Science.gov

Sample records for formational hot brine

  1. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of water-soluble cations and anions in the Martian regolith has been the subject of speculation for some time. Viking lander data provided evidence for salt-cemented crusts on the Martian surface. If the crusts observed at the two Viking landing sites are, in fact, cemented by salts, and these crusts are globally widespread, as IRTM-derived thermal inertia studies of the Martian surface seem to suggest, then evaporite deposits, probably at least in part derived from brines, are a major component of the Martian regolith. The composition of liquid brines in the subsurface, which not only may be major agents of physical weathering but may also presently constitute a major deep subsurface liquid reservoir, is currently unconstrained by experimental work. A knowledge of the chemical identity and rate of production of Martian brines is a critical first-order step toward understanding the nature of both these fluids and their precipitated evaporites. Laboratory experiments are being conducted to determine the identity and production rate of water-soluble ions that form in initially pure liquid water in contact with Mars-mixture gases and unaltered Mars-analog minerals.

  2. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-09-01

    Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (106 - 107 yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

  3. Controlling scale formation in geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The use of hypersaline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal field for power generation, mineral recovery, and direct heating now is in the early stages of development. Successful commercialization of these ventures will depend in part on whether ways can be found to avoid or control the severe buildup of scale that takes place on surfaces in contact with the cooling brine. The use of various chemical additives to prevent or inhibit scale formation has been investigated and several organic compounds that show promise have been discovered.

  4. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  5. Formation damage tests of high-density brine completion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenthaler, L.N.

    1986-11-01

    Laboratory core flow tests were conducted to assess the formation damage potential of brines with densities between 13.4 and 19.2 lbm/gal (1606 and 2301 kg/m/sup 3/). Unfavorable fluid/rock interactions are not evident. Recovery of oil permeability is slow but complete, in agreement with established displacement theories. Observed damage effects are the result of the instability of the brine or incompatibility with water in the cores. The effectiveness of ZnBr/sub 2/ in preventing impairment suggests acid-soluble impairing materials.

  6. Formate brines for drilling and completion: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Low solids drilling fluids based on formate brines (sodium, potassium and caesium salts of formic acid) were originally designed to minimise frictional pressure losses in slim hole drilling applications. In addition, their unique capability of stabilising polymers to high temperatures made them more temperature resistant than any other polymer based drilling fluids. Subsequent work has shown that these brines, because of their high densities and low corrosivity, are also ideal completion and packer fluids. Formate brines have excellent HSE profiles and they are compatible with reservoir fluids, good shale stabilisers, gas hydrate inhibitors, and scale dissolvers. Also, a technique has been found for cost effective clean-up and recycling of formate based drilling fluids. The commercialisation and introduction of these fluids into the field (especially caesium formate) has taken a long time, due to high prices and few manufacturers. This situation is now changing, as the number of manufacturers is increasing, and buy-back arrangements have been made available. Also, a number of successful drilling and completion trials have been carried out.

  7. The role of seawater freezing in the formation of subsurface brines

    SciTech Connect

    Herut, B.; Starinsky, A.; Katz, A. ); Bein, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Several mechanisms (evaporation, water-rock interaction, ultra-filtration) have been suggested to explain the evolution of ubiquitous Ca-chloride subsurface brines. In the present paper, the freezing of seawater in polar regions, and in even wider areas during glacial periods, is proposed as an additional possible path of brine formation. Although several of the processes which lead to the formation of Ca-chloride brines are common for both the evaporative and the freezing models, the Na-Br-Cl relationship in a given brine can be used to discriminate between the two modes of brine evolution. Several subsurface brines from the Canadian Shield and one brine from Finland are used as examples of the seawater freezing model, and an explanation is proposed for the necessary mass production of brines in glacial environments.

  8. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Alessia; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  9. An Experimental Study on Liquid Brine Formation at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Martinez, G.; Elliott, H. M.; Renno, N. O.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present experiments conducted in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber [1] to test the possibility of the formation of liquid brines from calcium perchlorate salts at Gale Crater. We tested bulk samples of Ca(ClO4)2 using Raman spectroscopy to observe spectral changes in the perchlorate band (930-990 cm-1) and the O-H vibrational stretching band (3000-3700 cm-1) of the samples. Our results indicate that brine formation by deliquescence (absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere) does not occur at Gale Crater within the time (< 2 hours) [2] when the ground temperature is above the calcium perchlorate's eutectic temperature (199 K) [3] and the relative humidity is above the deliquescence threshold (26%) [4]. On the contrary, we show that bulk liquid brine of calcium perchlorate salt forms within minutes if the salt is in direct contact with water ice. However, water ice is not expected in the shallow (tens of cm) subsurface of Gale Crater [5] and, on the sols during which frost events might have occurred at the surface, the calculated frost point (~190 K) [2] was below the eutectic temperature of the perchlorate. Liquid water is one of the necessary ingredients for the development of life as we know it. The behavior of various liquid states of H2O such as liquid brine, undercooled liquid interfacial water, subsurface melt water and ground water [6] needs to be understood in order to address the potential habitability of Mars for microbes and future human exploration. These results are relevant because they help in constraining the possible mechanisms of the formation of liquid water at Gale. References: [1] Fischer, E. et al. (2014), Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060302.[2] Martínez, G. M. et al. (2014), American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.[3] Marion, G. M. et al. (2010), Icarus, 207(2), 675-685, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.003.[4] Nuding, D. et al. (2013), AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 45).[5] Aharonson

  10. The Frio Brine Pilot Experiment Managing CO2 Sequestration in a Brine Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, S.

    2005-12-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Frio Brine Pilot Experiment was begun in 2002. The increase in greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), is thought to be a major cause of climate change. Sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers below and separate from fresh water is considered a promising method of reducing CO2 emissions. The objectives of the experiment are to (1) demonstrate CO2 can be injected into a brine formation safely; (2) measure subsurface distribution of injected CO2; (3) test the validity of conceptual, hydrologic, and geochemical models, and (4) develop experience necessary for larger scale CO2 injection experiments. The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) is the leading institution on the project and is collaborating with many national laboratories and private institutes. BEG reviewed many saline formations in the US to identify candidates for CO2 storage. The Frio Formation was selected as a target that could serve a large part of the Gulf Coast and site was selected for a brine storage pilot experiment in the South Liberty field, Dayton, Texas. Most wells were drilled in the 1950's, and the fluvial sandstone of the upper Frio Formation in the Oligocene is our target, at a depth of 5,000 ft. An existing well was used as the observation well. A new injection well was drilled 100 ft away, and 30 ft downdip from the observation well. Conventional cores were cut, and analysis indicated 32 to 35 percent porosity and 2,500 md permeability. Detailed core description was valuable as better characterization resulted in design improvements. A bed bisecting the interval originally thought to be a significant barrier to flow is a sandy siltstone having a permeability of about 100 md. As a result, the upper part of the sandstone was perforated. Because of changes in porosity, permeability, and the perforation zone, input for the simulation model was updated and the model was rerun to estimate timing of

  11. Chemical and isotopic ( 87Sr/ 86Sr, δ 18O, δD) constraints to the formation processes of Red-Sea brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, M. C.; Clauer, N.; Bosch, D.; Blanc, G.; France-Lanord, C.

    2001-04-01

    About twenty deeps filled with hot brines and/or metalliferous sediments, are located along the Red-Sea axis. These brines present a well-suited framework to study the hydrothermal activity in such a young ocean. The present study outlines the results of a geochemical approach combining major-, trace-element and isotopic (oxygen, hydrogen, strontium) analyses of brines in six of the deeps, to evaluate different processes of brine formation and to compare the evolution of each deep. Important heterogeneities in temperature, salinity, hydrographic structure and chemistry are recorded, each brine having its own characteristics. The intensity of hydrothermal circulation varies among the deeps and ranges from being strong (Atlantis II and Nereus) to weak (Port-Soudan) and even to negligible (Valdivia and Suakin) and it varies along the entire Red-Sea axis. These observations do not favour a unique formational model for all of the brines. For example, the brines of the Suakin deep appear to have been formed by an old sea water which dissolved evaporite beds, without significant fluid circulation and hydrothermal input, while others such as Atlantis II or Nereus Deeps appear to be dominated by hydrothermal influences. A striking feature is the absence of a relationship between the position of the deeps along the axis and their evolutionary maturity.

  12. ACTINIDE BIOCOLLOID FORMATION IN BRINE BY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    GILLOW,J.B.; FRANCIS,A.J.; DODGE,C.J.; HARRIS,R.; BEVERIDGE,T.J.; BRADY,P.B.; PAPENGUTH,H.W.

    1998-11-09

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  13. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  14. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  15. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Biofilm formation in a hot water system.

    PubMed

    Bagh, L K; Albrechtsen, H J; Arvin, E; Ovesen, K

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached a higher level in the hot water distribution system (2.1 d(-1) to 2.3 d(-1)) than in the hot water tank (1.4 d(-1) to 2.2 d(-1)) indicating an important area for surface associated growth. The net growth rate of the suspended bacteria measured in hot water from the top, middle and bottom of the hot water tank, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore, attempts to reduce the number of bacteria in a hot water system have to include the distribution system as well as the hot water tank.

  17. Authigenic carbonates related to active seepage of methane-rich hot brines at the Cheops mud volcano, Menes caldera (Nile deep-sea fan, eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Catherine; Bayon, Germain; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Mascle, Jean; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    On the passive margin of the Nile deep-sea fan, the active Cheops mud volcano (MV; ca. 1,500 m diameter, ~20-30 m above seafloor, 3,010-3,020 m water depth) comprises a crater lake with hot (up to ca. 42 °C) methane-rich muddy brines in places overflowing down the MV flanks. During the Medeco2 cruise in fall 2007, ROV dives enabled detailed sampling of the brine fluid, bottom lake sediments at ca. 450 m lake depth, sub-surface sediments from the MV flanks, and carbonate crusts at the MV foot. Based on mineralogical, elemental and stable isotope analyses, this study aims at exploring the origin of the brine fluid and the key biogeochemical processes controlling the formation of these deep-sea authigenic carbonates. In addition to their patchy occurrence in crusts outcropping at the seafloor, authigenic carbonates occur as small concretions disseminated within sub-seafloor sediments, as well as in the bottom sediments and muddy brine of the crater lake. Aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate in the carbonate crusts and in sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot, whereas Mg-calcite, dolomite and ankerite dominate in the muddy brine lake and in sub-seafloor concretions near the crater rim. The carbonate crusts and sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with bottom seawater temperature; their low δ13C values (-42.6 to -24.5‰) indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane was the main driver of carbonate precipitation. By contrast, carbonates from the muddy lake brine, bottom lake concretions and crater rim concretions display much higher δ13C (up to -5.2‰) and low δ18O values (down to -2.8‰); this is consistent with their formation in warm fluids of deep origin characterized by 13C-rich CO2 and, as confirmed by independent evidence, slightly higher heavy rare earth element signatures, the main driver of carbonate precipitation being methanogenesis. Moreover, the benthic activity within the seafloor sediment enhances aerobic

  18. Formation of Quartz-Carbonate Veins: Evidence From Experimental Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Brine-Rock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecky, D. R.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Quartz-carbonate veins are common in a variety of moderate temperature hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Associated fluid inclusions have a wide range of compositions, including liquid carbon dioxide fillings. Examination of chemical and physical conditions which result precipitation of quartz and carbonate in veins raises several key questions about multiphase fluid processes and reaction rates. We have been experimentally investigating physical-chemical reaction processes of mixed brine-carbon dioxide fluids for the shallow crust. Synthetic arkose (microcline + oligoclase + quartz + biotite) plus argillaceous shale were reacted with 5.5 molal NaCl brine. The system was held at 200 C and 200 bars for 32 days to approach steady state, then injected with carbon dioxide and allowed to react for an additional 45 days. In a parallel experiment, the system was allowed to react for 77 days without injection of carbon dioxide. Trace ions initially absent from NaCl brine appeared in solution at mM (K, Ca, and silica) to uM (Mg, Al, Fe and Mn) quantities, reflecting reaction of brine with rock. Without carbon dioxide injection, the silica concentration (2.4 mM) was stable below calculated quartz solubility (3.9 mM). Injection of carbon dioxide resulted in decreased pH and increased silica concentration to a level near calculated chalcedony solubility (5.4 mM). Dissolution of silicate minerals is apparently coupled to the acidity, and concomitant inhibition of the precipitation of quartz (and other silicates). A significant increase in concentration of trace metals is consistent with in-situ pH decrease and increased carbon dioxide dissolved in brine. Multi-phase fluid reaction relationships between supercritical carbon dioxide and brine-rock systems allow formation of carbonate vein precipitates in substantial quantities. Brine and continued rock reactions provide a substantial reservoir for Ca, Mg and Fe components. A separate carbon dioxide liquid allows

  19. Supercooling and Ice Formation of Perchlorate Brines under Mars-relevant Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primm, K.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Perchlorate salts, discovered in the Martian regolith at multiple landing sites, may provide pathways for liquid water stability on current Mars. It has previously been assumed that if perchlorate brines form in the Martian regolith via melting or deliquescence, they would be present only briefly because efflorescence into a crystal or freezing to ice would soon occur. Here, we used a Raman microscope to study the temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions at which magnesium perchlorate brine will form ice. Although ice is thermodynamically predicted to form whenever the saturation with respect to ice (Sice) is greater than or equal to 1, ice formation by perchlorate brines did not occur until elevated Sice values were reached: Sice= 1.17, 1.29, and 1.25 at temperatures of 218 K, 230.5 K, and 244 K, respectively. If a magnesium perchlorate particle was allowed to deliquesce completely prior to experiencing ice supersaturation, the extent of supercooling was increased even further. These high supersaturation values imply perchlorate brines can exist over a wider range of conditions than previously believed. From these experiments it has been found that magnesium perchlorate exhibits supercooling well into the previous theoretical ice region of the stability diagram and that liquid brines on Mars could potentially exist for up to two additional hours per sol. This supercooling of magnesium perchlorate will help with the exploration of Mars by the Mars 2020 spacecraft by helping to understand the phase and duration of water existing in the Martian subsurface.

  20. Geochemical Evidence for Possible Natural Migration of Marcellus Formation Brine to Shallow Aquifers in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. R.; Darrah, T. H.; Jackson, R. B.; Osborn, S.; Down, A.; Vengosh, A.

    2012-12-01

    The acceleration in production of natural gas from shale formations through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has altered the landscape of domestic energy production in the USA. Yet shale gas exploration has generated an increased awareness of risks to drinking water quality amid concerns for the possible migration of stray gas or hydraulic fracturing fluid and/or flowback brine to shallow drinking water aquifers. The degree to which shallow drinking water is at risk from hydraulic fracturing could depend upon the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the surface. In this study, we analyzed the geochemistry of over 400 water samples located across six counties of northeastern Pennsylvania in the three principle aquifers, two Upper Devonian Age bedrock aquifers (Catskill and Lock Haven) and one Quaternary Age (Alluvium) that overlie the Marcellus Formation. Based on a detailed analysis of major (Br, Cl, Na, Mg, Ba, and Sr) and trace (Li) element geochemistry, coupled with utilization of a specific spectrum of isotopic tracers (87Sr/86Sr, 228Ra/ 226Ra, 2H/H, 18O/16O), we identify a salinized (Cl> 20 mg/L) shallow groundwater type which suggests conservative mixing relationships between fresh shallow groundwater and an underlying brine. Identification of the brine source is complicated as many of the brines in the northern Appalachian Basin likely share a common origin as the expelled remnants of the formation of the Silurian Salina evaporate deposits. To determine the ultimate source of the diluted brine we compared the observed geochemistry to over 80 brines produced from northern Appalachian Basin formations. The shallow salinized groundwater most closely resembles diluted produced water from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation. The 18O/16O and 2H/H of the salinized groundwater indicate that the brine is likely diluted with post-glacial (<10,000 ybp) meteoric water. Combined, these data indicate that hydraulic connections

  1. Hydrothermal fluid migration and brine pool formation in the Red Sea: the Atlantis II Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Numerical heat and fluid flow simulations of the Atlantis II Deep in the Red Sea were conducted to investigate the development, migration, and discharge of hydrothermal fluids into a submarine depression and determine the conditions necessary to form a brine pool. High-salinity fluids are predicted to form by leaching Miocene evaporates, migrate and convect within young oceanic crust, and discharge onto the seafloor. Predicted fluid discharge temperatures ( T max, 301 °C), discharge fluid velocities ( V max, 0.09 m/s), and salinities ( S max, 21 wt%) increase over time and reach values comparable to modern seafloor observations. Established convection patterns and discharge behavior are robust and are not greatly affected by geometry of rock property changes. Modeling results were used to calculate the minimum conditions for hydrothermal fluids from a developing hydrothermal system to mix with seawater, reverse buoyancy, and begin to form a brine pool in a submarine depression. Under conditions encountered on the seafloor ( T, 25-300 °C; S, 5-25 wt%), fluid mixtures predicted to pond on the seafloor range from late in the mixing process (99 %) at low temperatures ( T, 26 °C) to much earlier (36 % mixing) at higher temperatures ( T, 94 °C). A model of brine pool evolution is proposed that describes the processes and conditions necessary to initiate brine pool formation and compares formation conditions with accumulated ore material in the Atlantis II Deep and other locations.

  2. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nathaniel R; Jackson, Robert B; Darrah, Thomas H; Osborn, Stephen G; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-07-24

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, (2)H/H, (18)O/(16)O, and (228)Ra/(226)Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations.

  3. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Jackson, Robert B.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr, 2H/H, 18O/16O, and 228Ra/226Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations. PMID:22778445

  4. Reactions of a prototype nuclear-waste ceramic with a hot magnesium-rich brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B. E.; Freeborn, W. P.; McCarthy, G. J.; White, W. B.

    1982-10-01

    Prototype ceramic nuclear waste forms were experimentally reacted with a high calcium and magnesium brine under hydrothermal conditions. The said reaction products and fluid were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Alteration of the waste forms was observed and the reaction products identified. Uptake of cesium, rubidium, strontium, barium, lanthanum and neodymium into the brine was measured with a strong temperature dependence, i.e., increased concentrations with increased temperature. The concentrations of the six elements also increased with time, and imply that dissolution of the ceramic is controlled by diffusion and/or crystalline dissolution mechanism.

  5. Development of bushings and bearings for use in hot brine pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Hosang, George W.; Stetson, Alvin, R.

    1982-10-08

    The exploitation of geothermal resources often requires that naturally heated subterranean brines be pumped to the surface from depths of up to 6000 feet underground while minimizing heat losses and maintaining sufficient fluid pressure to prevent boiling. To accomplish this requires the use of downhole brine pumps capable of months of uninterrupted operation. Significant problems have occurred with pump lineshaft bearings in the geothermal wells. The objective of this research program was to determine the nature of the problems associated with commonly reported premature failures of downhole lineshaft pump bearings. Using the information gathered, a series of bearing endurance tests was performed on a variety of candidate bearing materials. These tests were accomplished using test rigs specially developed to simulate actual geothermal field conditions and to isolate specific bearing wear problems.

  6. In Lactobacillus pentosus, the olive brine adaptation genes are required for biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Perpetuini, G; Pham-Hoang, B N; Scornec, H; Tofalo, R; Schirone, M; Suzzi, G; Cavin, J F; Waché, Y; Corsetti, A; Licandro-Seraut, H

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus is one of the few lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species capable of surviving in olive brine, and thus desirable during table olive fermentation. We have recently generated mutants of the efficient strain L. pentosus C11 by transposon mutagenesis and identified five mutants unable to survive and adapt to olive brine conditions. Since biofilm formation represents one of the main bacterial strategy to survive in stressful environments, in this study, the capacity of adhesion and formation of biofilm on olive skin was investigated for this strain and five derivative mutants which are interrupted in metabolic genes (enoA1 and gpi), and in genes of unknown function ("oba" genes). Confocal microscopy together with bacteria count revealed that the sessile state represented the prevailing L. pentosus C11 life-style during table olive fermentation. The characterization of cell surface properties showed that mutants present less hydrophobic and basic properties than the wild type (WT). In fact, their ability to adhere to both abiotic (polystyrene plates) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces was lower than that of the WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that mutants adhered sparsely to the olive skin instead of building a thin, multilayer biofilm. Moreover, RT-qPCR showed that the three genes enoA1, gpi and obaC were upregulated in the olive biofilm compared to the planktonic state. Thus enoA1, gpi and "oba" genes are necessary in L. pentosus to form an organized biofilm on the olive skin. PMID:26447789

  7. In Lactobacillus pentosus, the olive brine adaptation genes are required for biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Perpetuini, G; Pham-Hoang, B N; Scornec, H; Tofalo, R; Schirone, M; Suzzi, G; Cavin, J F; Waché, Y; Corsetti, A; Licandro-Seraut, H

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus is one of the few lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species capable of surviving in olive brine, and thus desirable during table olive fermentation. We have recently generated mutants of the efficient strain L. pentosus C11 by transposon mutagenesis and identified five mutants unable to survive and adapt to olive brine conditions. Since biofilm formation represents one of the main bacterial strategy to survive in stressful environments, in this study, the capacity of adhesion and formation of biofilm on olive skin was investigated for this strain and five derivative mutants which are interrupted in metabolic genes (enoA1 and gpi), and in genes of unknown function ("oba" genes). Confocal microscopy together with bacteria count revealed that the sessile state represented the prevailing L. pentosus C11 life-style during table olive fermentation. The characterization of cell surface properties showed that mutants present less hydrophobic and basic properties than the wild type (WT). In fact, their ability to adhere to both abiotic (polystyrene plates) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces was lower than that of the WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that mutants adhered sparsely to the olive skin instead of building a thin, multilayer biofilm. Moreover, RT-qPCR showed that the three genes enoA1, gpi and obaC were upregulated in the olive biofilm compared to the planktonic state. Thus enoA1, gpi and "oba" genes are necessary in L. pentosus to form an organized biofilm on the olive skin.

  8. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone and Ironton-Galesville Formation from the Illinois Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2015-09-01

    Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of deep-seated saline groundwater provide valuable insight into the origin and evolving composition, water-rock interaction, and mixing potential of fossil brines. Such information may yield insight into intra- and interbasinal brine movement and relationships between brine evolution and regional groundwater flow systems. This investigation reports on the δ18O and δD composition and activity values, 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations, and major ion concentrations of the Cambrian-hosted brines of the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Ironton-Galesville Formation and discusses the evolution of these brines as they relate to other intracontinental brines. Brines in the Illinois Basin are dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-type chemistry. The Mt. Simon and overlying Ironton-Galesville brines exhibit total dissolved solids concentrations of ∼195,000 mg/L and ∼66,270 mg/L, respectively. The δD of brine composition of the Mt. Simon ranges from -34‰ to -22‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton-Galesville is ∼-53.2‰ (V-SMOW). The δ18O composition of the Mt. Simon brine ranges from -5.0‰ to -2.8‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton-Galesville brine is ∼-6.9‰ (V-SMOW). The 87Sr/86Sr values in the Mt. Simon brine range from 0.7110 to 0.7116. The less radiogenic Ironton-Galesville brine has an average 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.7107. Evaluation of δ18O and δD composition and activities and 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggests that the Mt. Simon brine is likely connate seawater and recirculating deep-seated brines that have been diluted with meteoric water and influenced by the dissolution of evaporites with a minimal halite contribution based on Cl/Br ratios. The Ironton-Galesville brine is also likely originally connate seawater that mixed with other brines and meteoric waters, including possibly Pleistocene glacial recharge. The Ca-excess vs. Na-deficiency comparison with the Basinal Fluid Line suggests the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville brines have been

  9. Active CO2 Reservoir Management: A Strategy for Controlling Pressure, CO2 and Brine Migration in Saline-Formation CCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.; Wolery, T.; Tompson, A. F.; Aines, R. D.; Friedmann, J.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations is regarded as a promising means of lowering the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and thereby mitigate global warming. The most promising systems for CCS are depleted oil reservoirs, particularly those suited to CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery (CCS-EOR), and deep saline formations, both of which are well separated from the atmosphere. For conventional, industrial-scale, saline-formation CCS, pressure buildup can have a limiting effect on CO2 storage capacity. To address this concern, we analyze Active CO2 Reservoir Management (ACRM), which combines brine extraction and residual-brine reinjection with CO2 injection, comparing it with conventional saline-formation CCS. We investigate the influence of brine extraction on pressure response and CO2 and brine migration using the NUFT code. By extracting brine from the lower portion of the storage formation, from locations progressively further from the center of injection, we can counteract buoyancy that drives CO2 to the top of the formation, which is useful in dipping formations. Using “push-pull” manipulation of the CO2 plume, we expose less of the caprock seal to CO2 and more of the storage formation to CO2, with more of the formation utilized for trapping mechanisms. Plume manipulation can also counteract the influence of heterogeneity. We consider the impact of extraction ratio, defined as net extracted brine volume (extraction minus reinjection) divided by injected CO2 volume. Pressure buildup is reduced with increasing extraction ratio, which reduces CO2 and brine migration, increases CO2 storage capacity, and reduces other risks, such as leakage up abandoned wells, caprock fracturing, fault activation, and induced seismicity. For a 100-yr injection period, a 10-yr delay in brine extraction does not diminish the magnitude of pressure reduction. Moreover, it is possible to achieve pressure management with just a few brine-extraction wells

  10. Hot Disks and Delayed Bar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Melbourne, Jason; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2012-10-01

    We present observational evidence for the inhibition of bar formation in dispersion-dominated (dynamically hot) galaxies by studying the relationship between galactic structure and host galaxy kinematics in a sample of 257 galaxies between 0.1 < z <= 0.84 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey and the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 survey. We find that bars are preferentially found in galaxies that are massive and dynamically cold (rotation-dominated) and on the stellar Tully-Fisher relationship, as is the case for barred spirals in the local universe. The data provide at least one explanation for the steep (×3) decline in the overall bar fraction from z = 0 to z = 0.84 in L* and brighter disks seen in previous studies. The decline in the bar fraction at high redshift is almost exclusively in the lower mass (10 < log M *(M ⊙) < 11), later-type, and bluer galaxies. A proposed explanation for this "downsizing" of the bar formation/stellar structure formation is that the lower mass galaxies may not form bars because they could be dynamically hotter than more massive systems from the increased turbulence of accreting gas, elevated star formation, and/or increased interaction/merger rate at higher redshifts. The evidence presented here provides observational support for this hypothesis. However, the data also show that not every disk galaxy that is massive and cold has a stellar bar, suggesting that mass and dynamic coldness of a disk are necessary but not sufficient conditions for bar formation—a secondary process, perhaps the interaction history between the dark matter halo and the baryonic matter, may play an important role in bar formation.

  11. Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Fwwm formation for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Knox, Paul R.; Green, Christopher T.

    2001-05-01

    The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO{sub 2} is investigated using numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. Capacity is defined as the volume fraction of the subsurface available for CO{sub 2} storage and is conceptualized as a product of factors that account for two-phase flow and transport processes, formation geometry, formation heterogeneity, and formation porosity. The space and time domains used to define capacity must be chosen with care to obtain meaningful results, especially when comparing different authors' work. Physical factors that impact capacity include permeability anisotropy and relative permeability to CO{sub 2}, brine/CO{sub 2} density and viscosity ratios, the shape of the trapping structure, formation porosity and the presence of low-permeability layering.

  12. Scientific considerations related to regulation development for CO2 sequestration in brine formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Benson, Sally M.; Kobelski, Bruce; Smith, Robert E.

    2002-06-01

    Carbon management through the underground injection of CO2 into subsurface brine formations is being actively studied. If there are no technological constraints for implementation, there could be a large number of wells constructed for injecting a large volume of CO2. It is therefore important, in parallel with current scientific studies, to consider the appropriate, science-based regulatory framework for CO2 injection. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Underground Injection Control (UIC) program, authorized under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), has extensive experience in regulating the injection of mainly liquid wastes into geologic formations in the United States. The federal requirements and permit process implemented by EPA and the Primacy States since 1980 have played a critical role in the safety of subsurface disposal of liquid wastes in the US. Physically and chemically, there are significant differences between CO2 and common liquid wastes. Its viscosity and density are much lower and, under injection pressure in the deep formation, it may be under supercritical conditions. Because of the lower density and viscosity, CO2 leakage through the confining strata may be greater when compared to currently injected liquid wastes. Also, the chemical interactions of CO2 with the geologic formation have their own characteristics. All these scientific factors need to be evaluated to identify new guidelines for appropriate regulatory and monitoring controls. The paper reviews current UIC regulations, injection-well classification scheme and monitoring requirements, and identifies the unique factors related to the physical and chemical processes in the subsurface associated with CO2 injection. Implications of these scientific considerations for regulation development are discussed.

  13. Formation and Stability of "Hot Earth" Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Sean

    2007-05-01

    Close-in planets with masses less than one Neptune mass have been detected around roughly ten stars to date. In addition to these so-called "Hot Neptunes" or "Hot Super-Earths", upcoming missions such as CoRot and Kepler expect to find a large number of smaller, close-in "Hot Earths". Most disk models do not contain a large amount of mass in their innermost regions. So, how do Hot Earths form? There are several candidate mechanisms: 1) A "type 2" migrating giant planet can shepherd material interior to strong mean motion resonances. More than half of the solid component of the disk inside the giant planet's starting orbit can be displaced to the region interior to the giant planet's final orbit. So, many close-in giant planets may be accompanied by "hot Earths"; 2) Terrestrial cores, interacting tidally with the gaseous disk, can "type 1" migrate into the very inner disk. Interactions between cores may result in near-resonant configurations; and 3) In a system with two or more giant planets with non-zero eccentricities, dispersal of the gaseous disk can cause secular resonances to sweep through the system, and can moderately enhance the amount of material in the inner regions. Each of these mechanisms makes predictions that should be testable in the near future. References: Fogg & Nelson (2005, 2007), Zhou et al (2005), Raymond, Mandell & Sigurdsson (2006), Mandell, Raymond & Sigurdsson (2007), Terquem & Papaloizou (2007)

  14. Effects of brine concentration on lipid oxidation and fatty acids profile of hot smoked tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) stored at refrigerated temperature.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Nejib; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Ruzeiqi, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Sureshchandran, Sithara

    2014-03-01

    This work evaluated the lipid oxidation and the changes in fatty acids in hot-smoked tuna (Thunnus albacares) as a function of brine concentration. Fresh, commercially harvested tuna fish samples were purchased from a local supermarket. The fish were first immersed for 30 min in a brine solution at 5, 10, or 15% sodium chloride concentration and were then smoked at 50 °C for 3 h followed by 1 h at 60 °C and 3 h at 105 °C. The fish were then dried for 17 h, cooled and stored at 4 °C. Oxidative rancidity was measured by the peroxide value (PV), and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA) and fatty acids profile by GC-MS. Oxidative rancidity increased with storage time. The PV and TBARS values were more pronounced for samples immersed in 10% brine solution during the first 27 days of storage, whereas the lowest increase was observed for samples treated with 15% salt. Fatty acid concentration exhibited changes after smoking, and this was varied with salt concentration. The palmitic acid and stearic acid, the two main saturated fatty acids in tuna, increased after smoking at all brine concentration, whereas the contents of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid decreased. In conclusion, 15% NaCl-treated tuna gave smoked product with less lipid oxidation and a fatty acid profile comparable to that for 5 and 10% NaCl-treated samples. PMID:24587535

  15. Characterization of induced struvite formation from source-separated urine using seawater and brine as magnesium sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bianxia; Giannis, Apostolos; Zhang, Jiefeng; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) precipitation is widely used for nutrient recovery from source-separated urine in view of limited natural resources. Spontaneous struvite formation depletes the magnesium in hydrolyzed urine so that additional magnesium source is required to produce induced struvite for P-recovery. The present study investigated the morphology and purity of induced struvite crystals obtained from hydrolyzed urine by using seawater and desalination brine as low cost magnesium sources. The results demonstrated that both seawater and brine were effective magnesium sources to recover phosphorus from hydrolyzed urine. Crystals obtained from synthetic and real urine were revealed that the morphology was feather and coffin shape, respectively. Structural characterization of the precipitates confirmed that crystallized struvite was the main product. However, co-precipitates magnesium calcite and calcite were observed when seawater was added into synthetic and real urine, respectively. It was found that the presence of calcium in the magnesium sources could compromise struvite purity. Higher struvite purity could be obtained with higher Mg/Ca ratio in the magnesium source. Comparative analysis indicated that seawater and brine had similar effect on the crystallized struvite purity.

  16. Salt-Formation by Progressive Evaporation of Brine Waters in the Endurance Crater Basin at Meridiani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Wentworth, S. J.; Garrison, D. H.; Herrin, J. S.

    2007-03-01

    The sulfate/chloride vs. Cl and chloride/bromide vs. Br relationships in the salt-assemblages on Meridiani (RAT) rock-rinds indicate that these salts likely formed by progressive evaporative concentration of brine waters filling the Endurance Crater basin

  17. Formation of Hot Tear Under Controlled Solidification Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subroto, Tungky; Miroux, Alexis; Bouffier, Lionel; Josserond, Charles; Salvo, Luc; Suéry, Michel; Eskin, Dmitry G.; Katgerman, Laurens

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum alloy 7050 is known for its superior mechanical properties, and thus finds its application in aerospace industry. Vertical direct-chill (DC) casting process is typically employed for producing such an alloy. Despite its advantages, AA7050 is considered as a "hard-to-cast" alloy because of its propensity to cold cracking. This type of cracks occurs catastrophically and is difficult to predict. Previous research suggested that such a crack could be initiated by undeveloped hot tears (microscopic hot tear) formed during the DC casting process if they reach a certain critical size. However, validation of such a hypothesis has not been done yet. Therefore, a method to produce a hot tear with a controlled size is needed as part of the verification studies. In the current study, we demonstrate a method that has a potential to control the size of the created hot tear in a small-scale solidification process. We found that by changing two variables, cooling rate and displacement compensation rate, the size of the hot tear during solidification can be modified in a controlled way. An X-ray microtomography characterization technique is utilized to quantify the created hot tear. We suggest that feeding and strain rate during DC casting are more important compared with the exerted force on the sample for the formation of a hot tear. In addition, we show that there are four different domains of hot-tear development in the explored experimental window—compression, microscopic hot tear, macroscopic hot tear, and failure. The samples produced in the current study will be used for subsequent experiments that simulate cold-cracking conditions to confirm the earlier proposed model.

  18. Dynamics of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs.

    PubMed

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Chan, Pak Yuen; Veysey, John

    2006-06-30

    We formulate and model the dynamics of spatial patterns arising during the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated shallow water flow. The model describes the formation of travertine deposits at geothermal hot springs and rimstone dams of calcite in caves. We find explicit solutions for travertine domes at low flow rates, identify the linear instabilities which generate dam and pond formation on sloped substrates, and present simulations of statistical landscape evolution. PMID:16907308

  19. Dynamics of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs.

    PubMed

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Chan, Pak Yuen; Veysey, John

    2006-06-30

    We formulate and model the dynamics of spatial patterns arising during the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated shallow water flow. The model describes the formation of travertine deposits at geothermal hot springs and rimstone dams of calcite in caves. We find explicit solutions for travertine domes at low flow rates, identify the linear instabilities which generate dam and pond formation on sloped substrates, and present simulations of statistical landscape evolution.

  20. Long-Term Corrosion Potential Behavior of Alloy 22 in Hot 5 m CaCl2 + 5 m Ca(NO3)2 Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M A; Carranza, R M; Stuart, M L; Rebak, R B

    2007-02-20

    Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In very aggressive conditions (e.g. hot concentrated chloride containing brines) Alloy 22 could suffer localized attack, namely pitting and crevice corrosion. The occurrence of localized corrosion in a given environment is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, localized corrosion may be expected. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} of Alloy 22 specimens in 5 m CaCl{sub 2} + 5 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} brines at 100 C and 120 C. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) creviced and noncreviced specimens and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT) creviced specimens. The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, for all types of Alloy 22 specimens the E{sub corr} was higher at 120 C than at 100 C, probably because a more protective film formed at the higher temperature. Specimens with the black oxide film on the surface showed more oscillations in the potential. None of the tested specimens suffered crevice corrosion probably because of the relatively high concentration of nitrate in the electrolyte, R = [NO3]/[Cl] = 1.

  1. Physical Controls on Potential Upward Migration of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid and Brine from Tight Oil and Gas Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, S. A.; Tymchak, M. P.; Sharma, M.

