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Sample records for formation schilfsandstein germanic

  1. Space formations and nonlinear properties of noncentrosymmetric germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Korotkov, Anton Sergeevich

    2014-10-15

    Space formations of Ge-O polyhedra have been analyzed for 114 noncentrosymmetric germanates. The type of Ge-O polyhedra space formations is dependent on the stoichiometric ratio SR=n(O)/n(Ge), where n(O) is the number of oxygen and n(Ge) is the number of germanium atoms in formal composition of the compound. Individual (Ge-O) polyhedra are found for SR≥3 chains of the polyhedra that exist in the range of SR=3–5. Only framework formations are possible at SR≤2.7. - graphical abstract: Examples of space formations of polyhedra. - Highlights: • Space formations of Ge-O polyhedra have been analyzed. • The dependence of the type of Ge-O polyhedra space formations on the stoichiometric ratio SR=n(O)/n(Ge) was established. • Set of experimental SHG data of noncentrosymmetric germanates was presented.

  2. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  3. Formative Assessment in Teacher Education: The Development of a Diagnostic Language Test for Trainee Teachers of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a diagnostic test of German and its integration in a programme of formative assessment during a one-year initial teacher-training course. The test focuses on linguistic aspects that cause difficulty for trainee teachers of German as a foreign language and assesses implicit and explicit…

  4. [Success factors in the German healthcare market. Hospitals between cluster formation and privatisation].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Möller, J; Hardt, F; Gabbert, T; Bauer, M

    2007-12-01

    The German hospital market is in a state of transition due to the introduction of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) and a constant change of the reimbursement, demographic, economical and technical framework. To date mainly public hospitals were bought by private hospital chains, but this trend has currently reached university hospitals. During recent months a consolidation within the market of private hospitals took place, while new market players such as foreign hospital chains, US universities and private equity firms emerged on the scene. The target of the privatisation process, however, turns more and more to larger hospitals. Central key values remain the cluster formation and centralisation of key competences such as food supply, purchasing and pharmacy. Within a network of clinics the representation of different care components (basic, regular and maximum care provider) and care levels (low, normal, intermediate and intensive care) remain important elements of efficient hospital management. Today, successful hospital operation is based on the successful competition for patients and even more for qualified staff. In this aspect, university hospitals could play a decisive role, because of their combination of maximum acute care provision and educational mandate. No such network has yet been formed due to the different interests of the owners, however, given the new market situation this alternative concept could become more attractive.

  5. On the Formation of Penumbrae as Observed with the German VTT SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.; González, N. B.

    2012-05-01

    Solar magnetic fields are generated in the solar interior and pop up at the solar surface to form active regions. As the magnetic field appears on the surface, it forms various structures like small magnetic elements, pores, and sunspots. The nature of these formation processes is largely unknown. In this contribution we elaborate on the formation of sunspots and particularly on the formation of penumbrae. We report on observations that we obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on July 4, 2009 on the formation of the spot in AR 11024. This data set is complemented with data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard SOHO, which offers an entire time coverage. Moreover, the evolution of AR 11024 is compared with a particular event of penumbra formation in AR 11124 around November 13, 2010, using intensity images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. We conclude that two processes contribute to the increase of the magnetic flux of a sunspot: (1) merging pores, and (2) emerging bipoles of which the spot polarity migrates towards and merges with the spot. As the penumbra forms, the area, magnetic flux, and maximum field strength in the umbra stay constant or increase slightly, i.e., the formation of the penumbra is associated with flux emergence and flux increase of the proto-spot. If two pores merge or if a pore merges with a proto-spot a light bridge is created. This initial light bridge dissolves in the further evolution.

  6. [The formation of medical knowledges in Russia before 1800: contributions of German speaking physicians].

    PubMed

    Henning, Aloys

    2004-01-01

    Under the Moscovian grand duke VASILIJ III (1505-1533) the physician NICOLAUS BüLOW from Lübeck translated into Russian "Gaerde der Suntheit" (The garden of health), printed at Lübeck in 1492. Many German oral and literal medical transfers to Russia are documented since, amongst those from whole Europe, which SABINE DUMSCHAT has actually investigates (1998; 2003). At the end of the 16th century the German translation fo JOHANN REMMELINS (1583-1632) "catoptron microcosmicum" (1661) was translated into Russian for teaching the first Russian military surgeons (fel'dshery). JOSIAS WEITBRECHT (1702-1747) from Württemberg, member of the Imperial Academy of Science at St Petersburg since 1725, created a catalog of the anatomical preparations in the Petersburg Chamber of Arts, which Peter I let buy from FREDERIK RUYSCH in 1717 at Amersterdamn. WEITBRECHT lectured on anatomy and physiology at the Academy since 1730, what DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700-1782) had done there before. JOHANN BLATHASAR HANHART (1704-1739) from Winterthur, surgeon since 1733 at the new Petersburg Admiralty's hospital was ordered to create the Latin terminology for the first anatomical atlas, ever printed in Russia (1744). When HANHART had died, the surgeon from Petersburg Army's hospital CHRISTOPH JAKOB VON MELLEN (1705-1765) from Lübeck finished his work. In 1757 and 1761 the chief-surgeon at the Admiralty's hospital MARTIN SHEIN (1712-1762) published the first textbooks on anatomy and surgery in Russian, having translated JOHANN ZACHARIAS PLATNERS 'Institutiones chirurgicae", Lipsiae 1745. In 1764 the accoucheur-surgeon JOHANN PAGENKAMPF, Personal surgeon of EKATERINA II, translated and published a German textbook from JOHANN HORN for accoucheuses into Russian for teaching at the Moscow school for accoucheuses under JOHANN FRIEDRICH ERASMUS from Strasburg, founded in 1757.

  7. Wortbildung und Landeskunde im DaF-Unterricht (Word Formation and Cultural Studies in the German-as-a-Foreign Language Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Angelika

    1996-01-01

    Discusses word-formation in today's German and demonstrates through the use of several examples (e.g., ad hoc composites such as "re-unification," and "blue-helmet deployment") how words can be objects of linguistic analyses and carriers of cultural information. (AP)

  8. Wortbildung und Landeskunde im DaF-Unterricht (Word Formation and Cultural Studies in the German-as-a-Foreign Language Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Angelika

    1996-01-01

    Discusses word-formation in today's German and demonstrates through the use of several examples (e.g., ad hoc composites such as "re-unification," and "blue-helmet deployment") how words can be objects of linguistic analyses and carriers of cultural information. (AP)

  9. What is to be done with surplus embryos? Attitude formation with ambivalence in German fertility patients.

    PubMed

    Kufner, K; Tonne, M; Barth, J

    2009-01-01

    Improved pregnancy rates in IVF have led to increasing numbers of surplus embryos which can potentially be used for purposes like donation to another infertile couple or further research. Individuals report high levels of ambivalence concerning the donation of surplus embryos. This study examined which strategies infertile patients use to deal with this ambivalence when asked to evaluate potential dispositions of surplus embryos created during IVF. Guideline-based interviews with fertility patients were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Following the principle of theoretical sampling, eight interviews were analysed by use of Grounded Theory. Analyses focused on processes of individual attitude formation. Strategies for handling ambivalence during attitude formation were identified: the six strategies comprise cognitive and communicative strategies, and were integrated into a model of attitude formation under ambivalence. As ambivalence is a relevant phenomenon in attitude formation within IVF treatment, assessment of ambivalence is strongly recommended in social science studies investigating ethical problems in patient care. In the context of informed consent, there is a need for individual counselling which draws attention to the conflicting values during attitude formation. Counsellors should be aware of the signs of and the strategies to deal with ambivalence.

  10. [Recruitment of osteogenic cells to bone formation sites during development and fracture repair - German Version].

    PubMed

    Böhm, A-M; Dirckx, N; Maes, C

    2016-04-01

    Recruitment of osteoblast lineage cells to their bone-forming locations is essential for skeletal development and fracture healing. In developing bones, osteoprogenitor cells invade the cartilage mold to establish the primary ossification center. Similarly, osteogenic cells infiltrate and populate the callus tissue that is formed following an injury. Proper bone development and successful fracture repair must, therefore, rely on controlled temporal and spatial navigation cues guiding the cells to the sites where new bone formation is needed. Some cellular mechanisms and molecular pathways involved have been elucidated.

  11. Role of low-energy ion irradiation in the formation of an aluminum germanate layer on a germanium substrate by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Yukio Yamada, Daichi; Yokohira, Tomoya; Yanachi, Kosei; Yamamoto, Chiaya; Yoo, Byeonghak; Sato, Tetsuya; Yamanaka, Junji; Takamatsu, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition uses oxygen radicals generated by a remote microwave-induced plasma as an oxidant to change the surface reactions of the alternately supplied trimethylaluminum precursor and oxygen radicals on a Ge substrate, which leads to the spontaneous formation of an aluminum germanate layer. In this paper, the effects that low-energy ions, supplied from a remote microwave plasma to the substrate along with the oxygen radicals, have on the surface reactions were studied. From a comparative study of aluminum oxide deposition under controlled ion flux irradiation on the deposition surface, it was found that the ions enhance the formation of the aluminum germanate layer. The plasma potential measured at the substrate position by the Langmuir probe method was 5.4 V. Assuming that the kinetic energy of ions arriving at the substrate surface is comparable to that gained by this plasma potential, such ions have sufficient energy to induce exchange reactions of surface-adsorbed Al atoms with the underlying Ge atoms without causing significant damage to the substrate. This ion-induced exchange reaction between Al and Ge atoms is inferred to be the background kinetics of the aluminum germanate formation by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

  12. Magnetostratigraphy: the key to a global correlation of the classic Germanic Trias-case study Volpriehausen Formation (Middle Buntsandstein), Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurlies, Michael

    2004-11-01

    An integrated lithostratigraphic-magnetostratigraphic study was carried out in order to provide a magnetic record for the Volpriehausen Formation of the classic Germanic Trias. In its type area of Central Germany, the ˜150-m thick Volpriehausen Formation consists of nine small-scale fining-upward cycles, ranging from about 10 to 20 m in thickness. They can readily be correlated over large parts of the Central European Basin using a combination of cyclic stratigraphy and gamma ray logging. Based on this robust high-resolution lithostratigraphic framework, a precise positioning and verification of paleomagnetic data has been realized. To this end, the classic outcrop Kleines Bodetal and the continuously cored well Bockenem A100 were collected, yielding a total of 361 paleomagnetic samples. From about 87% of them, a characteristic remanence was obtained in both the magnetite-bearing gray lithologies as well as the hematite-bearing red-brown lithologies. The between-site correlation allows the creation of a well-defined composite magnetostratigraphy of the uppermost Bernburg Formation to lowermost Detfurth Formation, encompassing a total of five magnetic polarity intervals, which can be combined unambiguously with a recently established polarity scale for the uppermost Zechstein and Lower Buntsandstein. Moreover, the resulting composite magnetostratigraphy can be correlated with corresponding records from the Continental, Boreal, and Tethyan realms. Thus, the Buntsandstein magnetostratigraphy is important in that it provides valuable anchors to link the Germanic Trias high-resolution lithostratigraphy to the biostratigraphically calibrated Triassic substages.

  13. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Eliseev, A. V.; Evgrafova, S.; Fedorova, I.; Glagolev, M.; Grigoriev, M.; Hubberten, H. W.; Knoblauch, C.; Kunitsky, V.; Kutzbach, L.; Reichstein, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Wagner, D.; Zimov, S. A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 2.5-times the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg

  14. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German scientific and technological cooperation project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 3-times the carbon within the atmosphere. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, a 4.5 million Euro project for scientific and technological cooperation, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and

  15. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  16. Glacial landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf: evidence for Late Wisconsinan ice-sheet dynamics and implications for the formation of De Geer moraines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Brian J.; Valentine, Page C.; Longva, Oddvar; Shaw, John

    2007-01-01

    The extent and behaviour of the southeast margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Atlantic Canada is of significance in the study of Late Wisconsinan ice sheet-ocean interactions. Multibeam sonar imagery of subglacial, ice-marginal and glaciomarine landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf, provides evidence of the pattern of glacial-dynamic events in the eastern Gulf of Maine. Northwest-southeast trending drumlins and megaflutes dominate northern German Bank. On southern German Bank, megaflutes of thin glacial deposits create a distinct northwest-southeast grain. Lobate regional moraines (>10km long) are concave to the northwest, up-ice direction and strike southwest-northeast, normal to the direction of ice flow. Ubiquitous, overlying De Geer moraines (

  17. A Teacher's Notebook: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This guide for teachers of German at independent schools is a result of a collective effort of a number of experienced German teachers during the year 1973. It is directed mainly toward the new teacher as a quick source of reference for all aspects of instruction of German at the secondary level. Contents include: (1) "Why Study German?," (2)…

  18. Controlling National Identity and Reshaping the Role of Education: The Vision of State Formation in Meiji Japan and the German "Kaiserreich"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2004-01-01

    In Meiji Japan (1868?1912) and the German "Kaiserreich" (1871-1918), the educational system assisted the state in the definition of the notions of national identity. They developed, it is broadly claimed, within a similar vision of a state, which culminated in similar patterns of nationalism towards the end of the Second World War. In this article…

  19. Controlling National Identity and Reshaping the Role of Education: The Vision of State Formation in Meiji Japan and the German "Kaiserreich"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2004-01-01

    In Meiji Japan (1868?1912) and the German "Kaiserreich" (1871-1918), the educational system assisted the state in the definition of the notions of national identity. They developed, it is broadly claimed, within a similar vision of a state, which culminated in similar patterns of nationalism towards the end of the Second World War. In this article…

  20. Rubella (German Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  1. German Measles (Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Vaccine Preventable Diseases > German Measles (Rubella) Health Issues ...

  2. 2.5 years of CarboPerm: achievements and further steps of an interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic matter (OM) decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1300 ± 200 Pg of SOC, or about twice as much the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will likely result in increased permafrost thawing with the consequence of increased mobilization and degradation of formerly frozen OM. This degradation process will presumably result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby induce a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of SOC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. CarboPerm strengthens permafrost research in underrepresented areas which are hardly accessible to international researchers. The obtained results improve our understanding of the future development of the sensitive and economically relevant arctic permafrost regions. With this contribution we want to inform the interested community about the new knowledge resulting from results of all scientific work packages: (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas.

  3. Two years of CarboPerm: achievements and further steps of an interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic matter (OM) decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1300 ± 200 Pg of SOC, or about twice as much the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will likely result in increased permafrost thawing with the consequence of increased mobilization and degradation of formerly frozen OM. This degradation process will presumably result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby induce a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of SOC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. CarboPerm strengthens permafrost research in underrepresented areas which are hardly accessible to international researchers. The obtained results improve our understanding of the future development of the sensitive and economically relevant arctic permafrost regions. With this contribution we want to inform the interested community about the new knowledge resulting from results of all scientific work packages: (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas.

  4. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  5. [Sample German LAPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  6. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  7. German for Business and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Anne-Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Argues that units on regular subjects should be taught in the German language classroom. Outlines a three-week thematic unit for a high school German class on German for business and economics. Notes resources for German language teaching materials, and ideas for interdisciplinary collaboration among high school teachers. (SR)

  8. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  9. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  10. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  11. Geomechanical characterization of an Upper Triassic reservoir rock (Stuttgart Formation) in the NE German Basin (pilot site for CO2 storage at Ketzin, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapperer, S.; Moeck, I.; Backers, T.

    2012-04-01

    behavior of rock are the angle of internal friction ψ and cohesion c, representing aspects determining failure occurrence that can be expressed and illustrated by the Mohr Coulomb failure criterion. As for the UCS there is also a wide range of values for ψ (4.06° to 36.98°) and c (10.45 MPa to 49.41 MPa) which differ distinctly within similar lithologies. With respect to these differences further geomechanical tests in combination with petrographic investigations will be in focus to evaluate the impact of lithologal as well as lithofacial characteristics on geomechanical properties. Thus the lithological and lithofacial heterogeneous characteristics of the Stuttgart formation could influence significantly the geomechanical behavior and transmission of stresses resulting from CO2 injection. Therefrom knowledge about these rock mechanical properties helps to provide a save and long term injection and prevent leakage scenarios.

  12. High temperature behavior of zirconium germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V.; Baklanova, N.I.; Vasilyeva, I.G.

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature behavior of zirconium germanates ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ up to 2300 °C has been studied using the original photoemission thermal analysis technique with the comprehensive physicochemical study of solid and gaseous intermediate and final products. The two-stage process of incongruent sublimation of GeO₂ was established and the phase boundary of the homogeneity range for ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ were deduced from the thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. A high tendency to sintering of the final ZrO₂ product is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂ and occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. Highlights: •Thermal behavior of ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ was studied using the original thermal analysis technique in wide temperature range. •The decomposition occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. •The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂. •The temperature of decomposition is strongly depended on the total gas pressure.

  13. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  14. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  15. Storytelling and German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  16. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  17. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  18. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  19. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  20. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  1. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  2. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  3. Headstart German Program. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the eighth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. This module deals with a single situation, visiting a German family in their home. The exercises are intended to…

  4. German as a Business Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Brian J.; Hahn, Martin

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the subject of Business German. Aspects covered include the rising general significance of business languages and concomitant increase in demand for Business German from employers, commerce-students and humanities students, the historical development of academic courses, integration of language skills with…

  5. Exploring French, German, and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Jacob

    This text- and workbook serves as an introduction to French, German, and Spanish as second languages. An introductory chapter discusses the relatedness of languages and the interrelationships of the Indo-European language families. The relationships of French, German, and Spanish to English are demonstrated in cognate exercises. In the second…

  6. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century.

  7. Stem Access in Regular and Irregular Inflection: Evidence from German Participles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolka, Eva; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rosler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether German participles are retrieved as whole words from lexical storage or whether they are accessed via their morphemic constituents. German participle formation is of particular interest, since it is concatenative for both regular and irregular verbs and results from combinations of regular/irregular stems with…

  8. German Eagle vs. Russian Bear: A World War II Russian Front Boardgame Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Louis R.

    This board game encourages junior and senior high school student analysis of the German campaign against the USSR and gauges student decision-making skills. The World War II Russo-German Front is simulated in a standard board game format. A key element of the game is its analysis and results form. Using this form compels students to analyze and…

  9. Teacher vs. Peer Oral Corrective Feedback in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sippel, Lieselotte; Jackson, Carrie N.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study investigated the effects of oral teacher and peer corrective feedback on the acquisition of the German present perfect tense, including auxiliary verb selection (a rule-based structure) and past participle formation (an item-based structure). Intermediate learners of German were assigned to a teacher feedback condition, a peer…

  10. Teacher vs. Peer Oral Corrective Feedback in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sippel, Lieselotte; Jackson, Carrie N.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study investigated the effects of oral teacher and peer corrective feedback on the acquisition of the German present perfect tense, including auxiliary verb selection (a rule-based structure) and past participle formation (an item-based structure). Intermediate learners of German were assigned to a teacher feedback condition, a peer…

  11. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  12. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  13. Evidence for germane in Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Knacke, R. F.; Geballe, T. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1988-01-01

    Observations in Saturn have prompted the development of an 0.4 + or - 0.2 ppb mole fraction for germane (GeH4) on the basis of the P- and R-branch lines' spectra. The presence of germane in Saturn implies a disequilibrium of the upper atmosphere by rapid vertical convection. It is suggested that future, more realistic radiative transfer models that include the effects of scattering within a cloud layer will probably only reduce the mole fraction presently derived for germane, by increasing the effective path length in a given atmospheric layer.

  14. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  15. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  16. German Letters and World Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durr, Volker

    1977-01-01

    Reminds us that the concept of World Literature as literary study contributing to the humanistic goal of universal tolerance was first expressed by Goethe, and indicates several ways of teaching German literature with that goal in mind. (Editor)

  17. Interpretation of single-well push-pull spikings conducted in deep crystalline formations (Soultz-s.-F. in the Upper Rhine Graben, and KTB-VB at the German site of ICDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, J.; Sauter, M.; Behrens, H.; (Steffen) Fischer, S.; (Steffi) Fischer, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.

