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Sample records for formation schilfsandstein germanic

  1. German Noun Formation: Considerations for the Language Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickisch, Craig W.

    A simplified pattern of noun formation is outlined that can assist the German teacher in helping students understand constituent relationships in long or obscure German nouns, providing an overview of significant patterns that covers a relatively complete noun system. First, significant patterns in nouns outside the process of formation, and…

  2. Space formations and nonlinear properties of noncentrosymmetric germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Korotkov, Anton Sergeevich

    2014-10-15

    Space formations of Ge-O polyhedra have been analyzed for 114 noncentrosymmetric germanates. The type of Ge-O polyhedra space formations is dependent on the stoichiometric ratio SR=n(O)/n(Ge), where n(O) is the number of oxygen and n(Ge) is the number of germanium atoms in formal composition of the compound. Individual (Ge-O) polyhedra are found for SR≥3 chains of the polyhedra that exist in the range of SR=3–5. Only framework formations are possible at SR≤2.7. - graphical abstract: Examples of space formations of polyhedra. - Highlights: • Space formations of Ge-O polyhedra have been analyzed. • The dependence of the type of Ge-O polyhedra space formations on the stoichiometric ratio SR=n(O)/n(Ge) was established. • Set of experimental SHG data of noncentrosymmetric germanates was presented.

  3. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  4. Formative Assessment in Teacher Education: The Development of a Diagnostic Language Test for Trainee Teachers of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a diagnostic test of German and its integration in a programme of formative assessment during a one-year initial teacher-training course. The test focuses on linguistic aspects that cause difficulty for trainee teachers of German as a foreign language and assesses implicit and explicit…

  5. The formation of a penumbra as observed with the German VTT and SoHO/MDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Rolf; González, Nazaret Bello; Rezaei, Reza

    2011-08-01

    The generation of magnetic flux in the solar interior and its transport to the outer solar atmosphere will be in the focus of solar physics research for the next decades. One key-ingredient is the process of magnetic flux emergence into the solar photosphere, and the reorganization to form the magnetic phenomena of active regions like sunspots and pores. On July 4, 2009, we observed a region of emerging magnetic flux, in which a proto-spot without penumbra forms a penumbra within some 4.5 hours. This process is documented by multi-wavelength observations at the German VTT: (a) imaging, (b) data with high resolution and temporal cadence acquired in Fe I 617.3 nm with the 2D imaging spectropolarimter GFPI, and (c) scans with the slit based spectropolarimeter TIP in Fe I 1089.6 nm. MDI contiuum maps and magnetograms are used to follow the formation of the proto-spot, and the subsequent evolution of the entire active region. During the formation of the penumbra, the area and the magnetic flux of the spot increases. The additional magnetic flux is supplied by the adjacent region of emerging magnetic flux: As emerging bipole separate, the poles of the spot polarity migrate towards the spot, and finally merge with it. As more and more flux is accumulated, a penumbra forms. From inversions we infer maps for the magnetic field and the Doppler velocity (being constant along the line-of-sight). We calculate the magnetic flux of the forming spot and of the bipole footpoints that merge with the proto-spot. We witness the onset of the Evershed flow and the associated enhance of the field inclination as individual penumbral filaments form. Prior to the formation of individual penumbral sectors we detect the existence of `counter' Evershed flows. These in-flows turn into the classical radial Evershed outflows as stable penumbra segments form.

  6. [Success factors in the German healthcare market. Hospitals between cluster formation and privatisation].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Möller, J; Hardt, F; Gabbert, T; Bauer, M

    2007-12-01

    The German hospital market is in a state of transition due to the introduction of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) and a constant change of the reimbursement, demographic, economical and technical framework. To date mainly public hospitals were bought by private hospital chains, but this trend has currently reached university hospitals. During recent months a consolidation within the market of private hospitals took place, while new market players such as foreign hospital chains, US universities and private equity firms emerged on the scene. The target of the privatisation process, however, turns more and more to larger hospitals. Central key values remain the cluster formation and centralisation of key competences such as food supply, purchasing and pharmacy. Within a network of clinics the representation of different care components (basic, regular and maximum care provider) and care levels (low, normal, intermediate and intensive care) remain important elements of efficient hospital management. Today, successful hospital operation is based on the successful competition for patients and even more for qualified staff. In this aspect, university hospitals could play a decisive role, because of their combination of maximum acute care provision and educational mandate. No such network has yet been formed due to the different interests of the owners, however, given the new market situation this alternative concept could become more attractive.

  7. Relating changes of organic matter composition of two German peats to climatic conditions during peat formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike; Nikolova, Radoslava; Rumpel, Cornelia; González-Vila, Francisco, J.; Drösler, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Peatlands have been recognized as an important factor within the global C-cycle, since they store about one-third of the global terrestrial C-pool. Furthermore, peat deposits have the potential to record detailed paleoclimatic and - vegetational changes. They are formed in peculiar paleoecosystems where the slow biodegradation of plant residues depends on a series of pedo-climatic and hydromorphic factors leading to a progressive accumulation of organic matter stabilized in different evolutionary stages. Thus, its chemical composition should be applicable as a fingerprint of former prevailing environmental conditions and vegetation configurations. The aim of the present work was to identify this fingerprint in the cores of two German fens, one derived from the Havelland close to Berlin (Großer Bolchow) and the other derived from the alpine region of Bavaria (Kendlmühlfilzen) by investigating the organic matter transformation as a function of peat depths. The C/N ratios and δ13C values revealed several distinctive trends in the two profiles related to prevailing peat forming conditions. Compared to the other layers, at depths of 14-85 cm and 132-324 cm in the Kendlmühlfilzen fen, high C/N ratios and less depleted δ13C values, indicated that the accumulation of these two layers occurred during a humid and cold period. In the case of the "Großer Bolchow", algal contributions were clearly detected using δ13C values. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy demonstrated loss of celluloses and accumulation of lipids and lignin derivatives during peatification, confirming that under the mostly O2-depleted conditions in peats, decomposition was selective. The results obtained by pyrolysis-GC/MS were in good agreement with the NMR data showing that processes ascribed to gradual biotransformation of the lignin occurred in both peats. However, the "Großer Bolchow" peat revealed a more advanced decomposition stage then the "Kendlmühlfilzen" peat, which is in agreement with

  8. On the Formation of Penumbrae as Observed with the German VTT SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.; González, N. B.

    2012-05-01

    Solar magnetic fields are generated in the solar interior and pop up at the solar surface to form active regions. As the magnetic field appears on the surface, it forms various structures like small magnetic elements, pores, and sunspots. The nature of these formation processes is largely unknown. In this contribution we elaborate on the formation of sunspots and particularly on the formation of penumbrae. We report on observations that we obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on July 4, 2009 on the formation of the spot in AR 11024. This data set is complemented with data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard SOHO, which offers an entire time coverage. Moreover, the evolution of AR 11024 is compared with a particular event of penumbra formation in AR 11124 around November 13, 2010, using intensity images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. We conclude that two processes contribute to the increase of the magnetic flux of a sunspot: (1) merging pores, and (2) emerging bipoles of which the spot polarity migrates towards and merges with the spot. As the penumbra forms, the area, magnetic flux, and maximum field strength in the umbra stay constant or increase slightly, i.e., the formation of the penumbra is associated with flux emergence and flux increase of the proto-spot. If two pores merge or if a pore merges with a proto-spot a light bridge is created. This initial light bridge dissolves in the further evolution.

  9. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German scientific and technological cooperation project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 3-times the carbon within the atmosphere. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, a 4.5 million Euro project for scientific and technological cooperation, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and

  10. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Eliseev, A. V.; Evgrafova, S.; Fedorova, I.; Glagolev, M.; Grigoriev, M.; Hubberten, H. W.; Knoblauch, C.; Kunitsky, V.; Kutzbach, L.; Reichstein, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Wagner, D.; Zimov, S. A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 2.5-times the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg

  11. German Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Gia P; Leifeld, Ludger

    2016-10-01

    Because of its frequency, diverticular disease is a burden on health care systems. Only few formal guidelines covering all aspects of the disease exist. Here, some selected statements from the German guidelines are given. The guidelines include significant recommendations for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. Both diagnosis and management depend definitely on clear definitions of the situation of an individual patient. Therefore, a new classification is proposed that is based on earlier suggestions. An internationally established classification would not only enable better patient care but could also lead to studies with comparable results.

  12. Glacial landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf: evidence for Late Wisconsinan ice-sheet dynamics and implications for the formation of De Geer moraines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Brian J.; Valentine, Page C.; Longva, Oddvar; Shaw, John

    2007-01-01

    The extent and behaviour of the southeast margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Atlantic Canada is of significance in the study of Late Wisconsinan ice sheet-ocean interactions. Multibeam sonar imagery of subglacial, ice-marginal and glaciomarine landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf, provides evidence of the pattern of glacial-dynamic events in the eastern Gulf of Maine. Northwest-southeast trending drumlins and megaflutes dominate northern German Bank. On southern German Bank, megaflutes of thin glacial deposits create a distinct northwest-southeast grain. Lobate regional moraines (>10km long) are concave to the northwest, up-ice direction and strike southwest-northeast, normal to the direction of ice flow. Ubiquitous, overlying De Geer moraines (

  13. 2.5 years of CarboPerm: achievements and further steps of an interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic matter (OM) decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1300 ± 200 Pg of SOC, or about twice as much the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will likely result in increased permafrost thawing with the consequence of increased mobilization and degradation of formerly frozen OM. This degradation process will presumably result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby induce a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of SOC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. CarboPerm strengthens permafrost research in underrepresented areas which are hardly accessible to international researchers. The obtained results improve our understanding of the future development of the sensitive and economically relevant arctic permafrost regions. With this contribution we want to inform the interested community about the new knowledge resulting from results of all scientific work packages: (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas.

  14. Two years of CarboPerm: achievements and further steps of an interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic matter (OM) decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1300 ± 200 Pg of SOC, or about twice as much the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will likely result in increased permafrost thawing with the consequence of increased mobilization and degradation of formerly frozen OM. This degradation process will presumably result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby induce a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of SOC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. CarboPerm strengthens permafrost research in underrepresented areas which are hardly accessible to international researchers. The obtained results improve our understanding of the future development of the sensitive and economically relevant arctic permafrost regions. With this contribution we want to inform the interested community about the new knowledge resulting from results of all scientific work packages: (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas.

  15. Headstart German Program. Cumulative Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary lists the vocabulary words used in the ten modules of the German Headstart program. It is a German-English and English-German glossary. The module number in which each word first occurs is given. (AMH)

  16. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  17. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  18. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  19. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  20. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  1. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  2. Geomechanical characterization of an Upper Triassic reservoir rock (Stuttgart Formation) in the NE German Basin (pilot site for CO2 storage at Ketzin, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapperer, S.; Moeck, I.; Backers, T.

    2012-04-01

    behavior of rock are the angle of internal friction ψ and cohesion c, representing aspects determining failure occurrence that can be expressed and illustrated by the Mohr Coulomb failure criterion. As for the UCS there is also a wide range of values for ψ (4.06° to 36.98°) and c (10.45 MPa to 49.41 MPa) which differ distinctly within similar lithologies. With respect to these differences further geomechanical tests in combination with petrographic investigations will be in focus to evaluate the impact of lithologal as well as lithofacial characteristics on geomechanical properties. Thus the lithological and lithofacial heterogeneous characteristics of the Stuttgart formation could influence significantly the geomechanical behavior and transmission of stresses resulting from CO2 injection. Therefrom knowledge about these rock mechanical properties helps to provide a save and long term injection and prevent leakage scenarios.

  3. An Introduction to Business German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambacher, Robert

    At Millersville University (Pennsylvania), business German is taught in the German section in a two-semester introduction at the sophomore level, a junior-level advanced course, and a senior-level translation course. These four courses are augmented by introductions to business and economics, both taught in English outside the German section.…

  4. High temperature behavior of zirconium germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V.; Baklanova, N.I.; Vasilyeva, I.G.

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature behavior of zirconium germanates ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ up to 2300 °C has been studied using the original photoemission thermal analysis technique with the comprehensive physicochemical study of solid and gaseous intermediate and final products. The two-stage process of incongruent sublimation of GeO₂ was established and the phase boundary of the homogeneity range for ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ were deduced from the thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. A high tendency to sintering of the final ZrO₂ product is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂ and occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. Highlights: •Thermal behavior of ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ was studied using the original thermal analysis technique in wide temperature range. •The decomposition occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. •The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂. •The temperature of decomposition is strongly depended on the total gas pressure.

  5. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  6. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  7. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  8. Headstart German Program. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the seventh module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use all the services of a German post-office, such as…

  9. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century. PMID:19281944

  10. Stem Access in Regular and Irregular Inflection: Evidence from German Participles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolka, Eva; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rosler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether German participles are retrieved as whole words from lexical storage or whether they are accessed via their morphemic constituents. German participle formation is of particular interest, since it is concatenative for both regular and irregular verbs and results from combinations of regular/irregular stems with…

  11. German Cataloging Rules Facing the 21st Century--RAK Heading for Internationality and Online Operability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnich, Monika

    This paper describes the current state and future development of RAK (Regeln fur die Alphabetische Katalogisierung), the German cataloging rules. The following topics are addressed: (1) the German cataloging landscape, including rules for descriptive cataloging, regional networks, format, data suppliers, and the rules landscape; (2)…

  12. Teacher vs. Peer Oral Corrective Feedback in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sippel, Lieselotte; Jackson, Carrie N.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study investigated the effects of oral teacher and peer corrective feedback on the acquisition of the German present perfect tense, including auxiliary verb selection (a rule-based structure) and past participle formation (an item-based structure). Intermediate learners of German were assigned to a teacher feedback condition, a peer…

  13. German Eagle vs. Russian Bear: A World War II Russian Front Boardgame Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Louis R.

    This board game encourages junior and senior high school student analysis of the German campaign against the USSR and gauges student decision-making skills. The World War II Russo-German Front is simulated in a standard board game format. A key element of the game is its analysis and results form. Using this form compels students to analyze and…

  14. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  15. German Letters and World Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durr, Volker

    1977-01-01

    Reminds us that the concept of World Literature as literary study contributing to the humanistic goal of universal tolerance was first expressed by Goethe, and indicates several ways of teaching German literature with that goal in mind. (Editor)

  16. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described. (Author/VWL)

  17. NATO in History and Civics Textbooks: The West German Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzsche, K. Peter

    1990-01-01

    When analyzing the degree to which a balanced presentation of NATO is achieved in West German history and civics textbooks, two standards may be used: first, inclusion of information on NATO's formation, aims, strategies and achievements; and, second, inclusion of the criticisms that have been leveled at NATO from various points of view. This…

  18. Making German-American Connections through Culture Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheryl

    1998-01-01

    Describes 12 German-American projects designed for high school students of German, including a biography of a German-American; video presentation on German immigration; oral report on German ancestors; Amish, Pennsylvania Dutch, and Mennonites; German inscriptions on cemetery headstones; interview with a German-speaking immigrant; immigration…

  19. [The development of German social medicine in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Lee, J C

    1994-01-01

    In his influential treatise System einer vollständigen medizinischen Polizey, Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) made significant contributions to the establishment of the concept of medical police, which has been understood as the forerunner of social medicine. Cameralism, the German version of mercantilism, became the very basis on which Frank and other German writers developed the framework of medical police. 'Medical reform' was the catchword of German medical men in the 1840s. The medical reform movement of 1848 was partially caused by a deep political, economic, and social crisis. Although Industrial Revolution began in Germany later than in England and France during the first half of the nineteenth century, by 1848 the formation of German industrial working-class made medical reformers recognize the causal relationships between social and health problems. The outstanding figures in the German medical reform movement of this period were Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), Solomon Neumann and Rudolf Leubuscher. In his famous Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia, Virchow proposed several radical measures that could be used against the epidemic: the absolute separation of the schools from the church, the establishment of self-government in the state and community, unlimited democracy, road building, and the improvement of agriculture and horticulture. ...

  20. German scientific sounding rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, O.

    The German scientific sounding rocket program covers four disciplines: astronomy, aeronomy, magnetosphere, material science. In each of these disciplines there are ongoing projects (e.g., INTERZODIAK, STRAFAM, MAP-WINE, CAESAR, TEXUS). The scientific and technical aspects of these projects will be described. Emphasis will be given to some late technical achievements of DFVLR's Mobile Rocket Base (MORABA) giving support to most of the rocket campaigns. DFVLR-PT is authorized to act as management agency in order to perform and to coordinate German space activities of which the sounding rocket program forms a small part. A brief description of the organization will be given.

  1. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  2. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    similar evolution as the Horn Graben with high sediment thicknesses deposited during the Triassic. This indicates that initiation of rifting started in the central German North Sea already during the Early Triassic and subsequently migrated to the west into the Central Graben. Before the Triassic thick layers of Permian rock salt (Upper Rotliegend and Zechstein) were deposited in the Central European Basin System, which spans from the UK across the Netherlands, southern Denmark, Germany, and into Poland. Salt movements resulted in the formation of salt diapirs, salt pillows, salt walls and intrusions into faults. Analyses of rim-synclines of salt diapirs reveals that most of the salt structures inside the German Central Graben had a main phase of growth during the Late Jurassic while the salt structures situated toward the southeast had their main phase of growth during the Triassic. The final products of the project are accessible at www.geopotenzial-nordsee.de/.

  3. Headstart German Program. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the fifth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 3 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use and understand: (1) courtesy expressions; (2) time…

  4. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  5. Headstart German Program. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the ninth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. The single unit in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to familiarize the student with some of the terminology used by military personnel in…

  6. Authentic Video in Intermediate German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutcavage, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Assorted techniques are offered for introducing authentic German video into the intermediate language curriculum. Television commercials, weather forecasts, and news programs are described as tools for enhancing listening comprehension and expanding students' cultural awareness. Various preparatory activities and follow-up assignments are…

  7. The German Hypersonics Technology Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczera, Heribert; Hauck, Helmuth

    1992-12-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the German development effort toward a technological basis for the development of the reference aerospaceplane two-stage-to-orbit configuration, Saenger. Attention is being given to alternative flight test vehicles, airframe/propulsion system integration methods, and airbreathing propulsion components. European community collaboration is emphasized.

  8. The German Statutory Health Insurance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stassen, Manfred

    1993-01-01

    Describes the German health insurance system which is mandatory for nearly all German citizens. Explains that, along with pension, accident, and unemployment insurance, health insurance is one of four pillars of the German national social security system. Asserts that controlling costs while maintaining high health care standards is a national…

  9. Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

  10. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  11. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  12. Facility management in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gudat, H

    2000-04-01

    Facility management and optimum building management offer for hospitals a chance to reduce costs and to increase quality, process sequences, employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Some years ago simple services such as cleaning, catering or laundry were outsourced. Now, German hospitals progress to more complex fields such as building and medical technology, clinical support processes such as pharmacy, central laboratory and sterilization, goods and logistics services. PMID:11066999

  13. Composition and microstructure of zirconium and hafnium germanates obtained by different chemical routes

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V. Prokip, V.E.; Baklanova, N.I.

    2014-01-15

    The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. The products were characterized using high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal (TG/DTA) analysis. To investigate the phase composition and stoichiometry of compounds the unit cell parameters were refined by full-profile Rietveld XRD analysis. The morphology of products and its evolution during high-temperature treatment was examined by SEM analysis. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. The ceramic route requires a multi-stage high-temperature treatment to obtain zirconium and hafnium germanates of 95% purity or more. Also, there are strong diffusion limitations to obtain hafnium germanate Hf{sub 3}GeO{sub 8} by ceramic route. On the contrary, the co-precipitation route leads to the formation of nanocrystalline single phase germanates of stoichiometric composition at a relatively low temperatures (less than 1000 °C). The results of quantitative XRD analysis showed the hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds in contrast to zirconium germanates that form a set of solid solutions. This distinction may be related to the difference in the ion radii of Zr and Hf. - Graphical abstract: The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zr and Hf germanates were synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes. • The morphology of products depends on the synthesis parameters. • Zirconium germanates forms a set of solid solutions. • Hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds.

  14. [Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].

    PubMed

    Schleyer, F

    1985-01-01

    In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated.

  15. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  16. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  17. Deutschunterricht und deutsche Hochlautung (German Instruction and the High German Pronunciation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelz, Heinrich P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the questions of which pronunciation model should be used in German courses and how closely students should be expected to duplicate it. After a short history of efforts to standardize German, it is suggested that the new "Aussprache Duden" is a good basis for teaching pronunciation. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  18. The German-Spanish connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. J.

    1980-04-01

    Cooperation between West Germany and Spain in the field of observational astronomy is discussed, with particular attention given to the newly operational German-Spanish Astronomical Center atop Calar Alto, Spain. The history of German and Spanish observational astronomy is briefly indicated as motivation for the joint venture, and the construction of the Calar Alto observatory, a branch of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, is outlined. The Center's instruments consist of the operational 1.2-m reflector employing an aplanatic Ritchey-Chretien system and a two-element field corrector, the 2.2-m reflector again with a Ritchey-Chretien optical system with field corrector however using a four-mirror coude arrangement, and a 3.5-m reflector under construction. Current objects of research include the bipolar H II region S 106, and extragalactic objects such as BL Lac objects, quasars and active galaxies. Organizational and operational aspects of the Center and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy are also outlined.

  19. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures Based…

  20. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  1. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  2. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  3. Authentic Materials for the Business German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denk, Walter Josef; Karottki, Hartmut

    A discussion of authentic instructional materials for the business German classroom examines the reasons for using such materials, and focuses on reading strategies to be used with authentic German texts. Authentic materials' advantages include their communicative function, their intended use by a real audience, and their specific form. It is…

  4. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  5. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  6. Microcomputer Software for Teaching German: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Lisa

    This report examines the strengths and weaknesses of the following 12 microcomputer programs: (1) Language Teacher Series: TRS-80; (2) Language Teacher Series: Atari; (3) Apfeldeutsch; (4) Author I; (5) Dasher; (6) The Definite Article; (7) Flashcard; (8) German Packages I, II, and III; (9) German Vocabulary Builder; (10) The Linguist; (11)…

  7. RESEARCH IN GERMAN-ENGLISH MECHANICAL TRANSLATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEHMANN, W.P.; TOSH, L.W.

    UNDER CONTRACT WITH THE AIR FORCE, THE LINGUISTICS RESEARCH CENTER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS CONDUCTED A RESEARCH PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A GERMAN-ENGLISH SYNTACTIC TRANSLATION SYSTEM FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL TEXTS. MORE SPECIFICALLY, THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) WRITE A GERMAN-ENGLISH TRANSFER GRAMMAR THAT WOULD LINK THE LINGUISTIC…

  8. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  9. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  10. Teaching German Culture: An Alternative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Maruta L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a college course on German culture in which the criterion for the inclusion of any topic in the syllabus is its mention--preferably recurrent--in the German press. Additional emphasis is placed upon the historical background of the current events. Classes are a combination of films, lectures, discussions, and student reports. (SED)

  11. German-Speaking People of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

  12. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  13. 4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  14. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  15. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  16. 9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  17. Swiss Themes in Three "Pluricentric" German Language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)

  18. Synthesis of Bis(pentafluoroethyl)germanes.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Stefanie; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Ignat'ev, Nikolai; Hoge, Berthold

    2016-03-24

    The chemistry of bis(pentafluoroethyl)germanes (C2F5)2 GeX2 is presented. The synthesis of such species requires Br2 GePh2 , wherein the phenyl substituents function as suitable protecting groups. After treatment with two equivalents of LiC2 F5, (C2F5)2 GePh2 is produced. The replacement of the phenyl rings is smoothly effected by gaseous HBr or HCl in the presence of a Lewis acidic catalyst. The trigermoxane [(C2F5)2 GeO]3 results from the reaction of (C2F5)2 GeBr2 with Ag2 CO3. Its crystalline 1,10-phenanthroline adduct was fully characterised by X-ray diffraction. The combination of (C2F5)2 GeBr2 with Bu3 SnH gave rise to the formation of (C2F5)2 GeH2 . PMID:26880212

  19. Syntactic priming in German-English bilinguals during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kirsten; Indefrey, Peter

    2009-07-15

    A longstanding question in bilingualism is whether syntactic information is shared between the two language processing systems. We used an fMRI repetition suppression paradigm to investigate syntactic priming in reading comprehension in German-English late-acquisition bilinguals. In comparison to conventional subtraction analyses in bilingual experiments, repetition suppression has the advantage of being able to detect neuronal populations that are sensitive to properties that are shared by consecutive stimuli. In this study, we manipulated the syntactic structure between prime and target sentences. A sentence with a passive sentence structure in English was preceded either by a passive or by an active sentence in English or German. We looked for repetition suppression effects in left inferior frontal, left precentral and left middle temporal regions of interest. These regions were defined by a contrast of all non-target sentences in German and English versus the baseline of sentence-format consonant strings. We found decreases in activity (repetition suppression effects) in these regions of interest following the repetition of syntactic structure from the first to the second language and within the second language. Moreover, a separate behavioural experiment using a word-by-word reading paradigm similar to the fMRI experiment showed faster reading times for primed compared to unprimed English target sentences regardless of whether they were preceded by an English or a German sentence of the same structure. We conclude that there is interaction between the language processing systems and that at least some syntactic information is shared between a bilingual's languages with similar syntactic structures.

