Science.gov

Sample records for formation schilfsandstein germanic

  1. Space formations and nonlinear properties of noncentrosymmetric germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Korotkov, Anton Sergeevich

    2014-10-15

    Space formations of Ge-O polyhedra have been analyzed for 114 noncentrosymmetric germanates. The type of Ge-O polyhedra space formations is dependent on the stoichiometric ratio SR=n(O)/n(Ge), where n(O) is the number of oxygen and n(Ge) is the number of germanium atoms in formal composition of the compound. Individual (Ge-O) polyhedra are found for SR≥3 chains of the polyhedra that exist in the range of SR=3–5. Only framework formations are possible at SR≤2.7. - graphical abstract: Examples of space formations of polyhedra. - Highlights: • Space formations of Ge-O polyhedra have been analyzed. • The dependence of the type of Ge-O polyhedra space formations on the stoichiometric ratio SR=n(O)/n(Ge) was established. • Set of experimental SHG data of noncentrosymmetric germanates was presented.

  2. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  3. On the Formation of Penumbrae as Observed with the German VTT SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.; González, N. B.

    2012-05-01

    Solar magnetic fields are generated in the solar interior and pop up at the solar surface to form active regions. As the magnetic field appears on the surface, it forms various structures like small magnetic elements, pores, and sunspots. The nature of these formation processes is largely unknown. In this contribution we elaborate on the formation of sunspots and particularly on the formation of penumbrae. We report on observations that we obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on July 4, 2009 on the formation of the spot in AR 11024. This data set is complemented with data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard SOHO, which offers an entire time coverage. Moreover, the evolution of AR 11024 is compared with a particular event of penumbra formation in AR 11124 around November 13, 2010, using intensity images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. We conclude that two processes contribute to the increase of the magnetic flux of a sunspot: (1) merging pores, and (2) emerging bipoles of which the spot polarity migrates towards and merges with the spot. As the penumbra forms, the area, magnetic flux, and maximum field strength in the umbra stay constant or increase slightly, i.e., the formation of the penumbra is associated with flux emergence and flux increase of the proto-spot. If two pores merge or if a pore merges with a proto-spot a light bridge is created. This initial light bridge dissolves in the further evolution.

  4. [The formation of medical knowledges in Russia before 1800: contributions of German speaking physicians].

    PubMed

    Henning, Aloys

    2004-01-01

    Under the Moscovian grand duke VASILIJ III (1505-1533) the physician NICOLAUS BüLOW from Lübeck translated into Russian "Gaerde der Suntheit" (The garden of health), printed at Lübeck in 1492. Many German oral and literal medical transfers to Russia are documented since, amongst those from whole Europe, which SABINE DUMSCHAT has actually investigates (1998; 2003). At the end of the 16th century the German translation fo JOHANN REMMELINS (1583-1632) "catoptron microcosmicum" (1661) was translated into Russian for teaching the first Russian military surgeons (fel'dshery). JOSIAS WEITBRECHT (1702-1747) from Württemberg, member of the Imperial Academy of Science at St Petersburg since 1725, created a catalog of the anatomical preparations in the Petersburg Chamber of Arts, which Peter I let buy from FREDERIK RUYSCH in 1717 at Amersterdamn. WEITBRECHT lectured on anatomy and physiology at the Academy since 1730, what DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700-1782) had done there before. JOHANN BLATHASAR HANHART (1704-1739) from Winterthur, surgeon since 1733 at the new Petersburg Admiralty's hospital was ordered to create the Latin terminology for the first anatomical atlas, ever printed in Russia (1744). When HANHART had died, the surgeon from Petersburg Army's hospital CHRISTOPH JAKOB VON MELLEN (1705-1765) from Lübeck finished his work. In 1757 and 1761 the chief-surgeon at the Admiralty's hospital MARTIN SHEIN (1712-1762) published the first textbooks on anatomy and surgery in Russian, having translated JOHANN ZACHARIAS PLATNERS 'Institutiones chirurgicae", Lipsiae 1745. In 1764 the accoucheur-surgeon JOHANN PAGENKAMPF, Personal surgeon of EKATERINA II, translated and published a German textbook from JOHANN HORN for accoucheuses into Russian for teaching at the Moscow school for accoucheuses under JOHANN FRIEDRICH ERASMUS from Strasburg, founded in 1757.

  5. Wortbildung und Landeskunde im DaF-Unterricht (Word Formation and Cultural Studies in the German-as-a-Foreign Language Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Angelika

    1996-01-01

    Discusses word-formation in today's German and demonstrates through the use of several examples (e.g., ad hoc composites such as "re-unification," and "blue-helmet deployment") how words can be objects of linguistic analyses and carriers of cultural information. (AP)

  6. [Recruitment of osteogenic cells to bone formation sites during development and fracture repair - German Version].

    PubMed

    Böhm, A-M; Dirckx, N; Maes, C

    2016-04-01

    Recruitment of osteoblast lineage cells to their bone-forming locations is essential for skeletal development and fracture healing. In developing bones, osteoprogenitor cells invade the cartilage mold to establish the primary ossification center. Similarly, osteogenic cells infiltrate and populate the callus tissue that is formed following an injury. Proper bone development and successful fracture repair must, therefore, rely on controlled temporal and spatial navigation cues guiding the cells to the sites where new bone formation is needed. Some cellular mechanisms and molecular pathways involved have been elucidated.

  7. Role of low-energy ion irradiation in the formation of an aluminum germanate layer on a germanium substrate by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Yukio Yamada, Daichi; Yokohira, Tomoya; Yanachi, Kosei; Yamamoto, Chiaya; Yoo, Byeonghak; Sato, Tetsuya; Yamanaka, Junji; Takamatsu, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition uses oxygen radicals generated by a remote microwave-induced plasma as an oxidant to change the surface reactions of the alternately supplied trimethylaluminum precursor and oxygen radicals on a Ge substrate, which leads to the spontaneous formation of an aluminum germanate layer. In this paper, the effects that low-energy ions, supplied from a remote microwave plasma to the substrate along with the oxygen radicals, have on the surface reactions were studied. From a comparative study of aluminum oxide deposition under controlled ion flux irradiation on the deposition surface, it was found that the ions enhance the formation of the aluminum germanate layer. The plasma potential measured at the substrate position by the Langmuir probe method was 5.4 V. Assuming that the kinetic energy of ions arriving at the substrate surface is comparable to that gained by this plasma potential, such ions have sufficient energy to induce exchange reactions of surface-adsorbed Al atoms with the underlying Ge atoms without causing significant damage to the substrate. This ion-induced exchange reaction between Al and Ge atoms is inferred to be the background kinetics of the aluminum germanate formation by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

  8. Magnetostratigraphy: the key to a global correlation of the classic Germanic Trias-case study Volpriehausen Formation (Middle Buntsandstein), Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurlies, Michael

    2004-11-01

    An integrated lithostratigraphic-magnetostratigraphic study was carried out in order to provide a magnetic record for the Volpriehausen Formation of the classic Germanic Trias. In its type area of Central Germany, the ˜150-m thick Volpriehausen Formation consists of nine small-scale fining-upward cycles, ranging from about 10 to 20 m in thickness. They can readily be correlated over large parts of the Central European Basin using a combination of cyclic stratigraphy and gamma ray logging. Based on this robust high-resolution lithostratigraphic framework, a precise positioning and verification of paleomagnetic data has been realized. To this end, the classic outcrop Kleines Bodetal and the continuously cored well Bockenem A100 were collected, yielding a total of 361 paleomagnetic samples. From about 87% of them, a characteristic remanence was obtained in both the magnetite-bearing gray lithologies as well as the hematite-bearing red-brown lithologies. The between-site correlation allows the creation of a well-defined composite magnetostratigraphy of the uppermost Bernburg Formation to lowermost Detfurth Formation, encompassing a total of five magnetic polarity intervals, which can be combined unambiguously with a recently established polarity scale for the uppermost Zechstein and Lower Buntsandstein. Moreover, the resulting composite magnetostratigraphy can be correlated with corresponding records from the Continental, Boreal, and Tethyan realms. Thus, the Buntsandstein magnetostratigraphy is important in that it provides valuable anchors to link the Germanic Trias high-resolution lithostratigraphy to the biostratigraphically calibrated Triassic substages.

  9. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Eliseev, A. V.; Evgrafova, S.; Fedorova, I.; Glagolev, M.; Grigoriev, M.; Hubberten, H. W.; Knoblauch, C.; Kunitsky, V.; Kutzbach, L.; Reichstein, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Wagner, D.; Zimov, S. A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 2.5-times the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg

  10. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German scientific and technological cooperation project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 3-times the carbon within the atmosphere. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, a 4.5 million Euro project for scientific and technological cooperation, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and

  11. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  12. A Teacher's Notebook: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This guide for teachers of German at independent schools is a result of a collective effort of a number of experienced German teachers during the year 1973. It is directed mainly toward the new teacher as a quick source of reference for all aspects of instruction of German at the secondary level. Contents include: (1) "Why Study German?," (2)…

  13. Glacial landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf: evidence for Late Wisconsinan ice-sheet dynamics and implications for the formation of De Geer moraines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Brian J.; Valentine, Page C.; Longva, Oddvar; Shaw, John

    2007-01-01

    The extent and behaviour of the southeast margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Atlantic Canada is of significance in the study of Late Wisconsinan ice sheet-ocean interactions. Multibeam sonar imagery of subglacial, ice-marginal and glaciomarine landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf, provides evidence of the pattern of glacial-dynamic events in the eastern Gulf of Maine. Northwest-southeast trending drumlins and megaflutes dominate northern German Bank. On southern German Bank, megaflutes of thin glacial deposits create a distinct northwest-southeast grain. Lobate regional moraines (>10km long) are concave to the northwest, up-ice direction and strike southwest-northeast, normal to the direction of ice flow. Ubiquitous, overlying De Geer moraines (

  14. Controlling National Identity and Reshaping the Role of Education: The Vision of State Formation in Meiji Japan and the German "Kaiserreich"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2004-01-01

    In Meiji Japan (1868?1912) and the German "Kaiserreich" (1871-1918), the educational system assisted the state in the definition of the notions of national identity. They developed, it is broadly claimed, within a similar vision of a state, which culminated in similar patterns of nationalism towards the end of the Second World War. In this article…

  15. Rubella (German Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  16. German Measles (Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Vaccine Preventable Diseases > German Measles (Rubella) Health Issues ...

  17. [Sample German LAPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  18. 2.5 years of CarboPerm: achievements and further steps of an interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic matter (OM) decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1300 ± 200 Pg of SOC, or about twice as much the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will likely result in increased permafrost thawing with the consequence of increased mobilization and degradation of formerly frozen OM. This degradation process will presumably result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby induce a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of SOC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. CarboPerm strengthens permafrost research in underrepresented areas which are hardly accessible to international researchers. The obtained results improve our understanding of the future development of the sensitive and economically relevant arctic permafrost regions. With this contribution we want to inform the interested community about the new knowledge resulting from results of all scientific work packages: (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas.

  19. Two years of CarboPerm: achievements and further steps of an interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic matter (OM) decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1300 ± 200 Pg of SOC, or about twice as much the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will likely result in increased permafrost thawing with the consequence of increased mobilization and degradation of formerly frozen OM. This degradation process will presumably result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby induce a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of SOC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. CarboPerm strengthens permafrost research in underrepresented areas which are hardly accessible to international researchers. The obtained results improve our understanding of the future development of the sensitive and economically relevant arctic permafrost regions. With this contribution we want to inform the interested community about the new knowledge resulting from results of all scientific work packages: (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas.

  20. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  1. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  2. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  3. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  4. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  5. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  6. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  7. Storytelling and German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  8. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  9. High temperature behavior of zirconium germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V.; Baklanova, N.I.; Vasilyeva, I.G.

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature behavior of zirconium germanates ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ up to 2300 °C has been studied using the original photoemission thermal analysis technique with the comprehensive physicochemical study of solid and gaseous intermediate and final products. The two-stage process of incongruent sublimation of GeO₂ was established and the phase boundary of the homogeneity range for ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ were deduced from the thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. A high tendency to sintering of the final ZrO₂ product is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂ and occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. Highlights: •Thermal behavior of ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ was studied using the original thermal analysis technique in wide temperature range. •The decomposition occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. •The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂. •The temperature of decomposition is strongly depended on the total gas pressure.

  10. Geomechanical characterization of an Upper Triassic reservoir rock (Stuttgart Formation) in the NE German Basin (pilot site for CO2 storage at Ketzin, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapperer, S.; Moeck, I.; Backers, T.

    2012-04-01

    behavior of rock are the angle of internal friction ψ and cohesion c, representing aspects determining failure occurrence that can be expressed and illustrated by the Mohr Coulomb failure criterion. As for the UCS there is also a wide range of values for ψ (4.06° to 36.98°) and c (10.45 MPa to 49.41 MPa) which differ distinctly within similar lithologies. With respect to these differences further geomechanical tests in combination with petrographic investigations will be in focus to evaluate the impact of lithologal as well as lithofacial characteristics on geomechanical properties. Thus the lithological and lithofacial heterogeneous characteristics of the Stuttgart formation could influence significantly the geomechanical behavior and transmission of stresses resulting from CO2 injection. Therefrom knowledge about these rock mechanical properties helps to provide a save and long term injection and prevent leakage scenarios.

  11. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  12. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  13. Headstart German Program. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the eighth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. This module deals with a single situation, visiting a German family in their home. The exercises are intended to…

  14. Teacher vs. Peer Oral Corrective Feedback in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sippel, Lieselotte; Jackson, Carrie N.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study investigated the effects of oral teacher and peer corrective feedback on the acquisition of the German present perfect tense, including auxiliary verb selection (a rule-based structure) and past participle formation (an item-based structure). Intermediate learners of German were assigned to a teacher feedback condition, a peer…

  15. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  16. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  17. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  18. Indoxacarb biotransformation in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Silva, Isabel; Cooper, Bruce; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-11-01

    Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As shown in other insect species we found evidence for hydrolase-based bioactivation of indoxacarb to a toxic decarbomethoxylated metabolite, DCJW. In addition, both indoxacarb and DCJW were further metabolized to hydroxy, oxadiazine ring-opened and hydroxylated ring-opened metabolites. In general, higher indoxacarb disappearance, increased formation of DCJW and the above-mentioned metabolites were observed in the three field strains. In vitro biotransformation studies showed that hydroxylated and oxadiazine ring-opened metabolite formation is NADPH/cytochrome P450-dependent. Bioassays and in vivo metabolism experiments using the enzyme-inhibiting insecticide synergists, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), provided insights into potential indoxacarb resistance mechanisms that may proliferate in German cockroach field strains following unchecked selection pressures. The information presented here is an essential step toward developing indoxacarb resistance management programs and also reveals mechanisms of secondary/tertiary indoxacarb toxicity.

  19. Interpretation of single-well push-pull spikings conducted in deep crystalline formations (Soultz-s.-F. in the Upper Rhine Graben, and KTB-VB at the German site of ICDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, J.; Sauter, M.; Behrens, H.; (Steffen) Fischer, S.; (Steffi) Fischer, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.

    2009-04-01

    Two somewhat contrasting model approaches are presented, both aimed at interpreting long-term return signals from tracer push-pull tests conducted at single wells penetrating increased-permeability features in crystalline rock, about 4 km deep. The general idea is that single-well tracer push-pull tests, owing to the flow-field reversal, should provide privileged access to advection-independent parameters of solute transport, like the density of fluid-rock contact surface areas (Sauter et al., 2002). The latter is equivalent to the heat exchange area for a liquid-based geothermal system. At the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts in the Upper Rhine Graben, the French BRGM, in cooperation with EGI Utah and other partners, conducted a comprehensive tracer testing programme, whose results were presented in detail by Sanjuan et al. (2004, 2006), Rose et al. (2006). Of these results, we pick the tracer return signals detected during post-stimulation backflow periods at borehole GPK-2 between 2000 and 2002 (as published by Sanjuan et al., 2004) and attempt to interpret them in terms of a single-well injection-withdrawal sequence. Two chemically dissimilar organic tracers have been used by BRGM; however the difference between their return signals seems not significant enough to allow quantifying fluid-rock contact surfaces from this difference alone (additional / a priori information on coefficients of solute exchange across these surfaces would be required). Instead, the tracer return signals enable characterizing the nature of solute exchange processes within the spiked volume of the assumed fractured-porous formation (highly altered crystalline rock). At least one rapid-exchange (E-7 / d), slightly dispersive (Pe~12) component and one moderate-exchange (2E-8 / d), less dispersive (Pe~20) component appear to act within few hundred metres and, respectively, within at least 1 km radial distance from the borehole. - An alternative component of extremely fast exchange

  20. [German demography: a taboo subject?].

    PubMed

    Soullie, J

    1995-06-14

    The author first notes that, though the population of Germany has increased significantly in size since the Second World War, fertility has been below replacement levels for some time. Furthermore, this strong rate of growth has been accompanied by major variations from one generation to the next, although these trends have received very little attention from German scholars. It is noted that, since the rate of natural increase has been negative since 1972, this growth must have been caused exclusively by immigration. The seriousness of the demographic situation in the former East German states is noted. Current projections indicate a decline in total population size of about 13 million over the next 50 years. Policy options faced by the German authorities are discussed. This article was previously published in the April 15, 1995 issue of Chroniques Economiques.

  1. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  2. Das deutsche Adverbialsystem (The German Adverbial System)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droescher, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the surface structure of German adverbs proceeding from the standpoint of dependence-valence grammar. On the basis of their meaning, adverbs are classified as modal, temporal and locational. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  3. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  4. From Business to Technological German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, H. M.

    Because many of the Georgia Institute of Technology students taking business German come from the sciences and engineering, the business language textbook used has been supplemented with more technologically oriented instructional materials. Highly technical texts are too advanced at the second year language learning stage, so one teacher selected…

  5. Saving German Studies, via Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, William Collins; Kagel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    By most accounts, the position of German studies in the American academy is no longer secure. To a large extent, that is due to reasons beyond the control of individual faculty or departments, including the general crisis faced by the humanities and the diminished importance in the eyes of the public of literary criticism, a vital part of the…

  6. Atlanta Public Schools German Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Helen; And Others

    This guide for teachers of German emphasizes the primacy of listening and speaking skills at all levels of instruction. Contents include information on: (1) philosophy and ultimate goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program sequence, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for…

  7. A Functional Syntax of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Edward G.

    Students in intermediate language courses, especially conversational courses, can benefit from a simple set of instructions for combining words and phrases into sentences. A description of the basic concepts determining word order in German--the fundamental sequence of clause elements, the "infrastructure," and the movement rules by which the…

  8. Instructional Methods in German (IMG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School of Education, Malmo (Sweden). Dept. of Educational and Psychological Research.

    This project report outlines a continuing investigation (1965-73) into the teaching of German in Swedish public schools and steps taken toward the compilation and construction of teaching materials for use in introductory courses. The work is reviewed following four principal phases of completed project research and development: (1) analysis of…

  9. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  10. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  11. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  12. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  13. Cost analysis of German waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Debski, H.J.

    1993-12-31

    In forecasting costs of final disposal for radioactive waste, the determined disposal concept and operational aspects such as the necessary amount for personnel to operate the repository are important. Even for the German deep geological concept, there are large differences resulting from the assessment to select an already existing mine or a completely new formation as a disposal site. Based on actual planning, the expected total costs of the running waste repository projects in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented including their distribution to single aspects like project management, underground investigation, licensing work and construction. Moreover, the actual expenditures for the different waste repositories are given and as far as possible the prices per m{sup 3}.

  14. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  15. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-30

    merchandise is also denoted by the term Exportweltmeister (world champion exporter ). At the same time, relatively weak consumer demand is a...world’s top exporter of merchandise or goods, surpassing the United States, Japan, and China.36 The title of Exportweltmeister ( export champion) is a... exporting than domestic investment and consumption. With few exceptions, German governments have generally been reluctant to advance what many economists

  16. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  17. The German Navy: From World Power to Alliance Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    strategy to the exclusion of other examples of strategy other than the formation of legend and myth in a manner unhelpful to any real understanding...seriously than its many colorful legends or as a handy source of interesting tales of war at sea. In fact, the strategic order of the present is hard to...fleet, and perhaps most importantly recruited hundreds of academics to his cause. Organizations, such as The Colonial League , the Pan-German League

  18. Pressure induced metallization of Germane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Canales, M.; Bergara, A.; Feng, J.; Grochala, W.

    2006-09-01

    Recently reported superconductivity in lithium under pressure has renewed the interest on hydrogen and hydrogen-rich systems in the long standing quest for room temperature superconductivity. Although the required metallization of pure hydrogen cannot be achieved within correct experimental capabilities, chemical precompression exerted by heavier atoms in compounds with a large hydrogen content is expected to imply that lower pressures might be required to attain the metallic transition in these alloys. In this article, we present an ab initio analysis of pressure induced metallization of germane, as a particular case between group IVa hydrides. According to our calculations, metallization of germane is predicted to occur at an experimentally accessible pressure of around 70 GPa, which corresponds to a compression factor of 3.4.

  19. Facility management in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gudat, H

    2000-04-01

    Facility management and optimum building management offer for hospitals a chance to reduce costs and to increase quality, process sequences, employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Some years ago simple services such as cleaning, catering or laundry were outsourced. Now, German hospitals progress to more complex fields such as building and medical technology, clinical support processes such as pharmacy, central laboratory and sterilization, goods and logistics services.

  20. Current issues in German healthcare.

    PubMed

    Graf von der Schulenburg, J M; Uber, A

    1997-11-01

    Germany has developed a model of social health insurance for financing healthcare. The basic characteristics of this model are compulsory membership, income-dependent contributions paid by employers and employees, a comprehensive package of healthcare entitlements, stringent government regulation and implementation by not-for-profit health insurers--the sickness funds--which operate under public law. Since the mid-1970s, when health care cost containment gradually evolved as a new issue in German healthcare policy-making, a long series of reform programmes have been initiated. Two recent development can be noted: the introduction of market competition in health insurance and the introduction of fixed budgets. Market competition in health insurance is now an explicit policy tool in Germany. This article analyses the German healthcare system, the history of healthcare reforms and the current healthcare acts. Special emphasis is given to the German drug market and its regulation. The paper describes the present cost-containment policy for pharmaceutical products, especially the global budget concept which was introduced for medicines and patients' copayments.

  1. Composition and microstructure of zirconium and hafnium germanates obtained by different chemical routes

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V. Prokip, V.E.; Baklanova, N.I.

    2014-01-15

    The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. The products were characterized using high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal (TG/DTA) analysis. To investigate the phase composition and stoichiometry of compounds the unit cell parameters were refined by full-profile Rietveld XRD analysis. The morphology of products and its evolution during high-temperature treatment was examined by SEM analysis. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. The ceramic route requires a multi-stage high-temperature treatment to obtain zirconium and hafnium germanates of 95% purity or more. Also, there are strong diffusion limitations to obtain hafnium germanate Hf{sub 3}GeO{sub 8} by ceramic route. On the contrary, the co-precipitation route leads to the formation of nanocrystalline single phase germanates of stoichiometric composition at a relatively low temperatures (less than 1000 °C). The results of quantitative XRD analysis showed the hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds in contrast to zirconium germanates that form a set of solid solutions. This distinction may be related to the difference in the ion radii of Zr and Hf. - Graphical abstract: The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zr and Hf germanates were synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes. • The morphology of products depends on the synthesis parameters. • Zirconium germanates forms a set of solid solutions. • Hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds.

  2. Non-separable time preferences, novelty consumption and body weight: Theory and evidence from the East German transition to capitalism.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Davide; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model to illustrate how diet and body weight change when novel food products become available to consumers. We propose a microfounded test to empirically discriminate between habit and taste formation in intertemporal preferences. Moreover, we show that 'novelty consumption' and endogenous preferences can explain the persistent correlation between economic development and obesity. By empirically studying the German reunification, we find that East Germans consumed more novel Western food and gained more weight than West Germans when a larger variety of food products became readily accessible after the fall of the Wall. The observed consumption patterns suggest that food consumption features habit formation.