    2009-04-01

    Two somewhat contrasting model approaches are presented, both aimed at interpreting long-term return signals from tracer push-pull tests conducted at single wells penetrating increased-permeability features in crystalline rock, about 4 km deep. The general idea is that single-well tracer push-pull tests, owing to the flow-field reversal, should provide privileged access to advection-independent parameters of solute transport, like the density of fluid-rock contact surface areas (Sauter et al., 2002). The latter is equivalent to the heat exchange area for a liquid-based geothermal system. At the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts in the Upper Rhine Graben, the French BRGM, in cooperation with EGI Utah and other partners, conducted a comprehensive tracer testing programme, whose results were presented in detail by Sanjuan et al. (2004, 2006), Rose et al. (2006). Of these results, we pick the tracer return signals detected during post-stimulation backflow periods at borehole GPK-2 between 2000 and 2002 (as published by Sanjuan et al., 2004) and attempt to interpret them in terms of a single-well injection-withdrawal sequence. Two chemically dissimilar organic tracers have been used by BRGM; however the difference between their return signals seems not significant enough to allow quantifying fluid-rock contact surfaces from this difference alone (additional / a priori information on coefficients of solute exchange across these surfaces would be required). Instead, the tracer return signals enable characterizing the nature of solute exchange processes within the spiked volume of the assumed fractured-porous formation (highly altered crystalline rock). At least one rapid-exchange (E-7 / d), slightly dispersive (Pe~12) component and one moderate-exchange (2E-8 / d), less dispersive (Pe~20) component appear to act within few hundred metres and, respectively, within at least 1 km radial distance from the borehole. - An alternative component of extremely fast exchange

  18. Indoxacarb biotransformation in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Silva, Isabel; Cooper, Bruce; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-11-01

    Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As shown in other insect species we found evidence for hydrolase-based bioactivation of indoxacarb to a toxic decarbomethoxylated metabolite, DCJW. In addition, both indoxacarb and DCJW were further metabolized to hydroxy, oxadiazine ring-opened and hydroxylated ring-opened metabolites. In general, higher indoxacarb disappearance, increased formation of DCJW and the above-mentioned metabolites were observed in the three field strains. In vitro biotransformation studies showed that hydroxylated and oxadiazine ring-opened metabolite formation is NADPH/cytochrome P450-dependent. Bioassays and in vivo metabolism experiments using the enzyme-inhibiting insecticide synergists, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), provided insights into potential indoxacarb resistance mechanisms that may proliferate in German cockroach field strains following unchecked selection pressures. The information presented here is an essential step toward developing indoxacarb resistance management programs and also reveals mechanisms of secondary/tertiary indoxacarb toxicity.

  19. Making German-American Connections through Culture Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheryl

    1998-01-01

    Describes 12 German-American projects designed for high school students of German, including a biography of a German-American; video presentation on German immigration; oral report on German ancestors; Amish, Pennsylvania Dutch, and Mennonites; German inscriptions on cemetery headstones; interview with a German-speaking immigrant; immigration…

  20. [German demography: a taboo subject?].

    PubMed

    Soullie, J

    1995-06-14

    The author first notes that, though the population of Germany has increased significantly in size since the Second World War, fertility has been below replacement levels for some time. Furthermore, this strong rate of growth has been accompanied by major variations from one generation to the next, although these trends have received very little attention from German scholars. It is noted that, since the rate of natural increase has been negative since 1972, this growth must have been caused exclusively by immigration. The seriousness of the demographic situation in the former East German states is noted. Current projections indicate a decline in total population size of about 13 million over the next 50 years. Policy options faced by the German authorities are discussed. This article was previously published in the April 15, 1995 issue of Chroniques Economiques.

  1. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  2. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  3. Das deutsche Adverbialsystem (The German Adverbial System)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droescher, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the surface structure of German adverbs proceeding from the standpoint of dependence-valence grammar. On the basis of their meaning, adverbs are classified as modal, temporal and locational. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  4. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  5. German and the Germans at the Time of the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Klaus J.

    1976-01-01

    The pedagogical, literary and journalistic significance of the German language in early America is outlined. The earliest record of German instruction is in 1702 in Germantown, Pa., where, in 1742, the first German school for girls was established. The disruptive effect of the Revolutionary War on German language use is reported. (MS)

  6. From Business to Technological German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, H. M.

    Because many of the Georgia Institute of Technology students taking business German come from the sciences and engineering, the business language textbook used has been supplemented with more technologically oriented instructional materials. Highly technical texts are too advanced at the second year language learning stage, so one teacher selected…

  7. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  8. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  9. A Functional Syntax of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Edward G.

    Students in intermediate language courses, especially conversational courses, can benefit from a simple set of instructions for combining words and phrases into sentences. A description of the basic concepts determining word order in German--the fundamental sequence of clause elements, the "infrastructure," and the movement rules by which the…

  10. Saving German Studies, via Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, William Collins; Kagel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    By most accounts, the position of German studies in the American academy is no longer secure. To a large extent, that is due to reasons beyond the control of individual faculty or departments, including the general crisis faced by the humanities and the diminished importance in the eyes of the public of literary criticism, a vital part of the…

  11. Atlanta Public Schools German Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Helen; And Others

    This guide for teachers of German emphasizes the primacy of listening and speaking skills at all levels of instruction. Contents include information on: (1) philosophy and ultimate goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program sequence, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for…

  12. Are German Universities Still Competitive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobkowicz, Nikolaus

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates reform of higher educational systems in Germany beginning with the University Law of Berlin (1969) and temporarily ending with the framework Higher Education law (1976). Concludes that given the fact that Germany relies not on resources but on know-how, German universities must realize that even in an age of mass education they should be…

  13. Instructional Methods in German (IMG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School of Education, Malmo (Sweden). Dept. of Educational and Psychological Research.

    This project report outlines a continuing investigation (1965-73) into the teaching of German in Swedish public schools and steps taken toward the compilation and construction of teaching materials for use in introductory courses. The work is reviewed following four principal phases of completed project research and development: (1) analysis of…

  14. Saving German Studies, via Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, William Collins; Kagel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    By most accounts, the position of German studies in the American academy is no longer secure. To a large extent, that is due to reasons beyond the control of individual faculty or departments, including the general crisis faced by the humanities and the diminished importance in the eyes of the public of literary criticism, a vital part of the…

  15. Headstart German Program. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the fifth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 3 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use and understand: (1) courtesy expressions; (2) time…

  16. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  17. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  18. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  19. The German Speaking Test: Utility and Caveats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the utility of the German Speaking Test (GST) as a general test of German foreign-language proficiency, examining whether it can be used effectively in classroom and institutional foreign-language settings and how proficiency ratings based on the GST relate to examinees' real-world German communicative abilities. Caveats regarding the…

  20. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  1. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  2. Cost analysis of German waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Debski, H.J.

    1993-12-31

    In forecasting costs of final disposal for radioactive waste, the determined disposal concept and operational aspects such as the necessary amount for personnel to operate the repository are important. Even for the German deep geological concept, there are large differences resulting from the assessment to select an already existing mine or a completely new formation as a disposal site. Based on actual planning, the expected total costs of the running waste repository projects in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented including their distribution to single aspects like project management, underground investigation, licensing work and construction. Moreover, the actual expenditures for the different waste repositories are given and as far as possible the prices per m{sup 3}.

  3. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  4. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  5. Pressure induced metallization of Germane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Canales, M.; Bergara, A.; Feng, J.; Grochala, W.

    2006-09-01

    Recently reported superconductivity in lithium under pressure has renewed the interest on hydrogen and hydrogen-rich systems in the long standing quest for room temperature superconductivity. Although the required metallization of pure hydrogen cannot be achieved within correct experimental capabilities, chemical precompression exerted by heavier atoms in compounds with a large hydrogen content is expected to imply that lower pressures might be required to attain the metallic transition in these alloys. In this article, we present an ab initio analysis of pressure induced metallization of germane, as a particular case between group IVa hydrides. According to our calculations, metallization of germane is predicted to occur at an experimentally accessible pressure of around 70 GPa, which corresponds to a compression factor of 3.4.

  6. Facility management in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gudat, H

    2000-04-01

    Facility management and optimum building management offer for hospitals a chance to reduce costs and to increase quality, process sequences, employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Some years ago simple services such as cleaning, catering or laundry were outsourced. Now, German hospitals progress to more complex fields such as building and medical technology, clinical support processes such as pharmacy, central laboratory and sterilization, goods and logistics services.

  7. Composition and microstructure of zirconium and hafnium germanates obtained by different chemical routes

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V. Prokip, V.E.; Baklanova, N.I.

    2014-01-15

    The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. The products were characterized using high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal (TG/DTA) analysis. To investigate the phase composition and stoichiometry of compounds the unit cell parameters were refined by full-profile Rietveld XRD analysis. The morphology of products and its evolution during high-temperature treatment was examined by SEM analysis. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. The ceramic route requires a multi-stage high-temperature treatment to obtain zirconium and hafnium germanates of 95% purity or more. Also, there are strong diffusion limitations to obtain hafnium germanate Hf{sub 3}GeO{sub 8} by ceramic route. On the contrary, the co-precipitation route leads to the formation of nanocrystalline single phase germanates of stoichiometric composition at a relatively low temperatures (less than 1000 °C). The results of quantitative XRD analysis showed the hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds in contrast to zirconium germanates that form a set of solid solutions. This distinction may be related to the difference in the ion radii of Zr and Hf. - Graphical abstract: The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zr and Hf germanates were synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes. • The morphology of products depends on the synthesis parameters. • Zirconium germanates forms a set of solid solutions. • Hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds.

  8. Current issues in German healthcare.

    PubMed

    Graf von der Schulenburg, J M; Uber, A

    1997-11-01

    Germany has developed a model of social health insurance for financing healthcare. The basic characteristics of this model are compulsory membership, income-dependent contributions paid by employers and employees, a comprehensive package of healthcare entitlements, stringent government regulation and implementation by not-for-profit health insurers--the sickness funds--which operate under public law. Since the mid-1970s, when health care cost containment gradually evolved as a new issue in German healthcare policy-making, a long series of reform programmes have been initiated. Two recent development can be noted: the introduction of market competition in health insurance and the introduction of fixed budgets. Market competition in health insurance is now an explicit policy tool in Germany. This article analyses the German healthcare system, the history of healthcare reforms and the current healthcare acts. Special emphasis is given to the German drug market and its regulation. The paper describes the present cost-containment policy for pharmaceutical products, especially the global budget concept which was introduced for medicines and patients' copayments.

  9. History of German pediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Heintzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Due to the isolation of German medicine in World War II accompanied by the destruction of many hospitals, German pediatricians did not show any serious interest in the treatment of children with congenital heart diseases, nor did they take notice of the progress achieved by Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock and other cardiologists and surgeons in the western world. This problem was even worse in East Germany. Only a few German internists and forward-looking surgeons were able and ready to take care of this group of principally operable children in places like Bonn/Düsseldorf, Marburg/Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. However, in the early 1950s some directors of pediatrics at university hospitals--largely motivated by the cardiac surgeons--allowed or even encouraged younger colleagues to concentrate on pediatric cardiology and to begin application of heart catheterization and angiocardiography. In 1960 a group of colleagues interested in pediatric cardiology met for the first time in Frankfurt and became the nucleus of the future "working group" (1969) and finally the "German Society of Pediatric Cardiology" (1974). By 1972 pediatric cardiology had been approved as an independent (sub)specialty. Colleagues and friends from surrounding countries (Austria, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the Netherlands) and also from the US and some eastern countries were either members or regular guests during or between the meetings. Pediatric cardiology is now represented in Germany by specialized practitioners, trainees and assistants who work in both community and university hospitals, and in specialized departments. Due to the foresightedness of the Chief of Pediatrics, Prof. G. Joppich, the first Chair of Pediatric Cardiology was founded in Göttingen in 1960 under the direction of A. Beuren. Another model of interdisciplinary cooperation between pediatric cardiologists, bioengineers, mathematicians and computer scientists was established in Kiel in 1966. In other places

  10. German Teaching: The German Journal of the Association for Language Learning, 1994-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien, Alistair, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal focuses on teaching and learning German as a foreign language. Selected articles include the following: "Give Students Autonomy!" German in Great Britain"; "Open Access and Listening Skills"; "Communication with Computers"; "The Quest for Fluency and Accuracy"; "Binational Problem…

  11. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  12. German Unification and Its Ramifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    national iden- tity. Yet the unification of Germany will do more than finally bring to an end the painful realities of German partition; it will also...the Unite Sn-w te4 esn omomic Polly Groi Meet- * irg in B"d we Ju 7-9 190. %9ý Gerniwu OECD £waomk 8wwpy 1990 M (OECD UVW- Seeavo Pao% 1980). i+ i I Ii...also force painful changes within Germany, as it will open or break up a variety of arrangements that have previously protected uncompetitive sectors of

  13. 78 FR 62307 - German-American Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9035 of October 4, 2013 German-American Day, 2013 By the President of the... German-American Day, we celebrate the vibrant threads of German heritage woven into our national fabric..., as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history of German...

  14. Elderhostels: Teaching and Learning with Americans of German Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Eberhard; Reichmann, Ruth M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes three workshops designed for an Elderhostel program whose audience is largely Americans of German descent and the grandparents of today's students. The workshop topics include an introduction to the German-American experience and German-American studies; German American customs, beliefs, and traditions; and German-American genealogy,…

  15. Was East German Education a Victim of West German "Colonisation" after Unification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that during German unification reform structures and ideas were not forced on the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Notes that a divided secondary school structure replaced the GDR unified school, but that was by request. Reveals that the East German's well-developed, pre-school education and childcare system was copied by West Germany.…

  16. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  17. Business German: The Use of Simulations in a Total Immersion German Business Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen

    At Concordia College's Institute of German Studies (Minnesota), an immersion program, a 1-month course entitled "German in the Business World" concentrates on development of written and oral communication skills needed in firms dealing with German-speakers. As part of its emphasis on banking, insurance, and business, the course includes…

  18. Business German: The Use of Simulations in a Total Immersion German Business Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen

    At Concordia College's Institute of German Studies (Minnesota), an immersion program, a 1-month course entitled "German in the Business World" concentrates on development of written and oral communication skills needed in firms dealing with German-speakers. As part of its emphasis on banking, insurance, and business, the course includes…

  19. The German Teacher's Companion. Development and Structure of the German Language. Workbook and Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosford, Helga

    This complete pedagogical reference grammar for German was designed as a textbook for advanced language teacher preparation, as a reference handbook on the structure of the German language, and for reference in German study. It systematically analyzes and describes the language's phonology, morphology, and syntax, and gives a brief survey of its…

  20. Ludolph Brauer, German aeromedical pioneer.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2004-08-01

    Ludolph Brauer (1865-1951) played an influential role in the history of aviation medicine in Germany. The Treaty of Versailles had put a stop to the development of German aviation and associated medical activities at the end of World War I. Brauer deserves credit for restarting civilian aviation medicine in Germany in the 1920s, paving the way for it to flourish in the 1930s. As Medical Director of the Hamburg-Eppendorf General Hospital, Brauer established the first German Institute of Aviation Medicine (GIAM) in 1927 in affiliation with the Tuberculosis Research Institute with its two large pneumatic chambers. The GIAM was active in altitude research and the selection of pilots, as well as educating medical students in aviation medicine, training Aviation Medical Examiners, and exploring clinical applications of hypobaric and climatic therapy. Brauer was forced to retire in 1934 for political reasons as the GIAM came under the influence of the military; in 1939 it was made part of the Aeromedical Research Institute of the "Reichsluftfahrt" Ministry. Brauer was a co-editor of the journal Luftfahrtmedizin in the 1930s and 1940s. He died in Munich on November 25th, 1951.

  1. 4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  2. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  3. 9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  4. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  5. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  6. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  8. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  9. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  10. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  11. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  12. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  13. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  14. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  15. German-Speaking People of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

  16. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures…

  17. German for Communication: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jens-Peter; Grittner, Frank M.

    This guide is designed to: (1) offer a rationale for German instruction and student enrollment; (2) give suggestions for proficiency-oriented lesson planning; and (3) provide classroom activities for students at various proficiency levels. A section on promoting the study of German discusses its role as a major world language, in tourism and world…

  18. Distance Learners of German and Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Uwe; Shelley, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a research project undertaken with advanced adult learners of German at a distance at The Open University, United Kingdom. Their gains in intercultural competence were investigated by looking at how far the students met the prescribed learning outcomes, their knowledge items, language skills, attitudes towards Germans and…

  19. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  20. The Translation of Loans: Anglicisms in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbe, Katharina

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the existence of anglicisms in German as a problem for the practice and teaching of translation, in which attention must be paid to the status of loans in the German linguistic and social system. Offers an approach to the translation of transparent anglicisms and proposes a method of translation. (SR)

  1. Teaching German for Musicians: A Practical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Explores the opportunities for teaching German for musicians and offers it as an approach to teaching beginning German in general. A short theoretical discussion of the impact of music on foreign language learning precedes the presentation of various teaching tools and ideas that map the territory in which musical foreign language teaching can…

  2. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  3. The German Passive: Analysis and Teaching Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffen, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes an analysis of German passive based upon internal structure rather than translation conventions from Latin and Greek. Claims that this approach leads to a description of the perfect participle as an adjectival complement, which eliminates the classification of a passive voice for German and simplifies the learning task. (MES)

  4. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  5. German Library Networks in the Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Discusses German libraries' access to the Internet and World Wide Web, and reviews German library development and organization. Topics include state libraries; research library networks; national scientific service organizations that provide specialized information services; funding; standards; online catalog software; document delivery and…

  6. Bloomfield as a Teacher of Elementary German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosford, Helga

    This paper describes Leondard Bloomfield's contributions to the description and instruction of German. Bloomfield's approach is reflected in this textbook "First German Book" which appeared in 1923 and was revised in 1928. The organization and structure of the text are described here in detail, and the differences between the first and…

  7. The Teaching of German Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippley, LaVern J.

    The present-day status of language instruction at St. Olaf College is viewed in the perspective of past requirements at the college. Reasons for student interest in German, the most popular modern language, focus on the influence of family ties with speakers of Norwegian. A discussion of methods of teaching German literature in translation is…

  8. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  9. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  10. The German infrared laboratory GIRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, D.

    Design features, performance specifications, and intended missions of the German IR laboratory (GIRL) to be flown on the Spacelab payload carried by the Shuttle are outlined. The entire telescope and all focal plane instruments will be cooled to at or below 10 K. The 50 cm telescope will carry four focal plane instruments: a camera for mapping extended regions, a photopolarimeter for surveying active galaxies in the 5-300 microns wavelength interval, an Ebert-Fastie spectrometer for limb scanning the earth's atmosphere, and a Michelson interferometer for studying fine structure lines of H II/H I region and rotational lines of molecular clouds in interstellar space. The cryostat has been built and tested for zero-g conditions and a 7-day holding period for the He has been demonstrated. The first flight is scheduled for 1986/1987.

  11. [The German University Medicine Map].

    PubMed

    Lohölter, R; Sass, H; von Jagow, G

    2009-08-01

    The University Medicine Map is a major step towards the realization of more transparency regarding the overall services of the medical schools in research, teaching, and patient care within the German university system. It includes comparative information about all 36 medical schools in Germany for the following areas: legal framework, finance, personnel, medical research, teaching and medical education, as well as patient care. The complete set of data for this map is accessible online under www.landkarte-hochschulmedizin.de and a selection of data is also available in print. Advantages and possible political implications for the higher education sector as well as the public domain are illustrated. Finally, the perspectives for future developments are indicated.

  12. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    PubMed

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  13. Intercultural Constellations in Adult Education: Observations on the State of Anglo-German Relations before and after the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha

    1993-01-01

    A literature review of adult education and Anglo-German connections, 1880-1933, showed that interculturality played an essential role in identity formation at the interface of culture and politics. Adult education developed as an autonomous area of international communication between British and German citizens despite political realities. (SK)

  14. Syntactic priming in German-English bilinguals during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kirsten; Indefrey, Peter

    2009-07-15

    A longstanding question in bilingualism is whether syntactic information is shared between the two language processing systems. We used an fMRI repetition suppression paradigm to investigate syntactic priming in reading comprehension in German-English late-acquisition bilinguals. In comparison to conventional subtraction analyses in bilingual experiments, repetition suppression has the advantage of being able to detect neuronal populations that are sensitive to properties that are shared by consecutive stimuli. In this study, we manipulated the syntactic structure between prime and target sentences. A sentence with a passive sentence structure in English was preceded either by a passive or by an active sentence in English or German. We looked for repetition suppression effects in left inferior frontal, left precentral and left middle temporal regions of interest. These regions were defined by a contrast of all non-target sentences in German and English versus the baseline of sentence-format consonant strings. We found decreases in activity (repetition suppression effects) in these regions of interest following the repetition of syntactic structure from the first to the second language and within the second language. Moreover, a separate behavioural experiment using a word-by-word reading paradigm similar to the fMRI experiment showed faster reading times for primed compared to unprimed English target sentences regardless of whether they were preceded by an English or a German sentence of the same structure. We conclude that there is interaction between the language processing systems and that at least some syntactic information is shared between a bilingual's languages with similar syntactic structures.

  15. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  16. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  17. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  18. Selected List of German Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, John R., Comp.

    Compiled with secondary school teachers of German in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (German-English, English-German, all-German, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…

  19. German Foreign and Security Policy: Trends and Transatlantic Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-20

    Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is also said to have expressed concerns about German unification. See Bush speech at the German Embassy, Washington, DC...Members of Congress view Germany as a key U.S. ally, have welcomed German leadership in Europe, and voiced expectations for increased U.S.-German...8 European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) .....................................................................9 European Leadership

  20. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  1. Selected List of German Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, John R., Comp.

    Compiled with secondary school teachers of German in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (German-English, English-German, all-German, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…

  2. German physicists pleased as Excellence Initiative extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-08-01

    Germany's federal and state governments have agreed to fund a third round of the so-called Excellence Initiative programme, which was inaugurated 10 years ago to promote world-class research at German universities.

  3. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  4. Genetic Control of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-17

    The authors investigated the possibility of controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica , by using chromosome translocations. The first...translocations for control in B. germanica . Such mechanisms are potentially capable of reducing field populations.

  5. First German Astronomy Ambassadors Fly On SOFIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Two German educators, Wolfgang Vieser and Jörg Trebs, were the first to represent their country as SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors. They flew aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...