  20. Intercultural Constellations in Adult Education: Observations on the State of Anglo-German Relations before and after the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha

    1993-01-01

    A literature review of adult education and Anglo-German connections, 1880-1933, showed that interculturality played an essential role in identity formation at the interface of culture and politics. Adult education developed as an autonomous area of international communication between British and German citizens despite political realities. (SK)

  1. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  2. [The use of Latin in German scientific language].

    PubMed

    Adlafová, A

    1992-01-01

    Science is of international nature. The development of technical languages in the individual branches of science is connected with frequent borrowing of foreign-language lexical material which is mostly of Latin or Greek origin. Latin has had an effect on vocabulary, word formation and syntax. The existence of a foreign scientific language above a national one is the main cause of the frequent penetration of foreign and borrowed words into German. Greek and Latin represent the traditional language material to be used in medical terminology. In scientific communication, Latin and Greek terms and also equivalents in a native language are used.

  3. Modeling the German energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihrig, D. F.

    2003-04-01

    It would be helpful in political discussions to get quickly and transparent assessments of the consequences of political actions on the energy market of a national economy. Computer models of any national energy market normally are written using a computer high language. But such a tool could not be transparent and the integration of actual data is complex. For this reason a transparent model concerning the German energy market was written to calculate the impact of alternative strategies of energy supply. The end energy consumption will be recorded in 4 sectors (households, low consumer, industries, traffic) and 4 service arrays (room heating, process heat, mechanical energy and light) specified for primary energy sources. To assess the primary energy requirement it is necessary to deal with more than 125 end primary energy consumption data each year. The model is based on data of the study-group of energy balances at the VDEW (Organization of German energy supplier). The data sets of the years 1993 and 1997 to 2001 are available. It is possible to define over 20 years objectives on higher energy saving in the most service arrays of each end energy consumption sector. The effects on CO2-emission of several strategies of energy saving will be calculated including commercial data and socioeconomic aspects (investment, foreign trade, energy prizes, jobs etc.). It is possible to modeling regional energy markets, too. This tool allows to assess the local impact of new strategies of energy supply on the regional economics. Of course regional calculations work with lower precision because several data have to be estimated. The model calculates over 40 years. It's possible to have a time lag and to calculate the time after realizing the objectives. The typical phases of realizing social objectives are modeled. The model is written using the tabular calculation program EXCEL. This makes the model very transparent. It is not necessary to be a computer programmer to

  4. [Research funding in German ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Meltendorf, C

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 applications for research funding in ophthalmology have been evaluated together with those from neurosurgery, neuropathology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatics, otolaryngology and neurology by a joint review board of the German Research Council (DFG). Facing a decreasing number of applications--in contrast to the need and importance of widespread ocular diseases--the working group "young academics" of the Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG) assessed the perception of funding programmes and grants available. Young ophthalmologists think that they have poor prospects to receive funding by a DFG proposal. In comparison, specialist funding quotas show a stable development within the neurosciences over the last years. The sum of requested funding has a strong correlation with the total amount actually paid. By clarifying the number of funded proposals, the better transparency and communication for the existing programmes should improve the cooperativeness, the funding rate and number of applications in future. This inventory explicitly includes a motivational guidance for young researchers to take the initiative to do more proposals.

  5. First German Astronomy Ambassadors Fly On SOFIA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two German educators, Wolfgang Vieser and Jörg Trebs, were the first to represent their country as SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors. They flew aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...

  6. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  7. German physicists pleased as Excellence Initiative extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-08-01

    Germany's federal and state governments have agreed to fund a third round of the so-called Excellence Initiative programme, which was inaugurated 10 years ago to promote world-class research at German universities.

  8. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  9. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  10. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  11. Selected List of German Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, John R., Comp.

    Compiled with secondary school teachers of German in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (German-English, English-German, all-German, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…

  12. A German Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  13. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  14. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  15. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. German-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the German word is listed first followed by the English word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  16. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. English-German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the English word is listed first followed by the German word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  17. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  18. Profit efficiency and ownership of German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Herr, Annika; Schmitz, Hendrik; Augurzky, Boris

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the cost and profit efficiency of German hospitals and their variation with ownership type. It is motivated by the empirical finding that private (for-profit) hospitals - having been shown to be less cost efficient in the past - on average earn higher profits than public hospitals. We conduct a Stochastic Frontier Analysis on a multifaceted administrative German data set combined with the balance sheets of 541 hospitals of the years 2002-2006. The results show no significant differences in cost efficiency but higher profit efficiency of private than of publicly owned hospitals.

  19. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  20. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  1. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, Observation Bunker, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  2. The German Investigation of the Accident at Meopham (England)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann; Hertel, Heinrich; Thalau, Karl

    1932-01-01

    This report is a recounting of the German investigation of the crash of a commercial Junkers F 13 ge in England. The English report is examined and compared with the German interpretation of the accident.

  3. Young Germans Assist the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeier, Claus

    Participation by West German youth in international assistance to developing nations is examined. International assistance is interpreted to include public, private, and religious programs and projects involved in technical advancement, food distribution, agricultural development, health improvement, and natural resource development in other…

  4. The Medieval German University: Transformation and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinges, Rainer Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the university system within the Holy Roman Empire, especially in Germany, explaining that the University of Prague in 1348 was the Empire's first university. Reports that after the University of Prague, the new university type, or the "German type," developed by combining types of universities in Bologna and Paris.…

  5. Is German Necessary? Nein, Says One University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    When the University of Southern California announced that it would shutter its tiny German department, the outcry was out of proportion to the handful of faculty members and students directly affected by the move. In addition to students who advertised their dismay on Facebook and faculty members who complained that their efforts to bolster the…

  6. Roots and Rogues in German Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the proper characterization of subject omission at a particular stage in German child language. It focuses on post-verbal null subjects in finite clauses, here termed Rogues. It is argued that the statistically significant presence of Rogues, in conjunction with their distinct developmental profile, speaks against a…

  7. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  8. A Receptive Perspective for Introductory German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovik, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that additional attention to the sequencing of the grammatical structures needed for receptive comprehension might alleviate the problems associated with first-year German textbooks. The simple past tense, word order, and the indefinite pronoun "man" are used to illustrate the concept of a receptive grammar. (14 references) (Author/CK)

  9. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  10. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  11. Deutschunterricht Durch Handeln (Teaching German through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level German lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, instructions…

  12. West German Teachers on Today's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, elementary and secondary teachers in West Germany were surveyed concerning the treatment of social themes in school curricula. As in a similar survey conducted in the United States, West German respondents indicated that every theme surveyed was important, with nuclear disarmament and environmental pollution clearly considered the most…

  13. Content, Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to extend and deepen the conversation concerning the knowledge-based approach to curriculum espoused by Michael Young in his 2013 "JCS" paper through revisiting the structure of the disciplines thinking of Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik." It argues that curriculum making requires a theory of knowledge…

  14. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  15. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children identified? (3)…

  16. Anglo-German Perceptions of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowka, Detlef

    1989-01-01

    Comments on the selective nature of the Thatcher government's interest in and enthusiasm for features of the West German education system. Compares Great Britain's and West Germany's systems with regard to student assessment, compulsory curriculum, school-leaving qualifications, vocational education, and centralization of authority. Contains 32…

  17. Virtual institution to boost German cardiology research.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Emma

    2012-02-01

    The German government has promised many millions over the next 5 years for a "virtual" cardiology institution linking up researchers in seven major centres. Emma Wilkinson speaks to two of those involved in the project about what it hopes to achieve

  18. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic criticism"…

  19. [Jean-Martin Charcot in German neurology].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H C; Hartung, H-P; Kieseier, B C

    2004-02-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), well known as the founder of modern neurology, was the most celebrated neurologist in the nineteenth century. His international success stemmed not only from mastery descriptions of various neurological disorders but also from his many contacts with scientists all over the world. The aim of this article is to review Charcot's ambivalent relationship to German neuropsychiatry of the time and to examine the German reception of his personality and work. Wilhelm Erb, Ludwig Hirt, Ernst von Leyden, Max Nonne, Adolph Strümpell, and other German physicians cultivated -to varying degrees - professional contacts with Charcot and, based on the fascination of his personality and significance of his work, were long and intensively influenced by the Salpêtrière school. The extent of their admiration became apparent in 1882 by the award of an honorary doctorate to Charcot by the University of Würzburg. Along with increasingly severe criticism of Charcot's research on hysteria and hypnosis, most German neuropsychiatrists became estranged, without neglecting his importance to the development of neurology in Germany.

  20. Hyphenated Compounds in West German Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Helga H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the types of hyphenated compound nouns (which fill the need for naming new things and expressing new ideas) found in German newspapers and journals. Observes in what particular types of compounds the hyphen is most frequently used and why there is an upsurge in their use. (SED)

  1. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  2. The German Toyshop: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemczura, Mary Ann; Clayton, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a project combining the disciplines of German and technology education by giving students an opportunity to learn technical vocabulary and design and create wooden toys to increase students' awareness of international business and global economy and the necessity of communicating ideas with people in other countries. (Author/CB)

  3. Introduction to German Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roig, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course, taught in English, entitled "Introduction to German Culture," which was designed to meet the needs of students who have visited or plan to visit Germany and want to take a course in its contemporary culture, politics, and social problems. (SED)

  4. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  5. Dengue antibody prevalence in German travelers.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Ole; Lauschke, Annekathrin; Frank, Christina; Shu, Pei-Yun; Niedrig, Matthias; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Stark, Klaus; Jelinek, Tomas

    2005-05-01

    We studied 2,259 German citizens after they returned from dengue-endemic countries from 1996 to 2004. Serotype-specific dengue antibodies indicated acute infections in 51 (4.7%) travelers with recent fever and 13 (1.1%) travelers with no recent fever, depending largely on destination and epidemic activity in the countries visited.

  6. Processability Theory and German Case Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof

    2011-01-01

    This article represents the first attempt to formulate a hypothetical sequence for German case acquisition by Dutch-speaking learners on the basis of Processability Theory (PT). It will be argued that case forms emerge corresponding to a development from lexical over phrasal to interphrasal morphemes. This development, however, is subject to a…

  7. Topical Bibliography in Theoretical and Applied German Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerd K., Comp.

    This bibliography of 1860 books and articles is intended to provide researchers, instructors, and students of applied German linguistics, as well as school and college teachers of German, with background material on a variety of topics in the field of applied German linguistics which can be of service in the preparation of instructional materials…

  8. 78 FR 62307 - German-American Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9035 of October 4, 2013 German-American Day, 2013 By the President of the... German-American Day, we celebrate the vibrant threads of German heritage woven into our national...

  9. German Round the Corner: Die Whyte Avenue in Edmonton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer E.

    This compilation of interviews and photographs is the result of a German class project entitled Whyte Avenue. The project was carried out by fifth and sixth grade students who were attending an after-school German course in Edmonton, Alberta. The course introduced students to the German language and culture by exposing them to native German…

  10. The German Teacher Trainers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to identify the interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs of German teacher trainers' in Turkey. It is a descriptive survey and the population of the study consists of German teacher trainers who have worked in the seven regions of Turkey during the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample comprises 52 German teacher trainers chosen…

  11. Teaching Business German Basics on the Second Year Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, Heidi M.

    Most college curricula in business German are oriented to third- and fourth-year German students. Development of a course in introductory business German designed for the second year of language instruction required careful selection of materials and activities. Texts were selected for their comprehensibility for students with no business…

  12. Teaching German-Americana with Assistance from the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Robert J.; Hoyt, Giles R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the World Wide Web can assist in teaching about German-Americana in German-language instruction, and discusses some basic Web page uses to find and organize literary texts, syllabi, course outlines, images and realia, and information about people, organizations, events, and places. Some of the most useful German-American resources are…

  13. Hafnium Germanate from a Hydrous Hafnium Germanium Oxide Gel.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P. M.

    1998-03-23

    The gel chemistry of germanium is explored through the formation and composition of a hydrous metal oxide precursor gel used in the preparation of the HfGeO(4) and HfGeO(4):Ti X-ray phosphors. The enhanced solubility of hexagonal GeO(2) in dilute ammoniacal solutions is exploited to give a convenient and high-yield precipitation. The precursor gel is shown by FT-IR to be a diphasic mixture of hydrous hafnia and an ammonium germanate gel. Thermal treatment drives the crystallization of a hafnium-rich, simple tetragonal Hf(1)(-)(x)()Ge(x)()O(2) structure at 893 degrees C, that upon further heating to 1200 degrees C yields scheelite HfGeO(4).

  14. Influences of German science and scientists on Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Barry A. J.

    The multidisciplinary approach of Alexander von Humboldt in scientific studies of the natural world in the first half of the nineteenth century gained early and lasting acclaim. Later, given the broad scientific interests of colonial Victoria's first Government Astronomer Robert Ellery, one could expect to find some evidence of the Humboldtian approach in the operations of Williamstown Observatory and its successor, Melbourne Observatory. On examination, and without discounting the importance of other international scientific contributions, it appears that Melbourne Observatory was indeed substantially influenced from afar by Humboldt and other German scientists, and in person by Georg Neumayer in particular. Some of the ways in which these influences acted are obvious but others are less so. Like the other Australian state observatories, in its later years Melbourne Observatory had to concentrate its diminishing resources on positional astronomy and timekeeping. Along with Sydney Observatory, it has survived almost intact to become a heritage treasure, perpetuating appreciation of its formative influences.

  15. Sinus pilonidalis in patients of German military hospitals: a review.

    PubMed

    Kueper, Janina; Evers, Theo; Wietelmann, Kai; Doll, Dietrich; Roffeis, Jana; Schwabe, Philipp; Märdian, Sven; Wichlas, Florian; Krapohl, Björn-Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) most commonly presents in young men when hair follicles enter through damaged epithelium and cause an inflammatory reaction. This results in the formation of fistular tracts. We reviewed studies based on a shared cohort of patients who presented at German military hospitals with PSD. The effect of the morphology of the sinus, perioperative protocol, and aftercare of the surgical treatment on the recurrence of PSD were evaluated. The drainage of acute abscesses before surgery, the application of methylene blue during surgery and open wound treatment were generally found to reduce the recurrence rate. A positive family history, postoperative epilation and primary suture as the healing method were found to elevate the recurrence rate. Long-term follow up of over 15 years was found to be a vital component of patient care as only 60% of the overall recurrences recorded had taken place by year 5 postoperatively.

  16. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  17. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  18. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  19. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  20. Imported dengue virus infections in German tourists.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, T F; Jäger, G; Gilch, S

    1995-10-01

    Dengue viruses (DEN) are increasingly becoming endemic and epidemic in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study, 17 serologically confirmed clinical cases of DEN infection diagnosed in German tourists over the period from May 1993 until May 1994 are presented. Thirteen out of 17 (76.5%) infections occurred in southeast Asia (Thailand 58.9%), and 4/17 (23.5%) in Central and South America. All sera screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) were positive for anti-DEN IgM. Acute infection was confirmed by demonstrating anti-DEN IgM using a "mu-capture assay". Sixteen out of 17 (94.1%) of patients presenting with fever upon admission were positive for anti-DEN IgG, with titres of > or = 128 in the IIFA. This report indicates the rising significance of DEN as a travel-associated infection in German tourists.

  1. [German nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  2. Analysis of Stresses in German Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1923-01-01

    This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.

  3. The "Academization" of the German Qualification System: Recent Developments in the Relationships between Vocational Training and Higher Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Andrä; Kerst, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The traditional German model of skill formation was based on the rather strict segmentation between vocational training and higher education. However, during recent years this differentiation has slowly dissolved, partly by politically motivated developments to increase the permeability between both sectors and partly as a result of latent changes…

  4. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  5. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  7. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  8. Middle Triassic chirotherid trackways on earthquake influenced intertidal limulid reproduction flats of the European Germanic Basin coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus

    2012-09-01

    Chirotherid footprints of Synaptichnium, Chirotherium and Isochirotherium appeared during the late Early (Aegean) to early Late (Carnian) Triassic in central Europe. These taxa are partly revised herein, using both perfect and variably preserved tracks, and very long trackways from an upper Pelsonian intertidal-flat megatracksite of the Germanic Basin coast Pelsonian (Karlstadt Formation). The global Middle Triassic distribution of those footprints suggests seasonal migrations across Pangaea of possible archosauriform reptile trackmakers, such as Euparkeria, Ticinosuchus, Arizonasaurus and Batrachotomus, caused by horseshoe-crab mass migrations into tidal-flat beach reproductive zones in the Germanic Basin. Such seasonal migrations may even suggest a Pangaea-wide food-chain reaction, possibly including the mobilization of fish, marine and terrestrial reptiles, and of which situation the Germanic Basin intertidal-flats is a globally unique example.

  9. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  10. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheurer, A.; German CMS Community

    2010-04-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool "HappyFace", which was

  11. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    PubMed

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner. PMID:1754781

  12. Hanau licenses voided by German state court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On July 21, the Higher Administrative Court in the German state of Hesse declared illegal three of the first four partial construction licenses for the plutonium section of the Siemens fuel fabrication complex at Hanau. The licenses were issued in the late 1980s by the former Christian Democrat administration of Hesse, but final licensing of the plant - now 90 percent complete - has been held up by the Social Democrat/Green Party coalition government that is now in power. The court ruling came as a result of four cases, and a so-called urgent application, initiated by antinuclear groups in the area.

  13. Saenger - The German aerospace vehicle program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegenauer, Ernst; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    1989-07-01

    The current status of the West German Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, encompassing the European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle (EHTV) first stage, the Hypersonic Orbital Reusable Upper Stage, and the Cargus unmanned alternative upper stage, is evaluated with a view to overall program organization and near-term planning initiatives. The first major milestone in the Saenger technology-development program was achieved with the hydrogen-fueled ramjet combustor tests conducted by the propulsion system prime contractor in 1988. Mach 5.6 demonstration flights of the EHTV are scheduled for 1999-2000.

  14. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Childhood Immunization Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine - English Schutzimpfung gegen Haemophilus Influenzae Typ b (Hib) - Deutsch (German) PDF Immunization Action ...

  15. Umweltverschmutzung. German Ecology Packet: Resource Units and Materials for German Classes at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Julie; And Others

    Supplementary resource materials for use in upper level secondary school German classes are presented in this text. Teachers who are seeking new content and are willing to adapt these instructional materials on ecology in Germany will find three self-contained units on: The Plight of the Polar Bear, Polluted Swimming Pools in Germany, and Dead…

  16. A Study in West German Stabilization Policy, 1956-1974. German Studies Notes. First Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Manfred J. M.

    The dominant driving force of past movements in West German output and prices is investigated and a review of government policy undertaken to stabilize these movements is presented. Three alternative impulse hypotheses are tested: the monetary, the fiscal, and the foreign impulse hypothesis. The major results of the tests are that: (1) monetary…

  17. East German Children's and Adolescents' Friendship and Moral Reasoning before and after German Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship…

  18. "No-Business-As-Usual German": A Critical Pedagogy of Business German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his "Business German" course. His course sought to narrate a dialectic of agency and institution. He started by asserting a distinction between the intending subject--with its plural desires, interests, and identifications--and the world it acts in, through and upon. This distinction between acting subject and…

  19. The Identity of the German City As a Symbol of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the pattern formed by Germany's towns and cities, with some remarks on the changes in that pattern since 1945, and the major influences that have shaped the appearance and structure of the German city. The role of the motor car and the new low-density suburb are noted. (EJS)

  20. Tethyan and German Triassic stratigraphy, correlation and numerical ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozur, Heinz W.; Bachmann, Gerhard H.

    2010-05-01

    The correlation of the Germanic Triassic with the Tethyan Triassic is well constrained biostratigraphically. However, radiometric data are lacking and have to be imported for numerical calibration of litho- and chronostratigraphic units. These imported data can be extended to intervals without primary numerical data by astronomical calibration with Milankovitch cycles that are well recognisable in continental lake deposits of the Germanic Triassic, and correlated back to the marine realm. Such cross-correlation is a powerful method for improving numerical stage ages in the marine realm. The calculations of numerical ages for the Germanic Lower and Middle Triassic by astronomical calibration are remarkably close to the subsequently published most recent radiometric data of different authors. For the Lower Triassic, up to the base of the Anisian, the 252.5 ± 0.3 Ma for the basal I. isarcica Zone at Meishan (Mundil et al., 2001) was taken as a reference value. On this base, Kozur (2003) calculated a numerical age of 252.6 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary, which age was later confirmed with new radiometric data by Mundil et al. (2004). Bachmann & Kozur (2004) correlated the base of the Stammen Beds (= base Thuringian Chirotherium Sandstone) with the Anisian base and calculated for this boundary 247 Ma. Lehrmann et al. (2006) used high-precision single zircon data for determination of the Anisian base at 247.2 Ma. In the mainly marine Germanic Middle Triassic the radiometric data from the Tethyan Middle Triassic can be used after marine biostratigraphic correlation. Both the older (late Illyrian and Ladinian) and newer radiometric data (early and middle Anisian) fit well with the ages calculated by astronomical calibration. The greatest problems are in the Upper Triassic, where very few radiometric data are known. At present there are mutually exclusive ages that have been proposed for the Carnian-Norian boundary, each based on radiometric dates. These conflicting

  1. Le Schwyzertutsch 5e langue nationale? (Is Swiss German a Fifth National Language?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redard, Francoise, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These papers on the subject of the Swiss German language examine the status and attitudes of the Swiss German speaker, the reaction of other linguistic communities to Swiss German, and the necessity and/or possibility of learning Swiss German. The following articles are included: (1) "Le 'Schwyzertutsch': ecran ou lien? (Is Swiss German a Screen…

  2. Thomas Beddoes and the German psychological tradition.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Neil

    2009-09-20

    This paper considers Thomas Beddoes's role in disseminating German psychological ideas in Britain. It describes the German tradition as inaugurated by Karl Philipp Moritz (1756-93) and considers the chief differences between this tradition and the English one stemming from David Hartley. It is suggested that Beddoes found strong support for his convictions about human interiority in writings by Moritz and his followers. In particular, these enabled him to think about sanity and madness as being continuous with one another (rather than as one another's negation); they helped him locate the signs of madness in ordinary childhood behaviours; they reinforced his suspicions that many so-called nervous disorders were psychically caused; and they supplied him with a conception of unconscious passion. The paper concludes by considering Beddoes's appeal to Shakespeare's plays as a source of clinical knowledge about the nature of insanity, and argues that Beddoes has been overlooked as a crucial source for nineteenth-century psychiatrist-bardologists such as J. Conolly, J. C. Bucknill and H. Maudsley. PMID:20027748

  3. Thomas Beddoes and the German psychological tradition.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Neil

    2009-09-20

    This paper considers Thomas Beddoes's role in disseminating German psychological ideas in Britain. It describes the German tradition as inaugurated by Karl Philipp Moritz (1756-93) and considers the chief differences between this tradition and the English one stemming from David Hartley. It is suggested that Beddoes found strong support for his convictions about human interiority in writings by Moritz and his followers. In particular, these enabled him to think about sanity and madness as being continuous with one another (rather than as one another's negation); they helped him locate the signs of madness in ordinary childhood behaviours; they reinforced his suspicions that many so-called nervous disorders were psychically caused; and they supplied him with a conception of unconscious passion. The paper concludes by considering Beddoes's appeal to Shakespeare's plays as a source of clinical knowledge about the nature of insanity, and argues that Beddoes has been overlooked as a crucial source for nineteenth-century psychiatrist-bardologists such as J. Conolly, J. C. Bucknill and H. Maudsley.

