, demonstrate that a flexible terrain following formation motion is achieved with the presented sets of constraints.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  20. Power-processing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, Frank J. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Power-processing unit uses AC buses (30, 32) to supply all current dependent needs such as connections (54, 56) to an ion thruster through an inductor (88) and the primary of a transformer (90), to assure limited currents to such loads. Where temperature control is also required, such as to the main discharge vaporizer heater connection (36, 38), switches (100, 102) are serially connected with inductor (96) and the primary of transformer (98). Temperature sensor (104) controls the switches (100, 102) for temperature regulation.