  6. Interdisciplinary German-Language Cultural-Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Meriam M.

    1974-01-01

    The suggested themes, activities and projects presented here evolved from the interdisciplinary advanced German-language-mini-courses at Ridgefield (Connecticut) High School. Many of the activities can be adapted for use at earlier levels. (PP)

  7. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  8. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  9. [Research funding in German ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Meltendorf, C

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 applications for research funding in ophthalmology have been evaluated together with those from neurosurgery, neuropathology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatics, otolaryngology and neurology by a joint review board of the German Research Council (DFG). Facing a decreasing number of applications--in contrast to the need and importance of widespread ocular diseases--the working group "young academics" of the Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG) assessed the perception of funding programmes and grants available. Young ophthalmologists think that they have poor prospects to receive funding by a DFG proposal. In comparison, specialist funding quotas show a stable development within the neurosciences over the last years. The sum of requested funding has a strong correlation with the total amount actually paid. By clarifying the number of funded proposals, the better transparency and communication for the existing programmes should improve the cooperativeness, the funding rate and number of applications in future. This inventory explicitly includes a motivational guidance for young researchers to take the initiative to do more proposals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Sediment budgeting of German waterways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promny, M.

    2012-04-01

    Waterways today rarely have a sustainable sediment budget. Supply from upstream and lateral sources is blocked by barrages in many places. The transport capacity is strongly modified by means of planform and cross-section alterations. Many free-flowing river sections are subject to bed degradation, while impoundments tend to aggrade. This has consequences for the usability of navigation facilities, stability of structures (like bridge foundations and dykes) and groundwater levels. Consequently, sediment managements operations are commonplace, being challenging in economic and ecologic terms. A first step towards an improved sediment management is to establish the current sediment budget of a river. There are different methods to gain information about the sediment budget: - measurements of bed-load and suspended load transport - deductions from temporal development of bed-level development - deductions from temporal development of streamwise water-level measurements - deductions from temporal development of water-levels at gauges - bed-load tracer analyses - numerical modelling An overview of the methods used in sediment budgeting of German waterways at the Federal Institute of Hydrology will be given. Ongoing research based on the above mentioned methodology will be presented, with a special focus on the possible influence of climate change on sediment budgets.

  11. Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2017-04-27

    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    germanate based glasses with a specific focus on glass stability during thermal- cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped...evidence of crystallisation after thermal cycling , and is of a low enough loss to realize a fiber laser. The glass stability is demonstrated by...specific focus on glass stability during thermal- cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped micro-structured germanate

  13. A German Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  14. The Soviet Union and German Reunification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-17

    supporters , but it also undermined the viability of the East German regime and destroyed whatever legitimacy it might have had. 2 1 Thus, just as...continued Soviet military presence in Germany and the creation of a viable Communist East German state. Accordingly, Zhdanov and his supporters were against...socialist state, to recommend to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany to abandon the slogan of the struggle to build socialism . The Central Committee

  15. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  16. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  17. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  18. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  19. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  20. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  1. Mandatory disease reporting by German laboratories: a survey of attitudes, practices and needs.

    PubMed

    Zucs, A P; Benzler, J; Krause, G

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the new German infectious disease control act replaced aggregate with individual case reporting. The process was facilitated by the simultaneous introduction of electronic data transfer within the public health system. Reporting laboratories have not been electronically connected to this network. A survey by means of a postal questionnaire was conducted in 2003 among 537 German medical microbiology laboratories to explore their reporting habits, preference for electronic reporting formats, and relevant software equipment. Almost 90% of the respondents indicated a reporting delay of no more than 24 hours and 45% were still manually filling in paper forms for reporting purposes. The introduction of electronic reporting formats was favoured by 74% of the laboratories although 33% were not using any microbiology-specific software and the remaining 67% listed 62 different products. Pilot projects with selected software manufacturers might help to pave the way for the implementation of a standardised electronic infectious disease reporting format in Germany.

  2. [The new German decree on drinking water].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, R H

    2001-11-01

    The Second European Guideline of Drinking Water was published on 3rd November 1998. Notwithstanding good German drinking water standards, as a member country of the European Union, Germany had to transfer this guideline to German law. Therefore the new German decree on drinking water (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV 2001) was published on 21st May 2001. Basing on recent toxicological findings some of the borderline values have been lowered compared to the previous version. There are problems to realize the new low borderline value for lead; therefore full realization will be ordered not till 2013. The main responsibilities as to the hygienic inspection of water-supplying installations are assigned to the Public Health Office. The owners of water supply installations are notifiable to the Public Health Office. The District with the District Community Physician is the responsible administrative authority to take measures for good and healthy drinking water quality.

  3. War, suffering and modern German history.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  4. Status of German European exhaust emission legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, U.

    1985-01-01

    Recent legislative initiatives in West Germany and other European countries are leading to more stringent automobile exhaust emission standards. A review of the emission inventory on a global and West German basis and other factors, such as acid rain and forest damage, indicate that the contribution of automobile exhaust to the emission problem may be less than the European public assumes. As an interim step while new standards are being considered, the West German government is promoting the purchase of low-pollution vehicles through a vehicle tax reduction program.

  5. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  6. Association norms for German noun compounds and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Schulte im Walde, Sabine; Borgwaldt, Susanne R

    2015-12-01

    We present a collection of association norms for 246 German depictable compound nouns and their constituents, comprising 58,652 association tokens distributed over 26,004 stimulus-associate pair types. Analyses of the data revealed that participants mainly provided noun associates, followed by adjective and verb associates. In corpus analyses, co-occurrence values for compounds and their associates were below those for nouns in general and their associates. The semantic relations between compound stimuli and their associates were more often co-hyponymy and hypernymy and less often hyponymy than for associations to nouns in general. Finally, we found a moderate correlation between the overlap of the associations to compounds and their constituents and the degree of semantic transparency. These data represent a collection of associations to German compound nouns and their constituents that constitute a valuable resource concerning the lexical semantic properties of the compound stimuli and the semantic relations between the stimuli and their associates. More specifically, the norms can be used for stimulus selection, hypothesis testing, and further research on morphologically complex words. The norms are available in text format (utf-8 encoding) as supplemental materials.

  7. [Nationwide evaluation of German university teaching methods in neurology].

    PubMed

    Biesalski, A-S; Zupanic, M; Isenmann, S

    2015-06-01

    Germany is confronted with a lack of medical doctors and an increasing need for neurologists in particular. In order to recruit future doctors in neurology it is essential to attract young students when still at university. This article presents the first German national survey of medical students' acceptance of teaching methods in neurology. The participants evaluated teaching methods and examination formats and were asked about their preferences. The survey was based on a questionnaire distributed to 22 German medical schools and 1245 participating students. Interactive teaching methods, especially courses in practical examinations, clinical internships and bedside teaching were highly rated among the students. In contrast, multiple choice tests, as one of the most widespread examination methods, were poorly rated compared to practical and oral examinations. For most of the students it was not decisive, in which semester teaching of neurology took place, while the majority asked for additional and more intensive neurological education. The data give an overview of teaching of neurology in Germany and students' assessment of various approaches. The results should be utilized towards reorientation of future curricula that should aim at innovative and even more practically oriented teaching.

  8. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  9. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, Observation Bunker, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  10. An Assessment of the Frequency of Germanisms in "The Observer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanforth, Anthony

    1976-01-01

    The frequency with which the reader of the British press encounters Germanisms is surprisingly great. This article charts the frequency of German material in one Sunday newspaper and then indicates which individual items occurred most often. (CFM)

  11. The German Investigation of the Accident at Meopham (England)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann; Hertel, Heinrich; Thalau, Karl

    1932-01-01

    This report is a recounting of the German investigation of the crash of a commercial Junkers F 13 ge in England. The English report is examined and compared with the German interpretation of the accident.

  12. Effectiveness of the Interactive Videodisc-Enhanced German Gateway Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Field Test group. The primary measure used to assess end-of-course group differences In learning German was an Oral Proficiency Examination (OPE...IVD groups do not differ In Initial German language ability. Attitude toward learning German . On the Pre-course Questionnaire subjects responded to a...series of statements about the possible relevance of and reasons for learning German . Table 3 shows these data. The two groups showed no significant

  13. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  14. The IB from a German Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckheit, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Although the IB (international baccalaureate) diploma has almost universal acceptance as a college-preparation standard for students studying in foreign countries, Germany and France are reluctant to accept this diploma for nationals studying in their own countries. The German state governments are particularly concerned about quality control and…

  15. An Analysis of the German Perfekt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    Shows that the German "perfekt" has a uniform temporal meaning that results systematically from the interaction of its three components--finiteness marking, auxiliary, and past participle--and that the two readings are the consequence of a structural ambiguity. This analysis also predicts the properties of other participle constructions, in…

  16. Predicting Stuttering from Phonetic Complexity in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Howell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated how phonetic complexity affects stuttering rate in German and how this changes developmentally. Phonetic difficulty was assessed using Jakielski's index [Motor Organization in the Acquisition of Consonant Clusters, Dissertation/Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas Austin, 1998] of phonetic complexity (IPC) in which words are…

  17. German Security Policy: Continuity and Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Victor S. Malone Av3;i and for , Dist Spicial - - F - - ś - Approved by:J, nald Abenhe6, Thesis Advisor/-\\ L Rodney Kenrledy-Mino t, Second Reader Thomas...70 MILITARY OPTIONS...similar results in the political/social realm? DEVELOPMENT The development of German statecraft in the period following the end of the Second World

  18. Learning German: A CAI Program Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a catalogue of microcomputer courseware specifically designed for use in learning German. Covers four types of software: (1) authoring systems for drill and practice, (2) drill and practice programs that are self-contained, (3) authoring systems that create game-like materials, and (4) game programs. Includes a listing of publishers and…

  19. German Studies and the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Susan D.

    Since the late 1960's, German studies, like foreign language studies in general, have been on the decline. Part of the decline in foreign language enrollments can be attributed to higher education's declining rate of enrollment growth, part to elimination of language requirements for degree recipients, and part to shifting program emphases. A…

  20. Predicting Stuttering from Phonetic Complexity in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Howell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated how phonetic complexity affects stuttering rate in German and how this changes developmentally. Phonetic difficulty was assessed using Jakielski's index [Motor Organization in the Acquisition of Consonant Clusters, Dissertation/Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas Austin, 1998] of phonetic complexity (IPC) in which words are…

  1. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  2. German Universities Bursting at the Seams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Don

    1989-01-01

    Reports that record enrollments have prompted a rethinking of the nation's higher education policies. Cites several explanations for overcrowding: an increase in the number of students continuing their studies, German students take longer to complete studies, and older students are reentering the university. (RT)

  3. German Cultural Packets 13 and 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    These German culture packets are designed to accompany A-LM Level II and include a statement of the rationale behind the unit, the objectives of the packet, the activities themselves, and a brief evaluation by the student. The activities involve the use of the basic text, the student workbook, corresponding tapes, and fellow students as partners…

  4. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  5. Deutschunterricht Durch Handeln (Teaching German through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level German lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, instructions…

  6. Culture Curriculum for German, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Larry M.; Loew, Helene Z.

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-1 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the first eight lessons of the text and comprise the major portion of this text including: (1) die Post, (2) Munchen, (3) Sport in Deutschland, (4) die deutschen…

  7. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  8. 'Oblique' Modals in English and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Compares the English modals "could,""might,""should,""ought to" and others with German "konnte,""durfte,""sollte,""mubte," referring to the diachronic perspective and using Reichenbach's (1947) grid of times and worlds. The article suggests that the variety of use of…

  9. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children…

  10. Disseminated blastomycosis in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Beverley S.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-year-old German shepherd was evaluated after collapsing at home following a week of lethargy and anorexia. Systemic blastomycosis was diagnosed histologically at necropsy. Diagnosis and treatment were difficult due to unusual neurological symptoms, the absence of abnormalities on diagnostic tests, and the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. PMID:12125188

  11. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  12. Deutschunterricht Durch Handeln (Teaching German through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level German lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, instructions…

  13. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  14. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic…

  15. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  16. German Academic Libraries: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunzel, Jurgen; Poll, Roswitha

    2002-01-01

    Describes academic libraries in Germany and how they have been influenced by restructuring and reforming the higher education system, changes in information technology and information industry, and effects of the German reunification process. Discusses library resources, including staff, buildings, and collections; catalogs; preservation; user…

  17. German Folk Dances: An Innovative Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Almute

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes the incorporation of folk dances into the German curriculum on all instructional levels, from kindergarten to college. Learning and performing folk dances provides students not only with cultural information about foreign countries but also with specific structural features of the foreign language. The teacher can select…

  18. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  19. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  20. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  1. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  2. Content, Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to extend and deepen the conversation concerning the knowledge-based approach to curriculum espoused by Michael Young in his 2013 "JCS" paper through revisiting the structure of the disciplines thinking of Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik." It argues that curriculum making requires a theory of knowledge…

  3. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-16

    Myth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1917. Lehman, Hartmut , and Ledford, Kenneth F., ed., Elections, Mass Politics, and Social Change in Modern...Newspapers: Chronological by Newspaper. London Times "Germans Reject New Europe." London imes. 3 March 1992, p. 10a. " Becker Love Match Inflames Na:i Desire

  4. German and Russian Adolescents' Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.

    German (n=610) and Russian (n=610) adolescents in 3 age groups, 12, 15, and 18 years, were given a questionnaire assessing their feelings towards environmental destruction, their readiness for pro-environmental action, and their ethical attitude toward nature. In both nationalities anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were…

  5. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  6. Content, Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to extend and deepen the conversation concerning the knowledge-based approach to curriculum espoused by Michael Young in his 2013 "JCS" paper through revisiting the structure of the disciplines thinking of Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik." It argues that curriculum making requires a theory of knowledge…

  7. The German Toyshop: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemczura, Mary Ann; Clayton, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a project combining the disciplines of German and technology education by giving students an opportunity to learn technical vocabulary and design and create wooden toys to increase students' awareness of international business and global economy and the necessity of communicating ideas with people in other countries. (Author/CB)

  8. German Higher Education: Some Facts and Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, John L.; Huff, Betty J.

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the current status of the German system of higher education looks at its relationship to federal and state governments, its administrative organization, problems (particularly in the eastern states) and areas where reform is needed, availability of student services, and the significance for the system as a whole of social and…

  9. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  10. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  11. The Teaching of German: Problems and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Eberhard, Ed.; And Others

    Some 200 journal articles and other writings, selected from foreign language materials and publications from the 1950's and 1960's, are presented in this anthology. It is suggested that two-thirds of the items are relevant to all language instruction and that the remainder are of specific interest to teachers of German. Five major sections…

  12. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  13. Medical ethics in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Luther, E

    1989-06-01

    Medical ethics has been developing in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) since the 1970's on the basis of the traditional ethics of physicians and the socio-economic fundamentals of our socialist state. Medical care provided in the framework of Marxist-Leninist medical ethics is based on rationality and humanity.

  14. How to Find Out in: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  15. How to Find Out in: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  16. Culture Curriculum for German, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Larry M.; Loew, Helene Z.

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-1 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the first eight lessons of the text and comprise the major portion of this text including: (1) die Post, (2) Munchen, (3) Sport in Deutschland, (4) die deutschen…

  17. Culture Curriculum for German, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetiker, Rosemary

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-2 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the seventh through the 12th lessons and comprise the major portion of this text including: )1) die Eisenbahn, (2) Reisen und Essen in Deutschland, (3) die Familie,…

  18. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  19. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  20. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  1. The Medieval German University: Transformation and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinges, Rainer Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the university system within the Holy Roman Empire, especially in Germany, explaining that the University of Prague in 1348 was the Empire's first university. Reports that after the University of Prague, the new university type, or the "German type," developed by combining types of universities in Bologna and…

  2. "Gastarbeiterdeutsch" and Its Significance for German Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1976-01-01

    "Gastarbeiterdeutsch" includes varieties of German spoken by the many foreign workers employed in low-paid, less desirable jobs in Germany. It is characterized by reduction and simplification of syntactic and semantic forms. Study of this dialect reveals patterns of natural language acquisition necessary for communication, useful in classroom…

  3. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic…

  4. On the German Language in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  5. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  6. Language Production in Turkish-German-English Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Wolf

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we investigate sentence production in the German interlanguage of Turkish students who have learned German as a first and English as a second foreign language. The students know both languages at an (advanced) intermediate level. Nevertheless, we observed some properties of the German interlanguage that seem to indicate an…

  7. Teachable Texts: Integrating German-Americana in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Linda Schelbitzki

    1998-01-01

    A three-part college-level German instructional unit using nineteenth-century German-American texts concerning women's experience of immigration illustrates ways in which such material can be incorporated into the second year of instruction. Ways in which using German-American texts and topics promote language learning across the curriculum are…

  8. German Cafe-Theater: A Venture in Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semke, Harriet D.

    1980-01-01

    The theory that the goal of public performance can be used as a motivating tool in foreign language learning is the basis for the annual German-cafe theater evening described here. The evening of refreshments and entertainment, entirely produced by the German classes, illustrates authentic German cultural activities. (PMJ)

  9. German Round the Corner: Die Whyte Avenue in Edmonton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer E.

    This compilation of interviews and photographs is the result of a German class project entitled Whyte Avenue. The project was carried out by fifth and sixth grade students who were attending an after-school German course in Edmonton, Alberta. The course introduced students to the German language and culture by exposing them to native German…

  10. Teaching Business German Basics on the Second Year Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, Heidi M.

    Most college curricula in business German are oriented to third- and fourth-year German students. Development of a course in introductory business German designed for the second year of language instruction required careful selection of materials and activities. Texts were selected for their comprehensibility for students with no business…

  11. 75 FR 62453 - German-American Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8580 of October 6, 2010 German-American Day, 2010 By the President of the... ancestry who have been an integral part of our national life. On German-American Day, we pay tribute to the... October 6, 2010, as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history...

  12. A Heritage Fulfilled: German Americans = Die Erfullte Herkunft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    Different aspects of German-American heritage in Minnesota are highlighted in this collection of conference papers and photographs. The articles included are: "The German Contribution to the Discovery, Exploration and Early Settlement of the Americas" (H. Galinsky); "Three Literary Aspects of the German in America: Immigrant,…

  13. Reference Resources in German Literature: An Annotated Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Helga

    This guide is a selection of important reference sources for research in German literature. All major bibliographies and other German reference works, covering the earliest to the most recent literature are included. Important German reference works listing international materials are also included. With the exception of translation sources, the…

  14. Teaching German-Americana with Assistance from the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Robert J.; Hoyt, Giles R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the World Wide Web can assist in teaching about German-Americana in German-language instruction, and discusses some basic Web page uses to find and organize literary texts, syllabi, course outlines, images and realia, and information about people, organizations, events, and places. Some of the most useful German-American resources are…

  15. Influences of German science and scientists on Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Barry A. J.

    The multidisciplinary approach of Alexander von Humboldt in scientific studies of the natural world in the first half of the nineteenth century gained early and lasting acclaim. Later, given the broad scientific interests of colonial Victoria's first Government Astronomer Robert Ellery, one could expect to find some evidence of the Humboldtian approach in the operations of Williamstown Observatory and its successor, Melbourne Observatory. On examination, and without discounting the importance of other international scientific contributions, it appears that Melbourne Observatory was indeed substantially influenced from afar by Humboldt and other German scientists, and in person by Georg Neumayer in particular. Some of the ways in which these influences acted are obvious but others are less so. Like the other Australian state observatories, in its later years Melbourne Observatory had to concentrate its diminishing resources on positional astronomy and timekeeping. Along with Sydney Observatory, it has survived almost intact to become a heritage treasure, perpetuating appreciation of its formative influences.

  16. Non-separable time preferences, novelty consumption and body weight: Theory and evidence from the East German transition to capitalism.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Davide; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model to illustrate how diet and body weight change when novel food products become available to consumers. We propose a microfounded test to empirically discriminate between habit and taste formation in intertemporal preferences. Moreover, we show that 'novelty consumption' and endogenous preferences can explain the persistent correlation between economic development and obesity. By empirically studying the German reunification, we find that East Germans consumed more novel Western food and gained more weight than West Germans when a larger variety of food products became readily accessible after the fall of the Wall. The observed consumption patterns suggest that food consumption features habit formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-linguistic vowel variation in trilingual speakers of Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jörg; Heeringa, Wilbert J; Schoormann, Heike E

    2017-08-01

    The present study compares the acoustic realization of Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German vowels by trilingual speakers in the Saterland. The Saterland is a rural municipality in northwestern Germany. It offers the unique opportunity to study trilingualism with languages that differ both by their vowel inventories and by external factors, such as their social status and the autonomy of their speech communities. The objective of the study was to examine whether the trilingual speakers differ in their acoustic realizations of vowel categories shared by the three languages and whether those differences can be interpreted as effects of either the differences in the vowel systems or of external factors. Monophthongs produced in a /hVt/ frame revealed that High German vowels show the most divergent realizations in terms of vowel duration and formant frequencies, whereas Saterland Frisian and Low German vowels show small differences. These findings suggest that vowels of different languages are likely to share the same phonological space when the speech communities largely overlap, as is the case with Saterland Frisian and Low German, but may resist convergence if at least one language is shared with a larger, monolingual speech community, as is the case with High German.

  18. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  19. German version of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale: psychometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Reschke, Konrad; Rudwan, Samer; Tanjour, Ismail

    2006-10-01

    A German translation of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, written originally in Arabic, was prepared. A sample of 207 men and women German college students was recruited. Coefficient alpha was .88, whereas the item-remainder correlations ranged from .21 to .63, denoting good internal consistency. The correlation of the scale with the German form of the Trait Anxiety Scale was .76, indicating high criterion-related validity. Three factors were identified: General, Somatic, and Cognitive/Affective Anxiety. German students scored lower (less anxious) than students from the U.S. and 18 Arab countries. The sex difference was not significant for the German sample.