  4. Apitherapy: Usage And Experience In German Beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Hellner, Markus; Winter, Daniel; von Georgi, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the practice of apitherapy - using bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom to prevent or treat illness and promote healing - among German beekeepers and to evaluate their experiences with these therapies. A questionnaire incorporating two instruments on beekeepers’ physical and mental health and working practice was included in three German beekeeping journals and readers were asked to complete it. The instrument included questions on the use of apitherapy. Simple descriptive methods, bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Altogether 1059 completed questionnaires were received. The beekeepers reported the most effective and favorable therapeutic effects with honey, followed by propolis, pollen and royal jelly. The factors associated with successful experiences were: age, number of hives tended, health consciousness, positive experiences with one product and self-administration of treatment. Beekeepers were asked for which condition they would employ propolis and pollen. They reported that they used propolis most frequently to treat colds, wounds and burns, sore throats, gum disorders and also as a general prophylactic, while pollen was most commonly used as a general prophylactic and, less frequently, in treating prostate diseases. No adverse experiences were reported. The potential benefit of bee products is supported by the positive experiences of a large group of beekeepers who use some of these products to treat a wide range of conditions. The indications and treatments given here may be important in selecting bee products and designing future trials. PMID:18955222

  5. Apitherapy: usage and experience in german beekeepers.

    PubMed

    Hellner, Markus; Winter, Daniel; von Georgi, Richard; Münstedt, Karsten

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the practice of apitherapy - using bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom to prevent or treat illness and promote healing - among German beekeepers and to evaluate their experiences with these therapies. A questionnaire incorporating two instruments on beekeepers' physical and mental health and working practice was included in three German beekeeping journals and readers were asked to complete it. The instrument included questions on the use of apitherapy. Simple descriptive methods, bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Altogether 1059 completed questionnaires were received. The beekeepers reported the most effective and favorable therapeutic effects with honey, followed by propolis, pollen and royal jelly. The factors associated with successful experiences were: age, number of hives tended, health consciousness, positive experiences with one product and self-administration of treatment. Beekeepers were asked for which condition they would employ propolis and pollen. They reported that they used propolis most frequently to treat colds, wounds and burns, sore throats, gum disorders and also as a general prophylactic, while pollen was most commonly used as a general prophylactic and, less frequently, in treating prostate diseases. No adverse experiences were reported. The potential benefit of bee products is supported by the positive experiences of a large group of beekeepers who use some of these products to treat a wide range of conditions. The indications and treatments given here may be important in selecting bee products and designing future trials.

  6. Markers of Ethnic Identify in Immigrant Worker German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    The role of ethnically marked, nonstandard varieties of German in the Federal Republic of Germany is examined. It is shown that there is a "generic" variety of Immigrant Worker German that unites all immigrant laborers and their families into one group with perceived "ethnic" characteristics. Subdivisions within the group are also described. (21…

  7. Techniques for Teaching German: A Series of Demonstration Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Klaus A.

    This manual, to be used in conjunction with 10 demonstration films on the teaching of German in introductory college courses, serves as a guide to the objectives and teaching techniques illustrated in each of the films. The films demonstrate to future teachers of German workable teaching techniques designed to produce specific competencies and…

  8. The Use of Film in Teaching German Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figge, Richard C.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the possibilities of teaching German culture through the medium of the fictional film are suggested. Brief descriptions are provided of German films found useful in communicating some aspect or problem of twentieth-century culture. A select bibliography of works containing extensive analyses and interpretations is provided. (SW)

  9. Avoiding Pitfalls in Rendering into German Formulaic English Linking Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Arnd

    2003-01-01

    Fixed prepositional phrases of the type in this way and on the other hand are used in written and spoken English to connect sentences into larger units (text, dialogues). German prefers simple adverbials like so. Appended is a check-list of the most common such phrases in English and possible German equivalents.

  10. 75 FR 62453 - German-American Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... October 6, 1683, 13 courageous German families arrived in Pennsylvania to start a new life. They began a... opportunity that resonates around the world. Today, German Americans innovate and excel as leaders in all... inspired those brave settlers four centuries ago; and a vision for a safer, freer, more peaceful,...

  11. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  12. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  13. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  14. "Lieder machen Leute": Teaching Postwar German Identity through Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The negotiation of a West German identity in the decades that followed World War II can be traced in the issues and movements that preoccupied the populace. These in turn are documented in the work of socially and politically motivated "Liedermacher". Songs thus serve as a point of entry for students into how Germans saw themselves in the Bonn…

  15. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  16. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  17. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  18. 77 FR 62137 - German-American Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8883 of October 5, 2012 German-American Day, 2012 By the President of the..., 2012, as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history of...

  19. 76 FR 63531 - German-American Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26559 Filed 10-11-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8731 of October 6, 2011 German-American Day, 2011 By the President of the... it remains indispensable to global security and prosperity. As we observe German-American Day,...

  20. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  1. The Role of Gene DCDC2 in German Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcke, A.; Weissfuss, J.; Kirsten, H.; Wolfram, G.; Boltze, J.; Ahnert, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dyslexia is a complex reading and writing disorder with a strong genetic component. In a German case-control cohort, we studied the influence of the suspected dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2. For the first time in a German cohort, we describe association of a 2445 basepair deletion, first identified in an American study. Evidence of association for…

  2. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  3. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  4. The Syntax and Pragmatics of Fronting in Germanic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Across the Germanic language family, we find a type of movement traditionally termed "topicalization," which may be realized in Germanic languages which possess the so-called Verb-Second (V2) constraint, as well as those without it. I will henceforward call this phenomenon "fronting" to avoid theoretical assumptions. This…

  5. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  6. The Deutsche Welle as a Resource for Teachers of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wipf, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are given for using "Deutsche Welle" (DW)(German shortwave radio broadcast) programs to maintain or improve language skills of both instructors and students. Another function of DW radio includes helping students keep abreast of current events in the German-speaking world which, in turn, allows students and their teacher to be more…

  7. A Heritage Deferred: The German-Americans in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers explores aspects of the lives of German-American immigrants in Minnesota. Part 1, "The Ethnic Experience," consists of the following papers: "Was There a Single German-American Experience?" (Bonney); "The Most Diversified Ethnic Group" (Johnson); "Unraveling the Mystery of Ethnic Identity" (Ward); and "Some…

  8. The 3 C's for College German: Communication, Culture, and Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kreimhilde I. R.

    The existing German curriculum should be updated to include career-oriented, career-related language courses, especially in German commercial language, since West Germany is one of the world's most important trading countries and the United States is a major trading partner. Language fluency alone is not sufficient for employment in international…

  9. Generational Aspects of German National Socialism, 1919-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Examines the theory that pre-Hitler Nazism was part of a generational revolt. Research shows that, among new recruits to the National Socialist German Workers Party in that period, there were more than twice as many who were under 30 years old. Socioeconomic and historical factors which made Nazism attractive to German youth are discussed. (AM)

  10. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  11. German-English-Speaking Children's Mixed NPs with "Correct" Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorschick, Liane; Quick, Antje Endesfelder; Glasser, Dana; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has reported that bilingual children sometimes produce mixed noun phrases with "correct" gender agreement--as in "der dog" ("der" being a masculine determiner in German and the German word for "dog", "hund", being masculine as well). However, these could obviously be due to chance or to the indiscriminate use of a default…

  12. The Social Stratification of the German VET System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protsch, Paula; Solga, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Germany is widely known for its vocational education and training (VET) system and its dual apprenticeship system in particular. What is often overlooked, however, is the vertical stratification within the German VET system. This is the focus of this study. Our analysis shows that the VET system, like the German school system, is highly…

  13. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  14. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching German in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. German is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  15. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  16. Sensing properties of germanate and tellurite glass optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxia; Lousteau, Joris; Suo, Rui; Jiang, Xin; MacPherson, William N.; Bookey, Henry T.; Barton, James S.; Kar, Ajoy K.; Zhang, Lin; Jha, Animesh; Bennion, Ian

    2009-10-01

    Strain and thermal sensitivities of germanate and tellurite glass fibres were measured using a fibre Fabry-Perot (FFP) interferometer and fibre Bragg gratings (FBG). The strain phase sensitivity for germanate and tellurite fibre were 5900×103 rad/m and 5600×103 rad/m respectively at a central wavelength of 1540nm using FFP interferometer, which is consistent with the value of 1.22pm/μɛ obtained for a germanate fibre FBG. The Young's modulus for germanate and tellurite fibre were also measured to be 58GPa and 37GPa. The thermal responses of germanate fibre were examined as 24.71 and 16.80 pm/°C at 1540nm and 1033nm wavelength using the FBG.

  17. East German children's and adolescents' friendship and moral reasoning before and after German reunification.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship concept) as well as their moral decisions and reasoning in a friendship dilemma. Overall, results show that in 2005, East German participants referred to normative and interpersonal-altruistic-empathic concerns significantly more often than participants interviewed in 1990. Reference to relationship concerns decreased from 1990 to 2005. With few exceptions, these cohort effects were equally found in younger (children) and older (adolescents) age groups. PMID:23264994

  18. Graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Armin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses both the use of graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930) and the use of handwriting in psychiatric experiments. The examination of handwriting was part of an ensemble of diagnostic tools. Although disorders of handwriting seemed to indicate psychic diseases, graphology did not seem the right method to produce valid observations. Nevertheless, psychiatrists began to incorporate the process of writing into research and diagnosis and to make the process of handwriting an experimental field. Emil Kraepelin invented an apparatus - the so-called Writing-Scale - with which he could measure the dynamics of writing in various dimensions and, in particular, the pressure of movements. The experiments produced a huge amount of data, but the psychiatrists were unable to interpret them in a comprehensible way. Although psychiatrists failed to grasp the psychopathology in handwriting, they discovered a systemic behaviour of the organism controlled by feedback. PMID:27160214

  19. [Common German language nomenclature for systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Aringer, M; Müller-Ladner, U; Burkhardt, H; Distler, J H W; Distler, O; Graninger, W B; Günther, C; Hunzelmann, N; Kiener, H; Sticherling, M; Sunderkötter, C; Walker, U A; Riemekasten, G

    2015-03-01

    Large data bases and the projects arising from them have led to a much improved understanding of systemic sclerosis over the last decade. Serology has developed further so that more autoantibodies are available for routine testing. Capillary microscopy has become standard and relevant progress has also been made in therapy. Many diagnostic terms found in medical documentation do not adequately reflect this progress. The nomenclature is inconsistent and, therefore, confusing. The international classification of diseases (ICD) nomenclature is, from our point of view, also in need of improvement. This article aims to reestablish a common German language standard for systemic sclerosis, which reflects current knowledge and is suitable for implementation in the clinical routine.

  20. [Aphakia in a German Holstein calf].

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Kuiper, H; Schmidtbauer, S; Wohlsein, P; Krause, A; Haas, L; Distl, O

    2006-09-01

    Aphakia and further malformations of both eyes were diagnosed in a female German Holstein calf. Besides aphakia of the left eye, the calf exhibited microphthalmia, glaucoma and a hypoplastic uveoscleral tissue. Additional findings in the right eye were buphthalmus and glaucoma. Instead of aphakia, pathohistological and investigations revealed a very small (microphakia) and luxated lens. Neither the clinical nor the pathological examination revealed further malformations of other organs. A BVD infection could be excluded as cause for the ocular malformations observed. A deficiency or excess of vitamine A was unlikely because this would have also applied to all other calves born at the same time on the farm. An inbreeding coefficient of 3.168% for the malformed calf and the exclusion of environmental causes for these malformations of the eyes let us suppose a hereditary problem.

  1. [Quality of German medical services: a review].

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Robbers, J; Lakomek, H-J

    2016-02-01

    In the current draft of the law on the reform of the support structures of hospital provision (German Hospital Structure Law) the future quality of provision is highly significant. Quality assurance measures are mandatory for hospitals. The Federal General Committee was legally charged with developing the relevant quality indicators for structural, procedural and outcome quality that are designed to form the criteria and the basis for planning decisions in the federal states. This involves a paradigm shift in quality assurance measures in hospitals. In the future, subject to the verified quality, this should have an influence on hospital planning, and the funding or regulation of hospital departments should also adhere to this prescribed quality. This review reveals the course of quality or quality assurance measures in medical services in Germany. The status of the institutions responsible for the quality of care in hospitals and the significance of quality indicators are explained. PMID:26744187

  2. German national femtosecond technology project (FST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausinger, Friedrich

    2002-06-01

    The German federal government started the funding of a national project intended to exploit the potential of femtosecond technology. In a forgoing competition five research consortia had been successful and have started now together with an adjoin research consortium their investigations in the following fields: (i) micro-machining of technical materials for microstructuring and drilling, (ii) medical therapy in: ophthalmology, dentistry, neurology and ear surgery, (iii) metrology, (iv) laser safety, (v) x- ray generation. Lasers, systems and technologies required in these potential fields of applications will be investigated. The program aims at industrial success and is dominated by industrial partners, therefore. The more fundamental research is done in university institutes and research centers.

  3. Turks in the FRG and Their German-Language Literature as the Basis for a Fourth-Semester German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veteto-Conrad, Marilya

    1992-01-01

    The topic of minority groups is presented as a subject matter for a fourth-semester college German course combining culture with an introduction to literature. A course on Turks is described and textbook treatment of the topic is reviewed. A list of selected works on and by minorities suitable for German courses is appended. (18 references)…

  4. What History Means to Us: A Comparison of American and German Attitudes toward History. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moltmann, Gunter

    The document presents the text of a speech comparing American and German attitudes toward history, followed by a discussion of issues raised in the speech by conference participants. The first part of the speech identifies aspects of American and German history which are of importance to citizens of each country. American history is characterized…

  5. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  6. Deutsch im Louvre (oder: Deutsch als tote Sprache) (German in the Louvre [or, German as a Dead Language])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwald, Sabine

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for archeologists and art historians, given in the Louvre by the Paris Goethe Institute. Reliance is placed on the students' visual memory, with schematic presentation of pronoun and article declension. This approach sometimes fosters errors and misunderstandings. The verb system is emphasized. (Text is in German.)…

  7. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  8. German Women Today: What Some German Newspapers Say. Inter Nationes Basis-Info 4-2000/Society. In Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Sigrid, Ed.

    This document contains eight articles from German newspapers that feature women who have achieved career success in very diverse economic sectors, while simultaneously highlighting the discrimination and other problems (including lower income, fewer promotions to executive positions, and smaller pensions) that many other German women continue to…

  9. German suffering in the Franco–German War, 1870/71.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christine G

    2011-01-01

    Suffering during the Franco–Prussian War of 1870/71 has to be interpreted in the context of three developments: the willingness to alleviate wartime suffering, which had led to the foundation of the International Red Cross and the Geneva Convention a few years earlier, the industrialization of war, which had enormously increased the efficiency of the weaponry, and the nationalization of war. For many Germans, the outcome of the war justified the wartime suffering, which was often trivialized in the media. The small number of authors who saw the high casualty numbers and the pain of the victims as a warning about the consequences of modern warfare usually belonged to the anti-Prussian opposition. Nationalist euphoria in the face of victory and German unification drowned out such critics, whose patriotism was in doubt. Finally, the remembrance of the war during the Kaiserreich aimed largely at celebrating the triumph of the German army and the foundation of the national state. The glorification of the military was hardly compatible with a detailed description of the misery of the battlefield and the pain of war victims. In 1870/71 and in the subsequent decades, nationalism overwhelmed and eventually excluded a humanitarian narrative. PMID:22141174

  10. German suffering in the Franco–German War, 1870/71.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christine G

    2011-01-01

    Suffering during the Franco–Prussian War of 1870/71 has to be interpreted in the context of three developments: the willingness to alleviate wartime suffering, which had led to the foundation of the International Red Cross and the Geneva Convention a few years earlier, the industrialization of war, which had enormously increased the efficiency of the weaponry, and the nationalization of war. For many Germans, the outcome of the war justified the wartime suffering, which was often trivialized in the media. The small number of authors who saw the high casualty numbers and the pain of the victims as a warning about the consequences of modern warfare usually belonged to the anti-Prussian opposition. Nationalist euphoria in the face of victory and German unification drowned out such critics, whose patriotism was in doubt. Finally, the remembrance of the war during the Kaiserreich aimed largely at celebrating the triumph of the German army and the foundation of the national state. The glorification of the military was hardly compatible with a detailed description of the misery of the battlefield and the pain of war victims. In 1870/71 and in the subsequent decades, nationalism overwhelmed and eventually excluded a humanitarian narrative.

  11. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages.

  12. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  13. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  14. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2014-05-01

    Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

  15. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices.

  16. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices. PMID:27364622

  17. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  18. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages. PMID:26677644

  19. Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Rabukhin, A.I.

    1995-11-01

    Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of lead - bismuth - germanate glasses with compositions from virtually the entire range of glass formation in the system PbO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GeO{sub 2} are investigated. Partial elastooptic coefficients of the oxide ingredients of the investigated glasses are determined. The results are interpreted with consideration of the nature of the elastooptic interaction in glasses subjected to uniaxial stress. The data can be used for designing compositions of optical media for the light and acoustic lines of acoustooptical devices.

  20. Fatal copper storage disease of the liver in a German infant resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Müller-Höcker, J; Weiss, M; Meyer, U; Schramel, P; Wiebecke, B; Belohradsky, B H; Hübner, G

    1987-01-01

    A female child of non-consanguineous, healthy German parents fell ill at the age of 7 months with a progressive liver disease leading to irreversible hepatic failure 3 months later. Histological examination revealed severe liver cell necrosis, excessive Mallory body formation and veno-occlusive-like changes associated with massive storage of copper, similar to Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC). Chronic copper contamination of drinking water was the only detectable aetiological factor. The study illustrates that ICC most probably is an environmental disease, also occurring outside the Indian subcontinent, and is likely to be underdiagnosed in the Western world. PMID:3114948

  1. Psychohistory before Hitler: early military analyses of German national psychology.

    PubMed

    Bendersky, J W

    1988-04-01

    As part of a grandiose post-World War I psychological project to predict the behavior of nations, the U.S. Military Intelligence Division (MID) utilized racial and social psychological theories to explain an alleged problematic German national character. Though unsuccessful, this project has major significance in the history of psychohistory. For the newly discovered MID files reveal that ideas, attitudes, and biases many psychohistorians subsequently identified as manifestations of a peculiar German national character had previously been held by American officers and reputable psychologists. What American analysts would, in 1940, view as symptoms of a maladjusted German mind, their predecessors had, in 1920, considered valid scientific concepts.

  2. Statistical properties of German Dax and Chinese indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, T.; Zheng, B.; Ren, F.; Trimper, S.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate statistical properties of the German Dax and Chinese indices, including the volatility distribution, autocorrelation function, DFA function and return-volatility correlation function, with both the daily data and minutely data. At the minutely time scale, the Chinese indices may show irregular dynamic behavior. At the daily time scale, the volatility distribution, autocorrelation function and DFA function of the Chinese indices are qualitatively similar to those of the German Dax, while the return-volatility correlation function exhibits an anti-leverage effect, different from the leverage effect of the German Dax.

  3. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser: Tuning And Q-switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J.; DeYoung, R. J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2007-01-01

    A Tm:germanate fiber laser produced >0.25 mJ/pulse in a 45 ns pulse. It is capable of producing multiple Q-switched pulses from a single p ump pulse. With the addition of a diffraction grating, Tm:germanate f iber lasers produced a wide, but length dependent, tuning range. By s electing the fiber length, the tuning range extends from 1.88 to 2.04 ?m. These traits make Tm:germanate lasers suitable for remote sensin g of water vapor.

  4. German experiments developed for reentry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Hald, H.; Koppenwallner, G.; Speckmann, H.-D.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of reentry technology it is essential that the knowledge gained from ground test facilities and numerical methods is tested and broadened in real reentry flights. The first of such projects was the space reentry capsule EXPRESS, which was designed as a German—Japanese enterprise for both microgravity research and reentry experiments. The capsule was built by the Russian company DB Saljut as part of the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and modified by DASA. The capsule was launched from Kagoshima by a Japanese M-3 SII rocket in January 1995. Due to a failure of the rocket, the nominal orbital altitude could not be reached, which led to an early reentry of the capsule in Ghana after two and a half orbits. In the stagnation region of the reentry module an experiment was planned with a fibre reinforced ceramic tile of 300 mm in diameter integrated in the ablative heat shield. This experiment, called "CETEX", was designed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) in Stuttgart. The aim of CETEX is to qualify lightweight fibre reinforced ceramics and related structural concepts in terms of heat shield applications for space vehicles as well as to compare the erosion behaviour shown in flight experiments and ground tests. An integral part of the CETEX experiment is the PYREX experiment of the University of Stuttgart. With PYREX a pyrometer shall be qualified, which is designed for high precision temperature measurement of heat shield materials made of fibre reinforced ceramic compounds during the reentry phase of space vehicles and probes. A third German experiment, RAFLEX, projected by Hyperschall Technologie Göttingen (HTG), was also integrated in the CETEX tile. RAFLEX is designed for the measurement of dynamic and static pressures and heat transfer at various positions on the EXPRESS capsule. Two small SiC tubes are fed through the CETEX tile for the RAFLEX and RTEX experiments. RTEX is a Japanese spectroscopy

  5. Merging managed care with the German model.

    PubMed

    Weil, T P

    1997-01-01

    Since public officials in the United States may lack the courage and political will to significantly raise payroll taxes or the contain Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid benefits, Americans can anticipate that; (a) future generations increasingly will pay for these entitlements; (b) additional cutbacks to providers in Medicare, Medicaid and health maintenance organization reimbursement will hasten the current thrust of hospitals, physicians and insurers in forming huge health networks with their powerful managed care plans; and, (c) many of these new alliances will function as virtual monopolies--eventually resulting in the public proposing that state health services commissions be established. This article then suggests that future modifications in how the United States health delivery system be organized and financed preferably should be along the lines of the German multi-player, multi-tier, self-governing, decentralized, quasi-private, quasi-public model; and, also patterned after experiences of the State of Arizona's Medicaid program. It concludes that what America needs most is a hybrid of the European global budgetary targets to constrain total health expenditures, and the competitive managed care concept to curtail use patterns and to enhance quality.

  6. Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2003-04-01

    Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

  7. Diffuse atrazine pollution in German aquifers.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Wolfgang; Groeneweg, Joost; Jantsch, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Until its prohibition in Germany in 1991, atrazine was the most frequently applied herbicide in maize cultivation. Moreover, it was used in orchards and vineyards and as a total herbicide on non-cultivated grounds (railways, factory grounds). Later on, atrazine was substituted mainly by terbutylazine. Terbutylazine and terbutryn are the only s-triazines presently permitted in Germany. Nevertheless, atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine are by far the most abundant herbicides detected in near surface groundwater. This might be due to wash-outs from the pools of atrazine and its metabolites from the soil into the groundwater or continuing illegal applications. Samples taken from maize fields in 1994 showed that 6.2% of 471 fields tested were treated with atrazine despite the prohibition of its use. Nevertheless, the overall trend is in fact a slow decrease in atrazine concentrations where it is detected in groundwater and, simultaneously often a slight increase in desethylatrazine concentrations. But this is not the case for all sampling points, and increasing concentrations in several aquifers are observed as well. Factors governing the adsorption, degradation, persistence and the possible transfer into the aquifer and the current situation concerning atrazine occurrence in German aquifers will be discussed.

  8. Early German plans for southern observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  9. Voice modulations in German ironic speech.

    PubMed

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech,and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German 'ironic criticism' that may possibly act as irony cues by comparing acoustic measures of ironic and literal speech. For this purpose, samples of scripted ironic and literal target utterances produced by 14 female speakers were recorded and acoustically analyzed. Results showed that in contrast to literal remarks, ironic criticism was characterized by a decreased mean fundamental frequency (F0), raised energy levels and increased vowel duration, whereas F0-contours differed only marginally between both speech types. Furthermore, we found ironic speech to be characterized by vowel hyperarticulation,an acoustic feature which has so far not been considered as a possible irony cue. Contrary to our expectations, voice modulations in ironic speech were applied independently from the availability of additional, visual irony cues.The results are discussed in light of previous findings on acoustic features of irony yielded for other languages.

  10. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface.