    2013-12-01

    The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) has raised concerns about potential upward migration of HF fluid and brine through the rocks that overlay tight oil and gas formations (permeability ≤ 10-16 m2). The pathways along which potential fluid migration might occur include the primary porosity, induced and natural fractures, and preexisting faults. In this presentation, we evaluate the physical mechanisms that control whether HF fluid and brine can migrate upward along these pathways and, if so, the approximate magnitude of the fluxes and timescales over which such migration might occur. Our analysis focuses first on potential hydraulic communication between tight formations and shallow potable aquifers via induced fractures and preexisting faults. We developed a relationship that predicts maximum fracture height as a function of HF fluid volume and compared these predictions to the vertical extent of microseismicity from over 12,000 HF stimulations across North America. Virtually all microseisms were within the bounds of the theoretical relationship (a simple power law). The microseismic data were also used to estimate the size of shear displacement areas (including along preexisting faults), which were on the order of 10 m or less. These findings suggest that fracture heights are limited by HF fluid volume regardless of whether the fluid interacts with faults and that direct hydraulic communication between tight formations and shallow potable groundwater via induced fractures and preexisting faults is not a realistic expectation. Apart from these pathways, the only other avenue for fluid migration is through the unmodified overlying rock. Due to the low permeability of targeted formations and surrounding strata, the pressure pulse applied during an HF stimulation is localized to the immediate vicinity of the fracture network and unable to drive large scale vertical flow. Thus, upward flow, if it occurs, would be controlled by the preexisting distribution

  2. In Situ Formation and Dynamical Evolution of Hot Jupiter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter H.; Laughlin, Gregory P.

    2016-10-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods shorter than ˜10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances, only to subsequently experience long-range inward migration. Here, we offer the contrasting view that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population formed in situ via the core-accretion process. We show that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated by super-Earth-type planets, comprising 10-20 Earth masses of refractory material. An in situ formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional low-mass planets with periods shorter than ˜100 days. Our calculations further demonstrate that dynamical interactions during the early stages of planetary systems’ lifetimes should increase the inclinations of such companions, rendering transits rare. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  3. Rare-earth elements in hot brines (165 to 190 degree C) from the Salton Sea geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) concentrations are important indicators for revealing various chemical fractionation processes (water/rock interactions) and source region geochemistry. Since the REE patterns are characteristic of geologic materials (basalt, granite, shale, sediments, etc.) and minerals (K-feldspar, calcite, illite, epidote, etc.), their study in geothermal fluids may serve as a geothermometer. The REE study may also enable us to address the issue of groundwater mixing. In addition, the behavior of the REE can serve as analogs of the actinides in radioactive waste (e.g., neodymium is an analog of americium and curium). In this paper, the authors port the REE data for a Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brine (two aliquots: port 4 at 165{degree}C and port 5 at 190{degree}C) and six associated core samples.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Brine Formation and Serpentinization at the Rainbow Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, P.; Lowell, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal field on the Mid Atlantic Ridge is a high-temperature hydrothermal system hosted in peridotite. The vent fluids are rich in methane and hydrogen suggesting that serpentinization is occurring at depth in the system. Vent temperature of ~365°C, salinity of ~4.5 wt%, and heat output of ~500 MW suggest that Rainbow field is driven by a magmatic heat source and that phase separation is occurring at depth. To understand the origin of high salinity in the Rainbow hydrothermal fluid, we construct a 2D numerical model of two-phase hydrothermal circulation using the numerical simulator FISHES. This code uses the finite volume method to solve the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and salt equations in a NaCl-H2O fluid. We simulate convection in an open top 2D box at a surface pressure of 23 MPa and seawater temperature of 10oC. The bottom and sides of the box are insulated and impermeable, and a fixed temperature distribution is maintained at the base to ensure phase separation. We first consider a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and system depths of 2 and 1 km, respectively. The brine-derived fluid from the deeper system barely exceeds seawater, whereas the shallower system produces a short pulse of 9.0 wt% for 5 years. We then consider 1 km deep systems with a high permeability discharge zone of 5x10-13 m2 that corresponds to a fault zone, surrounded by recharge zones of 10-13, 10-14 and 10-15 m2, respectively. The model with recharge permeability of 10-14 m2 yields stable plumes that vent brine-derived fluid of 4.2 wt% for 150 years. Using the quasi- steady state of this model as a base, we estimate the rate of serpentinization along the fluid flow paths, and evolution of porosity and permeability. This analysis will indicate the extent to which serpentinization will affect the dynamics of the system and will provide insight into methane flux in the Rainbow vent field.

  5. Experimental Demonstration of the Formation of Liquid Brines under Martian Polar Conditions in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Erik; Martinez, German; Elliott, Harvey; Borlina, Caue; Renno, Nilton

    2014-05-01

    Liquid water is one of the necessary ingredients for the development of life as we know it. The behavior of various liquid states of H2O such as liquid brine, undercooled liquid interfacial water, subsurface melt water and ground water [1] needs to be understood in order to address the potential habitability of Mars for microbes and future human exploration. It has been shown thermodynamically that liquid brines can exist under Martian polar conditions [2, 3]. We have developed the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC) to simulate the entire range of Martian surface and shallow subsurface conditions with respect to temperature, pressure, relative humidity, solar radiation and soil wetness at equatorial and polar latitudes. Our experiments in the MMEC show that deliquescence of NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2 and Ca(ClO4)2 occurs diurnally under the environmental conditions of the Phoenix landing site when these salts get in contact with water ice. Since Phoenix detected these salts and water ice at the landing site, including frost formation, it is extremely likely that deliquescence occurs at the Phoenix landing site. By layering NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2 or Ca(ClO4)2 on top of a pure water ice slab at 800 Pa and 190 K and raising the temperature stepwise across the eutectic temperature of the perchlorate salts, we observe distinct changes in the Raman spectra of the samples when deliquescence occurs. When crossing the eutectic temperatures of NaClO4 (236 K), Mg(ClO4)2 (205 K) and Ca(ClO4)2 (199 K) [4, 5], the perchlorate band of the Raman spectrum shows a clear shift from 953 cm-1 to 936 cm-1. Furthermore, the appearance of a broad O-H vibrational stretching spectrum between 3244 cm-1 and 3580 cm-1 is another indicator of deliquescence. This process of deliquescence occurs on the order of seconds when the perchlorate salt is in contact with water ice. On the contrary, when the perchlorate salt is only subjected to water vapor in the Martian atmosphere, deliquescence was not

  6. Hot flow anomaly formation by magnetic deflection. [regions of hot plasma in earth magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Thomsen, M. F.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are localized plasma structures observed in the solar wind and magnetosheath near the earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. This paper presents one-dimensional hybrid computer simulations illustrating a formation mechanism for HFAs in which the single hot ion population results from a spatial separation of two counterstreaming ion beams. The higher-density cooler regions are dominated by the background (solar wind) ions, and the lower-density hotter internal regions are dominated by the beam ions. The spatial separation of the beam and background is caused by the deflection of the ions in large-amplitude magnetic fields which are generated by ion/ion streaming instabilities.

  7. Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, R.L. ); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

  8. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. M.; Catling, D. C.; Crowley, J. K.; Kargel, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO 2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100 °C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25 °C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO 4-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-O 2-CH 4-Si-H 2O system up to 100 °C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits. A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355 K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO 4, Na 2SO 4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353 K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO 4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary

  9. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with

  10. Hot spot formation in electron-doped PCCO nanobridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, S.; Arpaia, R.; Gaudet, J.; Matte, D.; Baghdadi, R.; Löfwander, T.; Golubev, D.; Fournier, P.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of optimally doped Pr2 -xCexCuO4 -δ (PCCO) nanobridges with width down to 100 nm. The critical current density of the nanobridges approaches the Ginzburg-Landau theoretical limit, which demonstrates nanostructures with properties close to the as-grown films. The current voltage characteristics are hysteretic with a sharp voltage switch, of the order of a few millivolts, that we interpret with the occurrence of a hot spot formation. The values of the retrapping current and the voltage switch obtained by modeling the heat transport in the nanobridges are very close to the experimental ones. This feature, together with the extremely short recombination times, make PCCO nanostructures attractive candidates for ultrafast single photon detectors.

  11. Effects of brine displacement on pressure and salinity increases in a regional freshwater aquifer complex with respect to CO2 storage in saline subsurface formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetz, Silvio; Jahnke, Christoph; Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas; Röhmann, Lina; Kühn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause upward migration of displaced brines along leakage pathways such as highly-transmissive faults due to an increasing pore pressure in the storage formation. Besides the risk of CO2 leakage, the protection of the shallow freshwater reservoirs from upward migrating brine is a requirement with regard to environmental compatibility of future CCS projects. In the present study, the regional impact of pressure build-up and salinity increases in a freshwater reservoir induced by brine displacement due to CO2 injection into saline subsurface formations was investigated. A multi-layered aquifer-aquitard system of Triassic to Cenozoic age was used as a framework to ensure that realistic hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions were applied in this assessment. The prospective storage horizon corresponding to a Lower Triassic sandstone aquifer is located in a broad anticlinal structure at the southeastern margin of the Northeast German Basin. This intracontinental basin is not only characterised by large salinity gradients but also by hydrogeologically significant fault zones and glacial erosional structures that may act as migration pathways for saline formation water into Cenozoic freshwater reservoirs. In a first step, a detailed three-dimensional geological model was implemented. The model has a horizontal extent of 73 km (N-S) × 85 km (E-W) and a vertical extent of 2.4 km. In a second step, the geological model was transferred into a hydrogeological model by discretisation and parameterisation using data obtained from borehole measurements, field observations and geological maps. The modelling was performed using the FEFLOW FMH3® code. Long-term transport simulations with NaCl as a tracer were conducted to comprehend the natural freshwater-saltwater distribution of the regional aquifer system. Based on these initial conditions, simulations of possible upward brine migration into a freshwater aquifer complex

  12. Geochemical variations within a laminated evaporite deposit: evidence for brine composition during formation of the Permian Castile Formation, Texas and New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Alick B.; Harwood, Gill M.; Kendall, Alan C.

    1997-06-01

    The Upper Permian Castile Formation of the Delaware Basin in northwest Texas and New Mexico consists of up to 600 m of evaporites and is subdivided into units of anhydrite overlain by halite. The Castile Formation has commonly been interpreted as a deep-water, deep-basin deposit in which sediments were laid down in several hundred metres of water or brine. Recent textural observations within anhydrite units, in which the thick-bedded anhydrite horizons have been interpreted as being of shallow-water origin, have challenged this assumption. This geochemical study of the oldest anhydrite unit in the Castile Formation (the Anhydrite 1 Member) attempts to resolve some of the problems regarding brine depth and evolution in the basin. The Anhydrite 1 Member has been subdivided into five major cycles on the basis of the distribution of stratigraphic units of thick-bedded anhydrite. Stable isotopic analyses of sulphur from anhydrite, and oxygen and carbon from calcite show that the basin waters were chemically homogeneous during precipitation of anhydrite, and do not indicate any significant input of meteoric, continental-derived waters. Throughout the section studied progressive enrichment of 18O upwards within cored intervals indicates continuous evaporation of the water body. Carbon isotopes appear to indicate fluctuations in organic activity within the cycles. Trace elemental analyses of Fe, Mg, Sr, Mn, Al, Ba, Zn, Pb and Cu from the sulphate fraction of the samples show a very high variability. There is a distinct increase in trace elemental abundances at the tops of cycles which may indicate variations in precipitation kinetics. Analyses of texturally defined cycles show that up-core trends for many of the trace elements correlate with changes in δ18O, indicating a progressive increase in the influence of evaporation. In addition, cyclical variations in trace elemental composition indicate changes in basin conditions with around a 350-year cyclicity. These changes

  13. Stabilization of highly saline geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Featherstone, J.L.; Powell, D.R.

    1981-04-01

    Severe scaling and plugging in a dual-flash test facility using hot brine from the Salton Sea geothermal resource has impeded the development of that resource. A brine treatment process proposed by Magma Power Co. appears to have eliminated these problems, making development of a 49-MW dual-flash power plant feasible. 8 refs.

  14. Large format, small pixel pitch and hot detectors at SOFRADIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Y.; Rouvie, A.; Nedelcu, A.; Augey, T.; Pere-Laperne, N.; Rubaldo, L.; Billon-Lanfrey, D.; Gravrand, O.; Rothman, J.; Destefanis, G.

    2013-10-01

    Recently Sofradir joined a very small circle of IR detector manufacturers with expertise every aspect of the cooled and uncooled IR technologies, all under one roof by consolidating all IR technologies available in France. These different technologies are complementary and are used depending of the needs of the applications mainly concerning the detection range needs as well as their ability to detect in bad weather environmental conditions. SNAKE (InGaAs) and SCORPIO LW (MCT) expand Sofradir's line of small pixel pitch TV format IR detectors from the mid-wavelength to the short and long wavelengths. Our dual band MW-LW QWIP detectors (25μm, 384×288 pixels) benefit to tactical platforms giving an all-weather performance and increasing flexibility in the presence of battlefield obscurants. In parallel we have been pursuing further infrared developments on future MWIR detectors, such as the VGA format HOT detector that consumes 2W and the 10μm pitch IR detector which gives us a leading position in innovation. These detectors are designed for long-range surveillance equipment, commander or gunner sights, ground-to-ground missile launchers and other applications that require higher resolution and sensitivity to improve reconnaissance and target identification. This paper discusses the system level performance in each detector type.

  15. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  16. Natural heterogeneity and evolving geochemistry of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation brine in response to continuing CO2 injection at Cranfield EOR site, Mississippi, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordsen, J. J.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thomas, B.; Abedini, A. A.; Conaway, C. H.; Manning, M. A.; Lu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical monitoring of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (LTF) brine continues at the Cranfield CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration site to investigate the potential for the geologic storage of large volumes of CO2 in saline aquifers and depleted reservoirs. Cranfield oil field is a domal depleted oil and gas reservoir in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, with production in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones of the LTF (depth ~3000 m). CO2 flood began in July 2008. Brine samples were collected from selected production wells in March and December 2009, April 2010, and November 2011. Intensive sampling also was conducted for the first 18 days of a CO2 injection experiment below the oil-water contact (December 2009) at the Detailed Area of Study (DAS) 3-well array. The sampling objectives are to define the geochemical composition of the pre-injection brine, and to understand the geochemical changes resulting from interactions between the injected CO2, brine, and reservoir minerals. Results show that Tuscaloosa brine is Na-Ca-Cl type with total salinity ranging from ~140 to 160 g/L TDS (50 samples). Relatively large variations are observed in major divalent cations (Ca ~7,500-14,000 mg/L, Mg ~800-1,250 mg/L, Sr ~475-750 mg/L). Significant positive correlations are noted amongst Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and Br, whereas these solutes all trend negatively with Na and Cl. These results may be interpreted as possible binary mixing between two end-member waters: (1) high Na-Cl (51 and 97 g/L, respectively), low Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~7500, 800, 475, 280 mg/L, respectively); and (2) low Na-Cl (40 and 86 g/L), high Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~14,000, 1250, 750, 480 mg/L). This apparent binary mixing has no obvious correlation to CO2 injection, which suggests that observed variations are due to natural heterogeneities in LTF brine within the Cranfield dome. The variations may indicate vertical and/or lateral proximity to a halite source (i.e. salt dome), with the high Na-Cl, low Br

  17. Hot flow anomaly formation and evolution: Cluster observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan; Zong, Qiugang; Zhang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we have examined the formation and evolution of 513 hot flow anomalies (HFAs) from 2003 to 2009 observed by the Cluster spacecraft. Our results show that an original upstream discontinuity in the vicinity of an HFAs and/or at least one side of the HFA with the convective electric field pointing toward the discontinuity may help an HFA growing, but it is not a necessary condition to generate an HFA. It is shown that a significant part of the thermal energy inside HFAs is converted from the kinetic energy of the solar wind, although additional heating process(es) is required to heat the plasma inside an HFA. In order to learn the evolution of an HFA, we have examined the electron spectrum and ion velocity distribution function (VDF) inside young and mature HFAs. It is found that the particle spectra are good indicators of a young or mature HFA. Inside young HFAs, electron spectra can be fitted by a single drift-κ distribution, while inside mature HFAs it can be fitted by the combination of a drift-Maxwellian distribution with the peak energy below ˜10 eV and a heated electron distribution. On the other hand, ion VDF inside mature HFAs shows a single distribution, whereas the VDF inside young HFAs shows two clear ion populations—one original solar wind and a reflected ion population. It is found that the reflected ion population inside young HFAs can be scattered to more than 180° in the Vpara-Vperp1 plane, where Vperp1 is in the V-B plane but perpendicular to B, which is similar to the foreshock distribution. This indicates that the reflected ion population could be diffusive from all directions rather than the unidirectional beam when an HFA is forming.

  18. Metallic sulfide deposits in Winnefield salt dome, Louisiana: evidence for episodic introduction of metalliferous brines during cap rock formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    Winnfield dome is a shallow piercement salt structure that penetrates Late Jurassic through early Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata of the North Louisiana basin. Quarrying operations in the calcite and anhydrite portions of the cap rock have exposed zones of metallic sulfides and barite. A roughly laminated massive sulfide lens is exposed at the calcite to anhydrite transition zone. These sulfide concentrations are believed to have originated from the interaction of metalliferous basinal brines with reduced sulfur trapped within the cap rock. Textural relationships and variations in chemical compositions between the sulfide layers in the anhydrite portion of the cap rock suggest that distinct pulses of metalliferous brines were responsible for the sulfide concentrations. Anhydrite grains outside the mineralized areas are deformed and tightly intergrown. These textures suggest that mineralizing fluids were introduced episodically along the salt and anhydrite interface at the zone of salt dissolution before that portion of the anhydrite zone was compressed and accreted to overlying anhydrite cap rock. Therefore, the earliest formed sulfides originating by this mechanism occur at the top of the anhydrite cap rock zone, whereas the last sulfides to form are found at the base. Extensive sulfide concentrations along the anhydrite-calcite contact suggest that this contact also acted as a permeable zone allowing metalliferous brines into the cap rock. Textural and compositional relationships suggest that sulfides that formed along the anhydrite-calcite contact are locally superimposed on sulfides that formed at the salt-anhydrite contact.

  19. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  20. Mechanism of Hot Finger Formation in Mantle Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, M. Y.; Tamura, Y.; Sakaguchi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Processes of mantle melting and volcanic eruptions along subduction zones are often illustrated by the use of two-dimensional cross-section models of convergent margins. However, Quaternary volcanoes in the NE Japan arc could be grouped into ten volcano clusters striking transverse to the arc; these have an average width of ~ 50 km, and are separated by parallel gaps 30-75 km wide (Tamura et al., 2002). Moreover, the structure of the mantle wedge and arc crust beneath the NE Japan arc and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, respectively, suggest that the third dimension, lying along the strike of the arc, is necessary to understand the actual production of magmas in subduction zones (e.g., Nakajima et al., 2001; Hasegawa & Nakajima, 2004; Kodaira et al., 2007; Kodaira et al., 2008). Common periodic structural variations, having wavelengths of 80-100 km, can be observed in both areas. This grouping of volcanoes and the structural variations may be related to locally developed hot regions within the mantle wedge that have the form of inclined, 50 km-wide fingers (hot fingers). The 'hot fingers' models (Tamura et al., 2002) may play an important role in linking the 3D structures within the mantle wedge and overlying arc crust to volcanic eruptions at the surface. To explore a physical and mathematical mechanism to produce a hot finger pattern, we develop a hydrodynamic model of mantle convection in mantle wedge. A hypothesis incorporated in our model is a double diffusive mechanism of mantle materials; diffusion of composition of mantle materials is much weaker than temperature diffusion. We show that our model shows a spatiotemporal pattern in a mantle material composition, temperature, and velocity that are similar to the spatiotemporal patterns observed in the NE Japan arc.

  1. Extended asymmetric hot region formation due to shockwave interactions following void collapse in shocked high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Tzu-Ray; Wixom, Ryan R.; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2016-08-01

    In both continuum hydrodynamics simulations and also multimillion atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations of shockwave propagation in single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) containing a cylindrical void, we observed the formation of an initial radially symmetric hot spot. By extending the simulation time to the nanosecond scale, however, we observed the transformation of the small symmetric hot spot into a longitudinally asymmetric hot region extending over a much larger volume. Performing reactive molecular dynamics shock simulations using the reactive force field (ReaxFF) as implemented in the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package, we showed that the longitudinally asymmetric hot region was formed by coalescence of the primary radially symmetric hot spot with a secondary triangular hot zone. We showed that the triangular hot zone coincided with a double-shocked region where the primary planar shockwave was overtaken by a secondary cylindrical shockwave. The secondary cylindrical shockwave originated in void collapse after the primary planar shockwave had passed over the void. A similar phenomenon was observed in continuum hydrodynamics shock simulations using the CTH hydrodynamics package. The formation and growth of extended asymmetric hot regions on nanosecond timescales has important implications for shock initiation thresholds in energetic materials.

  2. Extended asymmetric hot region formation due to shockwave interactions following void collapse in shocked high explosive

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shan, Tzu -Ray; Wixom, Ryan R.; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2016-08-11

    In both continuum hydrodynamics simulations and also multimillion atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations of shockwave propagation in single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) containing a cylindrical void, we observed the formation of an initial radially symmetric hot spot. By extending the simulation time to the nanosecond scale, however, we observed the transformation of the small symmetric hot spot into a longitudinally asymmetric hot region extending over a much larger volume. Performing reactive molecular dynamics shock simulations using the reactive force field (ReaxFF) as implemented in the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package, we showed that the longitudinally asymmetric hot region was formed bymore » coalescence of the primary radially symmetric hot spot with a secondary triangular hot zone. We showed that the triangular hot zone coincided with a double-shocked region where the primary planar shockwave was overtaken by a secondary cylindrical shockwave. The secondary cylindrical shockwave originated in void collapse after the primary planar shockwave had passed over the void. A similar phenomenon was observed in continuum hydrodynamics shock simulations using the CTH hydrodynamics package. Furthermore, the formation and growth of extended asymmetric hot regions on nanosecond timescales has important implications for shock initiation thresholds in energetic materials.« less

  3. OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, R.

    2000-08-31

    DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource.

  4. ON THE FORMATION OF HOT JUPITERS IN STELLAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Naoz, Smadar; Farr, Will M.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the production of hot Jupiters (HJs) in stellar binaries. We show that the 'eccentric Kozai-Lidov' (EKL) mechanism can play a key role in the dynamical evolution of a star-planet-star triple system. We run a large set of Monte Carlo simulations including the secular evolution of the orbits, general relativistic precession, and tides, and we determine the semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and spin-orbit angle distributions of the HJs that are produced. We explore the effect of different tidal friction parameters on the results. We find that the efficiency of forming HJs when taking the EKL mechanism into account is higher then previously estimated. Accounting for the frequency of stellar binaries, we find that this production mechanism can account for about 30% of the observed HJ population. Current observations of spin-orbit angles are consistent with this mechanism producing {approx}30% of all HJs, and up to 100% of the misaligned systems. Based on the properties of binaries without an HJ in our simulations, we predict the existence of many Jupiter-like planets with moderately eccentric and inclined orbits and semimajor axes of several AU.

  5. Formation and X-ray Emission from Hot bubbles in Planetary Nebulae II. Hot bubble X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toalá, J. A.; Arthur, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the X-ray emission from numerical simulations of hot bubbles in planetary nebulae (PNe). High-resolution, two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of hot bubbles in PNe, with and without thermal conduction, are used to calculate the X-ray emission and study its time-dependence and relationship to the changing stellar parameters. Instabilities in the wind-wind interaction zone produce clumps and filaments in the swept-up shell of nebular material. Turbulent mixing and thermal conduction at the corrugated interface can produce quantities of intermediate temperature and density gas between the hot, shocked wind bubble and the swept-up photoionized nebular material, which can emit in soft, diffuse X-rays. We use the CHIANTI software to compute synthetic spectra for the models and calculate their luminosities. We find that models both with conduction and those without can produce the X-ray temperatures and luminosities that are in the ranges reported in observations, although the models including thermal conduction are an order of magnitude more luminous than those without. Our results show that at early times the diffuse X-ray emission should be dominated by the contribution from the hot, shocked stellar wind, whereas at later times the nebular gas will dominate the spectrum. We analyse the effect of sampling on the resultant spectra and conclude that a minimum of 200 counts is required to reliably reproduce the spectral shape. Likewise, heavily smoothed surface-brightness profiles obtained from low-count detections of PNe do not provide a reliable description of the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas.

  6. Analysis of microstructure-dependent shock dissipation and hot-spot formation in granular metalized explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2016-07-01

    Variations in the microstructure of granular explosives (i.e., particle packing density, size, shape, and composition) can affect their shock sensitivity by altering thermomechanical fields at the particle-scale during pore collapse within shocks. If the deformation rate is fast, hot-spots can form, ignite, and interact, resulting in burn at the macro-scale. In this study, a two-dimensional finite and discrete element technique is used to simulate and examine shock-induced dissipation and hot-spot formation within low density explosives (68%-84% theoretical maximum density (TMD)) consisting of large ensembles of HMX (C4H8N8O8) and aluminum (Al) particles (size ˜ 60 -360 μm). Emphasis is placed on identifying how the inclusion of Al influences effective shock dissipation and hot-spot fields relative to equivalent ensembles of neat/pure HMX for shocks that are sufficiently strong to eliminate porosity. Spatially distributed hot-spot fields are characterized by their number density and area fraction enabling their dynamics to be described in terms of nucleation, growth, and agglomeration-dominated phases with increasing shock strength. For fixed shock particle speed, predictions indicate that decreasing packing density enhances shock dissipation and hot-spot formation, and that the inclusion of Al increases dissipation relative to neat HMX by pressure enhanced compaction resulting in fewer but larger HMX hot-spots. Ensembles having bimodal particle sizes are shown to significantly affect hot-spot dynamics by altering the spatial distribution of hot-spots behind shocks.

  7. The Formation of Liquid Water on Present-Day Mars: Calcium-Magnesium Chloride Brines in the Antarctic Dry Valleys as a Mars Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.

    2016-09-01

    By analogy to the Antarctic Dry Valleys, Ca-Mg-Cl brines may be responsible for aqueous flows on Mars. We use modeling to show that Ca-Mg-Cl brines could be stable on Mars, and are often more favorable for forming solutions than perchlorate salts.

  8. The role of cold and hot gas flows in feeding early-type galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    We study the evolution of the gaseous components in massive simulated galaxies and show that their early formation is fuelled by cold, low entropy gas streams. At lower redshifts of z <~ 3 the simulated galaxies are massive enough to support stable virial shocks resulting in a transition from cold to hot gas accretion. The gas accretion history of early-type galaxies is directly linked to the formation of their stellar component in the two phased formation scenario, in which the central parts of the galaxy assemble rapidly through in situ star formation and the later assembly is dominated primarily by minor stellar mergers.

  9. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  10. Strong salinity gradients in the northeastern part of the Salton Sea geothermal field, CA: a fluid inclusion and brine chemistry study

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Geothermal wells in the northeastern Salton Sea geothermal field produce concentrated Na-Ca-K-Cl brines. Maximum dissolved constituents do not exceed 260,000 ppm. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures from cuttings of vein calcite and quartz are in close agreement with temperature logs and indicate maximum reservoir temperatures between 290/sup 0/ and 310/sup 0/C at 3140 to 3565 m. Melting temperatures of inclusion fluids indicate the trapping of both low salinity and high salinity vein-forming solutions. The high salinity inclusion fluids appear similar to the produced reservoir fluids in their total dissolved solids, while both high salinity and low salinity inclusions imply temperatures similar to that of the reservoir. The low salinity inclusions occur over broad intervals above and below the much less vertically extensive high salinity inclusion fluids. Although the presence of interstratified high salinity and low salinity brines should be gravitationally unstable, flow tests of one well, at varying well head pressures, produced two brines of distinctly different compositions. Consequently, the persistence of two different brines requires severe impedance of vertical permeability. Stratification of brines in this geothermal system carries significant implications for the formation models of some epithermal ore deposits by mixing of fluids of different salinity, pH, fO/sub 2/, fS/sub 2/, temperature, etc. Additionally, there are very strong economic advantages to the possible production of hot, dilute brines rather than the currently produced highly saline brines.

  11. A 3-D Model of Hot-Spot Formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    A 3-D model describing the formation of a hot-spot in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions is presented. The model includes thermal conduction and mass ablation effects in a 3-D distorted hot spot using an approach developed by Sanz. Evolution of the nonuniformity growth is calculated based on a sharp boundary model. The results of the model will be compared against 2-D DRACO and 3-D hydrodynamic code calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Waste glass/metal interactions in brines

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.; Pederson, L.R.; McVay, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Leaching studies of MCC 76-68 glass in synthetic brines high in NaCl were performed from 50 to 150/sup 0/C and included interactive testing with ductile iron and titanium. Hydrolysis of the glass matrix was generally slower in saturated brines than in deionized water, due to a lower solubility of silica in the brines. Inclusion of ductile iron in the tests resulted in accelerated leach rates because irion-silica reactions occurred which reduced the silica saturation fraction. At 150/sup 0/C, iron also accelerated the rate of crystalline reaction product formation which were primarily Fe-bearing sepiolite and talc. 16 references.

  13. CO2–rock–brine interactions in Lower Tuscaloosa Formation at Cranfield CO2 sequestration site, Mississippi, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Jiemin; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Horita, Juske; Karamalidis, Athanasios; Griffith, Craig; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Ambats, Gil; Cole, David R.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Hovorka, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    A highly integrated geochemical program was conducted at the Cranfield CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration site, Mississippi, U.S.A.. The program included extensive field geochemical monitoring, a detailed petrographic study, and an autoclave experiment under in situ reservoir conditions. Results show that mineral reactions in the Lower Tuscaloosa reservoir were minor during CO2 injection. Brine chemistry remained largely unchanged, which contrasts with significant changes observed in other field tests. Field fluid sampling and laboratory experiments show consistently slow reactions. Carbon isotopic composition and CO2 content in the gas phase reveal simple two-end-member mixing between injected and original formation gas. We conclude that the reservoir rock, which is composed mainly of minerals with low reactivity (average quartz 79.4%, chlorite 11.8%, kaolinite 3.1%, illite 1.3%, concretionary calcite and dolomite 1.5%, and feldspar 0.2%), is relatively unreactive to CO2. The significance of low reactivity is both positive, in that the reservoir is not impacted, and negative, in that mineral trapping is insignificant.

  14. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  15. Experimental Simulation of Evaporation-Driven Silica Sinter Formation and Microbial Silicification in Hot Spring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Stefan V.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Evaporation of silica-rich geothermal waters is one of the main abiotic drivers of the formation of silica sinters around hot springs. An important role in sinter structural development is also played by the indigenous microbial communities, which are fossilized and eventually encased in the silica matrix. The combination of these two factors results in a wide variety of sinter structures and fabrics. Despite this, no previous experimental fossilization studies have focused on evaporative-driven silica precipitation. We present here the results of several experiments aimed at simulating the formation of sinters through evaporation. Silica solutions at different concentrations were repeatedly allowed to evaporate in both the presence and absence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Without microorganisms, consecutive silica additions led to the formation of well-laminated deposits. By contrast, when microorganisms were present, they acted as reactive surfaces for heterogeneous silica particle nucleation; depending on the initial silica concentration, the deposits were then either porous with a mixture of silicified and unmineralized cells, or they formed a denser structure with a complete entombment of the cells by a thick silica crust. The deposits obtained experimentally showed numerous similarities in terms of their fabric to those previously reported for natural hot springs, demonstrating the complex interplay between abiotic and biotic processes during silica sinter growth. Key Words: Silica—Cyanobacteria—Fossilization—Hot springs—Stromatolites. Astrobiology 13, 163–176. PMID:23384170

  16. Calcium chloride brines: The vital component in the hydrothermal brine-hydrothermal ore deposit-evaporite-basinal brine cycle in continental rift basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, L. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science)

    1992-01-01

    Nonmarine evaporites are forming today in chloride-rich saline lakes in a number of arid continental rift and strike-slip basins that are characterized by upwelling of subsurface CaCl[sub 2]-bearing brines driven by forced convection of cool basinal brines or by free convection of hydrothermal brines which reach the surface as brine springs. The compositions of these upwelling brines are distinctively different from that of seawater or typical continental waters due primarily to their high proportion of Ca and low proportion of SO[sub 4]. The most viable explanation for the CaCl[sub 2] composition of these upwelling brines is the interaction between hot convecting groundwaters and bedrock at or above zeolite facies temperatures, as for example occurs in the modern Salton Sea basin. Such upwelling CaCl[sub 2] brines in extensional fault basins can explain the puzzling chemical composition of MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, the least understood of all ancient salt deposits. In this regard it is suggested that the following cyclic succession of processes occurs in active continental rift basins during a magmatically-driven thermal event: (1) hydrothermal convection of the ambient porewaters in the rift sediments, (2) dissolution of buried evaporites and hydrothermal metamorphism of the rift sediments, (3) hydrothermal ore deposition in fault-related fractures and within the rift sediments, (4) upwelling brine springs add CaCl[sub 2] and KCl components to the surface lake waters, which on evaporation produce MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, (5) decay of the thermal event leads to cool down of the hot brines, which now migrate gravitationally to the deeper parts of the basin to become static Na-Ca-Cl basinal brines.

  17. Galaxy Mergers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Star Formation and Hot Gas Outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-06-22

    In hierarchical structure formation, merging of galaxies is frequent and known to dramatically affect their properties. To comprehend these interactions high-resolution simulations are indispensable because of the nonlinear coupling between pc and Mpc scales. To this end, we present the first adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation of two merging, low mass, initially gas-rich galaxies (1.8 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} each), including star formation and feedback. With galaxies resolved by {approx} 2 x 10{sup 7} total computational elements, we achieve unprecedented resolution of the multiphase interstellar medium, finding a widespread starburst in the merging galaxies via shock-induced star formation. The high dynamic range of AMR also allows us to follow the interplay between the galaxies and their embedding medium depicting how galactic outflows and a hot metal-rich halo form. These results demonstrate that AMR provides a powerful tool in understanding interacting galaxies.

  18. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.; Rockey, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  19. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  20. Interaction of field-aligned cold plasma flows with an equatorially-trapped hot plasma - Electrostatic shock formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1993-01-01

    Effects of equatorially trapped hot plasma on the highly supersonic cold-plasma flow occurring during early stage plasmaspheric refilling are studied by means of numerical simulations. It is shown that the equatorially trapped hot ions set up a potential barrier for the cold ion beams and facilitate formation of electrostatic shocks by reflecting them from the equatorial region. Simulations with and without the hot plasma show different flow properties; the formation of electrostatic shocks occur only in the former case. The simulation with the hot plasma also reveals that the magnetic trapping in conjunction with the evolution of the electrostatic potential barrier produces ion velocity distribution functions consisting of a cold core and a hot ring in the perpendicular velocity. Such a distribution function provides a source of free energy for equatorial waves. The corresponding electron population is warm and field-aligned.

  1. Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an “ice-sealed” east Antarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Peter T.; Fritsen, Christian H.; McKay, Christopher P.; Priscu, John C.; Adams, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, was previously believed to be shallow (<10 m) and frozen to its bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and temperature data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water column composed of a NaCl brine with a salinity seven times that of seawater that remains liquid below −10°C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice cover is stabilized by a negative feedback between ice growth and the freezing-point depression of the brine. The ice cover contains frozen microbial mats throughout that are viable after thawing and has a history that extends to at least 2,800 14C years B.P., suggesting that the brine has been isolated from the atmosphere for as long. To our knowledge, Lake Vida has the thickest subaerial lake ice cover recorded and may represent a previously undiscovered end-member lacustrine ecosystem on Earth. PMID:12518052

  2. Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an "ice-sealed" east Antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Doran, Peter T; Fritsen, Christian H; McKay, Christopher P; Priscu, John C; Adams, Edward E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, was previously believed to be shallow (<10 m) and frozen to its bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and temperature data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water column composed of a NaCl brine with a salinity seven times that of seawater that remains liquid below -10 degrees C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice cover is stabilized by a negative feedback between ice growth and the freezing-point depression of the brine. The ice cover contains frozen microbial mats throughout that are viable after thawing and has a history that extends to at least 2,800 (14)C years B.P., suggesting that the brine has been isolated from the atmosphere for as long. To our knowledge, Lake Vida has the thickest subaerial lake ice cover recorded and may represent a previously undiscovered end-member lacustrine ecosystem on Earth.