  20. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  1. [Ethnic Germans from East bloc countries and Germans from the German Democratic Republic--quantitative development and structure].

    PubMed

    Fleischer, H; Proebsting, H

    1989-09-01

    This article focuses on two types of migration to West Germany: the migration of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and migration from East Germany. Information is included on the volume of this migration between 1950 and 1988, countries of origin, family characteristics, age and sex structure, religion, labor force participation, and occupational structure. Comparisons are also made with data for the native population of West Germany.

  2. The "Academization" of the German Qualification System: Recent Developments in the Relationships between Vocational Training and Higher Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Andrä; Kerst, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The traditional German model of skill formation was based on the rather strict segmentation between vocational training and higher education. However, during recent years this differentiation has slowly dissolved, partly by politically motivated developments to increase the permeability between both sectors and partly as a result of latent changes…

  3. Survey of Global Simulation at the Intersection of Theory and Practice in the Intermediate-Level German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Glenn S.; Eppelsheimer, Natalie; Kuzay, Franz; Moti, Simona; Wilby, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a format for intermediate, university-level German instruction called "global simulation" (GS) as the curricular manifestation of several recent trends in the literature on instructed second-language acquisition, in particular interactionist and task-based approaches, sociocultural theory, and the acquisition of intercultural…

  4. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  5. German acceleration research from the very beginning.

    PubMed

    Harsch, V

    2000-08-01

    German airmen were experiencing G-induced physiological effects as early as WWI, although no research on acceleration physiology was conducted at that time in Germany. This changed in 1931 with the studies of Heinz von Diringshofen, who gained experience with prolonged acceleration in flight. The first German centrifuge was constructed by the von Diringshofen brothers and was in operation at the Air Ministry's Aeromedical Research Institute in Berlin from 1935-1945. After WWII, Otto Gauer and Heinz Haher authored the paper "Man under Gravity-Free Conditions," paving the way to manned space exploration and demonstrating the change of research interest from the effects of multiple G forces to those of zero G.

  6. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  7. [The German Medical eLibrary].

    PubMed

    Rütters, Dana; Schwencke, Silja; Bunk, Thomas; Nothacker, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The internet offers doctors plenty of high-value information for medical questions. However, several barriers impair the preoccupation with this information, most notably lack of time, far too much offered information and missing confidence in the reliability of the offers. The following article points out how the Agency for Quality in Medicine developed the Internet portal "German Medical eLibrary" (Arztbibliothek) in which information is transparently pre-selected and grouped in a structured way as well as easy to find with the help of a simple, user-friendly search function. Evidence-based high-quality information is available in an easy, quick and well-directed manner. Thus the "German Medical eLibrary" facilitates knowledge management as a cornerstone of high-quality medical care.

  8. Adaptive Reorganization of German Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Assistance ME Mission Element MOD Ministry of Defense MFR Military Leadership Council (German: Militärischer Führungsrat) NATO North Atlantic...option of assuming command responsibility as a framework nation and  Providing the required capabilities for the entire task spectrum, into which...unclassified NATO paper that cannot issue directives regarding Germany’s approach to establishing GER SOF’s chain of command, NATO provides the framework

  9. German Defense Policy At A Turning Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    due to upcoming regional elections , and (5) Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle, who possessed a rather strong pacifist orientation.57 These factors...supported their allies as much as they “could up to the point that would require a Bundestag mandate,” while the difficulty for NATO, and the allies was...Concert of Democracies”65 German Chancellor Angela Merkel has been rather clear on this point, commenting to the Bundestag in 2009 that “I cannot see a

  10. German Unification: Security Implications for Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    the Soviet Union , the revolutions rushing through Eastern Europe, and impending European economic integration, the current security architecture is...Europe. instabilities in the Soviet Union , the move towards European integration, and the hard look being made at US involvement in European security...June 1990. It is not by accident that I picked this date. German monetary union occurs today. NATO leaders will be meeting in London next week to

  11. [German nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  12. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    over time. Currently, Thyssen Krupp is known for different technologies, which range from heavy industries to elevators. Thyssen Krupp Marine Systems...busses, and trucks . According to its website www.daimler.com, Daimler owns different brand names under which they distribute their products across...the world. Besides Mercedes-Benz, Daimler also owns the brands Smart, Freightliner , Western Star, and Thomas Build Busses. The German Armed Forces

  13. The German Army and NATO Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    results were expected was not stated. Units available for the offensive oper- ations were 11 air groups . Use of the Middle East for staging, planned...defense plans to NATO, a point of importance that would complicate development of the West German armament program. The NATO planning groups , primarily...the Western Europe Planning Group (with the participation of the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Italy), took over the WEU de- fense planning

  14. Analysis of Stresses in German Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1923-01-01

    This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.

  15. German Strategic Deception in the 1930s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    constituted propaganda. When the V-1 failed to appear on schedule, Goebbels declared in an October 1943 speech: 1Albert Speer , Inside the Third Reich...subordinates to impress him in the race for scarce domestic funds. 1lIbid., p. 286. 2See discussion in Andreas Hillgruber, "England’s Place in Hitler’s Plans for...2Generalleutnant Andreas Nielsen, The German Air Force General Staff (USAF Historical Studies: No. 173: Air University, June 1959). ,____________ .J

  16. Tidal wave transformations in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Al-Nadhairi, Rahma; Staneva, Joanna; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-07-01

    Mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics associated with tidal wave transformations were addressed in the German Bight using numerical simulations. Tidal gauge and velocity observations in several locations were used to validate the numerical model. A downscaling approach included analysis of simulations with horizontal resolutions of 1, 0.4, and 0.2 km. It was shown that the modified tidal wave lost most of its energy after reflection or refraction over the eastern part of the German Bight. Energy loss resulted in a pronounced change of the wave's spectral composition and generation of overtides. Tidal oscillations were modified by mesoscale processes associated with bathymetric channels. Semidiurnal and quarterdiurnal tides revealed very different spatial patterns. The former were aligned with the bathymetric channels, while the latter were rather "patchy" and had about half the spatial scales. In numerous areas around the bathymetric channels, the major axis of the M4 ellipses was normal or at some angle with the major axis of the M2 ellipses. Thus, higher harmonics developed "orthogonal" patterns that drove secondary circulations. Moreover, the ratio between spring and neap tidal amplitudes was relatively low in the Wadden Sea, showing reduced sensitivity of this very shallow area to fortnightly tidal variations. It was demonstrated that simulated hydrodynamics patterns help explain the physical mechanism shaping the median grain size distribution in the German Bight.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  18. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    PubMed

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  19. Middle Triassic chirotherid trackways on earthquake influenced intertidal limulid reproduction flats of the European Germanic Basin coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2012-09-01

    Chirotherid footprints of Synaptichnium, Chirotherium and Isochirotherium appeared during the late Early (Aegean) to early Late (Carnian) Triassic in central Europe. These taxa are partly revised herein, using both perfect and variably preserved tracks, and very long trackways from an upper Pelsonian intertidal-flat megatracksite of the Germanic Basin coast Pelsonian (Karlstadt Formation). The global Middle Triassic distribution of those footprints suggests seasonal migrations across Pangaea of possible archosauriform reptile trackmakers, such as Euparkeria, Ticinosuchus, Arizonasaurus and Batrachotomus, caused by horseshoe-crab mass migrations into tidal-flat beach reproductive zones in the Germanic Basin. Such seasonal migrations may even suggest a Pangaea-wide food-chain reaction, possibly including the mobilization of fish, marine and terrestrial reptiles, and of which situation the Germanic Basin intertidal-flats is a globally unique example.

  20. [Domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region of the German cockroach retroposon R1].

    PubMed

    Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V

    2010-08-01

    Using cosmid vector, a gene library of German cockroach Blattella germanica was constructed. From this library, clones containing full-length copies of two subfamilies of R1 retroposons were selected. Retroposons R1 of German cockroach belonging to different subfamilies were shown to be different in domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region. For the first time, retroposons transmembrane domains were identified in the sequences of R1. It was demonstrated that two retroposon R1 subfamilies of German cockroach arose as a result of intragenomic divergence rather than via horizontal transfer of alien mobile element into cockroach genome. The differences in domain organization appeared not as a result of saltatory recombination processes, but as a consequence of gradual mutation accumulation, which led to either degeneration, or to domain formation.

  1. German Foreign and Security Policy: Trends and Transatlantic Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    established Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) embraced integration into multilateral structures as a crucial step toward fulfilling two of the...Europe and lingering European and German anxiety toward a larger and potentially more powerful Germany, German leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the...energy security goals are playing an increasingly important role in German foreign policy, particularly toward Russia and within the European Union

  2. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  3. Contrastive intonation of German and English. Problems and some results.

    PubMed

    Esser, J

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of a contrastive analysis only distinctive formal elements and functions are to be considered. The latter are "lexical or syntactic disambiguation", "syntactic characterization" and "communicative differentiation". In German, modal particles and intonation render expressive functions which are conveyed in English by intonation only. The differing punctuation systems of English and German have to be considered as a source of interference besides limited differences between the English and the German intonation systems.

  4. [Recommendations on classification of German pain treatment services].

    PubMed

    Sabatowski, R; Maier, C; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Thomm, M; Nilges, P; Kayser, H; Casser, R

    2011-08-01

    On behalf of the German chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommendations for German pain treatment services have been developed for the first time. The criteria were based on the IASP recommendations but adapted to the specific German situation. According to the structure and process criteria four different levels of pain treatment services can be distinguished. The aim of the recommendations is to serve as a guide for future development and implementation of pain therapy and quality assurance.

  5. The North German Conductivity Anomaly revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, A.; Houpt, L.; Brasse, H.; Hoffmann, N.

    2011-10-01

    The North German Conductivity Anomaly was detected already in the early years of electromagnetic deep sounding. It refers to the reversal of induction arrows (as a graphical representation of the tipper transfer function, the ratio of vertical to horizontal magnetic field variations) at the northern and southern margins of the North German Basin. In spite of the many experiments carried out so far, its origin has remained ambiguous; explanations encompass a deep-crustal or even mantle source as well as the simple response to deepening of sedimentary sequences in the centre of the basin. Here, we report on modelling of new long-period magnetotelluric data collected along two profiles in NE Germany and S Sweden, with one transect crossing the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone as the main boundary between Precambrian Baltica and the Palaeozoic belts of central Europe. With the exception of a few sites probably influenced by 3-D salt domes, the data allow a 2-D analysis. Resolution is reduced for large depths due to a well-conducting, saline aquifer, extending across the entire basin. The main result is that the reversal of induction arrows can largely be explained by the resistivity contrast between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin fill. Beneath Rügen island, a southward dipping conductor is interpreted to reflect an alum shale layer in Middle Cambrian-Lower Ordovician sediments. Beneath the southern basin, a moderately conductive upper mantle is modelled (although not very well resolved) which may reflect the thinning of the lithosphere as implied by seismic tomography. As the main anomalously inductive effect is primarily explained by the basin edges and numerous other anomalies exist inside the basin, we suggest not using the term 'North German Conductivity Anomaly' any longer.

  6. Hanau licenses voided by German state court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On July 21, the Higher Administrative Court in the German state of Hesse declared illegal three of the first four partial construction licenses for the plutonium section of the Siemens fuel fabrication complex at Hanau. The licenses were issued in the late 1980s by the former Christian Democrat administration of Hesse, but final licensing of the plant - now 90 percent complete - has been held up by the Social Democrat/Green Party coalition government that is now in power. The court ruling came as a result of four cases, and a so-called urgent application, initiated by antinuclear groups in the area.

  7. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    PubMed

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner.

  8. Sexual maturation in East German girls.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, L; Willers, B; Pelz, L

    1995-12-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification (Tanner, 1962; van Wieringen, 1971), sexual maturation was investigated in 8703 healthy East German girls by means of the status quo method and probit regression analysis. The third, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of breasts, axillary and pubic hair, and the shape of the hips. The findings were compared with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B2/B5, AH2/AH3, etc.

  9. Sexual maturation in East German boys.

    PubMed

    Willers, B; Engelhardt, L; Pelz, L

    1996-07-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification, sexual maturation was investigated in 8685 healthy East German boys by means of the status quo method and the probit regression analysis. The 3rd, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of both the male external genitalia and pubic and axillary hairs. The findings are in line with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B 2, B 5; AH2, AH3; PH 2, PH5/6, etc.

  10. Forensic medicine in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    2004-09-10

    Forensic medicine services were resumed in the territory of the Soviet occupation zone in early summer 1945. One coherent legal system was established, following the foundation of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), 7 October 1949. Forensic medicine was subject of teaching and examinations from the very outset. Sub-specialisation (fellowship) was introduced in 1955. The Gesellschaft für Gerichtliche Medizin der DDR (GDR Society of Forensic Medicine) was established in 1967 and began to organise with high continuity a wide-ranging variety of scientific events. Almost all administrative districts had their own institute of forensic medicine by 1990.

  11. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheurer, A.; German CMS Community

    2010-04-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool "HappyFace", which was

  12. [German resuscitation registry : science and resuscitation research].

    PubMed

    Gräsner, J-T; Seewald, S; Bohn, A; Fischer, M; Messelken, M; Jantzen, T; Wnent, J

    2014-06-01

    Sudden death due to cardiac arrest represents one of the greatest challenges facing modern medicine, not only because of the massive number of cases involved but also because of its tremendous social and economic impact. For many years, the magic figure of 1 per 1000 inhabitants per year was generally accepted as an estimate of the annual incidence of sudden death in the industrialized world, with a survival rate of 6 %. This estimate was based on large numbers of published reports of local, regional, national and multinational experience in the management of cardiac arrest. Measuring the global incidence of cardiac arrest is challenging as many different definitions of patient populations are used. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) provide insights into the value of specific treatments or treatment strategies in a well-defined section of a population. Registries do not compete with clinical studies, but represent a useful supplement to them. Surveys and registries provide insights into the ways in which scientific findings and guidelines are being implemented in clinical practice. However, as with clinical studies, comprehensive preparations are needed in order to establish a registry. This is all the more decisive because not all of the questions that may arise are known at the time when the registry is established. The German resuscitation registry started in May 2007 and currently more than 230 paramedic services and hospitals take part. More than 45,000 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in-hospital cardiac arrest are included. With this background the German resuscitation registry is one of the largest databases in emergency medicine in Germany. After 5 years of running the preclinical care dataset was revised in 2012. Data variables that reflect current or new treatment were added to the registry. The postresuscitation basic care and telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) datasets were developed in 2012 and 2013 as well. The German

  13. Medullary trichomalacia in 6 German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Tieghi, Chiara; Miller, William H; Scott, Danny W; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2003-02-01

    Medullary trichomalacia is the name proposed for a hair shaft abnormality that was recognized in 6 German shepherd dogs. Affected dogs had multifocal areas of broken hairs, especially on the dorsolateral trunk. Microscopic examination of hair shafts revealed focal areas of loss of architecture, swelling, and apparent softening of the medulla, followed by longitudinal (length-wise) splitting and breakage of the hair shaft. No cause could be found. Affected dogs were otherwise healthy, and apparent spontaneous recovery was the usual outcome. Relapses may occur.

  14. German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    During his current tour of countries in South America, the Honourable Foreign Minister of Germany, Mr. Joschka Fischer, stopped over at the ESO Paranal Observatory Wednesday night (March 6 - 7, 2002). Arriving in Antofagasta, capital of the II Chilean region, the Foreign Minister and his suite was met by local Chilean officials, headed by Mr. Jorge Molina, Intendente of the Region, as well as His Excellency, the German Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Georg CS Dick and others. In the afternoon of March 6, the Foreign Minister, accompanied by a distinguished delegation from the German Federal Parliament as well as by businessmen from Germany, travelled to Paranal, site of the world's largest optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The delegation was welcomed by the Observatory Director, Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi, the VLT Programme Manager, Professor Massimo Tarenghi, the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt and ESO staff members, and also by Mr. Reinhard Junker, Deputy Director General (European Co-operation) at the German Ministry for Education and Research. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at this remote desert site, some of which have been constructed by German firms. Moreover, most of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes, several of these in Germany. One of the latest arrivals to Paranal, the CONICA camera (cf. ESO PR 25/01 ), was built under an ESO contract by the Max-Planck-Institutes for Astronomy (MPIA, in Heidelberg) and Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE, in Garching). The guests had the opportunity to enjoy the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the terrace of the new Residencia building ( Photos 05/02 ). At the beginning of the night, the Minister was invited to the Control Room for the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) from where this unique new facility ( ESO PR 23/01 ) is now being thoroughly tested

  15. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  16. Aspects of Authentic Spoken German: Awareness and Recognition of Elision in the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the importance of spoken German in classroom instruction. The paper examines the nature of natural spoken language as opposed to written language. We find a general consensus that the prevailing language measure (whether pertaining to written or spoken language) in instructional settings more often typifies the rules associated…

  17. The Identity of the German City As a Symbol of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the pattern formed by Germany's towns and cities, with some remarks on the changes in that pattern since 1945, and the major influences that have shaped the appearance and structure of the German city. The role of the motor car and the new low-density suburb are noted. (EJS)

  18. East German Children's and Adolescents' Friendship and Moral Reasoning before and after German Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship…

  19. German: The German Language in Education in Alsace, France. 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Schaaf, Alie, Comp.; Morgen, Daniel, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union-- Alsace, a part of France along the German border. Details about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies, divisions of responsibilities,…

  20. Umweltverschmutzung. German Ecology Packet: Resource Units and Materials for German Classes at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Julie; And Others

    Supplementary resource materials for use in upper level secondary school German classes are presented in this text. Teachers who are seeking new content and are willing to adapt these instructional materials on ecology in Germany will find three self-contained units on: The Plight of the Polar Bear, Polluted Swimming Pools in Germany, and Dead…

  1. "No-Business-As-Usual German": A Critical Pedagogy of Business German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his "Business German" course. His course sought to narrate a dialectic of agency and institution. He started by asserting a distinction between the intending subject--with its plural desires, interests, and identifications--and the world it acts in, through and upon. This distinction between acting subject and…

  2. Aspects of Authentic Spoken German: Awareness and Recognition of Elision in the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the importance of spoken German in classroom instruction. The paper examines the nature of natural spoken language as opposed to written language. We find a general consensus that the prevailing language measure (whether pertaining to written or spoken language) in instructional settings more often typifies the rules associated…

  3. "No-Business-As-Usual German": A Critical Pedagogy of Business German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his "Business German" course. His course sought to narrate a dialectic of agency and institution. He started by asserting a distinction between the intending subject--with its plural desires, interests, and identifications--and the world it acts in, through and upon. This distinction between acting subject and…

  4. A Study in West German Stabilization Policy, 1956-1974. German Studies Notes. First Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Manfred J. M.

    The dominant driving force of past movements in West German output and prices is investigated and a review of government policy undertaken to stabilize these movements is presented. Three alternative impulse hypotheses are tested: the monetary, the fiscal, and the foreign impulse hypothesis. The major results of the tests are that: (1) monetary…

  5. Weighted vowel prototypes in Finnish and German.

    PubMed

    Savela, Janne; Eerola, Osmo; Aaltonen, Olli

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the perceptual vowel space of the Finnish and German languages, which have a similar vowel system with eight vowels, /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /y/ /æ∼ε/ /ø/. Three different prototypicality measures are used for describing the internal structuring of the vowel categories in terms of the F1 and F2 formant frequencies: The arithmetic mean (centroid) of the F1-F2 space of the category (Pc), the absolute prototype of the category (Pa), and the weighted prototype of the category (Pω), in which the stimulus formant values are weighted by their goodness rating values. The study gave the following main results: (1) in both languages, the inter-subject differences were the smallest in Pω, and on the order of Difference Limen (DL) of F1-F2 frequencies for all of the three measures, (2) the Pa and Pω differed significantly from the centroid, with the absolute prototypes being the most peripheric, (3) the vowel systems of the two languages were similar (Euclidean distances in Pω of Finnish and German 7-34 mels) although minor differences were found in /e/, / ø/, and /u/, and (4) the mean difference of the prototypes from some earlier published production data was 100-150 mels.

  6. Structural problems in the German hospital system.

    PubMed

    Krukemeyer, M G

    2004-09-01

    The German health care system has been based on the Hospital Financing Act, which the German government introduced in 1972. According to that, the federal states plan hospitals and make investments. The health insurance funds finance the operating costs. But now the Hospital Financing Act is obsolete, because both the health insurance funds and the federal states are in financial trouble and try to avoid the costs, which are nevertheless rising. In order to freeze costs, the legislators have introduced a new remuneration system, called DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups), which will be mandatory from 2007 onwards. In this system, the treatment provided will be coded and remunerated on the basis of the primary diagnosis. Periods of hospitalisation and different remuneration systems will no longer be relevant. Transparency and quality will thus be promoted, and the upshot will be more competition among the hospitals. Hospitals that cannot meet quality standards will lose patients and will ultimately have to close. Other participants in the health care system, such as, for example, nursing staff, physicians, pharmacies, rehabilitaion centres and patients, will also be concerned in many ways. The consequences of the DRGs for the health care system, its future development and possible alternatives are discussed in this article.