  3. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  4. German Unification and Its Ramifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    national iden- tity. Yet the unification of Germany will do more than finally bring to an end the painful realities of German partition; it will also...the Unite Sn-w te4 esn omomic Polly Groi Meet- * irg in B"d we Ju 7-9 190. %9ý Gerniwu OECD £waomk 8wwpy 1990 M (OECD UVW- Seeavo Pao% 1980). i+ i I Ii...also force painful changes within Germany, as it will open or break up a variety of arrangements that have previously protected uncompetitive sectors of

  5. 78 FR 62307 - German-American Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9035 of October 4, 2013 German-American Day, 2013 By the President of the... German-American Day, we celebrate the vibrant threads of German heritage woven into our national fabric..., as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history of German...

  6. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  7. Business German: The Use of Simulations in a Total Immersion German Business Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen

    At Concordia College's Institute of German Studies (Minnesota), an immersion program, a 1-month course entitled "German in the Business World" concentrates on development of written and oral communication skills needed in firms dealing with German-speakers. As part of its emphasis on banking, insurance, and business, the course includes…

  8. Ludolph Brauer, German aeromedical pioneer.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2004-08-01

    Ludolph Brauer (1865-1951) played an influential role in the history of aviation medicine in Germany. The Treaty of Versailles had put a stop to the development of German aviation and associated medical activities at the end of World War I. Brauer deserves credit for restarting civilian aviation medicine in Germany in the 1920s, paving the way for it to flourish in the 1930s. As Medical Director of the Hamburg-Eppendorf General Hospital, Brauer established the first German Institute of Aviation Medicine (GIAM) in 1927 in affiliation with the Tuberculosis Research Institute with its two large pneumatic chambers. The GIAM was active in altitude research and the selection of pilots, as well as educating medical students in aviation medicine, training Aviation Medical Examiners, and exploring clinical applications of hypobaric and climatic therapy. Brauer was forced to retire in 1934 for political reasons as the GIAM came under the influence of the military; in 1939 it was made part of the Aeromedical Research Institute of the "Reichsluftfahrt" Ministry. Brauer was a co-editor of the journal Luftfahrtmedizin in the 1930s and 1940s. He died in Munich on November 25th, 1951.

  9. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  10. 9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  11. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  12. 4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  13. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  14. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  15. Teaching German for Musicians: A Practical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Explores the opportunities for teaching German for musicians and offers it as an approach to teaching beginning German in general. A short theoretical discussion of the impact of music on foreign language learning precedes the presentation of various teaching tools and ideas that map the territory in which musical foreign language teaching can…

  16. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  17. German Library Networks in the Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Discusses German libraries' access to the Internet and World Wide Web, and reviews German library development and organization. Topics include state libraries; research library networks; national scientific service organizations that provide specialized information services; funding; standards; online catalog software; document delivery and…

  18. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures…

  19. German for Communication: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jens-Peter; Grittner, Frank M.

    This guide is designed to: (1) offer a rationale for German instruction and student enrollment; (2) give suggestions for proficiency-oriented lesson planning; and (3) provide classroom activities for students at various proficiency levels. A section on promoting the study of German discusses its role as a major world language, in tourism and world…

  20. German-Speaking People of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

  1. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  2. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  3. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  4. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  5. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  6. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  7. The Teaching of German Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippley, LaVern J.

    The present-day status of language instruction at St. Olaf College is viewed in the perspective of past requirements at the college. Reasons for student interest in German, the most popular modern language, focus on the influence of family ties with speakers of Norwegian. A discussion of methods of teaching German literature in translation is…

  8. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    PubMed

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  9. Syntactic priming in German-English bilinguals during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kirsten; Indefrey, Peter

    2009-07-15

    A longstanding question in bilingualism is whether syntactic information is shared between the two language processing systems. We used an fMRI repetition suppression paradigm to investigate syntactic priming in reading comprehension in German-English late-acquisition bilinguals. In comparison to conventional subtraction analyses in bilingual experiments, repetition suppression has the advantage of being able to detect neuronal populations that are sensitive to properties that are shared by consecutive stimuli. In this study, we manipulated the syntactic structure between prime and target sentences. A sentence with a passive sentence structure in English was preceded either by a passive or by an active sentence in English or German. We looked for repetition suppression effects in left inferior frontal, left precentral and left middle temporal regions of interest. These regions were defined by a contrast of all non-target sentences in German and English versus the baseline of sentence-format consonant strings. We found decreases in activity (repetition suppression effects) in these regions of interest following the repetition of syntactic structure from the first to the second language and within the second language. Moreover, a separate behavioural experiment using a word-by-word reading paradigm similar to the fMRI experiment showed faster reading times for primed compared to unprimed English target sentences regardless of whether they were preceded by an English or a German sentence of the same structure. We conclude that there is interaction between the language processing systems and that at least some syntactic information is shared between a bilingual's languages with similar syntactic structures.

  10. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  11. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  12. German Foreign and Security Policy: Trends and Transatlantic Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-20

    Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is also said to have expressed concerns about German unification. See Bush speech at the German Embassy, Washington, DC...Members of Congress view Germany as a key U.S. ally, have welcomed German leadership in Europe, and voiced expectations for increased U.S.-German...8 European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) .....................................................................9 European Leadership

  13. Selected List of German Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, John R., Comp.

    Compiled with secondary school teachers of German in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (German-English, English-German, all-German, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…

  14. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  15. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  16. German physicists pleased as Excellence Initiative extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-08-01

    Germany's federal and state governments have agreed to fund a third round of the so-called Excellence Initiative programme, which was inaugurated 10 years ago to promote world-class research at German universities.

  17. First German Astronomy Ambassadors Fly On SOFIA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two German educators, Wolfgang Vieser and Jörg Trebs, were the first to represent their country as SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors. They flew aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...

  18. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  19. Genetic Control of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-17

    The authors investigated the possibility of controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica , by using chromosome translocations. The first...translocations for control in B. germanica . Such mechanisms are potentially capable of reducing field populations.

  20. Interdisciplinary German-Language Cultural-Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Meriam M.

    1974-01-01

    The suggested themes, activities and projects presented here evolved from the interdisciplinary advanced German-language-mini-courses at Ridgefield (Connecticut) High School. Many of the activities can be adapted for use at earlier levels. (PP)

  1. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  2. [Research funding in German ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Meltendorf, C

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 applications for research funding in ophthalmology have been evaluated together with those from neurosurgery, neuropathology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatics, otolaryngology and neurology by a joint review board of the German Research Council (DFG). Facing a decreasing number of applications--in contrast to the need and importance of widespread ocular diseases--the working group "young academics" of the Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG) assessed the perception of funding programmes and grants available. Young ophthalmologists think that they have poor prospects to receive funding by a DFG proposal. In comparison, specialist funding quotas show a stable development within the neurosciences over the last years. The sum of requested funding has a strong correlation with the total amount actually paid. By clarifying the number of funded proposals, the better transparency and communication for the existing programmes should improve the cooperativeness, the funding rate and number of applications in future. This inventory explicitly includes a motivational guidance for young researchers to take the initiative to do more proposals.

  3. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    largest German supplier for the European Ariane 5 rocket that is frequently used to carry cargo to an orbit around the earth. For the German armed...0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE September 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s...countries emphasize competition among defense contractors, but the perspectives on and uses of profit and fees differ for cost-based contracts. In the

  4. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    germanate based glasses with a specific focus on glass stability during thermal- cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped...evidence of crystallisation after thermal cycling , and is of a low enough loss to realize a fiber laser. The glass stability is demonstrated by...specific focus on glass stability during thermal- cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped micro-structured germanate

  5. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  6. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  7. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  8. [The new German decree on drinking water].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, R H

    2001-11-01

    The Second European Guideline of Drinking Water was published on 3rd November 1998. Notwithstanding good German drinking water standards, as a member country of the European Union, Germany had to transfer this guideline to German law. Therefore the new German decree on drinking water (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV 2001) was published on 21st May 2001. Basing on recent toxicological findings some of the borderline values have been lowered compared to the previous version. There are problems to realize the new low borderline value for lead; therefore full realization will be ordered not till 2013. The main responsibilities as to the hygienic inspection of water-supplying installations are assigned to the Public Health Office. The owners of water supply installations are notifiable to the Public Health Office. The District with the District Community Physician is the responsible administrative authority to take measures for good and healthy drinking water quality.

  9. War, suffering and modern German history.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  10. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  11. Status of German European exhaust emission legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, U.

    1985-01-01

    Recent legislative initiatives in West Germany and other European countries are leading to more stringent automobile exhaust emission standards. A review of the emission inventory on a global and West German basis and other factors, such as acid rain and forest damage, indicate that the contribution of automobile exhaust to the emission problem may be less than the European public assumes. As an interim step while new standards are being considered, the West German government is promoting the purchase of low-pollution vehicles through a vehicle tax reduction program.

  12. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  13. Effectiveness of the Interactive Videodisc-Enhanced German Gateway Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Field Test group. The primary measure used to assess end-of-course group differences In learning German was an Oral Proficiency Examination (OPE...IVD groups do not differ In Initial German language ability. Attitude toward learning German . On the Pre-course Questionnaire subjects responded to a...series of statements about the possible relevance of and reasons for learning German . Table 3 shows these data. The two groups showed no significant

  14. German Folk Dances: An Innovative Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Almute

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes the incorporation of folk dances into the German curriculum on all instructional levels, from kindergarten to college. Learning and performing folk dances provides students not only with cultural information about foreign countries but also with specific structural features of the foreign language. The teacher can select…

  15. The German Toyshop: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemczura, Mary Ann; Clayton, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a project combining the disciplines of German and technology education by giving students an opportunity to learn technical vocabulary and design and create wooden toys to increase students' awareness of international business and global economy and the necessity of communicating ideas with people in other countries. (Author/CB)

  16. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  17. Content, Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to extend and deepen the conversation concerning the knowledge-based approach to curriculum espoused by Michael Young in his 2013 "JCS" paper through revisiting the structure of the disciplines thinking of Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik." It argues that curriculum making requires a theory of knowledge…

  18. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  19. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  20. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  1. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  2. Medical ethics in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Luther, E

    1989-06-01

    Medical ethics has been developing in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) since the 1970's on the basis of the traditional ethics of physicians and the socio-economic fundamentals of our socialist state. Medical care provided in the framework of Marxist-Leninist medical ethics is based on rationality and humanity.

  3. 'Oblique' Modals in English and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Compares the English modals "could,""might,""should,""ought to" and others with German "konnte,""durfte,""sollte,""mubte," referring to the diachronic perspective and using Reichenbach's (1947) grid of times and worlds. The article suggests that the variety of use of…

  4. Deutschunterricht Durch Handeln (Teaching German through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level German lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, instructions…

  5. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  6. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  7. German Cultural Packets 13 and 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    These German culture packets are designed to accompany A-LM Level II and include a statement of the rationale behind the unit, the objectives of the packet, the activities themselves, and a brief evaluation by the student. The activities involve the use of the basic text, the student workbook, corresponding tapes, and fellow students as partners…

  8. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  9. German Universities Bursting at the Seams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Don

    1989-01-01

    Reports that record enrollments have prompted a rethinking of the nation's higher education policies. Cites several explanations for overcrowding: an increase in the number of students continuing their studies, German students take longer to complete studies, and older students are reentering the university. (RT)

  10. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children…

  11. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-16

    Myth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1917. Lehman, Hartmut , and Ledford, Kenneth F., ed., Elections, Mass Politics, and Social Change in Modern...Newspapers: Chronological by Newspaper. London Times "Germans Reject New Europe." London imes. 3 March 1992, p. 10a. " Becker Love Match Inflames Na:i Desire

  12. Disseminated blastomycosis in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Beverley S.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-year-old German shepherd was evaluated after collapsing at home following a week of lethargy and anorexia. Systemic blastomycosis was diagnosed histologically at necropsy. Diagnosis and treatment were difficult due to unusual neurological symptoms, the absence of abnormalities on diagnostic tests, and the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. PMID:12125188

  13. Learning German: A CAI Program Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a catalogue of microcomputer courseware specifically designed for use in learning German. Covers four types of software: (1) authoring systems for drill and practice, (2) drill and practice programs that are self-contained, (3) authoring systems that create game-like materials, and (4) game programs. Includes a listing of publishers and…

  14. An Analysis of the German Perfekt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    Shows that the German "perfekt" has a uniform temporal meaning that results systematically from the interaction of its three components--finiteness marking, auxiliary, and past participle--and that the two readings are the consequence of a structural ambiguity. This analysis also predicts the properties of other participle constructions, in…

  15. Predicting Stuttering from Phonetic Complexity in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Howell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated how phonetic complexity affects stuttering rate in German and how this changes developmentally. Phonetic difficulty was assessed using Jakielski's index [Motor Organization in the Acquisition of Consonant Clusters, Dissertation/Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas Austin, 1998] of phonetic complexity (IPC) in which words are…

  16. The Medieval German University: Transformation and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinges, Rainer Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the university system within the Holy Roman Empire, especially in Germany, explaining that the University of Prague in 1348 was the Empire's first university. Reports that after the University of Prague, the new university type, or the "German type," developed by combining types of universities in Bologna and…

  17. On the German Language in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  18. "Gastarbeiterdeutsch" and Its Significance for German Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1976-01-01

    "Gastarbeiterdeutsch" includes varieties of German spoken by the many foreign workers employed in low-paid, less desirable jobs in Germany. It is characterized by reduction and simplification of syntactic and semantic forms. Study of this dialect reveals patterns of natural language acquisition necessary for communication, useful in classroom…

  19. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic…

  20. How to Find Out in: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is an informal guide for the student studying the German language and literature. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Reference works for study of the language include (1) dictionaries and encyclopedias, (2) histories of the…

  1. Culture Curriculum for German, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Larry M.; Loew, Helene Z.

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-1 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the first eight lessons of the text and comprise the major portion of this text including: (1) die Post, (2) Munchen, (3) Sport in Deutschland, (4) die deutschen…

  2. Culture Curriculum for German, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetiker, Rosemary

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-2 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the seventh through the 12th lessons and comprise the major portion of this text including: )1) die Eisenbahn, (2) Reisen und Essen in Deutschland, (3) die Familie,…

  3. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  4. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  5. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  6. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  7. Language Production in Turkish-German-English Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Wolf

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we investigate sentence production in the German interlanguage of Turkish students who have learned German as a first and English as a second foreign language. The students know both languages at an (advanced) intermediate level. Nevertheless, we observed some properties of the German interlanguage that seem to indicate an…

  8. Reference Resources in German Literature: An Annotated Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Helga

    This guide is a selection of important reference sources for research in German literature. All major bibliographies and other German reference works, covering the earliest to the most recent literature are included. Important German reference works listing international materials are also included. With the exception of translation sources, the…

  9. 75 FR 62453 - German-American Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8580 of October 6, 2010 German-American Day, 2010 By the President of the... ancestry who have been an integral part of our national life. On German-American Day, we pay tribute to the... October 6, 2010, as German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history...

  10. A Heritage Fulfilled: German Americans = Die Erfullte Herkunft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    Different aspects of German-American heritage in Minnesota are highlighted in this collection of conference papers and photographs. The articles included are: "The German Contribution to the Discovery, Exploration and Early Settlement of the Americas" (H. Galinsky); "Three Literary Aspects of the German in America: Immigrant,…

  11. Teachable Texts: Integrating German-Americana in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Linda Schelbitzki

    1998-01-01

    A three-part college-level German instructional unit using nineteenth-century German-American texts concerning women's experience of immigration illustrates ways in which such material can be incorporated into the second year of instruction. Ways in which using German-American texts and topics promote language learning across the curriculum are…

  12. Teaching German-Americana with Assistance from the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Robert J.; Hoyt, Giles R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the World Wide Web can assist in teaching about German-Americana in German-language instruction, and discusses some basic Web page uses to find and organize literary texts, syllabi, course outlines, images and realia, and information about people, organizations, events, and places. Some of the most useful German-American resources are…

  13. German Foreign and Security Policy: Determinants of German Military Engagement in Africa Since 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    militaereinsaetze-gaucks-leitfaden-12778867.html; Christian Nünlist, “Mehr Verantwortung?: Deutsche Außenpolitik 2014 [More responsibility?: German foreign...and Strategy 55, no. 6 (2013): 63–90, http://www.tandfonline.com.libproxy.nps.edu/doi/pdf/ 10.1080/ 00396338.2013.862937; Joschka Fischer, “ Deutsche ...libyen- einsatz- deutsche -aussenpolitik-eine-farce-1.1075362; “German Foreign Policy: The Unadventurous Eagle,” Economist, May 12, 2011, http

  14. Influences of German science and scientists on Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Barry A. J.

    The multidisciplinary approach of Alexander von Humboldt in scientific studies of the natural world in the first half of the nineteenth century gained early and lasting acclaim. Later, given the broad scientific interests of colonial Victoria's first Government Astronomer Robert Ellery, one could expect to find some evidence of the Humboldtian approach in the operations of Williamstown Observatory and its successor, Melbourne Observatory. On examination, and without discounting the importance of other international scientific contributions, it appears that Melbourne Observatory was indeed substantially influenced from afar by Humboldt and other German scientists, and in person by Georg Neumayer in particular. Some of the ways in which these influences acted are obvious but others are less so. Like the other Australian state observatories, in its later years Melbourne Observatory had to concentrate its diminishing resources on positional astronomy and timekeeping. Along with Sydney Observatory, it has survived almost intact to become a heritage treasure, perpetuating appreciation of its formative influences.

  15. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  16. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  17. German version of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale: psychometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Reschke, Konrad; Rudwan, Samer; Tanjour, Ismail

    2006-10-01

    A German translation of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, written originally in Arabic, was prepared. A sample of 207 men and women German college students was recruited. Coefficient alpha was .88, whereas the item-remainder correlations ranged from .21 to .63, denoting good internal consistency. The correlation of the scale with the German form of the Trait Anxiety Scale was .76, indicating high criterion-related validity. Three factors were identified: General, Somatic, and Cognitive/Affective Anxiety. German students scored lower (less anxious) than students from the U.S. and 18 Arab countries. The sex difference was not significant for the German sample.

  18. [Ethnic Germans from East bloc countries and Germans from the German Democratic Republic--quantitative development and structure].

    PubMed

    Fleischer, H; Proebsting, H

    1989-09-01

    This article focuses on two types of migration to West Germany: the migration of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and migration from East Germany. Information is included on the volume of this migration between 1950 and 1988, countries of origin, family characteristics, age and sex structure, religion, labor force participation, and occupational structure. Comparisons are also made with data for the native population of West Germany.

  19. [The German Medical eLibrary].

    PubMed

    Rütters, Dana; Schwencke, Silja; Bunk, Thomas; Nothacker, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The internet offers doctors plenty of high-value information for medical questions. However, several barriers impair the preoccupation with this information, most notably lack of time, far too much offered information and missing confidence in the reliability of the offers. The following article points out how the Agency for Quality in Medicine developed the Internet portal "German Medical eLibrary" (Arztbibliothek) in which information is transparently pre-selected and grouped in a structured way as well as easy to find with the help of a simple, user-friendly search function. Evidence-based high-quality information is available in an easy, quick and well-directed manner. Thus the "German Medical eLibrary" facilitates knowledge management as a cornerstone of high-quality medical care.

  20. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  1. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  2. The German Army and NATO Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    results were expected was not stated. Units available for the offensive oper- ations were 11 air groups . Use of the Middle East for staging, planned...defense plans to NATO, a point of importance that would complicate development of the West German armament program. The NATO planning groups , primarily...the Western Europe Planning Group (with the participation of the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Italy), took over the WEU de- fense planning

  3. Analysis of Stresses in German Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1923-01-01

    This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.

  4. German Strategic Deception in the 1930s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    passed 1 customs in coffins labeled machine parts. The German Defense Ministry established the national airline, Lufthansa, in January 1926. Felmy ...night, strike fear in the hearts of the enemy population." At the same time, Felmy submitted a 1Schliephake, op. cit., p, 27. 2Ibid. 3Suchenwirth, op...cit., p. 38. 4Homze, op. cit., p. 32. 5Ibid., p. 33. us 47 rearmament plan that echoed Wimmer’s Douhetian sentiments. Felmy proposed an 80 squadron air

  5. The "Academization" of the German Qualification System: Recent Developments in the Relationships between Vocational Training and Higher Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Andrä; Kerst, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The traditional German model of skill formation was based on the rather strict segmentation between vocational training and higher education. However, during recent years this differentiation has slowly dissolved, partly by politically motivated developments to increase the permeability between both sectors and partly as a result of latent changes…

  6. Survey of Global Simulation at the Intersection of Theory and Practice in the Intermediate-Level German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Glenn S.; Eppelsheimer, Natalie; Kuzay, Franz; Moti, Simona; Wilby, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a format for intermediate, university-level German instruction called "global simulation" (GS) as the curricular manifestation of several recent trends in the literature on instructed second-language acquisition, in particular interactionist and task-based approaches, sociocultural theory, and the acquisition of intercultural…

  7. Tidal wave transformations in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Al-Nadhairi, Rahma; Staneva, Joanna; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-07-01

    Mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics associated with tidal wave transformations were addressed in the German Bight using numerical simulations. Tidal gauge and velocity observations in several locations were used to validate the numerical model. A downscaling approach included analysis of simulations with horizontal resolutions of 1, 0.4, and 0.2 km. It was shown that the modified tidal wave lost most of its energy after reflection or refraction over the eastern part of the German Bight. Energy loss resulted in a pronounced change of the wave's spectral composition and generation of overtides. Tidal oscillations were modified by mesoscale processes associated with bathymetric channels. Semidiurnal and quarterdiurnal tides revealed very different spatial patterns. The former were aligned with the bathymetric channels, while the latter were rather "patchy" and had about half the spatial scales. In numerous areas around the bathymetric channels, the major axis of the M4 ellipses was normal or at some angle with the major axis of the M2 ellipses. Thus, higher harmonics developed "orthogonal" patterns that drove secondary circulations. Moreover, the ratio between spring and neap tidal amplitudes was relatively low in the Wadden Sea, showing reduced sensitivity of this very shallow area to fortnightly tidal variations. It was demonstrated that simulated hydrodynamics patterns help explain the physical mechanism shaping the median grain size distribution in the German Bight.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  9. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    PubMed

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  10. [Recommendations on classification of German pain treatment services].

    PubMed

    Sabatowski, R; Maier, C; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Thomm, M; Nilges, P; Kayser, H; Casser, R

    2011-08-01

    On behalf of the German chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommendations for German pain treatment services have been developed for the first time. The criteria were based on the IASP recommendations but adapted to the specific German situation. According to the structure and process criteria four different levels of pain treatment services can be distinguished. The aim of the recommendations is to serve as a guide for future development and implementation of pain therapy and quality assurance.

  11. Contrastive intonation of German and English. Problems and some results.

    PubMed

    Esser, J

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of a contrastive analysis only distinctive formal elements and functions are to be considered. The latter are "lexical or syntactic disambiguation", "syntactic characterization" and "communicative differentiation". In German, modal particles and intonation render expressive functions which are conveyed in English by intonation only. The differing punctuation systems of English and German have to be considered as a source of interference besides limited differences between the English and the German intonation systems.

  12. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  13. Middle Triassic chirotherid trackways on earthquake influenced intertidal limulid reproduction flats of the European Germanic Basin coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2012-09-01

    Chirotherid footprints of Synaptichnium, Chirotherium and Isochirotherium appeared during the late Early (Aegean) to early Late (Carnian) Triassic in central Europe. These taxa are partly revised herein, using both perfect and variably preserved tracks, and very long trackways from an upper Pelsonian intertidal-flat megatracksite of the Germanic Basin coast Pelsonian (Karlstadt Formation). The global Middle Triassic distribution of those footprints suggests seasonal migrations across Pangaea of possible archosauriform reptile trackmakers, such as Euparkeria, Ticinosuchus, Arizonasaurus and Batrachotomus, caused by horseshoe-crab mass migrations into tidal-flat beach reproductive zones in the Germanic Basin. Such seasonal migrations may even suggest a Pangaea-wide food-chain reaction, possibly including the mobilization of fish, marine and terrestrial reptiles, and of which situation the Germanic Basin intertidal-flats is a globally unique example.

  14. [Domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region of the German cockroach retroposon R1].

    PubMed

    Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V

    2010-08-01

    Using cosmid vector, a gene library of German cockroach Blattella germanica was constructed. From this library, clones containing full-length copies of two subfamilies of R1 retroposons were selected. Retroposons R1 of German cockroach belonging to different subfamilies were shown to be different in domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region. For the first time, retroposons transmembrane domains were identified in the sequences of R1. It was demonstrated that two retroposon R1 subfamilies of German cockroach arose as a result of intragenomic divergence rather than via horizontal transfer of alien mobile element into cockroach genome. The differences in domain organization appeared not as a result of saltatory recombination processes, but as a consequence of gradual mutation accumulation, which led to either degeneration, or to domain formation.