  3. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pak Yuen; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2007-10-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes well. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs. PMID:17995057

  4. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pak Yuen; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2007-10-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes well. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

  5. Experimental simulation of evaporation-driven silica sinter formation and microbial silicification in hot spring systems.

    PubMed

    Orange, François; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O

    2013-02-01

    Evaporation of silica-rich geothermal waters is one of the main abiotic drivers of the formation of silica sinters around hot springs. An important role in sinter structural development is also played by the indigenous microbial communities, which are fossilized and eventually encased in the silica matrix. The combination of these two factors results in a wide variety of sinter structures and fabrics. Despite this, no previous experimental fossilization studies have focused on evaporative-driven silica precipitation. We present here the results of several experiments aimed at simulating the formation of sinters through evaporation. Silica solutions at different concentrations were repeatedly allowed to evaporate in both the presence and absence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Without microorganisms, consecutive silica additions led to the formation of well-laminated deposits. By contrast, when microorganisms were present, they acted as reactive surfaces for heterogeneous silica particle nucleation; depending on the initial silica concentration, the deposits were then either porous with a mixture of silicified and unmineralized cells, or they formed a denser structure with a complete entombment of the cells by a thick silica crust. The deposits obtained experimentally showed numerous similarities in terms of their fabric to those previously reported for natural hot springs, demonstrating the complex interplay between abiotic and biotic processes during silica sinter growth.

  6. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Pak Yuen; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2007-10-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes well. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

  7. The Role of “Vortical” Hot Towers in the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Diana (1984).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Eric A.; Montgomery, Michael T.; Davis, Christopher A.

    2004-06-01

    A high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) near-cloud-resolving numerical simulation of the formation of Hurricane Diana (1984) is used to examine the contribution of deep convective processes to tropical cyclone formation. This study is focused on the 3-km horizontal grid spacing simulation because this simulation was previously found to furnish an accurate forecast of the later stages of the observed storm life cycle. The numerical simulation reveals the presence of vortical hot towers, or cores of deep cumulonimbus convection possessing strong vertical vorticity, that arise from buoyancy-induced stretching of local absolute vertical vorticity in a vorticity-rich prehurricane environment.At near-cloud-resolving scales, these vortical hot towers are the preferred mode of convection. They are demonstrated to be the most important influence to the formation of the tropical storm via a two-stage evolutionary process: (i) preconditioning of the local environment via diabatic production of multiple small-scale lower-tropospheric cyclonic potential vorticity (PV) anomalies, and (ii) multiple mergers and axisymmetrization of these low-level PV anomalies. The local warm-core formation and tangential momentum spinup are shown to be dominated by the organizational process of the diabatically generated PV anomalies; the former process being accomplished by the strong vertical vorticity in the hot tower cores, which effectively traps the latent heat from moist convection. In addition to the organizational process of the PV anomalies, the cyclogenesis is enhanced by the aggregate diabatic heating associated with the vortical hot towers, which produces a net influx of low-level mean angular momentum throughout the genesis.Simpler models are examined to elucidate the underlying dynamics of tropical cyclogenesis in this case study. Using the Sawyer Eliassen balanced vortex model to diagnose the macroscale evolution, the cyclogenesis of Diana is demonstrated to proceed in

  8. Formation of hot particles during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kashparov, V.A.; Ivanov, Y.A.; Zvarisch, S.I.; Protsak, V.P.; Khomutinin, Y.V.; Kurepin, A.D.; Pazukhin, E.M.

    1996-05-01

    The oxidation of irradiated Chernobyl nuclear fuel at 670 to 1,170 K for 3 to 21 h resulted in its destruction into fine particles, the dispersal composition of which is well described by lognormal distribution regularity. The median radius of the formed particles does not depend on the annealing temperature and decreases with the increase of the annealing period from 10 to 3 {micro}m. Proceeding from the dispersal composition and matrix composition of the Chernobyl hot fuel particles, it can be concluded that the oxidation of nuclear fuel was one of the basic mechanisms of hot fuel particle formation during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. With oxidation in air and the dispersal of irradiated oxide nuclear fuel at as low as 670 K, ruthenium, located on the granular borders, is released. Ruthenium is oxidized to volatile RuO{sub 4}, sublimated, and condensed on materials of iron. Nickel and stainless steel can be efficiently used at high temperatures (tested to 1,200 K) for radioruthenium adsorption in accidents and for some technological operations. As the temperature of hot fuel particles annealed in inert media increases from 1,270 to 2,270 K, the relative release of radionuclides increases in the following sequence: cesium isotopes; europium isotopes; cerium isotopes; americium isotopes; and ruthenium, plutonium, and curium isotopes.

  9. HOT X-RAY CORONAE AROUND MASSIVE SPIRAL GALAXIES: A UNIQUE PROBE OF STRUCTURE FORMATION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Kraft, Ralph P.; Jones, Christine; David, Laurence P.; Bourdin, Herve; Gilfanov, Marat; Churazov, Eugene

    2013-08-01

    Luminous X-ray gas coronae in the dark matter halos of massive spiral galaxies are a fundamental prediction of structure formation models, yet only a few such coronae have been detected so far. In this paper, we study the hot X-ray coronae beyond the optical disks of two 'normal' massive spirals, NGC 1961 and NGC 6753. Based on XMM-Newton X-ray observations, hot gaseous emission is detected to {approx}60 kpc-well beyond their optical radii. The hot gas has a best-fit temperature of kT {approx} 0.6 keV and an abundance of {approx}0.1 Solar, and exhibits a fairly uniform distribution, suggesting that the quasi-static gas resides in hydrostatic equilibrium in the potential well of the galaxies. The bolometric luminosity of the gas in the (0.05-0.15)r{sub 200} region (r{sub 200} is the virial radius) is {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for both galaxies. The baryon mass fractions of NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 are f{sub b,NGC1961} {approx} 0.11 and f{sub b,NGC6753} {approx} 0.09, which values fall short of the cosmic baryon fraction. The hot coronae around NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 offer an excellent basis to probe structure formation simulations. To this end, the observations are confronted with the moving mesh code AREPO and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET. Although neither model gives a perfect description, the observed luminosities, gas masses, and abundances favor the AREPO code. Moreover, the shape and the normalization of the observed density profiles are better reproduced by AREPO within {approx}0.5r{sub 200}. However, neither model incorporates efficient feedback from supermassive black holes or supernovae, which could alter the simulated properties of the X-ray coronae. With the further advance of numerical models, the present observations will be essential in constraining the feedback effects in structure formation simulations.

  10. Cosmic Rays, UV Photons, and Haze Formation in the Upper Atmospheres of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Paul B.; Walsh, Catherine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic ray ionization has been found to be a dominant mechanism for the formation of ions in dense interstellar environments. Cosmic rays are further known to initiate the highly efficient ion-neutral chemistry within star forming regions. In this talk we explore the effect of both cosmic rays and UV photons on a model hot Jupiter atmosphere using a non-equlibrium chemical network that combines reactions from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry, the KIDA database for interstellar and protoplanetary environments and three-body and combustion reactions from the NIST database and from various irradiated gas planet networks. The physical parameters for our model atmosphere are based on HD 189733 b (Effective Temperature of 1000 K, log g = 3.3, solar metallicity, at a distance 0.03 AU from a K dwarf). The active UV photochemistry high in our model hot Jupiter atmosphere tends to destroy these hydrocarbons, but on a time-scale sufficiently slow that PAH formation could already have taken place. In most cases, carbon-bearing species formed by cosmic rays are destroyed by UV photons (e.g. C2H2, C2H4, HC3N). Conversely, carbon-bearing species enhanced by an active photochemistry are depleted when cosmic ray ionization is significant (e.g. CN, HCN and CH4). Ammonia is an interesting exception to this trend, enhanced both by an active photochemistry and a high cosmic ray ionization rate.

  11. Nuclear Star Formation in the Hot-Spot Galaxy NGC 2903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ryder, S. D.; Knapen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We present high-resolution near-infrared imaging obtained using adaptive optics and HST/NICMOS and ground-based spectroscopy of the hot-spot galaxy NGC 2903. Our near-infrared resolution imaging enables us to resolve the infrared hot spots into individual young stellar clusters or groups of these. The spatial distribution of the stellar clusters is not coincident with that of the bright H II regions, as revealed by the HST/NICMOS Pace image. Overall, the circumnuclear star formation in NGC 2903 shows a ring-like morphology with an approximate diameter of 625 pc. The SF properties of the stellar clusters and H II regions have been studied using the photometric and spectroscopic information in conjunction with evolutionary synthesis models. The population of bright stellar clusters shows a very narrow range of ages, 4 to 7 x 10(exp 6) yr after the peak of star formation, or absolute ages 6.5 to 9.5 x 10(exp 6) yr (for the assumed short-duration Gaussian bursts), and luminosities similar to the clusters found in the Antennae interacting galaxy. This population of young stellar clusters accounts for some 7 - 12% of the total stellar mass in the central 625 pc of NGC 2903. The H II regions in the ring of star formation have luminosities close to that of the super-giant H II region 30 Doradus, they are younger than the stellar clusters, and will probably evolve into bright infrared stellar clusters similar to those observed today. We find that the star formation efficiency in the central regions of NGC 2903 is higher than in normal galaxies, approaching the lower end of infrared luminous galaxies.

  12. Dose of UV light required to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in distilled water, fresh brine, and spent brine.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Julie; Williams, Robert C; Boardman, Gregory D; Eifert, Joseph D; Sumner, Susan S

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish the dose of UV light (253.7 nm) needed to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in distilled water, fresh brine (9% NaCl), spent brine, and diluted (5, 35, and 55%) spent brine, using uridine as a chemical actinometer. Strains N1-227 (isolated from hot dog batter), N3-031 (isolated from turkey franks), and R2-499 (isolated from meat) were mixed in equal proportions and suspended in each solution prepared so as to contain 10(-4) M uridine. Samples were irradiated in sterile quartz cells for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 min. Inactivation was evaluated by serially diluting samples in 0.1% peptone, by surface plating in duplicate onto modified Oxford agar and Trypticase soy agar with yeast extract, and by enrichment in brain heart infusion broth, followed by incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For dose measurements, the absorbance (262 nm) was measured before and after irradiation. Differences were observed in population estimates depending on the solution (P < or = 0.05). Reductions were as follows from greatest to least: water > fresh brine > 5% spent brine > 35% spent brine > 55% spent brine > undiluted spent brine. UV light did not significantly reduce populations suspended in spent brine solutions. L. monocytogenes decreased to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/ml) at doses greater than 33.2 mJ/cm(2) in water and at doses greater than 10.3 mJ/cm(2) in fresh brine. Knowledge of UV dosing required to control L. monocytogenes in brines similar to those used for ready-to-eat meat processing will aid manufacturers in establishing appropriate food safety interventions for these products.

  13. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  14. THE ASTROPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS OF DUST FORMATION DURING THE ERUPTIONS OF HOT, MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2011-12-10

    Dust formation in the winds of hot stars is inextricably linked to the classic eruptive state of luminous blue variables because it requires very high mass-loss rates, M-dot {approx}>10{sup -2.5} M{sub sun} year{sup -1}, for grains to grow and for the non-dust optical depth of the wind to shield the dust formation region from the true stellar photosphere. Thus, dusty shells around hot stars trace the history of 'great' eruptions, and the statistics of such shells in the Galaxy indicate that these eruptions are likely the dominant mass-loss mechanism for evolved, M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 40 M{sub Sun} stars. Dust formation at such high M-dot also explains why very large grains (a{sub max} {approx}> 1 {mu}m) are frequently found in these shells, since a{sub max}{proportional_to} M-dot . The statistics of these shells (numbers, ages, masses, and grain properties such as a{sub max}) provide an archaeological record of this mass-loss process. In particular, the velocities v{sub shell}, transient durations (where known), and ejected masses M{sub shell} of the Galactic shells and the supernova (SN) 'impostors' proposed as their extragalactic counterparts are very different. While much of the difference is a selection effect created by shell lifetimes {proportional_to}(v{sub shell}{radical}(M{sub shell})){sup -1}, more complete Galactic and extragalactic surveys are needed to demonstrate that the two phenomena share a common origin given that their observed properties are essentially disjoint. If even small fractions (1%) of SNe show interactions with such dense shells of ejecta, as is currently believed, then the driving mechanism of the eruptions must be associated with the very final phases of stellar evolution, suggestive of some underlying nuclear burning instability.

  15. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    variability at 10 cm level. We suggest that the mechanism behind the formation of chloroform is an unspecific chlorination of organic matter, caused by microbial activity in the soil forming trichloroacetyl compounds. Laboratory measurements on intact soil cores have identified that the F and H horizons in the forest soil are the main producers of chloroform. Despite various attempts to identify the mechanisms responsible for the variability within a visually and chemically homogeneous area we have not yet succeeded. Parameters like soil respiration, inorganic and total organic chlorine, organic matter and soil structure were studied without any significant difference in favour of hot spots. By the use of 13C-isotopes we could identify the natural origin of the chloroform, and over a three years period we could conclude that the hot spots were permanent on the sites. At the same time a significant seasonal variation were measured depending on temperature and soil moisture.

  16. Brine tolerant polymer for oil recovery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tackett, J.E.

    1987-11-24

    This patent describes a beta-alanine-type branched partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, which is added to an aqueous injection fluid to increase the viscosity of the fluid. The polymer resists plugging of the wellbore face and/or matrix pores and is brine tolerant when injected into a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

  17. A THREE-PHASE CHEMICAL MODEL OF HOT CORES: THE FORMATION OF GLYCINE

    SciTech Connect

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures {approx}40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, occurring at {approx}200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH{sub 2}, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  18. CO2/brine migrations in a laterally closed reservoir system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Han, W.; Lee, P.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic CO2 storage is considered as a promising solution for the mitigation of global CO2 emission levels. In assessing pressure and/or CO2 saturation distribution in a reservoir scale system, many studies have assumed that geologic formations consist of impermeable upper and lower boundaries to both supercritical CO2 and brine, and laterally open system. Under these conditions, the primary direction of brine flow is horizontal, as CO2 displaces the brine. However, in certain geologic situations, storage formation may laterally be compartmented due to presence of low-permeability zones creating a closed system. In this study we intended to assess the CO2/brine fluxes between the targeted storage formation and the upper and lower seals in a laterally closed reservoir system. The simulations were conducted using TOUGH2 with ECO2N module. A hypothetical two-dimensional radial model was designed to assess the spatial distribution of pressure build-up and the supercritical CO2 plume over time in a laterally closed system. The storage formation of 100 m thickness is radially extended to 10,000m and is located at 1,000 m below from the ground surface bounded by overlying and underlying seals of 100 m thickness. The CO2 injection rate was set to be 30 kg/s and the life-time of this hypothetical project was 30 years (10 years of injection followed by 20 years of monitoring period). The simulation results showed distinct CO2/brine flow regimes at three different zones; the dry-out zone, the two-phase zone, and the brine zone. At the dry-out zone, the direction of CO2 flux was from the storage formation toward the overlying and underlying seals while the brine flux was from the over- and underlying seals toward the storage formation. The CO2 and brine fluxes per unit area showed respectively up to 6×10-5 kg/s/m2 and 1×10-4 kg/s/m2 during the injection period, and decreased after injection ceased. At the two-phase zone, the CO2/brine migration was similar to that at dry

  19. Prediction of Hot Tear Formation in Vertical DC Casting of Aluminum Billets Using a Granular Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Drezet, J.-M.; Phillion, A. B.; Rappaz, M.

    2013-09-01

    A coupled hydromechanical granular model aimed at predicting hot tear formation and stress-strain behavior in metallic alloys during solidification is applied to the semicontinuous direct chill casting of aluminum alloy round billets. This granular model consists of four separate three-dimensional (3D) modules: (I) a solidification module that is used for generating the solid-liquid geometry at a given solid fraction, (II) a fluid flow module that is used to calculate the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid, (III) a semisolid deformation module that is based on a combined finite element/discrete element method and simulates the rheological behavior of the granular structure, and (IV) a failure module that simulates crack initiation and propagation. To investigate hot tearing, the granular model has been applied to a representative volume within the direct chill cast billet that is located at the bottom of the liquid sump, and it reveals that semisolid deformations imposed on the mushy zone open the liquid channels due to localization of the deformation at grains boundaries. At a low casting speed, only individual pores are able to form in the widest channels because liquid feeding remains efficient. However, as the casting speed increases, the flow of liquid required to compensate for solidification shrinkage also increases and as a result the pores propagate and coalesce to form a centerline crack.

  20. Mechanism of hot-rolling crack formation in lean duplex stainless steel 2101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-hui; Li, Jing-yuan; Wang, Yi-de

    2016-04-01

    The thermoplasticity of duplex stainless steel 2205 (DSS2205) is better than that of lean duplex steel 2101 (LDX2101), which undergoes severe cracking during hot rolling. The microstructure, microhardness, phase ratio, and recrystallization dependence of the deformation compatibility of LDX2101 and DSS2205 were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), Thermo-Calc software, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the phase-ratio transformations of LDX2101 and DSS2205 were almost equal under the condition of increasing solution temperature. Thus, the phase transformation was not the main cause for the hot plasticity difference of these two steels. The grain size of LDX2101 was substantially greater than that of DSS2205, and the microhardness difference of LDX2101 was larger than that of DSS2205. This difference hinders the transfer of strain from ferrite to austenite. In the rolling process, the ferrite grains of LDX2101 underwent continuous softening and were substantially refined. However, although little recrystallization occurred at the boundaries of austenite, serious deformation accumulated in the interior of austenite, leading to a substantial increase in hardness. The main cause of crack formation is the microhardness difference between ferrite and austenite.

  1. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  2. N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation under the influence of a hot Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro E-mail: ogihara@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the formation of multiple-planet systems in the presence of a hot Jupiter (HJ) using extended N-body simulations that are performed simultaneously with semianalytic calculations. Our primary aims are to describe the planet formation process starting from planetesimals using high-resolution simulations, and to examine the dependences of the architecture of planetary systems on input parameters (e.g., disk mass, disk viscosity). We observe that protoplanets that arise from oligarchic growth and undergo type I migration stop migrating when they join a chain of resonant planets outside the orbit of an HJ. The formation of a resonant chain is almost independent of our model parameters, and is thus a robust process. At the end of our simulations, several terrestrial planets remain at around 0.1 AU. The formed planets are not equal mass; the largest planet constitutes more than 50% of the total mass in the close-in region, which is also less dependent on parameters. In the previous work of this paper, we have found a new physical mechanism of induced migration of the HJ, which is called a crowding-out. If the HJ opens up a wide gap in the disk (e.g., owing to low disk viscosity), crowding-out becomes less efficient and the HJ remains. We also discuss angular momentum transfer between the planets and disk.

  3. Hot-gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells-dechlorination and soot formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D.; Gelb, A.; Lord, G.; Simons, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two separate aspects of hot-gas conditioning for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) were investigated: potential high temperature chloride sorbent materials were screened and tested and carbon deposition on MCFC components was studied experimentally to determine guidelines for maximizing MCFC efficiency while avoiding carbon fouling. Natural minerals containing sodium carbonate were identified as the most promising candidates for economical removal of chlorides from coal gasifier effluents at temperatures of about 800 K (980 F). The mineral Shortite was tested in a fixed bed and found to perform remarkably well with no calcination. Measurements showed that carbon deposition can occur in the equilibrium carbon free region because of the relative rates of the relevant reactions. On all surfaces tested, the Boudouard carbon formation reaction is much faster than the water-gas shift reaction which is much faster than the methanation reaction. This means that the normal practice of adding steam to prevent carbon formation will only succeed if flows are slow enough for the water shift reaction to go substantially to completion. More direct suppression of carbon formation can be achieved by CO2 addition through anode recycle to force the Boudouard reaction backward.

  4. Geochemical implications of brine leakage into freshwater aquifers.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Assaf; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E

    2013-01-01

    CO(2) injection into deep saline formations as a way to mitigate climate change raises concerns that leakage of saline waters from the injection formations will impact water quality of overlying aquifers, especially underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). This paper aims to characterize the geochemical composition of deep brines, with a focus on constituents that pose a human health risk and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A statistical analysis of the NATCARB brine database, combined with simple mixing model calculations, show total dissolved solids and concentrations of chloride, boron, arsenic, sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese may exceed plant tolerance or regulatory levels. Twelve agricultural crops evaluated for decreased productivity in the event of brine leakage would experience some yield reduction due to increased TDS at brine-USDW ratios of < 0.1, and a 50% yield reduction at < 0.2 brine-USDW ratio. A brine-USDW ratio as low as 0.004 may result in yield reduction in the most sensitive crops. The USEPA TDS secondary standard is exceeded at a brine fraction of approximately 0.002. To our knowledge, this is the first study to consider agricultural impacts of brine leakage, even though agricultural withdrawals of groundwater in the United States are almost three times higher than public and domestic withdrawals.

  5. Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

  6. A PHYSICAL LINK BETWEEN JET FORMATION AND HOT PLASMA IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Wang Dingxiong; Cao Xinwu; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: dxwang@hust.edu.cn E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-06-10

    Recent observations suggest that in black hole X-ray binaries jet/outflow formation is related to the hot plasma in the vicinity of the black hole, either in the form of an advection-dominated accretion flow at low accretion rates or in a disk corona at high accretion rates. We test the viability of this scenario for supermassive black holes using two samples of active galactic nuclei distinguished by the presence (radio-strong) and absence (radio-weak) of well-collimated, relativistic jets. Each is centered on a narrow range of black hole mass but spans a very broad range of Eddington ratios, effectively simulating in a statistical manner the behavior of a single black hole evolving across a wide spread in accretion states. Unlike the relationship between the radio and optical luminosity, which shows an abrupt break between high- and low-luminosity sources at an Eddington ratio of {approx}1%, the radio emission-a measure of the jet power-varies continuously with the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosity, roughly as L{sub R} {proportional_to} L{sub X}{sup 0.6-0.75}. This relation, which holds for both radio-weak and radio-strong active galaxies, is similar to the one seen in X-ray binaries. Jet/outflow formation appears to be closely linked to the conditions that give rise to the hot, optically thin coronal emission associated with accretion flows, both in the regime of low and high accretion rates.

  7. Studies of brine chemistry and scaling at the Salton Sea Geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrar, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Features of studies related to brine chemistry and scaling are reported. The results of investigations of brine chemistry, the effects of brine acidification and organic additives on the rate of scale formation and scale composition, and the use of other additives for scale control are summarized. High salinity, high silica geothermal brines were studied and it was shown that the silica and sulfide scales formed from these brines could be eliminated by lowering the pH of brine. The following steps were completed: testing of technical chemical solutions to the scaling problem; finding low cost metallic materials that will resist the brine; proving a method for the treatment of spend brine for injection; perfection of chemical measurement techniques. Most environmental issues are addressed and first increments of electrical power are generated.

  8. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  9. Brine stability study

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gary Garland

    2015-04-15

    This is a study of the brine formulations that we were using in our testing were stable over time. The data includes charts, as well as, all of the original data from the ICP-MS runs to complete this study.

  10. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  11. Formation of multiple terrestrial planets under the influence of a hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    According to the hybrid scenario of planet formation (Inutsuka 2009), giant planets can initially form via gravitational instability in a protoplanetary disk, and subsequently terrestrial planets grow on the basis of the core accretion model. In this work, we investigate formation of close-in terrestrial planets from planetary embryos under the influence of a hot Jupiter (HJ) using gravitational N-body simulations that include gravitational interactions between the gas disk and the planet (e.g., type I migration). We find that several planets are formed and captured in mutual mean motion resonances outside the edge of the gap in the disk, which is opened up by the HJ. The innermost planet is also in the 2:1 resonance with the HJ and thus gravitationally interact with each other, leading to inward migration of the HJ. The migration timescale of the HJ depends on the solid amount in the disk; the HJ does not exhibit inward migration in the result of decreased solid density. We can give several possible explanations for the origin of properties of observed close-in exoplanet systems; we propose two possibilities for the lack of companion planets in HJ systems.

  12. Constraining Effects of Brine Leakage from Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, A.; Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; McCray, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Research has shown that pressure build up associated with injection of CO2 into a deep saline aquifer has the potential to promote brine leakage into overlying formations. In order to understand and quantify chemical changes in an underground source of drinking water (USDW) invaded by deep saline brines, we analyzed over 90,000 brine geochemical data entries from the NETL NATCARB brine database to identify potential brine constituents of concern. Using a variety of statistical methods and EPA regulatory levels or standards (RLS) we narrowed the list of brine constituents of potential concern to USDWs to TDS, thallium, chloride, sulfate and arsenic. Somewhat surprisingly, the distribution of reported pH had a fairly narrow distribution around a median value of 7.4, with over 78% of values complying with EPA recommended secondary standard for drinking water acidity. The pH distribution implies that unlike pure CO2 leakage, far-field brine leakage (i.e., brine not in contact with CO2) is not expected to bear a low-pH signature, thus suggesting use of other means of geochemical monitoring for brine leakage, such as electrical conductivity. Geochemical mixing models of brine and dilute water were used to constrain mixing ratios where RLS values are exceeded for the TDS, thallium and chloride. TDS and chloride exceed the EPA secondary standards at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.012 and 0.459, respectively. The thallium maximum contaminant level (MCL) is exceeded at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.3753, smaller than the chloride mixing ratio. However, sorption and/or desorption processes may alter thallium concentrations along a leakage pathway resulting in lower concentrations in the aquifer than predicted by simple mixing models. While leakage into USDWs has received considerable attention, brine contamination of groundwater used for irrigation of agricultural crops is also an important area of research. Our calculations suggest that almost all crops grown in the United

  13. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  14. Parent brine of the castile evaporites (Upper Permian), Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkland, Douglas W.; Denison, Rodger E.; Dean, Walter E.

    2000-01-01

    The Upper Permian (lower Ochoan) Castile Formation is a major evaporite sequence (∼10,000 km3) of calcite, anhydrite, and halite in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Traditionally the Castile brine has been considered to have been derived from seawater. This tradition has recently been challenged by two versions of the closed-basin drawdown model. They call for deposition from a mixed brine, in part marine and in large part nonmarine. They propose drawdown of as much as 500 m to form a major sink for ground water issuing from the surrounding Capitan reef complex. A large fraction of the solute in the brine body is inferred to have been recycled from older Permian evaporites on the surrounding shelf. Strontium-isotope analyses show no evidence that meteoric ground water was contributed to the Castile brine. From a stratigraphic, geographic, and lithologic array of 65 samples of anhydrite, gypsum, and calcite, 59 have an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.706923 (Δsw of -225.0), a ratio that is the same as that of strontium in early Ochoan ocean water. If considerable (>15%) influx of meteoric water had occurred, enough continental strontium would have been introduced to have resulted in higher ratios. Low bromide values (20-40 ppm) in Castile halite, which have been used to argue for meteoric influx and for recycled salt, probably resulted from diagenesis. During shallow burial by halite, centimeter-size, bottom-grown crystals of gypsum were altered to nodular anhydrite. The rising water of dehydration caused the halite to recrystallize. During the recrystallization, some bromide was expelled. Despite the large volume of water that evaporated annually from its surface (∼52 km3/yr, assuming an evaporation rate of 2 m/yr), the Castile brine body never completely desiccated. The surrounding shelf was flat, hot, and generally dry. It probably could not have supplied a significant volume of meteoric spring water to the basin over tens of thousands of years. More likely

  15. Formation of Chromium Coating and Comparative Examination on Corrosion Resistance with 13Cr Steel in CO2-SATURATED Simulated Oilfield Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Xie, Faqin; Lin, Naiming; Yao, Xiaofei; Tian, Wei; Tang, Bin

    2013-07-01

    In order to enhance the surface properties of P110 oil casing tube steel and increase its usage during operation, chromium coating was fabricated by pack cementation. Scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, element distribution and phase constitutions of the coating. Comparative examinations on corrosion resistance between chromium coating and 13Cr stainless steel in CO2-saturated simulated oilfield brine were carried out via electrochemical measurements. The results showed that the obtained coating was uniform and compact, mainly consisted of CrxCy and doped with minor Cr2N. Chromizing treatment made it possible to create on the working surface of P110 steel with enhanced corrosion resistance, and the chromium coating indicated lower pitting corrosion sensitivity than that of 13Cr stainless steel.

  16. The role of dense brines in the formation of vent-distal sedimentary-exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits: field and laboratory evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, Donald F.

    2002-03-01

    A majority of the world's sediment-hosted exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits are vent-distal. They are not underlain by a discordant alteration zone or stockwork vent complex that would indicate the path by which ore fluids reached the seafloor. The absence of a vent complex, together with sulfide mineral replacement of host rock mineral assemblages has led several investigators to suggest that, in spite of the well-layered nature of these deposits, mineralization was formed by sub-seafloor lateral migration of ore fluids along permeable strata. Field observations, supported by simple laboratory experiments, however, suggest an alternative process for characterizing the genesis of vent-distal SEDEX deposits. Cool, saline brines (e.g., ~120 °C and >15 wt% NaCl equiv.) are denser than seawater and, upon discharging into the sea, would flow away from the discharge vent as bottom-hugging fluids, similar to the behavior of turbidity currents. Their high densities and velocities prevent them from mixing with overlying seawater, thereby precluding significant cooling and dilution of the ore fluid. Upon coming to rest in a seafloor depression, the addition of H2S and/or dilution of the ore fluids to lower salinities result in the eventual precipitation of a vent-distal SEDEX deposit. Furthermore, the dense ore-forming fluid can sink into permeable sediments beneath the brine pool by displacing less dense pore water. The ore fluids are thus capable of effectively overprinting and/or replacing pre-existing minerals in the consolidating sediment pile.

  17. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  18. Hot spot formation of chloroform in forest soils caused pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    High concentration of chloroform in groundwater is usually attributed to anthropogenic input, but we have found that the groundwater beneath some pristine areas contained chloroform from 1 - 10 µg/L. Groundwater containing chloroform that exceeds 1 µg/L could not be used for drinking water according to Danish regulations. The strict demands on groundwater quality may have to be taken into account when decisions are made regarding the change of land use in order to protect major recharge areas from pollution with nitrate and pesticides resulting from high-yield agriculture production. The terrestrial environment and especially hot spots in forest soils seem to be important contributors to apparent pollution of groundwater with chloroform. We performed a field study to investigate concentration and fluxes of chloroform to the groundwater from in four coniferous forests in order to increase knowledge on the hot spot formation and fate of natural chloroform. We investigated four stations over a period of several years in order to measure the net-formation of chloroform. Field measurements soil air concentrations of chloroform were monitored in five soil profiles down to the groundwater table. Meteorological data were recorded at all stations In the hotspots up to 120 ppbv was found in soil air under the spruce forest, to be compared to an ambient atmospheric concentration of 0.02 ppbv. The concentration of chloroform in soil air showed seasonal variation with a maximum in August-September. The chloroform concentration decreased with depth in all profiles during the summer half-year to about 20 % of concentration in the production layer. However, the concentration is still high enough to give an equilibrium concentration in the upper groundwater of 1-10 µg/L. Stable carbon isotopic analyses of chloroform from the uppermost groundwater in different parts of the forests and from soil water showed values from δ13C = -13 ‰ to -27 ‰, corresponding to the ratio in

  19. Corrosion Resistances of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals with Yttrium and Tungsten Additions in Hot Calcium Chloride Brine & Natural Seawater: Fe48Mo14CR15Y2C15B6 and Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Blue, C; Peter, W; Payer, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Branagan, D J; Beardsley, M B; Aprigliano, L

    2006-10-12

    The passive film stability of several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be comparable to that of stainless steels and Ni-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022), based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. Electrochemical studies of the passive film stability of SAM1651 are reported here. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). Yttrium-containing SAM1651, also known as SAM7 (Fe{sub 48.0}Cr{sub 15.0}Mo{sub 14.0}B{sub 6.0}C{sub 15.0}Y{sub 2.0}), has a critical cooling rate (CCR) of approximately 80 Kelvin per second, while yttrium-free SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) has a higher critical cooling rate of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. SAM1651's low CCR enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous material in practical materials processes. While the yttrium enables a low CCR to be achieved, it makes the material relatively difficult to atomize, due to increases in melt viscosity. Consequently, the powders have irregular shape, which makes pneumatic conveyance during thermal spray deposition difficult. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying, due to the formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which depletes the matrix of key alloy elements, whereas SAM1651 can be applied as coatings with the same corrosion resistance as a fully-dense completely amorphous melt-spun ribbon, provided that its amorphous

  20. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation.

    PubMed

    Berelson, W M; Corsetti, F A; Pepe-Ranney, C; Hammond, D E; Beaumont, W; Spear, J R

    2011-09-01

    Stromatolites are commonly interpreted as evidence of ancient microbial life, yet stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood. We apply radiometric tracer and dating techniques, molecular analyses and growth experiments to investigate siliceous stromatolite morphogenesis in Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. We examine rates of stromatolite growth and the environmental and/or biologic conditions that affect lamination formation and preservation, both difficult features to constrain in ancient examples. The "main body" of the stromatolite is composed of finely laminated, porous, light-dark couplets of erect (surface normal) and reclining (surface parallel) silicified filamentous bacteria, interrupted by a less-distinct, well-cemented "drape" lamination. Results from dating studies indicate a growth rate of 1-5 cm year(-1) ; however, growth is punctuated. (14)C as a tracer demonstrates that stromatolite cyanobacterial communities fix CO(2) derived from two sources, vent water (radiocarbon dead) and the atmosphere (modern (14)C). The drape facies contained a greater proportion of atmospheric CO(2) and more robust silica cementation (vs. the main body facies), which we interpret as formation when spring level was lower. Systematic changes in lamination style are likely related to environmental forcing and larger scale features (tectonic, climatic). Although the OPP stromatolites are composed of silica and most ancient forms are carbonate, their fine lamination texture requires early lithification. Without early lithification, whether silica or carbonate, it is unlikely that a finely laminated structure representing an ancient microbial mat would be preserved. In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility. PMID:21777367

  1. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation.

    PubMed

    Berelson, W M; Corsetti, F A; Pepe-Ranney, C; Hammond, D E; Beaumont, W; Spear, J R

    2011-09-01

    Stromatolites are commonly interpreted as evidence of ancient microbial life, yet stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood. We apply radiometric tracer and dating techniques, molecular analyses and growth experiments to investigate siliceous stromatolite morphogenesis in Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. We examine rates of stromatolite growth and the environmental and/or biologic conditions that affect lamination formation and preservation, both difficult features to constrain in ancient examples. The "main body" of the stromatolite is composed of finely laminated, porous, light-dark couplets of erect (surface normal) and reclining (surface parallel) silicified filamentous bacteria, interrupted by a less-distinct, well-cemented "drape" lamination. Results from dating studies indicate a growth rate of 1-5 cm year(-1) ; however, growth is punctuated. (14)C as a tracer demonstrates that stromatolite cyanobacterial communities fix CO(2) derived from two sources, vent water (radiocarbon dead) and the atmosphere (modern (14)C). The drape facies contained a greater proportion of atmospheric CO(2) and more robust silica cementation (vs. the main body facies), which we interpret as formation when spring level was lower. Systematic changes in lamination style are likely related to environmental forcing and larger scale features (tectonic, climatic). Although the OPP stromatolites are composed of silica and most ancient forms are carbonate, their fine lamination texture requires early lithification. Without early lithification, whether silica or carbonate, it is unlikely that a finely laminated structure representing an ancient microbial mat would be preserved. In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility.