  7. Limitation of medical research in German law.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    In Germany, pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices is regulated by statute. Any other kind of medical experimentation is handled according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Medical experimentation has to be reviewed by an ethics committee before the start and there has to be an elaborate research protocol, which provides for the protection of the experimental subject. In case of an accident, there is compulsory accident insurance as far as pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices are concerned. The third party accident insurance just covers material loss, there is no provision paying and suffering. The sum paid by the insurance company is set off against damages for negligence. There is no strict liability for medical experimentation, but the German courts are expected to set very high standards for medical care in experimentation. The data protection and medical confidentiality have been lessened because of the European law that requires the experimental subject to give his consent to the inspection of the data or the file and if he takes part in the experimentation, that his data and some of his cells might be with the pharmaceutical company forever. In general, the German law seems to be adequate to the protection of experimental subjects.

  8. Apitherapy: Usage And Experience In German Beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Hellner, Markus; Winter, Daniel; von Georgi, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the practice of apitherapy - using bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom to prevent or treat illness and promote healing - among German beekeepers and to evaluate their experiences with these therapies. A questionnaire incorporating two instruments on beekeepers’ physical and mental health and working practice was included in three German beekeeping journals and readers were asked to complete it. The instrument included questions on the use of apitherapy. Simple descriptive methods, bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Altogether 1059 completed questionnaires were received. The beekeepers reported the most effective and favorable therapeutic effects with honey, followed by propolis, pollen and royal jelly. The factors associated with successful experiences were: age, number of hives tended, health consciousness, positive experiences with one product and self-administration of treatment. Beekeepers were asked for which condition they would employ propolis and pollen. They reported that they used propolis most frequently to treat colds, wounds and burns, sore throats, gum disorders and also as a general prophylactic, while pollen was most commonly used as a general prophylactic and, less frequently, in treating prostate diseases. No adverse experiences were reported. The potential benefit of bee products is supported by the positive experiences of a large group of beekeepers who use some of these products to treat a wide range of conditions. The indications and treatments given here may be important in selecting bee products and designing future trials. PMID:18955222

  9. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  10. German Neurology and the 'Third Reich'.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael; Fangerau, Heiner; Karenberg, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of research into the role of German neurology during National Socialism (NS) on the basis of extensive secondary literature and key original sources. As early as 1933, many neurologists and neuroscientists who had been branded as 'non-Aryan' and/or politically persecuted had to leave Germany, were driven to suicide or killed in concentration camps. Two years later, the regulatory merger with the Psychiatrists' Association caused the cautious attempts of the institutionally hampered discipline for autonomy to end in complete failure. At the same time, the implementation of racial-hygienic and eugenic paradigms led to a wider definition of 'hereditary epilepsy' and an increase in sterilizations of patients suffering from epilepsy. Neurological research institutions, such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin-Buch, became involved in the 'euthanasia' program between 1939 and 1945, insofar as they dissected the brains of murdered patients under the guise of 'accompanying research' and, in this way, produced neurological findings. Key Messages: The Nazi state and German neurology provided each other with 'resources' at many levels. After 1945, the professional community showed very little interest in this legacy of neurology in the NS. It was only several generations later that the subject could be approached in an unbiased manner, allowing for comprehensive research projects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  12. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  13. Techniques for Teaching German: A Series of Demonstration Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Klaus A.

    This manual, to be used in conjunction with 10 demonstration films on the teaching of German in introductory college courses, serves as a guide to the objectives and teaching techniques illustrated in each of the films. The films demonstrate to future teachers of German workable teaching techniques designed to produce specific competencies and…

  14. Cultural Simulation: Adaptation of Films for Business German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algin, Barbara

    Script theory suggests that human memory is organized around personal experiences or episodes rather than around semantic categories, and that a particular event is remembered as it relates to other events occurring simultaneously. According to the experience of one teacher of business German on the college level, students of business German need…

  15. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  16. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  17. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 10, German: 7535.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. The content of the course, based on Units 21 and 22 of "A-LM German: Level 2" and "Reading for Meaning," requires mastery of selected…

  18. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 5, German: 7534.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. Students plan an imaginary shopping trip and visit to the city. Practice in asking directions and discussion of such German customs as a skiing trip and the…

  19. Orientations to Learning German: Heritage Language Background and Motivational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how two motivational substrates may be differentially important depending upon the learner's language background. Students registered in German classes (N = 99) completed a questionnaire that assessed (a) their intrinsic, extrinsic, integrative, and instrumental reasons for learning German; (b) their feelings of autonomy,…

  20. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  1. A Study of Language Laboratory Teaching in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiven, L. M.

    This report contains experiment results obtained from a comparative study of two groups of seventh grade students learning German in Sweden. The main objectives of the investigation, which lasted one school year, are: (1) to investigate possible achievement differences in German between similar groups of students when one group is instructed…

  2. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  3. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  4. A Heritage Deferred: The German-Americans in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers explores aspects of the lives of German-American immigrants in Minnesota. Part 1, "The Ethnic Experience," consists of the following papers: "Was There a Single German-American Experience?" (Bonney); "The Most Diversified Ethnic Group" (Johnson); "Unraveling the Mystery of…

  5. Experiencing German in the Elementary School: Tapping a Natural Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    1988-01-01

    Elementary school German programs can demonstrate both the value and the accessibility of the German language. Cultural experiences make both the language and the countries in which it is spoken inviting and attractive, and successful elementary programs can overcome old prejudices. (Author/MSE)

  6. German Immersion Program: Second Grade Language Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarjan, Theresia; And Others

    Materials for use in the second grade language arts curriculum of Milwaukee's Multi-Language School German immersion program were compiled. The materials include worksheets and exercises that develop German vocabulary and grammar through such activities as coloring, drawing illustrations, categorizing words, filling in blanks, spelling, forming…

  7. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  8. German-English-Speaking Children's Mixed NPs with "Correct" Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorschick, Liane; Quick, Antje Endesfelder; Glasser, Dana; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has reported that bilingual children sometimes produce mixed noun phrases with "correct" gender agreement--as in "der dog" ("der" being a masculine determiner in German and the German word for "dog", "hund", being masculine as well). However, these could obviously be due to chance or to the indiscriminate use of a default…

  9. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  10. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  11. Avoiding Pitfalls in Rendering into German Formulaic English Linking Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Arnd

    2003-01-01

    Fixed prepositional phrases of the type in this way and on the other hand are used in written and spoken English to connect sentences into larger units (text, dialogues). German prefers simple adverbials like so. Appended is a check-list of the most common such phrases in English and possible German equivalents.

  12. Christ as a pharmacist: medical symbols in German devotion.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, S

    1994-09-01

    The author reports on two German publications [1,2] about the metaphoric use of medicines in Christian devotional literature and art in German society (16th to 19th century). Christ is depicted as a pharmacist dispensing 'medicines' which contain Christian virtues and symbols.

  13. The Social Stratification of the German VET System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protsch, Paula; Solga, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Germany is widely known for its vocational education and training (VET) system and its dual apprenticeship system in particular. What is often overlooked, however, is the vertical stratification within the German VET system. This is the focus of this study. Our analysis shows that the VET system, like the German school system, is highly…

  14. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  15. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  16. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  17. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  18. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching German in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. German is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  19. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching German in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. German is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  20. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  1. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  2. The 3 C's for College German: Communication, Culture, and Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kreimhilde I. R.

    The existing German curriculum should be updated to include career-oriented, career-related language courses, especially in German commercial language, since West Germany is one of the world's most important trading countries and the United States is a major trading partner. Language fluency alone is not sufficient for employment in international…

  3. The Social Stratification of the German VET System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protsch, Paula; Solga, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Germany is widely known for its vocational education and training (VET) system and its dual apprenticeship system in particular. What is often overlooked, however, is the vertical stratification within the German VET system. This is the focus of this study. Our analysis shows that the VET system, like the German school system, is highly…

  4. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  5. Acquisition of German Pluralization Rules in Monolingual and Multilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaretsky, Eugen; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Neumann, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year-old monolingual…

  6. Growing Together, Coming Apart: German Society since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the impact of German unification on German society, politics, and culture. Contends that four decades of separation created political and cultural differences that are difficult to overcome. Expresses concern about the growth of intolerant attitudes and nationalism among citizens of the former East Germany. (CFR)

  7. The Battle of Tanga, German East Africa 1914

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-06

    31 7. Schutztruppe Concentration in Kilimanjaro ................................................. 31 8. IEF “B... Kilimanjaro and rough, barren, mountain ranges marks the northern border of German East Africa. The German perimeter was broken by the great lakes of...miles of the Uganda railway.34 The proximity of the vital Uganda Rail line to the Kilimanjaro region, and the lack of troops to protect the border

  8. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  9. Teaching German Modal Particles: A Corpus-based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollering, Martina

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of German modal particles based on corpora representing Spoken German. The concept of spoken language is discussed with regard to the corpora analyzed and narrowed down in relation to the use of modal particles. In addition, a collection of telephone conversations was scanned into a computer readable file and analyzed using…

  10. Growing Together, Coming Apart: German Society since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the impact of German unification on German society, politics, and culture. Contends that four decades of separation created political and cultural differences that are difficult to overcome. Expresses concern about the growth of intolerant attitudes and nationalism among citizens of the former East Germany. (CFR)

  11. Generational Aspects of German National Socialism, 1919-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Examines the theory that pre-Hitler Nazism was part of a generational revolt. Research shows that, among new recruits to the National Socialist German Workers Party in that period, there were more than twice as many who were under 30 years old. Socioeconomic and historical factors which made Nazism attractive to German youth are discussed. (AM)

  12. The Effects of Lecture Diversity on Germane Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Jamie; Lange, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of MOOCs is the way students interact with video lectures. Instruction provided through video lectures should focus on ways to increase germane cognitive load, which directly contributes to learning. One approach that may lead to an increase of germane load may be to use video lectures with diverse forms of media, including…

  13. German Basic Course. Volume II, Lessons 16-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first volume of the Intermediate Phase (lessons 16-92) of the German Basic Course developed by the Defense Language Institute. The course, normally requiring 19 weeks of training, focuses on developing mastery of structural elements of German through the audiolingual method. Dialogues are based on life situations and progress towards…

  14. Problems, Plans, and Ambitions of German and Foreign Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    Compared personal and social problems and ambitions of Italian, Spanish, and Greek adolescents living in Germany with those of German adolescents. Found that family and religion played more important role for foreign adolescents than for Germans. While parents appeared to have same importance for all adolescents, emotional relations with siblings…

  15. German Libraries and Scientific and Technical Information in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Pamela Spence

    1985-01-01

    Review of development of German scientific and technical information network highlights scientific and technical libraries before World War I, the 1920s, effects of National Socialist rise to power, restriction of foreign acquisitions, technological university and wartime activities at Berlin-Charlottenburg, documentation movement, German Society…

  16. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  17. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  18. The Issue of Grammaticalization in Early German Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Carol W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the expression of grammatical categories in German in Turkish and German children attending a bilingual day care center in a multilingual speech community in Berlin is examined. Results indicate no evidence that pragmatic categories precede syntactic ones, but some evidence shows that grammatical markers develop first as…

  19. "Lieder machen Leute": Teaching Postwar German Identity through Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The negotiation of a West German identity in the decades that followed World War II can be traced in the issues and movements that preoccupied the populace. These in turn are documented in the work of socially and politically motivated "Liedermacher". Songs thus serve as a point of entry for students into how Germans saw themselves in…

  20. Overwhelming Force, Indecisive Victory: The German Invasion of Yugoslavia, 1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    from the 10 vicinity of Trieste along the Adriatic to relieve their base at Zadar and secure the coastal plain. The German High Command provided the...southeastern direction down the Vardar Valley toward 29 Salonika. It anticipated a German invasion and included an attack on the Italian base at Zadar and

  1. The Role of Gene DCDC2 in German Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcke, A.; Weissfuss, J.; Kirsten, H.; Wolfram, G.; Boltze, J.; Ahnert, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dyslexia is a complex reading and writing disorder with a strong genetic component. In a German case-control cohort, we studied the influence of the suspected dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2. For the first time in a German cohort, we describe association of a 2445 basepair deletion, first identified in an American study. Evidence of association for…

  2. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  3. Stable Bilingualism and Language Change in Plain Pennsylvania German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louden, Mark L.

    The Pennsylvania German (PG) linguistic situation offers a unique insight into the mechanisms of language change, and specifically of syntactic change. Pennsylvania German consists of two primary varieties, (Plain (PPG) and Nonplain (NPG), a distinction based on the Anabaptist socioreligious affiliations of the former group that has produced two…

  4. Markers of Ethnic Identify in Immigrant Worker German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    The role of ethnically marked, nonstandard varieties of German in the Federal Republic of Germany is examined. It is shown that there is a "generic" variety of Immigrant Worker German that unites all immigrant laborers and their families into one group with perceived "ethnic" characteristics. Subdivisions within the group are…

  5. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  6. Generational Aspects of German National Socialism, 1919-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Examines the theory that pre-Hitler Nazism was part of a generational revolt. Research shows that, among new recruits to the National Socialist German Workers Party in that period, there were more than twice as many who were under 30 years old. Socioeconomic and historical factors which made Nazism attractive to German youth are discussed. (AM)

  7. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  8. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  9. German Women Today: What Some German Newspapers Say. Inter Nationes Basis-Info 4-2000/Society. In Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Sigrid, Ed.

    This document contains eight articles from German newspapers that feature women who have achieved career success in very diverse economic sectors, while simultaneously highlighting the discrimination and other problems (including lower income, fewer promotions to executive positions, and smaller pensions) that many other German women continue to…

  10. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  11. Deutsch im Louvre (oder: Deutsch als tote Sprache) (German in the Louvre [or, German as a Dead Language])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwald, Sabine

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for archeologists and art historians, given in the Louvre by the Paris Goethe Institute. Reliance is placed on the students' visual memory, with schematic presentation of pronoun and article declension. This approach sometimes fosters errors and misunderstandings. The verb system is emphasized. (Text is in German.)…

  12. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  13. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  14. Turks in the FRG and Their German-Language Literature as the Basis for a Fourth-Semester German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veteto-Conrad, Marilya

    1992-01-01

    The topic of minority groups is presented as a subject matter for a fourth-semester college German course combining culture with an introduction to literature. A course on Turks is described and textbook treatment of the topic is reviewed. A list of selected works on and by minorities suitable for German courses is appended. (18 references)…

  15. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  16. East German children's and adolescents' friendship and moral reasoning before and after German reunification.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship concept) as well as their moral decisions and reasoning in a friendship dilemma. Overall, results show that in 2005, East German participants referred to normative and interpersonal-altruistic-empathic concerns significantly more often than participants interviewed in 1990. Reference to relationship concerns decreased from 1990 to 2005. With few exceptions, these cohort effects were equally found in younger (children) and older (adolescents) age groups.

  17. [Quality of German medical services: a review].

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Robbers, J; Lakomek, H-J

    2016-02-01

    In the current draft of the law on the reform of the support structures of hospital provision (German Hospital Structure Law) the future quality of provision is highly significant. Quality assurance measures are mandatory for hospitals. The Federal General Committee was legally charged with developing the relevant quality indicators for structural, procedural and outcome quality that are designed to form the criteria and the basis for planning decisions in the federal states. This involves a paradigm shift in quality assurance measures in hospitals. In the future, subject to the verified quality, this should have an influence on hospital planning, and the funding or regulation of hospital departments should also adhere to this prescribed quality. This review reveals the course of quality or quality assurance measures in medical services in Germany. The status of the institutions responsible for the quality of care in hospitals and the significance of quality indicators are explained.

  18. Resistance to diazinon in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    GRAYSON, J M

    1961-01-01

    Specimens of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) from two different locations near Owensboro, Ky., USA, were tested in the laboratory for resistance to diazinon and malathion. Those from one location were reared for three generations, and those from the other for four generations, before testing was completed. The results showed that both strains possessed resistance to diazinon, but neither strain was resistant to malathion. The males and females of one strain were, respectively, 2.5 and 2.6 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 3.0 and 3.8 times resistant at LC(90): while those of the other strain were 5.8 and 8.0 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 9.3 and 15.3 times resistant at LC(90).

  19. German national femtosecond technology project (FST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausinger, Friedrich

    2002-06-01

    The German federal government started the funding of a national project intended to exploit the potential of femtosecond technology. In a forgoing competition five research consortia had been successful and have started now together with an adjoin research consortium their investigations in the following fields: (i) micro-machining of technical materials for microstructuring and drilling, (ii) medical therapy in: ophthalmology, dentistry, neurology and ear surgery, (iii) metrology, (iv) laser safety, (v) x- ray generation. Lasers, systems and technologies required in these potential fields of applications will be investigated. The program aims at industrial success and is dominated by industrial partners, therefore. The more fundamental research is done in university institutes and research centers.

  20. Gas phase ion/molecule reactions in phosphine/germane mixtures studied by ion trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzi, P.; Operti, L.; Rabezzana, R.; Splendore, M.; Volpe, P.

    1996-01-01

    Gaseous mixtures of phosphine and germane have been investigated by ion trap mass spectrometry. Reaction pathways together with rate constants of the main reactions are reported. The mechanisms of ion/molecule reactions have been elucidated by single and multiple isolation steps. The GeHn+ (n = 1-3) ions react with phosphine to give GePHn+ (n = 2-4) ions. The GePH4+ ion further reacts with GeH4 to yield Ge2PH6+. The GePHn+ (n = 2-4) mixed ionic family also originates from the P+ phosphine primary ion, as well as from the P2Hn+ (n = 0-3) secondary ions of phosphine reacting with neutral germane and from Ge2H2+ reacting with phosphine. The main reaction pathways of the PHn+ (n = 0-2) ions with GeH4 lead to the formation of the GeH2+ and GeH3+ ionic species. Protonation of phosphine from different ionic precursors is a very common process and yields the stable phosphonium ion, PH4+. Trends in total abundances of secondary GePHn+ (n = 2-4) ions as function of reaction time for different PH3/GeH4 pressure ratios show that excess of germane slightly affects the nucleation of mixed Ge-P ions.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-01

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn 2GeO 4) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 °C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn 2GeO 4 nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials.

  2. Zur Wortbildung im Russischen (10) (On Russian Word Formation [10])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Wolf

    1974-01-01

    Tenth of a regular series on contemporary Russian word formation, this article gives examples of: 1) four types of standard formation, 2) rare cases where compounds are produced with no combining vowel, and 3) appositive noun compounds. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  3. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    PubMed

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  4. Emergency medical equipment on board German airliners.

    PubMed

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Neuhaus, Christopher; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Spelten, Oliver; Picker, Susanne; Böttiger, Bernd W; Gathof, Birgit S

    2014-01-01

    Medical emergencies often occur on commercial airline flights, but valid data on their causes and consequences are rare. Therefore, it is unclear what emergency medical equipment is necessary. Although a minimum standard for medical equipment is defined in regulations, additional material is not standardized and may vary significantly between different airlines. German airlines operating aircrafts with more than 30 seats were selected and interviewed with a 5-page written questionnaire between August 2011 and January 2012. Besides pre-packed and required emergency medical material, drugs, medical devices, and equipment lists were queried. If no reply was received, airlines were contacted another three times by e-mail and/or phone. Descriptive analysis was used for data presentation and interpretation. From a total of 73 German airlines, 58 were excluded from analysis (eg, those not providing passenger transport). Fifteen airlines were contacted and data of 13 airlines were available for analysis (two airlines did not participate). A first aid kit was available on all airlines. Seven airlines reported having a doctor's kit, and another four provided an "emergency medical kit." Four airlines provided an automated external defibrillator (AED)/electrocardiogram (ECG). While six airlines reported providing anesthesia drugs, a laryngoscope, and endotracheal tubes, another four airlines did not provide even a resuscitator bag. One airline did not provide any material for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although the minimal material required according to European aviation regulations is provided by all airlines for medical emergencies, there are significant differences in the provision of additional material. The equipment on most airlines is not sufficient for the treatment of specific emergencies according to published medical guidelines (eg, for CPR or acute myocardial infarction). © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  5. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages.

  6. German suffering in the Franco–German War, 1870/71.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christine G

    2011-01-01

    Suffering during the Franco–Prussian War of 1870/71 has to be interpreted in the context of three developments: the willingness to alleviate wartime suffering, which had led to the foundation of the International Red Cross and the Geneva Convention a few years earlier, the industrialization of war, which had enormously increased the efficiency of the weaponry, and the nationalization of war. For many Germans, the outcome of the war justified the wartime suffering, which was often trivialized in the media. The small number of authors who saw the high casualty numbers and the pain of the victims as a warning about the consequences of modern warfare usually belonged to the anti-Prussian opposition. Nationalist euphoria in the face of victory and German unification drowned out such critics, whose patriotism was in doubt. Finally, the remembrance of the war during the Kaiserreich aimed largely at celebrating the triumph of the German army and the foundation of the national state. The glorification of the military was hardly compatible with a detailed description of the misery of the battlefield and the pain of war victims. In 1870/71 and in the subsequent decades, nationalism overwhelmed and eventually excluded a humanitarian narrative.