  15. Medullary trichomalacia in 6 German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Tieghi, Chiara; Miller, William H; Scott, Danny W; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2003-02-01

    Medullary trichomalacia is the name proposed for a hair shaft abnormality that was recognized in 6 German shepherd dogs. Affected dogs had multifocal areas of broken hairs, especially on the dorsolateral trunk. Microscopic examination of hair shafts revealed focal areas of loss of architecture, swelling, and apparent softening of the medulla, followed by longitudinal (length-wise) splitting and breakage of the hair shaft. No cause could be found. Affected dogs were otherwise healthy, and apparent spontaneous recovery was the usual outcome. Relapses may occur.

  16. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    PubMed

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner.

  17. [German resuscitation registry : science and resuscitation research].

    PubMed

    Gräsner, J-T; Seewald, S; Bohn, A; Fischer, M; Messelken, M; Jantzen, T; Wnent, J

    2014-06-01

    Sudden death due to cardiac arrest represents one of the greatest challenges facing modern medicine, not only because of the massive number of cases involved but also because of its tremendous social and economic impact. For many years, the magic figure of 1 per 1000 inhabitants per year was generally accepted as an estimate of the annual incidence of sudden death in the industrialized world, with a survival rate of 6 %. This estimate was based on large numbers of published reports of local, regional, national and multinational experience in the management of cardiac arrest. Measuring the global incidence of cardiac arrest is challenging as many different definitions of patient populations are used. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) provide insights into the value of specific treatments or treatment strategies in a well-defined section of a population. Registries do not compete with clinical studies, but represent a useful supplement to them. Surveys and registries provide insights into the ways in which scientific findings and guidelines are being implemented in clinical practice. However, as with clinical studies, comprehensive preparations are needed in order to establish a registry. This is all the more decisive because not all of the questions that may arise are known at the time when the registry is established. The German resuscitation registry started in May 2007 and currently more than 230 paramedic services and hospitals take part. More than 45,000 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in-hospital cardiac arrest are included. With this background the German resuscitation registry is one of the largest databases in emergency medicine in Germany. After 5 years of running the preclinical care dataset was revised in 2012. Data variables that reflect current or new treatment were added to the registry. The postresuscitation basic care and telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) datasets were developed in 2012 and 2013 as well. The German

  18. Sexual maturation in East German girls.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, L; Willers, B; Pelz, L

    1995-12-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification (Tanner, 1962; van Wieringen, 1971), sexual maturation was investigated in 8703 healthy East German girls by means of the status quo method and probit regression analysis. The third, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of breasts, axillary and pubic hair, and the shape of the hips. The findings were compared with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B2/B5, AH2/AH3, etc.

  19. Sexual maturation in East German boys.

    PubMed

    Willers, B; Engelhardt, L; Pelz, L

    1996-07-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification, sexual maturation was investigated in 8685 healthy East German boys by means of the status quo method and the probit regression analysis. The 3rd, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of both the male external genitalia and pubic and axillary hairs. The findings are in line with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B 2, B 5; AH2, AH3; PH 2, PH5/6, etc.

  20. German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    During his current tour of countries in South America, the Honourable Foreign Minister of Germany, Mr. Joschka Fischer, stopped over at the ESO Paranal Observatory Wednesday night (March 6 - 7, 2002). Arriving in Antofagasta, capital of the II Chilean region, the Foreign Minister and his suite was met by local Chilean officials, headed by Mr. Jorge Molina, Intendente of the Region, as well as His Excellency, the German Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Georg CS Dick and others. In the afternoon of March 6, the Foreign Minister, accompanied by a distinguished delegation from the German Federal Parliament as well as by businessmen from Germany, travelled to Paranal, site of the world's largest optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The delegation was welcomed by the Observatory Director, Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi, the VLT Programme Manager, Professor Massimo Tarenghi, the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt and ESO staff members, and also by Mr. Reinhard Junker, Deputy Director General (European Co-operation) at the German Ministry for Education and Research. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at this remote desert site, some of which have been constructed by German firms. Moreover, most of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes, several of these in Germany. One of the latest arrivals to Paranal, the CONICA camera (cf. ESO PR 25/01 ), was built under an ESO contract by the Max-Planck-Institutes for Astronomy (MPIA, in Heidelberg) and Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE, in Garching). The guests had the opportunity to enjoy the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the terrace of the new Residencia building ( Photos 05/02 ). At the beginning of the night, the Minister was invited to the Control Room for the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) from where this unique new facility ( ESO PR 23/01 ) is now being thoroughly tested

  1. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  2. Aspects of Authentic Spoken German: Awareness and Recognition of Elision in the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the importance of spoken German in classroom instruction. The paper examines the nature of natural spoken language as opposed to written language. We find a general consensus that the prevailing language measure (whether pertaining to written or spoken language) in instructional settings more often typifies the rules associated…

  3. "No-Business-As-Usual German": A Critical Pedagogy of Business German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his "Business German" course. His course sought to narrate a dialectic of agency and institution. He started by asserting a distinction between the intending subject--with its plural desires, interests, and identifications--and the world it acts in, through and upon. This distinction between acting subject and…

  4. Umweltverschmutzung. German Ecology Packet: Resource Units and Materials for German Classes at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Julie; And Others

    Supplementary resource materials for use in upper level secondary school German classes are presented in this text. Teachers who are seeking new content and are willing to adapt these instructional materials on ecology in Germany will find three self-contained units on: The Plight of the Polar Bear, Polluted Swimming Pools in Germany, and Dead…

  5. The Identity of the German City As a Symbol of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the pattern formed by Germany's towns and cities, with some remarks on the changes in that pattern since 1945, and the major influences that have shaped the appearance and structure of the German city. The role of the motor car and the new low-density suburb are noted. (EJS)

  6. A Study in West German Stabilization Policy, 1956-1974. German Studies Notes. First Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Manfred J. M.

    The dominant driving force of past movements in West German output and prices is investigated and a review of government policy undertaken to stabilize these movements is presented. Three alternative impulse hypotheses are tested: the monetary, the fiscal, and the foreign impulse hypothesis. The major results of the tests are that: (1) monetary…

  7. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  8. Commuting accidents in the German chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Zepf, Kirsten Isabel; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Wriede, Ulrich; Husemann, Britta; Escobar Pinzón, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Due to accident severity and the extent of claim payments commuting accidents are a significant expense factor in the German industry. Therefore the aim of the present study was the identification of risk factors for commuting accidents in a German chemical company. A retrospective analysis of commuting accidents recorded between 1990 and 2003 was conducted in a major chemical company in Germany. A logistic regression-model was calculated in order to determine factors influencing the duration of work inability as a result of commuting accidents. The analysed data included 5,484 employees with commuting accidents. Cars (33.1%) and bicycles (30.5%) were the most common types of vehicles used by commuters who had an accident. The highest number of commuting accidents was observed in the age group under 26 yr. Accidents on the route from the work site to the worker's residence were less frequently observed, but they caused longer periods of work inability than accidents on the way to the work site. The longest periods of work inability were found in the groups of motorcyclists and older employees. The present study identifies specific groups at risk for commuting accidents. The data of the present investigation also underline the need for developing group specific prevention strategies.

  9. Apitherapy: Usage And Experience In German Beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Hellner, Markus; Winter, Daniel; von Georgi, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the practice of apitherapy - using bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom to prevent or treat illness and promote healing - among German beekeepers and to evaluate their experiences with these therapies. A questionnaire incorporating two instruments on beekeepers’ physical and mental health and working practice was included in three German beekeeping journals and readers were asked to complete it. The instrument included questions on the use of apitherapy. Simple descriptive methods, bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Altogether 1059 completed questionnaires were received. The beekeepers reported the most effective and favorable therapeutic effects with honey, followed by propolis, pollen and royal jelly. The factors associated with successful experiences were: age, number of hives tended, health consciousness, positive experiences with one product and self-administration of treatment. Beekeepers were asked for which condition they would employ propolis and pollen. They reported that they used propolis most frequently to treat colds, wounds and burns, sore throats, gum disorders and also as a general prophylactic, while pollen was most commonly used as a general prophylactic and, less frequently, in treating prostate diseases. No adverse experiences were reported. The potential benefit of bee products is supported by the positive experiences of a large group of beekeepers who use some of these products to treat a wide range of conditions. The indications and treatments given here may be important in selecting bee products and designing future trials. PMID:18955222

  10. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  11. Growing Together, Coming Apart: German Society since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the impact of German unification on German society, politics, and culture. Contends that four decades of separation created political and cultural differences that are difficult to overcome. Expresses concern about the growth of intolerant attitudes and nationalism among citizens of the former East Germany. (CFR)

  12. The Issue of Grammaticalization in Early German Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Carol W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the expression of grammatical categories in German in Turkish and German children attending a bilingual day care center in a multilingual speech community in Berlin is examined. Results indicate no evidence that pragmatic categories precede syntactic ones, but some evidence shows that grammatical markers develop first as…

  13. German Libraries and Scientific and Technical Information in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Pamela Spence

    1985-01-01

    Review of development of German scientific and technical information network highlights scientific and technical libraries before World War I, the 1920s, effects of National Socialist rise to power, restriction of foreign acquisitions, technological university and wartime activities at Berlin-Charlottenburg, documentation movement, German Society…

  14. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  15. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching German in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. German is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  16. Teaching German Modal Particles: A Corpus-based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollering, Martina

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of German modal particles based on corpora representing Spoken German. The concept of spoken language is discussed with regard to the corpora analyzed and narrowed down in relation to the use of modal particles. In addition, a collection of telephone conversations was scanned into a computer readable file and analyzed using…

  17. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  18. Overwhelming Force, Indecisive Victory: The German Invasion of Yugoslavia, 1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    from the 10 vicinity of Trieste along the Adriatic to relieve their base at Zadar and secure the coastal plain. The German High Command provided the...southeastern direction down the Vardar Valley toward 29 Salonika. It anticipated a German invasion and included an attack on the Italian base at Zadar and

  19. The Social Stratification of the German VET System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protsch, Paula; Solga, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Germany is widely known for its vocational education and training (VET) system and its dual apprenticeship system in particular. What is often overlooked, however, is the vertical stratification within the German VET system. This is the focus of this study. Our analysis shows that the VET system, like the German school system, is highly…

  20. The Role of Gene DCDC2 in German Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcke, A.; Weissfuss, J.; Kirsten, H.; Wolfram, G.; Boltze, J.; Ahnert, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dyslexia is a complex reading and writing disorder with a strong genetic component. In a German case-control cohort, we studied the influence of the suspected dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2. For the first time in a German cohort, we describe association of a 2445 basepair deletion, first identified in an American study. Evidence of association for…

  1. German-English-Speaking Children's Mixed NPs with "Correct" Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorschick, Liane; Quick, Antje Endesfelder; Glasser, Dana; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has reported that bilingual children sometimes produce mixed noun phrases with "correct" gender agreement--as in "der dog" ("der" being a masculine determiner in German and the German word for "dog", "hund", being masculine as well). However, these could obviously be due to chance or to the indiscriminate use of a default…

  2. Markers of Ethnic Identify in Immigrant Worker German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    The role of ethnically marked, nonstandard varieties of German in the Federal Republic of Germany is examined. It is shown that there is a "generic" variety of Immigrant Worker German that unites all immigrant laborers and their families into one group with perceived "ethnic" characteristics. Subdivisions within the group are…

  3. Christ as a pharmacist: medical symbols in German devotion.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, S

    1994-09-01

    The author reports on two German publications [1,2] about the metaphoric use of medicines in Christian devotional literature and art in German society (16th to 19th century). Christ is depicted as a pharmacist dispensing 'medicines' which contain Christian virtues and symbols.

  4. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  5. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  6. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  7. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  8. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  9. Orientations to Learning German: Heritage Language Background and Motivational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how two motivational substrates may be differentially important depending upon the learner's language background. Students registered in German classes (N = 99) completed a questionnaire that assessed (a) their intrinsic, extrinsic, integrative, and instrumental reasons for learning German; (b) their feelings of autonomy,…

  10. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  11. A Study of Language Laboratory Teaching in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiven, L. M.

    This report contains experiment results obtained from a comparative study of two groups of seventh grade students learning German in Sweden. The main objectives of the investigation, which lasted one school year, are: (1) to investigate possible achievement differences in German between similar groups of students when one group is instructed…

  12. Techniques for Teaching German: A Series of Demonstration Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Klaus A.

    This manual, to be used in conjunction with 10 demonstration films on the teaching of German in introductory college courses, serves as a guide to the objectives and teaching techniques illustrated in each of the films. The films demonstrate to future teachers of German workable teaching techniques designed to produce specific competencies and…

  13. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  14. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  15. Avoiding Pitfalls in Rendering into German Formulaic English Linking Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Arnd

    2003-01-01

    Fixed prepositional phrases of the type in this way and on the other hand are used in written and spoken English to connect sentences into larger units (text, dialogues). German prefers simple adverbials like so. Appended is a check-list of the most common such phrases in English and possible German equivalents.

  16. Experiencing German in the Elementary School: Tapping a Natural Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    1988-01-01

    Elementary school German programs can demonstrate both the value and the accessibility of the German language. Cultural experiences make both the language and the countries in which it is spoken inviting and attractive, and successful elementary programs can overcome old prejudices. (Author/MSE)

  17. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  18. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  19. A Heritage Deferred: The German-Americans in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers explores aspects of the lives of German-American immigrants in Minnesota. Part 1, "The Ethnic Experience," consists of the following papers: "Was There a Single German-American Experience?" (Bonney); "The Most Diversified Ethnic Group" (Johnson); "Unraveling the Mystery of…

  20. Artificial Intelligence in a German Adventure Game: Spion in PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Steven R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Spion, an adventure game for intermediate and advanced college German students, requires players to communicate with a fictitious agent in complete, correct German sentences. The spy game was written in PROLOG, runs on an IBM-PC, and is available at no cost for noncommercial purposes. (Author/CB)

  1. Generational Aspects of German National Socialism, 1919-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Examines the theory that pre-Hitler Nazism was part of a generational revolt. Research shows that, among new recruits to the National Socialist German Workers Party in that period, there were more than twice as many who were under 30 years old. Socioeconomic and historical factors which made Nazism attractive to German youth are discussed. (AM)

  2. German Women Today: What Some German Newspapers Say. Inter Nationes Basis-Info 4-2000/Society. In Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Sigrid, Ed.

    This document contains eight articles from German newspapers that feature women who have achieved career success in very diverse economic sectors, while simultaneously highlighting the discrimination and other problems (including lower income, fewer promotions to executive positions, and smaller pensions) that many other German women continue to…

  3. German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

  4. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  5. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  6. East German children's and adolescents' friendship and moral reasoning before and after German reunification.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship concept) as well as their moral decisions and reasoning in a friendship dilemma. Overall, results show that in 2005, East German participants referred to normative and interpersonal-altruistic-empathic concerns significantly more often than participants interviewed in 1990. Reference to relationship concerns decreased from 1990 to 2005. With few exceptions, these cohort effects were equally found in younger (children) and older (adolescents) age groups.

  7. Resistance to diazinon in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    GRAYSON, J M

    1961-01-01

    Specimens of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) from two different locations near Owensboro, Ky., USA, were tested in the laboratory for resistance to diazinon and malathion. Those from one location were reared for three generations, and those from the other for four generations, before testing was completed. The results showed that both strains possessed resistance to diazinon, but neither strain was resistant to malathion. The males and females of one strain were, respectively, 2.5 and 2.6 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 3.0 and 3.8 times resistant at LC(90): while those of the other strain were 5.8 and 8.0 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 9.3 and 15.3 times resistant at LC(90).

  8. [Quality of German medical services: a review].

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Robbers, J; Lakomek, H-J

    2016-02-01

    In the current draft of the law on the reform of the support structures of hospital provision (German Hospital Structure Law) the future quality of provision is highly significant. Quality assurance measures are mandatory for hospitals. The Federal General Committee was legally charged with developing the relevant quality indicators for structural, procedural and outcome quality that are designed to form the criteria and the basis for planning decisions in the federal states. This involves a paradigm shift in quality assurance measures in hospitals. In the future, subject to the verified quality, this should have an influence on hospital planning, and the funding or regulation of hospital departments should also adhere to this prescribed quality. This review reveals the course of quality or quality assurance measures in medical services in Germany. The status of the institutions responsible for the quality of care in hospitals and the significance of quality indicators are explained.

  9. German national femtosecond technology project (FST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausinger, Friedrich

    2002-06-01

    The German federal government started the funding of a national project intended to exploit the potential of femtosecond technology. In a forgoing competition five research consortia had been successful and have started now together with an adjoin research consortium their investigations in the following fields: (i) micro-machining of technical materials for microstructuring and drilling, (ii) medical therapy in: ophthalmology, dentistry, neurology and ear surgery, (iii) metrology, (iv) laser safety, (v) x- ray generation. Lasers, systems and technologies required in these potential fields of applications will be investigated. The program aims at industrial success and is dominated by industrial partners, therefore. The more fundamental research is done in university institutes and research centers.

  10. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    PubMed

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  11. German suffering in the Franco–German War, 1870/71.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christine G

    2011-01-01

    Suffering during the Franco–Prussian War of 1870/71 has to be interpreted in the context of three developments: the willingness to alleviate wartime suffering, which had led to the foundation of the International Red Cross and the Geneva Convention a few years earlier, the industrialization of war, which had enormously increased the efficiency of the weaponry, and the nationalization of war. For many Germans, the outcome of the war justified the wartime suffering, which was often trivialized in the media. The small number of authors who saw the high casualty numbers and the pain of the victims as a warning about the consequences of modern warfare usually belonged to the anti-Prussian opposition. Nationalist euphoria in the face of victory and German unification drowned out such critics, whose patriotism was in doubt. Finally, the remembrance of the war during the Kaiserreich aimed largely at celebrating the triumph of the German army and the foundation of the national state. The glorification of the military was hardly compatible with a detailed description of the misery of the battlefield and the pain of war victims. In 1870/71 and in the subsequent decades, nationalism overwhelmed and eventually excluded a humanitarian narrative.

  12. Do lemmas speak German? A verb position effect in German structural priming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position (encoded by tense and aspect), and verb overlap. Abstract structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was the same between prime and target. Priming was boosted by verb overlap, but there was no interaction with verb position. The results can be explained by a lemma model where tense and aspect are linked to structural choices in German. Since the architecture of this lemma model is not consistent with results from English, a connectionist model was developed which could explain the cross-linguistic variation in the production system. Together, these findings support the view that language learning plays an important role in determining the nature of structural priming in different languages.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-01

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn 2GeO 4) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 °C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn 2GeO 4 nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials.

  14. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2014-05-01

    Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

  15. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices.

  16. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  17. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  18. Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Rabukhin, A.I.

    1995-11-01

    Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of lead - bismuth - germanate glasses with compositions from virtually the entire range of glass formation in the system PbO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GeO{sub 2} are investigated. Partial elastooptic coefficients of the oxide ingredients of the investigated glasses are determined. The results are interpreted with consideration of the nature of the elastooptic interaction in glasses subjected to uniaxial stress. The data can be used for designing compositions of optical media for the light and acoustic lines of acoustooptical devices.

  19. The Heidelberg circle: German inflections on the professionalization of Russian chemistry in the 1860s.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The success of the "second importation" of science to Russia during the Great Reforms of the 1860s is illustrated by examining the extended postdoctoral study of chemists in Heidelberg. While there, they adapted the Russian intelligentsia institution of the "circle," or kruzhok, to cope with their alienation from the German culture they were confronting. Upon their return to Russia, they felt the lack of the communicative network they had established while abroad and reimported the kruzhok to serve as a central model for the formation of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868.

  20. 'Combating' tropical diseases in the German colonial press.

    PubMed

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.

  1. Spanish experience with German psychology prior to World War I.

    PubMed

    Mülberger, Annette

    2008-01-01

    An increase in interest for German scientific psychology followed the rise of liberalism in late nineteenth-century Spain. This paper deals with Spanish scholars' endeavors to participate in German psychology: It outlines the intellectual and institutional background of Spanish preoccupation with German philosophy and psychology, and deals with the personal experience and testimony of two Spanish philosophers, Eloy Luis André and Juan Vicente Viqueira López, who traveled to Leipzig, Berlin, and Göttingen between 1909 and 1914 to gain firsthand experience in the nascent science of psychology in Germany at that time.

  2. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser: Tuning And Q-switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J.; DeYoung, R. J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2007-01-01

    A Tm:germanate fiber laser produced >0.25 mJ/pulse in a 45 ns pulse. It is capable of producing multiple Q-switched pulses from a single p ump pulse. With the addition of a diffraction grating, Tm:germanate f iber lasers produced a wide, but length dependent, tuning range. By s electing the fiber length, the tuning range extends from 1.88 to 2.04 ?m. These traits make Tm:germanate lasers suitable for remote sensin g of water vapor.

  3. Zur Wortbildung im Russischen (10) (On Russian Word Formation [10])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Wolf

    1974-01-01

    Tenth of a regular series on contemporary Russian word formation, this article gives examples of: 1) four types of standard formation, 2) rare cases where compounds are produced with no combining vowel, and 3) appositive noun compounds. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  4. Losing the Battle for Balanced Bilingualism: The German-American Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Studies the case of a religious group of German immigrants, whose German-American descendants attended German-language parochial schools but received secular instruction in English. Although the situation resulted in English-dominant children rather than the intended German-dominant bilinguals, recent sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, and…

  5. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Prosodic Cues to Syntactic Disambiguation in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Jackson, Carrie N.; Gardner, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether late-learning English-German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German-English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English-German L2 learners and German-English L2 learners used a…

  6. Miniriforma dell'ortografia tedesca (Mini-Reform of German Spelling).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavanini, Pietro

    1995-01-01

    This article reports that, after years of debate, representatives of German-speaking countries meeting in Vienna reached an agreement on measures to reform the spelling of the German language. Many linguists were disappointed that it was not decided to change the most unique characteristic of German spelling--the capitalization of German nouns.…

  7. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  8. Aspects of the Romance-Germanic Language Border: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffers-Daller, Jeanine; Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of the journal. Articles cover the geographical length of of the Romance-Germanic border, from French Flanders in the northwest to South Tyrol in the Southeast. (Author/VWL)

  9. 1. Photocopy of illustration (from William G. Bek's The German ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of illustration (from William G. Bek's The German Settlement Society of Philadelphia and its Colony Hermann, Missouri) Photographer unknown, ca. 1906 EXTERIOR IN 1906 - Market House, Market Street, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO

  10. German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Ploetz, Christian; Kluegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the German Antarctic Receiving Station (GARS) O'Higgins contributed to the IVS observing program with four observation sessions. Maintenance and upgrades were made, and a new replacement dewar is under construction in the observatory at Yebes, Spain.

  11. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  12. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  13. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...

  14. German Higher Education in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Roland

    In 1997/98, the 16 German Länder tentatively agreed on the establishment of a new degree structure for German higher education in the form of Bachelors and Masters programmes. Moreover, the German government passed federal legislation that officially adopted accreditation as a new steering instrument to approve these newly established Bachelors and Masters programmes. Thus, since 1998 almost all universities, Fachhochschulen (FH), faculties, and especially the engineering departments have been busy designing new Bachelors and Masters degree programmes. On the other hand, accreditation of programmes as a means of quality assurance has become the new pre-requisite for state recognition, which is operated by an overarching national Accreditation Board that on it turn recognises agencies that accredit particular degree programmes. All these changes will be a challenge and are likely to change the overall structure of the traditional German higher education system severely.

  15. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  16. 34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET DESIGN TEAM SHORTLY AFTER THEIR ARRIVAL AT THE REDSTONE ARSENAL IN 1950. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH IN CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. German Newsreels: A New Approach to FL Relevancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimler, G. Richard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the instructional use of a German Government produced newsreel, Deutschlandspiegel,'' at Fordham University, New York City. For information on availability of this newsreel, contact the AATG Service Center, 339 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. (RS)

  19. German Experts' Views and Ideas about Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Kristina; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reflects ideas about the Internet presented by four German experts: possibilities and applications of chemistry; environmental informatics and documentation on the World Wide Web; views of a research-oriented pharmaceutical company; and the commercialization of the Internet. (LRW)

  20. Fritz Reiche and German Refugee Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2003-04-01

    Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book "Heisenberg's War" Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein's home during the summer of 1941. Reiche's son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described.