  11. [Intonational phonology of Basel German (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pilch, H

    1977-01-01

    This paper attempts a new departure both in German dialectology and in phonemic analysis: (i) It is based on an open corpus of spontaneous, colloquial speech. (ii) The segmentals (phonemes and clusters) are integrated into the hierarchy of supra-segmentals (syllable types, shape types, intonation contours). (iii) Phonemic variability is recognized within the dialect. Its major isoglosses are restated in terms of phoneme correlations. (iv) Certain unstressed words do occur in isolation. (v) Vowel length is recognized as redundant, but the difference between the dental /t/ and the alveolar /ţ/ is distinctive. (vi) The inventories of stressed and unstressed vowels differ radically, the unstressed suffixes containing the vowels /i e/ only. (vii) The peripheral status is analyzed of the aspirates (other than /kh/), of the affricates /ţs kchi/, and of the lenis /t s eta/, but none of these phonemes is limited to loanwords. (viii) The fusion is analyzed of adjacent stops in initial k- and ţ-clusters. PMID:594157

  12. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. PMID:23178772

  13. German Newsreels: A New Approach to FL Relevancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimler, G. Richard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the instructional use of a German Government produced newsreel, Deutschlandspiegel,'' at Fordham University, New York City. For information on availability of this newsreel, contact the AATG Service Center, 339 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. (RS)

  14. 32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH IN CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. 34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET DESIGN TEAM SHORTLY AFTER THEIR ARRIVAL AT THE REDSTONE ARSENAL IN 1950. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Aspects of the Romance-Germanic Language Border: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffers-Daller, Jeanine; Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of the journal. Articles cover the geographical length of of the Romance-Germanic border, from French Flanders in the northwest to South Tyrol in the Southeast. (Author/VWL)

  17. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  18. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  19. German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Ploetz, Christian; Kluegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins contributed to the IVS observing program with four observation sessions. Maintenance and upgrades were made, and a new replacement dewar is under construction in the observatory at Yebes, Spain.

  20. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...

  1. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  2. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Photos Recommend ...

  3. German Experts' Views and Ideas about Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Kristina; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reflects ideas about the Internet presented by four German experts: possibilities and applications of chemistry; environmental informatics and documentation on the World Wide Web; views of a research-oriented pharmaceutical company; and the commercialization of the Internet. (LRW)

  4. Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

  5. Testing Language, Testing Ethnicity? Policies and Practices Surrounding the Ethnic German "Aussiedler"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schupbach, Doris

    2009-01-01

    "Aussiedler" are ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries who are granted the right to resettle in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) if they can provide evidence of German ancestry, attachment to the German language and culture, and ongoing assertion of German ethnicity. This article outlines the…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Prosodic Cues to Syntactic Disambiguation in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Jackson, Carrie N.; Gardner, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether late-learning English-German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German-English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English-German L2 learners and German-English L2 learners used a…

  7. German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

  8. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  9. D-1 report: The first German spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Introduction of a new popular magazine on the DI mission, the first West German Space mission. The DI project office publishes the magazine. The German sponsored astronauts are to study the gravitational effects of reduced gravity on the human generated processes of the environment. Other areas of concern are boundary surface and transport phenomena, physical chemisty and process engineering, metals and composite materials, and single crystals.

  10. Do listeners recover "deleted" final /t/ in German?

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Frank; Reetz, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Reduction and deletion processes occur regularly in conversational speech. A segment that is affected by such reduction and deletion processes in many Germanic languages (e.g., Dutch, English, German) is /t/. There are similarities concerning the factors that influence the likelihood of final /t/ to get deleted, such as segmental context. However, speakers of different languages differ with respect to the acoustic cues they leave in the speech signal when they delete final /t/. German speakers usually lengthen a preceding /s/ when they delete final /t/. This article investigates to what extent German listeners are able to reconstruct /t/ when they are presented with fragments of words where final /t/ has been deleted. It aims also at investigating whether the strategies that are used by German depend on the length of /s/, and therefore whether listeners are using language-specific cues. Results of a forced-choice segment detection task suggest that listeners are able to reconstruct deleted final /t/ in about 45% of the times. The length of /s/ plays some role in the reconstruction, however, it does not explain the behavior of German listeners completely.

  11. Do listeners recover “deleted” final /t/ in German?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerer, Frank; Reetz, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Reduction and deletion processes occur regularly in conversational speech. A segment that is affected by such reduction and deletion processes in many Germanic languages (e.g., Dutch, English, German) is /t/. There are similarities concerning the factors that influence the likelihood of final /t/ to get deleted, such as segmental context. However, speakers of different languages differ with respect to the acoustic cues they leave in the speech signal when they delete final /t/. German speakers usually lengthen a preceding /s/ when they delete final /t/. This article investigates to what extent German listeners are able to reconstruct /t/ when they are presented with fragments of words where final /t/ has been deleted. It aims also at investigating whether the strategies that are used by German depend on the length of /s/, and therefore whether listeners are using language-specific cues. Results of a forced-choice segment detection task suggest that listeners are able to reconstruct deleted final /t/ in about 45% of the times. The length of /s/ plays some role in the reconstruction, however, it does not explain the behavior of German listeners completely. PMID:25101016

  12. "deutsche Sprache, gute Sprache...": Minorities in Germany and Their German-Language Literature for Upper-Division German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veteto-Conrad, Marilya

    1997-01-01

    Describes how the topic of minorities and minority literature can be integrated into an upper-division German course. Presents materials and approaches used in a recent fourth-year model minicourse. (28 references) (Author/CK)

  13. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

  14. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  15. Attitudes of Germans towards distributive issues in the German health system.

    PubMed

    Ahlert, Marlies; Pfarr, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Social health care systems are inevitably confronted with the scarcity of resources and the resulting distributional challenges. Since prioritization implies distributional effects, decisions regarding respective rules should take citizens' preferences into account. In this study we concentrate on two distributive issues in the German health system: firstly, we analyze the acceptance of prioritizing decisions concerning the treatment of certain patient groups, in this case patients who all need a heart operation. We focus on the patient criteria smoking behavior, age and whether the patient has or does not have young children. Secondly, we investigate Germans' opinions towards income-dependent health services. The results reveal the strong effects of individuals' attitudes regarding general aspects of the health system on priorities, e.g. that individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle should not be prioritized. In addition, experience of limited access to health services is found to have a strong influence on citizens' attitudes, too. Finally, decisions on different prioritization criteria are found to be not independent.

  16. Attitudes of Germans towards distributive issues in the German health system.

    PubMed

    Ahlert, Marlies; Pfarr, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Social health care systems are inevitably confronted with the scarcity of resources and the resulting distributional challenges. Since prioritization implies distributional effects, decisions regarding respective rules should take citizens' preferences into account. In this study we concentrate on two distributive issues in the German health system: firstly, we analyze the acceptance of prioritizing decisions concerning the treatment of certain patient groups, in this case patients who all need a heart operation. We focus on the patient criteria smoking behavior, age and whether the patient has or does not have young children. Secondly, we investigate Germans' opinions towards income-dependent health services. The results reveal the strong effects of individuals' attitudes regarding general aspects of the health system on priorities, e.g. that individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle should not be prioritized. In addition, experience of limited access to health services is found to have a strong influence on citizens' attitudes, too. Finally, decisions on different prioritization criteria are found to be not independent. PMID:26013279

  17. "Bildung" or the formation of the psychoanalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Ji

    2003-01-01

    As a number of Sigmund Freud's patients and followers in the crucial formative years of psychoanalysis were from the German- and Austrian-Jewish educated class, and as the then prestigious humanistic tradition was considered essential for the formation of analysts, the paper gives a historical account of various discourses of "Bildung"so as to explain the particularity of the Freudian psychoanalyst. Amongst others, his humanistic aspirations are compared with Thomas Mann's re-examination of the tradition of "Bildung." It is argued that Freud's specific cultural milieu -- the German-Jewish assimilation -- conditioned the form his psychological knowledge adopted and the way the analyst was fashioned: the demand of breaking away from one's alienating individuality by the objectifying effect of a symbolic system. The Freudian ideals of purity and neutrality, the Freudian method of self-formation, and the Freudian expert subject thus produced were historically and culturally determined and thus subject to variation.

  18. [The German research network for mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U

    2016-09-01

    support for a German center for mental disorders. PMID:27439991

  19. Cognitive Control in Russian–German Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual speakers are faced with the problem to keep their languages apart, but do so with interindividually varying success. Cognitive control abilities might be an important factor to explain such interindividual differences. Here we compare two late, balanced and highly proficient bilingual groups (mean age 24 years, L1 Russian, L2 German) which were established according to their language control abilities on a bilingual picture-naming task. One group had difficulties to remain in the instructed target language and switched unintentionally to the non-target language (“switchers”), whereas the other group rarely switched unintentionally (“non-switchers”). This group-specific behavior could not be explained by language background, socio-cultural, or demographic variables. Rather, the non-switchers also demonstrated a faster and better performance on four cognitive control tests (Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Test, Divided Attention, Go/Nogo). Here, we focus on two additional executive function tasks, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Flanker task requiring conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Non-switchers outperformed switchers with regard to speed and accuracy, and were better at finding and applying the correct rules in the WCST. Similarly, in the Flanker task non-switchers performed faster and better on conflict trials and had a higher correction rate following an error. Event-related potential recordings furthermore revealed a smaller error-related negativity in the non-switchers, taken as evidence for a more efficient self-monitoring system. We conclude that bilingual language performance, in particular switching behavior, is related to performance on cognitive control tasks. Better cognitive control, including conflict monitoring, results in decreased unintentional switching. PMID:22529831

  20. German experience with the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, I.

    1988-04-01

    Results of radioactivity measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany after the reactor accident Chernobyl are presented. A few days after the accident the radioactive plume passed the southeastern part of the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany on April 30, 1986. The results of the measuring program for the determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides in air are given. This program included gamma measurements of particulate and iodine filter samples as well as radiochemical analyses for the determination of strontium isotopes and alpha emitting nuclides. Furthermore measurements of the activity distribution of particulates and autoradiography on aerosol filter samples were carried out. An intensive program on soil contamination measurements using both in situ gamma ray spectrometry and soil samples covered the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany. The results gave evidence that the soil contamination reached the highest values in the south and decreased significantly towards the north and the west of the Federal Republic of Germany. The foodstuff measuring program led to a comprehensive survey of the development of the contamination of fruit, vegetables, grains, milk and milk products, animal products and mushrooms. The results are compared to whole body counting measurements. The recommendations given by the German Radiation Protection Committee are described. Based on the collected data, the Germany Radiation Protection Committee has made an estimate of the radiation exposure to the public for the first year after the Chernobyl accident. For the Munich area the effective dose equivalent is 0.3-0.9 mSv for children and 0.2-0.5 mSv for adults.

  1. Cognitive control in Russian-german bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual speakers are faced with the problem to keep their languages apart, but do so with interindividually varying success. Cognitive control abilities might be an important factor to explain such interindividual differences. Here we compare two late, balanced and highly proficient bilingual groups (mean age 24 years, L1 Russian, L2 German) which were established according to their language control abilities on a bilingual picture-naming task. One group had difficulties to remain in the instructed target language and switched unintentionally to the non-target language ("switchers"), whereas the other group rarely switched unintentionally ("non-switchers"). This group-specific behavior could not be explained by language background, socio-cultural, or demographic variables. Rather, the non-switchers also demonstrated a faster and better performance on four cognitive control tests (Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Test, Divided Attention, Go/Nogo). Here, we focus on two additional executive function tasks, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Flanker task requiring conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Non-switchers outperformed switchers with regard to speed and accuracy, and were better at finding and applying the correct rules in the WCST. Similarly, in the Flanker task non-switchers performed faster and better on conflict trials and had a higher correction rate following an error. Event-related potential recordings furthermore revealed a smaller error-related negativity in the non-switchers, taken as evidence for a more efficient self-monitoring system. We conclude that bilingual language performance, in particular switching behavior, is related to performance on cognitive control tasks. Better cognitive control, including conflict monitoring, results in decreased unintentional switching. PMID:22529831

  2. Fairview German Bilingual School: A Successful Model for Elementary-School, Second-Language Learning, Part II. Laying the Foundation: German in the First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Marianne

    The first grade program of the Fairview German Bilingual School, the elementary (K-5) segment of the Cincinnati public school system's German bilingual alternative program, is described. The school provides intensive second-language instruction in German for monolingual English-speaking children with bilingualism as the objective. The school is…

  3. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  4. The reaction of atomic hydrogen with germane - Temperature dependence of the rate constant and implications for germane photochemistry in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.; Payne, Walter A.; Marston, George; Stief, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the formation and loss processes for GeH4 are required in order to provide data to help determine the major chemical form in which germanium exists in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. The reaction of hydrogen atoms with germane is one of the most important of these reactions. The absolute rate constant for this reaction as a function of temperature and pressure is studied. Flash photolysis of dilute mixtures of GeH4 in argon, combined with time-resolved detection of H atoms via Lyman alpha resonance fluorescence, is employed to measure the reaction rate. The reaction is shown to be moderately rapid, independent of total pressure, but possessing a positive temperature dependence.

  5. The reaction of atomic hydrogen with germane - Temperature dependence of the rate constant and implications for germane photochemistry in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A.; Marston, G.; Stief, L. J.

    1993-03-01

    Studies of the formation and loss processes for GeH4 are required in order to provide data to help determine the major chemical form in which germanium exists in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. The reaction of hydrogen atoms with germane is one of the most important of these reactions. The absolute rate constant for this reaction as a function of temperature and pressure is studied. Flash photolysis of dilute mixtures of GeH4 in argon, combined with time-resolved detection of H atoms via Lyman alpha resonance fluorescence, is employed to measure the reaction rate. The reaction is shown to be moderately rapid, independent of total pressure, but possessing a positive temperature dependence.

  6. Captives of Their Fantasies: The German Atomic Bomb Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Irving M.

    1997-02-01

    When the Nazi government collapsed in May, 1945, an Allied intelligence mission took into custody nine of the German scientists who played key roles in the German atomic bomb project. Under great secrecy these men were confined in a large country house, Farm Hall, near Cambridge (England), and their conversations were recorded surreptitiously by hidden microphones in every room. The transcripts were kept TOP SECRET for 47 years and were finally released recently. They give fascinating insights into the personalities of the guests and invaluable information on what the Germans really understood about the physics and chemistry of a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb. The Farm Hall transcripts clearly establish that (a) the Germans on August 6, 1945 did not believe that the Allies had exploded an atomic bomb over Hiroshima that day; (b) they never succeeded in constructing a self-sustaining nuclear reactor; (c) they were confused about the differences between an atomic bomb and a reactor; (d) they did not know how to correctly calculate the critical mass of a bomb; (e) they thought that "plutonium" was probably element 91. The Farm Hall transcripts contradict the self-serving and sensationalist writings about German efforts that have appeared during the past fifty years.

  7. German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

  8. A personal exploration of the German hospice system.

    PubMed

    Farnon, C

    1996-01-01

    While on vacation in Germany, I explored the German hospice system and its differences from that in the United States. I conducted an informal survey asking 10 individuals who were not associated with hospice work, about end-of-life issues. Knowledge of the hospice movement and of advance directives was found to be quite low. Through contact with German hospice associations, I learned that the modern German hospice movement was inspired by the British example. After a difficult beginning, the German hospice system is growing steadily. Professional providers of end-of-life care are paid according to the traditional fee-for-service system. As suggested by the World Health Organization, pain management is provided according to the three-step analgesic ladder. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal as it is in the United States. A federal self-determination law has not yet been enacted. Overall, the German hospice system has many similarities and a few interesting dissimilarities with that in the United States. PMID:8850817

  9. Prosodic constraints on inflected words: an area of difficulty for German-speaking children with specific language impairment?

    PubMed

    Kauschke, Christina; Renner, Lena; Domahs, Ulrike

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that morphosyntactic difficulties may result from prosodic problems. We therefore address the interface between inflectional morphology and prosody in typically developing children (TD) and children with SLI by testing whether these groups are sensitive to prosodic constraints that guide plural formation in German. A plural elicitation task was designed consisting of 60 words and 20 pseudowords. The performance of 14 German-speaking children with SLI (mean age 7.5) was compared to age-matched controls and to younger children matched for productive vocabulary. TD children performed significantly better than children with SLI. Error analyses revealed that children with SLI produced more forms that did not meet the optimal shape of a noun plural. Beyond the fact that children with SLI have deficits in plural marking, the findings suggest that they also show reduced sensitivity to prosodic requirements. In other words, the prosodic structure of inflected words seems to be vulnerable in children with SLI.

  10. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    PubMed

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  11. The acquisition of plural marking in English and German revisited: schemata versus rules.

    PubMed

    Köpcke, K M

    1998-06-01

    This article contributes to a debate in the linguistic and psychological literature that centres around the representation of morphologically complex words in the grammar and in the lexicon. The issue is whether inflectional morphology is rule-based (i.e. symbolically represented), or whether the assumption of pattern association is more adequate to account for the facts. On the basis of the analysis of acquisitional data the article strongly argues for the latter alternative. In a classic experiment that helped shape the development of acquisition theory Berko (1958) reported substantial support for ITEM-AND-PROCESS rules in the acquisition of plural morphology in English. A large part of her results were zero responses (repetition of the stimulus). A reinterpretation of these zero responses in light of schema theory and the cue strength hypothesis shows a striking departure from randomness. Berko's subjects tended to repeat stimuli just to the extent that these already resembled a plural schema. A reinterpretation of data reported in Innes (1974) achieved compatible results. This data set is far more extensive than Berko's and is used in the present study to put the schema model to a more stringent test. A reinterpretation of a parallel experiment with German children, using the cue strength analysis of the more complex plural morphology of German yielded parallel results. Finally, natural acquisitional data obtained from seven German speaking children aged between 2;1 and 2;9 are analysed. Again, strong support is found for the schema model. It is suggested that a schema-learning mechanism may underlie the acquisition of morphology, even when the end product of the learning process involves item-and-process rules, as in the case of English plural formation. In a schema-learning model, the child builds schematic representations for possible singular and plural lexical items as whole gestalts, and attempts to map concrete forms onto these schemata in deciding

  12. What's science? Where's science? Science journalism in German print media.

    PubMed

    Summ, Annika; Volpers, Anna-Maria

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the current state of science coverage in German print media. It deals with the following questions: (1) how the main characteristics of science journalism can be described, (2) whether there is a difference between various scientific fields, and (3) how different definitions of science journalism lead to differing findings. Two forms of science coverage were analyzed in a standardized, two-part content analysis of German newspapers (N = 1730 and N = 1640). The results show a significant difference between a narrow and a broad definition of science journalism. In the classic understanding, science journalism is prompted by scientific events and is rather noncritical. Science coverage in a broad sense is defined by a wider range of journalistic styles, driven by non-scientific events, and with a focus on the statements of scientific experts. Furthermore, the study describes the specific role of the humanities and social sciences in German science coverage.

  13. Germane photochemistry. Photolysis of gas mixtures of planetary interest.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, J C; Lassalle, L; Janati, T

    1995-01-01

    Photolysis of germane (GeH4) in the presence of acetylene (C2H2), propyne (C3H4) or phosphine (PH3) with a 185 nm mercury lamp has been studied. The volatile products formed in these reactions are characterized by 1H, 31P and 13C NMR. Vinylgermanes are the first reaction products formed in the photolysis of GeH4 with alkynes. A reaction pathway is proposed. The initial step is the dissociation of germane 1 to hydrogen and GeH3 radicals. Addition of the germyl radical on alkyne is proposed as the next step. Vinyl-germanes are then formed by radical combination. Photolysis of ethenylgermane 2 gives diethenylgermane 3 in the presence of acetylene and digermaethane 4 in the presence of GeH4. The application of these findings to Jovian and Saturn atmospheric chemistry is discussed. PMID:11538440

  14. [Medical rehabilitation. Basic function of the German pension insurance].

    PubMed

    Korsukéwitz, C; Irle, H

    2010-10-01

    Medical rehabilitation is an important part of the German health care system in addition to medical and nursing care. For people with impairments, especially with chronic diseases, rehabilitation aims at emancipated participation in social life. The German pension insurance carries out rehabilitation mainly for gainfully employed people. To be entitled to these benefits legal and personal (medical) requirements must be fulfilled. The rehabilitation concepts of the German pension insurance are interdisciplinary, following the bio-psycho-social model of health and illness. Concepts of rehabilitation are presented exemplarily for musculoskeletal, oncologic, heart/circulation, metabolic/gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases as well as mental disorders. Elements of structure, process, and outcome quality are illustrated. Research topics in rehabilitation are presented.

  15. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  16. Rubella and congenital rubella (German measles).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Rubella, also known as German measles, is usually a very mild infection that can have devastating effects in certain instances. It is a pleomorphic RNA virus in the Togaviridae family of the genus Rubivirus. It typically causes a scarletiniform rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, and mild constitutional symptoms, but in older children and adults, especially women, it may be more severe, with joint involvement and purpuric rash. Infection during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy results in congenital infection and/or miscarriage in 80-90% of cases. The congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) involves multiple organ systems and has a long period of active infection and virus shedding in the postnatal period. For these reasons, the rubella vaccine program was instituted in 1969, and the incidence of rubella infection in the United States has since declined by 99%. Rubella has been recognized as a disease for approximately 200 years, and it has since been found that humans are the only natural reservoir for the rubella virus. Virus is present in nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, feces, and urine during the clinical illness, although patients with subclinical disease are also infectious. The virus is spread via oral droplets and is shed in the nasopharynx for approximately 7 days before and after the rash is visible. CRS includes a configuration of anomalies, including nerve deafness, cataracts, cardiac anomalies (usually pulmonary artery and valvular stenosis, and patent ductus arteriosis), and mental retardation, with late complications including diabetes, thyroid disease, growth hormone deficiency, and progressive panencephalitis. In 1969, the first rubella vaccine was licensed for use, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began its National Congenital Rubella Syndrome Registry. As required under the National Childhood Injury Act, all healthcare providers in the United States who administer any vaccine shall, prior to administration of the vaccine, provide a

  17. Dimensions of self-leadership: a German replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Müller, Güonter F

    2006-10-01

    In a sample of 167 German students three dimensions of self-leadership, i.e., constructive thoughts, natural reward creation, and proactive behavior, were replicated as when scale values of a German self-leadership questionnaire were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis very satisfactory fit-indices were obtained. In addition, dimensions of self-leadership correlated with entrepreneurial trait disposition (multiple R=0.46, p < .01), and entrepreneurial job orientation (multiple R=0.23, p < .05). Conclusions for further research and practical applications are discussed.

  18. [Stress in German schools: frequencies, causes and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    An overview about studies on academic stress is given, including anxiety before examinations, decrease in achievement, bad grades as well as aggression and rivalry among pupils. Finding on several studies are reported, including German adolescents (N=1393) and adolescents from 18 countries (N=9778), who have been investigated with respect to school-related problems. German pupils exhibited a mean level in academic stress. However, clinically disturbed adolescents (N=77) reported the highest levels in academic stress, compared to non-conspicuous adolescents. PMID:18361182

  19. A legal framework for biobanking: the German experience.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jürgen; Paslack, Rainer; Robienski, Jürgen; Cooper, David N; Goebel, Jürgen W; Krawczak, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Although biobanks are vital for modern medical research, serious concerns have been raised about the legal basis and framework of such endeavours. This led the German 'Telematics Platform for Medical Research Networks' ('Telematikplattform für Medizinische Forschungsnetze', TMF) to initiate a project in 2004 that was designed to place German biobanks on a sound legal footing. This project involved the planning, writing and evaluation of an expert report that addresses in great detail the legal issues concerning property rights, medical professional regulations, general liability insurance, resource continuity and research secrecy. Here, we provide a brief summary of the major results of this project.

  20. Max Planck and the ``black year'' of German physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1994-12-01

    1994 is the hundredth anniversary of what Max Planck described in 1935 as the ``black year'' of German physics. In the eight months between January 1st and September 8th 1894, Heinrich Hertz, August Kundt, and Hermann von Helmholtz died. This article reviews the lives of these three important physicists, their research contributions, and their unique positions in the German physics community. In conclusion, the relationships of these three physicists to Planck are discussed, and Planck's evaluation of the impact of 1894 on physics in Germany is appraised from our perspective of one hundred years.

  1. Correlation between thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C.L.

    1985-02-01

    Thermoluminescence properties of bismuth germanate and their relationship to radiation damage characteristics have been investigated. Thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate display several similar properties including similar responses as a function of radiation dose, similar saturation levels, and similar decay times. Also a correlation was found between the thermoluminescence sensitivities and radiation damage sensitivities of four different crystals. The traps responsible for the radiation damage and those which store the thermoluminescence signal appear to be either closely related or actually the same traps. Four trapping centers can be seen in the thermoluminescence glow curves. The depth of the dominant trap is 1.1 eV. 10 references.

  2. The role of tonal onglides in German nuclear pitch accents.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Simon; Grice, Martine

    2015-03-01

    A perception experiment with native German listeners provided evidence for the relevance of the tonal onglide in nuclear accents--the pitch movement leading towards the target on the accented syllable. Listeners were able to distinguish between two pragmatic meanings of a short phrase (given/non-contrastive and new/contrastive) using the tonal onglide as the sole acoustic cue. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the onglide merits a phonological status in an intonation model of German and should not be regarded as merely phonetic detail. PMID:25935940

  3. [German stem-cell law: content and critique].