  2. Geochemistry of formation waters from the Wolfcamp and “Cline” shales: Insights into brine origin, reservoir connectivity, and fluid flow in the Permian Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Reyes, Francisco R.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Lin, Ma; Ianno, Adam J.; Westphal, Tiffani M.; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important oil producing provinces in the United States, information on basinal hydrogeology and fluid flow in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico is lacking. The source and geochemistry of brines from the basin were investigated (Ordovician- to Guadalupian-age reservoirs) by combining previously published data from conventional reservoirs with geochemical results for 39 new produced water samples, with a focus on those from shales. Salinity of the Ca–Cl-type brines in the basin generally increases with depth reaching a maximum in Devonian (median = 154 g/L) reservoirs, followed by decreases in salinity in the Silurian (median = 77 g/L) and Ordovician (median = 70 g/L) reservoirs. Isotopic data for B, O, H, and Sr and ion chemistry indicate three major types of water. Lower salinity fluids (<70 g/L) of meteoric origin in the middle and upper Permian hydrocarbon reservoirs (1.2–2.5 km depth; Guadalupian and Leonardian age) likely represent meteoric waters that infiltrated through and dissolved halite and anhydrite in the overlying evaporite layer. Saline (>100 g/L), isotopically heavy (O and H) water in Leonardian [Permian] to Pennsylvanian reservoirs (2–3.2 km depth) is evaporated, Late Permian seawater. Water from the Permian Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian “Cline” shales, which are isotopically similar but lower in salinity and enriched in alkalis, appear to have developed their composition due to post-illitization diffusion into the shales. Samples from the “Cline” shale are further enriched with NH4, Br, I and isotopically light B, sourced from the breakdown of marine kerogen in the unit. Lower salinity waters (<100 g/L) in Devonian and deeper reservoirs (>3 km depth), which plot near the modern local meteoric water line, are distinct from the water in overlying reservoirs. We propose that these deep meteoric waters are part of a newly identified hydrogeologic unit: the Deep Basin Meteoric Aquifer System

  3. 7 CFR 58.422 - Brine tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tank. 58.422 Section 58.422 Agriculture....422 Brine tank. The brine tank shall be constructed of suitable non-toxic material and should be resistant to corrosion, pitting or flaking. The brine tank shall be operated so as to assure the brine...

  4. Detection of neural activity in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a "hot defensive bee ball".

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kiya, Taketoshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Ono, Masato; Yoshida, Tadaharu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica). Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a "hot defensive bee ball" by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica), on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei) of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing. PMID:22431987

  5. Hot, metastable hydronium ion in the Galactic centre: formation pumping in X-ray-irradiated gas?

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Schilke, Peter; Bergin, Edwin A; Emprechtinger, Martin

    2012-11-13

    With a 3.5 m diameter telescope passively cooled to approximately 80 K, and a science payload comprising two direct detection cameras/medium resolution imaging spectrometers (PACS and SPIRE) and a very high spectral resolution heterodyne spectrometer (HIFI), the Herschel Space Observatory is providing extraordinary observational opportunities in the 55-670 μm spectral range. HIFI has opened for the first time to high-resolution spectroscopy the submillimetre band that includes the fundamental rotational transitions of interstellar hydrides, the basic building blocks of astrochemistry. We discuss a recent HIFI discovery of metastable rotational transitions of the hydronium ion (protonated water, H(3)O(+)), with rotational level energies up to 1200 K above the ground state, in absorption towards Sagittarius B2(N) in the Galactic centre. Hydronium is an important molecular ion in the oxygen chemical network. Earlier HIFI observations have indicated a general deficiency of H(3)O(+) in the diffuse gas in the Galactic disc. The presence of hot H(3)O(+) towards Sagittarius B2(N) thus appears to be related to the unique physical conditions in the central molecular zone, manifested, for example, by the widespread presence of abundant H(3)(+). One intriguing theory for the high rotational temperature characterizing the population of the H(3)O(+) metastable levels may be formation pumping in molecular gas irradiated by X-rays emitted by the Galactic centre black hole. Alternatively, the pervasive presence of enhanced turbulence in the central molecular zone may give rise to shocks in the lower-density medium that is exposed to energetic radiation.

  6. Hot, metastable hydronium ion in the Galactic centre: formation pumping in X-ray-irradiated gas?

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Schilke, Peter; Bergin, Edwin A; Emprechtinger, Martin

    2012-11-13

    With a 3.5 m diameter telescope passively cooled to approximately 80 K, and a science payload comprising two direct detection cameras/medium resolution imaging spectrometers (PACS and SPIRE) and a very high spectral resolution heterodyne spectrometer (HIFI), the Herschel Space Observatory is providing extraordinary observational opportunities in the 55-670 μm spectral range. HIFI has opened for the first time to high-resolution spectroscopy the submillimetre band that includes the fundamental rotational transitions of interstellar hydrides, the basic building blocks of astrochemistry. We discuss a recent HIFI discovery of metastable rotational transitions of the hydronium ion (protonated water, H(3)O(+)), with rotational level energies up to 1200 K above the ground state, in absorption towards Sagittarius B2(N) in the Galactic centre. Hydronium is an important molecular ion in the oxygen chemical network. Earlier HIFI observations have indicated a general deficiency of H(3)O(+) in the diffuse gas in the Galactic disc. The presence of hot H(3)O(+) towards Sagittarius B2(N) thus appears to be related to the unique physical conditions in the central molecular zone, manifested, for example, by the widespread presence of abundant H(3)(+). One intriguing theory for the high rotational temperature characterizing the population of the H(3)O(+) metastable levels may be formation pumping in molecular gas irradiated by X-rays emitted by the Galactic centre black hole. Alternatively, the pervasive presence of enhanced turbulence in the central molecular zone may give rise to shocks in the lower-density medium that is exposed to energetic radiation. PMID:23028163

  7. Modeling DBPs formation in drinking water in residential plumbing pipes and hot water tanks.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan; Serodes, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal supply water are a concern because of their possible risks to human health. Risk assessment studies often use DBP data in water distribution systems (WDS). However, DBPs in tap water may be different because of stagnation of the water in plumbing pipes (PP) and heating in hot water tanks (HWT). This study investigated occurrences and developed predictive models for DBPs in the PP and the HWT of six houses from three municipal water systems in Quebec (Canada) in a year-round study. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in PP and HWT were observed to be 1.4-1.8 and 1.9-2.7 times the THMs in the WDS, respectively. Haloacetic acid (HAAs) in PP and HWT were observed to be variable (PP/WDS = 0.23-2.24; HWT/WDS = 0.53-2.61). Using DBPs occurrence data from these systems, three types of linear models (main factors; main factors, interactions and higher orders; logarithmic) and two types of nonlinear models (three parameters Logistic and four parameters Weibull) were investigated to predict DBPs in the PP and HWT. Significant factors affecting DBPs formation in the PP and HWT were identified through numerical and graphical techniques. The R(2) values of the models varied between 0.77 and 0.96, indicating excellent predictive ability for THMs and HAAs in the PP and the HWT. The models were found to be statistically significant. The models were validated using additional data. These models can be used to predict DBPs increase from WDS (water entry point of house) to the PP and HWT, and could thereby help gain a better understanding of human exposure to DBPs and their associated risks.

  8. Modeling DBPs formation in drinking water in residential plumbing pipes and hot water tanks.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan; Serodes, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal supply water are a concern because of their possible risks to human health. Risk assessment studies often use DBP data in water distribution systems (WDS). However, DBPs in tap water may be different because of stagnation of the water in plumbing pipes (PP) and heating in hot water tanks (HWT). This study investigated occurrences and developed predictive models for DBPs in the PP and the HWT of six houses from three municipal water systems in Quebec (Canada) in a year-round study. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in PP and HWT were observed to be 1.4-1.8 and 1.9-2.7 times the THMs in the WDS, respectively. Haloacetic acid (HAAs) in PP and HWT were observed to be variable (PP/WDS = 0.23-2.24; HWT/WDS = 0.53-2.61). Using DBPs occurrence data from these systems, three types of linear models (main factors; main factors, interactions and higher orders; logarithmic) and two types of nonlinear models (three parameters Logistic and four parameters Weibull) were investigated to predict DBPs in the PP and HWT. Significant factors affecting DBPs formation in the PP and HWT were identified through numerical and graphical techniques. The R(2) values of the models varied between 0.77 and 0.96, indicating excellent predictive ability for THMs and HAAs in the PP and the HWT. The models were found to be statistically significant. The models were validated using additional data. These models can be used to predict DBPs increase from WDS (water entry point of house) to the PP and HWT, and could thereby help gain a better understanding of human exposure to DBPs and their associated risks. PMID:20732706

  9. Laboratory Simulation of Haze/Aerosol formation in warm and hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharib-Nezhad, Ehsan; Lyons, James R.; Wright, David P.

    2016-10-01

    During the transit of an exoplanet across its host star, transmitted starlight through exoplanet atmosphere is absorbed and scattered, and the recorded transit spectra reveal important chemical information. There are many detected exoplanets in which hazes/aerosols obscure the incident photons, and consequently, fewer photons are transmitted through the atmosphere, contributing to a flat/nearly flat transit spectrum. Here, we have carried out two complementary approaches to address haze formation. First, laboratory simulations of haze condensation in exoplanet atmospheres are carried out using an electric discharge tube. A mixture of likely gas species (i.e. H2, He, H2O, CH4, N2 and H2S) is inserted into a glass manifold on a vacuum line, at a pressure ~100-10 mbar, and depending on the exoplanet category (e.g., warm or hot Jupiters), the temperature is set. Applying a few kilovolts produces plasma in the discharge tube, and as a result, particles are formed. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the optical constants (complex refractive index) of the collected laboratory hazes. Then, chemical characterization is made using RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). Second, we developed a transit modeling code by which the transit spectra are generated using observational and laboratory data as an input. The model accounts for Mie scattering from haze particles in the vis-NIR spectral region, and Rayleigh scattering which comes from gases and particles (effective in UV-vis). The measured refractive indexes (real and imaginary part) describe the absorption and scattering in the vis-NIR transmission region, and, by generating transit spectra close to the observed ones from exoplanets, constraints on atmospheric chemical characterization can be revealed. Our laboratory results show that haze particles formed in the presence of water and with the solar C/O ratio = 0.5. The other outcome of our experiment is that

  10. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  11. Scale formation and descaling in hot rolling of low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basabe Mancheno, Vladimir Vinicio

    In this research, the effects of gas composition, elapsed time of reaction and temperature on scale formation and descaling of low carbon steel were investigated and results were discussed from the viewpoint of the phase composition of the scales, oxidation rates, oxidation mechanisms, adhesion, fracture mechanics, porosity and residual scale. The phase composition and morphology of scales grown under conditions similar to those of reheating furnaces were analyzed. Low carbon steel was oxidized over the temperature range 1000-1250°C in gas mixtures of O 2-CO2-H2O-N2, O2-H 2O-N2 and O2-CO2-N2. The mole fraction of each phase, wustite (FeO), magnetite (Fe3O 4) and hematite (Fe2O3) was determined by the direct comparison method Two types of scales were observed. The first type was a crystalline scale with an irregular outer surface composed mostly of wustite, and a negligible amount of magnetite. The second type was the classical three-layer scale composed of wustite, magnetite and hematite. In general, the experiments showed that the furnace atmosphere, oxidation time and temperature influence the phase composition of the scales. Low carbon steel was oxidized in air over the temperature range 600-1200°C for 120 s to approximate the formation of secondary and tertiary scale in hot rolling. The mole fraction of wustite, magnetite and hematite was determined by the direct comparison method The phase composition of the scales changed with temperature and time. During the initial 30 s of oxidation, wustite was the predominant phase in the temperature range 800-1200°C, and as oxidation proceeded, the percentages of magnetite and hematite increased. In addition, the texture of the scales was investigated by orientation imaging microscopy (OIM); it was found that temperature influences the texture of the scales. The experiments indicated that 850°C is the ideal temperature for the finishing mill in order to reduce surface defects and work roll wear. The adhesion of

  12. Shallow Groundwater and Brine Processes in Antarctica: Linking Seasonal and Interannual Changes in Active Layer Hydrology to Ecosystem Change and Thermokarst Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    We report on measurements of soil hydrological and thermal properties from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDV), and relate them to changes in the spatial patterns of shallow groundwater flow (water tracks), landscape subsidence (thermokarst), and microbial and invertebrate ecosystem response. We show that shallow groundwater in the MDV is primarily derived from snowfall and seasonal ground ice melt, but is evaporatively concentrated during the summer flow period to produce saline to hypersaline active layer solutions. Multi-year profiles of soil temperature and soil moisture indicate that water track flow is largely limited to the duration of active layer conditions (~2 months) and that water track discharge is characterized by an early season pulse as ground ice melts, and a late season pulse as solutions flowing downslope accumulate at the base of the water tracks. Evaporative concentration of water track fluids, coupled with soil salt dissolution, and/or cation exchange reactions, result in enrichment of water track fluids in chloride and sulfate salts (depending on local soil chemistry) such that initially fresh snowmelt becomes saline to hypersaline over several km of groundwater flow. These brines shape soil ecosystems in the MDV by controlling salinity-dependent habitat suitability for invertebrates and microbial organisms. We show that these soil salts and shallow groundwater solutions accumulate in local depressions to form ponds, and that where these ponds are located above buried ice, the presence of salts leads to expansion of the basins to form large thermokarst depressions. Because water tracks are primarily snow-fed, and are moderated by shallow groundwater processes, they represent a component of the Antarctic hydrological system that is likely to respond rapidly to regional changes in temperature and precipitation, altering Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems, carbon budgets, and ground ice distribution.

  13. Hot spot formation and stagnation properties in simulations of direct-drive NIF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.; Obenschain, Stephen P.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate different proposed methods of increasing the hot spot energy and radius in inertial confinement fusion implosions. In particular, shock mistiming (preferentially heating the inner edge of the target's fuel) and increasing the initial vapor gas density are investigated as possible control mechanisms. We find that only the latter is effective in substantially increasing the hot spot energy and dimensions while achieving ignition. In all cases an increase in the hot spot energy is accompanied by a decrease in the hot spot energy density (pressure) and both the yield and the gain of the target drop substantially. 2D simulations of increased vapor density targets predict an increase in the robustness of the target with respect to surface perturbations but are accompanied by significant yield degradation.

  14. Hydrocarbon generation and brine migration in the central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in mineralized natural fractures from six Devonian shale cores were used to document hydrocarbon generation and brine migration in the central Appalachian basin. The sequence of formation of four regional fracture sets containing the inclusions was used to constrain the relative timing of fluid evolution. The earliest formed fluid inclusions are single-phase liquid inclusions containing a complex mixture of methane, ethane, higher hydrocarbons, and nitrogen. These inclusions formed during burial of the Devonian shales and early hydrocarbon generation in the oil window. As burial proceeded to a maximum and hydrocarbon generation entered the gas phase, later formed fluid inclusions record the presence of a more methane-rich fluid with minor ethane and nitrogen. Either during maximum burial or early uplift of the Devonian shale section, regional stress relaxation was accompanied by regional brine migration. Fluid inclusions record the influx of a methane-saturated, sodium chloride-rich brine and subsequent mixing with a presumably in situ-calcium-rich brine and subsequent mixing with a presumably in-situ calcium-rich brine. The migration pathway is presumed to be the Devonian shale detachment zone and underlying Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. This migration may be related to the fluids forming Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Present-day brine compositions reflect this ancient mixing. Brines from deep Cambrian through Silurian rocks are more calcium-chloride rich than brines from shallower Devonian and younger rocks. The sodium chloride-rich brines from Upper Devonian through Pennsylvanian rocks become more dilute as a result of mixing with meteoric water.

  15. Proposed NIF Experiments to Explore Convergence Ratio and Robustness of Hot Spot Formation in DT Liquid Layer HDC Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R.; Leeper, R.; Grim, G.; Kline, J.; Peterson, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Hamza, A.; Ho, D.; Jones, O.; Lepape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Robey, H.

    2014-10-01

    DT Liquid Layer ICF capsules allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio via the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density. High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for ICF capsules, and a technique has been developed for lining the inner surface of a HDC shell with an ultra-low-density hydrocarbon foam that will survive wetting with liquid hydrogen. In this presentation, we propose a series of NIF experiments using liquid DT layer (wetted foam) HDC capsules to test the hypothesis that our predictive capability of hot spot formation is robust for a relatively low convergence ratio hot spot, but will become more difficult as vapor pressure is reduced and hot spot convergence ratio is increased. The proposed liquid DT layer HDC capsule ``sub-scale'' experiments utilize near-vacuum hohlraums with NIF laser pulse energies of about 1 MJ, but larger scale experiments are also considered. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Ion association in natural brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  17. How is a Brine Pool/Lake Maintained at Seafloor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.

    2009-12-01

    out gradually. A possible mechanism is that the gas-bearing fluid produces gas hydrate as it approaches the seafloor and enters into brine pool/lake. The less dense gas hydrate keeps moving upwards and eventually dissociates near the pool/lake surface. This gas hydrate formation/dissociation process acts to continuously extract fresh water from the brine pool/lake then release it at the surface and thus to maintain the sharp interface. This mechanism may also contribute to or be solely responsible for the accumulation of salt in a brine pool/lake.

  18. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Veit, R.; Kolleck, R.; Hofmann, H.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-17

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating.In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  19. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, R.; Hofmann, H.; Kolleck, R.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating. In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  20. Hot ammonia around young O-type stars. III. High-mass star formation and hot core activity in W51 Main

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddi, C.; Ginsburg, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-05-01

    Context. This paper is the third in a series of NH3 multilevel imaging studies in well-known, high-mass star-forming regions. The main goal is to characterize kinematics and physical conditions of (hot and dense) circumstellar molecular gas around O-type young stars. Aims: We want to map at subarcsecond resolution highly excited inversion lines of NH3 in the high-mass star-forming region W51 Main (distance = 5.4 kpc), which is an ideal target to constrain theoretical models of high-mass star formation. Methods: Using the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), we mapped the hot and dense molecular gas in W51 Main with ~0.2 arcsec-0.3 arcsec angular resolution in five metastable (J = K) inversion transitions of ammonia (NH3): (J,K) = (6, 6), (7, 7), (9, 9), (10, 10), and (13, 13). These lines arise from energy levels between ~400 K and ~1700 K above the ground state. We also made maps of the (free-free) continuum emission at frequencies between 25 and 36 GHz. Results: We have identified and characterized two main centers of high-mass star formation in W51 Main, which excite hot cores and host one or multiple high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) at their centers: the W51e2 complex and the W51e8 core (~6'' southward of W51e2). The former breaks down into three further subcores: W51e2-W, which surrounds the well-known hypercompact (HC) HII region, where hot NH3 is observed in absorption, and two additional dusty cores, W51e2-E (~0.8 arcsec to the East) and W51e2-NW (~1'' to the North), where hot NH3 is observed in emission. The velocity maps toward the HC HII region show a clear velocity gradient along the east-west in all lines. The gradient may indicate rotation, although any Keplerian motion must be on smaller scales (<1000 AU) as we do not directly observe a Keplerian velocity profile. The absence of outflow and/or maser activity and the low amount of molecular gas available for accretion (~5 M⊙, assuming [NH3]/[H2] = 10-7) with respect to the mass of the central

  1. The Formation of Glycine in Hot Cores: New Gas-grain Chemical Simulations of Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin

    2012-07-01

    Organic molecules of increasing complexity have been detected in the warm envelopes of star-forming cores, commonly referred to as "hot cores". Spectroscopic searches at mm/sub-mm wavelengths have uncovered both amines and carboxylic acids in these regions, as well as a range of other compounds including alcohols, ethers, esters, and nitriles. However, the simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has not yet been reliably detected in the ISM. There has been much interest in this molecule, due to its importance to the formation of proteins, and to life, while the positive identification of interstellar molecules of similar or greater complexity suggests that its existence in star-forming regions is plausible. I will present the results of recent models of hot-core chemistry that simulate the formation of both simple and complex molecules on the surfaces or within the ice mantles of dust grains. I will also present results from the first gas-grain astrochemical model to approach the question of amino-acid formation in hot cores. The formation of glycine in moderate abundance is found to be as efficient as that for similarly complex species, while its sublimation from the grains occurs at somewhat higher temperatures. However, simulated emission spectra based on the model results show that the degree of compactness of high-abundance regions, and the density and temperature profiles of the cores may be the key variables affecting the future detection of glycine, as well as other amino acids, and may explain its non-detection to date.

  2. Assessment of the factors affecting protective alumina formation under hot corrosion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, Michael Nathan

    In this study, the influence of microstructure, composition, and phase constitution on the Type I (900°C) and Type II (700°C) hot corrosion resistance of MCrAlY and β-NiAl base alloys was investigated. The Type II hot corrosion resistance of MCrAlY alloys is generally enhanced by microstructural refinement. This can be attributed to the more rapid establishment of a protective Al2O3-rich scale due to the higher density of short-circuit diffusion paths for Al (phase boundaries). However, it was shown that for a given bulk composition, the compositions of the individual phases is also extremely important. If one phase is lean in an element which is highly beneficial from a hot corrosion standpoint, e.g., Cr, Type II hot corrosion resistance is quite poor, regardless of the microstructural scale. In addition, coarse reactive-element-rich phases, which are commonly found in MCrAlY alloys, can be incorporated into the thermally grown Al2O 3 scale and act as initiation sites for Type II attack. This stresses the importance of reactive element content and distribution in MCrAlY coatings. During Type I hot corrosion exposure of β-Ni-36Al (at. %) base alloys, the incubation stage is greatly extended by the addition of 5% Pt, Co, or Cr. In each case, the beneficial effects can be linked to an enhanced ability to rapidly form a protective Al2O3 scale, and to heal this scale when it sustains damage during exposure. With regard to Type II hot corrosion, individual additions of 5 at. % Pt or Cr are beneficial, largely for the same reason; however, additions of 5 at. % Co and co-additions of 5 at. % Pt + 5 at. % Cr result in a decrease in the duration of the incubation stage. Subsurface phase transformations that occur in the latter systems prevent the alloy from maintaining the growth of the Al2O3 scale. This mechanism is discussed in detail. Finally, the influence of alloy composition and exposure environment on the kinetics of the θ→α Al2O3 transformation in scales

  3. The significance of Rb-Sr glauconite ages, Bonneterre Formation, Missouri; Late Devonian-Early Mississippian brine migration in the midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, H.J. ); Kish, S.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Rb-Sr mean model ages of 370 {plus minus} 10 Ma for glauconites from the Cambrian lower Bonneterre Formation in southern and central Missouri are in excellent agreement with a Rb-Sr isochron age of 359 {plus minus} 22 Ma for glauconites from the Magmont mine (Viburnum Trend) in the southeast Missouri lead district. The lower Bonneterre and Magmont mines ages probably reflect isotopic resetting, most likely associated with dolomitization and/or Mississippi Valley-type ore formation in the southeast Missouri lead district. The temporal relation between widespread dolomitization and ore formation in Missouri is unclear, but mounting evidence for two Devonian disturbances permits the following interpretation: (1) a Devonian timing (380-400 Ma) for widespread dolomitization, and (2) a Late Devonian-Early Mississippian timing (360-370 Ma) for ore formation in southeast Missouri. Late Devonian-Early Mississippian fluids associated with the earliest stages of collisional tectonics and metamorphism to the south and southeast may have been important in the formation of southeast Missouri ore deposits. These tectonically driven waters may themselves have been the Mississippi Valley-type ore fluids, entering Missouri by way of the Black Warrior basin and Reelfoot rift and/or the Arkoma basin. Alternatively, the movement of orogenic fluids hundreds of kilometers distant may have initiated and distally influenced the migration of more locally derived Mississippi Valley-type ore fluids. Broad regions of Missouri and adjacent areas experienced heating and crustal flexing in the Late Devonian, and consequently, preservation of elevated temperatures in Mississippi Valley-type fluids as they move great lateral distances may not be necessary for ore formation in southeast Missouri.

  4. Stability of brines on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    The detection of high chlorine and sulfate abundances and duricrusts on Mars strongly suggests the occasional presence of brines on the Martian surface. Ternary phase diagrams for the likely chloride and sulfate brines indicate that the minimum temperature at which a brine can be stable is near 210 K with a water concentration of approximately 70 wt % and a high concentration of calcium chloride. The dominance of sulfate over chlorine in the Martian regolith suggests precipitation of salts at temperatures higher than the minimum.

  5. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of brines from three oil- and gas-producing sandstones in eastern Ohio, with applications to the geochemical tracing of brine sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, K.J.; Angelo, Clifford G.; Masters, Robert W.; Sedam, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic characteristics of selected inorganic constituents are reported for brines from the Berea Sandstone of Mississippian age, the Clinton sandstone, Albion Sandstone of Silurian age, and the Rose Run formation of Cambrian and Ordovician age in 24 counties in eastern Ohio. Ionic concentrations of dissolved constituents in brines from these formations generally fall in the following ranges (in millimoles per kilogram of brine): Na, Cl > 1,000; 100 < Ca, Mg < 1,000; 1 < K, Br, Sr, Li, Fe, SO4 < 100; Mn, Zn, Al, I, HCO3, SiO2 < 1. Mean ionic concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, K, SO4 and Br, and mean values of density and dissolved solids are significantly different at the 95-percent confidence level in each formation. Only potassium has a unique concentration range in each formation. Selected concentration ratios are identified as potential indicators for geochemical tracing of brines having some history of dilution. The k:Na ratios work best for identifying the source formation of an unidentified brine. Isotopic characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen indicate a meteoric origin for the water matrix of the brines. Sulfur isotopes may have utility for differentiating brines from oxidizing ground water.

  6. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  7. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  8. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine.

  9. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting byproduct selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N2, N2O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 1024 photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH4+. To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  10. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  11. EFFECTS OF HOT HALO GAS ON STAR FORMATION AND MASS TRANSFER DURING DISTANT GALAXY–GALAXY ENCOUNTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2015-06-01

    We use N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of encounters between an early-type galaxy (ETG) and a late-type galaxy (LTG) to study the effects of hot halo gas on the evolution for a case with the mass ratio of the ETG to LTG of 2:1 and the closest approach distance of ∼100 kpc. We find that the dynamics of the cold disk gas in the tidal bridge and the amount of the newly formed stars depend strongly on the existence of a gas halo. In the run of interacting galaxies not having a hot gas halo, the gas and stars accreted into the ETG do not include newly formed stars. However, in the run using the ETG with a gas halo and the LTG without a gas halo, a shock forms along the disk gas tidal bridge and induces star formation near the closest approach. The shock front is parallel to a channel along which the cold gas flows toward the center of the ETG. As a result, the ETG can accrete star-forming cold gas and newly born stars at and near its center. When both galaxies have hot gas halos, a shock is formed between the two gas halos somewhat before the closest approach. The shock hinders the growth of the cold gas bridge to the ETG and also ionizes it. Only some of the disk stars transfer through the stellar bridge. We conclude that the hot halo gas can give significant hydrodynamic effects during distant encounters.

  12. Galaxy formation with local photoionization feedback - II. Effect of X-ray emission from binaries and hot gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, R.; Vogelsberger, M.; Stinson, G. S.; Hennawi, J. F.; Marinacci, F.; Springel, V.; Macciò, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    We study how X-rays from stellar binary systems and the hot intracluster medium (ICM) affect the radiative cooling rates of gas in galaxies. Our study uses a novel implementation of gas cooling in the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code AREPO. X-rays from stellar binaries do not affect cooling at all as their emission spectrum is too hard to effectively couple with galactic gas. In contrast, X-rays from the ICM couple well with gas in the temperature range 104-106 K. Idealized simulations show that the hot halo radiation field has minimal impact on the dynamics of cooling flows in clusters because of the high virial temperature ( ≳ 107 K), making the interaction between the gas and incident photons very ineffective. Satellite galaxies in cluster environments, on the other hand, experience a high radiation flux due to the emission from the host halo. Low-mass satellites ( ≲ 1012 M⊙) in particular have virial temperatures that are exactly in the regime where the effect of the radiation field is maximal. Idealized simulations of satellite galaxies including only the effect of host halo radiation (no ram pressure stripping or tidal effects) fields show a drastic reduction in the amount of cool gas formed (˜40 per cent) on a short time-scale of about 0.5 Gyr. A galaxy merger simulation including all the other environmental quenching mechanisms, shows about 20 per cent reduction in the stellar mass of the satellite and about ˜30 per cent reduction in star formation rate after 1 Gyr due to the host hot halo radiation field. These results indicate that the hot halo radiation fields potentially play an important role in quenching galaxies in cluster environments.

  13. HVOF Spraying of Fe-Based MMC Coatings with In Situ Formation of Hard Particles by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röttger, A.; Weber, S. L.; Theisen, W.; Rajasekaran, B.; Vaßen, R.

    2012-03-01

    Thick (2-3 mm) Fe-base coatings with admixed ferrotitanium (Fe30Ti70) were applied to austenitic steel by a high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF). Hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) was carried out to the decrease porosity and to increase the material strength, wear resistance, and adhesive bond strength of the deposited coating to the substrate material. SEM and XRD investigations confirmed the formation of hard titanium carbide (TiC) particles during HIP treatment as a result of strong carbon diffusion out of the metal matrix and into the Fe30Ti70 particles. The mechanical and wear properties of the densified coatings were investigated by means of shear tests, hardness measurements, and abrasive wear tests. A comparison of the coatings in the as-sprayed and the HIPed state showed a large increase in the wear resistance due to in situ TiC formation.

  14. Stellar scattering and the formation of hot Jupiters in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, J. G.; Beaugé, C.

    2015-04-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJs) are usually defined as giant Jovian-size planets with orbital periods P<=10 days. Although they lie close to the star, several have finite eccentricities and significant misalignment angle with respect to the stellar equator, leading to ~20% of HJs in retrograde orbits. More than half, however, seem consistent with near-circular and planar orbits. In recent years, two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the excited and misaligned subpopulation of HJs: Lidov-Kozai migration and planet-planet scattering. Although both are based on completely different dynamical phenomena, at first hand they appear to be equally effective in generating hot planets. Nevertheless, there has been no detailed analysis comparing the predictions of both mechanisms, especially with respect to the final distribution of orbital characteristics. In this paper, we present a series of numerical simulations of Lidov-Kozai trapping of single planets in compact binary systems that suffered a close fly-by of a background star. Both the planet and the binary component are initially placed in coplanar orbits, although the inclination of the impactor is assumed random. After the passage of the third star, we follow the orbital and spin evolution of the planet using analytical models based on the octupole expansion of the secular Hamiltonian. We also include tidal effects, stellar oblateness and post-Newtonian perturbations. The present work aims at the comparison of the two mechanisms (Lidov-Kozai and planet-planet scattering) as an explanation for the excited and inclined HJs in binary systems. We compare the results obtained through this paper with results in Beaugé & Nesvorný (2012), where the authors analyse how the planet-planet scattering mechanisms works in order to form this hot Jovian-size planets. We find that several of the orbital characteristics of the simulated HJs are caused by tidal trapping from quasi-parabolic orbits, independent of the driving mechanism

  15. Synthetic (Hydrothermal) Hematite-Rich Mars-Analog Spherules from Acid-Sulfate Brines: Implications for Formation and Diagenesis of Hematite Spherules in Outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter discovered a large area at Meridiani Planum (MP) covered with the Fe-oxide hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) [1,2]. This discovery and favorable landing site characteristics led to selection of MP as the landing site for the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover (MER) [3]. The Athena science payload onboard the Opportunity rover identified hematite-rich spherules (mean spherule diameter approx.4.2+/-0.8 mm) embedded in S-rich outcrop rock and also as lag deposits of whole and broken spherules [4,5,6,7,8,9]. Although the chemical and mineralogical compositions of spherules are not fully constrained, Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and chemical analyses from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) are consistent with a hematite mineralogical composition and an oxide bulk chemical composition consisting of Fe2O3. MGS-TES, also provides an important constraint that emission from the hematite-rich spherules is dominated by emission along the crystallographic c-axis [1,2,10,11]. The formation of hematite-rich spherules with similar chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and crystallographic properties to the MP spherules is rare on Earth, to date, only two natural analogs have been proposed; one from Utah (Navaho Concretions) and the other from Mauna Kea, Hawaii [12,13]. In this study, we synthesized in the laboratory hematite-rich spherules using conditions that may have existed on Early Mars [14] and compared their properties to those for MP hematite spherules of Mars and the analog spherules from Utah and Mauna Kea in order to assess their relative merit as MP hematite spherule analogs. Such comparisons yield clues to the formation pathway for MP spherules.

  16. Are hot Neptunes partially evaporated hot Jupiters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, G.; Figueira, P.; Correia, A. C. M.; Santos, N. C.

    2011-10-01

    The detection of short period planets (hot Jupiters and their lower mass counterparts, hot Neptunes and super-Earths) still defies the models of planet formation and evolution. Several possibilities have been proposed to explain the nature and formation process of the lower mass population, including in situ formation, disk migration, planet-planet scattering and kozai evolution, and the evaporation of a higher mass hot Jupiter. Using dynamical models and the best estimates for evaporation velocities, we show that under reasonable (and observed) physical conditions, hot Jupiter evaporation may explain the observed population of hot Neptunes/super-Earths.

  17. Are Hot Neptunes Partialy Evaporated Hot Jupiters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Nuno; Boue, G.; Figueira, P.; Correia, A.

    2011-09-01

    The detection of short period planets (hot Jupiters and their lower mass counterparts, hot neptunes and super-earths) still defies the models of planet formation and evolution. Several possibilities have been proposed to explain the nature and formation process of the lower mass population, including in situ formation, disk migration, planet-planet scattering and kozai evolution, and the evaporation of a higher mass hot Jupiter. Using dynamical models and the best estimates for evaporation velocities, we show that under reasonable (and observed) physical conditions, hot Jupiter evaporation can explain the observed population of hot Neptunes/super-Earths.

  18. Ignition kernel formation and lift-off behaviour of jet-in-hot-coflow flames

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenhof, E.; Tummers, M.J.; van Veen, E.H.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2010-06-15

    The stabilisation region of turbulent non-premixed flames of natural gas mixtures burning in a hot and diluted coflow is studied by recording the flame luminescence with an intensified high-speed camera. The flame base is found to behave fundamentally differently from that of a conventional lifted jet flame in a cold air coflow. Whereas the latter flame has a sharp interface that moves up and down, ignition kernels are continuously being formed in the jet-in-hot-coflow flames, growing in size while being convected downstream. To study the lift-off height effectively given these highly variable flame structures, a new definition of lift-off height is introduced. An important parameter determining lift-off height is the mean ignition frequency density in the flame stabilisation region. An increase in coflow temperature and the addition of small quantities of higher alkanes both increase ignition frequencies, and decrease the distance between the jet exit and the location where the first ignition kernels appear. Both mechanisms lower the lift-off height. An increase in jet Reynolds number initially leads to a significant decrease of the location where ignition first occurs. Higher jet Reynolds numbers (above 5000) do not strongly alter the location of first ignition but hamper the growth of flame pockets and reduce ignition frequencies in flames with lower coflow temperatures, leading to larger lift-off heights. (author)

  19. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  20. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  1. Double-diffusive convection as a mechanism for transferring heat and mass within the Salton Sea geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    H. C. Helgeson noted in 1968 that the salinity of the brine in the geothermal reservoir within the Salton Sea geothermal system generally increases from the top to the bottom and from the center to the sides. He also noted that pressure measurements at perforations in cased wells seemed to indicate that the formation fluids at the depths of production have a specific density about equal to 1, and that hot concentrated brines apparently exist in pressure equilibrium with comparatively cold dilute pore waters in the surrounding rocks. Since 1968 there have been no published reports that dispute these observations. However, a very high heat flux through the top of the system seems to require a substantial component of convective transfer of heat beneath an impermeable cap, whereas the apparent salinity gradient with depth seems to require little or no free convection of brine. This paradox may be resolved if double-diffusive convection is the main process that controls the depth-temperature-salinity relations. Such convection provides a mechanism for transferring heat from the bottom to the top of the hydrothermal system while maintaining vertical and horizontal salinity gradients—densities remaining close to unity. In 1981, Griffiths showed experimentally that layered double-diffusive convection cells may develop in porous media when hot saline waters underlie more dilute cooler waters. However, nagging questions remain about whether fluid densities within the Salton Sea geothermal system really adjust to unity in response to changing temperature and salinity at depths greater than about 1 km. The State 2-14 well, the Salton Sea Scientific Drill Hole, has provided one high-quality data point for a depth interval of 1,865-1,877 m, where the temperature is about 305º C. The calculated density of the pre-flashed reservoir fluid sampled from that depth is 1.0008 ± 0.0023.

  2. Effect of microstructure of carbon steel on magnetite formation in simulated Hot Conditioning environment of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Prafful Kumar; Kiran Kumar, M.; Kain, Vivekanand

    2015-09-01

    The objective of present investigation is to establish the role of starting microstructure of carbon steel on the magnetite formation behaviour in Hot Conditioning simulated environment. Two grades of carbon steel (low and high carbon) were subjected to selective heat-treatments to generate different microstructures: martensite, tempered martensite and modified ferrite-pearlite. Oxidation was carried out in lithiated water of pH 10-10.2 in a static autoclave at 270 °C. The results of the investigation clearly establish that: (a) high carbon steel (0.63% C) showed a relatively higher rate of oxidation over the low carbon (0.08% C) grade at all the test durations and (b) the oxidation rates for both the grades were sensitive to microstructural differences at initial stages of oxidation while the differences narrowed down after 72 h of exposure. The oxide formed was established to be magnetite on all the specimens.