  7. The German version of the Perceived Stress Scale - psychometric characteristics in a representative German community sample.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eva M; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Reinecke, Leonard; Müller, Kai W; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E

    2016-05-23

    The Perceived Stress Scale Cohen (J Health Soc Behav 24:385-96, 1983) is a widely and well-established self-report scale measuring perceived stress. However, the German version of the PSS-10 has not yet been validated. Thus, the purposes of this representative study were to psychometrically evaluate the PSS-10, and to provide norm values for the German population. The PSS-10 and standardized scales of depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and life satisfaction were administered to a representative, randomly selected German community sample consisting of 1315 females and 1148 male participants in the age range from 14 to 90 years. The results demonstrated a good internal consistency and construct validity. Perceived stress was consistently associated with depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and reduced life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bi-dimensional structure with two related latent factors. Regarding demographic variables, women reported a higher level of stress than men. Perceived stress decreased with higher education, income and employment status. Older and married participants felt less stressed than younger and unmarried participants. The PSS-10 is a reliable, valid and economic instrument for assessing perceived stress. As psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of diseases, identifying subpopulations with higher levels of stress is essential. Due to the dependency of the perceived stress level on demographic variables, particularly age and sex, differentiated norm values are needed, which are provided in this paper.

  8. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2014-05-01

    Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

  9. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices.

  10. The Heidelberg circle: German inflections on the professionalization of Russian chemistry in the 1860s.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The success of the "second importation" of science to Russia during the Great Reforms of the 1860s is illustrated by examining the extended postdoctoral study of chemists in Heidelberg. While there, they adapted the Russian intelligentsia institution of the "circle," or kruzhok, to cope with their alienation from the German culture they were confronting. Upon their return to Russia, they felt the lack of the communicative network they had established while abroad and reimported the kruzhok to serve as a central model for the formation of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868.

  11. Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Rabukhin, A.I.

    1995-11-01

    Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of lead - bismuth - germanate glasses with compositions from virtually the entire range of glass formation in the system PbO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GeO{sub 2} are investigated. Partial elastooptic coefficients of the oxide ingredients of the investigated glasses are determined. The results are interpreted with consideration of the nature of the elastooptic interaction in glasses subjected to uniaxial stress. The data can be used for designing compositions of optical media for the light and acoustic lines of acoustooptical devices.

  12. German guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    This Gudelines are the translation of the German Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infective Endocarditis, which were prepared by the Working Group on Infective Endocarditis of the Paul-Ehrlich-Society and the German Society for Cardiology, Heart, and Circulatory Research in cooperation with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz und Gefässchirurgie (DGTHG; German Society for Thorax-, Cardiac-, and Vascular Surgery), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Infektiologie (DGI; German Society for Infectious Diseases), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin (DGIIN; German Society for Internal Intensive Care Medicin and Emergency Medicine), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie (DGHM; German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin (DGIM; German Society for Internal Medicine) (Naber CK et al. [S2 Guideline for diagnosis and therapy of infectious endocarditis] Z Kardiol. 2004;93:1005-21). The Guidelines provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis.

  13. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  14. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  15. Spanish experience with German psychology prior to World War I.

    PubMed

    Mülberger, Annette

    2008-01-01

    An increase in interest for German scientific psychology followed the rise of liberalism in late nineteenth-century Spain. This paper deals with Spanish scholars' endeavors to participate in German psychology: It outlines the intellectual and institutional background of Spanish preoccupation with German philosophy and psychology, and deals with the personal experience and testimony of two Spanish philosophers, Eloy Luis André and Juan Vicente Viqueira López, who traveled to Leipzig, Berlin, and Göttingen between 1909 and 1914 to gain firsthand experience in the nascent science of psychology in Germany at that time.

  16. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser: Tuning And Q-switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J.; DeYoung, R. J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2007-01-01

    A Tm:germanate fiber laser produced >0.25 mJ/pulse in a 45 ns pulse. It is capable of producing multiple Q-switched pulses from a single p ump pulse. With the addition of a diffraction grating, Tm:germanate f iber lasers produced a wide, but length dependent, tuning range. By s electing the fiber length, the tuning range extends from 1.88 to 2.04 ?m. These traits make Tm:germanate lasers suitable for remote sensin g of water vapor.

  17. 'Combating' tropical diseases in the German colonial press.

    PubMed

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.

  18. Teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education - a survey in German-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Rüttermann, S; Sobotta, A; Hahn, P; Kiessling, C; Härtl, A

    2017-08-01

    Teaching communication is perceived to be of importance in dental education. Several reports have been published worldwide in the educational literature describing modifications of the dental curriculum by implementing the teaching of communication skills. Surveys which evaluate the current state of training and assessment of communication skills in dental education in different countries exist already in some countries, but little information is available about German-speaking countries. In a cross-sectional study with the aim of a census, all 36 dental schools in Germany (30), Austria (3), and Switzerland (3) were surveyed. The present survey revealed that at 26 of the 34 dental schools (76%), communication skills training has been implemented. Training of communication skills mainly takes place between the 6th and the 9th semester. Ten schools were able to implement a partly longitudinal curriculum, while the other sites only offer stand-alone courses. Of the 34 dental schools, six assess communication skills in a summative way. Three of those schools also use formative assessments for their students. Another seven sites only use formative assessment. From the various formats of assessment, OSCE is mentioned most frequently. The necessity to train and assess communication skills has reached German-speaking dental schools. The present survey allows an overview of the training and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education in German-speaking Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. German experiments developed for reentry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Hald, H.; Koppenwallner, G.; Speckmann, H.-D.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of reentry technology it is essential that the knowledge gained from ground test facilities and numerical methods is tested and broadened in real reentry flights. The first of such projects was the space reentry capsule EXPRESS, which was designed as a German—Japanese enterprise for both microgravity research and reentry experiments. The capsule was built by the Russian company DB Saljut as part of the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and modified by DASA. The capsule was launched from Kagoshima by a Japanese M-3 SII rocket in January 1995. Due to a failure of the rocket, the nominal orbital altitude could not be reached, which led to an early reentry of the capsule in Ghana after two and a half orbits. In the stagnation region of the reentry module an experiment was planned with a fibre reinforced ceramic tile of 300 mm in diameter integrated in the ablative heat shield. This experiment, called "CETEX", was designed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) in Stuttgart. The aim of CETEX is to qualify lightweight fibre reinforced ceramics and related structural concepts in terms of heat shield applications for space vehicles as well as to compare the erosion behaviour shown in flight experiments and ground tests. An integral part of the CETEX experiment is the PYREX experiment of the University of Stuttgart. With PYREX a pyrometer shall be qualified, which is designed for high precision temperature measurement of heat shield materials made of fibre reinforced ceramic compounds during the reentry phase of space vehicles and probes. A third German experiment, RAFLEX, projected by Hyperschall Technologie Göttingen (HTG), was also integrated in the CETEX tile. RAFLEX is designed for the measurement of dynamic and static pressures and heat transfer at various positions on the EXPRESS capsule. Two small SiC tubes are fed through the CETEX tile for the RAFLEX and RTEX experiments. RTEX is a Japanese spectroscopy

  20. Identification and Validation of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) in German Shepherd Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fels, Lena; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is the most common hereditary skeletal disorder in dogs. To identify common alleles associated with CHD, we genotyped 96 German Shepherd Dogs affected by mild, moderate and severe CHD and 96 breed, sex, age and birth year matched controls using the Affymetrix canine high density SNP chip. A mixed linear model analysis identified five SNPs associated with CHD scores on dog chromosomes (CFA) 19, 24, 26 and 34. These five SNPs were validated in a by sex, age, birth year and coancestry stratified sample of 843 German Shepherd Dogs including 277 unaffected dogs and 566 CHD-affected dogs. Mean coancestry coefficients among and within cases and controls were <0.1%. Genotype effects of these SNPs explained 20–32% of the phenotypic variance of CHD in German Shepherd Dogs employed for validation. Genome-wide significance in the validation data set could be shown for each one CHD-associated SNP on CFA24, 26 and 34. These SNPs are located within or in close proximity of genes involved in bone formation and related through a joint network. The present study validated positional candidate genes within two previously known quantitative trait loci (QTL) and a novel QTL for CHD in German Shepherd Dogs. PMID:24802516

  1. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German Shepherd Dogs.

    PubMed

    Fels, Lena; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is the most common hereditary skeletal disorder in dogs. To identify common alleles associated with CHD, we genotyped 96 German Shepherd Dogs affected by mild, moderate and severe CHD and 96 breed, sex, age and birth year matched controls using the Affymetrix canine high density SNP chip. A mixed linear model analysis identified five SNPs associated with CHD scores on dog chromosomes (CFA) 19, 24, 26 and 34. These five SNPs were validated in a by sex, age, birth year and coancestry stratified sample of 843 German Shepherd Dogs including 277 unaffected dogs and 566 CHD-affected dogs. Mean coancestry coefficients among and within cases and controls were <0.1%. Genotype effects of these SNPs explained 20-32% of the phenotypic variance of CHD in German Shepherd Dogs employed for validation. Genome-wide significance in the validation data set could be shown for each one CHD-associated SNP on CFA24, 26 and 34. These SNPs are located within or in close proximity of genes involved in bone formation and related through a joint network. The present study validated positional candidate genes within two previously known quantitative trait loci (QTL) and a novel QTL for CHD in German Shepherd Dogs.

  2. An electropalatographic and acoustic study of temporal coarticulation for Catalan dark/l/ and German clear/l/.

    PubMed

    Recasens, D; Pallarès, M D; Fontdevila, J

    1998-01-01

    Electropalatographic and F2 frequency data in /VlV/ sequences reveal more prominent C-to-V effects for Catalan dark /l/ than for German clear /l/, more so in the /i/ context than in the /a/ context, which is in agreement with the existence of high lingual requirements on the formation of two constriction places for dark /l/. German clear /l/ exerts a similar amount of F2 displacement on both vowels which may be indicative of the tongue dorsum being directed towards a target position; this is also suggested by dorsopalatal contact and formant frequency data showing less vowel-dependent variability than clear /l/ in other languages though more so than Catalan dark /l/. Salient anticipatory requirements for the implementation of /l/ in the two languages block V1-dependent carryover effects to a large extent which results in more prominent vocalic anticipation than vocalic carryover. This directionality trend in vocalic coarticulation is more obvious for Catalan dark /l/ than for German clear /l/ (in agreement with the former consonantal variety requiring more anticipation than the latter) and opposes German /l/ to clear /l/ in other languages (i.e., the less constrained /l/ variety of Spanish may favor vocalic carryover over vocalic anticipation in VCV sequences).

  3. Miniriforma dell'ortografia tedesca (Mini-Reform of German Spelling).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavanini, Pietro

    1995-01-01

    This article reports that, after years of debate, representatives of German-speaking countries meeting in Vienna reached an agreement on measures to reform the spelling of the German language. Many linguists were disappointed that it was not decided to change the most unique characteristic of German spelling--the capitalization of German nouns.…

  4. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  5. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Prosodic Cues to Syntactic Disambiguation in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Jackson, Carrie N.; Gardner, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether late-learning English-German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German-English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English-German L2 learners and German-English L2 learners used a…

  6. Losing the Battle for Balanced Bilingualism: The German-American Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Studies the case of a religious group of German immigrants, whose German-American descendants attended German-language parochial schools but received secular instruction in English. Although the situation resulted in English-dominant children rather than the intended German-dominant bilinguals, recent sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, and…

  7. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Prosodic Cues to Syntactic Disambiguation in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Jackson, Carrie N.; Gardner, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether late-learning English-German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German-English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English-German L2 learners and German-English L2 learners used a…

  8. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  9. German Newsreels: A New Approach to FL Relevancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimler, G. Richard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the instructional use of a German Government produced newsreel, Deutschlandspiegel,'' at Fordham University, New York City. For information on availability of this newsreel, contact the AATG Service Center, 339 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. (RS)

  10. 32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH IN CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. German Experts' Views and Ideas about Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Kristina; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reflects ideas about the Internet presented by four German experts: possibilities and applications of chemistry; environmental informatics and documentation on the World Wide Web; views of a research-oriented pharmaceutical company; and the commercialization of the Internet. (LRW)

  12. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  13. German Newsreels: A New Approach to FL Relevancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimler, G. Richard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the instructional use of a German Government produced newsreel, Deutschlandspiegel,'' at Fordham University, New York City. For information on availability of this newsreel, contact the AATG Service Center, 339 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. (RS)

  14. Light in hellas: how German classical philology engendered gay scholarship.

    PubMed

    Dynes, Wayne R

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in the latter part of the eighteenth century, German classical philology acquired a hegemonic status that made it the envy of scholars in other nations. Among the tasks embraced by this great endeavor was the study of what is known of same-sex behavior in ancient Greece. Remarkably, the German philologists chose to present their findings straightforwardly in modern German, accessible to every educated reader. The deposit of this inquiry is the basis of our contemporary knowledge of ancient Greek homosexuality. Moreover, by providing models of homosexual behavior that were more positive than those prevalent in Europe at the time, the research fostered the emergence of the German Gay Movement in 1897.

  15. German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Ploetz, Christian; Kluegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins contributed to the IVS observing program with four observation sessions. Maintenance and upgrades were made, and a new replacement dewar is under construction in the observatory at Yebes, Spain.

  16. German Higher Education in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Roland

    In 1997/98, the 16 German Länder tentatively agreed on the establishment of a new degree structure for German higher education in the form of Bachelors and Masters programmes. Moreover, the German government passed federal legislation that officially adopted accreditation as a new steering instrument to approve these newly established Bachelors and Masters programmes. Thus, since 1998 almost all universities, Fachhochschulen (FH), faculties, and especially the engineering departments have been busy designing new Bachelors and Masters degree programmes. On the other hand, accreditation of programmes as a means of quality assurance has become the new pre-requisite for state recognition, which is operated by an overarching national Accreditation Board that on it turn recognises agencies that accredit particular degree programmes. All these changes will be a challenge and are likely to change the overall structure of the traditional German higher education system severely.

  17. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  18. 34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET DESIGN TEAM SHORTLY AFTER THEIR ARRIVAL AT THE REDSTONE ARSENAL IN 1950. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  20. 1. Photocopy of illustration (from William G. Bek's The German ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of illustration (from William G. Bek's The German Settlement Society of Philadelphia and its Colony Hermann, Missouri) Photographer unknown, ca. 1906 EXTERIOR IN 1906 - Market House, Market Street, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO

  1. Aspects of the Romance-Germanic Language Border: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffers-Daller, Jeanine; Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of the journal. Articles cover the geographical length of of the Romance-Germanic border, from French Flanders in the northwest to South Tyrol in the Southeast. (Author/VWL)

  2. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...

  3. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2003-04-01

    Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

  5. Exposure assessment in German potash mining.

    PubMed

    Dahmann, Dirk; Monz, Christian; Sönksen, Heinrich

    2007-10-01

    Between 1995 and 2003 a longitudinal study on miners in two German potash mines was planned and performed by BAuA in collaboration with K+S and IGF. Aim was to correlate exposure data to the results of medical examination of the miners in the respective mines' workforce and to use the detailed exposure investigation as a tool for risk assessment by the company. In this time period a discussion about health effects and the corresponding necessity to lower the existing threshold limits for the components NO and NO(2) was started as well. Whereas the epidemiological aspects of this study are reported elsewhere (Lotz et al., in Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 2006), we discuss the exposure situation in detail in this paper. In two potash mines in Germany the shift and short time exposure for the components respirable dust, inhalable dust, diesel particulate matter, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon dioxide was investigated in four separate campaigns. The results are reported and discussed. The miners especially in the production areas of the mines are exposed to a highly correlated mixture of the components though the exposure situation can be regarded as state of the art and representative for the industry. All dose-response discussions must take into account that never only one of the components can be made responsible for an eventually occurring respiratory effect. For reasons of availability of proper measurement equipment limitations for a possible lowering of indicative limit values of the EU are to be observed.

  6. Challenges for the German Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Riemer-Hommel, P

    2012-06-01

    The German Health Care System (GHCS) faces many challenges among which an aging population and economic problems are just a few. The GHCS traditionally emphasised equity, universal coverage, ready access, free choice, high numbers of providers and technological equipment; however, real competition among health-care providers and insurance companies is lacking. Mainly in response to demographic changes and economic challenges, health-care reforms have focused on cost containment and to a lesser degree also quality issues. In contrast, generational accounting, priorisation and rationing issues have thus far been completely neglected. The paper discusses three important areas of health care in Germany, namely the funding process, hospital management and ambulatory care, with a focus on cost control mechanisms and quality improving measures as the variables of interest. Health Information Technology (HIT) has been identified as an important quality improvement tool. Health Indicators have been introduced as possible instruments for the priorisation debate. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Early German plans for southern observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  8. Voice modulations in German ironic speech.

    PubMed

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech,and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German 'ironic criticism' that may possibly act as irony cues by comparing acoustic measures of ironic and literal speech. For this purpose, samples of scripted ironic and literal target utterances produced by 14 female speakers were recorded and acoustically analyzed. Results showed that in contrast to literal remarks, ironic criticism was characterized by a decreased mean fundamental frequency (F0), raised energy levels and increased vowel duration, whereas F0-contours differed only marginally between both speech types. Furthermore, we found ironic speech to be characterized by vowel hyperarticulation,an acoustic feature which has so far not been considered as a possible irony cue. Contrary to our expectations, voice modulations in ironic speech were applied independently from the availability of additional, visual irony cues.The results are discussed in light of previous findings on acoustic features of irony yielded for other languages.

  9. Noun plural production in preschoolers with early cochlear implantation: an experimental study of Dutch and German.

    PubMed

    Laaha, Sabine; Blineder, Michaela; Gillis, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Studies investigating language skills of children after cochlear implantation usually present general measures of expressive/receptive vocabulary and grammar and rarely tackle the acquisition of specific language phenomena (word classes, grammatical constructions, word forms, etc.). Furthermore, research is largely restricted to children acquiring English. Cross-linguistic comparisons among children acquiring different languages are almost inexistent. The present study targets the acquisition of noun plurals (e.g., dogs, balls) by Dutch- and German-speaking children implanted before their second birthday. Given its structural complexity and irregularity, noun plural formation is a good indicator of grammatical proficiency in children at risk for a developmental delay. The study sample consisted of 14 cochlear-implanted (CI) children (M=55 months of age), 80 age-matched normally hearing (NH) controls, and 40 normally hearing controls matched by Hearing Age (HA). The children were administered an elicitation task in which they had to provide plural forms to a set of singular nouns. The analysis focussed on the following variables: Hearing status (CI, NH), Language (Dutch, German), and Suffix Predictability/Stem Transparency of the plural words. There was no significant difference between children with CI and their NH peers in correct plural production. In both child groups, plural responses followed the predicted pattern of Suffix Predictability/Stem Transparency. However, children with CI significantly more frequently replied to the test item with a recast of the singular noun instead of the plural, and the probability of these responses increased with later age of CI implantation. Furthermore, Dutch-speaking children showed an overall better performance than German-speaking children. The findings suggest that after 3 years of implant use, preschoolers with early cochlear implantation show age-appropriate patterns of noun plural formation, but still have to catch up

  10. The German Military Mission to Romania, 1940-1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    its own problems upon itself by its prior pro-Allied policy. Hitler also Finnish Volunteer Battalion of German Waffen- SS return home from front in...youth of 19, while Antonescu assumed dictatorial powers and the title of “Leader,” much in keeping with his Nazi and Fascist colleagues.5 With...connections to the Nazi Party, and the Nazis had newspapers and political organizations in Romania. Not surprisingly, German language newspapers ran

  11. D-1 report: The first German spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Introduction of a new popular magazine on the DI mission, the first West German Space mission. The DI project office publishes the magazine. The German sponsored astronauts are to study the gravitational effects of reduced gravity on the human generated processes of the environment. Other areas of concern are boundary surface and transport phenomena, physical chemisty and process engineering, metals and composite materials, and single crystals.

  12. The Military and National Reconciliation: German Lessons for Koreas Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    success in integrating the militaries of the two Koreas will weigh heavily on the success or failure of Korea’s reunification. Since the collapse of the...based on the German unification model. It is true that successful political, diplomatic and economic integration has contributed to the German...national unification. However, most importantly, this was possible because the national unification was backed by successful military integration. Based

  13. Comparison of hospitalization among German coastal and deep sea fishermen.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, M; Harth, V; Manuwald, U

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the hospitalization of German fishermen employed on German-flagged fishing vessels with that of the general German population in consideration of differences between coastal and deep sea fishery. By means of a database from the health insurance company for seafarers, diagnoses of German fishermen treated in German hospitals were determined from January 1997 to December 2007. Compared with the general German population, the fishermen's risk for specific diseases leading to hospitalization was calculated as standardized hospitalization ratio (SHR). Compared with the German reference population, German fishermen showed a considerably high SHR for malignant neoplasms at all sites (SHR 1.46; 95% CI 1.37-1.56), for respiratory cancer, and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Furthermore, they had more often been hospitalized due to diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems as well as due to injury and poisoning. The risk for respiratory cancer and NHL among coastal fishermen exceeded that of deep sea fishermen, whereas the latter displayed a considerably higher SHR for diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory system and metabolic and nutritional disorders. In contrast, the SHR for hypertensive and ischemic heart diseases was decreased among deep sea fishermen. Less qualified deep sea fishermen displayed a considerably higher SHR for malignant neoplasms at all sites than more highly qualified ones. Fishery is still an occupation which poses a high risk for malignant neoplasms and injuries. This is likely due to lifestyle and work-related factors. Further studies are needed to evaluate the different working and living conditions of coastal and deep sea fishermen.