  1. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface.

  2. Identification and Validation of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) in German Shepherd Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fels, Lena; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is the most common hereditary skeletal disorder in dogs. To identify common alleles associated with CHD, we genotyped 96 German Shepherd Dogs affected by mild, moderate and severe CHD and 96 breed, sex, age and birth year matched controls using the Affymetrix canine high density SNP chip. A mixed linear model analysis identified five SNPs associated with CHD scores on dog chromosomes (CFA) 19, 24, 26 and 34. These five SNPs were validated in a by sex, age, birth year and coancestry stratified sample of 843 German Shepherd Dogs including 277 unaffected dogs and 566 CHD-affected dogs. Mean coancestry coefficients among and within cases and controls were <0.1%. Genotype effects of these SNPs explained 20–32% of the phenotypic variance of CHD in German Shepherd Dogs employed for validation. Genome-wide significance in the validation data set could be shown for each one CHD-associated SNP on CFA24, 26 and 34. These SNPs are located within or in close proximity of genes involved in bone formation and related through a joint network. The present study validated positional candidate genes within two previously known quantitative trait loci (QTL) and a novel QTL for CHD in German Shepherd Dogs. PMID:24802516

  3. An electropalatographic and acoustic study of temporal coarticulation for Catalan dark/l/ and German clear/l/.

    PubMed

    Recasens, D; Pallarès, M D; Fontdevila, J

    1998-01-01

    Electropalatographic and F2 frequency data in /VlV/ sequences reveal more prominent C-to-V effects for Catalan dark /l/ than for German clear /l/, more so in the /i/ context than in the /a/ context, which is in agreement with the existence of high lingual requirements on the formation of two constriction places for dark /l/. German clear /l/ exerts a similar amount of F2 displacement on both vowels which may be indicative of the tongue dorsum being directed towards a target position; this is also suggested by dorsopalatal contact and formant frequency data showing less vowel-dependent variability than clear /l/ in other languages though more so than Catalan dark /l/. Salient anticipatory requirements for the implementation of /l/ in the two languages block V1-dependent carryover effects to a large extent which results in more prominent vocalic anticipation than vocalic carryover. This directionality trend in vocalic coarticulation is more obvious for Catalan dark /l/ than for German clear /l/ (in agreement with the former consonantal variety requiring more anticipation than the latter) and opposes German /l/ to clear /l/ in other languages (i.e., the less constrained /l/ variety of Spanish may favor vocalic carryover over vocalic anticipation in VCV sequences).

  4. The German Military Mission to Romania, 1940-1941

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    its own problems upon itself by its prior pro-Allied policy. Hitler also Finnish Volunteer Battalion of German Waffen- SS return home from front in...youth of 19, while Antonescu assumed dictatorial powers and the title of “Leader,” much in keeping with his Nazi and Fascist colleagues.5 With...connections to the Nazi Party, and the Nazis had newspapers and political organizations in Romania. Not surprisingly, German language newspapers ran

  5. D-1 report: The first German spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Introduction of a new popular magazine on the DI mission, the first West German Space mission. The DI project office publishes the magazine. The German sponsored astronauts are to study the gravitational effects of reduced gravity on the human generated processes of the environment. Other areas of concern are boundary surface and transport phenomena, physical chemisty and process engineering, metals and composite materials, and single crystals.

  6. German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    MONOGRAPH 25-05-2006 SEPT 2005-MAR 2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE German General Staff Officer Education abd Current...Competencies and Skills ...................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 4 THE GERMAN PRT IN KUNDUZ/AFGHANISTAN AND THE...of Defense, Defense Science Board 2004 Summer Study on Transition to and from Hostilities, Washington D.C., September 2, 2004 3 Ibid. 4 Note: The

  7. Operational art in the Defense: The German Abwehrschlachten in 1918

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    WWI ). Just a few months prior, in the spring of 1918, German forces achieved limited success over the conduct of multiple offensive operations and...September to November 1918 in the Meuse-Argonne sector of France. The tendency of viewing WWI from the perspective of the offense characterizes the...offensive operations from the perspective of the AEF. German WWI literature focuses predominately on political circumstances and social implications of

  8. [Stress in German schools: frequencies, causes and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    An overview about studies on academic stress is given, including anxiety before examinations, decrease in achievement, bad grades as well as aggression and rivalry among pupils. Finding on several studies are reported, including German adolescents (N=1393) and adolescents from 18 countries (N=9778), who have been investigated with respect to school-related problems. German pupils exhibited a mean level in academic stress. However, clinically disturbed adolescents (N=77) reported the highest levels in academic stress, compared to non-conspicuous adolescents.

  9. "Deutsch ist doch keine Fremdsprache!" - Ausbildungsgaenge fuer Lehrer auslaendischer Kinder an deutschen Schulen ("But German is not a Foreign Language!" Training for German Teachers of Foreign Children in German Schools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Hans H.

    1976-01-01

    Children of foreign workers in Germany have a language problem differing from that of German children studying (e.g.) English. With the goal of integrating the foreign children into German life, teachers with certain qualities and skills are needed. An appropriate teachers' training course is described. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. Do listeners recover “deleted” final /t/ in German?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerer, Frank; Reetz, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Reduction and deletion processes occur regularly in conversational speech. A segment that is affected by such reduction and deletion processes in many Germanic languages (e.g., Dutch, English, German) is /t/. There are similarities concerning the factors that influence the likelihood of final /t/ to get deleted, such as segmental context. However, speakers of different languages differ with respect to the acoustic cues they leave in the speech signal when they delete final /t/. German speakers usually lengthen a preceding /s/ when they delete final /t/. This article investigates to what extent German listeners are able to reconstruct /t/ when they are presented with fragments of words where final /t/ has been deleted. It aims also at investigating whether the strategies that are used by German depend on the length of /s/, and therefore whether listeners are using language-specific cues. Results of a forced-choice segment detection task suggest that listeners are able to reconstruct deleted final /t/ in about 45% of the times. The length of /s/ plays some role in the reconstruction, however, it does not explain the behavior of German listeners completely. PMID:25101016

  11. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  12. [The German research network for mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U

    2016-09-01

    support for a German center for mental disorders.

  13. Validation plan for the German CAMAELEON model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamey, James R.

    1997-06-01

    Engineers and scientists at the US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) are in the process of evaluating the German CAMAELEON model, a signature evaluation model that was created for use in designing and evaluating camouflage in the visible spectrum and is based on computational vision methodologies. Verification and preliminary validation have been very positive. For this reason, NVESD has planned and is currently in the early execution phase of a more elaborate validation effort using data from an Army field exercise known as DISSTAF-II. The field exercise involved tank gunners, using the currently fielded M1 Abrams tank sights to search for, to target, and to `fire on' (i.e. to pull the trigger to mark target location) a variety of foreign and domestic vehicles in realistic scenarios. Data from this field exercise will be combined with results of a laboratory measurement of perceptual target detectabilities. The purpose of the laboratory measurement is to separate modeled effects from unmodeled effects in the field data. In the laboratory, observers will be performing a task as similar as possible to that modeled by CAMAELEON. An important feature of this data is that the observers will know where the target is located and will rate the detectability of the targets in a paired comparison experiment utilizing the X-based perceptual experiment testbed developed at the University of Tennessee. For the laboratory measurement the subjects will view exactly the same images as those to be analyzed by CAMAELEON. Three correlations that will be found are expected to be especially important. The correlation between perceptual detectability and model predictions will show the accuracy with which the model predicts human performance of the modeled task (rating target detectabilities). The correlation between laboratory and field data will show how well perceived detectability predicts tank gunner target detection in a realistic scenario. Finally

  14. Fairview German Bilingual School: A Successful Model for Elementary-School, Second-Language Learning, Part II. Laying the Foundation: German in the First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Marianne

    The first grade program of the Fairview German Bilingual School, the elementary (K-5) segment of the Cincinnati public school system's German bilingual alternative program, is described. The school provides intensive second-language instruction in German for monolingual English-speaking children with bilingualism as the objective. The school is…

  15. The reaction of atomic hydrogen with germane - Temperature dependence of the rate constant and implications for germane photochemistry in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.; Payne, Walter A.; Marston, George; Stief, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the formation and loss processes for GeH4 are required in order to provide data to help determine the major chemical form in which germanium exists in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. The reaction of hydrogen atoms with germane is one of the most important of these reactions. The absolute rate constant for this reaction as a function of temperature and pressure is studied. Flash photolysis of dilute mixtures of GeH4 in argon, combined with time-resolved detection of H atoms via Lyman alpha resonance fluorescence, is employed to measure the reaction rate. The reaction is shown to be moderately rapid, independent of total pressure, but possessing a positive temperature dependence.

  16. A personal exploration of the German hospice system.

    PubMed

    Farnon, C

    1996-01-01

    While on vacation in Germany, I explored the German hospice system and its differences from that in the United States. I conducted an informal survey asking 10 individuals who were not associated with hospice work, about end-of-life issues. Knowledge of the hospice movement and of advance directives was found to be quite low. Through contact with German hospice associations, I learned that the modern German hospice movement was inspired by the British example. After a difficult beginning, the German hospice system is growing steadily. Professional providers of end-of-life care are paid according to the traditional fee-for-service system. As suggested by the World Health Organization, pain management is provided according to the three-step analgesic ladder. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal as it is in the United States. A federal self-determination law has not yet been enacted. Overall, the German hospice system has many similarities and a few interesting dissimilarities with that in the United States.

  17. Captives of Their Fantasies: The German Atomic Bomb Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Irving M.

    1997-02-01

    When the Nazi government collapsed in May, 1945, an Allied intelligence mission took into custody nine of the German scientists who played key roles in the German atomic bomb project. Under great secrecy these men were confined in a large country house, Farm Hall, near Cambridge (England), and their conversations were recorded surreptitiously by hidden microphones in every room. The transcripts were kept TOP SECRET for 47 years and were finally released recently. They give fascinating insights into the personalities of the guests and invaluable information on what the Germans really understood about the physics and chemistry of a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb. The Farm Hall transcripts clearly establish that (a) the Germans on August 6, 1945 did not believe that the Allies had exploded an atomic bomb over Hiroshima that day; (b) they never succeeded in constructing a self-sustaining nuclear reactor; (c) they were confused about the differences between an atomic bomb and a reactor; (d) they did not know how to correctly calculate the critical mass of a bomb; (e) they thought that "plutonium" was probably element 91. The Farm Hall transcripts contradict the self-serving and sensationalist writings about German efforts that have appeared during the past fifty years.

  18. Psychological testing and the German labor market, 1925 to 1965.

    PubMed

    Meskill, David

    2015-11-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, the massive German Labor Administration used loosely standardized, pragmatic evaluations of personality to steer young people into appropriate jobs. Starting in the late 1950s, the Administration shifted to American scientific methods of trait and factor psychological testing. Behind this change lay not a change in academic psychology but a power shift in the German labor market. Originally, the Labor Administration had to appeal to employers, for whom pragmatic evaluations of personality seemed most convincing. Thanks to the Economic Miracle in the 1950s, the Administration had to gain the trust of young Germans, their parents, and the public, who, it was hoped, would be won over by science.

  19. German contribution to the validation of SCIAMACHY - the first year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramstedt, K.; Kirchhoff, B.

    2003-04-01

    An adequate validation of SCIAMACHY data products is a prerequisite for a successful completion of the SCIAMACHY mission. The German validation team, consisting of 23 different projects with more than 60 scientists, contributes with a wide range of instrument types as important part of the international validation community. A global network of ground-based stations with DOAS, FTIR, microwave instruments and ozone sondes has been build. Satellite inter-comparisons utilize the measurements of independent space-born sensors. Balloon-borne instruments participate in the Envisat Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon validation campaigns and the German FALCON research aircraft has undertaken large flights from the Arctic to the Tropics. Here an overview of the GERMAN activities during the first year of SCIAMACHY lifetime is given.

  20. Inflectional morphology in German hearing-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Penke, Martina; Wimmer, Eva; Hennies, Johannes; Hess, Markus; Rothweiler, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Despite modern hearing aids, children with hearing impairment often have only restricted access to spoken language input during the 'critical' years for language acquisition. Specifically, a sensorineural hearing impairment affects the perception of voiceless coronal consonants which realize verbal affixes in German. The aim of this study is to explore if German hearing-impaired children have problems in producing and/or acquiring inflectional suffixes expressed by such phonemes. The findings of two experiments (an elicitation task and a picture-naming task) conducted with a group of hearing-impaired monolingual German children (age 3-4 years) demonstrate that difficulties in perceiving specific phonemes relate to the avoidance of these same sounds in speech production independent of the grammatical function these phonemes have.

  1. What's science? Where's science? Science journalism in German print media.

    PubMed

    Summ, Annika; Volpers, Anna-Maria

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the current state of science coverage in German print media. It deals with the following questions: (1) how the main characteristics of science journalism can be described, (2) whether there is a difference between various scientific fields, and (3) how different definitions of science journalism lead to differing findings. Two forms of science coverage were analyzed in a standardized, two-part content analysis of German newspapers (N = 1730 and N = 1640). The results show a significant difference between a narrow and a broad definition of science journalism. In the classic understanding, science journalism is prompted by scientific events and is rather noncritical. Science coverage in a broad sense is defined by a wider range of journalistic styles, driven by non-scientific events, and with a focus on the statements of scientific experts. Furthermore, the study describes the specific role of the humanities and social sciences in German science coverage.

  2. Biographical reconstruction of WWII experience: an exploration of German remembrance.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, R; Heuft, G

    1997-01-01

    First results of the Eldermensch-Study (N = 50) indicate that German National Socialism and the historical events associated with World War II play a central role in the oral histories of older Germans. Six distinct patterns of late life cognitive appraisal of war-time experience: survival challenge (further divided into "active" and "passive" survivorship), passive benefit, opportunism, value verification, and acceptance despite hardship are presented and discussed as structural themes in the life story. These categories not only represent interindividual differences in the appraisal of war-time experience, but often reflect contrasting patterns of personal response to the social and political circumstances of this era of German history. In addition to cohort and gender differences, divergence in locus of control orientation as well as the role of social bonding and instrumental social support are discussed. Differences revealed in the biographical interviews are further reflected in the results of standardized questionnaires.

  3. Germane photochemistry. Photolysis of gas mixtures of planetary interest.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, J C; Lassalle, L; Janati, T

    1995-01-01

    Photolysis of germane (GeH4) in the presence of acetylene (C2H2), propyne (C3H4) or phosphine (PH3) with a 185 nm mercury lamp has been studied. The volatile products formed in these reactions are characterized by 1H, 31P and 13C NMR. Vinylgermanes are the first reaction products formed in the photolysis of GeH4 with alkynes. A reaction pathway is proposed. The initial step is the dissociation of germane 1 to hydrogen and GeH3 radicals. Addition of the germyl radical on alkyne is proposed as the next step. Vinyl-germanes are then formed by radical combination. Photolysis of ethenylgermane 2 gives diethenylgermane 3 in the presence of acetylene and digermaethane 4 in the presence of GeH4. The application of these findings to Jovian and Saturn atmospheric chemistry is discussed.

  4. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  5. Max Planck and the ``black year'' of German physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1994-12-01

    1994 is the hundredth anniversary of what Max Planck described in 1935 as the ``black year'' of German physics. In the eight months between January 1st and September 8th 1894, Heinrich Hertz, August Kundt, and Hermann von Helmholtz died. This article reviews the lives of these three important physicists, their research contributions, and their unique positions in the German physics community. In conclusion, the relationships of these three physicists to Planck are discussed, and Planck's evaluation of the impact of 1894 on physics in Germany is appraised from our perspective of one hundred years.

  6. Identity development in German emerging adults: not an easy task.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development. Identity development is particularly challenging for young adults from immigrant backgrounds, from low socioeconomic brackets, or who suffer from chronic health conditions. In this context, we highlight the supportive role of social networks (parents, peers, and romantic partners) for identity development. Cross-cultural studies have suggested distinctive identity concerns in youth from majority and minority groups.

  7. Correlation between thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C.L.

    1985-02-01

    Thermoluminescence properties of bismuth germanate and their relationship to radiation damage characteristics have been investigated. Thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate display several similar properties including similar responses as a function of radiation dose, similar saturation levels, and similar decay times. Also a correlation was found between the thermoluminescence sensitivities and radiation damage sensitivities of four different crystals. The traps responsible for the radiation damage and those which store the thermoluminescence signal appear to be either closely related or actually the same traps. Four trapping centers can be seen in the thermoluminescence glow curves. The depth of the dominant trap is 1.1 eV. 10 references.

  8. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  9. Proceedings of the 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Walter Steininger; Wilhelm Bollingerfehr

    2016-01-11

    The 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Dresden. Germany on September 7-9, 2015. Over seventy participants helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. The number of collaborative efforts continues to grow and to produce useful documentation, as well as to define the state of the art for research areas. These Proceedings are divided into Chapters, and a list of authors is included in the Acknowledgement Section. Also in this document are the Technical Agenda, List of Participants, Biographical Information, Abstracts, and Presentations. Proceedings of all workshops and other pertinent information are posted on websites hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club. The US/German workshops provide continuity for long-term research, summarize and publish status of mature areas, and develop appropriate research by consensus in a workshop environment. As before, major areas and findings are highlighted, which constitute topical Chapters in these Proceedings. In total, the scientific breadth is substantial and while not all subject matter is elaborated into chapter format, all presentations and abstracts are published in this document. In the following Proceedings, six selected topics are developed in detail.

  10. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria.

  11. BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF GERMAN TEXT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cave Hill National Cemetery, 701 Baxter Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. Time, Manner and Place in German: An Investigation of Adverb Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Reports on an experiment in native speaker judgement of acceptability, designed to test the acceptability of variations on the time-manner-place order in German adverbs. Implications for teaching German are drawn. (AM)

  13. The Structure of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilling, Rainer

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and function of the West-German Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker and its role in the communication and reward system of its discipline. Explores its role in the West German science system, exploring ideology and politics. (JM)

  14. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2005-01-01

    This report updates previous compilations published in this journal. The current listing contains references to 70 dissertations in German language and/or literature, comparative literature, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German.

  15. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Updates previous compilations published in this journal. The current listing contains references to 111 dissertations in German language and literature, comparative literature, and foreign and second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German. (VWL)

  16. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Updates previous compilations of this survey, which are published in this journal. Contains references to 102 dissertations in German language or literature, comparative literature, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German. (Author/VWL)

  17. Survey of U.S. Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--1995 and 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    This listing contains references to 212 dissertations in German language and/or literature, comparative literature, linguistics, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German. (Author/CK)

  18. Discrimination of native and non-native vowel contrasts in bilingual Turkish-German and monolingual German children: Insight from the Mismatch Negativity ERP component.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Tanja; Alku, Paavo; Brosch, Sibylle; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The development of native-like memory traces for foreign phonemes can be measured by using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential. Previous studies have shown that the MMN is sensitive to changes in neural organization depending on language experience. Here we measured the MMN response in 5-6year-old monolingual German and bilingual Turkish-German kindergarten children growing up in Germany. MMN was investigated to a German vowel contrast and to a vowel contrast that exists in Turkish and in German. The results show that compared to a German control group, the MMN response is less robust in Turkish-German children to the German vowel contrast. The response to the contrast that exists in both languages does not differ between groups. Overall, the results suggest that the Turkish-German children have not yet fully acquired the German phonetic inventory despite living in Germany since birth and being immersed in a German-speaking environment.

  19. Silica and Germanate Glass High Power Fiber Laser Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    with bismuth germanate glasses. The lower phonon energy offers negligible nonradiative multiphonon relaxation of rare earth transitions up to 2.5µm...of the various emission transitions. [1] J.M.F. van Dijk, M.F.H. Schuurmans, “On the nonradiative and radiative decay rates and a modified

  20. The German-Romance Language Borders in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Felicity

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on language contact phenomena at the borders of Switzerland's four language communities (German, French, Italian, and Romansch), the legal status of the four Swiss national languages, and the language policies of individual bilingual and trilingual cantons. Describes the historical movements of the language boundaries, with particular…

  1. Interactive Video in Classes of German for Business and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Bettina F.

    This paper discusses the Georgia Institute of Technology's Business German summer language course, an intensive 6-week course that utilizes classroom instruction, language labs, and computer labs. The course stresses vocabulary and discourse as commonly used in the professional context, as well as intercultural information. A major component of…

  2. Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyn, Prisca

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be…

  3. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  4. The Acquisition of German Relative Clauses: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Silke; Diessel, Holger; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of relative clauses in the speech of one German-speaking child aged 2 ; 0 to 5 ; 0. The earliest relative clauses we found in the data occur in topicalization constructions that are only a little different from simple sentences: they contain a single proposition, express the actor prior to other…

  5. Academics Abroad: Conducting Scholarly Research in German Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askey, Dale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in conducting research in German academic libraries. Highlights include a lack of trained librarians with subject expertise who focus on helping users; numerous library catalogs rather than one integrated catalog; and an emphasis on collection preservation that includes closed stacks and restricted circulation. (LRW)

  6. Initiation into Alcohol Use in East and West German Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Masche, J. Gowert

    This paper investigates the patterning and positioning effects in the onset of drinking in East and West German adolescents and young adults. Differences between the timing of first drinking (positioning effects) and differences in influences on the timing of initiation (patterning effects) are studied. Four reasons for studying the age of onset…

  7. Trends in Practical Work in German Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Fuccia, David; Witteck, Torsten; Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    By the 1970s a fundamental shift had taken place in German science education. This was a shift away from the learning of more-or-less isolated facts and facets in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics towards a restructuring of science teaching along the general principles of the respective science domains. The changes included also the addition of…

  8. 61. Photocopy of illustration 'North German Lloyd New Terminal, Hoboken, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photocopy of illustration 'North German Lloyd New Terminal, Hoboken, New Jersey. VIEW OF HEADHOUSE AND WEST UPLAND AREA, LOOKING EAST. (From an unidentified source. Illustration by W. F. Whittemore, 1902) - Hoboken Piers Headhouse, River Street at Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  9. Picturing German: Teaching Language and Literature through Visual Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Thyra E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the importance of visual culture with regard to its pedagogical applications in the German language classroom. I begin by outlining the benefits and concerns associated with making visual art a part of the curriculum. Next, practical ideas are presented for using paintings in beginning, intermediate, and advanced courses.…

  10. Plasticity of Grammatical Recursion in German Learners of Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Douglas J.; Indefrey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have examined cross-serial and embedded complement clauses in West Germanic in order to distinguish between different types of working memory models of human sentence processing, as well as different formal language models. Here, adult plasticity in the use of these constructions is investigated by examining the response of…

  11. Lifelong Learning in German Learning Cities/Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reghenzani-Kearns, Denise; Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the policies and lessons learned from two consecutive German national programs aimed at developing learning cities/regions. Known as Learning Regions Promotion of Networks, this first program transitioned into the current program, Learning on Place. A case study chosen is from the Tolzer region where a network has self-sustained…

  12. Try a New Approach: Using German Practice in Harmonica Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosek, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at some best practices for teaching the harmonica as demonstrated in schools in southern Germany. The author describes the role the harmonica has played in music education, offering a brief overview of the instrument's use in the United States. He shares what certain German educators are doing and how their techniques can be…

  13. Together, Not Alone: Positive Peer Culture in a German School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opp, Gunther; Unger, Nicola; Teichmann, Jana

    2007-01-01

    The many sea-changes in German culture have given rise to a growing population of children and youth at risk. This article describes the creation of a Positive Peer Culture in a special school for students with emotional and behavioural problems. The authors review challenges facing youth in modern Germany, the implementation of the PPC program,…

  14. Teacher's Guide to the German/American Heritage Radio Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselriis, Peter

    The guide suggests teaching methods and learning activities related to German Americans and their heritage in Missouri. Intended for upper elementary and secondary ethnic studies or history courses, the material outlines and supports 13 radio programs. The objective is to increase awareness and understanding of the various facets of the German…

  15. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  16. Competition, Connection, and Collaboration in Smaller German Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunbeck, Helga G.