    PubMed

    Simon, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The author analyzes in this work the new German Stem Cells Act, approved by the German Parliament on 10 of May 2002. In this law it is prohibited with general character the investigation with stem cells of embryonic origin, although it is allowed under certain very strict requirements. The conflict that arises among a very strict protection of the embryo, such and like it happens in the present law, and the constitutional right to scientific investigation is also analyzed, a reference to the derivative problems of the lack of clarity of some articles of the law is also made.

  4. How can we improve informatics education for German nurses? Statements derived from the first German nursing informatics summer school.

    PubMed

    Bürkle, T; Schrader, U

    1999-01-01

    For German nurses it is difficult to join training in health informatics besides their professional activity. The authors have successfully established a German nursing informatics summer school in shape of a 5 day intensive curriculum which they offer to German nurses during the summer holidays. The summer school introduces nurses into health informatics and nursing informatics. It targets interested nursing staff, nurse executives, and nurse teachers. It promotes self learning abilities for continued self education of the participants. One of its goals is to enable participants to formulate their own requirements in health information processing and to influence system design and system introduction. The paper presents the curriculum, talks about first experiences, and demonstrates the results of an evaluation among the participants. Conclusions are drawn in a set of statements on informatics education of nurses.

  5. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  6. Have “new” methods in medical education reached German-speaking Central Europe: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation-based-training (SBT) in the education of health professionals is discussed as an effective alternative for knowledge and skills enhancement as well as for the establishment of a secure learning environment, for learners and patients. In the Anglo-American region, SBT and simulation and training centers (STC) are numbered as standard for medical training. In German-speaking Central Europe, priority is still given to the establishment of SBT and STC. The purpose of this study was (i) to survey the status quo relating to the existence and facilities of simulation and training centers at medical universities in German-speaking Central Europe and (ii) the evaluation of training methods, especially in the area of emergency medicine skills. Methods All public and private medical universities or medical faculties in Germany (36), Austria (4) and German-speaking Switzerland (3) were interviewed. In the survey, information regarding the existence and facilities of STCs and information with regards to the use of SBT in the area of emergency medicine was requested. The questions were partly posed in a closed-ended-, in an open-ended- and in a multiple choice format (with the possibility of selecting more than one answer). Results Of a total of 43 contacted medical universities/medical faculties, 40 ultimately participated in the survey. As decisive for the establishment of a STC the potential to improve the clinical-practical training and the demand by students were listed. Obligatory training in a STC during the first and sixth academic year was confirmed only by 12 institutions, before the first invasive procedure on patients by 17 institutions. 13 institutions confirmed the use of the STC for the further training of physicians and care-staff. Training for the acute care and emergency medicine skills in the field of pediatrics, for the most part, occurs decentralized. Conclusions New methods in medical training have reached German-speaking Central

  7. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Results Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years) and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years). Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–2.38) in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02) and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43–2.80). The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24–2.07), with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05–1.07) per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40–3.91) in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92–12.49) in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17–2.01). Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04–2.44). The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04–2.11). Conclusions Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only. PMID:23130889

  8. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects. PMID:27027323

  9. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792

  10. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects.

  11. BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF GERMAN TEXT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cave Hill National Cemetery, 701 Baxter Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2005-01-01

    This report updates previous compilations published in this journal. The current listing contains references to 70 dissertations in German language and/or literature, comparative literature, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German.

  13. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    PubMed

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R

    2007-02-01

    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population.

  14. Extraction of UMLS® Concepts Using Apache cTAKES™ for German Language.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthias; Böckmann, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Automatic information extraction of medical concepts and classification with semantic standards from medical reports is useful for standardization and for clinical research. This paper presents an approach for an UMLS concept extraction with a customized natural language processing pipeline for German clinical notes using Apache cTAKES. The objectives are, to test the natural language processing tool for German language if it is suitable to identify UMLS concepts and map these with SNOMED-CT. The German UMLS database and German OpenNLP models extended the natural language processing pipeline, so the pipeline can normalize to domain ontologies such as SNOMED-CT using the German concepts. For testing, the ShARe/CLEF eHealth 2013 training dataset translated into German was used. The implemented algorithms are tested with a set of 199 German reports, obtaining a result of average 0.36 F1 measure without German stemming, pre- and post-processing of the reports.

  15. 77 FR 38374 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Human Beast: German...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Human Beast: German...: German Expressionism at The San Diego Museum of Art'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  16. 75 FR 47337 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “German Impressionist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``German Impressionist Landscape... the exhibition ``German Impressionist Landscape Painting: Liebermann--Corinth--Slevogt,''...

  17. The Structure of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilling, Rainer

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and function of the West-German Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker and its role in the communication and reward system of its discipline. Explores its role in the West German science system, exploring ideology and politics. (JM)

  18. Discrimination of native and non-native vowel contrasts in bilingual Turkish-German and monolingual German children: Insight from the Mismatch Negativity ERP component.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Tanja; Alku, Paavo; Brosch, Sibylle; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The development of native-like memory traces for foreign phonemes can be measured by using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential. Previous studies have shown that the MMN is sensitive to changes in neural organization depending on language experience. Here we measured the MMN response in 5-6year-old monolingual German and bilingual Turkish-German kindergarten children growing up in Germany. MMN was investigated to a German vowel contrast and to a vowel contrast that exists in Turkish and in German. The results show that compared to a German control group, the MMN response is less robust in Turkish-German children to the German vowel contrast. The response to the contrast that exists in both languages does not differ between groups. Overall, the results suggest that the Turkish-German children have not yet fully acquired the German phonetic inventory despite living in Germany since birth and being immersed in a German-speaking environment.

  19. Deans in German Universities: Goal Acceptance and Task Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholkmann, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study which explored how deans at German universities accept their new role as manager, and which factors influence the acceptance of this role. Within a framework referring to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, the acceptance of operative goals implemented in the faculties served as an indicator of how well…

  20. The Importance of Educational Marble Games in Teaching German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: By considering the innovations in the field of communication, the inter-relationship between cultures, and the developments in the world, the Ministry of Education has started to take measures for students to learn languages such as German, French, Russian, Spanish, Japanese, Italian, Arabic, etc., in educational institutions in…

  1. Everyday Pedagogical Practices in Mathematical Play Situations in German "Kindergarten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This study describes situations in German daycare facilities (Kindergarten) in which the development of mathematical thinking in children is specifically encouraged through examination of common play objects. Using micro-sociological methods of analysis, the mathematical potential of such interactions between teacher and child is elaborated within…

  2. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  3. A Workshop Approach to German Literature: Reliving Schiller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire J.

    1976-01-01

    Students' motivation and enjoyment of literature are enhanced if students personally experience situations in the readings through classroom interaction. An experiential approach to teaching German literature is outlined, explaining methods for seeking, gathering and sharing text information; exploring and clarifying values; and assessing the work…

  4. The Institutional Crisis of the German Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Lenhardt, Gero

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing crisis of the German university illustrates the potential difficulties with implementing the emerging global model (EGM) of the new research university in a nation where there is a long tradition of higher education, and where the university and the nation-state have developed together through a historical symbiotic relationship. To…

  5. German History. A Pupils' Competition for the Federal President's Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Borries, Bodo

    The Pupils' Competition for the Federal President's German History Prize is one of the many youth competitions held every year in West Germany and sponsored by government offices, industries, common interest groups, and foundations. In this competition, which draws over 1,000 entries from all age groups, participants are expected to make an…

  6. Strategies for Success: Profiling the Effective Learner of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Identifies the language learning strategies associated with the achievement of higher levels of oral proficiency in German for 100 Irish students about to complete their second year at Dublin City University. Investigates the way in which these strategies are used by those with higher and lower levels of proficiency. (Author/VWL)

  7. Introduction to German: Colors, Numbers, and Body/Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanne; And Others

    This introductory German course guide is intended to be used by classroom teachers in the primary grades. The course and materials are designed for teachers who may not have had any background in the foreign language; the tapescript of each lesson is therefore highly structured. They are intended as an experiential or enrichment component of the…

  8. The German-Romance Language Borders in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Felicity

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on language contact phenomena at the borders of Switzerland's four language communities (German, French, Italian, and Romansch), the legal status of the four Swiss national languages, and the language policies of individual bilingual and trilingual cantons. Describes the historical movements of the language boundaries, with particular…

  9. UNITED STATES/GERMAN TECHNICAL BILATERAL AGREEMENT: PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) entered into a Bilateral Agreement in 1990 to study each country's efforts in developing and demonstrating remedial technologies. The bilateral agreement is being impl...

  10. Non-Company-Based Training: The Eastern German Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Joachim Gerd

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of German vocational students receiving company-based and noncompany-based training found that noncompany-based trainees had relatively poor employment prospects. Possible causes were lack of real-world work experience, differences in occupational structure of training and trainees' entrance qualifications, and employer reluctance to…

  11. [History of German-Baltic relations in medicine].

    PubMed

    Tankler, H; Laschinski, G; Roots, I

    2004-04-30

    Today, the three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have well-known medical faculties with international standing. Their individual histories are briefly outlined. However, relations of the German academic world were closest with the university of Dorpat (today: Tartu). It was re-opened in 1802 by tsar Alexander I in order to keep young Baltic people from studying abroad. The medical faculty was its biggest faculty. The university was Russian, but the official language was German. So many a German professor came to Dorpat and many professors from Dorpat were offered a chair at a German university. The scientific imports connected Dorpat with other centres of West-European science, they brought knowledge and ideas and an exchange of information. The standard was high, and among the teaching staff was a handsome number of medical celebrities, e.g. the anatomist August Rauber and the surgeon Ernst von Bergmann. In Dorpat, Rudolf Buchheim brought a new science, experimental pharmacology, into being, which his pupil and successor, Oswald Schmiedeberg, fully established and propagated all over the world. PMID:15133742

  12. Translating textbooks: Russian, German, and the language of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the 1860s--authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. M. Butlerov, and D. I. Mendeleev--this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.

  13. Out of the Ghetto: German Jews and American Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Gordon R.

    1974-01-01

    Argues that a book by Ismar Schorsch entitled "Jewish Reactions to German Anti-Semitism, 1870-1914" (1972, New York: Columbia University Press), is relevant for those concerned with the Afro-American experience: they should be willing to do some comparative study of persecuted and emancipated minority groups in varying contexts. (Author/JM)

  14. Playfulness in Adults Revisited: The Signal Theory in German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, René T.; Wagner, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The authors elaborate on the role of playfulness as a preferred characteristic in potential long-term partners recently espoused by Garry Chick and others. They aim to replicate the findings of such research by studying a different culture (that of German-speaking countries) and to develop them further by taking into account the participants'…

  15. Incorporating Critical Thinking and Authenticity into Business German Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram

    1998-01-01

    Proposes to integrate critical thinking and problem-solving into two existing international tests of business German (Prufung Wirtschaftsdeutsch International and Zertifikat Deutsch fur den Beruf), and to contextualize the tests' tasks in a more authentic business setting without compromising their content. Parallels are drawn with the American…

  16. Pilot Study of a CAI Laboratory in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, H.W.; Adams, E.N.

    1968-01-01

    Comparisons are made between two introductory German sections at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, one of which had a conventional language laboratory and the other a computer assisted instruction laboratory. A brief description of the instructional arrangements is followed by descriptions of experimental comparisons, making up the…

  17. Introducing Entrepreneurship Teaching at Select German Universities: A Change Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curri, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    In the recent past, universities in the western world have been expected to play a greater role in the national economic welfare of their countries in addition to their traditional role of education and research. In 1997, following the examples of national governments in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, the German government launched an…

  18. In Pursuit of Cultural Competence in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Renate A.; LaLande, John, II; Dykstra-Pruim, Pennylyn; Zimmer-Loew, Helene; James, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reflects the work of the AATG Task Force on the Teaching of Culture, established in 2004. It seeks to define the issues and challenges related to the teaching and development of cultural competence in the German language classroom, including the lack of professional consensus regarding appropriate definitions of culture for classroom…

  19. Teaching German with TPRS (Total Physical Response Storytelling)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) has enjoyed a tremendous increase of interest in recent years because so many teachers in high schools and colleges are finding that it reinvigorates their German programs. Some even claim that it has saved them. TPRS actually consists of two complementary pedagogical methods: (1) Total Physical Response…

  20. New Light on Copenhagen and the German Nuclear Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    The recent release of draft letters from Niels Bohr to Werner Heisenberg provides new insights into German fission research during World War II and into the reasons for its relative failure. I refute claims of deliberate failure and briefly summarize other contributing factors.

  1. Autonomy, Professionalism and Management Structure in the German University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Declining public finances and ever increasing national and international competition force state-owned German universities to adapt to an increasingly competitive environment. In a first phase the universities have concentrated their efforts on the optimisation of budgeting processes and on the development of strategies and goals to come to a more…

  2. Community Building: Study Abroad and the Small German Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Len

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad is often treated in terms of individual student outcomes, and has recently been discussed as potentially detrimental to smaller language programs--in that student participation in semester- or year-long programs subtracts from enrollments in upper-level courses. In this article, the promotion of study abroad in a small German program…

  3. Eastern Borderlands in German Schoolbooks, 1890-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Continuities and changes in stories, poems and historical texts over several generations of German textbooks, from the final decades of the Kaiserreich through the Weimar Republic to the Third Reich, show how schools encouraged children to imagine Germany's eastern borderlands and to incorporate them into their sense of national belonging. The…

  4. Phonological Working Memory of Children in Two German Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselhorn, Marcus; Mahler, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    In two studies, 10-year-olds from 2 German special schools as well as typically developing children of the same chronological age (CA controls) or the same mental age (MA controls) were compared on several aspects of working memory functions (i.e., size and input quality of the phonological store, speed and automatic activation of the subvocal…

  5. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  6. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  7. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  8. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof. PMID:20812795

  9. Electronic Learning in the German Science Project "NAWI-Interaktiv"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Homann, Wiebke; Strehlke, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    The German science project "NAWI-Interaktiv" is an example of innovative use of E-Learning and new media education. Since 2009, the learning platform provides learners and teachers with high-quality learning tools, teaching material, useful information and E-learning programs for free. This is to raise the pupils' motivation to learn…

  10. Acoustic and Perceptual Explanations for Rhotacism in Latin and Germanic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Robert Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the phonetic mechanisms of the sound change known as rhotacism (/s/ greater than /z/ greater than /r/) which is observed in Italic, Germanic, and Sanskrit, among other languages, employing lab-based methods of "experimental historical phonology" (Ohala 1974), and approaching sound change from the theoretical standpoint…

  11. Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraiss, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

  12. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 9, German: 7535.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. Students read about and discuss a castle built by Ludwig, the "Mad King of Bavaria," and become acquainted with Bonn, the capital of West Germany. The German…

  13. Was gibt's Neues? New Ideas for the German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrmann, Alfred

    Two solutions for teaching college-level German instruction in Japan are described. The first solution is the TALK Learning System, materials designed for use in large classes. Instead of a course book, each learner has a manual in Japanese, three tool cards for each of four topics (one with dialogue patterns, a question card, and a data card), a…

  14. Abstracts in German Medical Journals: A Linguistic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch-Lauer, Ines A.

    1995-01-01

    Compares the structure, communicative function, and linguistic devices of abstracts in German medical journals with their English equivalents. Analyzes differences in the discourse of non-native speakers and native speakers. Suggests that abstracting should be incorporated into language courses for the medical profession and for technical…

  15. Repair Sequences in American Learners of German Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisbey, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study in Conversation Analysis investigates the organization of other-initiated repair sequences in American learners of German, i.e., it examines how learners deal with troubles in hearing or understanding that they encounter in naturally-occurring talk-in-interaction. Data for the project were collected during informal interaction in…

  16. Developmental Surface and Phonological Dysgraphia in German 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Jurgen; Mantey, Stefanie; Heber, Stefanie; Hollweg, Wibke

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of developmental reading and spelling disorders within the framework provided by cognitive neuropsychology has yielded interesting results for several alphabetic orthographies, for example English, Italian, and French. However, this approach has not attracted much attention in German speaking countries up to now. The following…

  17. Retrospective: Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)

  18. Trends in Practical Work in German Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Fuccia, David; Witteck, Torsten; Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    By the 1970s a fundamental shift had taken place in German science education. This was a shift away from the learning of more-or-less isolated facts and facets in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics towards a restructuring of science teaching along the general principles of the respective science domains. The changes included also the addition of…

  19. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  20. Walter Kaufmann and the Advocacy of German Thought in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soll, Ivan

    1997-01-01

    Examines the career and contributions of Walter Kaufmann. A refugee from Hitler's Germany, Kaufmann set himself the unlikely task of trying to revive interest in Hegel and Nietzsche in the United States. Kaufman's work as a translator, interpreter, and teacher of German philosophy had a long-term impact on U.S. intellectuals. (MJP)

  1. Lessons from German and American Industrial-Education Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theuerkauf, Walter E.; Putnam, A. R.

    The search for a work force preparation model that could serve as a guide for meeting present and emerging challenges has lead to a focus on the German dual system youth apprenticeship model. In this system, the practice-oriented part is taken over by commercial enterprises and theoretical knowledge is imparted by vocational schools. The trainee…

  2. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia do not…

  3. A Semantic Study of German and Chinese Demonstratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores, analyzes, and compares the usage of German and Chinese demonstratives. Discourse and textual uses of the forms will be considered as well as their locative and temporal uses. I observe that in both languages the demonstratives can be used to refer to referents. However, they depart from the common assumption that…

  4. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  5. Plasticity of Grammatical Recursion in German Learners of Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Douglas J.; Indefrey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have examined cross-serial and embedded complement clauses in West Germanic in order to distinguish between different types of working memory models of human sentence processing, as well as different formal language models. Here, adult plasticity in the use of these constructions is investigated by examining the response of…

  6. [Unipacs: A-LM German, Units 3-29].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Bend High Schools, WI.

    These instructional materials, designed for use with the "A-LM" German language course, permit teachers to individualize instruction. Basic objectives are outlined concerning basic dialogues, vocabulary, supplementary materials, reading, grammar, recombination materials, and creative conversation. A student checklist serves as a guide for the…

  7. Combining Online and Hybrid Teaching Environments in German Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Lucrecia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we briefly offer the main characteristics of a hybrid design for Face-to-Face (FtF) and online German courses in the degree of Translation and Interpreting that combines the textbook with activities moderated with technology. We particularly focus on the activities designed for practicing oral production at level A2.2., where we…

  8. Discussions across Borders: A German-American Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiser, Pamela A.; Fuchs, Doris; Engelkamp, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on our experiences in a German-American partnership in internationalizing the curriculum. In a globalized world, engaging other cultures and identities as well as understanding global issues and events from other perspectives are important qualifications that allow students to gain different insights in political science. Yet,…

  9. Perceptions of ICT Careers in German Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hellens, Liisa; Clayton, Kaylene; Beekhuyzen, Jenine; Nielsen, Sue H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory investigation of the perceptions of information and communication technology (ICT) as a field of study and work in German secondary schools. A total of 160 students from five secondary schools in Lower Saxony participated in the study in February 2007, and four teachers of the students were interviewed. The…

  10. [German military surgeons in deployment abroad: life and working conditions].

    PubMed

    Hauer, T; von Lübken, F; Johann, M; Schreyer, C; Hartmann, V; Kollig, E; Willy, C

    2010-02-01

    Since 1992 the German Bundeswehr has been deployed for securing peace and peacekeeping abroad. Since then 83 German soldiers have been killed and overall 129 wounded in action as of 07.12.2009. In Northern Afghanistan the German Bundeswehr runs a combat support hospital (role 3) in Mazar-e-Sharif providing a multidisciplinary capability profile. Furthermore, there are two role 2 medical treatment facilities for primary surgical trauma care located in Kunduz and Feyzabad. In these role 2 facilities life saving procedures and damage control operations are performed in order to enable rapid evacuation to a higher level of care. Thereby military surgeons are often confronted with various medical and logistic challenges. The German Navy also has two equivalent role 2 medical treatment facilities (Naval Rescue Centers) aboard its two combat support ships (CSS) "Berlin" and "Frankfurt am Main" to support maritime task groups operating worldwide. These floating field hospitals provide an indispensable asset in the medical emergency care of naval operations with difficult space-time factors. Due to the specific operating alliance between CSS and Naval Rescue Center, special operations as well as evacuation and humanitarian missions following disasters near the coastline can be effectively accomplished. PMID:20094699

  11. Jews in Nazi Germany: What West German Textbooks Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Hildegund M.

    1984-01-01

    This review of current German history textbooks shows that the documentation of anti-Semitism, Jewish persecution, and the Holocaust has improved since the 1960s. However, there are still weak areas. Necessary additions to all books should include documentation on medical experiments and ghettos and improved discussion concerning activities of…

  12. Adolescents' Transitions to Behavioral Autonomy after German Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the timing of behavioral autonomy transitions in two same-aged cohorts of East German adolescents assessed in 1991 and 1996. An earlier timing of autonomy privileges was associated with higher deviant behavior. A later timing of autonomy privileges and responsibilities was linked to structural constraints, specifically,…

  13. Phonetics and Phonology of Thematic Contrast in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    It is acknowledged that contrast plays an important role in understanding discourse and information structure. While it is commonly assumed that contrast can be marked by intonation only, our understanding of the intonational realization of contrast is limited. For German there is mainly introspective evidence that the rising theme accent (or…

  14. Teacher's Guide to the German/American Heritage Radio Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselriis, Peter

    The guide suggests teaching methods and learning activities related to German Americans and their heritage in Missouri. Intended for upper elementary and secondary ethnic studies or history courses, the material outlines and supports 13 radio programs. The objective is to increase awareness and understanding of the various facets of the German…

  15. Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyn, Prisca

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be…

  16. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  17. Moderne Sprache im Deutschunterricht (Modern Language in German Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggimann, Ernst

    1965-01-01

    Several techniques are presented which were used to enliven secondary-school German instruction in Switzerland and to increase student interest and motivation. Classes listened to haiku, discussed the elements of the form, and then wrote their own haiku on suggested topics. A quasi-musical choral speaking performance was developed on poetry of…

  18. Perceptions of Working Climate: A Study of German Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Athanasou, James A.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 50 male and 54 female German social service workers found their perceptions of working climate varied by gender and age. For both, career motivation decreased over time. Women were particularly affected by decreased quality of the working climate. Factors affecting perceptions included job pressure, dissatisfaction, poor collegial…

  19. Lost (and Found) in Translation: Learning from German Language Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton

    2016-01-01

    This essay introduces two presentations (or "Vorträge") by Ulf Abraham and Thomas Zabka that were originally published in the German journal, "Didaktik Deutsch." I reflect on the complexities of translation and intercultural communication, and ask how we might meaningfully compare the policy environment of one country with that…

  20. Teaching Materials for German. G1: Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication is part of a bibliography of language teaching materials for German, including printed and recorded materials. It contains a contents list, the annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. For each entry are given basic bibliographical details, an annotation describing the course, a…

  1. Picturing German: Teaching Language and Literature through Visual Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Thyra E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the importance of visual culture with regard to its pedagogical applications in the German language classroom. I begin by outlining the benefits and concerns associated with making visual art a part of the curriculum. Next, practical ideas are presented for using paintings in beginning, intermediate, and advanced courses.…

  2. Lifelong Learning in German Learning Cities/Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reghenzani-Kearns, Denise; Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the policies and lessons learned from two consecutive German national programs aimed at developing learning cities/regions. Known as Learning Regions Promotion of Networks, this first program transitioned into the current program, Learning on Place. A case study chosen is from the Tolzer region where a network has self-sustained…

  3. Globalization and Educational Reform in German Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomeke, Sigrid

    2006-01-01

    For almost 200 years German teacher education has remained relatively stable in its core characteristics. In this paper, the present process of fundamental change is analyzed with regard to consequences for the structure of teacher education, accountability mechanisms, and the concepts of the ideal teacher. The implementation of Bachelor and…

  4. German Cinema as a Vehicle for Teaching Culture, Literature and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Annelise M.