  3. Solubility of Nd in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, F.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1993-12-31

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl{sub 2}, with an ionic strength of 7.8M (9.4m). The experimental solubility is much less than that estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. The predominant solid compound of Nd (III) at each pcH was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns.

  4. Formation and fate of fermentation products in hot spring cyanobacterial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.L.; Tayne, T.A.; Ward, D.M.

    1987-10-01

    The fate of representative fermentation products (acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and ethanol) in hot spring cyanobacterial mats was investigated. The major fate during incubations in the light was photoassimilation by filamentous bacteria resembling Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Some metabolism of all compounds occurred under dark aerobic conditions. Under dark anaerobic conditions, only lactate was oxidized extensively to carbon dioxide. Extended preincubation under dark anaerobic conditions did not enhance anaerobic catabolism of acetate, propionate, or ethanol. Acetogenesis of butyrate was suggested by the hydrogen sensitivity of butyrate conversion to acetate and by the enrichment of butyrate-degrading acetogenic bacteria. Accumulation of fermentation products which were not catabolized under dark anaerobic conditions revealed their importance. Acetate and propionate were the major fermentation products which accumulated in samples collected at temperatures ranging from 50 to 70/sup 0/C. Other organic acids and alcohols accumulated to a much lesser extent. Fermentation occurred mainly in the top 4 mm of the mat. Exposure to light decreased the accumulation of acetate and presumably of other fermentation products. The importance of interspecies hydrogen transfer was investigated by comparing fermentation product accumulation at a 65/sup 0/C site, with naturally high hydrogen levels, and a 55/sup 0/C site, where active methanogenesis prevented significant hydrogen accumulation. There was a greater relative accumulation of reduced products, notably ethanol, in the 65/sup 2/C mat.

  5. Hot spot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shocked HMX crystals with nanovoids: a large-scale reactive molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Lou, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yangeng; Song, Huajie; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-07-14

    We report million-atom reactive molecular dynamic simulations of shock initiation of β-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) single crystals containing nanometer-scale spherical voids. Shock induced void collapse and subsequent hot spot formation as well as chemical reaction initiation are observed which depend on the void size and impact strength. For an impact velocity of 1 km s(-1) and a void radius of 4 nm, the void collapse process includes three stages; the dominant mechanism is the convergence of upstream molecules toward the centerline and the downstream surface of the void forming flowing molecules. Hot spot formation also undergoes three stages, and the principal mechanism is kinetic energy transforming to thermal energy due to the collision of flowing molecules on the downstream surface. The high temperature of the hot spot initiates a local chemical reaction, and the breakage of the N-NO2 bond plays the key role in the initial reaction mechanism. The impact strength and void size have noticeable effects on the shock dynamical process, resulting in a variation of the predominant mechanisms leading to void collapse and hot spot formation. Larger voids or stronger shocks result in more intense hot spots and, thus, more violent chemical reactions, promoting more reaction channels and generating more reaction products in a shorter duration. The reaction products are mainly concentrated in the developed hot spot, indicating that the chemical reactivity of the hmx crystal is greatly enhanced by void collapse. The detailed information derived from this study can aid a thorough understanding of the role of void collapse in hot spot formation and the chemical reaction initiation of explosives. PMID:27307079

  6. Hot spot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shocked HMX crystals with nanovoids: a large-scale reactive molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Lou, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yangeng; Song, Huajie; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-07-14

    We report million-atom reactive molecular dynamic simulations of shock initiation of β-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) single crystals containing nanometer-scale spherical voids. Shock induced void collapse and subsequent hot spot formation as well as chemical reaction initiation are observed which depend on the void size and impact strength. For an impact velocity of 1 km s(-1) and a void radius of 4 nm, the void collapse process includes three stages; the dominant mechanism is the convergence of upstream molecules toward the centerline and the downstream surface of the void forming flowing molecules. Hot spot formation also undergoes three stages, and the principal mechanism is kinetic energy transforming to thermal energy due to the collision of flowing molecules on the downstream surface. The high temperature of the hot spot initiates a local chemical reaction, and the breakage of the N-NO2 bond plays the key role in the initial reaction mechanism. The impact strength and void size have noticeable effects on the shock dynamical process, resulting in a variation of the predominant mechanisms leading to void collapse and hot spot formation. Larger voids or stronger shocks result in more intense hot spots and, thus, more violent chemical reactions, promoting more reaction channels and generating more reaction products in a shorter duration. The reaction products are mainly concentrated in the developed hot spot, indicating that the chemical reactivity of the hmx crystal is greatly enhanced by void collapse. The detailed information derived from this study can aid a thorough understanding of the role of void collapse in hot spot formation and the chemical reaction initiation of explosives.

  7. Injection of dilute brine and crude oil/brine/rock interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoqing; Morrow, Norman R.

    Sensitivity of oil recovery to injection brine composition has been reported for a variety of circumstances including trends of increased recovery of crude oil with decrease in salinity. Absolute permeabilities of sandstones to synthetic reservoir brines and dilutions of these brines show little sensitivity to salinity when the initial brine and injected brine are of the same composition. With reservoir brine as the initial brine and injection of dilute brine, the pH of the outflow brine increased and absolute permeability to brine decreased, but never to less than 50% of its original value. Such changes, if any, were much less for rocks with low clay content. During the course of recovery of crude oil, interfacial tensions of crude oil and dilute effluent brine were reduced by about 25% relative to values for crude oil and reservoir brine. Effluent brine pH increased after injection of low salinity brine, but showed no response in the absence of an initial water saturation. Changes in brine composition resulting from flow through Berea sandstone were small. Fines production and permeability reduction resulting from injection of dilute brine was greatly reduced by the presence of crude oil.

  8. Hot-electron plasma formation and confinement in the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ress, D.B.

    1988-06-01

    The tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the first experiment to investigate the thermal-barrier tandem-mirror concept. One attractive feature of the tandem magnetic mirror as a commercial power reactor is that the fusion reactions occur in an easily accessible center-cell. On the other hand, complicated end-cells are necessary to provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and improved particle confinement of the center-cell plasma. In these end-cells, enhanced confinement is achieved with a particular axial potential profile that is formed with electron-cyclotron range-of-frequency heating (ECRF heating, ECRH). By modifying the loss rates of electrons at spatially distinct locations within the end-cells, the ECRH can tailor the plasma potential profile in the desired fashion. Specifically, the thermal-barrier concept requires generation of a population of energetic electrons near the midplane of each end-cell. To be effective, the transverse (to the magnetic field) spatial structure of the hot-electron plasma must be fairly uniform. In this dissertation we characterize the spatial structure of the ECRH-generated plasma, and determine how the structure builds up in time. Furthermore, the plasma should efficiently absorb the ECRF power, and a large fraction of the electrons must be well confined near the end-cell midplane. Therefore, we also examine in detail the ECRH power balance, determining how the ECRF power is absorbed by the plasma, and the processes through which that power is confined and lost. 43 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  10. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young's Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young's modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young's modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank's solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  11. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young’s Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young’s modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young’s modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank’s solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  12. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young's Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young's modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young's modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank's solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion.

  13. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  14. Secular dynamics of multiplanet systems: implications for the formation of hot and warm Jupiters via high-eccentricity migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.; Antonini, Fabio; Lithwick, Yoram; Perets, Hagai B.; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2016-09-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJs) are Jupiter-like planets that reside very closely to their host star, within ˜0.1 AU. Their formation is not well understood. It is generally believed that they cannot have formed in situ, implying that some form of migration must have occurred after their initial formation. We study the production of HJs through secular evolution in multiplanet systems with three to five planets. In this variant of high-e migration, the eccentricity of the orbit of the innermost planet is excited on secular time-scales, triggering orbital migration due to tidal dissipation. We use a secular dynamics code and carry out a population synthesis study. We find that HJs are only produced if the viscous time-scale is short (≈0.014 yr). In contrast, in up to ≈0.3 of systems, the innermost planet is tidally disrupted. The orbital period distribution is peaked around 5 d, consistent with observations. The median HJ mass is 1 MJ with a maximum of ≈2 MJ, similar to observed HJs. Approximately 0.1 of the HJs have retrograde orbits with respect to the stellar spin. We do not find a significant population of warm Jupiters in our simulations, i.e. planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 AU.

  15. Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Chatin, Fabienne; Geiller, Magali; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    1999-10-01

    Many of the deep basins filled by hot brines in the Red Sea have not been investigated since their discovery in the early 1970s. Twenty years later, in September 1992, six of these deeps were revisited. The temperature and salinity of the Suakin, Port Sudan, Chain B, and Nereus deeps ranged from 23.25 to 44.60°C and from 144 to 270‰. These values were approximately the same in 1972, indicating that the budget of heat and salt was quite balanced. We measured strong gradients of properties in the transition zone between brines and overlying seawater. The contribution of salinity to the density gradient was more than one order of magnitude higher than the opposite contribution of temperature across the seawater-brine interface. Therefore the interface was extemely stable, and the transfer of properties across it was considered to be controlled mostly by molecular diffusion. We calculate that the diffusional transport of salt from the brines to seawater cannot affect significantly the salinity of the brines over a 20 year period, which agrees with the observations. The brine pools can persist for centuries with no salt input. Therefore, the persisence of brines does not correspond to a steady balance between diffusional loss and continuous input of hydrothermal solutions. Deeps that experience only episodical hydrothermal brine supplies may persist for a long time with salt inherited from past inputs. The theoretical loss of heat by diffusion from the brine to seawater was higher than the observed decrease in temperature of the brine pool during the 20 year period of observation. We calculated that the heat flux out of the pools into the overlying seawater was compensated by a heat flux into the pools of about 250-600 mW/m 2. This range of values corresponds to bottom heat flow values that have been reported earlier for the axial zone of the Red Sea. In contrast to the other brine pools, the temperature and salinity of the Valdivia Deep brine increased by 4.1°C and

  16. Oil field brines as ore-forming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sverjensky, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that oil field brines can become ore-forming solutions and can transport base metals and reduced sulfur to sites of ore formation by large-scale migration along aquifers out of sedimentary basins is examined using data on the chemical compositions of presnt-day heavy metal-bearing oil field brines and the petrography of their reservoir rocks, and is a theoretical evaluation of the chemistry of possible water-rock interactions in the aquifers during migration. The concept of water-rock interactions in the aquifers of sandstone and carbonate-hosted base metal sulfide ore deposits is clearly of potential importance in explaining geochemical characteristics of such deposits, including the Na/K ratios of the fluid inclusions, the lead isotope compositions of galena, the paragenesis sphalerite followed by galena, and the overall Zn/Pb ratios of the deposits. It is because of these water-rock interactions that a single brine carrying base metals and reduced sulfur can evolve chemically in its aquifer so that brines with a spectrum of geochemical characteristics arrive as a function of time at a distant site of ore formation.

  17. Astrochemistry and star formation in nearby galaxies: from galaxy disks to hot nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, S.

    2016-05-01

    Studying the molecular phase of the interstellar medium in galaxies is fundamental for the understanding of the onset and evolution of compact and extended star formation, and of the growth of supermassive black holes. Molecular line emission is an excellent tracer of chemical, physical and dynamical conditions in the cold neutral gas. Key molecules in extragalactic studies are e.g. HCN, HCO+, HC3N, SiO, CH3OH, H2O. Furthermore, we can use IR excited molecular emission to probe the very inner regions of luminous infrared galaxies allowing us to get past the optically thick dust barrier of the compact obscured nuclei where lines of CO, HCN and HCO+ in their vibrational ground state (ν=0) may be self-absorbed. Finally, molecular outflows and their chemistry are briefly discussed - including new ALMA results on for example the outflow of the lenticular galaxy NGC1377 and a study of the chemistry of the outflow of the quasar Mrk231.

  18. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, H.J.; Judkins, R.R.

    1995-06-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of carboniferous materials in a gasifier consists predominantly of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and, for air-blown units, N{sub 2} in various proportions at temperatures ranging from about 400 to 1000{degree}C. Depending on the source of the fuel, smaller concentrations of H{sub 2}S, COS, and NH{sub 3} can also be present. The gas phase is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials used in the gasifier can occur. Therefore, there are numerous concerns about materials performance in coal gasification systems, particularly at the present time when demonstration-scale projects are in or nearing the construction and operation phases. This study focused on the subset of materials degradation phenomena resulting from carbon formation and carburization processes, which are related to potential operating problems in certain gasification components and subsystems. More specifically, it examined the current state of knowledge regarding carbon deposition and a carbon-related degradation phemonenon known as metal dusting as they affect the long-term operation of the gas clean-up equipment downstream of the gasifier and addressed possible means to mitigate the degradation processes. These effects would be primarily associated with the filtering and cooling of coal-derived fuel gases from the gasifier exit temperature to as low as 400{degree}C. However, some of the consideratins are sufficiently general to cover conditions relevant to other parts of gasification systems.

  19. Investigation into Formation of Lipid Hydroperoxides from Membrane Lipids in Escherichia coli O157:H7 following Exposure to Hot Water.

    PubMed

    Cálix-Lara, Thelma F; Kirsch, Katie R; Hardin, Margaret D; Castillo, Alejandro; Smith, Stephen B; Taylor, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    Although studies have shown antimicrobial treatments consisting of hot water sprays alone or paired with lactic acid rinses are effective for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 loads on beef carcass surfaces, the mechanisms by which these interventions inactivate bacterial pathogens are still poorly understood. It was hypothesized that E. coli O157:H7 exposure to hot water in vitro at rising temperatures for longer time periods would result in increasing deterioration of bacterial outer membrane lipids, sensitizing the pathogen to subsequent lactic acid application. Cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 strains were subjected to hot water at 25 (control) 65, 75, or 85 °C incrementally up to 60 s, after which surviving cells were enumerated by plating. Formation of lipid hydroperoxides from bacterial membranes and cytoplasmic accumulation of L-lactic acid was quantified spectrophotometrically. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 proceeded in a hot water exposure duration- and temperature-dependent manner, with populations being reduced to nondetectable numbers following heating of cells in 85 °C water for 30 and 60 s (P < 0.05). Lipid hydroperoxide formation was not observed to be dependent upon increasing water temperature or exposure period. The data suggest that hot water application prior to organic acid application may function to increase the sensitivity of E. coli O157:H7 cells by degrading membrane lipids.

  20. The C-terminus hot spot region helps in the fibril formation of bacteriophage-associated hyaluronate lyase (HylP2)

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Harish; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mitra, Kalyan; Akhtar, Md. Sohail

    2015-01-01

    The bacteriophage encoded hyaluronate lyases (HylP and HylP2) degrade hyaluronan and other glycosaminoglycans. HylP2 forms a functional fibril under acidic conditions in which its N-terminus is proposed to form the fibrillar core, leading to nucleation and acceleration of fibril formation. Here we report the presence of a hot spot region (A144GVVVY149) towards the carboxy terminus of HylP2, essential for the acceleration of fibril formation. The ‘hot spot’ is observed to be inherently mutated for valines (A178AMVMY183) in case of HylP. The N- terminal swapped chimeras between these phage HLs (NHylP2CHylP and NHylPCHylP2) or HylP did not form fibrils at acidic pH. However, seeding of prefibrils of HylP2 recompensed nucleation and led to fibrillation in NHylPCHylP2. The V147A mutation in the ‘hot spot’ region abolished fibril formation in HylP2. The M179V and M181V double mutations in the ‘hot spot’ region of HylP led to fibrillation with the seeding of prefibrils. It appears that fibrillation in HylP2 even though is initiated by the N-terminus, is accelerated by the conserved ‘hot spot’ region in the C-terminus. A collagenous (Gly-X-Y)10 motif in the N-terminus and a mutated ‘hot spot’ region in the C-terminus of HylP affect fibrillar nucleation and acceleration respectively. PMID:26395159

  1. Corrosion Resistances of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals with Yttrium and Tungsten Additions in Hot Calcium Chloride Brine & Natural Seawater: Fe48Mo14Cr15Y2C15B6 and W-Containing Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Blue, C; Peter, W; Payer, J; Branagan, D J

    2006-10-20

    Yttrium-containing SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48.0}Cr{sub 15.0}Mo{sub 14.0}B{sub 6.0}C{sub 15.0}Y{sub 2.0}), has a critical cooling rate (CCR) of approximately 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) with no yttrium has a higher critical cooling rate of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. SAM1651's low CCR enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous material in practical materials processes. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). The passive film stability of these Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be superior to that of conventional stainless steels, and comparable to that of Ni-based alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates.

  2. Studies of brine chemistry and scaling at the Salton Sea geothermal field, 1977-1979. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are the results of investigations of brine chemistry, the effects of brine acidification and organic additives on the rate of scale formation and scale composition, and the use of other additives for scale control. A bibliography of reports describing these studies is included. Recommendations are given for techniques and approaches for further testing of additives for silica scale control.

  3. INFLATION OF A DIPOLE FIELD IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS: TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAGNETODISK FORMATION IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE OF A HOT JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, V. M.; Boyarinsev, E. L.; Boyko, A. A.; Zakharov, Yu. P.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.

    2013-05-20

    Giant exoplanets at close orbits, or so-called hot Jupiters, are supposed to have an intensive escape of upper atmospheric material heated and ionized by the radiation of a host star. An interaction between outflowing atmospheric plasma and the intrinsic planetary magnetic dipole field leads to the formation of a crucial feature of a hot Jupiter's magnetosphere-an equatorial current-carrying magnetodisk. The presence of a magnetodisk has been shown to influence the topology of a hot Jupiter's magnetosphere and to change a standoff distance of the magnetopause. In this paper, the basic features of the formation of a hot Jupiter's magnetodisk are studied by means of a laboratory experiment. A localized central source produces plasma that expands outward from the surface of the dipole and inflates the magnetic field. The observed structure of magnetic fields, electric currents, and plasma density indicates the formation of a relatively thin current disk extending beyond the Alfvenic point. At the edge of the current disk, an induced magnetic field was found to be several times larger than the field of the initial dipole.

  4. A ceramic/slag interface as an analog for accretion of hot refractory objects and rim formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, J. M.; Bunch, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Refractory inclusions or Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) from carbonaceous chondrites span a wide range of bulk compositions that cannot be explained either by segregation from a gas of solar composition at different points in the condensation sequence or by fractional crystallization from a parent liquid. CAI's are commonly rimmed by Wark-Lovering (W-L) rims, a series of nearly monomineralic layers that have been a source of controversy since the variety of rim sequences occurring on different types of CAI's from Allende were described. The origin of these distinctive features has not yet been resolved, with proponents of accretion, condensation, flash heating, ablation, evaporation, etc. Rims have generated considerable interest because they potentially contain clues to conditions experienced by CAI's after the formation of the inclusion and prior to incorporation into the parent body. Ceramic bricks in contact with hot steel slag may produce reaction products in rimlike fashion similar to those found in CAI's. The similarity between the mineralogy of blast furnace slags and CAI's has long been recognized, with both containing unusual phases not found in terrestrial materials. We provide here a comparison between a ceramic brick/slag multiple-layered interface and a multiple-layered interface between a melilite-perovskite object and a melilite-spinel object in the Allende inclusion USNM 4691-1. These results have implications in interpreting the origin of rims and the textures and compositions of CAI's.

  5. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers.

  6. A ceramic/slag interface as an analog for accretion of hot refractory objects and rim formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paque, J. M.; Bunch, T. E.

    Refractory inclusions or Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) from carbonaceous chondrites span a wide range of bulk compositions that cannot be explained either by segregation from a gas of solar composition at different points in the condensation sequence or by fractional crystallization from a parent liquid. CAI's are commonly rimmed by Wark-Lovering (W-L) rims, a series of nearly monomineralic layers that have been a source of controversy since the variety of rim sequences occurring on different types of CAI's from Allende were described. The origin of these distinctive features has not yet been resolved, with proponents of accretion, condensation, flash heating, ablation, evaporation, etc. Rims have generated considerable interest because they potentially contain clues to conditions experienced by CAI's after the formation of the inclusion and prior to incorporation into the parent body. Ceramic bricks in contact with hot steel slag may produce reaction products in rim-like fashion similar to those found in CAI's. The similarity between the mineralogy of blast furnace slags and CAI's has long been recognized, with both containing unusual phases not found in terrestrial materials. We provide here a comparison between a ceramic brick/slag multiple-layered interface and a multiple-layered interface between a melilite-perovskite object and a melilite-spinel object in the Allende inclusion USNM 4691-1. These results have implications in interpreting the origin of rims and the textures and compositions of CAI's.

  7. Compound nucleus formation probability PCN determined within the dynamical cluster-decay model for various "hot" fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Chopra, Sahila; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-08-01

    The compound nucleus (CN) fusion/formation probability PCN is defined and its detailed variations with the CN excitation energy E*, center-of-mass energy Ec .m., fissility parameter χ, CN mass number ACN, and Coulomb interaction parameter Z1Z2 are studied for the first time within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The model is a nonstatistical description of the decay of a CN to all possible processes. The (total) fusion cross section σfusion is the sum of the CN and noncompound nucleus (nCN) decay cross sections, each calculated as the dynamical fragmentation process. The CN cross section σCN is constituted of evaporation residues and fusion-fission, including intermediate-mass fragments, each calculated for all contributing decay fragments (A1, A2) in terms of their formation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. The nCN cross section σnCN is determined as the quasi-fission (qf) process, where P0=1 and P is calculated for the entrance-channel nuclei. The DCM, with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included in it, is used to study the PCN for about a dozen "hot" fusion reactions forming a CN of mass number A ˜100 to superheavy nuclei and for various different nuclear interaction potentials. Interesting results are that PCN=1 for complete fusion, but PCN<1 or PCN≪1 due to the nCN contribution, depending strongly on different parameters of the entrance-channel reaction but found to be independent of the nuclear interaction potentials used.

  8. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  9. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation.

  10. Saline groundwaters and brines in the Canadian Shield: Geochemical and isotopic evidence for a residual evaporite brine component

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, D.J. ); Gregoire, D.C. ); Raven, K.G. )

    1994-03-01

    Saline Ca-Na/Cl type groundwaters and brines sampled in deep mines over an extensive area of the Canadian Precambrian Shield have elevated Br/Cl ratios which may indicate that the chlorinity of these waters was derived from the infiltration of residual evaporitic brines, remnants of the great marine incursion of the Paleozoic era. Boron concentrations in these waters are generally low (i.e., < [approximately] 2 mg/L) relative to seawater or Alberta Basin Devonian formation waters. However, the [sup 11]B/[sup 10]B ratios of these waters are significantly greater than the average value for continental crustal rocks with the highest values ([approximately]4.19) approaching that of present-day seawater (4.20). Moreover, the boron isotopic ratios generally trend to higher values with increasing chlorinity which supports the conclusion from the Br-Cl relationship that most of the chloride in shield brines is of marine origin, rather than a product of water/rock interactions. If this is correct, crystalline rocks must then be sufficiently permeable on a regional scale to have allowed the brine to infiltrate to depths of several kilometers where it now resides. The presence of saline groundwaters in crystalline has important implications for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, which proposes disposal of waste fuel in a repository constructed at a depth of 500-1000 m in plutonic rock.

  11. Recovery of base materials from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Duyvesteyn, W.P.C.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for the recovery of substantially pure Zn from a reservoir of geothermal brine confined under pressure at elevated temperature at subterranean levels, the brine also containing recoverable and mounts of lead and silver which comprises: tapping and bringing to the earth's surface a portion of the geothermal brine; allowing the brine to flash at atmospheric pressure to produce steam for use in the generation of electrical power; cooling the flashed brine; extracting Pb and Ag from the brine by cementation by adding a metal selected from the group consisting of Zn, Fe and Al to the cooled brine, removing the cemented Pb and Ag from the brine by solid/liquid separation; mixing the brine impoverished in the Pb and Ag with a substantially immiscible anionic solvent selective to the extraction of Zn to produce a spent brine and a Zn loaded anionic extractant; the anionic solvent being dissolved in a diluent of water immiscible organic solvent, recycling the spent brine to the reservoir of geothermal brine; subjecting the Zn-loaded anionic extractant to mixing with an aqueous solution to produce a Zn-loaded aqueous Zn chloride solution, separating the Zn-loaded aqueous solution from the anionic extractant, adjusting the pH of the Zn-containing aqueous solution, if necessary, to a pH sufficient to promote the separation of the Zn by cationic extraction, subjecting the Zn-loaded aqueous solution to extraction with a cationic solvent selective to Zn; the cationic solvent being dissolved in a diluent of a water-immiscible organic solvent, stripping the Zn from the loaded cationic extractant using a sulfuric acid electrolyte solution, the volume ratio of the cationic solvent to the sulfuric acid solution being such as to provide a Zn electrolyte solution of Zn concentration sufficient for the recovery of Zn therefrom, and then electrowinning the Zn from the electrolyte solution to provide a product of substantially pure Zn.

  12. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  13. Detection of Neural Activity in the Brains of Japanese Honeybee Workers during the Formation of a “Hot Defensive Bee Ball”

    PubMed Central

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kiya, Taketoshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Ono, Masato; Yoshida, Tadaharu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica). Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a “hot defensive bee ball” by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica), on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei) of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing. PMID:22431987

  14. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  15. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Breunig, Hanna M.; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Borgia, Andrea; Price, Phillip N.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  16. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested. PMID:23621086

  17. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  18. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  19. Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, J.; Weinberg, A.; Das, N.; Holland, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    Brines were extracted from fluid inclusions in Lower Salt halite of the Middle Devonian Prairie Formation in Saskatchewan, Canada. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography and were found to be of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type. They do not fall along a simple evaporation trend. Brines from clear, diagenetic halite are significantly lower in Na{sup +} and higher in Mg{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup {minus}} than brines from cloudy, subaqueously formed halite with chevron structures. The isotopic composition of strontium and sulfur in anhydrite associated with the halites was found to be the same as that of Middle Devonian seawater. The composition of the inclusion brines can be derived from that of modern seawater by evaporation, extensive dolomitization of limestone, and albitization of clay minerals. Other evolution paths are, however, also feasible, and it is impossible to rule out effects due to the addition of nonmarine waters (hydrothermal solutions, surface runoff, and groundwater), or dissolutional recycling of existing evaporites within the Prairie evaporite basin. These analyses and published data on brine inclusions in halite from a number of Phanerozoid evaporite deposits show that the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type brine is more common than the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type, which is expected from evaporation of modern seawater.

  20. Corrigendum to "Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon sandstone and Ironton-Galesville formation from the Illinois Basin, USA" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 165 (2015) 342-360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2016-08-01

    The original Fig. 4 incorrectly represented data from Clayton et al. (1966). The deuterium values were reported in percent deuterium and mistaken by the authors as per mille. The corrected Fig. 4 Corrigendum is given and shows the data from Clayton et al. (1966) plotting in a similar manner as other published data for groundwater in the Illinois Basin. The data from Clayton et al. (1966) was not used in the discussion of the deep-seated Cambrian brines, and, therefore, this misrepresentation does not affect the conclusions of the original manuscript. The authors apologize for the oversight.

  1. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  2. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  3. Deep well injection of brine from Paradox Valley, Colorado: Potential major precipitation problems remediated by nanofiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Thordsen, J.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater brine seepage into the Dolores River in Paradox Valley, Colorado, increases the dissolved solids load of the Colorado River annually by ~2.0 x 108 kg. To abate this natural contamination, the Bureau of Reclamation plans to pump ~3540 m3/d of brine from 12 shallow wells located along the Dolores River. The brine, with a salinity of 250,000 mg/L, will be piped to the deepest (4.9 km) disposal well in the world and injected mainly into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone. Geochemical modeling indicates, and water-rock experiments confirm, that a huge mass of anhydrite (~1.0 x 104 kg/d) likely will precipitate from the injected brine at downhole conditions of 120??C and 500 bars. Anhydrite precipitation could increase by up to 3 times if the injected brine is allowed to mix with the highly incompatible formation water of the Leadville Limestone and if the Mg in this brine dolomitizes the calcite of the aquifer. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that nanofiltration membranes, which are selective to divalent anions, provide a new technology that remediates the precipitation problem by removing ~98% of dissolved SO4 from the hypersaline brine. The fluid pressure used (50 bars) is much lower than would be required for traditional reverse osmosis membranes because nanofiltration membranes have a low rejection efficiency (5-10%) for monovalent anions. Our results indicate that the proportion of treatable brine increases from ~60% to >85% with the addition of trace concentrations of a precipitation inhibitor and by blending the raw brine with the effluent stream.

  4. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. PMID:25746960

  5. Friends of Hot Jupiters. IV. Stellar Companions Beyond 50 au Might Facilitate Giant Planet Formation, but Most are Unlikely to Cause Kozai-Lidov Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bryan, Marta; Crepp, Justin R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Crossfield, Ian; Hansen, Brad; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Morton, Timothy D.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Wang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    Stellar companions can influence the formation and evolution of planetary systems, but there are currently few observational constraints on the properties of planet-hosting binary star systems. We search for stellar companions around 77 transiting hot Jupiter systems to explore the statistical properties of this population of companions as compared to field stars of similar spectral type. After correcting for survey incompleteness, we find that 47 % +/- 7 % of hot Jupiter systems have stellar companions with semimajor axes between 50 and 2000 au. This is 2.9 times larger than the field star companion fraction in this separation range, with a significance of 4.4σ . In the 1-50 au range, only {3.9}-2.0+4.5 % of hot Jupiters host stellar companions, compared to the field star value of 16.4 % +/- 0.7 % , which is a 2.7σ difference. We find that the distribution of mass ratios for stellar companions to hot Jupiter systems peaks at small values and therefore differs from that of field star binaries which tend to be uniformly distributed across all mass ratios. We conclude that either wide separation stellar binaries are more favorable sites for gas giant planet formation at all separations, or that the presence of stellar companions preferentially causes the inward migration of gas giant planets that formed farther out in the disk via dynamical processes such as Kozai-Lidov oscillations. We determine that less than 20% of hot Jupiters have stellar companions capable of inducing Kozai-Lidov oscillations assuming initial semimajor axes between 1 and 5 au, implying that the enhanced companion occurrence is likely correlated with environments where gas giants can form efficiently.

  6. Friends of Hot Jupiters. IV. Stellar Companions Beyond 50 au Might Facilitate Giant Planet Formation, but Most are Unlikely to Cause Kozai–Lidov Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bryan, Marta; Crepp, Justin R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Crossfield, Ian; Hansen, Brad; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Morton, Timothy D.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Wang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    Stellar companions can influence the formation and evolution of planetary systems, but there are currently few observational constraints on the properties of planet-hosting binary star systems. We search for stellar companions around 77 transiting hot Jupiter systems to explore the statistical properties of this population of companions as compared to field stars of similar spectral type. After correcting for survey incompleteness, we find that 47 % +/- 7 % of hot Jupiter systems have stellar companions with semimajor axes between 50 and 2000 au. This is 2.9 times larger than the field star companion fraction in this separation range, with a significance of 4.4σ . In the 1–50 au range, only {3.9}-2.0+4.5 % of hot Jupiters host stellar companions, compared to the field star value of 16.4 % +/- 0.7 % , which is a 2.7σ difference. We find that the distribution of mass ratios for stellar companions to hot Jupiter systems peaks at small values and therefore differs from that of field star binaries which tend to be uniformly distributed across all mass ratios. We conclude that either wide separation stellar binaries are more favorable sites for gas giant planet formation at all separations, or that the presence of stellar companions preferentially causes the inward migration of gas giant planets that formed farther out in the disk via dynamical processes such as Kozai–Lidov oscillations. We determine that less than 20% of hot Jupiters have stellar companions capable of inducing Kozai–Lidov oscillations assuming initial semimajor axes between 1 and 5 au, implying that the enhanced companion occurrence is likely correlated with environments where gas giants can form efficiently.

  7. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  8. 7 CFR 58.422 - Brine tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....422 Brine tank. The brine tank shall be constructed of suitable non-toxic material and should be... clean, well circulated, and of the proper strength and temperature for the variety of cheese being made. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  9. How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jamie J; Simmons, Stuart F; Stoffell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We determined the composition of ~30-m.y.-old solutions extracted from fluid inclusions in one of the world's largest and richest silver ore deposits at Fresnillo, Mexico. Silver concentrations average 14 ppm and have a maximum of 27 ppm. The highest silver, lead and zinc concentrations correlate with salinity, consistent with transport by chloro-complexes and confirming the importance of brines in ore formation. The temporal distribution of these fluids within the veins suggests mineralization occurred episodically when they were injected into a fracture system dominated by low salinity, metal-poor fluids. Mass balance shows that a modest volume of brine, most likely of magmatic origin, is sufficient to supply the metal found in large Mexican silver deposits. The results suggest that ancient epithermal ore-forming events may involve fluid packets not captured in modern geothermal sampling and that giant ore deposits can form rapidly from small volumes of metal-rich fluid.

  10. How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie J.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Stoffell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We determined the composition of ~30-m.y.-old solutions extracted from fluid inclusions in one of the world's largest and richest silver ore deposits at Fresnillo, Mexico. Silver concentrations average 14 ppm and have a maximum of 27 ppm. The highest silver, lead and zinc concentrations correlate with salinity, consistent with transport by chloro-complexes and confirming the importance of brines in ore formation. The temporal distribution of these fluids within the veins suggests mineralization occurred episodically when they were injected into a fracture system dominated by low salinity, metal-poor fluids. Mass balance shows that a modest volume of brine, most likely of magmatic origin, is sufficient to supply the metal found in large Mexican silver deposits. The results suggest that ancient epithermal ore-forming events may involve fluid packets not captured in modern geothermal sampling and that giant ore deposits can form rapidly from small volumes of metal-rich fluid. PMID:23792776

  11. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  12. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hitzman, Murray W.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  13. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  14. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

  15. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  16. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  17. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  18. Improved Rare Earth Element Sorption from Simulated Geothermal Brines: Effect of Gassed versus Degassed Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    A study exploring sorption and stripping characteristics of sorption media when simulated geothermal brines are degassed or not degassed. Experiments were done at 70°C. The brines used in this study were formulated by Tusaar. The two brines used/simulated are labeled 1M and 1CF. The data consists of a Word file explaining the results and an Excel file of the data.

  19. Br/Cl Ratios As Indicators Of The Origin Of Brines In The Alberta Basin, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-12-01

    Br/Cl ratios have been used to understand the origin and evolution of brines in sedimentary basins, but brines with similar Br/Cl compositions can form in a number of ways. In fact, despite having similar Br/Cl ratios, brines from the central Mississippi Salt Dome basin have been interpreted as derived from halite dissolution whereas the Alberta Basin brines have been interpreted as derived from evaporation of seawater past halite saturation. This study tests the uniqueness of the interpretations from Br/Cl ratios in one of the world's most widely studied sedimentary basins, the Alberta Basin, Canada, where considerable debate still exists about the residence times of brines in the basin. Geochemical evidence based on Br/Cl ratios suggests that brines in this basin have been preserved at depths for hundreds of millions of years, whereas hydrogeological models of topography driven flow in uplifted foreland basins suggest that brines in this type of setting can be completely flushed out in as little as 2 my. This project uses the 2D finite element FORTRAN code COMPACT to simulate variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, and sediment compaction in tectonically evolving basins. COMPACT has been modified to add effects of erosion and sediment decompaction, and dissolution of evaporites (halite). Brine migration and groundwater age are simulated over the last 100 million years, along a 700 Km, east-west cross-section of the basin, using salinity and Br/Cl ratios as geochemical constraints. Our results suggest that, contrary to geochemical interpretations, halite dissolution has significantly contributed to the salinity distribution in the basin, and that the residence time of brines in the Alberta Basin has thus been overestimated. Model results from a wide range of sensitivity studies indicate that formation waters in this basin are not simple end members of a seawater evaporation model, but instead represent mixed signatures of brines formed by

  20. Experimental multi-phase CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term CO2 saturated brine-rock experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations when CO2-saturated brines were reacted with limestone rocks. The CO2-saturated brine-limestone reactions were characterized by compositional and mineralogical-changes in the aquifer fluid and formation rocks that were dependent on initial brine composition as were the changes in formation porosity, especially dissolved sulfate. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone rocks relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions occured on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  1. Numerical simulations for hot spot formation under shock loading in plastic-bonded explosives with three-dimensional discrete element methe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Shang, Hailing; Wang, Wenqiang; Fu, Hua

    2011-06-01

    Three-dimensional discrete element code, the combined discrete/finite element code and three-dimensional calculation model for explosive have been established for the simulation of hot spot formation in granular HMX, HMX based PBX, HMX crystalline with a void inside under shock loading. The simulation results indicate that in the case of PBX explosives hot spots mostly locate near the interface between HMX granules and binder, the temperature rise of HMX granules is lower than the binder, and the surrounding parts of HMX granules have higher temperature rise than the inner parts. In contrast to HMX granular explosive, since the binder can act as a cushion to the explosive, HMX in PBX has much lower temperature rise. Temperature of hot spot generated by void collapse is significantly influenced by the size and shape of the void. Finally, simple chemical reaction process has been simulated using the Arrhenius reactive rate law and the HOM equation of state for solid explosive and gas production.