    2011-01-01

    The MLA Report on "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" has been criticized for focusing its proposals on large German programs. This article attempts to show how some of its recommendations can also be implemented in smaller language programs. These programs exist within a network of relations to other…

  17. The Language-Culture Interface in German Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Anne-Katrin

    A comparison of German and American advertising reveals differences in technique and structures. Persuasion is central in both, but the grammatical structures and illocutionary devices available in each language vary. The culture is also reflected in the type and degree to which each language uses techniques of persuasive language. The findings…

  18. Adolescents' Transitions to Behavioral Autonomy after German Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the timing of behavioral autonomy transitions in two same-aged cohorts of East German adolescents assessed in 1991 and 1996. An earlier timing of autonomy privileges was associated with higher deviant behavior. A later timing of autonomy privileges and responsibilities was linked to structural constraints, specifically,…

  19. [Unipacs: A-LM German, Units 3-29].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Bend High Schools, WI.

    These instructional materials, designed for use with the "A-LM" German language course, permit teachers to individualize instruction. Basic objectives are outlined concerning basic dialogues, vocabulary, supplementary materials, reading, grammar, recombination materials, and creative conversation. A student checklist serves as a guide for the…

  20. German Foreign and Security Policy: Trends and Transatlantic Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    I think there should be two of them.” Former U.K. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is also said to have expressed concerns about German unification...energy wealth to divide Europe.23 20 See “Merkel visit to Turkey complicates life at

  1. CORRELATIONS OF RESULTS IN MATRICULATION GERMAN IN QUEENSLAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DIEFENBACH, H. J.

    TO FIND THE CORRELATION BETWEEN FINAL RESULTS AND MARKS GAINED IN THE WRITTEN AND ORAL PARTS OF THE 1964 SENIOR GERMAN EXAMINATION, THE RESULTS OF THE TESTS OF 674 CANDIDATES WERE EXAMINED. THIS EXAMINATION, HELD AFTER THE FOURTH YEAR OF SECONDARY SCHOOLING AND USED AS A BASIS FOR UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND MATRICULATION, CONSISTED OF--(1) THE ORAL…

  2. Intimacy, Solidarity and Distance: The Pronouns of Address in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Helga H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents evidence in support of Klaus Bayer's claim that present-day German has two systems of pronominal address: "Sie" and "du." The study analyzes the two systems, investigates the conflict situations between them, projects future trends, and looks at how the two are taught in the classroom. (SED)

  3. New Light on Copenhagen and the German Nuclear Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    The recent release of draft letters from Niels Bohr to Werner Heisenberg provides new insights into German fission research during World War II and into the reasons for its relative failure. I refute claims of deliberate failure and briefly summarize other contributing factors.

  4. German Failure to Resist Post World War II Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    suicide in Germany. Many Germans experienced a complete breakdown of norms and values, an anomie , which cannot simply be reduced to the breakdown of the...eventually collapsed, the anomie which spread amongst those most loyal to the regime and most permeated by its values was correspondingly extreme. For

  5. Autonomy, Professionalism and Management Structure in the German University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Declining public finances and ever increasing national and international competition force state-owned German universities to adapt to an increasingly competitive environment. In a first phase the universities have concentrated their efforts on the optimisation of budgeting processes and on the development of strategies and goals to come to a more…

  6. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  7. The Dative Alternation in German-English Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäschke, Katja; Plag, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of probabilistic grammatical constraints on the dative alternation in English as a second language (ESL). It presents the results of an experiment in which the different factors that are influential in first language (L1) English are tested with advanced learners of English whose L1 is German. Second language (L2)…

  8. Combining Online and Hybrid Teaching Environments in German Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Lucrecia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we briefly offer the main characteristics of a hybrid design for Face-to-Face (FtF) and online German courses in the degree of Translation and Interpreting that combines the textbook with activities moderated with technology. We particularly focus on the activities designed for practicing oral production at level A2.2., where we…

  9. Textbooks in German 1942-1973: A Descriptive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Kathryn, Comp.; Haase, Arthur, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists German textbooks published in the United States for use in junior high, high school, and college by students whose first language is English. Intended for those interested in researching old and writing new texts, as well as for those searching for an extant volume for classroom use, the bibliography consists of…

  10. German for Elementary Schools: A Program and Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolanz, Louise; Teetor, Will-Robert

    This curriculum guide examines aspects essential to the development and maintenance of FLES (Foreign Language in the Elementary School) programs with particular respect to the teaching of German. Sections include: (1) a rationale for FLES, (2) basic factors in developing a program, (3) patterns of program organization, (4) teachers, (5) FLES in…

  11. Haemorrhage Control in the German Army - Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    coagulopathy is not recommended in civilian German hospitals. Compared with blood components that can be processed, tested, freeze-dried, packaged, stored...component (RBC´s, plasma, platelets) is indicated for treatment and not available, or if transfusion of available blood components in a 1:1:1 ratio

  12. Perceptions of ICT Careers in German Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hellens, Liisa; Clayton, Kaylene; Beekhuyzen, Jenine; Nielsen, Sue H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory investigation of the perceptions of information and communication technology (ICT) as a field of study and work in German secondary schools. A total of 160 students from five secondary schools in Lower Saxony participated in the study in February 2007, and four teachers of the students were interviewed. The…

  13. Development of German-English Machine Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, W. P.; Stachowitz, R. A.

    This report deals with advances in linguistic analysis and programing. The theoretical theses for this work were presented in the first annual report. This second report concentrates on progress in the descriptive analysis of German and English, and on computer programs which have been developed during the year. Linguistic work during the period…

  14. Verb Position and the Order of Adverbials in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, O. C., Jr.

    Recent work in word-order typology has demonstrated that the dominant order of verbs and objects (or complements) correlates well with the general ordering tendencies of languages. The work on German reported in this paper suggests, however, that certain traits, such as the order of adverbials, are influenced not only by general ordering…

  15. Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germanate optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Lousteau, Joris; Macpherson, William N; Jiang, Xin; Bookey, Henry T; Barton, James S; Jha, Animesh; Kar, Ajoy K

    2007-07-09

    The temperature coefficients of optical phase have been measured at 1536 nm wavelength for short fiber Fabry-Perot cavities of tellurite and germanate glass fibers spliced to silica fiber. The results are consistent with the thermal expansion and thermo-optic coefficients of the bulk glasses.

  16. The Importance of Educational Marble Games in Teaching German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: By considering the innovations in the field of communication, the inter-relationship between cultures, and the developments in the world, the Ministry of Education has started to take measures for students to learn languages such as German, French, Russian, Spanish, Japanese, Italian, Arabic, etc., in educational institutions in…

  17. Role of Grammatical Gender and Semantics in German Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Indefrey, Peter; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Hellwig, Frauke

    2004-01-01

    Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors (E. Mane, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored different accounts of the grammatical gender…

  18. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…

  19. After the Wall: The Remaking of East German Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Huge changes are taking place throughout the former East German society. Comments from students, teachers, and administrators at Potsdam's William and Alexander Humboldt High School, just outside Berlin, highlight the difficult tasks involved in reforming an impoverished and repressive school system. (MLF)

  20. An Empirical Model of the Vertical Structure of German Fogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    on reveree side if neceesay end Identify by block number) German fogs Vertical variation Fog density Liquid water content Empirical model SAIISTACT...Grafenw6hr and Meppen, Germany. Curve fitting procedures were applied to the results of liquid water content calculations and extinction coefficients...THE ALGORITM ............................................. 7 COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND MODELED FOG DENSITY ........................... 8 CONCLUSIONS

  1. Teaching German with TPRS (Total Physical Response Storytelling)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) has enjoyed a tremendous increase of interest in recent years because so many teachers in high schools and colleges are finding that it reinvigorates their German programs. Some even claim that it has saved them. TPRS actually consists of two complementary pedagogical methods: (1) Total Physical Response…

  2. Acoustic and Perceptual Explanations for Rhotacism in Latin and Germanic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Robert Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the phonetic mechanisms of the sound change known as rhotacism (/s/ greater than /z/ greater than /r/) which is observed in Italic, Germanic, and Sanskrit, among other languages, employing lab-based methods of "experimental historical phonology" (Ohala 1974), and approaching sound change from the theoretical standpoint…

  3. "A-LM German": How to Make it Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmetz, Dieter

    1978-01-01

    The A-LM German materials are analyzed in terms of their weakness and positive features, and suggestions for their use and adaptation are presented. It is argued that: the basic dialogue is almost unusable; the structure drills are repetitive and often not challenging; the taped arrangement of the listening exercises is awkward; the dialogue…

  4. Developmental Surface and Phonological Dysgraphia in German 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Jurgen; Mantey, Stefanie; Heber, Stefanie; Hollweg, Wibke

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of developmental reading and spelling disorders within the framework provided by cognitive neuropsychology has yielded interesting results for several alphabetic orthographies, for example English, Italian, and French. However, this approach has not attracted much attention in German speaking countries up to now. The following…

  5. Kreta als Beispiel: German Airlift During the Battle of Crete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    period, the armies and air forces of several nations struggled to adapt to the advance of technology . The concepts pioneered by Mitchell manifested...But the attack did not proceed entirely as planned. Though company-sized elements of German parachutists secured major airfields against token Dutch

  6. [German military surgeons in deployment abroad: life and working conditions].

    PubMed

    Hauer, T; von Lübken, F; Johann, M; Schreyer, C; Hartmann, V; Kollig, E; Willy, C

    2010-02-01

    Since 1992 the German Bundeswehr has been deployed for securing peace and peacekeeping abroad. Since then 83 German soldiers have been killed and overall 129 wounded in action as of 07.12.2009. In Northern Afghanistan the German Bundeswehr runs a combat support hospital (role 3) in Mazar-e-Sharif providing a multidisciplinary capability profile. Furthermore, there are two role 2 medical treatment facilities for primary surgical trauma care located in Kunduz and Feyzabad. In these role 2 facilities life saving procedures and damage control operations are performed in order to enable rapid evacuation to a higher level of care. Thereby military surgeons are often confronted with various medical and logistic challenges. The German Navy also has two equivalent role 2 medical treatment facilities (Naval Rescue Centers) aboard its two combat support ships (CSS) "Berlin" and "Frankfurt am Main" to support maritime task groups operating worldwide. These floating field hospitals provide an indispensable asset in the medical emergency care of naval operations with difficult space-time factors. Due to the specific operating alliance between CSS and Naval Rescue Center, special operations as well as evacuation and humanitarian missions following disasters near the coastline can be effectively accomplished.

  7. Identity Development in German Adolescents with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here assessed the exploration of identity and commitment to an identity in German adolescents with and without visual impairments. Methods: In total, 178 adolescents with visual impairments (blindness or low vision) and 526 sighted adolescents completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire. Results: The levels of…

  8. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  9. Everyday Pedagogical Practices in Mathematical Play Situations in German "Kindergarten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This study describes situations in German daycare facilities (Kindergarten) in which the development of mathematical thinking in children is specifically encouraged through examination of common play objects. Using micro-sociological methods of analysis, the mathematical potential of such interactions between teacher and child is elaborated within…

  10. A Semantic Study of German and Chinese Demonstratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores, analyzes, and compares the usage of German and Chinese demonstratives. Discourse and textual uses of the forms will be considered as well as their locative and temporal uses. I observe that in both languages the demonstratives can be used to refer to referents. However, they depart from the common assumption that…

  11. A Practical Guide to the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Wilga M.; And Others

    This book is one in a series of practical guides for teaching foreign languages. Designed for future teachers of German in high school or at the undergraduate level, as well as for practicing teachers who are interested in keeping up with the latest material in their field, this book re-evaluates foreign-language teaching methodology in the light…

  12. Sind Sie fit (Are You in Shape)?: Calisthenics in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Don

    This packet of instructional materials, intended for intermediate and advanced German students, contains a student's section and a teacher's guide focusing on calisthenics. The student section contains three illustrated transcriptions of radio programs on calisthenics for early morning listeners of "Der bayrische Rundfunk" in West Germany.…

  13. The german cockroach, Blatella germanica L, from the human ear.

    PubMed

    Nagaty, H F; Emami-Nouri, M

    1977-07-01

    A case of invasion of the human ear by the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L) IN Mash'had, Khorassan, Iran is described. As far as the Author is aware this is the first such case recorded and published from Iran.

  14. On the "Vulnerability" of Syntactic Domains in Swedish and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnacker, Ute

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the L2 acquisition of clausal syntax in postpuberty learners of German and Swedish regarding V2, VP headedness, and verb particle constructions. The learner data are tested against L2 theories according to which lower structural projections (VP) are acquired before higher functional projections (IP, CP), VP syntax is…

  15. Native Speaker Judgment and the Evaluation of Errors in German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Helga H.

    1982-01-01

    Presents and analyzes two studies designed to test native speaker reaction to certain types of errors that speakers of English make when learning German. Aim was to establish the role of the medium, spoken or written, in evaluation of errors. Results show overall ratings of errors in written and spoken language are similar, although with…

  16. Electronic Learning in the German Science Project "NAWI-Interaktiv"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Homann, Wiebke; Strehlke, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    The German science project "NAWI-Interaktiv" is an example of innovative use of E-Learning and new media education. Since 2009, the learning platform provides learners and teachers with high-quality learning tools, teaching material, useful information and E-learning programs for free. This is to raise the pupils' motivation to learn…

  17. Methodology and Technology in the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    Some basic problems of current lower-division foreign language instruction are discussed from the standpoint of real-life language use, and specific measures for meeting some of the problems are suggested for learning German as a second language. Some of the significant discrepancies between the use of a language in real life and in the language…

  18. GERMAN FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A GUIDE TO MINIMUM ESSENTIALS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEAMON, M. PHILLIP; AND OTHERS

    THIS CURRICULUM OUTLINE PROVIDES A SET OF MINIMUM ESSENTIALS, BASED ON A MODIFIED AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH, FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PROGRAMS IN GERMAN. FOLLOWING A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE NEED FOR LONGER STUDY SEQUENCE AND UPDATED INSTRUCTIONAL PHILOSOPHY, THE GUIDE DESCRIBES THE BASIC OBJECTIVES, CONTENTS, AND SUGGESTED TEACHING PROCEDURES FOR EACH…

  19. GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF GERMAN IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSEL, JOHN P.; AND OTHERS

    THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARED THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF GERMAN IN CALIFORNIA WITH THE IDEA OF HELPING TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS CONDUCT A SOUND, COORDINATED PROGRAM OF LANGUAGE STUDY. DESIGNED FOR BOTH EXPERIENCED AND BEGINNING TEACHERS OF, PRIMARILY, GRADES 6 THROUGH 12, THE MAJOR PART OF THE…

  20. On the Project "Party Democracy." German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagener, Caesar

    A curriculum project on political party democracy in West Germany is described. Intended mainly for use in grades 9-10, the curriculum was developed by German social scientists, educators, and students from 1971 to 1973. The curriculum report is presented in two sections. Section I describes the learning package, tells who it is designed for,…

  1. Teaching Materials for German. G1: Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication is part of a bibliography of language teaching materials for German, including printed and recorded materials. It contains a contents list, the annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. For each entry are given basic bibliographical details, an annotation describing the course, a…

  2. Translating textbooks: Russian, German, and the language of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the 1860s--authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. M. Butlerov, and D. I. Mendeleev--this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.

  3. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  4. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Secondary and Postsecondary German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilett, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This article combines quantitative and qualitative analysis of the depiction of ethnic and racial diversity in recent editions of secondary and postsecondary German textbooks published in the US. The purpose is threefold: (1) to determine the frequency and types of representations of diversity; (2) to examine more closely several representative…

  6. Phonetics and Phonology of Thematic Contrast in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    It is acknowledged that contrast plays an important role in understanding discourse and information structure. While it is commonly assumed that contrast can be marked by intonation only, our understanding of the intonational realization of contrast is limited. For German there is mainly introspective evidence that the rising theme accent (or…

  7. Moderne Sprache im Deutschunterricht (Modern Language in German Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggimann, Ernst

    1965-01-01

    Several techniques are presented which were used to enliven secondary-school German instruction in Switzerland and to increase student interest and motivation. Classes listened to haiku, discussed the elements of the form, and then wrote their own haiku on suggested topics. A quasi-musical choral speaking performance was developed on poetry of…

  8. CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION IN SECOND SEMESTER COLLEGE GERMAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOTTSCHALK, GUNTHER H.

    IN 1964, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA BARBARA, CONDUCTED AN EXPERIMENT REPLACING 50 PERCENT OF STUDENT-TEACHER CONTACT WITH PRE-RECORDED TELEVISION LECTURES FOR TWO OF SIX SECTIONS OF GERMAN. ELEMENTS NORMALLY PRESENTED BY LECTURES WERE ISOLATED FROM CURRENT COURSE MATERIALS FOR TELEVISION PRESENTATION. IT WAS BELIEVED THAT THE QUALITY OF…

  9. Experimental Approach to the Study of Vowel Perception in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangler, Hans-Heinrich; Weiss, Rudolf

    1975-01-01

    An experimental phonetic investigation is described whose goal it was to develop a test which could be used to establish norms in the perception of vowels by native speakers of German. Particular emphasis is placed upon the design of the experiment. The test procedure and the results are discussed. Available from Albert J. Phiebig, Inc., P.O. Box…

  10. Area Studies Revitalized: The Case of German Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janes, Jackson

    A study commissioned by the German Marshall Fund of the United States examined the status of area studies on contemporary Germany in American postsecondary education. It surveyed 50 institutions concerning the status of teaching and research on contemporary Germany in selected fields of the humanities, social sciences, and professional education.…

  11. Jews in Nazi Germany: What West German Textbooks Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Hildegund M.

    1984-01-01

    This review of current German history textbooks shows that the documentation of anti-Semitism, Jewish persecution, and the Holocaust has improved since the 1960s. However, there are still weak areas. Necessary additions to all books should include documentation on medical experiments and ghettos and improved discussion concerning activities of…

  12. Lost (and Found) in Translation: Learning from German Language Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton

    2016-01-01

    This essay introduces two presentations (or "Vorträge") by Ulf Abraham and Thomas Zabka that were originally published in the German journal, "Didaktik Deutsch." I reflect on the complexities of translation and intercultural communication, and ask how we might meaningfully compare the policy environment of one country with that…

  13. Incorporating Critical Thinking and Authenticity into Business German Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram

    1998-01-01

    Proposes to integrate critical thinking and problem-solving into two existing international tests of business German (Prufung Wirtschaftsdeutsch International and Zertifikat Deutsch fur den Beruf), and to contextualize the tests' tasks in a more authentic business setting without compromising their content. Parallels are drawn with the American…

  14. Development of German-English Machine Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Winifred P.; Stachowitz, Rolf

    This report documents efforts over a five-month period toward completion of a pilot system for machine translation of German scientific and technical literature into English. The report is divided into three areas: grammar formalism, programming, and linguistics. Work on grammar formalism concentrated mainly on increasing the power of the…

  15. Eastern Borderlands in German Schoolbooks, 1890-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Continuities and changes in stories, poems and historical texts over several generations of German textbooks, from the final decades of the Kaiserreich through the Weimar Republic to the Third Reich, show how schools encouraged children to imagine Germany's eastern borderlands and to incorporate them into their sense of national belonging. The…

  16. Walter Kaufmann and the Advocacy of German Thought in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soll, Ivan

    1997-01-01

    Examines the career and contributions of Walter Kaufmann. A refugee from Hitler's Germany, Kaufmann set himself the unlikely task of trying to revive interest in Hegel and Nietzsche in the United States. Kaufman's work as a translator, interpreter, and teacher of German philosophy had a long-term impact on U.S. intellectuals. (MJP)

  17. Retrospective: Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)

  18. Learners' Descriptions of German Pronunciation, Vocabulary, and Grammar: A Folk Linguistic Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Following a folk linguistic approach, this investigation of first-, second- and fourth-year learners' accounts of German found that (1) few had held pre-conceived notions about German prior to language study; (2) most pre-conceived notions concerned German pronunciation; (3) pre-conceived notions about vocabulary were most likely to influence the…

  19. Genesis and Evolution of the Romance-Germanic Language Border in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Durme, Luc

    2002-01-01

    Discusses various language border theories for the Belgian-Northern French area, and summarizes the results of 40 years of research into the development of the Romance-Germanic language border at large. Suggests that a late Roman Latin-Germanic opposition has functioned as a direct predisposition for the early medieval Romance-Germanic language…

  20. The Allies and the West German Parliamentary Council: The Crisis of April 1949.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-08

    406 of those questioned replied that they were indifferent to the future West German constitution. Elizabeth Noelle and Peter Neumann , The Germans...Verlag, 1974. Noelle , Elizabeth and Neumann , Erich Peter, eds. The Germans. Public Opinion Polls 1947-1966. Bonn: Verlag fUr Demoskopie, 1967. Nymann

  1. The Reception of German Progressive Education in Russia: On Regularities of International Educational Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mchitarjan, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a historical case study of extensive educational transfer: the reception, adaptation, and use of German progressive education and German school reform ideas and practices in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. The reception of German educational ideas greatly enriched the theory and practice of the Russian school…

  2. Teaching about the Income Statement and Balance Sheet in a Beginning Business German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Uwe

    A review of business German textbooks reveals that few give significant attention to accounting terminology. Both German majors and business majors enrolled in business German need to be introduced to the balance sheet and income statement. It is possible to devote one or two class sessions to accounting by limiting content to a minimal but solid…

  3. Teaching Controversal Topics in Contemporary German Culture through Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the rich cultural resources embedded with German hip-hop music and its potential impact on the foreign language classroom. In particular, this article suggests methods and materials for integrating German hip-hop music in the discussion of recent controversial cultural events and attitudes in German after the "Wende."

  4. One Year after the Revolution: Politics and Policies of Education in the Eastern German States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    Complaints about changes in East German education following the break-down of the communist system are widespread. Critics are dissatisfied with: (1) the rapid pace of change; (2) the lack of genuine East German solutions; (3) the loss of the German Democratic Republic's (GDR's) identity; (4) dominance by Western Germany; and (5) the lack of West…

  5. "Ich Brauche Mix-Cough": Cross-Linguistic Influence Involving German, English and Farsi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazzazi, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in early trilingualism involving the languages German, English and Farsi. The data come from the case study of the author's two children growing up in a trilingual family within a monolingual German-speaking environment. Specific types of CLI from the non-dominant language Farsi on German and…

  6. LaissezFair: A Case for Greening the Business German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonglewski, Margaret; Helm, Anna

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to teach about sustainability and environmentally conscious practices in German language, literature, and culture programs is within the context of a business German course. In this article we first situate educational sustainability in the US, leading into an examination of why the context of German business can be particularly…

  7. The Transition from Latin to German in the Natural Sciences--And Its Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porksen, Uwe

    Little is known about the transition from the use of Latin to the use of German in scientific literature. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Latin texts by Albrecht Durer and Johannes Kepler were bestsellers while the German versions were unpopular. German mathematics became acceptable only after 1700, with the work of Christian Wolff.…

  8. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  9. Survey of US Doctoral Degrees Related to the Teaching of German--1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P.