    The use of German film in four instructional contexts, based on experiences in developing a university course, is discussed. One use is as part of a German culture course taught in German, emphasizing the role of film as a cultural statement of its time, intended to be either a social criticism or a propaganda tool. A second use is integration of…

  5. Deutsch als Fremdsprachenphilologie: Das Heidelberger Modell (German as a Foreign Language Philology: The Heidelberg Model)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Rainer; Heuer, Fritz

    1975-01-01

    German as a Foreign Language Philology is a new subject developed at the New Philology Faculty of the University of Heidelberg. Students whose native language is not German can earn a Master of Arts in this field. The study plan, educational goals, and the content and organization of the curriculum are described. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  6. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2003 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2006-01-01

    The current listing presents titles of doctoral dissertations related to the teaching of German and completed in U.S. universities during the "calendar" years 2003 and 2005. The term "related to the teaching of German" refers to dissertations completed in Germanics, comparative literature, linguistics, and foreign or second language education with…

  7. Error Patterns in Young German Children's "Wh"-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article we report two studies: a detailed longitudinal analysis of errors in "wh"-questions from six German-learning children (age 2 ; 0-3 ; 0) and an analysis of the prosodic characteristics of "wh"-questions in German child-directed speech. The results of the first study demonstrate that German-learning children…

  8. Genesis and Evolution of the Romance-Germanic Language Border in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Durme, Luc

    2002-01-01

    Discusses various language border theories for the Belgian-Northern French area, and summarizes the results of 40 years of research into the development of the Romance-Germanic language border at large. Suggests that a late Roman Latin-Germanic opposition has functioned as a direct predisposition for the early medieval Romance-Germanic language…

  9. Learners' Descriptions of German Pronunciation, Vocabulary, and Grammar: A Folk Linguistic Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Following a folk linguistic approach, this investigation of first-, second- and fourth-year learners' accounts of German found that (1) few had held pre-conceived notions about German prior to language study; (2) most pre-conceived notions concerned German pronunciation; (3) pre-conceived notions about vocabulary were most likely to influence the…

  10. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  11. One Year after the Revolution: Politics and Policies of Education in the Eastern German States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    Complaints about changes in East German education following the break-down of the communist system are widespread. Critics are dissatisfied with: (1) the rapid pace of change; (2) the lack of genuine East German solutions; (3) the loss of the German Democratic Republic's (GDR's) identity; (4) dominance by Western Germany; and (5) the lack of West…

  12. Trends in German Hip Hop Music and Its Usefulness for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    German hip hop music has proved productive, especially since 2000 when rap in Germany experienced something like a first crisis. As a response, German hip hop artists and record labels have ventured off in several different directions including other musical genres, different topics, and new approaches to German rap. This article discusses the…

  13. A Short German Version of the Self Description Questionnaire I: Theoretical and Empirical Comparability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to develop a short German version of the Self Description Questionnaire (SDQ I-GS) in order to present a robust economical instrument for measuring German preadolescents' multidimensional self-concept. A full German version of the SDQ I (SDQ I-G) that maintained the original structure and thus length of the English original…

  14. The Reception of German Progressive Education in Russia: On Regularities of International Educational Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mchitarjan, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a historical case study of extensive educational transfer: the reception, adaptation, and use of German progressive education and German school reform ideas and practices in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. The reception of German educational ideas greatly enriched the theory and practice of the Russian school…

  15. Business German, Middlebury College, Vermont, and Europe: A Case History--and a Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Constance N.

    One college language teacher's experience in becoming familiar with business German, economics, and the German-speaking business world is described. The training for the business German teacher at Middlebury College included auditing courses in macro- and microeconomics offered at Middlebury college and spending 6 weeks in West Germany to gather…

  16. LaissezFair: A Case for Greening the Business German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonglewski, Margaret; Helm, Anna

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to teach about sustainability and environmentally conscious practices in German language, literature, and culture programs is within the context of a business German course. In this article we first situate educational sustainability in the US, leading into an examination of why the context of German business can be particularly…

  17. "Ich Brauche Mix-Cough": Cross-Linguistic Influence Involving German, English and Farsi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazzazi, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in early trilingualism involving the languages German, English and Farsi. The data come from the case study of the author's two children growing up in a trilingual family within a monolingual German-speaking environment. Specific types of CLI from the non-dominant language Farsi on German and…

  18. Teaching about the Income Statement and Balance Sheet in a Beginning Business German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Uwe

    A review of business German textbooks reveals that few give significant attention to accounting terminology. Both German majors and business majors enrolled in business German need to be introduced to the balance sheet and income statement. It is possible to devote one or two class sessions to accounting by limiting content to a minimal but solid…

  19. Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views Regarding the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Shmuel; Yardeni, Eran; Klages, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    This study probes a unique case of multicultural education of Israeli and German students regarding the Holocaust. Their knowledge level of German history leading to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party to power, knowledge about the Holocaust, the relation between their knowledge of attitudes toward the "other" (German/Israeli) group, and their…

  20. The Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Certificate in German as a Foreign Language): An Alabama Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Oliver Finley

    1980-01-01

    Describes the benefits derived by the University of Alabama at a time of declining enrollment from offering the Goethe Institute exam for the "Certificate in German as a Foreign Language." Also mentions other innovations introduced by the German department: an intensive first year course and a German House on campus. (MES)

  1. Retraining in Business German through the Goethe Institute in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Gudrun; Schutte, Lilith

    A college language instructor recounts his experience in a retraining program in business German at the West Germany's Goethe Institute. Twenty-eight individuals from the United States and from five European countries participated in a program that offered (1) a 14-day immersion into business-related German, (2) establishment of German business…

  2. Controversies Surrounding Language Policy and the Integration Process of Russian Germans in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struck-Soboleva, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the impact that public and political discourses on the issues of language and ethnicity in Germany have on integration. It suggests that a combined effect of factors such as the traditional concept of "Germanness", peculiarities of Russian Germans' "cultural identity" and certain aspects of German language policy with…

  3. Remarks on the Needed Reform of German Studies in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleve, John Van; Willson, A. Leslie

    This book addresses the problem of the future of Germanics as a field of study at colleges and universities in the United States. It is noted that the study of Germanics has been losing tens of thousands of students for the past 25 years, that this slide downward is no longer attracting enough attention from the Germanics community, and if it…

  4. Teaching Controversal Topics in Contemporary German Culture through Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the rich cultural resources embedded with German hip-hop music and its potential impact on the foreign language classroom. In particular, this article suggests methods and materials for integrating German hip-hop music in the discussion of recent controversial cultural events and attitudes in German after the "Wende."

  5. Reconstructing the Past? Low German and the Creating of Regional Identity in Public Language Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reershemius, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with language contact between a dominant standard language--German--and a lesser-used variety--Low German--in a situation in which the minoritised language is threatened by language shift and language loss. It analyses the application of Low German in forms of public language display and the self-presentation of the community in…

  6. Economic Literacy in German Speaking Countries and the United States. First Steps to a Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Klaus; Krumm, Volker

    The lack of a German language testing instrument for economic literacy has led to problems for researchers in German-speaking countries to establish the level of economic literacy in those countries. The translation of the 23rd edition (1987) of the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) into a German version, known as the Wirtschalfliche Bildung Test…

  7. The Transition from Latin to German in the Natural Sciences--And Its Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porksen, Uwe

    Little is known about the transition from the use of Latin to the use of German in scientific literature. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Latin texts by Albrecht Durer and Johannes Kepler were bestsellers while the German versions were unpopular. German mathematics became acceptable only after 1700, with the work of Christian Wolff.…

  8. The Decline of German Language and Culture in the North American Heartland, 1890-1923.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnell, Jerrold B.

    Although German influences in North America were prominent in the decades just before and after 1900, the advent of World War I marked a major decline in the ethnic identity and bilingualism of German-Americans. Specifically, the German communities in Ontario and the Prairie Provinces in Canada and the Midwest and Great Lakes States in the United…

  9. Framing Foreign Language Education in the United States: The Case of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire; Howell, Tes; Warner, Chantelle; Wellmon, Chad

    2007-01-01

    The challenge posed to foreign language (FL) education by globalization and by the multilingual multicultural speech communities it has spawned is showcased by the current crisis in the teaching of German at American colleges and universities. It is not clear why American learners of German should be learning German: for business purposes, for…

  10. Cadmium exposure from food: the German LExUKon project.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Markus A; Lindtner, Oliver; Blume, Katrin; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Schneider, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a very toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II - NVS II) with about 20 000 participants (15 371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the German population. Based on these comprehensive data, information on the consumption of 545 individual food items by the German population was generated. Cadmium concentrations in food were compiled from the German food monitoring programme, European countries' authority programmes and the published literature, covering the years from 1993 to 2008, and were multiplied with consumption data to obtain estimates of cadmium intake from food. Consumption-weighted mean cadmium concentrations per main food group were highest for cereals, followed by oily seeds & fruits, and vegetables. Due to both high consumption and considerable occurrence of cadmium, cereals and vegetables contributed most to the intake of the general public, followed by the main groups beverages, fruits & nuts, and dairy products (including milk). Cadmium intake from food was estimated to be 1.46 and 2.35 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for average and high-end consumers, respectively. This corresponds to 58% for average and 95% for high-end consumers, respectively, of a reference value derived from a recent health risk evaluation performed by EFSA, using the benchmark approach. Uncertainties in these estimates pertain to the influence of values below the limit of quantification and some foods not considered due to lacking occurrence data. In conclusion, the estimated cadmium intake of the German population from food is still close to health-based reference values. Further efforts to reduce cadmium intake are required. PMID:24645975

  11. Mesoscale modelling of the atmospheric input of nitrogen, sulphur, and lead into the German Bight for 24 April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeier, U.; Schluenzen, K.H.; Bigalke, K.; Salzen, K. von

    1994-12-31

    Input of pollutants from the atmosphere into coastal seas is often neglected although it can considerably influence the concentrations of some pollutants in seawater. For example, the input of nitrogen into the North Sea is estimated to be 500 kt/a from the atmosphere and 1,100 kt/a from rivers. The input of lead into the German Bight via the atmosphere amounts to 40% of the total input. With the nonhydrostatic, three-dimensional mesoscale transport and fluid model METRAS, the atmospheric input into the south-east area of the North Sea (German Bight) is calculated for 24 April 1991, a day during a measurement campaign of the project PRISMA. The model contains a simple chemical reaction system for nitrogen and sulphur compounds consisting of 13 reactions and 11 reactive species. Formation of sulfate and nitrate containing aerosols is described by two equilibrium gas to particle reactions. The reaction system can be used for the simulation of the nitrogen and sulphur input into the German Bight.

  12. Fault reactivation and ground uplift assessment at a prospective German CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhmann, Lina; Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas; Magri, Fabien; Kühn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    pressure elevation during CO2 injection [4-5]. In the present modelling study 1.7 Mt CO2/year were injected into the top of an anticline structure of the 23 m thick sandstone formation of the Middle Bunter for 20 years of simulation time. A one-way coupling between both simulators was undertaken by transferring the pore pressure distribution from the dynamic flow simulations into the geomechanical simulator for selected time steps. The results show that detailed knowledge on geomechanical processes during CO2 injection is of uttermost importance for the assessment of fault reactivation and ground uplift and associated risks. References [1] Schulz R, Agemar T, Alten AJ, Kühne K, Maul AA, Pester S et al. Implementation of a Geothermal Information System for Germany. - Erdöl Erdgas Kohle 2007, 123(2): 76-81 (in German). [2] Beer H, Stackebrandt W. Geological Map of the State of Brandenburg 1:300.000. Contour Map of the Zechstein Formation Top, 2000. Cottbus: Landesamtes für Bergbau, Geologie und Rohstoffe Brandenburg (in German). [3] Schlumberger. Petrel Seismic-to-Evaluation Software, Version 2010.2.2., 2012. [4] Zhang K, Wu YS, Pruess K. User's Guide for TOUGH2-MP - A Massively Parallel Version of the TOUGH2 Code. Report LBNL-315E, 2008, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. [5] Itasca. FLAC3D Software Version 5.0, Advanced Three Dimensional Continuum Modelling for Geotechnical Analysis of Rock, Soil and Structural Support, 2012.

  13. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Leigh, Christi; Stein, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Von Berlepsche, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  14. Recording and Reading Alchemy and Art-Technology in Medieval and Premodern German Recipe Collections.

    PubMed

    Neven, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle Ages and the premodern period knowledge of alchemical practices and materials was transmitted via collections of recipes often grouped concomitantly with art-technological instructions. In both alchemy and chemical technology particular importance is placed on artisanal and craft practices. Both are concerned with the description of colours. Both require procedures involving precise and specifically defined actions, prescriptions and ingredients. Assuming that alchemical and artistic texts have the same textual format, this raises the question: were they produced, diffused and read by the same people? This paper investigates the authorship and the context of production behind a sample of German alchemical manuscripts dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. It scrutinizes their process of production, compilation and dissemination. This paper also sheds light on the various types of marginalia, and correlates them with their diverse functions. It thus delivers significant information about the readers and users of these manuscripts. PMID:27071299

  15. Recording and Reading Alchemy and Art-Technology in Medieval and Premodern German Recipe Collections.

    PubMed

    Neven, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle Ages and the premodern period knowledge of alchemical practices and materials was transmitted via collections of recipes often grouped concomitantly with art-technological instructions. In both alchemy and chemical technology particular importance is placed on artisanal and craft practices. Both are concerned with the description of colours. Both require procedures involving precise and specifically defined actions, prescriptions and ingredients. Assuming that alchemical and artistic texts have the same textual format, this raises the question: were they produced, diffused and read by the same people? This paper investigates the authorship and the context of production behind a sample of German alchemical manuscripts dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. It scrutinizes their process of production, compilation and dissemination. This paper also sheds light on the various types of marginalia, and correlates them with their diverse functions. It thus delivers significant information about the readers and users of these manuscripts.

  16. [Safe:Trac course series of the German Society for Trauma Surgery on patient safety].

    PubMed

    Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K

    2009-08-01

    Based on crew resource management of the airline industry the German Society for Trauma Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, DGU) was the first scientific community in Germany to develop and implement a training course for patient safety. The S:training courses contain four course formats which focus on the prehospital life support (S:PLS), the operating room (S:OR), the trauma room (S:TR) and the intensive care unit (S:ICU). In the training the importance of the human factor for the management of acute major trauma is developed by means of presentations, training videos, practical training, discussions and realistic case scenarios associated with the special working environment of the participants. A specially developed course manual acts as a work and reference book and course booking is possible at http://www.safe-trac.de.

  17. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German…

  18. The Multilingual Reader: Advantages in Understanding and Decoding German Sentence Structure when Reading German as an L3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyer, Elisabeth; Kaiser, Irmtraud; Berthele, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Italian and French students' grammatical problems while reading in German as an L3 or L4. For the study, we developed a reading test which consists of invented encyclopaedia articles on imaginary animals. These articles enabled us to test various grammatical structures for their receptive difficulty. This paper discusses…

  19. The Europeanisation of German Ethnic Identities: The Case of German and Turkish Students in Two Stuttgart Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Germany's national (or ethnic) identity has become thoroughly European and there are even signs of Eurocentrism. This is particularly problematic for the Turkish Muslims who, arguably, are not European. This article explores how fifteen-year-old German and Turkish youth in two Stuttgart secondary schools, one in a predominantly working-class area…

  20. A comparison of general and illness-related locus of control in Russians, ethnic German migrants and Germans.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce D; Siefen, Rainer G; Merbach, Martin; Rutow, Nadine; Brähler, Elmar; Wittig, Ulla

    2007-05-01

    General and illness-related locus of control play an immensely important role in the adherence and cooperation of patients in their therapy. Until now, culture-specific aspects of these subjective theories have rarely been investigated. However, in view of the growing proportion of migrants in the German population, they are becoming increasingly significant. In a project supported by the Volkswagenstiftung (Volkswagen Foundation), a total of 607 healthy people were surveyed. The sample includes 307 ethnic German migrants from the successor states of the former Soviet Union (descendents of German origin who had emigrated to Russia during the 18th and 19th centuries) and 300 native Russians in Russia. They were compared with 100 Germans (matched from a previous study). The data were collected using questionnaires entitled "Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC)" and "Illness-related Locus of Control". The ethnic German migrants differed from the Russian sample in their health beliefs and attitudes towards medicine. However, in the first 18 months after migration, hardly any changes were observed. Fatalistic factors played only a minor role. Locus of health control was associated with beliefs about recovery from myocardial infarcts and tumours. Socio-demographic variables were of varying significance in the individual cultures. Gender influences on health beliefs were different in the subsamples. The level of education had only a minor influence on health attitudes. For those individuals who were acquainted with an ill person, internal factors in treatment of myocardial infarct and external psychosocial factors in cure of cancer played a larger role. PMID:17510907

  1. German science and black racism--roots of the Nazi Holocaust.

    PubMed

    Haas, François

    2008-02-01

    The Nazi's cornerstone precept of "racial hygiene" gave birth to their policy of "racial cleansing" that led to the murders of millions. It was developed by German physicians and scientists in the late 19th century and is rooted in the period's Social Darwinism that placed blacks at the bottom of the racial ladder. This program was first manifested in the near-extermination of the African Herero people during the German colonial period. After WWI, the fear among the German populace that occupying African troops and their Afro-German children would lead to "bastardization" of the German people formed a unifying racial principle that the Nazis exploited. They extended this mind-set to a variety of "unworthy" groups, leading to the physician-administered racial Nuremberg laws, the Sterilization laws, the secret sterilization of Afro-Germans, and the German euthanasia program. This culminated in the extermination camps.

  2. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  3. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research. PMID:23394178

  4. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole. PMID:25557516

  5. Grammatical gender in German: a case for linguistic relativity?

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2011-09-01

    The "principle of linguistic relativity" holds that, by way of grammatical categorization, language affects the conceptual representations of its speakers. Formal gender systems are a case in point, albeit a particularly controversial one: Previous studies obtained broadly diverging data, thus giving rise to conflicting conclusions. To a large extent, this incoherence is related to task differences and methodological problems. Here, a priming design is presented that avoids previous problems, as it prevents participants from employing gender information in a strategic manner. Four experiments with German native speakers show priming effects of the prime's grammatical gender on animate and nonanimate targets, an effect for the prime's biological gender on animate targets, but no effect for the prime's biological gender on nonanimate targets, and thus speak against an effect of language on thought for German gender.

  6. Continuity and change in Germany's treatment of non-Germans.

    PubMed

    O'brien, P

    1988-01-01

    This essay criticizes 2 conventional approaches to migrants in Germany. 1 focuses on racism in German history while the 2nd examines the tradition of repressive laws which exploit and dominate foreigners. This essay finds these approaches appropriate until the 1970s. From that point, German governments tend to accept foreigners and develop new programs of integration. The essay concludes with ways future research can uncover new and subtle forms of control and domination; the goal of integration itself may become a form of control. Future research can investigate 1) the extent to which integration is rhetorical rather than substantial, 2) the extent to which policies create restrictive forms of integration, and 3) how integration forces migrants to make choices they might not choose to make, such as the choice forced by the current debate over which group of Moslems should rule Islam in Germany.

  7. Cost and technical efficiency of German hospitals: does ownership matter?

    PubMed

    Herr, Annika

    2008-09-01

    This paper is the first to investigate both the technical and cost efficiency of more than 1500 German general hospitals. More specifically, it deals with the question how hospital efficiency varies with ownership, patient structure, and other exogenous factors, which are neither inputs to nor outputs of the production process. The empirical results for the years from 2001 to 2003 indicate that private and non-profit hospitals are on average less cost efficient and less technically efficient than publicly owned hospitals. The hospital rankings based on estimated efficiency scores turn out to be negatively correlated with average length of stay, which is highest in private hospitals. The results are derived by conducting a Stochastic Frontier Analysis assuming both Cobb-Douglas and translog production technologies and using a newly available and multifaceted administrative German data set.

  8. German women in chemistry, 1895-1925 (Part I).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    1998-01-01

    The paper traces the entrance of German women into the chemistry profession from the 1890s to 1925, examining how they first overcame social and cultural conservatism to obtain access to opportunities for a chemical education during the later Kaiserreich, then began to seek academic and industrial careers and to establish a professional organization in the face of resistance from the established Verein Deutscher Chemiker. The paper examines the effect of World War I and the advent of the Weimar Republic in completing the process whereby German women achieved a small but significant role in the profession of chemistry, in science as well as industry. Finally, it discusses the considerable limitations on women's full and equal participation that still remained by 1925. PMID:11619920

  9. Results of German support programme to implement the UN FCCC

    SciTech Connect

    Liptow, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of German efforts in support of implementing the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Following the Rio conference, the task of supporting outreach efforts was given to the GTZ since that is its general function, and within the context of German Technical Co-operation (TC), a program was implemented. Their initial effort was directed at helping implement inventory studies in target countries, including studies of options for reducing emissions. Once a level of information and factual knowledge was in place, they presented the type of technical support which Germany could offer in meeting the needs envisioned to achieve reduced emissions, in the form of technical co-operation. Experiences are discussed for the cases of a number of different participating countries.

  10. German women in chemistry, 1895-1925 (Part I).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    1998-01-01

    The paper traces the entrance of German women into the chemistry profession from the 1890s to 1925, examining how they first overcame social and cultural conservatism to obtain access to opportunities for a chemical education during the later Kaiserreich, then began to seek academic and industrial careers and to establish a professional organization in the face of resistance from the established Verein Deutscher Chemiker. The paper examines the effect of World War I and the advent of the Weimar Republic in completing the process whereby German women achieved a small but significant role in the profession of chemistry, in science as well as industry. Finally, it discusses the considerable limitations on women's full and equal participation that still remained by 1925.

  11. Cognitive abilities of Emirati and German engineering university students.

    PubMed

    Rindermann, Heiner; Baumeister, Antonia E E; Gröper, Anne

    2014-03-01

    According to human capital theory, individual competences and personality attributes are relevant for individual productivity and income. Within human capital, intelligence is crucial. To study engineering and work successfully as an engineer, high cognitive abilities are necessary, especially for work in research and development. In a study of 30 German and 30 Emirati engineering students (mean age: 22 years), both groups were tested with mathematical and figural intelligence scales (CogAT). German engineering students achieved a mean IQ of 116, and Emirati students 104 (in converted UK norms). In both groups male students achieved better results than females (2 to 4 IQ point difference). The results are compared with those from PISA and TIMSS. The possible causes of these results, their consequences and strategies for improvement are discussed.

  12. The German/Russian MIR 1997 Mission: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Life Science Experiments During the German-Russian Mir '97 Mission; (2) Orthostatic Intolerance Following Microgravity: A Role for Autonomic Dysfunction; (3) Heart Rate Variability and Skin Blood Flow in Man During Orthostatic Stress in Weightlessness; (4) Effects of Microgravity and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Circulatory Drives from Excercising Calf Muscles; (5) The Mir Station in Its Second Decade: Crew Science Operation During Mir '97; (6) Metabolic WARD (Water, Sodium, Calcium, and Bone Metabolism) and Endocrinological Experiments During the Mir '97 Mission; (7) Long-term Monitoring of the Spine-geometry During the Mir '97 Mission: Introduction of a New Method; and (8) Effects of 20 days of Microgravity (German/Russian Mir '97 Mission) on the Mechanical and Electromyographic Characteristics of Explosive Efforts of the Lower Limbs and of Cycloergometric Exercises of Mild to Sprint-Like Intensity.

  13. Plans for a German Grid Operations and Support Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reißer, Sabin

    The German grid initiative D-Grid brings together various scientific and commercial projects in fields like medicine, engineering, banking, meteorology using the same grid infrastructure. In this infrastructure, which comprises more than 30 computing centres, three middleware stacks (gLite, Globus and Unicore) are deployed and used by the various communities. This variety of applications as well as of middleware calls for well organised operations and support. The German Grid Operations and Support Centre (GOSC) aim to answer this challenge and also provides an uplink to international activities like EGI. The GOSC will provide middleware services like reference installations for the various middleware flavours. It will manage the national grid operations (regional monitoring, SLA enforcement) and will be responsible for providing VO and user services, like application support and a helpdesk.

  14. German women in chemistry, 1925-1945 (Part II).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    1998-01-01

    The paper traces the role of German women into the chemistry profession from 1925 to 1945, examining their relative numbers and experience in higher education, in academic and industrial careers as well as in professional organizations such as the Verein Deutscher Chemikerinnen. The paper examines the effect of the 1930s Depression, National Socialism, and World War II on women chemists, considering both general trends as well as the experiences and achievements of several individual women in a variety of situations. Finally, it considers the longterm consequences of these developments, such as the Nazi expulsion of Jewish women, destruction of women's organizations and devaluing of women's achievements, in limiting the recognition and participation of German women chemists after 1945.

  15. German women in chemistry, 1925-1945 (part II).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    1998-12-01

    The paper traces the role of German women into the chemistry profession from 1925 to 1945, examining their relative numbers and experience in higher education, in academic and industrial careers as well as in professional organizations such as the Verein Deutscher Chemikerinnen. The paper examines the effect of the 1930s Depression, National Socialism, and World War II on women chemists, considering both general trends as well as the experiences and achievements of several individual women in a variety of situations. Finally, it considers the longterm consequences of these developments, such as the Nazi expulsion of Jewish women, destruction of women's organizations and devaluing of women's achievements, in limiting the recognition and participation of German women chemists after 1945.