  2. A kinetic model of the formation of the hot oxygen geocorona 2. Influence of O{sup +} ion precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisikalo, D.V.; Shematovich, V.I.; Gerard, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The authors model oxygen precipitation in the upper atmosphere by a Monte Carlo treatment of the Boltzman equation, during geomagnetically unstable times. They attempt to simulate the O precipitation for the storm conditions on September 17, 1971. They find that O precipitation greatly modifies the electron velocity distribution for the bulk oxygen population in the upper atmosphere, resulting in an enhanced hot O tail density.

  3. THE DECREASE OF SPECIFIC ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND THE HOT TOROID FORMATION: THE MASSIVE CLUMP G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Wu Jingwen; Li Huabai E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t E-mail: li@mpia.d

    2010-10-10

    This is the first paper of our series of high-resolution (1'') studies of the massive star-forming region G10.6-0.4. We present the emission line observations of the hot core type tracers (O{sup 13}CS, OCS, SO{sub 2}) with {approx}0.''5 resolution. By comparing the results to the high-resolution NH{sub 3} absorption line observation, we confirm for the first time the rotationally flattened hot toroid in the central <0.1 pc region, which has a rotational axis perpendicular to its geometrical major axis. In addition, we present the observations of NH{sub 3}, {sup 13}CS, and CH{sub 3}CN with {approx}1'' resolution, and follow the dynamics of the molecular accretion flow from the 0.3 pc radius to the inner 0.03 pc radius. With reference to the rotational axis of the hot toroid, we measure the rotational velocity from the molecular emission in the region. The results are consistent with an envelope with a rapid decrease of the specific angular momentum from the outer to the inner region. These new results improve the current understanding of the molecular accretion flow in an ultracompact H II region created by the embedded O-type cluster.

  4. Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, H. |; Bourcier, W.L.; Jackson, K.J.

    1994-03-01

    A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.

  5. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  6. Experimental study of the stability and activity of brines on the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altheide, Travis S.

    This work contributes to the understanding of liquid water stability, with an emphasis on the role that dissolved solutes may have had on liquid water formation on Mars, past and present. In chapter 2, the stability of liquid water under martian conditions is explored through experiments on ferric sulfate brines. First, it is demonstrated that such brines can be formed starting from typical martian mineralogy. Ferric sulfates are quite soluble, up to 48 wt%, and can form solutions which remain liquid down to 205 +/-1 K at the eutectic. As a result of low water activities, these solutions exhibit evaporation rates 20 times lower than pure water. The combination of a low eutectic point and low evaporation rates allow subsurface liquids to be stable at high martian latitudes, where the majority of gullies and viscous flow features are located. Thus, the characteristics of ferric sulfate brines were further investigated in chapter 3, where the viscous properties of such solutions were measured, with respect to changing temperature and concentration. Using these results, the viscosity of these solutions on the formation of gullies was considered, where calculated fluid flow velocities were found to be in accordance with some estimates from image analyses of gully formations. In chapter 4, other Mars-relevant brines were studied and characterized under martian surface conditions. Magnesium and ferrous sulfate, and magnesium and ferric chloride brines were found to stabilize water, through lower evaporation rates and freezing point depression, much like the ferric sulfate brines. For these sulfate brines, it was found that the thermodynamic process of phase change, i.e. ice formation and/or salt crystallization, can affect the kinetic process of evaporation, through very low water activities in solution. Furthermore, in chapter 5 these studies were extended to recent results from the Phoenix mission, by examining the stability of perchlorate brines under conditions

  7. Carbonation of brine impacted fractionated coal fly ash: implications for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Nyambura, Muriithi Grace; Mugera, Gitari Wilson; Felicia, Petrik Leslie; Gathura, Ndungu Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Coal combustion by-products such as fly ash (FA), brine and CO(2) from coal fired power plants have the potential to impact negatively on the environment. FA and brine can contaminate the soil, surface and ground water through leaching of toxic elements present in their matrices while CO(2) has been identified as a green house gas that contributes significantly towards the global warming effect. Reaction of CO(2) with FA/brine slurry can potentially provide a viable route for CO(2) sequestration via formation of mineral carbonates. Fractionated FA has varying amounts of CaO which not only increases the brine pH but can also be converted into an environmentally benign calcite. Carbonation efficiency of fractionated and brine impacted FA was investigated in this study. Controlled carbonation reactions were carried out in a reactor set-up to evaluate the effect of fractionation on the carbonation efficiency of FA. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of fresh and carbonated ash were evaluated using XRF, SEM, and XRD. Brine effluents were characterized using ICP-MS and IC. A factorial experimental approach was employed in testing the variables. The 20-150 μm size fraction was observed to have the highest CO(2) sequestration potential of 71.84 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA while the >150 μm particles had the lowest potential of 36.47 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA. Carbonation using brine resulted in higher degree of calcite formation compared to the ultra-pure water carbonated residues. PMID:20970918

  8. Carbonation of brine impacted fractionated coal fly ash: implications for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Nyambura, Muriithi Grace; Mugera, Gitari Wilson; Felicia, Petrik Leslie; Gathura, Ndungu Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Coal combustion by-products such as fly ash (FA), brine and CO(2) from coal fired power plants have the potential to impact negatively on the environment. FA and brine can contaminate the soil, surface and ground water through leaching of toxic elements present in their matrices while CO(2) has been identified as a green house gas that contributes significantly towards the global warming effect. Reaction of CO(2) with FA/brine slurry can potentially provide a viable route for CO(2) sequestration via formation of mineral carbonates. Fractionated FA has varying amounts of CaO which not only increases the brine pH but can also be converted into an environmentally benign calcite. Carbonation efficiency of fractionated and brine impacted FA was investigated in this study. Controlled carbonation reactions were carried out in a reactor set-up to evaluate the effect of fractionation on the carbonation efficiency of FA. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of fresh and carbonated ash were evaluated using XRF, SEM, and XRD. Brine effluents were characterized using ICP-MS and IC. A factorial experimental approach was employed in testing the variables. The 20-150 μm size fraction was observed to have the highest CO(2) sequestration potential of 71.84 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA while the >150 μm particles had the lowest potential of 36.47 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA. Carbonation using brine resulted in higher degree of calcite formation compared to the ultra-pure water carbonated residues.

  9. Vortical hot towers, their aggregate effects and their resolution dependence in the formation of Hurricane Diana (1984)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan Marcus

    Recent authors have hypothesized that small-scale deep convective towers possessing intense values of cyclonic vertical vorticity in their cores (vortical hot towers) play a critical role in tropical cyclogenesis via a two stage process: (1) preconditioning the local environment by creating small-scale potential vorticity anomalies and humidifying the lower to middle troposphere, and (2) merger, axisymmetrization and collection of these potential vorticity anomalies to generate the larger scale vortex. In this study we further investigate the role played by vortical hot towers in the upscale growth process. We simulate the evolution of Hurricane Diana in a full-physics numerical model with 1km grid spacing and compare our results to previous, coarser resolution simulations. We employ traditional weather analysis techniques and new innovative means of displaying large and complex datasets to investigate the interaction between the cloud scale features and the larger system scale environment. The results are compared to prior studies to assess if simulated vortical hot tower dynamics exhibit a significant dependence on model resolution. We find the basic physics of the vortical hot tower pathway is largely unchanged as grid-spacing decreases from 3km to 1km for simulations of Hurricane Diana. The differences between our high resolution simulation and coarser resolution simulations are mainly associated with fine scale variability. Our 1km simulation represents nearly an order of magnitude more convective towers with smaller spatial scales than what was observed in previous simulations. We find maximum updraft velocities in our 1km simulation typically between 15ms-1 and 20ms-1 with instantaneous maximum values as high as 35ms-1, though these values typically decrease during the simulation. We also find that, while the cores in the vortical hot towers are significantly moistened by the vertical transport of moisture in the updraft, the larger-scale environment

  10. Some Like it Hot: Linking Diffuse X-Ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mulchaey, John S.; Walker, Lisa May; Brandt, Willian N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L(x-T) and (L(x-sigma), even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and Hi masses are great than or equal to 10(sup (11.3) solar mass are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 micron star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due togas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  11. Some like it hot: Linking diffuse X-ray luminosity, baryonic mass, and star formation rate in compact groups of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2014-08-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L{sub X} -T and L{sub X} -σ, even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and H I masses ≳ 10{sup 11.3} M{sub ☉} are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 μm star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due to gas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  12. Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

  13. On the modeling of brine transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Leijnse, Toon

    1988-03-01

    The problem of concentrated brine transport arises in the study of transport of pollutants released from a repository in a rock salt formation. An important characteristic of brine, as compared to other solutions normally encountered in groundwater problems, is that it contains a high concentration of solutes. This factor requires special attention in the development of mathematical models for brine transport problems. In this work we discuss certain important physical and mathematical differences between low- and high-concentration situations. In particular, we consider three primary aspects of a model: basic equations, boundary conditions, and numerical techniques. Recognizing the fact that in high-concentration situations, the fluid motion is not independent of the solutes movement, a new formulation of Darcy's and Fick's law are proposed. The basic equations comprise a set of two nonlinear coupled partial differential equations to be solved for the pressure p and the solute mass fraction ω. These equations have to be solved by means of iterative methods. Various possibilities involving finite difference methods have been studied. In one case, after discretizing the equations in a fully implicit way, the Newton-Raphson method has been employed to solve the system of nonlinear difference equations simultaneously. In another case, after removing part of the nonlinearity by a transformation of the dependent variable ω, a procedure of sequential solution of the two equations by successive substitution is employed. It turns out that the latter method is considerably faster than the former one as a result of the quasi-linearization. Finally, considering boundary conditions, it is shown that often they are also nonlinear and coupled. Appropriate conditions for a rock salt boundary and an outflow boundary are developed and their significance in high-concentration situations are discussed. In particular, a nonlinear time-dependent boundary condition at a rock salt

  14. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-09-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation.

  15. Sea-ice thermodynamics and brine drainage.

    PubMed

    Worster, M Grae; Rees Jones, David W

    2015-07-13

    Significant changes in the state of the Arctic ice cover are occurring. As the summertime extent of sea ice diminishes, the Arctic is increasingly characterized by first-year rather than multi-year ice. It is during the early stages of ice growth that most brine is injected into the oceans, contributing to the buoyancy flux that mediates the thermo-haline circulation. Current operational sea-ice components of climate models often treat brine rejection between sea ice and the ocean similarly to a thermodynamic segregation process, assigning a fixed salinity to the sea ice, typical of multi-year ice. However, brine rejection is a dynamical, buoyancy-driven process and the salinity of sea ice varies significantly during the first growth season. As a result, current operational models may over predict the early brine fluxes from newly formed sea ice, which may have consequences for coupled simulations of the polar oceans. Improvements both in computational power and our understanding of the processes involved have led to the emergence of a new class of sea-ice models that treat brine rejection dynamically and should enhance predictions of the buoyancy forcing of the oceans.

  16. Modeling of highly brines transport in large water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T. P.; Lepikhin, A. P.; Parshakova, Y. N.; Tiunov, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the numerical modeling of a dilution and transport of highly brines in large water bodies taking into account the density stratification effects. This problem has an exceptional importance for the guarantee of ecological security of the Kama Reservoir in the conditions of extending exploitation of Verhnekamsk deposit of potassium and magnesium salts - one of the largest in the world. The output of million of tones of the potassium fertilizer is accompanied by the producing of the same quantity of highly brines demanding utilization. With the existing technologies the desalination of such quantity of brines is extremely energy-capacious and almost inapplicable. That is why main way for the brine utilization is the release into the surface water bodies or underground water-bearing horizons. Since the uncertainty level in the parameter setting for underground water-bearing horizons is higher than that for the surface water bodies, under the same or close conditions the release into the surface water bodies is considerably less dangerous. The main water body able to assimilate such huge amount of the removed brines is the upper part of the Kama Reservoir located within the Solikamsk-Berezniki industrial centre. The wastewater arriving from this centre make a decisive contribution to the formation of hydrochemical regime of Kama river. We suggested two-dimensional imitational hydrodynamical model allowing to determine the possible pollution zones depending on the flow rate and concentration of pollutant, flow rate and water level in the Kama river and wind characteristics in the zone of pollutant discharge. This model allows not only to calculate the distribution of pollution zones for various pollutant sources but also to estimate the consequences of emergencies. The Kama river near the Solikamsk-Berezniki industrial centre has complex morphometry. For the complete and efficient accounting for the morphometry peculiarities the non-linear orthogonal

  17. Particle measurement and brine chemistry at the Salton Sea Deep Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertus, R. J.; Kindle, C. H.; Sullivan, R. G.; Shannon, D. W.

    1991-09-01

    The Advanced Brine Chemistry Project, a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Energy Program, is addressing operating problems associated with scaling and corrosion at geothermal power plants. Under this project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of tests at the Salton Sea Deep Well, which has one of the highest solids contents in the world. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate monitoring instrumentation under field conditions and relate particulate formation to the brine chemistry. The instrumentation, was evaluated under scaling geothermal conditions using two different principles: ultrasonic reflection and laser light scattering. The following conclusions were drawn from the instrumentation testing and brine chemistry and particulate analyses. (1) Using reflected ultrasonic impulses to detect suspended particles has been demonstrated for on-line application in a geothermal brine with strong scaling tendencies. Advantages over laser light scattering include improved high-temperature durability for the transducer and longer operation with less maintenance. (2) Counting and sizing particles using laser light scattering requires constant maintenance in geothermal applications. (3) Silica is the dominant scale species and appears in amounts orders of magnitude greater than other minor species such as barium sulfate. (4) The silica that formed at high temperatures and short residence times is very gelatinous and difficult to filter out of the brine. (5) Correlation of instrument readings with particle collection data was difficult because conditions on the filter (i.e., temperature, flowrate, and pressure) could not be maintained constant for long enough intervals to obtain comparable information.

  18. Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

    2004-02-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

  19. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  20. Experimental Work Conducted on MgO Inundated Hydration in WIPP-Relevant Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Xiong, Y.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is being emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an engineered barrier to mitigate the effect of microbial CO2 generation on actinide mobility in a postclosure repository environment. MgO will sequester CO2 and consume water in brine or water vapor in the gaseous phase. Martin Marietta (MM) MgO is currently being emplaced in the WIPP. A fractional-factorial experiment has been performed to study the inundated-hydration of MM MgO as a function of its particle size, solid-to-liquid ratio, and brine type. MgO hydration experiments have been carried out with three MgO particle sizes and two solid-to-liquid ratios in three WIPP-related brines: ERDA-6, GWB and simplified GWB. ERDA-6 is a synthetic NaCl-rich brine typical of a Castile brine reservoir below the repository. GWB is a synthetic MgCl2- and NaCl-rich brine representative of intergranular brines from the Salado Formation at or near the stratigraphic horizon of the repository. Simplified GWB contains amounts of Mg, Na, and Cl similar to those in GWB without other minor constituents. The hydration products include brucite (Mg(OH)2) and phase 5 (Mg3(OH)5Cl4H2O). In addition to phase 5, MgO hydration in GWB or simplified GWB produces brucite, whereas MgO hydrated in ERDA-6 only produces brucite. The MgO particle size has had a significant effect on the formation of hydration products: small MgO particles have hydrated before the large particles. MgO has hydrated faster in simplified GWB than in the other two brines. In ERDA-6, the solid-to-liquid ratio has affected the brine pH due to the presence of CaO (~1 wt %) as an impurity in MM MgO. GWB has sufficient dissolved Mg to buffer pH despite small amounts of CaO. Both our results and thermodynamic modeling indicate that phase-5 is the stable Mg-OH-Cl phase in Mg-Na-Cl-dominated brines with ionic strengths and chemical compositions similar to that of GWB. In contrast, phase-3 (Mg2(OH)3Cl4H2O) is the stable phase in the MgCl2

  1. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

    1996-02-01

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

  2. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature

  3. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  4. Experimental Studies of the Formation/Deposition of Sodium Sulfate in/from Combustion Gases. [hot corrosion in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    Processes related to the hot corrosion of gas turbine components were examined in two separate investigations. Monochromatic laser light was used to probe condensation onset and condensate film growth (via interference of reflected light) on electrically heated ribbons immersed in seeded, flat flame combustion product gases. Boron trichloride is used as the seed gas in these preliminary experiments conducted to obtain precise measurements of the dew point/deposition rates. Because of the importance of gaseous Na(g) as a precursor to NaSO4 formation, the kinetics and mechanisms of the heterogeneous reaction H(g) + NaCl(s) yields Na(g) + HCl(g) was studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy combined with microwave discharge-vacuum flow reactor techniques at moderate temperatures. Preliminary results indicate the H-atom attack of solid NaCl vaporization is negligible; hence the corresponding gas phase (homogeneous) reaction no role in the observed Na(g) production.

  5. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  6. The Effect of Synthetic Brine Constituents on the Rate of Arsenic Release from Arsenopyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, H.; Dzombak, D. A.; Karamalidis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide storage (GCS) in deep saline sedimentary formations is a potential method for mitigating increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Injection of CO2 in those formations may induce dissolution of reservoir minerals. Leakage of CO2-saturated brines and native brines could impact overlying drinking water aquifers by contaminating them with toxic constituents. Of particular concern is the effect of CO2 on the rates of dissolution of arsenic and other toxic metals from reservoir minerals. The most common pure phase arsenic mineral in sedimentary geologic formations is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Natural brines have high salinities (up to 7M), with high concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+. The focus of this study is to examine the effect of brine components on the dissolution rate of arsenic from arsenopyrite. A small-scale flow-through column system was constructed for this purpose and is being used to measure arsenic release rates from arsenopyrite. Influent solutions of NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 at equal ionic strengths were used to examine the effect of the cationic species. A cleaning procedure to remove prior surface oxidation on the surface of the arsenopyrite particles was also developed. Preliminary results with NaCl and CaCl2 at an ionic strength of 0.011M indicate that the rate of dissolution of arsenic is dependent on the cationic species but independent of ionic strength.

  7. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  8. Radiation method for determining brine tolerant surfactants in complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, K. D.

    1984-12-11

    This invention provides a method for determining the concentration of a brine tolerant sulfonate surfactant in a complex mixture containing, in addition to said brine tolerant sulfonate surfactant, lignosulfonates, crude oil, salts, and water and, optionally, petroleum sulfonates and alcohols, that comprises incorporating into the brine tolerant sulfonate surfactant molecule a small amount of tritium prior to addition to the complex mixture and determining the concentration of the brine tolerant sulfonate surfactant by measuring its radioactivity.

  9. Sulfur and Trace Metal Chemistry of a Methane Charged Brine Pool and Adjacent Porewaters in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooly, W. P.; Cable, J. E.; Carney, R. S.; Macko, S. A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2007-12-01

    A systematic study of a methane brine pool on the Louisiana continental slope reveals the extent to which steep chemical gradients associated with an anoxic hypersaline basin control the establishment and distribution of chemosynthetic organisms. The seep site, located in the Green Canyon lease block (GC233), provides habitat for a bivalve-dominated community of chemosynthetic mussels ( Bathymodiolus childressi). The pool is a brine-filled pockmark centered over a salt diapir buried within 500 m of the seafloor along which methane and vent fluids migrate to the surface. The depression slopes along its southern margin where brine overflows onto the seafloor. This study sought to establish the chemistry of the brine in an effort to better understand fluid transport to the seafloor and the extent to which brine influences chemosynthetic activity at a methane seep site. Ten sediment push cores were collected during submersible operations within the brine spillway and in upslope background sediments distal to the pool. Initial chemical analyses indicate the brine (128 ppt) is anoxic, chloride-rich (1994.8 mM) and sulfur-poor ([SO42-] = 0.4 mM, [HS-] = 8.2 uM). Steep porewater Cl- and Sr2+ concentration gradients observed in sediments downslope of the brine pool clearly indicate mixing between brine and seawater end members. Porewater sulfur profiles from sediments within the brine outflow indicate complete sulfate consumption within 30 cm below seafloor and sulfide production as great as 5 mM. The paired isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate and sulfide (Δ34SSO4-HS = 40‰) is consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction, potentially driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane or non-methane hydrocarbons. The brine was nearly devoid of dissolved Mo (22 nM) and enriched in Mn (6.3 uM), relative to measured seawater casts ([Mo] = 112 nM; [Mn] below detection). Dissolved Mo enrichments, up to 392.8 nM, in surficial sediments decrease with depth may indicate brine

  10. Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in brines affect supercritical CO2-brine-biotite interactions: ion exchange, biotite dissolution, and illite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-01

    For sustainable geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS), a better understanding of the effects of brine cation compositions on mica dissolution, surface morphological change, and secondary mineral precipitation under saline hydrothermal conditions is needed. Batch dissolution experiments were conducted with biotite under conditions relevant to GCS sites (55-95 °C and 102 atm CO(2)). One molar NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl(2), or 0.4 M CaCl(2) solutions were used to mimic different brine compositions, and deionized water was used for comparison. Faster ion exchange reactions (Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+)-K(+), and Ca(2+)-K(+)) occurred in these salt solutions than in water (H(+)-K(+)). The ion exchange reactions affected bump, bulge, and crack formation on the biotite basal plane, as well as the release of biotite framework ions. In these salt solutions, numerous illite fibers precipitated after reaction for only 3 h at 95 °C. Interestingly, in slow illite precipitation processes, oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles forming the fibrous illite was observed. These results provide new information for understanding scCO(2)-brine-mica interactions in saline aquifers with different brine cation compositions, which can be useful for GCS as well as other subsurface projects.

  11. Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-01

    This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection of field producing and injection data. Phase 1--Geologic, reservoir

  12. Radial velocity variable, hot post-AGB stars from the MUCHFUSS project. Classification, atmospheric parameters, formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, N.; Geier, S.; Kupfer, T.; Bloemen, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Heber, U.; Barlow, B. N.; Østensen, R. H.

    2016-03-01

    In the course of the MUCHFUSS project we recently discovered four radial velocity (RV) variable, hot (Teff≈ 80 000-110 000 K) post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Among them, we found the first known RV variable O(He) star, the only second known RV variable PG 1159 close binary candidate, as well as the first two naked (i.e., without planetary nebula (PN)) H-rich post-AGB stars of spectral type O(H) that show significant RV variations. We present a non-LTE spectral analysis of these stars along with one further O(H)-type star whose RV variations were found to be not significant. We also report the discovery of a far-infrared excess in the case of the PG 1159 star. None of the stars in our sample displays nebular emission lines, which can be explained well in terms of a very late thermal pulse evolution in the case of the PG 1159 star. The "missing" PNe around the O(H)-type stars seems strange, since we find that several central stars of PNe have much longer post-AGB times. Besides the non-ejection of a PN, the occurrence of a late thermal pulse, or the re-accretion of the PN in the previous post-AGB evolution offer possible explanations for those stars not harbouring a PN (anymore). In the case of the O(He) star J0757, we speculate that it might have been previously part of a compact He transferring binary system. In this scenario, the mass transfer must have stopped after a certain time, leaving behind a low-mass close companion that may be responsible for the extreme RV shift of 107.0 ± 22.0 km s-1 that was measured within only 31 min.

  13. Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation or Detection of Ecological Species of Synechococcus Inhabiting a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat.

    PubMed

    Melendrez, Melanie C; Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Olsen, Millie T; Bryant, Donald A; Heidelberg, John F; Rusch, Douglas B; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept-that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B') of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B' lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B' lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes), and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal diversification.

  14. Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation or Detection of Ecological Species of Synechococcus Inhabiting a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat.

    PubMed

    Melendrez, Melanie C; Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Olsen, Millie T; Bryant, Donald A; Heidelberg, John F; Rusch, Douglas B; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept-that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B') of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B' lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B' lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes), and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal diversification. PMID

  15. Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation or Detection of Ecological Species of Synechococcus Inhabiting a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Melendrez, Melanie C.; Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Olsen, Millie T.; Bryant, Donald A.; Heidelberg, John F.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Cohan, Frederick M.; Ward, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept—that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B') of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B' lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B' lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes), and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal diversification

  16. Evaluation of Degreasers as Brine Curing Additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of time needed for brine curing of raw hides and skins, a minimum of 18 h, is a time-consuming and expensive process. In this paper we initially report the results of an investigation of the stratigraphic distribution of sodium chloride and water in fleshed hides cured for varying interv...

  17. Unconventional gas sources. Volume IV. Geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: study objectives, regional geology and prospect evaluation, reservoir engineering, drilling and well costs, production and water disposal facilities, pressure maintenance, geothermal and hydraulic energy assessment, operating expense, economic evaluation, environmental considerations, legal considerations, and risks analysis. The study addresses only sandstone brine reservoirs in the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast onshore areas. (MHR)

  18. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  19. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  20. 7 CFR 58.408 - Brine room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION... readily cleanable. The brine room equipment shall be maintained in good repair and corrosion kept at...

  1. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals. [Synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  3. Brines and evaporites: analogs for Martian life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Fahlen, T. F.; Landheim, R.; Klovstad, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Data from recent Mars missions suggest that Mars almost certainly had abundant liquid water on its surface at some time in the past. As a result, Mars has emerged as a key solar system target that could have harbored some form of life in the past, and which could perhaps still possess remnants of life in brine-containing permafrost. As Mars lost its atmosphere it became cold and dry. Any remaining water on the surface may have formed saline brine pockets within the permafrost. These brine pockets may either be an "oasis" for an extant Martian biota, or the last refuge of an extinct Martian biota. Eventually, these brine pockets would have dried to form evaporites. Evaporites are deposits that result from the evaporation of saline water, which on earth represent primarily halite (NaCl), gypsum, (CaSO 42H 2O), and anhydrite (CaSO 4). Evaporites that contain bacterial and algal assemblages exist on earth today and are well known in the fossil record. The most likely organism type to survive in a brine or evaporite on earth is a halophile. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of microbes to survive in frozen evaporites. Washed mid-log phase and stationary phase cultures of Haloarcula-G (a species isolated by us during a previous study) and Halobacterium salinarum were either suspended in brine (25% NaCl solution), dried, and then exposed to -20 or -80 °C. For comparison, cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were treated similarly, except they were resuspended in 0.5% NaCl solution. Also, to mimic a brine pocket samples of washed mid-log phase cells of each organism were placed in an aqueous solution of 25% NaCl, or in their respective nutrient medium containing 25% NaCl. Periodically, samples of the cells were removed and tested for survival. Data from these experiments suggest that halophiles survive better than non-halophiles under low temperature conditions. These observations would suggest that

  4. Nature and origin of RSL: Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines in the near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Marion; Beck, Pierre; Schmitt, Bernard; Pommerol, Antoine; McEwen, Alfred; Chevrier, Vincent; Brissaud, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    If water has likely flowed on Mars in its early history, the current presence of liquid water is debatable. However, some recently discovered fea-tures named "Recurrent Slope Lineae" (RSL) suggest that superficial liquid can occur on present day Mars in a transient state [McEwen et al., 2011]. RSL are dark (up to 40% darker than the surrounding areas), narrow (0.5-5 m) and are mostly found in the southern mid-latitudes. Repeated MRO/HiRISE images reveal that they appear and grow during warm seasons and fade and disappear during cold seasons. They develop on steep slopes (25°-40°), favoring equator-facing slopes, times and places with peak temperatures of ~250-300K. The most likely formation process of RSL involves the presence of liquid brines near the surface. Brines are more stable on Mars than pure water [e.g. Chevrier et al., 2009] because salts can depress the freezing point of water by up to 70 K. However, this hypothesis suffers from the lack of clear identification of brines with the high resolution CRISM spectra. The mineralogical characterization of RSL is challenging because RSL are much smaller than the ~18 m pixel scale of CRISM data but spectral features diagnostic of water or brines [Hanley et al., 2010] are not observable even on the largest RSL. The goal of our study is to reproduce with laboratory experiments some hydration and dehydration cycles of different kind of brines mixed with basaltic soil. These experiments aim to understand the spectroscopic behavior of brines during these processes and to determine the diagnostic spectral features that we can expected to find for Martian RSL. We found that, if the surface displays a low albedo from the beginning of the hydration to the end of the dehydration, diagnostic brines absorption bands are only observed when the liquid film is formed. This is consistent with our current RSL observations. In the future, we need to acquire some new CRISM data when the formation of liquid brines is the most

  5. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  6. CO2-Brine Rheology Could Suppress Leakage From Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Clarens, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) in the deep subsurface is an attractive means for storing large volumes of CO2 over the long term. GCS is predicated on there being minimal leakage of CO2 to the surface since this would negate the climate change benefits and could also create a human health risk. Despite the importance of understanding leakage processes to GCS deployment, the phenomena remain especially difficult to characterize because CO2, driven by buoyant forces out of host formations, must travel over long length scales, encountering varied geologic formations and endogenous brines, and experiencing a wide range of shear, temperature and pressure conditions that result in complex phase behavior. This study explores the rheology of CO2-brine mixtures in an effort to better characterize the geophysics of a rising parcel of CO2 in the subsurface. Experimental work in this area to date has assumed that CO2-brine mixtures will exhibit simple Newtonian behavior. The hypothesis of this work is that CO2-brine mixtures will move through porous media generating high shear rates, caused by the small pore sizes, that could result in more complex flow phenomena. The rheological properties of single and multiphase CO2-brine mixtures were measured over a range of GCS-relevant temperature, pressure, ionic strength, and shear conditions using a rotational rheometer fitted with a high-pressure vessel and a low viscosity measurement unit. Under liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) conditions CO2-brine mixtures were found to exhibit consistently Newtonian behavior with the effective viscosity generally increasing with respect to CO2(aq) concentration. A small dip in viscosity occurs at the pressure corresponding to the transition of CO2 from liquid to gas but this minor effect is not likely to have an appreciable impact on leakage rates. More significantly, under vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) conditions, CO2-brine suspensions exhibit complex viscoelastic behavior that could

  7. Wettability of Freon hydrates in crude oil/brine emulsions.

    PubMed

    Høiland, S; Askvik, K M; Fotland, P; Alagic, E; Barth, T; Fadnes, F

    2005-07-01

    The surface energy of petroleum hydrates is believed to be a key parameter with regard to hydrate morphology and plugging tendency in petroleum production. As of today, the surface energy of natural gas hydrates is unknown, but will depend on the fluids in which they grow. In this work, the wettability of Freon hydrates is evaluated from their behavior in crude oil emulsions. For emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles, the particle wettability is a governing parameter for the emulsion behavior. The transition between continuous and dispersed phases as a function of brine volume in crude oil-brine emulsions containing Freon hydrates has been determined for 12 crude oils. Silica particles are used for comparison. The results show that phase inversion is highly dependent on crude oil properties. Based on the measured points of phase inversion, the wettability of the Freon hydrates generated in each system is evaluated as being oil-wet, intermediate-wet, or water-wet. Generation of oil-wet hydrates correlates with low hydrate plugging tendency. The formation of oil-wet hydrates will prevent agglomeration into large hydrate aggregates and plugs. Hence, it is believed that the method is applicable for differentiating oils with regard to hydrate morphology. PMID:15914170

  8. Pleasant Bayou area, Brazoria County, Texas, brine injection experience

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal brine disposal is one of the facets relating to the geopressured-geothermal energy problem. Subsurface brine disposal is a viable option and a good deal of information is available on brine disposal in the general Gulf Coast area. The specific information presented was developed in a DOE study of salt water disposal experience in Louisiana and Texas (Knutson and Boardman, 1977), an EPA study of large volume brine injection in Brazoria County, Texas (Knutson, 1980) and industrial brine injection experience, especially in Tertiary clastic sediments.

  9. Dust Formation in Hot Stellar Winds: Infra-Red Imaging of the Wolf-Rayet Binary WR137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Anthony

    1997-07-01

    We propose to use NICMOS on HST to image the dust formed in the bow shock region of the 12.6-year elliptical-orbit binary WR 137 = HD 192641 {WC7+OB}, within a year after periastron passage, predicted to occur in late 1996 or early 1997. Ground -based IR photometry has shown that copious amounts of carbon- rich dust are formed just after periastron passage, when wind- wind collision compression is at its peak. WR 137 is the currently most favorable system for the direct detection of the extended dust formation region among all known WR episodic dust emitters. Imaging of the dust emitting region will directly test for the first time the concept of wind-wind collision and allow one to study how and where dust can form in such a hostile environment.

  10. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  11. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. Hot-gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells-dechlorination and soot formation. Final report, May 19, 1981-July 19, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, D.; Gelb, A.; Lord, G.; Simons, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two separate aspects of hot-gas conditioning for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) were investigated under this contract: potential high temperature chloride sorbent materials were sreened and tested and carbon deposition on MCFC components was studied experimentally to determine guidelines for maximizing MCFC efficiency while avoiding carbon fouling. Natural minerals containing sodium carbonate were identified as the most promising candidates for economical removal of chlorides from coal gasifier effluents at temperatures of about 800 K (980/sup 0/F). The mineral Shortite was tested in a fixed bed and found to perform remarkably well with no calcination. Using Shortite we were able to achieve the program goal of less than 1 ppmV chlorides at 800 K. Shortite is an abundant mineral with no competing commercial demand, so it should provide an economical chloride cleanup sorbent. Measurements showed that carbon deposition can occur in the equilibrium carbon freee region because of the relative rates of the relevant reactions. On all surfaces tested, the Boudouard carbon formation reaction is much faster than the water-gas shift reaction which is much faster than the methanation reaction. This means that the normal practice of adding steam to prevent carbon formation will only succeed if flows are slow enough for the water shift reaction to go substantially to completion. More direct suppression of carbon formation can be achieved by CO/sub 2/ addition through anode recycle to force the Boudouard reaction backward. Addition of steam or CO/sub 2/ must be minimized to attain the highest possible MCFC efficiency. 28 references, 31 figures, 22 tables.

  13. Protein synthesis in brine shrimp embryos. Regulation of the formation of the ternary complex (Met-tRNAf X eIF-2 X GTP) by two purified protein factors and phosphorylation of Artemia eIF-2.