    2000-01-01

    Updates 18 previous compilations of U.S Doctoral degrees related to the teaching of German that have been published in this journal. The current listing contains references to 102 dissertations in German language or literature, comparative literature, and foreign or second language education with applicability to learning and teaching German.…

  10. Basic Verbs of Conveyance: "Bring" and "Take" in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Sarah M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The correct use of German "bringen" and "nehmen" can pose problems for native speakers of English learning German. Students often use "nehmen" to express meanings rendered by English "take," which can result in sentences that are ungrammatical. This paper investigates the basic verbs of conveyance in German and English--"bringen," "nehmen,"…

  11. When Swedes Begin to Learn German: From V2 to V2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnacker, Ute

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates verb placement, especially Verb second (V2), in post-puberty second language (L2) learners of two closely related Germanic V2 languages: Swedish and German. Hakansson, "et al." (2002) have adduced data from first language (L1) Swedish-speaking learners of German in support of the claim that the syntactic property of V2…

  12. Error Patterns in Young German Children's "Wh"-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article we report two studies: a detailed longitudinal analysis of errors in "wh"-questions from six German-learning children (age 2 ; 0-3 ; 0) and an analysis of the prosodic characteristics of "wh"-questions in German child-directed speech. The results of the first study demonstrate that German-learning children…

  13. Framing Foreign Language Education in the United States: The Case of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire; Howell, Tes; Warner, Chantelle; Wellmon, Chad

    2007-01-01

    The challenge posed to foreign language (FL) education by globalization and by the multilingual multicultural speech communities it has spawned is showcased by the current crisis in the teaching of German at American colleges and universities. It is not clear why American learners of German should be learning German: for business purposes, for…

  14. Trends in German Hip Hop Music and Its Usefulness for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    German hip hop music has proved productive, especially since 2000 when rap in Germany experienced something like a first crisis. As a response, German hip hop artists and record labels have ventured off in several different directions including other musical genres, different topics, and new approaches to German rap. This article discusses the…

  15. Retraining in Business German through the Goethe Institute in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Gudrun; Schutte, Lilith

    A college language instructor recounts his experience in a retraining program in business German at the West Germany's Goethe Institute. Twenty-eight individuals from the United States and from five European countries participated in a program that offered (1) a 14-day immersion into business-related German, (2) establishment of German business…

  16. A Short German Version of the Self Description Questionnaire I: Theoretical and Empirical Comparability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to develop a short German version of the Self Description Questionnaire (SDQ I-GS) in order to present a robust economical instrument for measuring German preadolescents' multidimensional self-concept. A full German version of the SDQ I (SDQ I-G) that maintained the original structure and thus length of the English original SDQ I…

  17. Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views Regarding the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Shmuel; Yardeni, Eran; Klages, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    This study probes a unique case of multicultural education of Israeli and German students regarding the Holocaust. Their knowledge level of German history leading to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party to power, knowledge about the Holocaust, the relation between their knowledge of attitudes toward the "other" (German/Israeli) group, and their…

  18. Fault reactivation and ground uplift assessment at a prospective German CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhmann, Lina; Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas; Magri, Fabien; Kühn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    pressure elevation during CO2 injection [4-5]. In the present modelling study 1.7 Mt CO2/year were injected into the top of an anticline structure of the 23 m thick sandstone formation of the Middle Bunter for 20 years of simulation time. A one-way coupling between both simulators was undertaken by transferring the pore pressure distribution from the dynamic flow simulations into the geomechanical simulator for selected time steps. The results show that detailed knowledge on geomechanical processes during CO2 injection is of uttermost importance for the assessment of fault reactivation and ground uplift and associated risks. References [1] Schulz R, Agemar T, Alten AJ, Kühne K, Maul AA, Pester S et al. Implementation of a Geothermal Information System for Germany. - Erdöl Erdgas Kohle 2007, 123(2): 76-81 (in German). [2] Beer H, Stackebrandt W. Geological Map of the State of Brandenburg 1:300.000. Contour Map of the Zechstein Formation Top, 2000. Cottbus: Landesamtes für Bergbau, Geologie und Rohstoffe Brandenburg (in German). [3] Schlumberger. Petrel Seismic-to-Evaluation Software, Version 2010.2.2., 2012. [4] Zhang K, Wu YS, Pruess K. User's Guide for TOUGH2-MP - A Massively Parallel Version of the TOUGH2 Code. Report LBNL-315E, 2008, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. [5] Itasca. FLAC3D Software Version 5.0, Advanced Three Dimensional Continuum Modelling for Geotechnical Analysis of Rock, Soil and Structural Support, 2012.

  19. State-Controlled Multimedia Education for All? . Science Programs in Early German Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmacher, Arne

    2012-03-01

    While science education and popularization by means of print media developed in quite similar forms in many nations, the advent of radio resulted in initiatives to bring science on the air that were rather heterogeneous from country to country. The German case stands out with respect to quantity, variety and ambition, and also for its special mechanism of planning and controlling educational programs on science and technology. Hence it is argued that a closer look at how the chances of the new medium were discussed and implemented in Weimar Germany can provide a scale of reference for the development of science communication on the radio in other countries. For this reason a brief summary of the the respective developments in the United States and Europe is presented, before discussing in some detail Germany's particular institutional organization, program structures, combination of radio broadcasts and print material into a kind of multimedia, and various formats and genres.

  20. German approaches to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and final disposal of HLW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. I.; Gompper, K. D.; Closs, K. D.; Kessler, G.; Faude, D.

    1996-10-01

    The paper describes the present situation of the German approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and the disposal concept for high level waste (HLW), either waste from reprocessing or spent fuel. The first part of the paper deals with the spent fuel generation from a 22 GWe scenario, comparing especially the anticipated plutonium inventories after different fuel burnup and its amounts in HLW for disposal with and without recycling. The second part comprises the geological disposal concept of HLW, either as spent fuel or vitrified high level waste from reprocessing, in a salt formation in Gorleben. The third part includes an approach to safety assessment of the HLW repository for the post-operational period by applying a multibarrier concept that covers the appraisal of the geochemical and migration behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in given aquifer systems.

  1. Recording and Reading Alchemy and Art-Technology in Medieval and Premodern German Recipe Collections.

    PubMed

    Neven, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle Ages and the premodern period knowledge of alchemical practices and materials was transmitted via collections of recipes often grouped concomitantly with art-technological instructions. In both alchemy and chemical technology particular importance is placed on artisanal and craft practices. Both are concerned with the description of colours. Both require procedures involving precise and specifically defined actions, prescriptions and ingredients. Assuming that alchemical and artistic texts have the same textual format, this raises the question: were they produced, diffused and read by the same people? This paper investigates the authorship and the context of production behind a sample of German alchemical manuscripts dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. It scrutinizes their process of production, compilation and dissemination. This paper also sheds light on the various types of marginalia, and correlates them with their diverse functions. It thus delivers significant information about the readers and users of these manuscripts.

  2. Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of oxygen deficient lead-niobium-germanate film glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, J.; Fernandez, H.; Solis, J.; Munoz-Martin, D.; Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.; Afonso, C. N.; Fierro, J. L. G.

    2007-06-01

    The third order nonlinear optical properties of oxygen deficient lead-niobium-germanate film glasses with heavy metal contents beyond that of the bulk glass formation region have been investigated. Values of the nonlinear third order optical susceptibility up to /χ(3)/≈1.8×10-11esu have been measured by degenerate four wave mixing at 800nm in films having large heavy metal fractions (0.93). The fast buildup and decay times (≈130fs) of the nonlinear response confirm its nonresonant character. The partial reduction of Nb5+ to Nb4+ evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is associated with the oxygen deficiency, appears to be responsible for the strong enhancement of /χ(3)/.

  3. [Safe:Trac course series of the German Society for Trauma Surgery on patient safety].

    PubMed

    Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K

    2009-08-01

    Based on crew resource management of the airline industry the German Society for Trauma Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, DGU) was the first scientific community in Germany to develop and implement a training course for patient safety. The S:training courses contain four course formats which focus on the prehospital life support (S:PLS), the operating room (S:OR), the trauma room (S:TR) and the intensive care unit (S:ICU). In the training the importance of the human factor for the management of acute major trauma is developed by means of presentations, training videos, practical training, discussions and realistic case scenarios associated with the special working environment of the participants. A specially developed course manual acts as a work and reference book and course booking is possible at http://www.safe-trac.de.

  4. Mental rotation of letters, pictures, and three-dimensional objects in German dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Rüsseler, Jascha; Scholz, Janka; Jordan, Kirsten; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia

    2005-12-01

    This study examines mental rotation ability in children with developmental dyslexia. Prior investigations have yielded equivocal results that might be due to differences in stimulus material and testing formats employed. Whereas some investigators found dyslexic readers to be impaired in mental rotation, others did not report any performance differences or even superior spatial performance for dyslexia. Here, we report a comparison of mental rotation for letters, three-dimensional figures sensu Shepard and Metzler, and colored pictures of animals or humans in second-grade German dyslexic readers. Findings indicate that dyslexic readers are impaired in mental rotation for all three kinds of stimuli. Effects of general intelligence were controlled. Furthermore, dyslexic children were deficient in other spatial abilities like identifying letters or forms among distracters. These results are discussed with respect to the hypotheses of a developmental dysfunction of the parietal cortex or a subtle anomaly in cerebellar function in dyslexic readers.

  5. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Leigh, Christi; Stein, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Von Berlepsche, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  6. The Multilingual Reader: Advantages in Understanding and Decoding German Sentence Structure when Reading German as an L3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyer, Elisabeth; Kaiser, Irmtraud; Berthele, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Italian and French students' grammatical problems while reading in German as an L3 or L4. For the study, we developed a reading test which consists of invented encyclopaedia articles on imaginary animals. These articles enabled us to test various grammatical structures for their receptive difficulty. This paper discusses…

  7. Constraining Second Language Word Order Optionality: Scrambling in Advanced English?German and Japanese?German Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2005-01-01

    This study documents knowledge of UG-mediated aspects of optionality in word order in the second language (L2) German of advanced English and Japanese speakers (n = 39). A bimodal grammaticality judgement task, which controlled for context and intonation, was administered to probe judgements on a set of scrambling, topicalization and remnant…

  8. Wortbildung und Fremdsprachenunterricht (Word Formation and Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schier, Juergen

    1977-01-01

    Word formation is seen as receiving too little attention in foreign language teaching; its study increases auditory and reading understanding. Practical suggestions are given for collecting and arranging material, and for analyzing the structure of words. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  9. German science and black racism--roots of the Nazi Holocaust.

    PubMed

    Haas, François

    2008-02-01

    The Nazi's cornerstone precept of "racial hygiene" gave birth to their policy of "racial cleansing" that led to the murders of millions. It was developed by German physicians and scientists in the late 19th century and is rooted in the period's Social Darwinism that placed blacks at the bottom of the racial ladder. This program was first manifested in the near-extermination of the African Herero people during the German colonial period. After WWI, the fear among the German populace that occupying African troops and their Afro-German children would lead to "bastardization" of the German people formed a unifying racial principle that the Nazis exploited. They extended this mind-set to a variety of "unworthy" groups, leading to the physician-administered racial Nuremberg laws, the Sterilization laws, the secret sterilization of Afro-Germans, and the German euthanasia program. This culminated in the extermination camps.

  10. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  11. Plans for a German Grid Operations and Support Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reißer, Sabin

    The German grid initiative D-Grid brings together various scientific and commercial projects in fields like medicine, engineering, banking, meteorology using the same grid infrastructure. In this infrastructure, which comprises more than 30 computing centres, three middleware stacks (gLite, Globus and Unicore) are deployed and used by the various communities. This variety of applications as well as of middleware calls for well organised operations and support. The German Grid Operations and Support Centre (GOSC) aim to answer this challenge and also provides an uplink to international activities like EGI. The GOSC will provide middleware services like reference installations for the various middleware flavours. It will manage the national grid operations (regional monitoring, SLA enforcement) and will be responsible for providing VO and user services, like application support and a helpdesk.

  12. The German/Russian MIR 1997 Mission: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Life Science Experiments During the German-Russian Mir '97 Mission; (2) Orthostatic Intolerance Following Microgravity: A Role for Autonomic Dysfunction; (3) Heart Rate Variability and Skin Blood Flow in Man During Orthostatic Stress in Weightlessness; (4) Effects of Microgravity and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Circulatory Drives from Excercising Calf Muscles; (5) The Mir Station in Its Second Decade: Crew Science Operation During Mir '97; (6) Metabolic WARD (Water, Sodium, Calcium, and Bone Metabolism) and Endocrinological Experiments During the Mir '97 Mission; (7) Long-term Monitoring of the Spine-geometry During the Mir '97 Mission: Introduction of a New Method; and (8) Effects of 20 days of Microgravity (German/Russian Mir '97 Mission) on the Mechanical and Electromyographic Characteristics of Explosive Efforts of the Lower Limbs and of Cycloergometric Exercises of Mild to Sprint-Like Intensity.

  13. Grammatical gender in German: a case for linguistic relativity?

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2011-09-01

    The "principle of linguistic relativity" holds that, by way of grammatical categorization, language affects the conceptual representations of its speakers. Formal gender systems are a case in point, albeit a particularly controversial one: Previous studies obtained broadly diverging data, thus giving rise to conflicting conclusions. To a large extent, this incoherence is related to task differences and methodological problems. Here, a priming design is presented that avoids previous problems, as it prevents participants from employing gender information in a strategic manner. Four experiments with German native speakers show priming effects of the prime's grammatical gender on animate and nonanimate targets, an effect for the prime's biological gender on animate targets, but no effect for the prime's biological gender on nonanimate targets, and thus speak against an effect of language on thought for German gender.

  14. Results of German support programme to implement the UN FCCC

    SciTech Connect

    Liptow, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of German efforts in support of implementing the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Following the Rio conference, the task of supporting outreach efforts was given to the GTZ since that is its general function, and within the context of German Technical Co-operation (TC), a program was implemented. Their initial effort was directed at helping implement inventory studies in target countries, including studies of options for reducing emissions. Once a level of information and factual knowledge was in place, they presented the type of technical support which Germany could offer in meeting the needs envisioned to achieve reduced emissions, in the form of technical co-operation. Experiences are discussed for the cases of a number of different participating countries.

  15. The Unknown Generals - German Corps Commanders in World War 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    Promoted General der Infanterie, etc. 54 . Table 19 Branch Affiliation 56 V - .* , . - - b.. " d" W - i - %, . . .. .. .. , . Table 20 Commanders from the...discrepancies. Dermot Bradley and Richard Schulze-Kossens are the editors of the Taetigkeitsbericht des Chefs des Heerespersonalamtes General der Infanterie... der deutschen Kavallerie, 1919-1945, (The History of the German Cavalry 1919-1945). This work is a comprehensive study of the organization, training

  16. West German NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    national pride and patriotism, leading the West German public opinion expert Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann to term them a "wounded nation.Ř The situation...only confirmed such trends. See Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann , "When the Feeling of Threat Dwindles: Defense Policy Faced with the Growing Problem of A...34Akzeptanzprobleme der NATO-Strategie," Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, b 8/89, February 17, 1989. Noelle - Neumann , Elisabeth and Renate Koecher, Die

  17. IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Pynenkov, A A; Firstov, Sergei V; Panov, A A; Firstova, E G; Nishchev, K N; Bufetov, Igor' A; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2013-02-28

    We have studied the optical properties of lightly bismuth doped ({<=}0.002 mol %) germanate glasses prepared in an alumina crucible. The glasses are shown to contain bismuth-related active centres that have been identified previously only in bismuth-doped fibres produced by MCVD. With increasing bismuth concentration in the glasses, their luminescence spectra change markedly, which is attributable to interaction between individual bismuth centres. (optical fibres)

  18. German-American Security Relations within NATO and the UN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    improved crisis management capability, the circles in Washington that wanted further reduction of American troops in Europe gained more influence...Gulf War, as the following pages suggest. 65 Quoted by Schweigler, G., "Die Politik der Bundesrepublic Deutschland als Faktor amerikanischer Politik...the UN can now be seen as a vehicle through which to attempt the management of global crises.. With respect to American-German security relations, the

  19. Germania Quo Vadis?: Dynamics of Change in German Security Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    1945 era sensibly extended into the 1950. The weight of the past was insurmountable. Germans had twice carried war to Russia , although Russia had...and conventional forces. But besides the verification that Russia was transitioning from a country which threatened Europe to a country due to its...military spending, appropriated 33.2 billion USD, ranking 6th behind Japan, and China and is likely to be overcome in the next years by Russia .103

  20. Wernher von Braun with German Officers and Others

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    General Erich Fellgiebel, head of the German Army Information Service during World War II, congratulates members of the von Braun rocket team from Peenemunde for their October 3, 1942 A4 flight. Pictured front center is General Erich Fellgiebel. Shaking hands are General Walter Dornberger (left) and General Janssen, commanding officer of Peenemuende with Rudolph Hermarn to their right. Picture left to right in the back row are Wernher von Braun, Captain Stoelzel, Luftwaffe, and Dr. Gerhard Reisig.

  1. [Foreign citizens in German cities: regional pattern and economic structure].

    PubMed

    Gans, P

    1997-01-01

    "The German cities in the old federal states showed a remarkable increase in foreigners from 1980 to 1994. Their number grew from 5.2 to 15.1 per cent. This is mostly a result of migration gains. The regional pattern is closely related to the economic structures and functions of the cities. But administrative and legal measures as well as differences in the composition of nationalities have influenced the diffusion pattern since the recruitment-stop in 1973." (EXCERPT)

  2. Disseminated Chrysosporium infection in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Emily; Meler, Erika; Garrett, Katrina; Long, Hanna; Mak, King; Stephens, Carol; Thompson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated Chrysosporium spp. infection was diagnosed in a German shepherd dog based on a positive fungal culture and cytological findings of intralesional fungi associated with granulomatous splenitis and neutrophilic lymphadenitis. The clinical presentation that could mimic a multicentric lymphoma, including markedly enlarged lymph nodes and a very abnormal splenic appearance on ultrasound makes this case even more atypical. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement on oral posaconazole and remains clinically stable ten months after diagnosis. PMID:26937338

  3. Genetic drift. Overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-03-01

    An overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine brings together a group of subjects discussed separately elsewhere. Topics considered include German medicine before and during the Nazi era, such as advanced concepts in epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health policy, screening programs, occupational health laws, compensation for certain medical conditions, and two remarkable guidelines for informed consent for medical procedures; also considered are the Nuremberg Code; American models for early Nazi programs, including compulsory sterilization, abusive medical experiments on prison inmates, and discrimination against black people; two ironies in US and Nazi laws; social Darwinism and racial hygiene; complicity of Nazi physicians, including the acts of sterilization, human experimentation, and genocide; Nazi persecution of Jewish physicians; eponyms of unethical German physicians with particular emphasis on Reiter, Hallervorden, and Pernkopf; eponyms of famous physicians who were Nazi victims, including Pick and van Creveld; and finally, a recommendation for convening an international committee of physicians and ethicists to deal with five issues: (a) to propose alternative names for eponyms of physicians who exhibited complicity during the Nazi era; (b) to honor the eponyms and stories of physicians who were victims of Nazi atrocities and genocide; (c) to apply vigorous pressure to those German and Austrian Institutes that have not yet undertaken investigations to determine if the bodies of Nazi victims remain in their collections; (d) to recommend holding annual commemorations in medical schools and research institutes worldwide to remember and to reflect on the victims of compromised medical practice, particularly, but not exclusively, during the Nazi era because atrocities and acts of genocide have occurred elsewhere; and (e) to examine the influence of any political ideology that compromises the practice of medicine.

  4. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  5. Dating of polyhalite and langbeinite: preliminary results from German Zechstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Franz; Schorn, Anja; Leitner, Christoph; Genser, Johann

    2013-04-01

    formation temperatures are given between 57.1 ° C or more commonly 83 ° C (e.g. Neitzel, 1992 and references therein), is mined as potash ore at the German Zechstein deposits. Neitzel (1992) summarized two main types of langbeinite formation (1) from kainite and halite (due to thermal metamorphism) and (2) from sylvinitic Hartsalz (= mixture of sylvite, kieserite and halite) due to solution metamorphism. The mineral might also form by decomposition of polyhalite to langbeinite and anhydrite during prograde metamorphism. In the following, we discuss the first successful results of polyhalite and langbeinite dating in Zechstein salts of Germany (Morsleben, Neuhof). Extremely fine-grained (grain sizes < 10 x 10 μm) recrystallised polyhalite from Morsleben gave an age of ca. 28.68 ± 0.11 Ma, which may represent the age of crystal growth from a brine. Dating of deformed langbeinite from a mylonite zone from Neuhof gave a slightly scattered age pattern at ca. 150 Ma, implying a major step of ductile flow of K-bearing evaporites and crystallization of langbeinite. From analytical point of view, langbeinite is very stable and allows diffusion experiments over a wide range of energies. References Fischer, S., Voigt, W., Köhnke, K., 1996. The thermal decomposition of polyhalite K2SO4 . MgSO4. 2 CaSO4. 2 H2O. Crystal Research and Technology, 31, 87-92. Freyer D., Voigt W., 2003. Crystallization and phase stability of CaSO4 and CaSO4-based salts. Monatshefte für Chemie, 134, 693-719. Leitner, C., Neubauer, F., Marschallinger, R., Genser, J., Bernroider, M., 2012. Origin of deformed halite hopper crystals, pseudomorphic anhydrite cubes and polyhalite in Alpine evaporites (Austria, Germany). International Journal of Earth Sciences, DOI 10.1007/s00531-012-0836-6. Neitzel, U., 1992. 100 Jahre Langbeinit. Kali und Steinsalz, 11/1, 7-13. Renne, P. R., Sharp, W. D. Montañez, I. P., Becker, R. A., Zierenberg, R. A., 2001. 40Ar/39Ar dating of Late Permian evaporites, southeastern New

  6. [The German program for disease management guidelines. Results and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Kopp, Ina

    2007-05-15

    The Program for National Disease Management Guidelines (German DM-CPG Program) is a joint initiative of the German Medical Association (umbrella organization of the German Chambers of Physicians), the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF), and of the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (NASHIP). The program aims at developing, implementing and continuously updating best-practice recommendations for countrywide and regional disease management programs in Germany. Since 2003 twelve national guidelines (topics: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HI (Chronic heart failure), CVD (Chronic coronary heart disease) back pain, depression, several aspects of diabetes) have been produced by use of a standardized procedure in accordance with internationally consented methodologies. For countrywide dissemination and implementation the program uses a wide range of specialist journals, continuous medical education and quality management programs. So far, 36 out of 150 national scientific medical associations, four allied health profession organizations, and twelve national consumer organizations have been participating in the DM-CPG Program. Studies to evaluate the program's effects on health-care providers' behavior and patients' outcomes are under way.

  7. [Development of pharmaceutical expenses in German private health insurance].

    PubMed

    Böcking, W; Tidelski, O; Skuras, B; Kitzmann, F; Zuehlke, L

    2012-06-01

    Health Insurance costs in Germany have grown by 3 % p. a. over the last ten years and amount to approx. 280 bn EUR in 2009. While costs for stationary treatment as the largest cost category have been intensely analyzed over the past years, pharmaceutical expenses have been analyzed in less detail, mostly focusing on the Statutory Health Insurance side, even though pharmaceutical expenses have grown almost twice as much as costs for ambulant treatments. This research article therefore focuses on the question how pharmaceutical expenses in a large German private health insurance company are allocated with respect to age and indication groups, and how those have developed during the past four years. Therefore, the data of a private health insurance company with more than 600.000 customers was split into price and volume effects per age group to understand if price or volume drives the cost development. Additionally, the two largest indication groups are analyzed in detail. As a result, both price and volume effects drive an overall cost increase of 7,3 %. These effects are even stronger in older age groups. This strong cost increase is not sustainable for the German health insurance system over a longer period of time and will even further increase due to the ageing of the German population.

  8. [Pharmaceutical industry and "New German Medicine" ("Neue Deutsche Heilkunde")].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    THe so-called "New German Medicine", initially propagated in the health policy of the National Socialist Party, promoted greater use of phytotherapeutic and homeopathic drugs by the medical community. In response, the "Reichsfachschaft der pharmazeutischen Industrie e. V." (Association of Pharmaceutical Industry of the Reich") was obliged to pursue a carefully chosen double strategy, given that the members of the Association were both manufacturers of natural remedies and manufacturers of allopathic drugs.However, the fact that I.G. Farben completely ignored the "New German Medicine" suggests that the large chemical-pharmaceutical manufacturers did not take this policy very seriously. The only documents pertaining to increased research in the area of natural remedies stem from the medium-sized manufacturers Knoll and Schering. In the case of both companies it is noteworthy that they worked towards obtaining a scientific foundation for the developed preparates, and that they employed conventional methods of chemical analysis and proof of activity. THe growth of the classical manufacturers of natural remedies, such as the company Willmar Schwabe was, as far as any growth at all could be observed, significantly smaller than had been theoretically postulated. There is no casual relationship between any commercial success during the period in which the Nazis were in power and today's commercial prosperity.Moreover, from the viewpoint of the pharmaceutical industry, the "New German Medicine" seems to have passed its zenith before 1936, when the 4-year plan for war preparation entered into force.

  9. [Adolf Meyer and relations between German and American psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Peters, U H

    1990-09-01

    German psychiatrists do not have an easy access to Adolf Meyer. The reasons include: his influence on American psychiatry was mainly exercised by his personal influence; he did not have the gift of writing his important and influential ideas in a clear language; these ideas, furthermore, were scattered over great number of papers in a variety of periodicals; there is only one unsatisfactory (from the point of view of edition) collection of Meyers papers; no textbook of Meyerian psychiatry exists. There seems to be no German translation of any of Meyers papers. Meyer, who was always in close contact with German psychiatry and psychiatrists, transmitted their ideas to the American scientific public, although in a critical vein. His own psycho-biological or genetico-psychodynamic theory pointed to the importance of the biological and personality structure and its reactions, of how the patient reacts to which live events and which illness in his or her body contrasts to Kraepelins concept of self-sufficiency of the endogenous psychoses. Whereas DSM I und II had been moulded in Meyers spirit, DSM III led far away from it.