  16. Dating of polyhalite and langbeinite: preliminary results from German Zechstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Franz; Schorn, Anja; Leitner, Christoph; Genser, Johann

    2013-04-01

    formation temperatures are given between 57.1 ° C or more commonly 83 ° C (e.g. Neitzel, 1992 and references therein), is mined as potash ore at the German Zechstein deposits. Neitzel (1992) summarized two main types of langbeinite formation (1) from kainite and halite (due to thermal metamorphism) and (2) from sylvinitic Hartsalz (= mixture of sylvite, kieserite and halite) due to solution metamorphism. The mineral might also form by decomposition of polyhalite to langbeinite and anhydrite during prograde metamorphism. In the following, we discuss the first successful results of polyhalite and langbeinite dating in Zechstein salts of Germany (Morsleben, Neuhof). Extremely fine-grained (grain sizes < 10 x 10 μm) recrystallised polyhalite from Morsleben gave an age of ca. 28.68 ± 0.11 Ma, which may represent the age of crystal growth from a brine. Dating of deformed langbeinite from a mylonite zone from Neuhof gave a slightly scattered age pattern at ca. 150 Ma, implying a major step of ductile flow of K-bearing evaporites and crystallization of langbeinite. From analytical point of view, langbeinite is very stable and allows diffusion experiments over a wide range of energies. References Fischer, S., Voigt, W., Köhnke, K., 1996. The thermal decomposition of polyhalite K2SO4 . MgSO4. 2 CaSO4. 2 H2O. Crystal Research and Technology, 31, 87-92. Freyer D., Voigt W., 2003. Crystallization and phase stability of CaSO4 and CaSO4-based salts. Monatshefte für Chemie, 134, 693-719. Leitner, C., Neubauer, F., Marschallinger, R., Genser, J., Bernroider, M., 2012. Origin of deformed halite hopper crystals, pseudomorphic anhydrite cubes and polyhalite in Alpine evaporites (Austria, Germany). International Journal of Earth Sciences, DOI 10.1007/s00531-012-0836-6. Neitzel, U., 1992. 100 Jahre Langbeinit. Kali und Steinsalz, 11/1, 7-13. Renne, P. R., Sharp, W. D. Montañez, I. P., Becker, R. A., Zierenberg, R. A., 2001. 40Ar/39Ar dating of Late Permian evaporites, southeastern New

  17. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  18. Genetic drift. Overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-03-01

    An overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine brings together a group of subjects discussed separately elsewhere. Topics considered include German medicine before and during the Nazi era, such as advanced concepts in epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health policy, screening programs, occupational health laws, compensation for certain medical conditions, and two remarkable guidelines for informed consent for medical procedures; also considered are the Nuremberg Code; American models for early Nazi programs, including compulsory sterilization, abusive medical experiments on prison inmates, and discrimination against black people; two ironies in US and Nazi laws; social Darwinism and racial hygiene; complicity of Nazi physicians, including the acts of sterilization, human experimentation, and genocide; Nazi persecution of Jewish physicians; eponyms of unethical German physicians with particular emphasis on Reiter, Hallervorden, and Pernkopf; eponyms of famous physicians who were Nazi victims, including Pick and van Creveld; and finally, a recommendation for convening an international committee of physicians and ethicists to deal with five issues: (a) to propose alternative names for eponyms of physicians who exhibited complicity during the Nazi era; (b) to honor the eponyms and stories of physicians who were victims of Nazi atrocities and genocide; (c) to apply vigorous pressure to those German and Austrian Institutes that have not yet undertaken investigations to determine if the bodies of Nazi victims remain in their collections; (d) to recommend holding annual commemorations in medical schools and research institutes worldwide to remember and to reflect on the victims of compromised medical practice, particularly, but not exclusively, during the Nazi era because atrocities and acts of genocide have occurred elsewhere; and (e) to examine the influence of any political ideology that compromises the practice of medicine. PMID:20151431

  19. IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Pynenkov, A A; Firstov, Sergei V; Panov, A A; Firstova, E G; Nishchev, K N; Bufetov, Igor' A; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2013-02-28

    We have studied the optical properties of lightly bismuth doped ({<=}0.002 mol %) germanate glasses prepared in an alumina crucible. The glasses are shown to contain bismuth-related active centres that have been identified previously only in bismuth-doped fibres produced by MCVD. With increasing bismuth concentration in the glasses, their luminescence spectra change markedly, which is attributable to interaction between individual bismuth centres. (optical fibres)

  20. Wernher von Braun with German Officers and Others

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    General Erich Fellgiebel, head of the German Army Information Service during World War II, congratulates members of the von Braun rocket team from Peenemunde for their October 3, 1942 A4 flight. Pictured front center is General Erich Fellgiebel. Shaking hands are General Walter Dornberger (left) and General Janssen, commanding officer of Peenemuende with Rudolph Hermarn to their right. Picture left to right in the back row are Wernher von Braun, Captain Stoelzel, Luftwaffe, and Dr. Gerhard Reisig.

  1. The German Hypersonics Technology Programme - Status report 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczera, Heribert; Hauck, Helmuth

    1992-08-01

    A review is presented of the current Phase I of the German Hypersonics Technology Programme that continues until the end of 1992. Attention is given to the overall hypersonics technology program, the status of the Saenger reference concept, alternatives for a flight test vehicle, and the status of technological activities in the area of airbreathing propulsion. Consideration is given to aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration, materials and structures, and general program aspects.

  2. Genetic drift. Overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-03-01

    An overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine brings together a group of subjects discussed separately elsewhere. Topics considered include German medicine before and during the Nazi era, such as advanced concepts in epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health policy, screening programs, occupational health laws, compensation for certain medical conditions, and two remarkable guidelines for informed consent for medical procedures; also considered are the Nuremberg Code; American models for early Nazi programs, including compulsory sterilization, abusive medical experiments on prison inmates, and discrimination against black people; two ironies in US and Nazi laws; social Darwinism and racial hygiene; complicity of Nazi physicians, including the acts of sterilization, human experimentation, and genocide; Nazi persecution of Jewish physicians; eponyms of unethical German physicians with particular emphasis on Reiter, Hallervorden, and Pernkopf; eponyms of famous physicians who were Nazi victims, including Pick and van Creveld; and finally, a recommendation for convening an international committee of physicians and ethicists to deal with five issues: (a) to propose alternative names for eponyms of physicians who exhibited complicity during the Nazi era; (b) to honor the eponyms and stories of physicians who were victims of Nazi atrocities and genocide; (c) to apply vigorous pressure to those German and Austrian Institutes that have not yet undertaken investigations to determine if the bodies of Nazi victims remain in their collections; (d) to recommend holding annual commemorations in medical schools and research institutes worldwide to remember and to reflect on the victims of compromised medical practice, particularly, but not exclusively, during the Nazi era because atrocities and acts of genocide have occurred elsewhere; and (e) to examine the influence of any political ideology that compromises the practice of medicine.

  3. Persistence probabilities of the German DAX and Shanghai Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, F.; Zheng, B.; Lin, H.; Wen, L. Y.; Trimper, S.

    2005-05-01

    We present a relatively detailed analysis of the persistence probability distributions in financial dynamics. Compared with the auto-correlation function, the persistence probability distributions describe dynamic correlations nonlocal in time. Universal and non-universal behaviors of the German DAX and Shanghai Index are analyzed, and numerical simulations of some microscopic models are also performed. Around the fixed point z0=0, the interacting herding model produces the scaling behavior of the real markets.

  4. The german microgravity program: Objectives and present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greger, G.; Strub, H.; Wagner, M.

    Within the space program of the Federal Republic of Germany the microgravity program in connection with the utilization of SPACELAB constitutes a central task which determines the long-term program concepts and also their relation to German participation in future ESA programs. The scientific preparatory programs under way for some years now have made further progress. Extensive flight experience and valuable scientific results were obtained on the basis of successful rocket pre-programs. The present paper describes the process in which scientific and organisational priorities are being defined for the planning and execution of the experimental programs. In order to obtain a sufficient number of flight opportunities, payloads for SPACE SHUTTLE missions, in particular under the NASA GAS Program, as well as experimental equipment such as the materials laboratory (MSDR) for FSLP are being developed. The German program focuses on preparing a German SPACELAB mission D1 planned for 1985, which is intended to verify the applicability and efficiency of manned research laboratories for industry and the scientific community. A second emphasis is on preparing the use of SHUTTLE-supported re-usable space platforms.

  5. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    PubMed

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare.

  6. Jehovah's Witness patients within the German medical landscape.

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Blood transfusions belong to standard and commonly utilised biomedical procedures. Jehovah's Witnesses' transfusion refusals are often referred to in bioethical and medical textbooks. Members of this globally active religious organisation do not, however, challenge biomedical diagnosis and treatment as such. A result of both their trust in and their interpretation of the Bible, they question only this medical treatment. In spite of the global presence of this religious community and its uniformly practised teachings, including those pertaining to blood, experiences and choices of Jehovah's Witness patients have been understudied. Drawing on a nine-month fieldwork with Jehovah's Witnesses and physicians in Germany (mainly in Berlin) between 2010 and 2012, the paper addresses treatment choices made by Witness patients and their relationship with physicians. In light of the long tradition of 'medical heterodoxy' established in German culture and society, Germany constitutes an ideal point of departure for such a study. By utilising the concept of 'medical landscape' it is argued that Jehovah's Witnesses in my field site find themselves at the intersection of different medical landscapes: in the 'immediate' surroundings of the German healthcare system that is open to different 'treatment modalities', and that of the United States, which favours biomedicine. The paper also argues that Jehovah's Witnesses' position towards blood transfusions can further be used as a lens to shed light on the German (bio)medical landscape itself. PMID:27321252

  7. Strength of German accent under altered auditory feedback

    PubMed Central

    HOWELL, PETER; DWORZYNSKI, KATHARINA

    2007-01-01

    Borden’s (1979, 1980) hypothesis that speakers with vulnerable speech systems rely more heavily on feedback monitoring than do speakers with less vulnerable systems was investigated. The second language (L2) of a speaker is vulnerable, in comparison with the native language, so alteration to feedback should have a detrimental effect on it, according to this hypothesis. Here, we specifically examined whether altered auditory feedback has an effect on accent strength when speakers speak L2. There were three stages in the experiment. First, 6 German speakers who were fluent in English (their L2) were recorded under six conditions—normal listening, amplified voice level, voice shifted in frequency, delayed auditory feedback, and slowed and accelerated speech rate conditions. Second, judges were trained to rate accent strength. Training was assessed by whether it was successful in separating German speakers speaking English from native English speakers, also speaking English. In the final stage, the judges ranked recordings of each speaker from the first stage as to increasing strength of German accent. The results show that accents were more pronounced under frequency-shifted and delayed auditory feedback conditions than under normal or amplified feedback conditions. Control tests were done to ensure that listeners were judging accent, rather than fluency changes caused by altered auditory feedback. The findings are discussed in terms of Borden’s hypothesis and other accounts about why altered auditory feedback disrupts speech control. PMID:11414137

  8. Second German-Catalan workshop on epigenetics & cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Beatriz; Forcales, Sonia V; Perucho, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Second German-Catalan Workshop on Epigenetics and Cancer was held in Barcelona on November 19–21, 2014. The workshop brought together, for the second time, scientists from 2 German and 2 Catalan research institutions: the DKFZ, from Heidelberg, the CRCME, from Freiburg, and the IMPPC and PEBC/IDIBELL, both from Barcelona. The German-Catalan Workshops are intended to establish the framework for building a Research School to foster collaborations between researchers from the different institutions. Exchange programs for graduate students are among the activities of the future School. The topics presented and discussed in 33 talks were diverse and included work on DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin biology, characterization of imprinted regions in human tissues, non-coding RNAs, and epigenetic drug discovery. Among novel developments from the previous Workshop are the report of the epigenetics angle of the Warburg effect and the long-range trans-acting interaction of DNA methylation and of nucleosome remodeling. A shift in the view on DNA methylation became apparent by the realization of the intertwined interplay between hyper- and hypo-methylation in differentiation and cancer. PMID:25849957

  9. The German social democratic party (SPD) and the debate on the fertility decline in the German Empire (1870~1918).

    PubMed

    Mun, Soo-Hyun

    2011-12-31

    This paper aimed to examine the debate over the fertility decline in the German Empire, focusing on the role of the SPD. During the German Empire, the fertility rate dramatically declined and the growing awareness of a continuous decline in the birth rate prompted a massive debate among politicians, doctors, sociologists, and feminist activists. The fertility decline was negatively evaluated and generated consciousness of crisis. However, it was not the only way to face this new phenomenon. Indeed, the use of birth control among the upper class was interpreted as a part of a modernizing process. As the same phenomenon reached the working class, it suddenly became a social problem and was attributed to the SPD. The debate over the fertility decline in imperial German society ridden with a fierce class conflict was developed into a weapon against the SPD. Contrary to the assumption of conservative politicians, the SPD had no clear-cut position on this issue. Except for a few politicians like Kautsky and the doctors who came into frequent contact with the workers, the "birth strike" was not listed as the main interest of the SPD. Even Clara Zetkin, the leader of the Social Democratic women's organization viewed it as a concern of the individual person which could not be incorporated in the party program. The women's organization of the SPD put priority on class conflict rather than issues specific to women. As a result, the debate over the birth rate decline within the SPD was not led by the women themselves. There could have been various means to stimulate the birth rate. Improvement in the welfare system, such as tax relief for large families, better housing conditions, and substantial maternity protection, could have been feasible solutions to the demographic crisis. However, Germany chose to respond to this crisis by imposing legal sanctions against birth control. In addition to paragraphs 218-220 of the German criminal law enacted in 1872 which prescribed penal

  10. Reflections on Sigmund Freud's relationship to the German language and to some German-speaking authors of the enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Grubrich-Simitis, I

    1986-01-01

    The discussion of the papers of Anzieu and Ticho on 'The Influence of the German-Language Culture on Freud's Thought' concentrates on two aspects of the theme. Firstly, the question is considered in how far specific individual words (e.g. 'Trieb'), as well as specific basic grammatical structures of the German language (e.g. certain forms of the passive voice; the flexibility in changing between the parts of speech) made the verbal grasp of unconscious and preconscious phenomena easier for Freud, i.e. facilitated the conceptualization of psychoanalysis. The second aspect deals with the young reader Freud's predilection for those German-speaking authors--from Lessing to Heine--writing in the Enlightenment tradition. identification with these critical, rebellious thinkers contributed to the consolidation of Freud's personality. He himself stressed again and again the overriding importance of his steadfastness of character and his disbelief in authority for his life's achievement: the discovery of the unconscious in spite of inner and outer resistance.

  11. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time. PMID:11625090

  12. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  13. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  14. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    PubMed

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A

    2000-01-01

    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  15. STS-55 German payload specialists Walter and Schlegel work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, wearing special head gear, conducts Tissue Thickness and Compliance Along Body Axis salt-water balance experiment in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Walter's activities in front of Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) are monitored by German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel. Walter uses intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  16. Life science experiments during the German-Russian MIR '97 mission.

    PubMed

    Ruyters, G; Hoffmann, H U

    1998-01-01

    Manned spaceflight has been an important element of the German space program over the last decades. This is demonstrated by the nationally managed space missions Spacelab D-l (1985), D-2 (1993), and MIR '92 as well as by the participation in the 1st Spacelab mission FSLP (1983), the NASA missions IML-1 (1992) and IML-2 (1994), as well as in the ESA missions EUROMIR '94 and '95. On February 12th, this year, the German cosmonaut Reinhold Ewald was launched together with his Russian colleagues Wasilij Zibliew and Alexander Lasudkin onboard of a Soyuz spacecraft for another stay of a German cosmonaut onboard of the Russian Space Station MIR. This mission--the so-called German/Russian MIR '97--was, of course, another cornerstone with regard to the cooperation between Russian and German space organizations. The cooperation in the area of manned missions began 1978 with the flight of the German cosmonaut Sigmund Jahn onboard of Salyut 6, at that time a cooperation between the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic in the frame of the Interkosmos Program. In March 1992, it was followed by the flight of Klaus Dietrich Flade with his stay onboard of MIR. After two further successful ESA missions, EUROMIR '94 and '95 with the two German cosmonauts Ulf Merbold and Thomas Reiter and with a marked contribution of German scientists, the decision was taken to perform another German/Russian MIR mission, the so-called MIR '97. In Germany, MIR'97 was managed and performed in a joint effort between several partners. DARA, the German Space Agency, was responsible for the overall program and project management, while DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment, was responsible for the cosmonaut training, for medical operations, for the mission control at GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen as well as for user support.

  17. The German version of the Material Values Scale

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Smits, Dirk J. M.; Claes, Laurence; Gefeller, Olaf; Hinz, Andreas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The Material Values Scale is an instrument to assess beliefs about the importance to own material things. This instrument originally consists of the three subscales: ‘centrality’, ‘success’, and ‘happiness’. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the German version of the MVS (G-MVS). Method: A population-based sample of 2,295 adult Germans completed the questionnaire in order to investigate the factorial structure. To test construct validity, additional samples were gathered among patients with compulsive buying (N=52) and medical students (N=347) who also answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8). Results: In the German population-based sample we could not confirm the 3-factor model but rather suggest a 2-factor solution with a first collapsed factor ‘centrality/success’, and the second factor ’happiness’. Patients with compulsive buying showed the highest scores on the G-MVS. While G-MVS scores among compulsive buyers and medical students were significantly related to compulsive buying scores, the correlation between the G-MVS and the depression measure appeared substantially lower. We did not find any gender differences regarding materialism, neither in the population-based sample nor in the students’ or compulsive buyers’ samples. However, age was negatively related to G-MVS scores. Conclusion: Confirmatory factor analyses suggest a 2-factor model of the G-MVS. Overall, the results indicate the use of the G-MVS as a brief, psychometrically sound, and potentially valid measure for the assessment of material values. PMID:23802017

  18. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: the aftermath].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the consequences for neurology as a discipline which resulted from neurologists' participation in the crimes committed under National Socialism (NS). Chronologically, the current literature distinguishes mainly four overlapping stages: (1) a first phase was characterized by legal persecution and "denazification", which was also the time of the Nuremberg doctors' trial in which no neurologists were on trial. A detailed documentation of the trial for the German medical profession was published by Alexander Mitscherlich. (2) In the subsequent practice of wide amnestying and reintegration of former Nazi followers during the 1950s, neurologists were no exception as its elite continued in their positions. The year 1953 was the year of the Lisbon scandal, when chiefly Dutch representatives protested against the participation of Julius Hallervorden in the International Congress of Neurology. The newly founded societies, the German Society for Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie, DGN) and the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, DGPN), unanimously supported their member. (3) The next period was characterized by a nascent criticism of the prevailing attitude of covering up the crimes committed by physicians during the Nazi period. The discovery of incriminating brain sections at various Max Planck Institutes brought neurology to the focus of the debate. (4) Since the 1980s and 1990s historians (of medicine) have been systematically examining medicine's Nazi past in a professional way, which resulted in a noticeable increase of knowledge. Additionally, a new generation of scholars provoked a change of mind insofar as they recognized medicine's responsibility for the crimes committed between 1933 and 1945. We expect that future historical research will further elucidate the history of neurology during the NS regime and have consequences for our current understanding of research

  19. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: the aftermath].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the consequences for neurology as a discipline which resulted from neurologists' participation in the crimes committed under National Socialism (NS). Chronologically, the current literature distinguishes mainly four overlapping stages: (1) a first phase was characterized by legal persecution and "denazification", which was also the time of the Nuremberg doctors' trial in which no neurologists were on trial. A detailed documentation of the trial for the German medical profession was published by Alexander Mitscherlich. (2) In the subsequent practice of wide amnestying and reintegration of former Nazi followers during the 1950s, neurologists were no exception as its elite continued in their positions. The year 1953 was the year of the Lisbon scandal, when chiefly Dutch representatives protested against the participation of Julius Hallervorden in the International Congress of Neurology. The newly founded societies, the German Society for Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie, DGN) and the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, DGPN), unanimously supported their member. (3) The next period was characterized by a nascent criticism of the prevailing attitude of covering up the crimes committed by physicians during the Nazi period. The discovery of incriminating brain sections at various Max Planck Institutes brought neurology to the focus of the debate. (4) Since the 1980s and 1990s historians (of medicine) have been systematically examining medicine's Nazi past in a professional way, which resulted in a noticeable increase of knowledge. Additionally, a new generation of scholars provoked a change of mind insofar as they recognized medicine's responsibility for the crimes committed between 1933 and 1945. We expect that future historical research will further elucidate the history of neurology during the NS regime and have consequences for our current understanding of research

  20. [Case report: Ectopia cordis in a German Holstein calf].

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Kramer, K; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Haas, L; Distl, O

    2006-07-01

    A case of ectopia cordis pectoralis was diagnosed in a black and white coloured German Holstein calf. The heart and pericard were displaced through a fissure in the breastbone. The heart was connected with the thoracic cavity by its large vessels. Besides of the ectopia cordis no other defects of the heart were noticed. The liver was deformed and many organs showed passive hyperaemia. The calf was well developed and died under birth. The lungs were not ventilated. The malformed calf was inbred on a bull used for artificial insemination with an inbreeding coefficient of 3.125%. The ectopia cordis probably resulted from the fissure of the breastbone.

  1. [Skiing injuries: analysis in a German ski area].

    PubMed

    Geyer, M; Beyer, M

    1989-12-01

    An analysis of frequencies, causes and injury patterns in skiing with emphasis to knee injuries was done. In our clinic next to the slopes of the ski resort Pfronten and the skiing region Ostallgäu skiing injuries contribute with 58% of all stationary treated sports injuries to a big part of our in-patients. Out of all skiing injuries 52% are ligament lesions and 63% concern the knee joint. Thus the knee ligament lesions are leading in our sports related orthopaedic surgery. The results of this analysis were compared with data from Swiss skiing areas and Austrian and German university clinics. Possible ways of injury prophylaxis are presented.

  2. Rate constant for reaction of atomic hydrogen with germane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.; Payne, Walter A.; Marston, George; Stief, Louis J.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the interest in the chemistry of germane in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and because previously reported kinetic reaction rate studies at 298 K gave results differing by a factor of 200, laboratory measurements were performed to determine the reaction rate constant for H + GeH4. Results of the study at 298 K, obtained via the direct technique of flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence, yield the reaction rate constant, k = (4.08 + or - 0.22) x 10(exp -12) cu cm/s.

  3. [Maurycy Urstein: forgotten Polish contributor to German psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Polish psychiatrist Maurycy Urstein (1872-1940) is nowadays almost forgotten. He is not mentioned in the history of Polish psychiatry which only partially may be explained by the fact that his most essential works were published in German language. His scientific oeuvre contains dozens of publications, including four monographs on catatonia. Urstein was an ardent advocate of the autointoxication theory of psychiatric disorders, fierce opponent of psychoanalysis and enthusiast of the use of biological methods of treatment in psychiatry. Both some eccentric views and specific personality probably equally contributed to his almost complete isolation among psychiatrists in the interwar Poland.

  4. [The fate of Polish psychiatry under German occupation during World War II].

    PubMed

    Leidinger, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    Polish psychiatry was since its origin deeply influenced by German (Austrian) and Russian psychiatry. After the German assault Polish psychiatric patients were the first victims of mass executions, and the first to be killed by new developed "gassing" technology. Especially cruel was the fate of Jewish patients. German "health policy" in occupied Poland was only "starvation or shooting". Some hospitals continued working under German rule and received patients from Germany in the framework of Nazi-"euthanasia". The article describes the mostly ignored facts of the close link between the medical programme of annihilation of the "unfit" and the genocide of Poles and Jews.