  14. Operational art in the Defense: The German Abwehrschlachten in 1918

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    WWI ). Just a few months prior, in the spring of 1918, German forces achieved limited success over the conduct of multiple offensive operations and...September to November 1918 in the Meuse-Argonne sector of France. The tendency of viewing WWI from the perspective of the offense characterizes the...offensive operations from the perspective of the AEF. German WWI literature focuses predominately on political circumstances and social implications of

  15. [Stress in German schools: frequencies, causes and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    An overview about studies on academic stress is given, including anxiety before examinations, decrease in achievement, bad grades as well as aggression and rivalry among pupils. Finding on several studies are reported, including German adolescents (N=1393) and adolescents from 18 countries (N=9778), who have been investigated with respect to school-related problems. German pupils exhibited a mean level in academic stress. However, clinically disturbed adolescents (N=77) reported the highest levels in academic stress, compared to non-conspicuous adolescents.

  16. German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    MONOGRAPH 25-05-2006 SEPT 2005-MAR 2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE German General Staff Officer Education abd Current...Competencies and Skills ...................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 4 THE GERMAN PRT IN KUNDUZ/AFGHANISTAN AND THE...of Defense, Defense Science Board 2004 Summer Study on Transition to and from Hostilities, Washington D.C., September 2, 2004 3 Ibid. 4 Note: The

  17. Do listeners recover "deleted" final /t/ in German?

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Frank; Reetz, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Reduction and deletion processes occur regularly in conversational speech. A segment that is affected by such reduction and deletion processes in many Germanic languages (e.g., Dutch, English, German) is /t/. There are similarities concerning the factors that influence the likelihood of final /t/ to get deleted, such as segmental context. However, speakers of different languages differ with respect to the acoustic cues they leave in the speech signal when they delete final /t/. German speakers usually lengthen a preceding /s/ when they delete final /t/. This article investigates to what extent German listeners are able to reconstruct /t/ when they are presented with fragments of words where final /t/ has been deleted. It aims also at investigating whether the strategies that are used by German depend on the length of /s/, and therefore whether listeners are using language-specific cues. Results of a forced-choice segment detection task suggest that listeners are able to reconstruct deleted final /t/ in about 45% of the times. The length of /s/ plays some role in the reconstruction, however, it does not explain the behavior of German listeners completely.

  18. Do listeners recover “deleted” final /t/ in German?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerer, Frank; Reetz, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Reduction and deletion processes occur regularly in conversational speech. A segment that is affected by such reduction and deletion processes in many Germanic languages (e.g., Dutch, English, German) is /t/. There are similarities concerning the factors that influence the likelihood of final /t/ to get deleted, such as segmental context. However, speakers of different languages differ with respect to the acoustic cues they leave in the speech signal when they delete final /t/. German speakers usually lengthen a preceding /s/ when they delete final /t/. This article investigates to what extent German listeners are able to reconstruct /t/ when they are presented with fragments of words where final /t/ has been deleted. It aims also at investigating whether the strategies that are used by German depend on the length of /s/, and therefore whether listeners are using language-specific cues. Results of a forced-choice segment detection task suggest that listeners are able to reconstruct deleted final /t/ in about 45% of the times. The length of /s/ plays some role in the reconstruction, however, it does not explain the behavior of German listeners completely. PMID:25101016

  19. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  20. Attitudes of Germans towards distributive issues in the German health system.

    PubMed

    Ahlert, Marlies; Pfarr, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Social health care systems are inevitably confronted with the scarcity of resources and the resulting distributional challenges. Since prioritization implies distributional effects, decisions regarding respective rules should take citizens' preferences into account. In this study we concentrate on two distributive issues in the German health system: firstly, we analyze the acceptance of prioritizing decisions concerning the treatment of certain patient groups, in this case patients who all need a heart operation. We focus on the patient criteria smoking behavior, age and whether the patient has or does not have young children. Secondly, we investigate Germans' opinions towards income-dependent health services. The results reveal the strong effects of individuals' attitudes regarding general aspects of the health system on priorities, e.g. that individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle should not be prioritized. In addition, experience of limited access to health services is found to have a strong influence on citizens' attitudes, too. Finally, decisions on different prioritization criteria are found to be not independent.

  1. German drug monitoring studies with nabumetone.

    PubMed

    Stroehmann, I; Fedder, M; Zeidler, H

    1990-01-01

    Although randomised controlled comparative trials concerning the efficacy of the drug tested can produce reliable results in a limited number of selected patient groups, drug monitoring studies involving 10,000 patients or more are the methods of choice to detect rare adverse events. The aim of this drug monitoring study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dispersible nabumetone tablets. 8865 patients (46.2% male, 53.5% female, mean age 55 years, range 14.95) were involved in the investigation carried out by 1172 general practitioners. The disease indications comprised osteoarthritis (69.8%), soft-tissue rheumatism (11.3%), rheumatoid arthritis (9.9%) and soft tissue injuries (7.7%). Most of the patients (67.3%) received a daily dose of nabumetone 1 g for up to 6 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated at baseline, and after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks of treatment. With regard to global efficacy, overall improvement (symptoms resolved or markedly improved) was assessed in 82% of the patients. Elimination or at least significant improvement of pain on movement occurred in 95%, pain on pressure in 90% and pain at rest in 89% of the patients with symptoms. In relation to swelling, morning stiffness and joint mobility, elimination or at least significant improvement occurred in 79%, 80% and 82% of patients, respectively. 1846 patients (20.8%) had frequent periods of NSAID-related symptoms before treatment with nabumetone. A total of 1174 adverse events occurred in 850 patients (9.6%), most comprising minor gastrointestinal complaints. Considering that at least 25,000 patients have been documented in 2 German drug monitoring studies, it is therefore unlikely that any unexpected side effects will occur in the future. Consequently, nabumetone can be classified as an effective and safe NSAID.

  2. German gynecologic societies investigating their Nazi past.

    PubMed

    Frobenius, Wolfgang; Kinzelbach, Annemarie; Anthuber, Christoph; Dross, Fritz

    2014-11-01

    Research into the activities of German medical specialist associations during the Nazi period is still in its initial stages even today. In the field of gynecology and obstetrics as well, most representatives of the discipline continued to take an attitude based on "concealment and forgetting", even after the turn of the millennium. In order to break with this approach, the Bavarian Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology (Bayerische Gesellschaft für Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, BGGF) commissioned an interdisciplinary research group to focus on clarifying its Nazi past for the purposes of a history of the institution on the occasion of its centenary. The research was based on the Society's archive. When the files were found to show conspicuous gaps for the Nazi period, the investigation was extended into the role of BGGF representatives and members who were active at the time. In some cases, it was possible to draw on existing studies and to supplement the available information from additional archival sources. It was found that the BGGF started at a very early stage to marginalize and ignore its "non-Aryan" members. No official decision to exclude such members was apparently taken, however. Many representatives and honorary members of the society were involved in promoting and carrying out eugenic sterilizations, simultaneously conducting abortions on some victims, and they at least shared responsibility for forced abortions among Ostarbeiterinnen ("Eastern workers", forced laborers from Eastern Europe). Accompanying unethical research that was mainly intended to garner academic prestige for the physicians involved was never discussed at the Society's conferences. Representatives of the Society who were substantially incriminated were able to continue their careers almost without interruption after 1945.

  3. [The German research network for mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U

    2016-09-01

    support for a German center for mental disorders.

  4. Cognitive control in Russian-german bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual speakers are faced with the problem to keep their languages apart, but do so with interindividually varying success. Cognitive control abilities might be an important factor to explain such interindividual differences. Here we compare two late, balanced and highly proficient bilingual groups (mean age 24 years, L1 Russian, L2 German) which were established according to their language control abilities on a bilingual picture-naming task. One group had difficulties to remain in the instructed target language and switched unintentionally to the non-target language ("switchers"), whereas the other group rarely switched unintentionally ("non-switchers"). This group-specific behavior could not be explained by language background, socio-cultural, or demographic variables. Rather, the non-switchers also demonstrated a faster and better performance on four cognitive control tests (Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Test, Divided Attention, Go/Nogo). Here, we focus on two additional executive function tasks, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Flanker task requiring conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Non-switchers outperformed switchers with regard to speed and accuracy, and were better at finding and applying the correct rules in the WCST. Similarly, in the Flanker task non-switchers performed faster and better on conflict trials and had a higher correction rate following an error. Event-related potential recordings furthermore revealed a smaller error-related negativity in the non-switchers, taken as evidence for a more efficient self-monitoring system. We conclude that bilingual language performance, in particular switching behavior, is related to performance on cognitive control tasks. Better cognitive control, including conflict monitoring, results in decreased unintentional switching.

  5. Fairview German Bilingual School: A Successful Model for Elementary-School, Second-Language Learning, Part II. Laying the Foundation: German in the First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Marianne

    The first grade program of the Fairview German Bilingual School, the elementary (K-5) segment of the Cincinnati public school system's German bilingual alternative program, is described. The school provides intensive second-language instruction in German for monolingual English-speaking children with bilingualism as the objective. The school is…

  6. The reaction of atomic hydrogen with germane - Temperature dependence of the rate constant and implications for germane photochemistry in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.; Payne, Walter A.; Marston, George; Stief, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the formation and loss processes for GeH4 are required in order to provide data to help determine the major chemical form in which germanium exists in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. The reaction of hydrogen atoms with germane is one of the most important of these reactions. The absolute rate constant for this reaction as a function of temperature and pressure is studied. Flash photolysis of dilute mixtures of GeH4 in argon, combined with time-resolved detection of H atoms via Lyman alpha resonance fluorescence, is employed to measure the reaction rate. The reaction is shown to be moderately rapid, independent of total pressure, but possessing a positive temperature dependence.

  7. [German validation of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score].

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J F; Pilatz, A; Abdufattaev, U A; Wiltink, J; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F

    2015-09-01

    The Uzbek version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed as a simple self-reporting questionnaire to improve diagnosis and therapy of women with acute cystitis (AC). The purpose of this work was to validate the ACSS in the German language. The ACSS consists of 18 questions in four subscales: (1) typical symptoms, (2) differential diagnosis, (3) quality of life, and (4) additional circumstances. Translation of the ACSS into German was performed according to international guidelines. For the validation process 36 German-speaking women (age: 18-90 years), with and without symptoms of AC, were included in the study. Classification of participants into two groups (patients or controls) was based on the presence or absence of typical symptoms and significant bacteriuria (≥ 10(3) CFU/ml). Statistical evaluations of reliability, validity, and predictive ability were performed. ROC curve analysis was performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of ACSS and its subscales. The Mann-Whitney's U test and t-test were used to compare the scores of the groups. Of the 36 German-speaking women (age: 40 ± 19 years), 19 were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while 17 women served as controls. Cronbach's α for the German ACSS total scale was 0.87. A threshold score of ≥ 6 points in category 1 (typical symptoms) significantly predicted AC (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 82.4%). There were no significant differences in ACSS scores in patients and controls compared to the original Uzbek version of the ACSS. The German version of the ACSS showed a high reliability and validity. Therefore, the German version of the ACSS can be reliably used in clinical practice and research for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients suffering from AC.

  8. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    PubMed

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  9. Overdramatization of the burdens on health and social services: a continuing debate in the history of German medicine.

    PubMed

    Schmacke, N

    1997-01-01

    Departing from the latest academic research into Nazi medicine in Germany, the author looks at theoretical and ideological concepts in German history that left their mark on the formation of race hygiene. He argues that the overdramatization of the economic burden caused by the special requirements of the chronically ill and handicapped runs through all epochs of modern medical history and that this culturally pessimistic way of looking at a serious social problem in Germany reveals a frightening tradition which reached its cruelest climax in the so-called T4 operation of the Nazis. The author makes a plea for this dark chapter of German medical history to be carefully analyzed and for the results of this research to be used in the current discussion on the further development of the health system, particularly in regard to patients who require special care.

  10. Prosodic constraints on inflected words: an area of difficulty for German-speaking children with specific language impairment?

    PubMed

    Kauschke, Christina; Renner, Lena; Domahs, Ulrike

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that morphosyntactic difficulties may result from prosodic problems. We therefore address the interface between inflectional morphology and prosody in typically developing children (TD) and children with SLI by testing whether these groups are sensitive to prosodic constraints that guide plural formation in German. A plural elicitation task was designed consisting of 60 words and 20 pseudowords. The performance of 14 German-speaking children with SLI (mean age 7.5) was compared to age-matched controls and to younger children matched for productive vocabulary. TD children performed significantly better than children with SLI. Error analyses revealed that children with SLI produced more forms that did not meet the optimal shape of a noun plural. Beyond the fact that children with SLI have deficits in plural marking, the findings suggest that they also show reduced sensitivity to prosodic requirements. In other words, the prosodic structure of inflected words seems to be vulnerable in children with SLI.

  11. Captives of Their Fantasies: The German Atomic Bomb Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Irving M.

    1997-02-01

    When the Nazi government collapsed in May, 1945, an Allied intelligence mission took into custody nine of the German scientists who played key roles in the German atomic bomb project. Under great secrecy these men were confined in a large country house, Farm Hall, near Cambridge (England), and their conversations were recorded surreptitiously by hidden microphones in every room. The transcripts were kept TOP SECRET for 47 years and were finally released recently. They give fascinating insights into the personalities of the guests and invaluable information on what the Germans really understood about the physics and chemistry of a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb. The Farm Hall transcripts clearly establish that (a) the Germans on August 6, 1945 did not believe that the Allies had exploded an atomic bomb over Hiroshima that day; (b) they never succeeded in constructing a self-sustaining nuclear reactor; (c) they were confused about the differences between an atomic bomb and a reactor; (d) they did not know how to correctly calculate the critical mass of a bomb; (e) they thought that "plutonium" was probably element 91. The Farm Hall transcripts contradict the self-serving and sensationalist writings about German efforts that have appeared during the past fifty years.

  12. [Radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 5). German Guideline].

    PubMed

    Dietlein, Markus; Grünwald, Frank; Schmidt, Matthias; Schneider, Peter; Verburg, Frederik A; Luster, Markus

    2016-12-06

    The version 5 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders is an update of the version 4, which was published by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, DGN) in co-ordination with the German Society of Endocrinology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie, DGE, Sektion Schilddrüse) and the German Society of General- and Visceral-Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie, DGAV) in 2007. This guideline was harmonized with the recommendations of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). According to the German "Directive on Radiation Protection in Medicine" the physician specialised in nuclear medicine ("Fachkunde in der Therapie mit offenen radioaktiven Stoffen") is responsible for the justfication to treat with radioiodine. Therefore, relevant medical indications for radioiodine therapy and alternative therapeutic options are discussed within the guideline. This procedure guideline is developed in the consensus of a representative expert group. This fulfils the level S1 (first step) within the German classification of Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  13. A personal exploration of the German hospice system.

    PubMed

    Farnon, C

    1996-01-01

    While on vacation in Germany, I explored the German hospice system and its differences from that in the United States. I conducted an informal survey asking 10 individuals who were not associated with hospice work, about end-of-life issues. Knowledge of the hospice movement and of advance directives was found to be quite low. Through contact with German hospice associations, I learned that the modern German hospice movement was inspired by the British example. After a difficult beginning, the German hospice system is growing steadily. Professional providers of end-of-life care are paid according to the traditional fee-for-service system. As suggested by the World Health Organization, pain management is provided according to the three-step analgesic ladder. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal as it is in the United States. A federal self-determination law has not yet been enacted. Overall, the German hospice system has many similarities and a few interesting dissimilarities with that in the United States.

  14. German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

  15. Dietary iron intake and iron status of German female vegans: results of the German vegan study.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Mean daily iron intake was higher than recommended by the German Nutrition Society. Still 42% of the female vegans < 50 years (young women, YW) had a daily iron intake of < 18 mg/day, which is the recommended allowance by the US Food and Nutrition Board. The main dietary sources of iron were vegetables, fruits, cereals and cereal products. Median serum ferritin concentrations were 14 ng/ml for YW and 28 ng/ml for women > or = 50 years (old women, OW). In all, 40% (tri-index model (TIM) 20%) of the YW and 12% (TIM 12%) of the OW were considered iron-deficient based on either serum ferritin levels of < 12 ng/ml or a TIM. Only 3 women had blood parameters which are defined as iron deficiency anemia. Correlations between serum ferritin levels and dietary factors were not found. Although the mean iron intake was above the recommended level, 40% (TIM 20%) of the YW were considered iron-deficient. It is suggested that especially YM on a vegan diet should have their iron status monitored and should consider taking iron supplements in case of a marginal status. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam S.; Chin, Geoffrey D.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2006-11-01

    A modified Barium Gallo-Germanate glass has been developed as an exit window for high energy lasers operating in the mid-infrared wavelength region. All the physical properties, for application as a window for high energy laser systems have been measured. Absorption loss and thermo-optic coefficient were identified as key in developing the Barium Gallo-Germanate glass for high energy laser applications. A purification method was developed to reduce the absorption loss of the glass from 6x10-2 cm-1 to 2x10-3 cm-1 at 3.8 μm. Manufacturability in large size windows has been demonstrated with the fabrication of an 18” diameter prototype window. Modified Barium Gallo-Germanate glasses have also been developed with lower thermo-optic coefficient resulting in lower optical path distortion.

  17. Psychological testing and the German labor market, 1925 to 1965.

    PubMed

    Meskill, David

    2015-11-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, the massive German Labor Administration used loosely standardized, pragmatic evaluations of personality to steer young people into appropriate jobs. Starting in the late 1950s, the Administration shifted to American scientific methods of trait and factor psychological testing. Behind this change lay not a change in academic psychology but a power shift in the German labor market. Originally, the Labor Administration had to appeal to employers, for whom pragmatic evaluations of personality seemed most convincing. Thanks to the Economic Miracle in the 1950s, the Administration had to gain the trust of young Germans, their parents, and the public, who, it was hoped, would be won over by science.

  18. Biographical reconstruction of WWII experience: an exploration of German remembrance.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, R; Heuft, G

    1997-01-01

    First results of the Eldermensch-Study (N = 50) indicate that German National Socialism and the historical events associated with World War II play a central role in the oral histories of older Germans. Six distinct patterns of late life cognitive appraisal of war-time experience: survival challenge (further divided into "active" and "passive" survivorship), passive benefit, opportunism, value verification, and acceptance despite hardship are presented and discussed as structural themes in the life story. These categories not only represent interindividual differences in the appraisal of war-time experience, but often reflect contrasting patterns of personal response to the social and political circumstances of this era of German history. In addition to cohort and gender differences, divergence in locus of control orientation as well as the role of social bonding and instrumental social support are discussed. Differences revealed in the biographical interviews are further reflected in the results of standardized questionnaires.

  19. German contribution to the validation of SCIAMACHY - the first year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramstedt, K.; Kirchhoff, B.

    2003-04-01

    An adequate validation of SCIAMACHY data products is a prerequisite for a successful completion of the SCIAMACHY mission. The German validation team, consisting of 23 different projects with more than 60 scientists, contributes with a wide range of instrument types as important part of the international validation community. A global network of ground-based stations with DOAS, FTIR, microwave instruments and ozone sondes has been build. Satellite inter-comparisons utilize the measurements of independent space-born sensors. Balloon-borne instruments participate in the Envisat Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon validation campaigns and the German FALCON research aircraft has undertaken large flights from the Arctic to the Tropics. Here an overview of the GERMAN activities during the first year of SCIAMACHY lifetime is given.

  20. Inflectional morphology in German hearing-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Penke, Martina; Wimmer, Eva; Hennies, Johannes; Hess, Markus; Rothweiler, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Despite modern hearing aids, children with hearing impairment often have only restricted access to spoken language input during the 'critical' years for language acquisition. Specifically, a sensorineural hearing impairment affects the perception of voiceless coronal consonants which realize verbal affixes in German. The aim of this study is to explore if German hearing-impaired children have problems in producing and/or acquiring inflectional suffixes expressed by such phonemes. The findings of two experiments (an elicitation task and a picture-naming task) conducted with a group of hearing-impaired monolingual German children (age 3-4 years) demonstrate that difficulties in perceiving specific phonemes relate to the avoidance of these same sounds in speech production independent of the grammatical function these phonemes have.

  1. [The 2009 performance report of the German cornea banks].

    PubMed

    Schrage, N; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B; Hermel, M; Böhringer, D; Reinshagen, H

    2011-03-01

    In Germany, human tissue for corneal and amniotic transplantation is supplied by 27 cornea banks. The Section for Tissue Transplantation and Biotechnology of the German Ophthalmological Society records the cornea banks' activities by means of an annual questionnaire. In 2009, a total of 4,818 corneal grafts were processed by 21 responding cornea banks, and 57% were deemed suitable for transplantation. This ratio is slightly higher than the European average. In addition, German cornea banks released 1,257 amniotic grafts in 2009. German cornea banks are currently facing new regulatory issues due to updated legislation regarding tissue transplantation. Recent updates in European law have limited the cutoff time for postmortem blood sampling to 24 h, and this regulation may lead to a significant reduction in potential donors.

  2. [German unification influenced by an unfinished psychosocial history].