  10. [The German Excellence Initiative : effects on the medical schools].

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B

    2009-09-01

    The Excellence Initiative of the German Federal Government in 2006 and 2007 was motivated by the political wish to have a limited number of excellent universities in Germany that could reach top positions in the international research ranking, comparable to the top universities of Great Britain and the United States. In two rounds, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and the National Research Council (Wissenschaftsrat) evaluated more than 300 project proposals. Out of those, 39 Graduate Schools, 37 Centers of Excellence and 9 proposals for University Strategies were selected for support with 1.9 EUR billion. University medicine made a substantial contribution to the successful strategy concepts, on average more than other university faculties. Seven medical schools were successful in obtaining a Cluster of Excellence as well as one or two Graduate Schools, providing the basis for a successful University Strategy Concept. With the example of the Georg August University Göttingen, it will be shown how success was reached by the cooperation with non-university research institutions and by recruiting original ideas for research support. All successful universities have proven excellent research networks; however, elite universities according to international standards will not be created by the German Excellence Initiative.

  11. The German health care system and health care reform.

    PubMed

    Kamke, K

    1998-02-01

    This article presents a structured survey of the German health care and health insurance system, and analyzes major developments of current German health policy. The German statutory health insurance system has been known as a system that provides all citizens with ready access to comprehensive high quality medical care at a cost the country considered socially acceptable. However, an increasing concern for rapidly rising health care expenditure led to a number of cost-containment measures since 1977. The aim was to bring the growth of health care expenditure in line with the growth of wages and salaries of the sickness fund members. The recent health care reforms of 1989 and 1993 yielded only short-term reductions of health care expenditure, with increases in the subsequent years. 'Stability of the contribution rate' is the uppermost political objective of current health care reform initiatives. Options under discussion include reductions in the benefit package and increases of patients' co-payments. The article concludes with the possible consequences of the 1997 health care reform of which the major part became effective 1 July 1997.

  12. Second German-Catalan workshop on epigenetics & cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Beatriz; Forcales, Sonia V; Perucho, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Second German-Catalan Workshop on Epigenetics and Cancer was held in Barcelona on November 19–21, 2014. The workshop brought together, for the second time, scientists from 2 German and 2 Catalan research institutions: the DKFZ, from Heidelberg, the CRCME, from Freiburg, and the IMPPC and PEBC/IDIBELL, both from Barcelona. The German-Catalan Workshops are intended to establish the framework for building a Research School to foster collaborations between researchers from the different institutions. Exchange programs for graduate students are among the activities of the future School. The topics presented and discussed in 33 talks were diverse and included work on DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin biology, characterization of imprinted regions in human tissues, non-coding RNAs, and epigenetic drug discovery. Among novel developments from the previous Workshop are the report of the epigenetics angle of the Warburg effect and the long-range trans-acting interaction of DNA methylation and of nucleosome remodeling. A shift in the view on DNA methylation became apparent by the realization of the intertwined interplay between hyper- and hypo-methylation in differentiation and cancer. PMID:25849957

  13. Error patterns in young German children's wh-questions.

    PubMed

    Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In this article we report two studies: a detailed longitudinal analysis of errors in wh-questions from six German-learning children (age 2 ; 0-3 ; 0) and an analysis of the prosodic characteristics of wh-questions in German child-directed speech. The results of the first study demonstrate that German-learning children frequently omit the initial wh-word. A lexical analysis of wh-less questions revealed that children are more likely to omit the wh-word was ('what') than other wh-words (e.g. wo 'where'). In the second study, we performed an acoustic analysis of sixty wh-questions that one mother produced during her child's third year of life. The results show that the wh-word was is much less likely to be accented than the wh-word wo, indicating a relationship between children's omission of wh-words and the stress patterns associated with wh-questions. The findings are discussed in the light of discourse-pragmatic and metrical accounts of omission errors.

  14. Wrecks as artificial lobster habitats in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, Roland; Schröder, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Once, the European lobster could be found in high abundances on rocky substrate around the island of Helgoland. Since the 1960s, the stock has been decreasing dramatically. Until now, it has been assumed that the lobster stock of Helgoland is the only one in the German Bight. Here, we provide first information about lobster distribution inside the German Bight off Helgoland. Diving in situ observations revealed that lobsters inhabit at least 15.6% of all 64 investigated wrecks. Considering the difficulties of detecting lobsters at wrecks, the true percentage is most likely much higher. Their locations are spatially homogenously distributed throughout the inspected area. The study indicates a broad distribution of the European lobster over the German Bight. The habitats provided by a considerable fraction of the more than one thousand wrecks outside the Wadden Sea are potential lobster refuges within the mud and sand dominated sea floor. Besides providing additional habitats, they represent stepping stones enhancing the connectivity of the North Sea lobster population.

  15. The German social democratic party (SPD) and the debate on the fertility decline in the German Empire (1870~1918).

    PubMed

    Mun, Soo-Hyun

    2011-12-31

    This paper aimed to examine the debate over the fertility decline in the German Empire, focusing on the role of the SPD. During the German Empire, the fertility rate dramatically declined and the growing awareness of a continuous decline in the birth rate prompted a massive debate among politicians, doctors, sociologists, and feminist activists. The fertility decline was negatively evaluated and generated consciousness of crisis. However, it was not the only way to face this new phenomenon. Indeed, the use of birth control among the upper class was interpreted as a part of a modernizing process. As the same phenomenon reached the working class, it suddenly became a social problem and was attributed to the SPD. The debate over the fertility decline in imperial German society ridden with a fierce class conflict was developed into a weapon against the SPD. Contrary to the assumption of conservative politicians, the SPD had no clear-cut position on this issue. Except for a few politicians like Kautsky and the doctors who came into frequent contact with the workers, the "birth strike" was not listed as the main interest of the SPD. Even Clara Zetkin, the leader of the Social Democratic women's organization viewed it as a concern of the individual person which could not be incorporated in the party program. The women's organization of the SPD put priority on class conflict rather than issues specific to women. As a result, the debate over the birth rate decline within the SPD was not led by the women themselves. There could have been various means to stimulate the birth rate. Improvement in the welfare system, such as tax relief for large families, better housing conditions, and substantial maternity protection, could have been feasible solutions to the demographic crisis. However, Germany chose to respond to this crisis by imposing legal sanctions against birth control. In addition to paragraphs 218-220 of the German criminal law enacted in 1872 which prescribed penal

  16. [Comparison of Psychosomatic Rehabilitation for German and Foreign Patients].

    PubMed

    Zollmann, P; Pimmer, V; Rose, A D; Erbstößer, S

    2016-12-01

    Aim: This study aims to comprehensively analyse the course of psychosomatic rehabilitation - from access to quantifiable rehabilitation outcomes. A comparison is made between 3 groups of patients: German citizens, patients of Turkish nationality or patients of foreign or unknown nationality. Methods: The data set used comprises routine data of the German Pension Insurance regarding psychosomatic rehabilitation from the so called Reha-Statistik-Database (RSD, database for rehabilitation statistics) over a period from 2007 to 2014. We included 128,165 compulsorily insured persons who underwent psychosomatic rehabilitation in 2012. Results: Among the patients in psychosomatic rehabilitation in 2012 5.8 % were of foreign nationality. Turkish patients were with 2.0 % the largest group, patients with another or unknown nationality or stateless patients constitute the additional group. The most common diagnoses for all groups were affective disorders and neurotic, somatoform and stress disorders. Differences between the groups can be demonstrated with regard to sociodemographics and employment status prior to rehabilitation: Patients of foreign nationality, and here especially Turkish patients, are on average younger, more often married and have less advanced vocational training than German patients. Accordingly, they work more often in less qualified jobs with lower wages. The health status prior rehabilitation, measured as days of sick leave, is also worse compared to German patients. In contrast to other indications there is no disadvantage regarding access to psychosomatic rehabilitation. On the contrary: the age-standardised uptake ratios of Turkish patients, especially of women, are markedly higher than in Germans. Treatment during psychosomatic rehabilitation is more or less identical. With regards to outcome of rehabilitation, reintegration into working life or transition into disability pension Turkish patients are less successful. As important influential

  17. Modelling high-resolution snow cover precipitation supply for German river catchments with SNOW 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Uwe; Reich, Thomas; Schneider, Gerold; Fiedler, Anett

    2013-04-01

    Formation of snow cover causes a delayed response of surface to precipitation. Both melting of snow and release of liquid water retained within the snow cover form precipitation supply which contributes to runoff and infiltration. The model SNOW 4 is developed to simulate snow cover accumulation and depletion and the resulting precipitation supply on a regular grid. The core of the model is formed by a set of equations which describe the snow cover energy and mass balance. The snow surface energy balance is calculated as a result of the radiation balance and the heat fluxes between atmosphere, soil and snow cover. The available melting heat enters the mass balance computation part of the model and melting of snow or freezing of liquid water within the snow layer takes place depending on its sign. Retention, aging and snow cover regeneration are taken into consideration. The model runs operationally 4 times a day and provides both a snow cover and precipitation supply analysis for the last 30 hours and a forecast for up to 72 hours. For the 30-hour analysis, regionalised observations are used both to define the initial state and force the model. Hourly measurements of air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed, global radiation or sunshine duration and precipitation are interpolated to the model grid. For the forecast period, SNOW 4 obtains the required input data from the operational products of the COSMO-EU weather forecast model. The size of a grid box is 1km2. The model area covers a region of 1100x1000km2 and includes the catchments of the German rivers completely. The internal time step is set to 1 hour. Once a day, the compliance between model and regionalized snow cover data is assessed. If discrepancies exceed certain thresholds, the model must be adjusted by a weighted approach towards the observations. The model simulations are updated every six hours based on the most recent observations and weather forecasts. The model works operationally since

  18. The German version of the Generalized Pathological Internet Use Scale 2: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Barke, Antonia; Nyenhuis, Nele; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-07-01

    The Generalized Pathological Internet Use Scale (GPIUS2) assesses cognitive behavioral aspects of problematic Internet use. To date, the 15-item scale has only been available in English, and the aim of this study was to translate and validate a German version. An online sample (ON, n=1,041, age 24.2±7.2 years, 46.7% men) completed an Internet version of the translated GPIUS2, and a student sample (OF, n=841, age 23.5±3.0 years, 46.8% men) filled in a pencil and paper version. A third sample of 108 students (21.5±2.0 years, 25.7% men) completed the questionnaire twice to determine the 14-day retest reliability. Participants also answered questions regarding their Internet use habits (OF, ON) and depression, loneliness, and social anxiety (ON). The internal consistencies were α=0.91 (ON) and α=0.86 (OF). Item-whole correlations ranged from r=0.53 to r=0.69 (ON) and from r=0.39 to r=0.63 (OF). The 2 week retest reliability was rtt=0.85. Confirmatory factor analyses found a satisfactory fit for the factorial model proposed by Caplan for the original version. The GPIUS2 score correlated moderately with time spent on the Internet for private purposes in a typical week (ON: r=0.40; OF: r=0.36). Loneliness, depression, and social anxiety explained 46% of the variance in GPIUS2 scores. The German version of the GPIUS2 has good psychometric properties in a pencil and paper version as well as in a web-based format, and the observations regarding loneliness, depression, and social anxiety support the underlying model.

  19. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time.

  20. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  1. Formation Flying In Highly Elliptical Orbits Initializing the Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mailhe, Laurie; Schiff, Conrad; Hughes, Steven

    2000-01-01

    In this paper several methods are examined for initializing formations in which all spacecraft start in a common elliptical orbit subsequent to separation from the launch vehicle. The tetrahedron formation used on missions such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Auroral Multiscale Midex (AMM), and Cluster is used as a test bed Such a formation provides full three degrees-of-freedom in the relative motion about the reference orbit and is germane to several missions. The type of maneuver strategy that can be employed depends on the specific initial conditions of each member of the formation. Single-impulse maneuvers based on a Gaussian variation-of-parameters (VOP) approach, while operationally simple and intuitively-based, work only in a limited sense for a special class of initial conditions. These 'tailored' initial conditions are characterized as having only a few of the Keplerian elements different from the reference orbit. Attempts to achieve more generic initial conditions exceed the capabilities of the single impulse VOP. For these cases, multiple-impulse implementations are always possible but are generally less intuitive than the single-impulse case. The four-impulse VOP formalism discussed by Schaub is examined but smaller delta-V costs are achieved in our test problem by optimizing a Lambert solution.

  2. [Do German articles in medical journals require a"guide to anglicisms"?].

    PubMed

    Huppert, D; Brandt, T

    2013-12-01

    Effective communication of scientific results depends on conceptually clear and precise language, especially with regards to the use of discipline-specific terminology. German scientific language might be more comprehensible if the overuse of anglicisms is avoided. As an example commonly used anglicisms in ten clinical studies published in Der Nervenarzt were selected, listed according to the field of application and evaluated. Adequate German terms are offered for them showing that it is possible to use German terms for most issues and facts.

  3. Did the German Actions in the Herero Rebellion of 1904-1908 Constitute Genocide?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    crops and repossessed cattle. They murdered all German men, leaving roughly a hundred farmers and traders dead. Missionaries, the only German men...announced that he was ready to catch the child. A soldier tossed the child into the air, and the soldier caught the baby on this bayonet. “The child died...enslavement” [synonyms for genocide] to advance the growing needs of settlers.336 Germans conducted roundups , issued and followed an extermination

  4. [Reform of forensic autopsy in the German Code of Criminal Procedure].

    PubMed

    Parzeller, Markus; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Bratzke, Hansjürgen

    2010-01-01

    The German Federal Ministry of Justice has presented a proposal to amend Section 87 subs. 2 of the German Code of Criminal Procedure (StPO). In the reasons for the bill, the priority of the institutional forensic medicine is emphasized. While parts of the revised version are appreciated, some changes are considered necessary in order to take the special features of the German states into account.

  5. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    continuation of studies designed to enhance our understanding of population behavior and dynamics of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). It...Entomol. Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C.B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and ,togenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics

  6. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    preferred environment of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is that favored by man. It thrives particularly well where there are large...Keil, C. B. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cock- roach ( Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Ent. (in press). 1981. This... Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Entomol. (in press). 1981. Ross, M. H. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German Cockroach. Ab- stracts XVIth

  7. ABC3 Consensus: Assessment by a German Group of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Thomssen, Christoph; Augustin, Doris; Ettl, Johannes; Haidinger, Renate; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Lüftner, Diana; Marmé, Frederik; Marschner, Norbert; Müller, Lothar; Overkamp, Friedrich; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Thill, Marc; Untch, Michael; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Advanced Breast Cancer Third International Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer took place in Lisbon, Portugal, on November 5-7, 2015. This year's conference (ABC3) was focused on the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV), as it was 4 years ago at the first consensus meeting (ABC1). A matter of particular interest was the patients’ perspective. Thus, patient-relevant issues were addressed by the consensus discussions, such as those on treatment goals, quality of life, care of long-term survivors (‘survivorship issues’), and coping with disease-related symptoms and the side effects of treatment. Further important issues on the agenda were the use of standardized instruments for the assessment of individual treatment success (‘patient-reported outcome measures’) and the evaluation of the benefit of novel drugs (e.g. the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale). Diagnosis and treatment of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer had already been discussed 2 years earlier at the ABC2 Consensus and were not dealt with in the framework of this year's ABC3 Consensus. With regard to country-specific peculiarities, which unavoidably found their way into the ABC Consensus, a working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the voting results of the ABC panelists. As for the past consensus, the group specially considered the German guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (AGO (Gyneco-Oncology Working Group), S3, DGHO (German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology)) in order to adapt the ABC3 consensus for everyday therapy in Germany. PMID:27051399

  8. The German version of the Material Values Scale

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Smits, Dirk J. M.; Claes, Laurence; Gefeller, Olaf; Hinz, Andreas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The Material Values Scale is an instrument to assess beliefs about the importance to own material things. This instrument originally consists of the three subscales: ‘centrality’, ‘success’, and ‘happiness’. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the German version of the MVS (G-MVS). Method: A population-based sample of 2,295 adult Germans completed the questionnaire in order to investigate the factorial structure. To test construct validity, additional samples were gathered among patients with compulsive buying (N=52) and medical students (N=347) who also answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8). Results: In the German population-based sample we could not confirm the 3-factor model but rather suggest a 2-factor solution with a first collapsed factor ‘centrality/success’, and the second factor ’happiness’. Patients with compulsive buying showed the highest scores on the G-MVS. While G-MVS scores among compulsive buyers and medical students were significantly related to compulsive buying scores, the correlation between the G-MVS and the depression measure appeared substantially lower. We did not find any gender differences regarding materialism, neither in the population-based sample nor in the students’ or compulsive buyers’ samples. However, age was negatively related to G-MVS scores. Conclusion: Confirmatory factor analyses suggest a 2-factor model of the G-MVS. Overall, the results indicate the use of the G-MVS as a brief, psychometrically sound, and potentially valid measure for the assessment of material values. PMID:23802017

  9. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: the aftermath].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the consequences for neurology as a discipline which resulted from neurologists' participation in the crimes committed under National Socialism (NS). Chronologically, the current literature distinguishes mainly four overlapping stages: (1) a first phase was characterized by legal persecution and "denazification", which was also the time of the Nuremberg doctors' trial in which no neurologists were on trial. A detailed documentation of the trial for the German medical profession was published by Alexander Mitscherlich. (2) In the subsequent practice of wide amnestying and reintegration of former Nazi followers during the 1950s, neurologists were no exception as its elite continued in their positions. The year 1953 was the year of the Lisbon scandal, when chiefly Dutch representatives protested against the participation of Julius Hallervorden in the International Congress of Neurology. The newly founded societies, the German Society for Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie, DGN) and the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, DGPN), unanimously supported their member. (3) The next period was characterized by a nascent criticism of the prevailing attitude of covering up the crimes committed by physicians during the Nazi period. The discovery of incriminating brain sections at various Max Planck Institutes brought neurology to the focus of the debate. (4) Since the 1980s and 1990s historians (of medicine) have been systematically examining medicine's Nazi past in a professional way, which resulted in a noticeable increase of knowledge. Additionally, a new generation of scholars provoked a change of mind insofar as they recognized medicine's responsibility for the crimes committed between 1933 and 1945. We expect that future historical research will further elucidate the history of neurology during the NS regime and have consequences for our current understanding of research

  10. 75 FR 47337 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “German Impressionist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Painting: Liebermann-- Corinth--Slevogt'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations... the exhibition ``German Impressionist Landscape Painting: Liebermann--Corinth--Slevogt,''...

  11. [The fate of Polish psychiatry under German occupation during World War II].

    PubMed

    Leidinger, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    Polish psychiatry was since its origin deeply influenced by German (Austrian) and Russian psychiatry. After the German assault Polish psychiatric patients were the first victims of mass executions, and the first to be killed by new developed "gassing" technology. Especially cruel was the fate of Jewish patients. German "health policy" in occupied Poland was only "starvation or shooting". Some hospitals continued working under German rule and received patients from Germany in the framework of Nazi-"euthanasia". The article describes the mostly ignored facts of the close link between the medical programme of annihilation of the "unfit" and the genocide of Poles and Jews.

  12. Bismuth germanate as a potential scintillation detector in positron cameras.

    PubMed

    Cho, Z H; Farukhi, M R

    1977-08-01

    Timing and energy resolutions of the bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12) scintillation crystals were studied, with particular respect to a positron-camera application. In comparison with the NaI(Tl) system, the detection efficiency for annihilation radiation is more than triple, and coincidence detection efficiency is more than ten times as good. This paper explores the properties of the new scintillator material and their bearing on the spatial resolution and the efficiency of coincidence detection in positron cameras with stationary ring detectors.

  13. Rate constant for reaction of atomic hydrogen with germane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.; Payne, Walter A.; Marston, George; Stief, Louis J.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the interest in the chemistry of germane in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and because previously reported kinetic reaction rate studies at 298 K gave results differing by a factor of 200, laboratory measurements were performed to determine the reaction rate constant for H + GeH4. Results of the study at 298 K, obtained via the direct technique of flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence, yield the reaction rate constant, k = (4.08 + or - 0.22) x 10(exp -12) cu cm/s.

  14. ASTIS - Infrared spectrometer for the German asteroids mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmovici, C. B.; Schmidt, E.; Stanggassinger, U.

    The ASTIS infrared spectrometer is described, to be used in the German asteroids mission proposed by MSAT and comprising fly-by or rendezvous with asteroids or periodic comets. The instrument is characterized by the spectral range of 1-5 microns, 0.2 x 180-mrad angular field, and signal to noise ratio greater than 20:1. The systems of the instrument include a 16-cm diameter f/6.25 telescope, circular variable filter mounted on the HMC filter wheel drive, and closed-cycle cryogenic cooler. The design is noted for its simplicity and low cost.

  15. The utilization of renewable resources in German industrial production.

    PubMed

    Busch, Rainer; Hirth, Thomas; Liese, Andreas; Nordhoff, Stefan; Puls, Jürgen; Pulz, Otto; Sell, Dieter; Syldatk, Christoph; Ulber, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Renewable resources will be an increasingly important issue for the chemical industry in the future. In the context of white biotechnology, they represent the intersection point of agriculture and the chemical industry. The scarcity and related increase in the price of fossil resources make renewable resources an interesting alternative. If one considers the production of bulk chemicals, it is evident that for this area besides the C sources, sugar and starch, new sources of raw materials must be opened up. One possible solution is to utilize lignocellulose both for materials and energy. This article discusses this interesting prospective for the future, particularly from the point of view of the German industry.

  16. [Case report: Ectopia cordis in a German Holstein calf].

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Kramer, K; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Haas, L; Distl, O

    2006-07-01

    A case of ectopia cordis pectoralis was diagnosed in a black and white coloured German Holstein calf. The heart and pericard were displaced through a fissure in the breastbone. The heart was connected with the thoracic cavity by its large vessels. Besides of the ectopia cordis no other defects of the heart were noticed. The liver was deformed and many organs showed passive hyperaemia. The calf was well developed and died under birth. The lungs were not ventilated. The malformed calf was inbred on a bull used for artificial insemination with an inbreeding coefficient of 3.125%. The ectopia cordis probably resulted from the fissure of the breastbone.

  17. [Demographic aging in the old and new German states].

    PubMed

    Dinkel, R H; Lebok, U

    1997-01-01

    "One of the social phenomena receiving most attention worldwide is the one of ¿demographic aging'. The term describes a relative change in the age structure of a population, which cannot be explained by natural criteria alone. The thesis that a population is aging or getting younger is dependent on a measurement concept for demographic aging. This essay will introduce the Billeter-measure as such a concept. With its help, an analysis of regional difference between the old and new German states (Lander) is undertaken." (EXCERPT)

  18. [The German army dental corps in World War II].

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2005-06-01

    With the Nazis' coming to power in Germany in 1933, dental surgery turned to the Nazi ideology which little by little influenced doctors to get ready for a possible military conflict. As soon as war was declared, dental surgeons got involved int he Luftwaffe, in the Kriegsmarine as well as in the Wehrmacht, and contributed significantly to the quick recovery of the injured, and thus to the continuation of war as the latter could soon go back to the front. With the German rout, medical efforts were dedicated to the army only and the civilian population was neglected.

  19. German disposal concept for LLW/ILW: The Project Konrad

    SciTech Connect

    Lempert, J.P.; Czajkowski, U.

    1993-12-31

    The Project Konrad, the future German repository for low and intermediate level waste, currently at the final stages of the licensing procedure, is presented. The repository concept anticipates the final disposal of suitably conditioned LLW and ILW in underground chambers excavated to this purpose in a former iron ore mine. The Konrad mine located near Salzgitter in Lower Saxony, is judged particularly suitable for radioactive waste final disposal due to its very favorable characteristics regarding long-term isolation. The total space available for waste disposal amounts to some 1.1 million m{sup 3}, sufficient to accept some 600,000 m{sup 3} of conditioned wastes.