  5. Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences? A comparison of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Dimitrova, Radosveta

    2016-02-01

    We examine relationships between social identity domains (ethnic, national, and religious) and negative affect among Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German youth. Path analysis confirmed a multiple social identities (MSI) factor that has negative relations to experiencing negative affect for Turkish youth in both countries. Beyond this negative relationship, the component of national identity showed a positive relationship to negative affect for Turkish-Bulgarians, but not for Turkish-Germans. Our findings indicate that beyond the generally adaptive effect of MSI on youth development, unique components of social identity may not always be an asset: In an assimilative acculturation context (i.e., Bulgaria), the endorsement of national identity was not adaptive. Our research therefore highlights the need for a contextually differentiated view on "healthy" identity formation among immigrants for research and practice. PMID:26478532

  6. Environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing - Main results and recommendations from two studies on behalf of the German Environment Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischbaum, Bernd; Bertram, Andreas; Böttcher, Christian; Iyimen-Schwarz, Züleyha; Rechenberg, Jörg; Dannwolf, Uwe; Meiners, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The German Environment Agency (UBA) accompanies the debate on fracking for years. Two major reports on risks and environmental impacts regarding the exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas, in particular shale gas have been published. On the basis of these studies as well as on scientific evidence UBA considers ecological barriers as a sustainable means to minimize the risks to environment and human health. 1) Recent studies show that the contamination of shallow aquifers by rise of fluids through natural faults or artificially created fractures is extremely unlikely. However, activities on the surface and lack of wellbore integrity pose threats and substantial risks for the quality of shallow aquifers. 2) The need for thorough groundwater monitoring is fully accepted, yet its range and design is subject to discussion. 3) Formerly, analysis and mass balances of flowback and produced water have been insufficient, thus there is a lack of exact information on proportions of frac-fluids, flowback and formation water respectively, as well as data on possible reaction products. 4) Currently, neither on national nor on European level best reference techniques (BREF) for the treatment and disposal of flowback and produced water are available. 5) In addition, land consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, and induced seismicity are major issues. UBA recommends amongst others the implementation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for fracking activities, the prohibition of fracking in water protection areas as well as their catchments, and the disclosure of all frac-fluid chemicals within a national chemical registry. To achieve these objectives the German Environment Agency suggests a step-by-step approach. The paper will present the main results from the studies and the recommendations of the German Environment Agency regarding hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas exploitation.

  7. Detection and interpretation of seismoacoustic events at German infrasound stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Koch, Karl; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Three infrasound arrays with collocated or nearby installed seismometers are operated by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) as the German National Data Center (NDC) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Infrasound generated by seismoacoustic events is routinely detected at these infrasound arrays, but air-to-ground coupled acoustic waves occasionally show up in seismometer recordings as well. Different natural and artificial sources like meteoroids as well as industrial and mining activity generate infrasonic signatures that are simultaneously detected at microbarometers and seismometers. Furthermore, many near-surface sources like earthquakes and explosions generate both seismic and infrasonic waves that can be detected successively with both technologies. The combined interpretation of seismic and acoustic signatures provides additional information about the origin time and location of remote infrasound events or about the characterization of seismic events distinguishing man-made and natural origins. Furthermore, seismoacoustic studies help to improve the modelling of infrasound propagation and ducting in the atmosphere and allow quantifying the portion of energy coupled into ground and into air by seismoacoustic sources. An overview of different seismoacoustic sources and their detection by German infrasound stations as well as some conclusions on the benefit of a combined seismoacoustic analysis are presented within this study.

  8. Detailed study of the superconducting properties in compressed germane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczȩśniak, Radosław; Durajski, Artur P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen-rich compounds under extreme pressure are the most promising systems for searching a high-temperature superconductivity. In presented paper, we report analysis of the thermodynamic properties of hydrogenated germanium (germane, GeH4) at 220 GPa obtained within the framework of the Migdal-Eliashberg theory. We observe that together with the increase of Coulomb pseudopotential from 0.1 to 0.3 the critical temperature decreases from 92.36 K to 52.80 K. A similar trend is also well-visible in the case of other thermodynamic properties. Moreover, we study the influence of external pressure on the superconducting state of GeH4. On this basis we conclude that increase of pressure from 20 to 220 GPa has a pronounced effect on the thermodynamic stability of germane. Finally, it is proved that the properties of the superconducting state of GeH4 differ markedly from predictions of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory.

  9. Young German children's early syntactic competence: a preferential looking study.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Using a preferential looking methodology with novel verbs, Gertner, Fisher and Eisengart (2006) found that 21-month-old English children seemed to understand the syntactic marking of transitive word order in an abstract, verb-general way. In the current study we tested whether young German children of this same age have this same understanding. Following Gertner et al. (2006), one group of German children was tested only after they had received a training/practice phase containing transitive sentences with familiar verbs and the exact same nouns as those used at test. A second group was tested after a training/practice phase consisting only of familiar verbs, without the nouns used at test. Only the group of children with the training on full transitive sentences was successful in the test. These findings suggest that for children this young to succeed in this test of syntactic understanding, they must first have some kind of relevant linguistic experience immediately prior to testing--which raises the question of the nature of children's linguistic representations at this early point in development. PMID:18576965

  10. [Alfred Kohn, professor of histology at German University in Prague].

    PubMed

    Nanka, O; Grim, M

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Kohn (1867-1959) was the head of the Institute of Histology at the Medical Faculty of German University in Prague for 26 years. In 2007 we commemorated his 140th birthday, and 2009 we will remember the 50th anniversary of his death. He entered the history of medicine by discovery of nature and origin of parathyroid glands and by pioneer research into chromaffin cells and sympathetic paraganglia. Kohn's papers on the pituitary, interstitial cells of testes, and ovaries are also related to endocrinology. All his studies are based on descriptive and comparative histological and embryological observations. Kohn was twice the dean of German Medical Faculty, and a member or honorary member of many important scientific societies. He was repeatedly nominated for Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine. For his Jewish origin he was expelled from Deutsche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und Künste für die Tschechoslowakische Republik in 1939 and transported to Terezin ghetto in 1943. After the war he lived in Prague. On the occasion of his 90th birthday he was elected honorary president of Anatomische Gesellschaft and awarded by the Czechoslovak Order of Labour. Alfred Kohn died in 1959. He was one of the outstanding personalities that Prague gave to the world of science.

  11. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in the German population

    PubMed Central

    RÖHRER, C.; GÄRTNER, B.; SAUERBREI, A.; BÖHM, S.; HOTTENTRÄGER, B.; RAAB, U.; THIERFELDER, W.; WUTZLER, P.; MODROW, S.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute parvovirus B19 infection is a risk for pregnant women. After vertical transmission the infected fetus may develop hydrops fetalis. Since B19 infection occurs mainly during childhood, children represent a main source for virus transmission. In order to determine whether certain groups in the German population show increased risks for B19 infection we analysed the seroprevalence using 6583 sera collected from adults in former Eastern and Western Germany during the German National Health Survey and 649 sera from healthy Thuringian children and adolescents. In adults the overall seroprevalence was 72·1%, rising from 20·4% in children (1–3 years) and 66·9% in adolescents (18–19 years) to 79·1% in the elderly (65–69 years). Significant differences were observed between females (73·3%) and males (70·9%) and between inhabitants of small (74·8%) and big cities (69·0%) but not between people of the former Eastern (72·8%) and Western states (72·0%) of Germany. For women during childbearing age (18–49 years) highest values were observed in those living together with two or more children (81·6%) and in women with occupational contact with children aged <6 years (88·9%). In contrast seroprevalence was significantly lower in age-matched female singles (64·8%) and in women with occupational contact with children aged >6 years and adolescents (63·8%). PMID:18198003

  12. Assessment formats in dental medicine: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard-Szep, Susanne; Güntsch, Arndt; Pospiech, Peter; Söhnel, Andreas; Scheutzel, Petra; Wassmann, Torsten; Zahn, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    Aim: At the annual meeting of German dentists in Frankfurt am Main in 2013, the Working Group for the Advancement of Dental Education (AKWLZ) initiated an interdisciplinary working group to address assessments in dental education. This paper presents an overview of the current work being done by this working group, some of whose members are also actively involved in the German Association for Medical Education's (GMA) working group for dental education. The aim is to present a summary of the current state of research on this topic for all those who participate in the design, administration and evaluation of university-specific assessments in dentistry. Method: Based on systematic literature research, the testing scenarios listed in the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives (NKLZ) have been compiled and presented in tables according to assessment value. Results: Different assessment scenarios are described briefly in table form addressing validity (V), reliability (R), acceptance (A), cost (C), feasibility (F), and the influence on teaching and learning (EI) as presented in the current literature. Infoboxes were deliberately chosen to allow readers quick access to the information and to facilitate comparisons between the various assessment formats. Following each description is a list summarizing the uses in dental and medical education. Conclusion: This overview provides a summary of competency-based testing formats. It is meant to have a formative effect on dental and medical schools and provide support for developing workplace-based strategies in dental education for learning, teaching and testing in the future. PMID:27579365

  13. German Heart Surgery Report 2015: The Annual Updated Registry of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Andreas; Funkat, Anne-Katrin; Lewandowski, Jana; Frie, Michael; Ernst, Markus; Hekmat, Khosro; Schiller, Wolfgang; Gummert, Jan F; Welz, Armin

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of a long-standing voluntary registry, which was founded by the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS), well-defined data of all heart, thoracic, and vascular surgery procedures performed in 78 German heart surgery departments during 2015 are analyzed. In 2015, a total of 103,967 heart surgery procedures (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, pacemaker, and extracardiac procedures without ECC excluded) were submitted to the database. Approximately 14.8% of the patients were at least 80 years old, resulting in an increase of 0.6% compared with the data of 2014. For 38,601 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures (relationship on-/off-pump: 5:1), the unadjusted inhospital mortality was 2.7%. Concerning the 32,346 isolated heart valve procedures (including 10,606 catheter-based implantations) an unadjusted inhospital mortality of 4.4% was observed.This annual updated registry of the GSTCVS represents voluntary public reporting by accumulating actual information for nearly all heart surgical procedures in Germany, demonstrates advancements in heart medicine, and enables internal/external quality assurance for all participants. In addition, the registry demonstrates that the provision of heart surgery in Germany is appropriate and patients are treated nationwide in a round-the-clock service. PMID:27583536

  14. First results of the German Barcode of Life (GBOL) - Myriapoda project: Cryptic lineages in German Stenotaenialinearis (Koch, 1835) (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Voigtländer, Karin; Decker, Peter; Oeyen, Jan Philip; Spelda, Jörg; Lindner, Norman

    2015-01-01

    As part of the German Barcode of Life (GBOL) Myriapoda program, which aims to sequence the COI barcoding fragment for 2000 specimens of Germany's 200 myriapod species in the near future, 44 sequences of the centipede order Geophilomorpha are analyzed. The analyses are limited to the genera Geophilus Leach, 1814 and Stenotaenia Koch, 1847 and include a total of six species. A special focus is Stenotaenia, of which 19 specimens from southern, western and eastern Germany could be successfully sequenced. The Stenotaenia data shows the presence of three to four vastly different (13.7-16.7% p-distance) lineages of the genus in Germany. At least two of the three lineages show a wide distribution across Germany, only the lineage including topotypes of Stenotaenialinearis shows a more restricted distribution in southern Germany. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis the Italian species Stenotaenia 'sorrentina' (Attems, 1903) groups with the different German Stenotaenialinearis clades. The strongly different Stenotaenialinearis lineages within Germany, independent of geography, are a strong hint for the presence of additional, cryptic Stenotaenia species in Germany. PMID:26257532

  15. German Heart Surgery Report 2015: The Annual Updated Registry of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Andreas; Funkat, Anne-Katrin; Lewandowski, Jana; Frie, Michael; Ernst, Markus; Hekmat, Khosro; Schiller, Wolfgang; Gummert, Jan F; Welz, Armin

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of a long-standing voluntary registry, which was founded by the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS), well-defined data of all heart, thoracic, and vascular surgery procedures performed in 78 German heart surgery departments during 2015 are analyzed. In 2015, a total of 103,967 heart surgery procedures (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, pacemaker, and extracardiac procedures without ECC excluded) were submitted to the database. Approximately 14.8% of the patients were at least 80 years old, resulting in an increase of 0.6% compared with the data of 2014. For 38,601 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures (relationship on-/off-pump: 5:1), the unadjusted inhospital mortality was 2.7%. Concerning the 32,346 isolated heart valve procedures (including 10,606 catheter-based implantations) an unadjusted inhospital mortality of 4.4% was observed.This annual updated registry of the GSTCVS represents voluntary public reporting by accumulating actual information for nearly all heart surgical procedures in Germany, demonstrates advancements in heart medicine, and enables internal/external quality assurance for all participants. In addition, the registry demonstrates that the provision of heart surgery in Germany is appropriate and patients are treated nationwide in a round-the-clock service.

  16. [Continuing medical education (CME) in neurology. Concept of the German Society of Neurology (DGN) and the Neurology Section of the Professional League of German Neurologic Medicine (BVDN)].

    PubMed

    Reuther, P; Diener, H C; Franz, P; Hacke, W; Hofmann, W; Hopf, H C; Jungmann, F; Wiethölter, H

    1999-10-01

    Continuous medical education in Neurology (CME-Neurology) has been promoted in a concept organized by both the German society of neurology, German association for occupational interests of neurologists and psychiatrists). CME-Neurology has been started in January 1999 and is closely adapted to the CME guidelines of neurology section of UEMS and EFNS. The program shall serve to the maintenance and upgrading of knowledge skills and competence of postgraduate training in neurology.

  17. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  18. The Levels of German Teacher Trainers Working in Turkey Regarding Reigeluth's Organizational Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of German teacher trainers working in Turkey about their level regarding Reigeluth's organizational strategies and to analyze their views in terms of gender, geographic region, seniority, and graduated high school variables. While the population of the study consisted of German teacher trainers…

  19. L2-Induced Changes in the L1 of Germans Living in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbert, Anne; Kuiken, Folkert

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of changes in the grammatical competence of Germans living in the Netherlands. The participants (N = 52) were asked to give their judgments on the grammaticality of infinitive clauses in German. The judgments of this group were compared to those of a control group that lived in Germany and did not have…

  20. Role of First Language Dialect in the Production of Second Language German Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Smith, Laura Catharine

    2010-01-01

    A methodological shortcoming in previous second language (L2) acquisition studies has been that researchers have assumed an overly homogenous first language (L1) ignoring dialect differences. In the current study English and German vowel production data were collected from 72 English-speaking learners of German from three distinct North American…

  1. Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

  2. Image of Europe from Abroad: The Pleasures and Pitfalls of Teaching German Cinema in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William, Jennifer Marston

    2006-01-01

    This article describes strategies specific to teaching German film courses at American universities, particularly how to capture the interest of students who have not studied film previously and have little understanding of German culture, history, or the language. I suggest starting with discussions on the interrelatedness of "foreign film" and…

  3. A New Perspective on Teamwork in Teaching: A Report on German Lectures in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancaforte, Charlotte; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A university German department cooperated with the Zoology Department to offer a series of 13 lectures in biology, delivered in German by university scientists on their fields of research. This report discusses the background and atmosphere of the project, evaluates its effects and suggests improvements. (CHK)

  4. The Germans from Russia: Documenting the Immigrant Experience in Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Dawn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Sidney Heitman Germans from Russia Collection at the Colorado State University Libraries is named in honor of the late Dr. Heitman's years of research and teaching about Colorado's second largest ethnic group. Created to support his Germans from Russia in Colorado Study Project, active at the university in the late 1970s, the collection's…

  5. Wem gehort die deutsche Sprache (To Whom Does the German Language Belong)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    1996-01-01

    The authority of the monolingual native speaker, unchallenged until now, has been questioned recently because of postmodern and postcolonialist trends. It is now valid to view learners of German as border-crossers between cultures, as bilingual/bicultural individuals. Ownership of the German language is neither a birthright nor an acquired right,…

  6. The Effects of Metaphorical Interface on Germane Cognitive Load in Web-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a metaphorical interface on germane cognitive load in Web-based instruction. Based on cognitive load theory, germane cognitive load is a cognitive investment for schema construction and automation. A new instrument developed in a previous study was used to measure students' mental activities…

  7. Three German Universities: Aachen, Bochum, Konstanz. Case Studies on Innovation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boning, E.; Roeloffs, K.

    This report, one of a series of case studies on innovation in higher education, presents a detailed description and evaluation of the innovative features of three German universities, as well as a brief survey of the German national policy situation with regard to higher education. Of the three, the two at Bochum and Konstanz are new foundations,…

  8. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  9. The Sound of German: Descriptions of Accent by Native and Non-Native Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Miranda E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of factors affecting judgments of native and non-native accent in German. The data suggest that listener status (native or non-native speakers) and degree of experience with German play a role in the aspects of speech which raters cite as salient. Interestingly, the same descriptive terms used by raters were shown to…

  10. The Working Status of Students and Time to Degree at German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theune, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes time to first degree at German universities. The database is the "Absolventenpanel" 2001, a panel study conducted by the "Hochschul-Informations-System." The German university system is characterized by a long duration of study; the regular time is often exceeded. One potential reason might be the high…

  11. The Changing Zeitgeist of German Higher Education and the Role of GATS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Karola

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the contradictory nature of two aspects of German higher education and research policy in relation to internationalization: the more traditional Europeanization policy, and a parallel policy in response to globalism that is stimulating a highly competition-oriented role for German higher education and research along the lines of the GATS…

  12. People of the Prairies: A Norwegian and German-Russian Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbert, Jon Charles, Ed.; Peterson, Fredrick E., Ed.

    The guide presents secondary level units designed to promote understanding of the two largest ethnic groups in North Dakota, the Norwegians and the German-Russians. The book is presented in five parts. Part I provides an historical overview of the Norwegian and German-Russian migration to North Dakota. Part II presents three Norwegian units on…

  13. Evaluation of the Bilingual (English-German) Program, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonton Public School, (Alberta). Instructional Services Div.

    The annual evaluation of an English-German bilingual education program in the Edmonton Public Schools, extending from kindergarten through grade 4 at the time of evaluation, is presented. The current evaluation focuses on grade 2 and 3 achievement in English language arts and mathematics, self-esteem, cognitive development, German language skills,…

  14. Edward Y. Hartshorne and the Reopening of German Universities, 1945-1946: His Personal Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tent, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Characterizes U.S. Edward Y. Hartshorne as a "manager of German social recovery." An instructor at Harvard University and protege of sociologist Talcott Parsons, Hartshorne was instrumental in the post-war reopening of German universities. Discusses Hartshorne's activities in military intelligence and psychological warfare, as well as the…

  15. Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Major Figures. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Talbott

    This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…

  16. Writer Construction in English and German Popularized Academic Discourse: The Uses of "We" and "Wir"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The present article investigates writer-reader interaction through the construction of writer and reader personae in English and German popular scientific writing by means of first person plural pronouns in subject position. Popular scientific writing only became firmly established as a German-language genre in the last quarter of the 20th century…

  17. A Study on Motivational Factors of Students in German Language Teaching Department at Trakya University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2009-01-01

    There are many definitions, views and theories for motivation. This study aims to state expressly what type of motivation factors according to the students' grades affects the students of German Language Teaching Departments (Turkey) negatively or positively. How the external and internal factors affect the students of German Language Teaching…

  18. Morphological Information and Memory Resources in Children's Processing of Relative Clauses in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Yatsushiro, Kazuko; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the processing of agreement marking and case marking in the comprehension of German relative clauses in 48 seven-year-old monolingual German-speaking children in a picture selection task. We examined the relation between the effectiveness of these different morphological cues and individual memory resources as measured by a…

  19. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP PHASE 3 ACTIVITIES-AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) de...

  20. German-American Workshop on Adult Education with Target Groups = Deutsch-amerikanisches Doppelseminar zur Zielgruppenarbeit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Claus, Ed.; Odenbrett, Glenn, Ed.

    This collection includes eight papers (authored by Germans) on adult education programs in Cleveland, Ohio, and eight papers (authored by Americans) about adult education programs in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as German and English introductions to the collection. The following papers are included: "Neue Wege in der Internationalen…

  1. Women as Leaders of Higher Education Institutions: A British-German Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara; Kehm, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the vast majority of countries women are a significant minority in senior academic positions, and as of 2013 only 17% of vice chancellors (VCs) of UK universities and 12% of German Universities were women. This paper discusses findings from a study consisting of interviews with eight female VCs of British and German higher education…

  2. Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

  3. Turkish-German Access to Higher Education: An Historical and Democratic Theory Analysis, 1960-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at access to higher education in Germany. For a number of reasons, explained in this article, higher education is presently an elite system that privileges ethnic Germans while preventing Turkish-Germans from gaining sufficient access into academe. If Germany is to become a fully functioning multicultural democracy with equal…

  4. Same Same, but Different: Word and Sentence Reading in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, Anne K.; Moll, Kristina; Moeller, Korbinian; Huber, Stefan; Snowling, Margaret J.; Landerl, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared eye fixation patterns during word and sentence processing in a consistent and an inconsistent alphabetic orthography. German and English children as well as adults matched on word reading ability read matched sentences while their eye fixation behavior was recorded. Results indicated that German children read in a more…

  5. What Can Chinese and German Children Tell Us about Their Learning and Play in Kindergarten?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…

  6. Podcasts as a Learning Tool: German Language and Culture Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Podcasts provide a straightforward opportunity to stay connected with language, culture, and recent events of German-speaking countries. Podcasts offer clearly articulated, authentic material that can be automatically and regularly delivered to your computer and classrooms; continuously exposing students and teachers to German. This article…

  7. Grammatical Gender and Inferences about Biological Properties in German-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalbach, Henrik; Imai, Mutsumi; Schalk, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    In German, nouns are assigned to one of the three gender classes. For most animal names, however, the assignment is independent of the referent's biological sex. We examined whether German-speaking children understand this independence of grammar from semantics or whether they assume that grammatical gender is mapped onto biological sex when…

  8. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  9. Strengthening German Programs through Community Engagement and Partnerships with Saturday Morning Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellebrandt, Josef

    2014-01-01

    German university programs can increase enrollments and diversify their curricula through academic community partnerships with surrounding schools. This article informs about two community-supported initiatives between the German Studies Program at Santa Clara University and the South Bay Deutscher Schulverein, a Saturday Morning School in…

  10. A Comparative Study on Storytelling Perceptions of Chinese, Vietnamese, American, and German Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…

  11. Using Classroom Recordings in Educational History Research. An East German Civics Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehle, May; Blessing, Benita

    2014-01-01

    Students learned in civics lessons in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) that their socialist society uniquely guaranteed all individuals the right to work, and that, as good socialists, they had the duty to take on socially meaningful work. Using the example of a video recording of an East German civics lesson and its…

  12. How German Children Use Intonation to Signal Information Status in Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ruiter, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on adult German suggests that speakers use particular pitch accent types to signal the information status of discourse referents. This study investigates to what extent German five- and seven-year-olds have acquired this mapping. Semi-natural speech data was obtained from a picture-elicited narration task in which the information…

  13. Making a New and Pliable Professor: American and Soviet Transformations in German Universities, 1945-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the history of American and Soviet transformations in German universities during the period of the Cold War, 1945-1990. Both American and Soviet policies were resisted by the university community, particularly by the conservative German professoriate, in both parts of the divided Germany. The article shows how and why both…

  14. Between Mission and Market Position: Empirical Findings on Mission Statements of German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmutzky, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions on their way to quasi-markets have to identify their distinct characteristics and nowadays, most of the German universities have published a mission statement. But since the tasks and mission of German universities are set for them by state regulation, the paper analyses for what mission statements have been…

  15. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  16. Null Arguments in Transitional Trilingual Grammars: Field Observations from Misionero German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Michael T.; Lipski, John

    2016-01-01

    In this field note we discuss findings from pilot research on a variety of heritage German spoken in the Northeastern Province of Misiones of Argentina. Based on sociolinguistic field interviews with 25 consultants possessing varying degrees of proficiency in the language, we show that this variant of heritage German does in fact occasionally…

  17. "It's Just Reflex Now": German Language Learners' Use of Online Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Guenette, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how often and to what extent university learners of German use online resources (e.g., online dictionaries and translators) in relation to German coursework, their motivations for use, and their beliefs about online resources and language learning. Data for this study consisted of open-ended surveys ("n" = 71) and face-to-face…

  18. Funktionen der Modalverben im Deutschen und Franzoesischen (Functions of the Modal Verbs in German and French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Peter

    1976-01-01

    First examines German modal verbs with respect to multiple meanings and synonymy, finding that "implications," especially presuppositions, account for important differences in their uses. The same approach is used on French modals. Common features and differences are studied, and typical errors are predicted and classified. (Text is in German.)…

  19. Essential Cultural Information and Suggestions for Teaching It in German Business Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerulaitis, Renate

    A course in German for business on the college level must engage in cross-cultural training as well as teach specialized vocabulary and conversational German for international business dealings. Materials and methods for such a course are described. Some generally untapped sources for material on corporate culture that are suited for use in the…

  20. The Influence of British and German Universities on the Historical Development of American Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This monograph provides a historical review of British and German influences on the development of American universities. The paper traces the foundations of modern universities to medieval institutions, such as the universities of Paris and Bologna, to such institutions as Oxford and Cambridge, and to German universities, which were founded as…