    PubMed

    Woodley, C L; Roychowdhury, M; MacRae, T H; Olsen, K W; Wahba, A J

    1981-07-01

    We have purified from the ribosomal wash of dormant and developing embryos of Artemia two proteins, Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B). These factors are essential for ternary complex formation and binding of [35S]-Met-tRNAf to 40-S ribosomal subunits with 15-30 microgram eIF-2/ml of reaction mixture. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in dodecylsulfate, Co-eIF-2(A) is composed of a single polypeptide of Mr 65 000, whereas Co-eIF-2(B) contains polypeptides of Mr 105000 and 112000. Co-eIF-2(A) is sensitive to 4.5 microM aurintricarboxylic acid but Co-eIF-2(B) requires approximately 15 microM aurintricarboxylic acid to give 50% inhibition of ternary complex formation. The stimulatory activity of both factors is abolished by pretreatment of the proteins with N-ethylmaleimide. Artemia eIF-2 rapidly bonds [3H]GDP or [3H]GTP and at 15 degrees C the initiation factor rapidly equilibrates bound nucleotides with free GDP or GTP. Both Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B) have no effect on the exchange or the amount of nucleotide bound. The small subunit (Mr 43 000) of Artemia eIF-2 is phosphorylated in the presence of the rabbit reticulocyte heme-repressible kinase. Tryptic digestion of [32P]phosphorylated eIF-2 produces a single major phosphopeptide and several minor ones. Acid hydrolysis of these phosphopeptides, as well as of [32P]phosphorylated eIF-2, demonstrates that the radioactivity is predominantly associated with phosphoserine. Phosphorylated Artemia eIF-2 is active in ternary complex formation, in AUG-dependent binding of [35S]Met-tRNAf to 40-S ribosomal subunits and in cell-free protein synthesis. Both Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B) stimulate ternary complex formation with phosphorylated eIF-2. A kinase that phosphorylates the small subunit of eIF-2 is present in the post-ribosomal supernatant as well as in the ribosomal wash of developing Artemia embryos. PMID:6912815

  14. Global magnetosphere-like 3D structure formation in kinetics by hot magnetized plasma flow characterized by shape of the particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, Vladimir

    The task was to provide an analytical elementary magnetosphere-like model in kinetics for verification of the 3D EM PIC codes created for space/aerospace and HED plasmas applications. Kinetic approach versus cold MHD approach takes into account different behavior in the EM fields of resonant and non resonant particles in the velocity phase space, which appears via shape characteristics of the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) and via the spatial dispersion effect forming the collisionless dissipation in the EM fields. The external flow is a hot collisionless plasma characterized by the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) with different shapes: Maxwellian, kappa, etc. The flow is in a “hot regime”: it can be supersonic but its velocity remains less the thermal velocity of the electrons. The “internal” part of the magnetosphere formed by trapped particles is the prescribed 3D stationary magnetization considered as a spherical “quasiparticle” with internal magnetodipole and toroidal moments represented as a broadband EM driver. We obtain after the linearization of Vlasov/Maxwell equations a self-consistent 3D large scale kinetic solution of the classic problem. Namely, we: model the “outer” part of the magnetosphere formed by external hot plasma flow of the flyby particles. Solution of the Vlasov equation expressed via a tensor of dielectric permittivity of nonmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasma. Here, we obtain the direct kinetic dissipative effect of the magnetotail formation and the opposite diamagnetic effect of the magnetosphere “dipolization”. We get MHD wave cone in flow magnetized by external guiding magnetic (GM) field. Magnetosphere in our consideration is a 3D dissipative “wave” package structure of the skinned EM fields formed by the “waves” excited at frequency bands where we obtain negative values and singularities (resonances) of squared EM refractive index of the cold plasma. The hot regime

  15. Multiphase flow of carbon dioxide and brine in dual porosity carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentland, Christopher; Oedai, Sjaam; Ott, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations presents a challenge in terms of multiphase flow characterisation. Project planning requires an understanding of multiphase flow characteristics such as the relationship between relative permeability and saturation. At present there are only a limited number of relative permeability relations for carbon dioxide-brine fluid systems, most of which are measured on sandstone rocks. In this study coreflood experiments are performed to investigate the relative permeability of carbon dioxide and brine in two dual porosity carbonate systems. Carbon dioxide is injected into the brine saturated rocks in a primary drainage process. The rock fluid system is pre-equilibrated to avoid chemical reactions and physical mass transfer between phases. The pressure drop across the samples, the amount of brine displaced and the saturation distribution within the rocks are measured. The experiments are repeated on the same rocks for the decane-brine fluid system. The experimental data is interpreted by simulating the experiments with a continuum scale Darcy solver. Selected functional representations of relative permeability are investigated, the parameters of which are chosen such that a least squares objective function is minimised (i.e. the difference between experimental observations and simulated response). The match between simulation and measurement is dependent upon the form of the functional representations. The best agreement is achieved with the Corey [Brooks and Corey, 1964] or modified Corey [Masalmeh et al., 2007] functions which best represent the relative permeability of brine at low brine saturations. The relative permeability of carbon dioxide is shown to be lower than the relative permeability of decane over the saturation ranges investigated. The relative permeability of the brine phase is comparable for the two fluid systems. These observations are consistent with the rocks being water-wet. During the experiment

  16. The Spar Lake strata-Bound Cu-Ag deposit formed across a mixing zone between trapped natural gas and metals-bearing brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Landis, Gary P.; Whelan, Joseph F.; Rye, Robert O.; Moscati, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Ore formation at the Spar Lake red bed-associated strata-bound Cu deposit took place across a mixing and reaction zone between a hot oxidized metals-transporting brine and a reservoir of “sour” (H2S-bearing) natural gas trapped in the host sandstones. Fluid inclusion volatile analyses have very high CH4 concentrations (≥1 mol % in most samples), and a sample from the fringe of the deposit has between 18 and 36 mol % CH4. The ratio of CH4/CO2 in fluid inclusions appears to vary regularly across the deposit, with the lowest CH4/CO2 ratios from high-grade chalcocite-bearing ore, and the highest from the chalcopyrite-bearing fringe. The helium R/Ra isotope ratios (0.23–0.98) and concentrations define a mixture between crustal and atmospheric helium. The volatiles in fluid inclusions (CH4, CO2, H2S, SO2, H2, H2O, and other organic gases) and values of fO2 and temperature calculated from the volatiles data all show gradations across the deposit that are completely consistent with such a mixing and reaction zone. Other volatiles from the fluid inclusions (HCl, HF, 3He, Msup>4He, N2, Ar) characterize the brine and give evidence for only shallow crustal fluids with no magmatic influences. The brine entered the gas reservoir from below and along the axis of the deposit and migrated out along bedding to the southwest, northeast, and northwest. Metals-transporting brines may have been fed into the host sandstones from the East Fault, but that remains uncertain. Abundant ore-stage Fe and Mn calcite cements from the reduced fringe have δ13C values as low as −18.4‰, and many values less than −10‰, which indicate that significant carbonate was generated by oxidation of organic carbon from the natural gas. The zone of calcite cements with very low δ13C values approximately envelopes chalcocite-bearing ore. Sulfur isotope data of Cu, Pb, and Fe sulfides and barite indicate derivation of roughly half of the orebody sulfide directly from sour gas H2S. That sour gas H

  17. Close encounters of a rotating star with planets in parabolic orbits of varying inclination and the formation of hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2011-10-01

    , however, this result might change for more realistic stellar rotation histories. Thus, the effect of stellar rotation may provide a bias in the formation of planetary systems having planets on close orbits around their host stars, as a consequence of planet-planet scattering, which favours systems with retrograde orbits. The results reported in the paper may also be applied to the problem of tidal capture of stars in young stellar clusters.

  18. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  19. Approach to recover strategic metals from brines

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; Harrar, J.; Gregg, D.

    1981-09-16

    The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate hypersaline brines from geothermal sources and salt domes as possible sources for some strategic metals. This research is suggested because several previous analyses of brine from geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley, California, and from Gulf Coast salt domes, indicate near commercial values for platinum as well as other metals (i.e., gold, silver). Extraction of the platinum should be technically feasible. A research program should include more complete systematic sampling and analysis for resource delineation, followed by bench-scale investigation of several potential extraction processes. This could be followed by engineering feasibility and design studies, for extraction of the metals either as a by-product of other operations or in a stand-alone process.

  20. Do brine shrimp diagnose cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Hodes, M E; Thomas, J; Morgan, S; Merritt, A D

    1975-11-01

    The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245

  1. Assay of brines for common radiolysis products

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Brines are assayed for four common products of radiolytic reaction. Free chlorine is determined spectrophotometrically after reaction with o-tolidine. The test is specific for chlorine, and quantities of chlorine from 0.1 to 6 ..mu..g in the test aliquot are determined with a precision of about +- 5%. Hydrogen peroxide is reacted with xylenol orange and determined spectrophotometrically with a precision of +- 5% on 2-..mu..g quantities of peroxide. A spectrophotometric method using thiocyanate is employed in the chlorate assay. After subtracting the bias caused by any H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or Cl/sub 2/, 1-..mu..g quantities of chlorate can be determined with a precision of +- 10%. Perchlorate ion quantities of 1 ppM can be determined directly in brines by ion chromatography with a precision of about +- 15%.

  2. Gamma and alpha radiolysis of salt brines

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Simonson, S.A.

    1984-11-01

    Gamma radiolysis of Permian Basin brine leads to equilibrium gas pressure of about 100 atm. at 75/sup 0/C and about 40 atm. at 150/sup 0/C, providing the gas space is very small and/or the total dose is very high. Dose rate dependence is being investigated but is not yet established. Alpha radiolysis of Permian Bsin brine is still being pursued, but it is clear that equilibrium gas pressures will be much higher than with gamma radiolysis. Gas compositions in all cases have been about two parts H/sub 2/ to one part O/sub 2/. Efforts to simulate these results with computer models have been quite successful. 8 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  3. Composition, microstructure, and surface barrier layer development during brine salting.

    PubMed

    Melilli, C; Carcò, D; Barbano, D M; Tumino, G; Carpino, S; Licitra, G

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the changes in chemical composition, porosity, and structure that occur at the surface of a block of brine-salted cheese and their relationship to the rate at which salt is taken up from the brine. To create a difference in composition, salt uptake, and barrier layer properties, identical blocks of Ragusano cheese were placed in saturated and 18% salt brine at 18 degrees C for 12 d. The overall moisture content and porosity decreased, whereas salt and salt in moisture content increased near the surface of blocks of brine-salted Ragusano cheese for all treatments. The general appearance of the microstructure of the surface of the blocks of brine-salted cheese was much more compact than the microstructure 1 mm inside the block at both brine concentrations. Large differences in porosity of the barrier layer were produced by brine-salting cheese in 18% vs. saturated brine, with cheese in saturated brine having much lower porosity at the surface and taking up much less salt during brining. The macro network of water channels within the microstructure of the cheese was less open near the surface of the block for cheese in both saturated and 18% brine after 4 d. However, no large differences in the size of the macro channels in the cheese structure due to the difference in brine concentration were observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is possible that the shrinkage of the much smaller pore structure within the casein matrix of the cheese is more important and will become more limiting to the rate of salt diffusion. Further microstructure work at higher resolution is needed to answer this question. The calculated decrease in porosity at the exterior 1-mm portion of the block was 50.8 and 29.2% for cheeses that had been in saturated vs. 18% brine for 12 d, respectively. The difference in brine concentration had a very large impact on the salt in moisture content of the cheese. The exterior of the cheese in 18% brine reached

  4. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. PMID:11933129

  5. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  6. Evolution of elastic and thermal properties during TMOS-gel formation determined by ringing bottle acoustic resonance spectroscopy, impulsive stimulated scattering, photopyroelectric spectroscopy and the hot ball method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Agustin Flores Cuautle, Jose Jesus; Kouyate, Mansour; Bernardus Roozen, Nicolaas; Goossens, Jozefien; Menon, Preethy; Kuriakose Malayil, Maju; Salenbien, Robbe; Nair Rajesh, Ravindran; Glorieux, Christ; Griesmar, Pascal; Martinez, Loïc; Serfaty, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of the elastic and thermal properties of a tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS)-based gel that exhibits an extraordinary ringing effect when enclosed in a bottle is investigated during the sol-gel transition. The results demonstrate the feasibility of three proposed experimental methods for monitoring of gels during their formation. The shear stiffening evolution during gelation is monitored by ringing bottle, resonant acoustic spectroscopy and by an ultrasonic technique using piezo electric excitation and detection. The evolution of the longitudinal modulus and the thermal diffusivity of the gel during stiffening are simultaneously determined by a combined photoacoustic and photothermal method based on heterodyne diffraction detection of impulsive stimulated scattering by, respectively, a propagating acoustic wave grating and a decaying thermal expansion grating that were both thermo elastically generated using a pulsed laser. Also, the feasibility of an inverse photopyroelectric method and a hot ball technique to monitor the thermal transport efficiency and thermal impedance of a forming gel by tracking the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, and the thermal effusivity is demonstrated. The network polymerization and stiffening during the sol-gel transition in TMOS-gel corresponds with substantial changes in the shear acoustic velocity and in all thermal properties, while the longitudinal acoustic velocity is only weakly affected.

  7. pH pre-corrected liquid hot water pretreatment on corn stover with high hemicellulose recovery and low inhibitors formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Qiang; Jiang, Wei; Jia, Jing-Xia; Xu, Jian

    2014-02-01

    A challenge for lignocellulosic pretreatment is how to retain hemicellulose as much as possible. To reduce the degradation of hemicellulose and increase the recovery of sugars, an effective pH pre-corrected liquid hot water pretreatment (LHWP) was developed by employing a small amount of NaOH (⩽5/100g substrate) to accelerate the hemicellulose deacetylation and simultaneously pre-correct the acid hydrolyzate in situ. The results showed that the pH pre-correction can control the hydrolyzate pH. Under the pretreatment severity (PS) of 4.0, the pH pre-corrected LHWP reduced the hemicellulose degradation by 35.3-92.3%, decreased furfural formation by 90.5-99.8%. The highest hemicellulose recovery of 96.38% was obtained with pH pre-corrected by 2g NaOH/100g substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) on the whole slurry from the pH pre-corrected LHWP showed that the hemicellulose retained in the solid residue did not bring significant resistance to cellulose EH (p=0.837).

  8. DISTINCTIVE LOCALIZATION OF GROUP 3 LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT SYNTHESIZING CELLS DURING BRINE SHRIMP DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Yong; Song, Hwa Young; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Kyung Joo; Jo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suhng Wook; Lee, Seung Gwan; Lee, Boo Hyung

    2015-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA(+) cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH-1(+) cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA(+) neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA(+) sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA(+) sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp. PMID:25781424

  9. Investigating the Martian Gullies for Possible Brine Origin: A Preliminary Search for Evaporite Minerals Using THEMIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Photographs taken by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard the Mars Odyssey (MO) spacecraft have shown the presence of young gullies on Mars. These gullies occur at middle and high latitudes (predominantly in the southern hemisphere) in the walls of both impact craters and canyons. They are thought possibly to be formed by the melting of ground ice, groundwater seepage (possibly as brines), surface runoff, or even liquid CO2, activated sporadically as a result of oscillations in Mars orbit. For this work, the hypothesis of gully formation being related to the outflow of brines will be investigated through the observation and study of spacecraft data. Brine rich fluids expunged from underground onto the walls of canyons and craters would either evaporate or freeze and sublimate. Removal of water from a brine by evaporation or sublimation would cause the solutes to precipitate as evaporite minerals on the canyon and crater walls or at the base of the walls, and possibly on the canyon and crater floors. Hence, the gully sites are ideal target areas to search for evaporites using THEMIS data. The objective of this work is to survey the recently acquired THEMIS data for spectral evidence of evaporite minerals, with a focus on areas of gully formation. Identifying salt mineral residues could provide chemical evidence in support of the brine origin of the Martian gullies.

  10. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir

  11. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at a proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ

  12. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  13. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  14. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  15. Trace element partitioning between vapor, brine and halite under extreme phase separation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, D. I.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the partitioning of Li, Br, Rb, Cs and B between vapor, brine and halite during subcritical and supercritical phase separation in the NaCl-H 2O system (388-550 °C, 250-350 bars). Results indicate that Li and Br partition preferentially into the low-salinity vapor fluids, while Rb and Cs become more enriched in the coexisting brines. Under more extreme conditions of pressure and temperature in the two-phase region, especially near the vapor-brine-halite boundary, strong salting-out effects imposed on neutral aqueous species enhance significantly partitioning of all trace elements into the low-salinity fluid. Dissolved boron is strongly affected by this and a particularly strong enrichment into vapors is observed, a trend that can be effectively correlated with changes in reduced density. Exclusion of Li, Br, Rb, Cs and B from halite, when precipitated, further increases the solubility of these species in the coexisting Cl-poor fluid. In general, the lack of distortion in the partitioning behavior of trace elements between vapor, brine and/or halite with the transition from subcritical to supercritical conditions in the NaCl-H 2O system precludes the need for special reference to the critical point of seawater when interpreting phase relations in submarine hydrothermal systems. The combination of experimentally determined trace element partitioning data with constraints imposed by mineral solubility provides a means to better understand the origin and evolution of hot spring vent fluids. For example, in Brandon hydrothermal system (21°S EPR) supercritical phase separation and subseafloor mixing appear to be the main heat and mass transport mechanisms fueled by a shallow magmatic intrusion, with boron systematics ruling out major contributions from magmatic degassing processes accompanying the near-seafloor volcanism.

  16. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  17. Laboratory-scale interaction between CO2-rich brine and limestone and sandstone under supercritical CO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rios, Maria; Cama, Jordi; Luquot, Linda; Soler, Josep

    2014-05-01

    A test site for a prospective CO2 geological storage is situated in Hontomín (Burgos, northern Spain) with a reservoir rock that is composed of limestone (calcite) and sandstone (66 wt.% calcite, 28 wt.% quartz and 6 wt.% microcline). During and after CO2 injection, the resulting CO2-rich acid brine will likely promote the dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite) and aluminosilicates (microcline). Since the reservoir Hontomín brine contains sulfate, gypsum (or anhydrite at depth) may precipitate. These coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions may induce changes in porosity and pore structure of the repository rocks. Percolations experiments with mechanically fractured cores (8.6 mm in diameter and 18 mm length) were performed under CO2 supercritical conditions (Pfluid = 150 bar; pCO2 ≡ 90 bar and T = 60 ºC) in order to evaluate and quantify variations in fracture permeability, preferential path formation and fracture volume. The brine sulfate content and the flow rate were varied. Regarding limestone, as the synthetic brines circulated through the fracture, the fracture permeability initially increased slowly, to thereafter increase rapidly. This change was due to a localized dissolution process (wormhole formation) along the core that occurred regardless gypsum precipitation. Nonetheless, the originated fracture volume in the sulfate-rich brine experiments was a factor of two smaller than that in sulfate-free brine experiments. Also, an increase in flow rate from 0.2 to 60 mL/h increased the volume of both dissolved calcite and precipitated gypsum. Regarding sandstone, permeability increased gradually with time. Nonetheless, this increase was not always continuous due to eventual fracture clogging. Formation of wormholes was observed. Acknowledgements This study was financed by CIUDEN (Ciudad de la Energía), the Compostilla OXYCFB300 project and the PANACEA project (European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant

  18. Particle measurement and brine chemistry at the Salton Sea Deep Well

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Kindle, C.H.; Sullivan, R.G.; Shannon, D.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Advanced Brine Chemistry Project, a part of the US Department of Energy's Geothermal Energy Program, is addressing operating problems associated with scaling and corrosion at geothermal power plants. Under this project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of tests at the Salton Sea Deep Well, which has one of the highest solids contents in the world. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate monitoring instrumentation under field conditions and relate particulate formation to the brine chemistry. The instrumentation, was evaluated under scaling geothermal conditions using two different principles: ultrasonic reflection and laser light scattering. The following conclusions were drawn from the instrumentation testing and brine chemistry and particulate analyses. (1) Using reflected ultrasonic impulses to detect suspended particles has been demonstrate for on-line application in a geothermal brine with strong scaling tendencies. Advantages over laser light scattering include improved high-temperature durability for the transducer and longer operation with less maintenance. (2) Counting and sizing particles using laser light scattering requires constant maintenance in geothermal applications. (3) Silica is the dominant scale species and appears in amounts orders of magnitude greater than other minor species such as barium sulfate. (4) The silica that formed at high temperatures and short residence times is very gelatinous and difficult to filter out of the brine. (5) Correlation of instrument readings with particle collection data was difficult because conditions on the filter (i.e., temperature, flowrate, and pressure) could not be maintained constant for long enough intervals to obtain comparable information. 5 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Field tests to determine scaling tendency of some moderate-temperature geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Sullivan, R.G.; Shannon, D.W.

    1986-09-01

    Several field tests were completed to determine the scaling tendency of moderate-temperature geothermal brines. Data were taken on the Heber as well as the East Mesa Known-Geothermal-Resources-Areas (KGRA's). The test results most directly benefit the Heber Geothermal Binary Demonstration Plant, but some have been generalized to be useful for other moderate-temperature (302 to 460/sup 0/F (150 to 239/sup 0/C)) geothermal reservoirs also. Field experiments determined conditions under which calcite, silica, and metal sulfides are likely to form. The calcite tests determined pressures which must be maintained to prevent gas-breakout and ensuing calcite deposition. Required pressures varied from one reservoir to the next and were strong functions of non-condensable gas content. The brine cooling tests tried to quantify the amount of silica which would drop out of the Heber brine by incrementally cooling it below a design set point of 150/sup 0/F (66/sup 0/C). The conclusion was that no detectable increase in silica occurred in times relevant to plant operations when the brine was cooled to 120/sup 0/F (49/sup 0/C). Although the cooling tests showed no detectable increase in silica formation, other materials did form in small amounts. The list includes magnetite (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/), calcite (CaCO/sub 3/), and mixtures of lead, zinc, and arsenic sulfides. Even for the lowest outlet temperature (120/sup 0/F) the particulate loading increased only about 50% over inlet conditions. Thus, for the Heber brines, the majority of material entering an injection well comes in the form of sand from the production wells. This same conclusion was supported by earlier work on the East Mesa KGRA.

  20. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are characterised by a close spatial and temporal association with small, hypabyssal intrusions of silicic magmas in volcanic arcs. PCD formation requires elevated chlorine and water to concentrate copper in magmatic hypersaline liquids (or brines), and elevated sulphur to precipitate copper-rich sulphides. These twin requirements are hard to reconcile with experimental and petrological evidence that voluminous chlorine-rich, hydrous silicic magmas, of the variety favourable to copper enrichment, lack sufficient sulphur to precipitate directly the requisite quantities of sulphides. These features are, however, consistent with observations of active volcanic arcs whereby PCDs can be viewed as roots of dome volcanoes above shallow reservoirs where silicic magmas accumulate over long time spans. During protracted periods of dormancy metal-enriched dense brines accumulate in and above the silicic reservoir through slow, low-pressure degassing. Meanwhile cogenetic volatile-rich mafic magmas and their exsolved, sulphur and CO2-rich fluids accumulate in deeper reservoirs. Periodic destabilisation of these reservoirs leads to short-lived bursts of volcanism liberating sulphurous gases, which react with the shallow-stored brines to form copper-rich sulphides and acidic vapours. We test this hypothesis with a novel set of 'porphyry in a capsule' experiments designed to simulate low-pressure (1-2 kbar) interaction of basalt-derived, sulphur-rich gases with brine-saturated, copper-bearing, but sulphur-free, granite. Experiments were run at 720-850 ° C in cold-seal apparatus with basaltic andesite, loaded with H2O and S, situated below dacite, loaded with H2O, Cl and Cu. At run conditions both compositions are substantially degassed and crystallized. S-rich gas from the basaltic andesite ascends to react with Cu-rich brines exsolved from the dacite, Our experiments reveal the direct precipitation of copper-sulphide minerals, in vugs and veins

  1. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis.

  2. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources. PMID:14649868

  3. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources.

  4. Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J.; Barker, K.M.

    1994-03-01

    One of the common oil-field wellbore problems is paraffin deposition. Even though hot oiling or hot watering is usually the first method tried for removing paraffin, few operators appreciate the limitations of ``hot oiling`` and the potential for the fluid to aggravate well problems and cause formation damage. Field tests have shown that the chemical and thermal processes that occur during ``hot oiling`` are very complex and that there are significant variations in practices among operators. Key issues include: (1) During a typical hot oiling job, a significant amount of the fluid injected into the well goes into the formation, and hence, particulates and chemicals in the fluid have the potential to damage the formation. (2) Hot oiling can vaporize oil in the tubing faster than the pump lifts oil. This interrupts paraffin removal from the well, and thus the wax is refined into harder deposits, goes deeper into the well, and can stick rods. These insights have been used to determine good ``hot oiling`` practices designed to maximize wax removal and minimize formation damage.

  5. Geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Langmuir, D.; Melchior, D.

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 226/Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO/sub 4/ were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40/sup 0/C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash facies and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO/sub 4/. /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10/sup -11.3/ to 10/sup -12.7/ m, are not controlled by RaSO/sub 4/ solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  6. The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, Donald; Melchior, Daniel

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as 90Sr and 226Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO 4 were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40°C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash fades and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO 4. 226Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10 -11.3 to 10 -12.7 m, are not controlled by RaSO 4 solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  7. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Hull; Carolyn Bishop

    2004-02-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface

  8. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  9. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept is being developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management designs typically used in spacecraft systems. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches currently envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other early observations from testing are reported.

  11. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment.

  12. Water and Brines on Mars: Current Evidence and Implications for MSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, G. M.; Renno, N. O.

    2013-06-01

    Liquid water is a basic ingredient for life as we know it. Therefore, in order to understand the habitability of other planets we must first understand the behavior of water on them. Mars is the most Earth-like planet in the solar system and it has large reservoirs of H2O. Here, we review the current evidence for pure liquid water and brines on Mars, and discuss their implications for future and current missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory. Neither liquid water nor liquid brines are currently stable on the surface of Mars, but they could be present temporarily in a few areas of the planet. Pure liquid water is unlikely to be present, even temporarily, on the surface of Mars because evaporation into the extremely dry atmosphere would inhibit the formation of the liquid phase, where the temperature and pressure are high enough so that water would neither freeze nor boil. The exception to this is that monolayers of liquid water, referred to as undercooled liquid interfacial water, could exist on most of the Martian surface. In a few places liquid brines could exist temporarily on the surface because they could form at cryogenic temperatures, near ice or frost deposits where sublimation could be inhibited by the presence of nearly saturated air. Both liquid water and liquid brines might exist in the shallow subsurface because even a thin layer of soil forms an effective barrier against sublimation allowing pure liquid water to form sporadically in a few places, or liquid brines to form over longer periods of time in large portions of the planet. At greater depths, ice deposits could melt where the soil conductivity is low enough to blanket the deeper subsurface effectively. This could cause the formation of aquifers if the deeper soil is sufficiently permeable and an impermeable layer exists below the source of water. The fact that liquid brines and groundwater are likely to exist on Mars has important implications for geochemistry, glaciology, mineralogy

  13. On laboratory simulation and the temperature dependence of the evaporation rate of brine on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Chittenden, Julie D.

    2005-12-01

    We have determined the evaporation rate of brine under simulated martian conditions at temperatures from 0°C to -26.0°C as part of our efforts to better understand the stability of water on Mars. Correcting for the effect of water build-up in the atmosphere and the lower gravity on Mars relative to Earth we observed a factor of almost 30 decrease in evaporation, from 0.88 mm/h at ~0°C to 0.04 mm/h at -25.0°C. The results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Ingersoll's (1970) theoretical treatment, lending support to the theory and our procedures. Thus brine formation will increase the stability of water on Mars not only by extending the liquid temperature range, but also by considerably decreasing the evaporation rate.

  14. Origin of fluids from oil/gas fields and hot springs in the Green Tuff region of Japan: 129I results from halogen-rich fluids in the Akita and Niigata Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Tomaru, H.; Lu, Z.; Fehn, U.; Muramatsu, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Green Tuff region in the Akita and Niigata Basins, Japan, hosts major occurrences of oil and gas as well as of mineral deposits. We measured halogen concentrations and 129I/I ratios in oil and gas field brines and hot springs in order to determine the origin of iodine and, indirectly, of hydrocarbons in this area and their association with geological processes during the opening of the Japan Sea. Based on the concentration of iodine, the samples fall into three categories: Group A (I >200μM), Group B (200μM>I >100μM), and Group C (I <100μM). Samples in Groups A and B come predominantly from oil/gas fields and have 129I/I ratios below 350×10-15, corresponding to ages essentially in the Eocene period. In contrast, samples in Group C are generally from hot springs and have 129I/I ratios mostly above 400×10-15, corresponding to Miocene ages. These results indicate that source formations for Group C are associated with the active opening of the Japan Sea, but that those for Groups A and B are organic-rich segments of the late Eocene to Oligocene formations or of the older basement rocks accreted before the opening of the Japan Sea. Because the reservoir formations of oil and gas reservoirs are predominantly of Middle to Late Miocene age, mobilization of these brines could have been associated with the tectonic processes during the opening of the Japan Sea which also led to the formation of the hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate Kuroko Deposits in the same area. The hot springs of Group C probably reflect more directly these processes. Because of the close association of iodine with methane and other hydrocarbons, oil and gas in this area probably is derived also from sources of Eocene age, i.e. considerably older than the Green Tuff formations they currently are residing in.

  15. Effects of a Regional Aquifer on the Evolution of a Dense CO2-Charged Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskell, A.; Daniels, K.; Bickle, M. J.; Pegler, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within geological reservoirs is recognised as an important solution to combat the observed changes in the Earth's climate attributed to the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Such storage must be long-term and secure thus the ability to model the fate of CO2 and CO2-charged brines as they migrate within through geological carbon storage reservoirs is critical to obtaining regulatory approval. However, the complexities of flow in natural heterogeneous reservoirs make it essential to test model results against observations of real systems; this can be difficult due to their inaccessibility and the expense of gathering adequate data. At Green River, CO2 and CO2-charged brines leak into overlying aquifers during migration to the surface through the Little Grand Fault. As the CO2-charged brine leaks it forms a series of gravity currents and mixes with the formation fluids. Downhole fluid samples from the upper aquifer of the Navajo Sandstone suggest that regional aquifer flow and sedimentological heterogeneities have a large impact on the evolution and mixing of the CO2-charged plume1. Theoretical studies show that by imposing a regional background flow we alter the dynamics and evolution of a dense plume. To test the theory, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted; a constant flux of a denser brine solution was released from a point source at the base of a porous medium filled with flowing fresh water. We present here the theory and laboratory experiments and compare these findings to the vertical variation of conservative tracers, i.e. Na and Cl, within the formation fluids of the Navajo Sandstone. 1) Kampman, N., Maskell, A. and others, 2014. Drilling and sampling a natural CO2 reservoir: Implications for fluid flow and CO2-fluid-rock reactions during CO2 migration through the overburden. Chemical Geology 369, 51-82.

  16. Experiments of CO2 Solubility in the Synthetic Brine from the Erdos Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Solubility trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers is accepted to be the promising method in terms of carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO2 solubility at geological sequestration conditions is of great significance in evaluating the carbon capture potential of brine formation. Unfortunately, most CO2 solubility studies focus mainly on single-salt solutions, and only sparse literature exist for the data of CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions containing the mixture of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. To fill the research gap, an experimental investigation on the CO2 solubility in the synthetic brine is carried out. The samples were extracted through the injection wells of the Shenhua Carbon Capture and Storage project in the Erdos Basin located in northern China. The proportion of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ was determined by chemical analysis of the samples in the aquifers. The synthetic brine is used in this study, and the experimental process were improved to lower the risk of penetration of the supercritical fluid. Solubility data were measured over the temperature and pressure ranges of 318-348 K and 8-11 MPa. In the range studied, the average absolute deviation of CO2 solubility between literature and experimental results was 2.7%, and the maximum absolute deviation was less than 5.4%. Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky (KK) equation was established to analyze the experimental data and the effect of different ions on CO2 solubility was quantified using an optimization process. The liner fit between the CO2 solubility and mixed ion concentration is satisfied with correlation coefficient of 0.91. The proposed model and experimental data therefore possess broad adaptability to geological carbon storage. This ambiguity in the mechanism of the ion effect drives our efforts toward a better understanding of the factors controlling CO2 solubility in formation brine.

  17. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  18. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of /sup 3/H, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 85/Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for /sup 85/Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for /sup 85/Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta.

  19. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  20. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  1. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  2. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann; Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  3. Insights into good hot oiling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J. ); Barker, K.M. )

    1992-01-01

    One of the common oil-field wellbore problems is paraffin deposition. Even though hot oiling is usually the first method tried for removing paraffin, few operators appreciate the limitations of hot oiling and the potential for hot oiling to aggravate well problems and cause formation damage. Several hot oiling jobs were monitored to understand old pumpers tales'' and the dynamics of hot oiling. The field work was supported with laboratory analyses of the oil and calculations of thermal effectiveness. This limited study has shown that the chemical and thermal processes that occur during hot oiling are very complex and that there are significant variations in practices among operators. Key findings of this work include: (1) During a typical hot oiling job, a significant amount of the oil injected into the annulus goes into the formation, and hence, has the potential to damage the formation. (2) Organic particulates in stock tank oil may not completely dissolve/met as the oil passes through the hot-oiling-truck heat exchanger, hence, these particulates may plug the formation. (3) Hot oiling can vaporize oil in the tubing faster than the pump lifts oil. This interrupts paraffin removal from the well, and thus, since the wax is not removed from the well the wax is refined into harder deposits, can go deeper into the well, and can stick rods. These insights have been used to determine good hot oiling practices designed to maximize wax removal and minimize formation damage.

  4. Improved brine recycling during nitrate removal using ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Bae, Byung-Uk; Jung, Yoo-Hoon; Han, Woon-Woo; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2002-07-01

    Ion exchange technology is currently the best for removing nitrate from drinking water. However, problems related to the disposal of spent brine from regeneration of exhausted resins must be overcome so that ion exchange can be applied more widely and economically, especially in small communities. For this purpose, a novel spent brine recycling system using combined biological denitrification and sulfate reduction processes was developed for more efficient reuse of brine. A granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption column was introduced as an additional step to prevent contamination of resins by bio-polymers and dissolved organics present in the bio-reactor effluent. Two upflow sludge blanket reactors (USBRs) were operated in series for 166 days to provide denitrification and sulfate reduction. The denitrification reactor provided a nitrate removal efficiency of 96% at a nitrate-N loading rate of 5.4 g NO3(-)-N/l d. The sulfate reduction efficiency of the sulfate reduction reactor remained approximately 62% at a sulfate loading rate of 1.8 g SO4(2-)/l d. Five ion exchange columns containing A520E resins were repeatedly operated in up to 25 cycles of service and regeneration using five kinds of brine: one virgin 3% NaCl and four differently recycled spent brines. Throughput decreased remarkably when the biologically recycled brine was not treated with the GAC column, probably due to the presence of bio-polymers and dissolved organic compounds. The sulfate reduction reactor placed after the denitrification step increased the bicarbonate concentration, which could be used as a co-regenerant with chloride. The inclusion of the sulfate reduction reactor into the conventional brine recycling system allowed more efficient reuse of brine, resulting in both reduced salt consumption and brine discharge.

  5. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  6. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  7. Hot Tickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  8. Formation of bioactive N-doped TiO2 on Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity using NaOH, hot water, and subsequent ammonia atmospheric heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Masakazu; Endo, Naoko; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Furuya, Maiko; Yokota, Kotoe; Abiko, Yuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) treated with NaOH and hot water, and heated in an ammmonia (NH3) gas atmosphere for 1 or 3h exhibited in vitro apatite formation within 7days when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the treated Ti decomposed methylene blue and showed excellent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli under visible light irradiation. The surface treatment resulted in the formation of a fine network of N-doped anatase-type titania (TiO2-xNx) on the Ti surface, which was responsible for both the apatite formation in SBF and the visible light-induced antibacterial activity. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of our simple method for producing novel bioactive Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity, which could be applied to orthopaedic and dental implants without the risk of infection.

  9. Proteolysis in Manchego-type cheese salted by brine vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Pavia, M; Trujillo, A J; Guamis, B; Ferragut, V

    2000-07-01

    A new salting procedure based on the brine vacuum impregnation of porous products was tested on Manchego-type cheese and compared with conventional brine immersion. Its effect on cheese proteolysis throughout a 90-d ripening period was determined. Three cheese regions were evaluated (the rind, the middle, and the internal regions). The parameters analyzed were total N, water-soluble N, soluble N in trichloroacetic acid and soluble N in phosphotungstic acid by using the Kjeldahl method, casein profile by urea-PAGE, and peptide profile of the water soluble nitrogen extract by reverse-phase HPLC. Free amino acid formation was monitored with a spectrophotometric method by using a Cd-ninhydrin reagent. Globally, proteolysis was significantly affected by ripening stage (increasing throughout all the maturation period studied) and cheese region (rind showed a proteolysis pattern different from the middle and internal regions). The salting procedure only affected cheese proteolysis in the rind, whereas conventional brine-salted cheeses showed lower proteolysis than vacuum-impregnated cheeses. PMID:10908050

  10. Cryogenic brines as a diagenetic fluid: using clumped isotopes to reconstruct the cementation history of sediments in the ANDRILL 2A core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, P. T.; Dunham, D.; Fielding, C. R.; Frank, T. D.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    The ANDRILL 2A core contains a succession of Neogene glaciomarine deposits, cemented by up to 20 wt% carbonate. Isotopic analysis of the cements yielded extremely negative d18O values, indicating either formation from isotopically negative fluids or at extremely high temperature. In outcrop, such values could be interpreted as being the result of meteoric diagenesis, but the lack of any exposure horizons in the core precludes such an interpretation. A previous study of the pore fluids described a brine below 200m, with an extremely negative δ18O value (c. -10‰), probably formed by batch-freezing seawater on the continental margin. The present study integrates ∆47­ values of the cements with traditional approaches to further assess the nature of diagenetic fluids and processes. Isotopic data suggest three sources of carbonate: marine, methane reducing, and the aforementioned brines. Marine carbonate indicates δ13C and water δ18O within the range typical of seawater (c. -1‰), whereas the cryogenic brines show more negative values. A few samples exhibited extremely low δ13C values, the lowest below -25‰; the only feasible source for these cements would be the oxidation of methane. The shallow cements' signatures diminish with depth as cryogenic brines begin to dominate the isotopic signal. Biogenic materials show an increased influence of this brine at depth, the deepest buried shells are isotopically indistinguishable from adjacent cements. These analyses show that these cryogenic brines play a major role in the diagenetic history of this site. Clumped isotopic results support previous interpretations using traditional methods, which have identified cryogenic brine as a major cementing agent in the subsurface of Southern McMurdo Sound. Because cryogenic brines have likely formed throughout Earth history, results have the potential to change the way diagenesis is evaluated in sedimentary successions that formed in polar environments.