    PubMed

    Brede, K; Krovoza, A

    1992-05-01

    The critical form of social psychology presented here is concerned with the modalities and results of German reunification. It proceeds from Freud's insistence on the functional autonomy of psychic dispositions and unconscious forms of identification vis-à-vis the political and economic spheres. With reference to earlier historical experience of the Germans as an "economic nation" the authors suspect that German reunification with the avowed "economistic" priority of establishing the same life conditions in East and West is once again suppressing those problems that are bound up with the post-fascist syndrome handed down from one generation to the next. With a view to casting light on the reunification process and the collective psychic potentials it has released, the authors supplement Freud's mass-psychology approach with Julia Kristeva's outline of a social psychology that hinges on the relationship between cosmopolitanism and the national idea.

  3. Germane photochemistry. Photolysis of gas mixtures of planetary interest.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, J C; Lassalle, L; Janati, T

    1995-01-01

    Photolysis of germane (GeH4) in the presence of acetylene (C2H2), propyne (C3H4) or phosphine (PH3) with a 185 nm mercury lamp has been studied. The volatile products formed in these reactions are characterized by 1H, 31P and 13C NMR. Vinylgermanes are the first reaction products formed in the photolysis of GeH4 with alkynes. A reaction pathway is proposed. The initial step is the dissociation of germane 1 to hydrogen and GeH3 radicals. Addition of the germyl radical on alkyne is proposed as the next step. Vinyl-germanes are then formed by radical combination. Photolysis of ethenylgermane 2 gives diethenylgermane 3 in the presence of acetylene and digermaethane 4 in the presence of GeH4. The application of these findings to Jovian and Saturn atmospheric chemistry is discussed.

  4. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  5. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-10-10

    Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite

  6. Sharing models and tools for processing German clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Hellrich, Johannes; Matthies, Franz; Faessler, Erik; Hahn, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The automatic processing of non-English clinical documents is massively hampered by the lack of publicly available medical language resources for training, testing and evaluating NLP components. We suggest sharing statistical models derived from access-protected clinical documents as a reasonable substitute and provide solutions for sentence splitting, tokenization and POS tagging of German clinical texts. These three components were trained on the confidential FRAMED corpus, a non-sharable collection of various German-language clinical document types. The models derived therefrom outperform alternative components from OPENNLP and the Stanford POS tagger, also trained on FRAMED.

  7. A legal framework for biobanking: the German experience.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jürgen; Paslack, Rainer; Robienski, Jürgen; Cooper, David N; Goebel, Jürgen W; Krawczak, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Although biobanks are vital for modern medical research, serious concerns have been raised about the legal basis and framework of such endeavours. This led the German 'Telematics Platform for Medical Research Networks' ('Telematikplattform für Medizinische Forschungsnetze', TMF) to initiate a project in 2004 that was designed to place German biobanks on a sound legal footing. This project involved the planning, writing and evaluation of an expert report that addresses in great detail the legal issues concerning property rights, medical professional regulations, general liability insurance, resource continuity and research secrecy. Here, we provide a brief summary of the major results of this project.

  8. Correlation between thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C.L.

    1985-02-01

    Thermoluminescence properties of bismuth germanate and their relationship to radiation damage characteristics have been investigated. Thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate display several similar properties including similar responses as a function of radiation dose, similar saturation levels, and similar decay times. Also a correlation was found between the thermoluminescence sensitivities and radiation damage sensitivities of four different crystals. The traps responsible for the radiation damage and those which store the thermoluminescence signal appear to be either closely related or actually the same traps. Four trapping centers can be seen in the thermoluminescence glow curves. The depth of the dominant trap is 1.1 eV. 10 references.

  9. Max Planck and the ``black year'' of German physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1994-12-01

    1994 is the hundredth anniversary of what Max Planck described in 1935 as the ``black year'' of German physics. In the eight months between January 1st and September 8th 1894, Heinrich Hertz, August Kundt, and Hermann von Helmholtz died. This article reviews the lives of these three important physicists, their research contributions, and their unique positions in the German physics community. In conclusion, the relationships of these three physicists to Planck are discussed, and Planck's evaluation of the impact of 1894 on physics in Germany is appraised from our perspective of one hundred years.

  10. Identity development in German emerging adults: not an easy task.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development. Identity development is particularly challenging for young adults from immigrant backgrounds, from low socioeconomic brackets, or who suffer from chronic health conditions. In this context, we highlight the supportive role of social networks (parents, peers, and romantic partners) for identity development. Cross-cultural studies have suggested distinctive identity concerns in youth from majority and minority groups.

  11. Wortbildung und Fremdsprachenunterricht (Word Formation and Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schier, Juergen

    1977-01-01

    Word formation is seen as receiving too little attention in foreign language teaching; its study increases auditory and reading understanding. Practical suggestions are given for collecting and arranging material, and for analyzing the structure of words. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  13. Proceedings of the 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Walter Steininger; Wilhelm Bollingerfehr

    2016-01-11

    The 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Dresden. Germany on September 7-9, 2015. Over seventy participants helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. The number of collaborative efforts continues to grow and to produce useful documentation, as well as to define the state of the art for research areas. These Proceedings are divided into Chapters, and a list of authors is included in the Acknowledgement Section. Also in this document are the Technical Agenda, List of Participants, Biographical Information, Abstracts, and Presentations. Proceedings of all workshops and other pertinent information are posted on websites hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club. The US/German workshops provide continuity for long-term research, summarize and publish status of mature areas, and develop appropriate research by consensus in a workshop environment. As before, major areas and findings are highlighted, which constitute topical Chapters in these Proceedings. In total, the scientific breadth is substantial and while not all subject matter is elaborated into chapter format, all presentations and abstracts are published in this document. In the following Proceedings, six selected topics are developed in detail.

  14. Triassic structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Central German North Sea sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Marco; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The subsurface of the Central German North Sea sector is characterized by a complex sequence of tectonic events that span from the Permo-Carboniferous initiation of the Southern Permian Basin to the present day. The Triassic period is one of the most prominent stratigraphic intervals in this area due to alternating phases of relatively tectonic quiescence and intense tectonic activity with the development of grabens, salt-tectonics movements, various regional and local erosional events and strong local and regional changes in subsidence over time. The heterogeneous geological history led to complex structural and lithological patterns. The presented results are part of a comprehensive investigation of the Central German North Sea sector. It was carried out within the scope of the project TUNB (www.bgr.bund.de). The main goal was to enhance the understanding of the Triassic geological development in the area of interest due to detailed seismic interpretation of several hundred 2D seismic lines and as well 3D seismic data sets. A seismostratigraphic concept was used to interpret most formations of the Triassic resulting in a detailed subdivision of the Triassic unit. Depth and thickness maps for every stratigraphic unit and geological cross sections provided new insights regarding an overall basin evolution as well as the timing and mechanisms of rifting and salt-tectonics. New results concerning the evolution of the Keuper in the German North Sea and especially the Triassic evolution of the Horn Graben, as one of the major Triassic rift-structures in the North Sea, will be highlighted. We will show aspects of strong tectonic subsidence in the Horn Graben in the Lower Triassic. In parts of the study area, halotectonic movements started in the Upper Triassic, earlier than previously proposed. Besides mapping of regional seismic reflectors, distinct sedimentary features like fluvial channel systems of the Stuttgart formation (Middle Keuper) or subrosion-like structures

  15. Have "new" methods in medical education reached German-speaking Central Europe: a survey.

    PubMed

    Fandler, Martin; Habersack, Marion; Dimai, Hans P

    2014-08-16

    Simulation-based-training (SBT) in the education of health professionals is discussed as an effective alternative for knowledge and skills enhancement as well as for the establishment of a secure learning environment, for learners and patients. In the Anglo-American region, SBT and simulation and training centers (STC) are numbered as standard for medical training. In German-speaking Central Europe, priority is still given to the establishment of SBT and STC. The purpose of this study was (i) to survey the status quo relating to the existence and facilities of simulation and training centers at medical universities in German-speaking Central Europe and (ii) the evaluation of training methods, especially in the area of emergency medicine skills. All public and private medical universities or medical faculties in Germany (36), Austria (4) and German-speaking Switzerland (3) were interviewed. In the survey, information regarding the existence and facilities of STCs and information with regards to the use of SBT in the area of emergency medicine was requested. The questions were partly posed in a closed-ended-, in an open-ended- and in a multiple choice format (with the possibility of selecting more than one answer). Of a total of 43 contacted medical universities/medical faculties, 40 ultimately participated in the survey. As decisive for the establishment of a STC the potential to improve the clinical-practical training and the demand by students were listed. Obligatory training in a STC during the first and sixth academic year was confirmed only by 12 institutions, before the first invasive procedure on patients by 17 institutions. 13 institutions confirmed the use of the STC for the further training of physicians and care-staff. Training for the acute care and emergency medicine skills in the field of pediatrics, for the most part, occurs decentralized. New methods in medical training have reached German-speaking Central Europe, but the simulation and training

  16. Progress testing in German speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Nouns, Zineb M; Georg, Waltraud

    2010-01-01

    Progress testing was introduced in 1999 at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. This Berlin progress test medizin (PTM) started to cooperate with other Medical Schools in 2000. The cooperation grew continuously and now 13 Medical schools in Germany and Austria take part, including more than 8500 Students. This article focuses on the concept and quality of the PTM and the benefits for students and medical schools. It shows how an initial small student initiative has developed into a successful international cooperation of formative testing in medical education.

  17. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2005-01-01

    This report updates previous compilations published in this journal. The current listing contains references to 70 dissertations in German language and/or literature, comparative literature, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German.

  18. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Updates previous compilations published in this journal. The current listing contains references to 111 dissertations in German language and literature, comparative literature, and foreign and second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German. (VWL)

  19. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Updates previous compilations of this survey, which are published in this journal. Contains references to 102 dissertations in German language or literature, comparative literature, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German. (Author/VWL)

  20. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--1995 and 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    This listing contains references to 212 dissertations in German language and/or literature, comparative literature, linguistics, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German. (Author/CK)

  1. Time, Manner and Place in German: An Investigation of Adverb Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Reports on an experiment in native speaker judgement of acceptability, designed to test the acceptability of variations on the time-manner-place order in German adverbs. Implications for teaching German are drawn. (AM)

  2. The Structure of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilling, Rainer

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and function of the West-German Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker and its role in the communication and reward system of its discipline. Explores its role in the West German science system, exploring ideology and politics. (JM)

  3. BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF GERMAN TEXT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cave Hill National Cemetery, 701 Baxter Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  4. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria.

  5. Discrimination of native and non-native vowel contrasts in bilingual Turkish-German and monolingual German children: Insight from the Mismatch Negativity ERP component.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Tanja; Alku, Paavo; Brosch, Sibylle; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The development of native-like memory traces for foreign phonemes can be measured by using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential. Previous studies have shown that the MMN is sensitive to changes in neural organization depending on language experience. Here we measured the MMN response in 5-6year-old monolingual German and bilingual Turkish-German kindergarten children growing up in Germany. MMN was investigated to a German vowel contrast and to a vowel contrast that exists in Turkish and in German. The results show that compared to a German control group, the MMN response is less robust in Turkish-German children to the German vowel contrast. The response to the contrast that exists in both languages does not differ between groups. Overall, the results suggest that the Turkish-German children have not yet fully acquired the German phonetic inventory despite living in Germany since birth and being immersed in a German-speaking environment.

  6. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  7. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  8. Developmental Surface and Phonological Dysgraphia in German 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Jurgen; Mantey, Stefanie; Heber, Stefanie; Hollweg, Wibke

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of developmental reading and spelling disorders within the framework provided by cognitive neuropsychology has yielded interesting results for several alphabetic orthographies, for example English, Italian, and French. However, this approach has not attracted much attention in German speaking countries up to now. The following…

  9. On the Project "Party Democracy." German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagener, Caesar

    A curriculum project on political party democracy in West Germany is described. Intended mainly for use in grades 9-10, the curriculum was developed by German social scientists, educators, and students from 1971 to 1973. The curriculum report is presented in two sections. Section I describes the learning package, tells who it is designed for,…

  10. Interactive Video in Classes of German for Business and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Bettina F.

    This paper discusses the Georgia Institute of Technology's Business German summer language course, an intensive 6-week course that utilizes classroom instruction, language labs, and computer labs. The course stresses vocabulary and discourse as commonly used in the professional context, as well as intercultural information. A major component of…

  11. Developmental Surface and Phonological Dysgraphia in German 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Jurgen; Mantey, Stefanie; Heber, Stefanie; Hollweg, Wibke

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of developmental reading and spelling disorders within the framework provided by cognitive neuropsychology has yielded interesting results for several alphabetic orthographies, for example English, Italian, and French. However, this approach has not attracted much attention in German speaking countries up to now. The following…

  12. Identity Development in German Adolescents with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here assessed the exploration of identity and commitment to an identity in German adolescents with and without visual impairments. Methods: In total, 178 adolescents with visual impairments (blindness or low vision) and 526 sighted adolescents completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire. Results: The levels of…

  13. Lessons from German and American Industrial-Education Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theuerkauf, Walter E.; Putnam, A. R.

    The search for a work force preparation model that could serve as a guide for meeting present and emerging challenges has lead to a focus on the German dual system youth apprenticeship model. In this system, the practice-oriented part is taken over by commercial enterprises and theoretical knowledge is imparted by vocational schools. The trainee…

  14. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  15. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 9, German: 7535.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. Students read about and discuss a castle built by Ludwig, the "Mad King of Bavaria," and become acquainted with Bonn, the capital of West Germany. The…

  16. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 13, German: 7536.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. Students gain an insight into life in postwar Germany through stories about this period of history. Structural items stressed, are relative pronouns and clauses,…

  17. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  18. [Unipacs: A-LM German, Units 3-29].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Bend High Schools, WI.

    These instructional materials, designed for use with the "A-LM" German language course, permit teachers to individualize instruction. Basic objectives are outlined concerning basic dialogues, vocabulary, supplementary materials, reading, grammar, recombination materials, and creative conversation. A student checklist serves as a guide for the…

  19. On the "Vulnerability" of Syntactic Domains in Swedish and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnacker, Ute

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the L2 acquisition of clausal syntax in postpuberty learners of German and Swedish regarding V2, VP headedness, and verb particle constructions. The learner data are tested against L2 theories according to which lower structural projections (VP) are acquired before higher functional projections (IP, CP), VP syntax is…

  20. Native Speaker Judgment and the Evaluation of Errors in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Helga H.

    1982-01-01

    Presents and analyzes two studies designed to test native speaker reaction to certain types of errors that speakers of English make when learning German. Aim was to establish the role of the medium, spoken or written, in evaluation of errors. Results show overall ratings of errors in written and spoken language are similar, although with…

  1. Electronic Learning in the German Science Project "NAWI-Interaktiv"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Homann, Wiebke; Strehlke, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    The German science project "NAWI-Interaktiv" is an example of innovative use of E-Learning and new media education. Since 2009, the learning platform provides learners and teachers with high-quality learning tools, teaching material, useful information and E-learning programs for free. This is to raise the pupils' motivation to learn…

  2. Methodology and Technology in the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    Some basic problems of current lower-division foreign language instruction are discussed from the standpoint of real-life language use, and specific measures for meeting some of the problems are suggested for learning German as a second language. Some of the significant discrepancies between the use of a language in real life and in the language…

  3. GERMAN FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A GUIDE TO MINIMUM ESSENTIALS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEAMON, M. PHILLIP; AND OTHERS

    THIS CURRICULUM OUTLINE PROVIDES A SET OF MINIMUM ESSENTIALS, BASED ON A MODIFIED AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH, FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PROGRAMS IN GERMAN. FOLLOWING A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE NEED FOR LONGER STUDY SEQUENCE AND UPDATED INSTRUCTIONAL PHILOSOPHY, THE GUIDE DESCRIBES THE BASIC OBJECTIVES, CONTENTS, AND SUGGESTED TEACHING PROCEDURES FOR EACH…

  4. GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF GERMAN IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSEL, JOHN P.; AND OTHERS

    THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARED THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF GERMAN IN CALIFORNIA WITH THE IDEA OF HELPING TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS CONDUCT A SOUND, COORDINATED PROGRAM OF LANGUAGE STUDY. DESIGNED FOR BOTH EXPERIENCED AND BEGINNING TEACHERS OF, PRIMARILY, GRADES 6 THROUGH 12, THE MAJOR PART OF THE…

  5. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  6. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…

  7. Introducing Entrepreneurship Teaching at Select German Universities: A Change Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curri, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    In the recent past, universities in the western world have been expected to play a greater role in the national economic welfare of their countries in addition to their traditional role of education and research. In 1997, following the examples of national governments in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, the German government launched an…

  8. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Secondary and Postsecondary German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilett, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This article combines quantitative and qualitative analysis of the depiction of ethnic and racial diversity in recent editions of secondary and postsecondary German textbooks published in the US. The purpose is threefold: (1) to determine the frequency and types of representations of diversity; (2) to examine more closely several representative…

  9. Role of Grammatical Gender and Semantics in German Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Indefrey, Peter; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Hellwig, Frauke

    2004-01-01

    Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors (E. Mane, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored different accounts of the grammatical gender…

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition--First Year German Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An experiment was conducted using the suggestopedia method to learn German vocabulary words. Four students who had failed, or nearly failed, tests during the regular university term, took part in two tutoring sessions in which the following procedure was used. First, a pretest of 72 lexical items was given. The students cooperated with the teacher…

  11. "A-LM German": How to Make it Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmetz, Dieter

    1978-01-01

    The A-LM German materials are analyzed in terms of their weakness and positive features, and suggestions for their use and adaptation are presented. It is argued that: the basic dialogue is almost unusable; the structure drills are repetitive and often not challenging; the taped arrangement of the listening exercises is awkward; the dialogue…

  12. An Empirical Model of the Vertical Structure of German Fogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    on reveree side if neceesay end Identify by block number) German fogs Vertical variation Fog density Liquid water content Empirical model SAIISTACT...Grafenw6hr and Meppen, Germany. Curve fitting procedures were applied to the results of liquid water content calculations and extinction coefficients...THE ALGORITM ............................................. 7 COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND MODELED FOG DENSITY ........................... 8 CONCLUSIONS

  13. Deans in German Universities: Goal Acceptance and Task Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholkmann, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study which explored how deans at German universities accept their new role as manager, and which factors influence the acceptance of this role. Within a framework referring to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, the acceptance of operative goals implemented in the faculties served as an indicator of how well…

  14. [Impact of scientific publications of German otorhinolaryngologist in international comparison].

    PubMed

    Godau, S; Finkensieper, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2012-11-01

    The value of German publications in otorhinolaryngology in comparison to the international community has not been analyzed in detail yet. Using the Web of Science ® data base a quantitative bibliometric analysis of publications in the field of otorhinolaryngology was performed for the years 2000-2010. We compared countries, institutions and individual authors in relation to the whole field of otorhinolaryngology and to special topics. 57 157 ENT-publications were identified for the period between 2000 and 2010. The second most number, 12 % of the publications came from Germany. Ranking the authors with most publications, 6 German scientists could be found on the fi rst 20 ranks. USA, Japan, and Germany were the dominating countries looking on publication for the subspecialties. From Germany originated the most publications for the topics smell and taste disorders. Publications form German institutions in the field of clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology have a high impact in international comparison. German authors could be found in all subspecialties of otorhinolaryngology on the top 3 places. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. 77 FR 62137 - German-American Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... peoples. For many years, citizens of both our countries--entrepreneurs, innovators, students, scientists... immeasurably to our Nation. During the more than three centuries since the first German settlers arrived in... hereunto set my hand this fifth day of October, in the year of our Lord two thousand twelve, and of the...

  16. Incorporating Critical Thinking and Authenticity into Business German Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram

    1998-01-01

    Proposes to integrate critical thinking and problem-solving into two existing international tests of business German (Prufung Wirtschaftsdeutsch International and Zertifikat Deutsch fur den Beruf), and to contextualize the tests' tasks in a more authentic business setting without compromising their content. Parallels are drawn with the American…

  17. Lost (and Found) in Translation: Learning from German Language Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton

    2016-01-01

    This essay introduces two presentations (or "Vorträge") by Ulf Abraham and Thomas Zabka that were originally published in the German journal, "Didaktik Deutsch." I reflect on the complexities of translation and intercultural communication, and ask how we might meaningfully compare the policy environment of one country with that…

  18. Development of German-English Machine Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, W. P.; Stachowitz, R. A.

    This report deals with advances in linguistic analysis and programing. The theoretical theses for this work were presented in the first annual report. This second report concentrates on progress in the descriptive analysis of German and English, and on computer programs which have been developed during the year. Linguistic work during the period…

  19. Verb Position and the Order of Adverbials in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, O. C., Jr.

    Recent work in word-order typology has demonstrated that the dominant order of verbs and objects (or complements) correlates well with the general ordering tendencies of languages. The work on German reported in this paper suggests, however, that certain traits, such as the order of adverbials, are influenced not only by general ordering…

  20. Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germanate optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Lousteau, Joris; Macpherson, William N; Jiang, Xin; Bookey, Henry T; Barton, James S; Jha, Animesh; Kar, Ajoy K

    2007-07-09

    The temperature coefficients of optical phase have been measured at 1536 nm wavelength for short fiber Fabry-Perot cavities of tellurite and germanate glass fibers spliced to silica fiber. The results are consistent with the thermal expansion and thermo-optic coefficients of the bulk glasses.