  20. Historical Survey: German Research on Hydrogen Peroxide/Alcohol Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeter, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Discussion of HP/fuel explosives in the scientific literature dates back to at least 1927. A paper was published that year in a German journal entitled On Hydrogen Peroxide Explosives [Bamberger and Nussbaum 1927]. The paper dealt with HP/cotton/Vaseline formulations, specifically HP89/cotton/Vaseline (76/15/9) and (70/8.5/12.5). The authors performed experiments with charge masses of 250-750 g and charge diameters of 35-45 mm. This short paper provides brief discussion on the observed qualitative effects of detonations but does not report detonation velocities.

  1. National Unification and Transition in the German Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, created what we know as Prussia.2 The Brandenburger had little chance to prove his military skills...G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1943), p. 3. 6 • • • •• • • * 0 0 S 0 h 0 0 0 ’- In his memorandum to his successor, Frederick William wrote in 1667, "Alliances...Helmut Kohl in an address to South African president F.W. De Klerk stated: "Now that German unity with complete sovereignty has been achieved, the FRG

  2. German-Japanese relationships in biochemistry: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sies, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first Institute of Biochemistry in Japan was founded by Leonor Michaelis from Berlin at Nagoya in 1922, and there have been numerous interrelations between Japanese and German biochemists since. Some such relationships are presented here from a personal point of view as one illustrative example, which could be extended amply by the experience of many other scientists from the two countries. Fruitful exchanges are facilitated by organisations such as the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH) and the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschienst (DAAD) or the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and by the many bilateral agreements between universities and research institutions. PMID:28008189

  3. Translation and validation of the vertigo symptom scale into German: A cultural adaption to a wider German-speaking population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dizziness and comorbid anxiety may cause severe disability of patients with vestibulopathy, but can be addressed effectively with rehabilitation. For an individually adapted treatment, a structured assessment is needed. The Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS) with two subscales assessing vertigo symptoms (VSS-VER) and associated symptoms (VSS-AA) might be used for this purpose. As there was no validated VSS available in German, the aim of the study was the translation and cross-cultural adaptation in German (VSS-G) and the investigation of its reliability, internal and external validity. Methods The VSS was translated into German according to recognized guidelines. Psychometric properties were tested on 52 healthy controls and 202 participants with vestibulopathy. Internal validity and reliability were investigated with factor analysis, Cronbach’s α and ICC estimations. Discriminant validity was analysed with the Mann–Whitney-U-Test between patients and controls and the ROC-Curve. Convergent validity was estimated with the correlation with the Hospital Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and frequency of dizziness. Results Internal validity: factor analysis confirmed the structure of two subscales. Reliability: VSS-G: α = 0.904 and ICC (CI) =0.926 (0.826, 0.965). Discriminant validity: VSS-VER differentiate patients and controls ROC (CI) =0.99 (0.98, 1.00). Convergent validity: VSS-G correlates with DHI (r = 0.554) and frequency (T = 0.317). HADS-A correlates with VSS-AA (r = 0.452) but not with VSS-VER (r = 0.186). Conclusions The VSS-G showed satisfactory psychometric properties to assess the severity of vertigo or vertigo-related symptoms. The VSS-VER can differentiate between healthy subjects and patients with vestibular disorders. The VSS-AA showed some screening properties with high sensitivity for patients with abnormal anxiety. PMID:22747644

  4. Environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing - Main results and recommendations from two studies on behalf of the German Environment Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischbaum, Bernd; Bertram, Andreas; Böttcher, Christian; Iyimen-Schwarz, Züleyha; Rechenberg, Jörg; Dannwolf, Uwe; Meiners, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The German Environment Agency (UBA) accompanies the debate on fracking for years. Two major reports on risks and environmental impacts regarding the exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas, in particular shale gas have been published. On the basis of these studies as well as on scientific evidence UBA considers ecological barriers as a sustainable means to minimize the risks to environment and human health. 1) Recent studies show that the contamination of shallow aquifers by rise of fluids through natural faults or artificially created fractures is extremely unlikely. However, activities on the surface and lack of wellbore integrity pose threats and substantial risks for the quality of shallow aquifers. 2) The need for thorough groundwater monitoring is fully accepted, yet its range and design is subject to discussion. 3) Formerly, analysis and mass balances of flowback and produced water have been insufficient, thus there is a lack of exact information on proportions of frac-fluids, flowback and formation water respectively, as well as data on possible reaction products. 4) Currently, neither on national nor on European level best reference techniques (BREF) for the treatment and disposal of flowback and produced water are available. 5) In addition, land consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, and induced seismicity are major issues. UBA recommends amongst others the implementation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for fracking activities, the prohibition of fracking in water protection areas as well as their catchments, and the disclosure of all frac-fluid chemicals within a national chemical registry. To achieve these objectives the German Environment Agency suggests a step-by-step approach. The paper will present the main results from the studies and the recommendations of the German Environment Agency regarding hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas exploitation.

  5. Entangled Histories: German Veterinary Medicine, c.1770-1900.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Medical historians have recently become interested in the veterinary past, investigating the development of animal health in countries such as France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. An appreciation of the German context, however, is still lacking - a gap in the knowledge that the present article seeks to fill. Providing a critical interpretation of the evolution of the veterinary profession, this investigation explains why veterinary and medical spheres intersected, drifted apart, then came back together; it also accounts for the stark differences in the position of veterinarians in Germany and Britain. Emphasis is placed on how diverse traditions, interests and conceptualisations of animal health shaped the German veterinary profession, conditioned its field of operation, influenced its choice of animals and diseases, and dictated the speed of reform. Due to a state-oriented model of professionalisation, veterinarians became more enthusiastic about public service than private practice, perceiving themselves to be alongside doctors and scientists in status, rather than next to animal healers or manual labourers. Building on their expertise in epizootics, veterinarians became involved in zoonoses, following outbreaks of trichinosis. They achieved a dominant position in meat hygiene by refashioning abattoirs into sites for the construction of veterinary knowledge. Later, bovine tuberculosis helped veterinarians cement this position, successfully showcasing their expertise and contribution to society by saving as much meat as possible from diseased livestock. Ultimately, this article shows how veterinarians were heavily 'entangled' with the fields of medicine, food, agriculture and the military.

  6. Entangled Histories: German Veterinary Medicine, c.1770–1900

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Medical historians have recently become interested in the veterinary past, investigating the development of animal health in countries such as France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. An appreciation of the German context, however, is still lacking – a gap in the knowledge that the present article seeks to fill. Providing a critical interpretation of the evolution of the veterinary profession, this investigation explains why veterinary and medical spheres intersected, drifted apart, then came back together; it also accounts for the stark differences in the position of veterinarians in Germany and Britain. Emphasis is placed on how diverse traditions, interests and conceptualisations of animal health shaped the German veterinary profession, conditioned its field of operation, influenced its choice of animals and diseases, and dictated the speed of reform. Due to a state-oriented model of professionalisation, veterinarians became more enthusiastic about public service than private practice, perceiving themselves to be alongside doctors and scientists in status, rather than next to animal healers or manual labourers. Building on their expertise in epizootics, veterinarians became involved in zoonoses, following outbreaks of trichinosis. They achieved a dominant position in meat hygiene by refashioning abattoirs into sites for the construction of veterinary knowledge. Later, bovine tuberculosis helped veterinarians cement this position, successfully showcasing their expertise and contribution to society by saving as much meat as possible from diseased livestock. Ultimately, this article shows how veterinarians were heavily ‘entangled’ with the fields of medicine, food, agriculture and the military. PMID:27998327

  7. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively) was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28%) antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5%) of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats), the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines. PMID:22429653

  8. On the German debate on human embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Jan

    2004-10-01

    Germany since 1990 has one of the strictest human embryo protection laws, yet according to the Stem Cell Act of 2002 allows, under strict conditions, the import and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for high priority research goals. The author tries to show how this is taken to be coherent by the parliamentary majority (though not necessarily by the general public) in Germany. In doing so, he firstly looks into the chronicle of the debate in Germany showing its different stages since 1999, then dwells upon the relation between the law and the role of ethics in this issue, and thirdly presents the two fundamentally different positions of the German debate, that is, that the human embryo created for IVF purposes is a human being and stands from its very beginnings under the constitutional principles of respect for, and protection of, human life versus the position that before being implanted the human embryo may become a human being and therefore belongs to the human species only potentially, so that its right to life protection may be assessable over against other high priority goals, such as research aiming at possible help for patients with life-endangering diseases. In spite of the Stem Cell Act of 2002, the debate of the German general public goes on, especially due to the recent EU 6th Research Framework Program which plans to also fund hESC research.

  9. High prevalence of porcine Hokovirus in German wild boar populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Porcine Hokovirus (PHoV) was recently discovered in Hong Kong. This new Parvovirus of pigs is closely related to the human Parvoviruses 4 and 5 (PARV4/5) and bovine Hokovirus (BHoV). So far, nothing is known about the presence and prevalence of PHoV in regions of the world other than Hong Kong. A study was initiated to investigate PHoV in German wild boars from five different geographical regions, using a newly established quantitative real-time PCR assay. Analysis of collected liver and serum samples revealed high overall prevalence (32.7%; 51/156) of PHoV in wild boars. The prevalence differed between the regions and increased with age. Two near full-length genomes and a large fragment for three additional isolates from different regions were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The German PHoV sequences from wild boars showed a close relationship with sequences of isolates from Hong Kong. PMID:20653980

  10. Stuttering characteristics of German-English bilingual speakers.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Martina; Robb, Michael P

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was sampled in each language and analyzed for the percentage of overall stuttering-like disfluencies and distribution of stuttering on content and function words. Significantly more stuttering was found to occur in L2 compared to L1. Stuttering occurred significantly more often on content words compared to function words in L1. No significant difference between stuttering on function and content words was observed in L2. Examination across L1 and L2 found a significantly greater percentage of stuttering on function words in L2 compared to L1, and a significantly lower percentage of stuttering on content words in L2 compared to L1. The characteristics of stuttering in L2 could not be differentiated on the basis of an L2 proficiency measure. The differences observed in the amount of stuttering between L1 and L2 suggest that stuttering in bilingual speakers is closely related to language dominance, with features of stuttering in L2 indicative of a less developed language system.

  11. Detection and interpretation of seismoacoustic events at German infrasound stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Koch, Karl; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Three infrasound arrays with collocated or nearby installed seismometers are operated by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) as the German National Data Center (NDC) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Infrasound generated by seismoacoustic events is routinely detected at these infrasound arrays, but air-to-ground coupled acoustic waves occasionally show up in seismometer recordings as well. Different natural and artificial sources like meteoroids as well as industrial and mining activity generate infrasonic signatures that are simultaneously detected at microbarometers and seismometers. Furthermore, many near-surface sources like earthquakes and explosions generate both seismic and infrasonic waves that can be detected successively with both technologies. The combined interpretation of seismic and acoustic signatures provides additional information about the origin time and location of remote infrasound events or about the characterization of seismic events distinguishing man-made and natural origins. Furthermore, seismoacoustic studies help to improve the modelling of infrasound propagation and ducting in the atmosphere and allow quantifying the portion of energy coupled into ground and into air by seismoacoustic sources. An overview of different seismoacoustic sources and their detection by German infrasound stations as well as some conclusions on the benefit of a combined seismoacoustic analysis are presented within this study.

  12. Cancer mortality in German carbon black workers 1976–98

    PubMed Central

    Wellmann, J; Weiland, S K; Neiteler, G; Klein, G; Straif, K

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated cancer risks in carbon black workers and the findings were inconclusive. Methods The current study explores the mortality of a cohort of 1535 male German blue‐collar workers employed at a carbon black manufacturing plant for at least one year between 1960 and 1998. Vital status and causes of death were assessed for the period 1976–98. Occupational histories and information on smoking were abstracted from company records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and Poisson regression models were calculated. Results The SMRs for all cause mortality (observed deaths (obs) 332, SMR 120, 95% CI 108 to 134), and mortality from lung cancer (obs 50, SMR 218, 95% CI 161 to 287) were increased using national rates as reference. Comparisons to regional rates from the federal state gave SMRs of 120 (95% CI 107 to 133) and 183 (95% CI 136 to 241), respectively. However, there was no apparent dose response relationship between lung cancer mortality and several indicators of occupational exposure, including years of employment and carbon black exposure. Conclusions The mortality from lung cancer among German carbon black workers was increased. The high lung cancer SMR can not fully be explained by selection, smoking, or other occupational risk factors, but the results also provide little evidence for an effect of carbon black exposure. PMID:16497850

  13. German Water Infrastructure in China: Colonial Qingdao 1898-1914.

    PubMed

    Kneitz, Agnes

    2016-12-01

    Within the colorful tapestry of colonial possessions the German empire acquired over the short period of its existence, Qingdao stands out because it fulfilled a different role from settlements in Africa-especially because of its exemplary planned water infrastructure: its technological model, the resulting (public) hygiene, and the adjunct brewery. The National Naval Office (Reichsmarineamt), which oversaw the administration of the future "harbour colony"-at first little more than a little fishing village-enjoyed a remarkable degree of freedom in implementing this project. The German government invested heavily in showing off its techno-cultural achievements to China and the world and thereby massively exploited the natural resources of the mountainous interior. This contribution focuses on Qingdao's water infrastructure and its role in public hygiene and further area development. This article will not only use new empirical evidence to demonstrate that the water infrastructure was an ambivalent "tool of empire". Relying on the concept of "urban metabolism," this paper primarily traces the ecological consequences, particularly the landscape transformation of the mountains surrounding the bay and the implications for the region's water resources. When evaluating colonial enterprises, changes in local ecology should play a significantly greater role.

  14. Young German children's early syntactic competence: a preferential looking study.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Using a preferential looking methodology with novel verbs, Gertner, Fisher and Eisengart (2006) found that 21-month-old English children seemed to understand the syntactic marking of transitive word order in an abstract, verb-general way. In the current study we tested whether young German children of this same age have this same understanding. Following Gertner et al. (2006), one group of German children was tested only after they had received a training/practice phase containing transitive sentences with familiar verbs and the exact same nouns as those used at test. A second group was tested after a training/practice phase consisting only of familiar verbs, without the nouns used at test. Only the group of children with the training on full transitive sentences was successful in the test. These findings suggest that for children this young to succeed in this test of syntactic understanding, they must first have some kind of relevant linguistic experience immediately prior to testing--which raises the question of the nature of children's linguistic representations at this early point in development.

  15. [A German version of the Eating Disorder Inventory EDI-2].

    PubMed

    Thiel, A; Jacobi, C; Horstmann, S; Paul, T; Nutzinger, D O; Schüssler, G

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a German version of the second revised edition of the Eating Disorder Inventory EDI-2 (Garner 1991). The EDI-2 is a self-rating inventory (self-report measure) with 91 items and 11 subscales designed for the assessment of attitudinal and behavioural dimensions relevant to anorexia and bulimia nervosa. It consists of the eight original subscales: drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness, perfectionism, interpersonal distrust, interoception and maturity fears, and the three new subscales: asceticism, impulse regulation and social insecurity. The German EDI-2 was given to 71 patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa, 30 patients with binge eating disorder, a control group of 186 women and a further control group of 102 men. In comparison to the female control group, patient groups showed significantly elevated means on all subscales. Item analysis revealed sufficient internal consistencies for all subscales except subscale 9 (asceticism) with Cronbachs alpha ranging from 0.58 to 0.90. Twelve of the 91 items showed poor item total scale correlations below 0.40. Factor analysis supported a six-factor-structure. Hence, the reliability and validity of the three new subscales was confirmed only partially. The use of the EDI-2 in therapy research and clinical practice is critically discussed.

  16. German Heart Surgery Report 2015: The Annual Updated Registry of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Andreas; Funkat, Anne-Katrin; Lewandowski, Jana; Frie, Michael; Ernst, Markus; Hekmat, Khosro; Schiller, Wolfgang; Gummert, Jan F; Welz, Armin

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of a long-standing voluntary registry, which was founded by the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS), well-defined data of all heart, thoracic, and vascular surgery procedures performed in 78 German heart surgery departments during 2015 are analyzed. In 2015, a total of 103,967 heart surgery procedures (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, pacemaker, and extracardiac procedures without ECC excluded) were submitted to the database. Approximately 14.8% of the patients were at least 80 years old, resulting in an increase of 0.6% compared with the data of 2014. For 38,601 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures (relationship on-/off-pump: 5:1), the unadjusted inhospital mortality was 2.7%. Concerning the 32,346 isolated heart valve procedures (including 10,606 catheter-based implantations) an unadjusted inhospital mortality of 4.4% was observed.This annual updated registry of the GSTCVS represents voluntary public reporting by accumulating actual information for nearly all heart surgical procedures in Germany, demonstrates advancements in heart medicine, and enables internal/external quality assurance for all participants. In addition, the registry demonstrates that the provision of heart surgery in Germany is appropriate and patients are treated nationwide in a round-the-clock service.

  17. Exploring Collaboratively Written L2 Texts among First-Year Learners of German in Google Docs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in research on collaborative writing and computer-mediated writing the present study examines the computer-mediated collaborative writing process among first-year learners of German as a second language (L2) at a US university. The data come from 28 first-year learners of German at a US university, who wrote hypothesized endings to a…

  18. "Multi-Voicedness" in Internet Guest-Books of German and Italian Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetscher, Doris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the "multiple voices" of 13-15-year-old German and Italian adolescents in internet guest-books are analyzed. The study is based on guest-books texts with a mixture of different registers, languages and dialects. In particular, the German adolescents from the Augsburg region (Bavaria) display a strong regional linguistic…

  19. Image of Europe from Abroad: The Pleasures and Pitfalls of Teaching German Cinema in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William, Jennifer Marston

    2006-01-01

    This article describes strategies specific to teaching German film courses at American universities, particularly how to capture the interest of students who have not studied film previously and have little understanding of German culture, history, or the language. I suggest starting with discussions on the interrelatedness of "foreign…

  20. Hey, you! The Germans! Using Literary Pragmatics to Teach Language as Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Chantelle

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the author outlines a sample lesson that has been developed for second- or third-year German students using the short satirical vignette "Hurra, ich lebe in Deutschland" from the Turkish-German author Sinasi Dikmen's book of the same name. The lesson draws heavily from literary pragmatics, an area of applied linguistics which studies…

  1. Opinions of Students at Turkish and German Universities on Turkey in the EU Accession Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebi, Nurhayat

    2009-01-01

    Turkey's candidacy for accession to the European Union (EU) dates back to many years and is still a current and highly disputed issue. This study was conducted to determine the opinions of students at Turkish and German universities on Turkey in relation to the European Union. Two hundred twenty six German students participated in the study from…

  2. A New Perspective on Teamwork in Teaching: A Report on German Lectures in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancaforte, Charlotte; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A university German department cooperated with the Zoology Department to offer a series of 13 lectures in biology, delivered in German by university scientists on their fields of research. This report discusses the background and atmosphere of the project, evaluates its effects and suggests improvements. (CHK)

  3. Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers' Decision Making Processes in Group Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the values underlying the decision-making processes in group studies for Turkish and German mathematics teachers. This study presented a small part of a wider study investigating German and Turkish mathematics teachers' and their students' values (Values in Mathematics Teaching in Turkey and Germany…

  4. Null Arguments in Transitional Trilingual Grammars: Field Observations from Misionero German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Michael T.; Lipski, John

    2016-01-01

    In this field note we discuss findings from pilot research on a variety of heritage German spoken in the Northeastern Province of Misiones of Argentina. Based on sociolinguistic field interviews with 25 consultants possessing varying degrees of proficiency in the language, we show that this variant of heritage German does in fact occasionally…

  5. Music as an Aid to Teaching German in the Elementary Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Asselt, Jan

    This study investigates the influence of rhyme, rhythm, and melody of songs and poems on third grade students of German. Basic objectives examined in this report consider: (1) the practicability of songs with simple vocabulary, structure, and music to use as the core of materials to teach German; (2) problems in the development of linguistic…

  6. Bibliography of German Textbook Holdings of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ursula

    A bibliography is presented of textbooks used in school levels 2-9 in four German-speaking countries--Austria, Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and Switzerland. Because the textbook collection is intended to serve as material for research into the biases, prejudices, and national attitudes of these countries, the…

  7. German Reference Sources: A Guide to Materials in the University of Cincinnati Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolzmann, Don H., Comp.

    This guide for the student of Germanic languages and literatures provides an introductory selection to reference sources in the field of German literature. It also includes a selection of sources from the humanities and social sciences. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) general works, including bibliographical guides, encyclopedias,…

  8. Between Mission and Market Position: Empirical Findings on Mission Statements of German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmutzky, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions on their way to quasi-markets have to identify their distinct characteristics and nowadays, most of the German universities have published a mission statement. But since the tasks and mission of German universities are set for them by state regulation, the paper analyses for what mission statements have been…

  9. A Student's Guide to German American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robl, Gregory

    This book is designed to help the novice in understanding how to conduct genealogical research for German ancestors. A brief introduction to each chapter offers ideas on topics for research and resources to consult. Chapters include: (1) "Why Trace Your Roots?"; (2) "The History of Germany and German Emigration"; (3)…

  10. How German Children Use Intonation to Signal Information Status in Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ruiter, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on adult German suggests that speakers use particular pitch accent types to signal the information status of discourse referents. This study investigates to what extent German five- and seven-year-olds have acquired this mapping. Semi-natural speech data was obtained from a picture-elicited narration task in which the information…

  11. Improving Reading in Children with German as a First or Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Seifert, Susanne; Gasteiger-Klicpera, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The study "Improving Language And Reading Skills (LARS) in children with German as a first or second language" evaluates a newly developed differentiating programme for reading in terms of its effects on the reading and language ability of second graders with German as a first or second language. The participant group consisted of 105…

  12. German Academia Heading for Sustainability? Reflections on Policy and Practice in Teaching, Research and Institutional Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomssent, Maik; Michelsen, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how far (and by what practical means) the growing global trend for universities to commit to sustainable development has spread across German academia. Following this introduction, part 2 will outline the political framework of the sustainability discourse in German higher education. Part 3 will emphasise the integration of…

  13. Towards Automatically Aligning German Compounds with English Word Groups in an Example-Based Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel; Alexa, Melina

    As part of the development of a completely sub-symbolic machine translation system, a method for automatically identifying German compounds was developed. Given a parallel bilingual corpus, German compounds are identified along with their English word groupings by statistical processing alone. The underlying principles and the design process are…

  14. Manual Tape Scripts: German, Level 2. Curriculum Bulletin, 1969-70 Series, Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    This manual of tape scripts, together with a set of foreign language tapes for Level 2 German, was prepared to support the curriculum bulletin "New York City Foreign Language Program for Schools: German, Levels 1-4." Vocabulary, repetition, transformation, and recombination drills on specific grammatical features allow further development of…

  15. Manual of Tape Scripts: German, Level 1. Curriculum Bulletin, 1968-69 Series, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    This manual of tape scripts, together with a set of foreign language audio tapes for level 1 German, was prepared to support the curriculum bulletin, New York City Foreign Language Program for Secondary Schools: German, Levels 1-4. Vocabulary, repetition, transformation, and recombination drills on specific grammatical features allow further…

  16. The Hour of the Woman: Memories of Germany's "Crisis Years" and West German National Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the representation of German women in the German media during the allied occupation. Initially vilified as fraternizers, they soon became portrayed as the stoic rebuilders of nation and family as the country moved toward reconstruction. Considers the complex, symbiotic relationships among social memory, popular culture, and historical…

  17. People of the Prairies: A Norwegian and German-Russian Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbert, Jon Charles, Ed.; Peterson, Fredrick E., Ed.

    The guide presents secondary level units designed to promote understanding of the two largest ethnic groups in North Dakota, the Norwegians and the German-Russians. The book is presented in five parts. Part I provides an historical overview of the Norwegian and German-Russian migration to North Dakota. Part II presents three Norwegian units on…

  18. Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

  19. The Expertise in Working with Pedagogically Neglected Adolescents on the Example of German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pylypyk, Katherine N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the attitudes of German scientists towards the levels and identification methods of pedagogical neglect. The experience of German scientists in self-development and skills' development of academic staff to conduct relationship with pedagogically neglected adolescents was studied for the first time. The aim of the study is to…

  20. Writer Construction in English and German Popularized Academic Discourse: The Uses of "We" and "Wir"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The present article investigates writer-reader interaction through the construction of writer and reader personae in English and German popular scientific writing by means of first person plural pronouns in subject position. Popular scientific writing only became firmly established as a German-language genre in the last quarter of the 20th century…