  11. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extractionmore » control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.« less

  12. Morphology of Florida Escarpment chemosynthetic brine seep community sites

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, C.K.; Spiess, F.N.; Curray, J.R.; Twitchell, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Florida Escarpment near 26/sup 0/N was surveyed with Deep-Two, Seabeam, and GLORIA in the area where chemosynthetic communities were discovered via ALVIN in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. Seabeam bathymetry and GLORIA images indicate that the escarpment is a generally straight cliff with average slopes of about 45/sup 0/ from 2,200 to more than 3,250 m. The escarpment's face is cut by 2-km wide box canyons whose head walls are as steep as the intervening escarpment's face. The shapes of these canyons are difficult to explain with the traditional models of canyon formation. Sidescan sonar images and bottom photographs reveal that the escarpment's face is composed of a series of long, straight bedding-plane terraces which are truncated along nearly vertical orthogonal joints. Exposure of these truncated strata indicate the face of the escarpment is eroded. The contact between the basal escarpment and the flat-lying abyssal hemipelagic sediments is abrupt. Apparently, chemosynthetic communities line extensive sections of the escarpment base where reduced brines seep out into the sea floor. The morphology suggests joints and deep seeps are controlling factors in scarp retreat.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative changes in detrital reservoir rocks caused by CO2-brine-rock interactions during first injection phases (Utrillas sandstones, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrezueta, E.; Ordóñez-Casado, B.; Quintana, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and interpret qualitative and quantitative changes at rock matrix scale of lower-upper Cretaceous sandstones exposed to supercritical (SC) CO2 and brine. The effects of experimental injection of CO2-rich brine during the first injection phases were studied at rock matrix scale, in a potential deep sedimentary reservoir in northern Spain (Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin).

    Experimental CO2-rich brine was exposed to sandstone in a reactor chamber under realistic conditions of deep saline formations (P ≈ 7.8 MPa, T ≈ 38 °C and 24 h exposure time). After the experiment, exposed and non-exposed equivalent sample sets were compared with the aim of assessing possible changes due to the effect of the CO2-rich brine exposure. Optical microscopy (OpM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aided by optical image analysis (OIA) were used to compare the rock samples and get qualitative and quantitative information about mineralogy, texture and pore network distribution. Complementary chemical analyses were performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data. Brine composition was also analyzed before and after the experiment.

    The petrographic study of contiguous sandstone samples (more external area of sample blocks) before and after CO2-rich brine injection indicates an evolution of the pore network (porosity increase ≈ 2 %). It is probable that these measured pore changes could be due to intergranular quartz matrix detachment and partial removal from the rock sample, considering them as the early features produced by the CO2-rich brine. Nevertheless, the whole rock and brine chemical analyses after interaction with CO2-rich brine do not present important changes in the mineralogical and chemical configuration of the rock with respect to initial conditions, ruling out relevant precipitation or dissolution at these early

  14. A brine interface in the Salton Sea Geothermal System, California: Fluid geochemical and isotopic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.E.; McKibben, M.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Data from 71 geothermal production intervals in 48 wells from the Salton Sea Geothermal System (SSGS) indicate that fluids in that system cluster into two distinct populations in terms of their salinity and their stable isotopic compositions. The distinctive, hot, hypersaline brine (typically >20 wt% total dissolved solids) for which the SSGS is known is overlain by a cooler (<260{degree}C) fluid with distinctly lower salinity (typically <10 wt% total dissolved solids). Hypersaline brines have high and rather consistent {sup 18}O shifts produced by water-rock interaction and have a very narrow range in {delta}D values. Low TDS fluids, on the other hand, show a wide range in both {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O. production of both types of fluid from closely spaced geothermal wells in many regions of the SSGS indicates that a relatively sharp salinity interface exists over much of the field. The fluid interface typically cross-cuts sedimentary bedding but is consistently found where reservoir temperatures are approximately 260{degree}C. At these temperatures, hypersaline brines have densities of approximately 1.0 gm/cm{sup 3}, while the low TDS fluids have densities as low as 0.85 gm/cm{sup 3}. This stable, density-stratified interface acts as a barrier to convective heat and mass transfer in the SSGS, isolating the hypersaline reservoir from overlying dilute fluids. A lithologic cap implied by previous SSGS models is unnecessary in such a stratified system since heat and mass transfer across the interface must occur by slow conductive, diffusional and interface mixing processes regardless of local permeability.

  15. The sup 36 Cl ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, east Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.; Margaritz, M.A.; Hollos, G. ); Paul, M.; Boaretto, E. ); Hillaire-Marcel, C. ); Taieb, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the {sup 36}Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratio of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}, in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios (<1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}). By comparing this value with the 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} in recent recharge, one obtains an approximate salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with thee time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of {sup 36}Cl production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total {sup 36}Cl present in the lake.

  16. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  17. 7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, skins were rolled in borax and packed into barrels, such as those seen in background. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  18. Occurrence of aspartyl proteases in brine after herring marinating.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz; Lepczyński, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herrings are marinated in a brine consisting of salt and acetic acid. During marinating, various nitrogen fractions diffuse from fish flesh to the brine, causing significant nutritional quality losses of the raw material. In this study, it has been demonstrated for the first time that proteases diffuse from the fish to the marinating brine. Using ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on pepstatin-A agarose bed the aspartyl proteases were purified and concentrated over 2600-fold from a marinating brine. Pepstatin-A completely inhibited the activity of the purified preparation. The preparation was active against fluorogenic substrates specific for cathepsin D and E and inactive against substrates specific for cysteine cathepsins. Depending on incubation time, the preparation showed pH-optimum at 2.0 or 4.5. The 2D SDS-PAGE separation demonstrated the presence of a few proteins with molecular weights and pI values typical of cathepsin D, E and pepsin.

  19. Wellbore flow model for carbon dioxide and brine

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2008-11-01

    Wellbores have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. In order to quantify the impacts of leakage of CO{sub 2} and brine through wellbores, we have developed a wellbore simulator capable of describing non-isothermal open well flow dynamics of CO{sub 2}-brine mixtures. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission handled semianalytically. This new wellbore simulator can take as input the pressure, saturation, and composition conditions from reservoir simulators and calculate CO{sub 2} and brine fluxes needed to assess impacts to vulnerable resources. This new capability is being incorporated into the Certification Framework (CF) developed for risk assessment of GCS sites.

  20. Materials of construction for Salton Sea geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.P. ); Cramer, S.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The high-temperature, high-salinity geothermal brines of the Salton Sea KGRA are a valuable source of energy and minerals. However, these brines are also very corrosive and cause early failure of many common materials of construction. Ferritic steels containing less than 18 wt pct chromium and austenitic steels perform poorly in these environments. This paper reports that the most acceptable materials of construction are the high-chromium ferritic stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys.

  1. Dense, Viscous Brine Behavior in Heterogeneous Porous Medium Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. Johnson; Pedit, J.A.; Gasda, S.E.; Farthing, M.W.; Murphy, L.L.; Knight, S.R.; Brubaker, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of dense, viscous calcium bromide brine solutions used to remediate systems contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is considered in laboratory and field porous medium systems. The density and viscosity of brine solutions are experimentally investigated and functional forms fit over a wide range of mass fractions. A density of 1.7 times, and a corresponding viscosity of 6.3 times, that of water is obtained at a calcium bromide mass fraction of 0.53. A three-dimensional laboratory cell is used to investigate the establishment, persistence, and rate of removal of a stratified dense brine layer in a controlled system. Results from a field-scale experiment performed at the Dover National Test Site are used to investigate the ability to establish and maintain a dense brine layer as a component of a DNAPL recovery strategy, and to recover the brine at sufficiently high mass fractions to support the economical reuse of the brine. The results of both laboratory and field experiments show that a dense brine layer can be established, maintained, and recovered to a significant extent. Regions of unstable density profiles are shown to develop and persist in the field-scale experiment, which we attribute to regions of low hydraulic conductivity. The saturated-unsaturated, variable-density ground-water flow simulation code SUTRA is modified to describe the system of interest, and used to compare simulations to experimental observations and to investigate certain unobserved aspects of these complex systems. The model results show that the standard model formulation is not appropriate for capturing the behavior of sharp density gradients observed during the dense brine experiments. PMID:20444520

  2. Dense, viscous brine behavior in heterogeneous porous medium systems.

    PubMed

    Wright, D Johnson; Pedit, J A; Gasda, S E; Farthing, M W; Murphy, L L; Knight, S R; Brubaker, G R; Miller, C T

    2010-06-25

    The behavior of dense, viscous calcium bromide brine solutions used to remediate systems contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is considered in laboratory and field porous medium systems. The density and viscosity of brine solutions are experimentally investigated and functional forms fit over a wide range of mass fractions. A density of 1.7 times, and a corresponding viscosity of 6.3 times, that of water is obtained at a calcium bromide mass fraction of 0.53. A three-dimensional laboratory cell is used to investigate the establishment, persistence, and rate of removal of a stratified dense brine layer in a controlled system. Results from a field-scale experiment performed at the Dover National Test Site are used to investigate the ability to establish and maintain a dense brine layer as a component of a DNAPL recovery strategy, and to recover the brine at sufficiently high mass fractions to support the economical reuse of the brine. The results of both laboratory and field experiments show that a dense brine layer can be established, maintained, and recovered to a significant extent. Regions of unstable density profiles are shown to develop and persist in the field-scale experiment, which we attribute to regions of low hydraulic conductivity. The saturated-unsaturated, variable-density groundwater flow simulation code SUTRA is modified to describe the system of interest, and used to compare simulations to experimental observations and to investigate certain unobserved aspects of these complex systems. The model results show that the standard model formulation is not appropriate for capturing the behavior of sharp density gradients observed during the dense brine experiments.

  3. Heat flow and brine generation following the Chesapeake Bay bolide impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.

    2003-01-01

    Calculations indicate that the impact of an asteroid or comet on the Atlantic Coastal Plain 35 million years ago created subsequent hydrothermal activity and conditions suitable for phase separation and the creation of the brine observed in the groundwater at the site today. A calculation of groundwater velocity using Darcy's law suggests flow rates are insufficient to have moved the water out of the crater within 35 million years. A similar calculation using Pick's law demonstrates that solutes cannot have escaped by molecular diffusion since the impact. Simulations from other investigators using shock-physics codes indicate that the crust would have been vaporized or melted down to at least 2 km at the time of impact. Based on these calculations, a simulation of heat conduction was made assuming a 1000 ??C initial crustal temperature. The hot crust acted as a heat source, with temperatures peaking in the overlying sediment about 10,000 years later. The pressure and temperature conditions within the sediment during that time would have been favorable for phase separation and generation of a residual brine, which may be found today in the inner crater. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of brines and evaporites of Lake Katwe, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John Baptist; Bäbler, Matthäus U.; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Lake Katwe brines and evaporites were investigated to determine their chemical, mineralogical and morphological composition. 30 brine samples and 3 solid salt samples (evaporites) were collected from different locations of the lake deposit. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of the samples including Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), ion chromatography, and potentiometric titration. The mineralogical composition and morphology of the evaporites was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Physical parameters of the lake brines such as density, electrical conductivity, pH, and salinity were also studied. The results show that the lake brines are highly alkaline and rich in Na+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and HCO3- with lesser amounts of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Br-, and F- ions. The brines show an intermediate transition between Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types. Among the trace metals, the lake brines were found to be enriched in B, I, Sr, Fe, Mo, Ba, and Mn. The solid salts are composed of halite mixed with other salts such as hanksite, burkeite and trona. It was also observed that the composition of the salts varies considerably even within the same grades.

  5. Anoxic Corrosion of Steel and Lead in Na - Cl ± Mg-Dominated Brines in Atmospheres Containing CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselle, G. T.; Johnsen, S.; Allen, C.; Roselle, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in bedded salt (Permian Salado Fm.). In order to minimize radionuclide release from the repository it is desirable to maintain these species in their least-soluble form (i.e., low oxidation states). Post-closure conditions in the WIPP will control the speciation and solubility of radionuclides in the waste. Microbially-produced CO2 from cellulosic, plastic and rubber materials in the waste may acidify any brine present and increase the actinide solubilities. Thus, the DOE emplaces MgO in the repository to buffer fCO2 and pH within ranges favoring lower actinide solubilities. Large quantities of low-C steel and Pb present in the WIPP may also consume CO2. We present initial results from a series of multiyear experiments investigating the corrosion of steel and Pb alloys under WIPP-relevant conditions. The objective is to determine the extent to which these alloys consume CO2 via the formation of carbonates or other phases, potentially supporting MgO in CO2 sequestration. In these experiments steel and Pb coupons are immersed in brines under WIPP-relevant conditions using a continuous gas flow-through system. The experimental apparatus maintains the following conditions: pO2 < 5 ppm; temperature of 26 °C; relative humidity at 78%±10%; and a range of pCO2 values (0, 350, 1500 and 3500 ppm, balance N2). Four high-ionic-strength-brines are used: Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine associated with the Salado Fm.; Energy Research and Development Administration WIPP Well 6 (ERDA-6), a predominately Na-Cl brine; GWB with organic ligands (EDTA, acetate, citrate, and oxalate); and ERDA-6 with the same organic ligands. Steel coupons removed after 6 months show formation of several phases dependent on the pCO2. SEM analysis with EDS shows the presence of a green Fe (±Mg)-chlori-hydroxide phase at p

  6. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  7. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly

  8. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  9. Dynamic formation of a hot field reversed configuration with improved confinement by supersonic merging of two colliding high-β compact toroids.

    PubMed

    Binderbauer, M W; Guo, H Y; Tuszewski, M; Putvinski, S; Sevier, L; Barnes, D; Rostoker, N; Anderson, M G; Andow, R; Bonelli, L; Brandi, F; Brown, R; Bui, D Q; Bystritskii, V; Ceccherini, F; Clary, R; Cheung, A H; Conroy, K D; Deng, B H; Dettrick, S A; Douglass, J D; Feng, P; Galeotti, L; Garate, E; Giammanco, F; Glass, F J; Gornostaeva, O; Gota, H; Gupta, D; Gupta, S; Kinley, J S; Knapp, K; Korepanov, S; Hollins, M; Isakov, I; Jose, V A; Li, X L; Luo, Y; Marsili, P; Mendoza, R; Meekins, M; Mok, Y; Necas, A; Paganini, E; Pegoraro, F; Pousa-Hijos, R; Primavera, S; Ruskov, E; Qerushi, A; Schmitz, L; Schroeder, J H; Sibley, A; Smirnov, A; Song, Y; Sun, X; Thompson, M C; Van Drie, A D; Walters, J K; Wyman, M D

    2010-07-23

    A hot stable field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been produced in the C-2 experiment by colliding and merging two high-β plasmoids preformed by the dynamic version of field-reversed θ-pinch technology. The merging process exhibits the highest poloidal flux amplification obtained in a magnetic confinement system (over tenfold increase). Most of the kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy with total temperature (T{i}+T{e}) exceeding 0.5 keV. The final FRC state exhibits a record FRC lifetime with flux confinement approaching classical values. These findings should have significant implications for fusion research and the physics of magnetic reconnection.

  10. REVIEW OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS USED FOR CHARACTERIZING BRINE POCKETS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Pant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository built and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for disposal of radioactive transuranic waste. The repository is located in the southeastern part of New Mexico at 658.5 m from the surface in the bedded salt deposit (Salado Formation) of the Delaware Basin. Pressurized brine reservoirs were encountered while drilling (1mile north) into the Castile Formation which underlies the WIPP repository. Typically these pockets are located below 1000m which precludes use of high resolution surface geophysical methods. The operator decided to use direct borehole logging and time domain electromagnetic induction method (TDEM) to characterize the possible existence of brine pockets under the WIPP underground workings. The scope of the present review is limited to TDEM analysis only. The geophysical loggings of boreholes are an integral part of subsurface drilling and provide isolated point-samples of the drilled interior. The geophysical logs are typically records of the electrical properties (resistivity logs) of the subsurface strata and logging process is relatively more direct and intrusive. The TDEM is a surface geophysical technique which is non-intrusive with low spatial frequency resolution and provides averaged information about the subsurface units. In the TDEM method, electrical impulses are provided into the subsurface via large electrical coils on the surface. The recording of subsequent transient decay functions from receiver coils provides the data used in the analysis. Due to the depth involved at the WIPP site large transmitter loops (500m by 500m) were required. The primary geophysical characteristic being exploited to investigate the brines at the WIPP site is related to the fact that the brine saturated rocks are electrically more conductive than the bedded salt deposit overlying the Castile Formation. Typically the TDEM data are processed and analyzed to generate geoelectric profiles

  11. Isotopic constraints on the origin of the Atlantis II, Suakin and Valdivia brines, Red Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1986-01-01

    The origin of three Red Sea submarine brine pools was investigated by analysis of the S and O isotope ratios of dissolved sulfate and Sr isotope ratios of dissolved Sr in the brines. Sulfur and O isotope ratios of sulfate and Sr isotope ratios of evaporitic source rocks for the brines were measured for comparison. The S, O and Sr isotope ratios of evaporites recovered from DSDP site 227 are consistent with an upper Miocene evaporites age. The Valdivia Deep brine formed by karstic dissolution of Miocene evaporites by overlying seawater and shows no signs of hydrothermal input. The Suakin Deep brines are derived from, or have isotopically exchanged with Miocene or older evaporites. There has been only minor dilution of the brine by overlying seawater. Strontium isotope ratios of Suakin brine may indicate addition of a minor (15%) amount of volcanic Sr to the brine, but there is no evidence of high temperature brine-rock interaction. The sulfate in the Atlantis II brine was apparently derived from seawater. The O isotope ratio of sulfate in the present Atlantis II brine could reflect isotopic exchange between seawater sulfate and the brine at approximately 255??C. Approximately 30% of the Sr in the Atlantis II brine is derived from the underlying basalt, probably by hydrothermal leaching. Atlantis II brine is the only known example from the Red Sea which has a significant high-temperature hydrothermal history. ?? 1986.

  12. ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

    2002-02-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  13. Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wright, R.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  14. Hot Meetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Mary

    2002-01-01

    A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.

  15. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  16. Unique Prokaryotic Consortia in Geochemically Distinct Sediments from Red Sea Atlantis II and Discovery Deep Brine Pools

    PubMed Central

    Siam, Rania; Mustafa, Ghada A.; Sharaf, Hazem; Moustafa, Ahmed; Ramadan, Adham R.; Antunes, Andre; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Uli; Marsis, Nardine G. R.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Sogin, Mitchell; Ferreira, Ari J. S.; Dorry, Hamza El

    2012-01-01

    The seafloor is a unique environment, which allows insights into how geochemical processes affect the diversity of biological life. Among its diverse ecosystems are deep-sea brine pools - water bodies characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions. The ‘polyextremophiles’ that constitute the microbial assemblage of these deep hot brines have not been comprehensively studied. We report a comparative taxonomic analysis of the prokaryotic communities of the sediments directly below the Red Sea brine pools, namely, Atlantis II, Discovery, Chain Deep, and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Analyses of sediment samples and high-throughput pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified environmental 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that one sulfur (S)-rich Atlantis II and one nitrogen (N)-rich Discovery Deep section contained distinct microbial populations that differed from those found in the other sediment samples examined. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal phyla in both the S- and N-rich sections. Relative abundance-based hierarchical clustering of the 16S rDNA pyrotags assigned to major taxonomic groups allowed us to categorize the archaeal and bacterial communities into three major and distinct groups; group I was unique to the S-rich Atlantis II section (ATII-1), group II was characteristic for the N-rich Discovery sample (DD-1), and group III reflected the composition of the remaining sediments. Many of the groups detected in the S-rich Atlantis II section are likely to play a dominant role in the cycling of methane and sulfur due to their phylogenetic affiliations with bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction. PMID:22916172

  17. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  18. Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Crude Oil/Brine Displacement in Calcite Mesopores.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, Mohammad; Piri, Mohammad; Goual, Lamia

    2016-04-12

    Unconventional reservoirs such as hydrocarbon-bearing shale formations and ultratight carbonates generate a large fraction of oil and gas production in North America. The characteristic feature of these reservoirs is their nanoscale porosity that provides significant surface areas between the pore walls and the occupying fluids. To better assess hydrocarbon recovery from these formations, it is crucial to develop an improved insight into the effects of wall-fluid interactions on the interfacial phenomena in these nanoscale confinements. One of the important properties that controls the displacement of fluids inside the pores is the threshold capillary pressure. In this study, we present the results of an integrated series of large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed to investigate the effects of wall-fluid interactions on the threshold capillary pressures of oil-water/brine displacements in a calcite nanopore with a square cross section. Fully atomistic models are utilized to represent crude oil, brine, and calcite in order to accommodate electrostatic interactions and H-bonding between the polar molecules and the calcite surface. To this end, we create mixtures of various polar and nonpolar organic molecules to better represent the crude oil. The interfacial tension between oil and water/brine and their contact angle on calcite surface are simulated. We study the effects of oil composition, water salinity, and temperature and pressure conditions on these properties. The threshold capillary pressure values are also obtained from the MD simulations for the calcite nanopore. We then compare the MD results against those generated using the Mayer-Stowe-Princen (MSP) method and explain the differences.

  19. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Brine II: Insights from Aqueous Geochemistry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Quin R. S.; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-18

    Laboratory experiments evaluated two shale caprock formations, the Gothic Shale and Marine Tuscaloosa Formation, at conditions relevant to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Both rocks were exposed to CO2-saturated brines at 160°C and 15 MPa for ~45 days. Baseline experiments for both rocks were pressurized with argon to 15 MPa for ~35 days. Varying concentrations of iron, aqueous silica, sulfate, and initial pH decreases coincide with enhanced carbonate and silicate dissolution due to reaction between CO2-saturated brine and shale. Saturation indices were calculated and activity diagrams were constructed to gain insights into sulfate, silicate, and carbonate mineral stabilities. We found thatmore » upon exposure to CO2-saturated brines, the Marine Tuscaloosa Formation appeared to be more reactive than the Gothic Shale. Evolution of aqueous geochemistry in the experiments is consistent with mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions that affect porosity. Finally, this study highlights the importance of tracking fluid chemistry to clarify downhole physicochemical responses to CO2 injection and subsequent changes in sealing capacity in CO2 storage and utilization projects.« less

  20. MN Carbonates in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla: Possible Evidence of Brine Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of secondary phases in martian meteorites lies in their potential to provide clues about the martian environments responsible for their formation. During this study, we analyzed a number of carbonate-bearing fracture surfaces from the Nakhla meteorite. Here we describe the physical and chemical properties of several manganese-calcium-rich siderites. Additionally, we describe a potential model for the formation and alteration of these carbonates, and we suggest constraints on the conditions responsible for their precipitation. Nakhla is an olivine-bearing clinopyroxenite with minor amounts of feldspar, FeS, and Fe oxides. Secondary mineral assemblages include vein filling clay with embedded iron oxides, a calcium sulfate, amorphous silica, chlorapatite, halite and carbonates. Bridges and Grady suggested that the carbonates in Nakhla formed from brine evaporation. Isotope studies of the Mn rich siderite are also consistent with formation from hydrothermal fluids with an upper T constraint of 170 C.

  1. How to treat and recycle heavy clear brine fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pasztor, A.J.; Snover, J.S.

    1983-07-01

    Clear brine fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, are replacing muds in well completions and workovers. These ''solids-free'' fluids have caused increases in well productivity of as much as 850%. To use the fluids in higher density ranges, it is necessary to blend the CaCl/sub 2/ brines with the more expensive bromide fluids. This, in turn, has increased the importance of reclaiming weighted brines to make their use more cost effective. To reclaim clear fluids, the solids picked up during use are removed and the fluid is reused or reweighted. A common problem though is the post-precipitation of dissolved contaminants that may appear in the used brines after several days or weeks in storage. Precipitation also may occur if other heavy fluids are added to adjust density before reuse. Laboratory tests have identified the solids as primarily iron hydroxides and halides. (Halides are salts containing a halogen-flourine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.) Additional experimentation has shown that pH adjustment at the well site or before transfer to storage facilities can provide a simple and effective way of controlling the precipitation of metal hydroxides and halides. This article discusses methods of pH control, measurement, and adjustment, which will allow for optimum use of clear brine fluids.

  2. Measurement of electrical impedance of a Berea sandstone core during the displacement of saturated brine by oil and CO2 injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Xue, Ziqiu; Park, Hyuck; Kiyama, Tamotsu; Zhang, Yi; Nishizawa, Osamu; Chae, Kwang-seok

    2015-12-01

    Complex electrical impedance measurements were performed on a brine-saturated Berea sandstone core while oil and CO2 were injected at different pressures and temperatures. The saturations of brine, oil, and CO2 in the core were simultaneously estimated using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. The formation factor of this Berea core and the resistivity indexes versus the brine saturations were calculated using Archie's law. The experimental results found different flow patterns of oil under different pressures and temperatures. Fingers were observed for the first experiment at 10 MPa and 40 °C. The fingers were restrained as the viscosity ratio of oil and water changed in the second (10 MPa and 25 °C) and third (5 MPa and 25 °C) experiments. The resistivity index showed an exponential increase with a decrease in brine saturation. The saturation exponent varied from 1.4 to 4.0 at different pressure and temperature conditions. During the oil injection procedure, the electrical impedance increased with oil saturation and was significantly affected by different oil distributions; therefore, the impedance varied whether the finger was remarkable or not, even if the oil saturation remained constant. During the CO2 injection steps, the impedance showed almost no change with CO2 saturation because the brine in the pores became immobile after the oil injection.

  3. Transient streaming potentials associated with brine flow in rock salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malama, B.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental data collected in falling-head permeameter tests using brine flow through crushed rock salt are presented. The brine was obtained by recirculating what was initially deionized water through a column of crushed rock salt until saturation (specific gravity = 1.205) was attained. The column was then repacked with fresh crushed salt. Brine flow through the salt was then monitored with a pressure transducer and silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes, measuring the pressure and voltage drops, respectively, across the length of the salt column. The measurements are reported. Preliminary analysis of the data is performed with a recently developed model for transient streaming potentials in falling-head permeameters.

  4. Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1982-01-26

    The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

  5. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage.

    PubMed

    Del-Pilar-Ruso, Yoana; De-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Giménez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2008-11-01

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family.

  6. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  7. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  8. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: near-surface CaCl(2)-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake and implications for Mars.

    PubMed

    Dickson, James L; Head, James W; Levy, Joseph S; Marchant, David R

    2013-01-01

    The discovery on Mars of recurring slope lineae (RSL), thought to represent seasonal brines, has sparked interest in analogous environments on Earth. We report on new studies of Don Juan Pond (DJP), which exists at the upper limit of ephemeral water in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica, and is adjacent to several steep-sloped water tracks, the closest analog for RSL. The source of DJP has been interpreted to be deep groundwater. We present time-lapse data and meteorological measurements that confirm deliquescence within the DJP watershed and show that this, together with small amounts of meltwater, are capable of generating brines that control summertime water levels. Groundwater input was not observed. In addition to providing an analog for RSL formation, CaCl(2) brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient chloride deposits on Mars dating from the transition period from "warm/wet" to "cold/dry" climates.

  9. Impact of brine-induced stratification on the glacial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouttes, N.; Paillard, D.; Roche, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    During the cold period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 000 years ago) atmospheric CO2 was around 190 ppm (Monnin et al., 2001), much lower than the pre-industrial concentration of 280 ppm. The causes of this substantial drop remain partially unresolved, despite intense research. Understanding the origin of reduced atmospheric CO2 during glacial times is crucial to comprehend the evolution of the different carbon reservoirs within the Earth system (atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean). In this context, the ocean is believed to play a major role as it can store large amounts of carbon (Sigman and Boyle, 2000), especially in the abyss, which is a carbon reservoir that is thought to have expanded during glacial times. To create this larger reservoir, one possible mechanism is to produce very dense glacial waters, thereby stratifying the deep ocean and reducing the carbon exchange between the deep and surface ocean (Paillard and Parrenin, 2004). The existence of such very dense waters has been inferred in the LGM deep Atlantic from sediment pore water salinity (Adkins et al., 2002). Based on these observations, we study the impact of a brine mechanism on the glacial carbon cycle. This mechanism relies on the formation and rapid sinking of brines, very salty water released during sea ice formation, which brings salty dense water down to the bottom of the ocean. It provides two major features: a direct link from the surface to the deep ocean along with an efficient way of setting a strong stratification. We show with the CLIMBER-2 coupled carbon-climate model (Petoukhov et al., 2000) that such a brine mechanism can account for a significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 and contribute to the glacial-interglacial change. This mechanism can be amplified by low vertical diffusion resulting from the brine-induced stratification. The results obtained substantially improve the modeled glacial distribution of oceanic δ13C as well as the deep ocean salinity in

  10. Brines in Crustal Processes: Important Roles Inferred From Experimental Studies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Concentrated salt solutions are increasingly implicated as active agents in many fluid-mediated deep- and mid-crust processes, including rock-melting, charnockitic alteration, trace-element depletion and enrichment, regional metasomatism including dehydration and rehydration, albitization, deep-crustal oxidation, and formation of economic mineral deposits. Unique properties of saline aqueous fluids at high P and T, recently revealed by experimental work, provide new explanations for these metasomatic features and encourage further search for a brine connection in other outstanding problems of metamorphism. Specific properties of high P-T NaCl solutions favorable for deep-crustal metasomatism are high solubility for some rock-forming components, especially CaO and FeO, even at high salt concentration, very low H2O activity as a consequence of pressure-induced dissociation, allowing compatibility with anhydrous (granulite facies) mineral assemblages, and high ability to infiltrate mineral grain boundaries. The high affinity of alkali chloride brines for CaO can explain trace element mobility in high grade metamorphism, by virtue of the high solubility of apatite, and the puzzling phenomenon of subsolidus charnockitic alteration, as in South India, in which orthopyroxene is formed from the incongruent dissolution of calcic amphibole. The great pressure effect on lowering H2O activity in concentrated pore-fluid brines causes fluid-present melting points of crustal rocks to swerve sharply to higher temperatures with increasing depth, in contrast to the behavior in the presence of pure H2O. This fact could account for the formation of swarms of granite intrusions in shear-zone-related settings, such as the Caledonide granites of Scotland and northern Ireland. It is postulated that salty solutions of deep-seated origin inhibit melting as they rise through the lower crust, but induce large-scale melting at mid-crust levels because of increase of H2O activity by release of

  11. Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines on mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, M.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Pommerol, A.; McEwen, A.; Chevrier, V.; Brissaud, O.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent geomorphological observations as well as chemical and thermodynamic studies demonstrate that liquid water should be stable today on the Martian surface at some times of the day. In Martian conditions, brines would be particularly more stable than pure water because salts can depress the freezing point and lower the evaporation rate of water. Despite this evidence, no clear spectral signature of liquid has been observed so far by the hyperspectral imaging spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM. However, past spectral analysis lacks a good characterization of brines' spectral signatures. This study thus aims to determine how liquid brines can be detected on Mars by spectroscopy. In this way, laboratory experiments were performed for reproducing hydration and dehydration cycles of various brines while measuring their spectral signatures. The resulting spectra first reveal a very similar spectral evolution for the various brine types and pure water, with the main difference observed at the end of the dehydration with the crystallization of various hydrated minerals from brines. The main characteristic of this spectral behavior is an important decoupling between the evolution of albedo and hydration bands depths. During most of the wetting/drying processes, spectra usually display a low albedo associated with shallow water absorption band depths. Strong water absorption band depth and high albedo are respectively only observed when the surface is very wet and when the surface is very dry. These experiments can thus explain why the currently active Martian features attributed to the action of a liquid are only associated with low albedo and very weak spectral signatures. Hydration experiments also reveal that deliquescence occurs easily even at low temperature and moderate soil water vapor pressure and could thus cause seasonal darkening on Mars. These experiments demonstrate that the absence of water absorptions in CRISM in the middle afternoon does not rule out water

  12. Improvement in antiproliferative activity of Angelica gigas Nakai by solid dispersion formation via hot-melt extrusion and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyao; Piao, Jingpei; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is one of the most popular herbal medicines and widely used as a functional food product. In this study, AGN was firstly processed by a low-temperature turbo mill and a hot melting extruder to reduce particle size and form solid dispersion (SD). Anticancer activity against HeLa cells was then examined. AGN-SD based on Soluplus was formed via hot-melt extrusion (HME) and showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. In addition, the possible mechanism of cell death induced by AGN-SD on HeLa cells was also investigated. AGN-SD decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased the production of reactive oxygen species, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and induced G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells. This study suggested that AGN-SD based on Soluplus and the method to improve antiproliferative effect by SD formation via HME may be suitable for application in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26057458

  13. Improvement in antiproliferative activity of Angelica gigas Nakai by solid dispersion formation via hot-melt extrusion and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyao; Piao, Jingpei; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is one of the most popular herbal medicines and widely used as a functional food product. In this study, AGN was firstly processed by a low-temperature turbo mill and a hot melting extruder to reduce particle size and form solid dispersion (SD). Anticancer activity against HeLa cells was then examined. AGN-SD based on Soluplus was formed via hot-melt extrusion (HME) and showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. In addition, the possible mechanism of cell death induced by AGN-SD on HeLa cells was also investigated. AGN-SD decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased the production of reactive oxygen species, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and induced G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells. This study suggested that AGN-SD based on Soluplus and the method to improve antiproliferative effect by SD formation via HME may be suitable for application in the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  15. Theoretical studies of Cerro Prieto brines chemical equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Weres, O.

    1980-02-01

    A chemical equilibrium model is used, implemented in a compact FORTRAN package called HITEQ, to investigate possible mineral deposition related to prereinjection treatment of Cerro Prieto brines for silica removal. Large saturation ratios of the treated brines with respect to several minerals are indicated by these computations. As a remedy, an inexpensive CO/sub 2/ removal scheme aimed at inhibiting carbonate mineral precipitation is proposed. This scheme is quantitatively discussed with the aid of HITEQ. It is concluded that the proposed treatment is both technically and economically feasible.

  16. Brine evolution and mineral deposition in hydrologically open evaporite basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Wood, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A lumped-parameter, solute mass-balance model is developed to define the role of water outflow from a well-mixed basin. A mass-balance model is analyzed with a geochemical model designed for waters with high ionic strengths. Two typical waters, seawater and a Na-HCO3 ground water, are analyzed to illustrate the control that the leakage ratio (or hydrologic openness of the basin) has on brine evolution and the suite and thicknesses of evaporite minerals deposited. The analysis suggests that brines evolve differently under different leakage conditions. -from Authors

  17. Crustal noble gases in deep brines as natural tracers of vertical transport processes in the Michigan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Castro, Maria Clara; Hall, Chris M.

    2009-06-01

    Noble gas concentrations and isotopic ratios are presented for 38 deep (˜0.5-3.6 km) brine samples in the Michigan Basin. These brine samples clearly show the presence of an important crustal component of 4He, 21Ne, 40Ar, and 136Xe. Both 40Arcrust and 136Xecrust display the presence of a strong vertical gradient along the sedimentary strata of the basin. We show that the in situ production for these two gases within the sedimentary strata is insufficient to account for the observed crustal component in the Michigan brines. These point to the presence of a deep, external source for crustal noble gases, likely the Precambrian crystalline basement beneath the Michigan Basin. Furthermore, observed elemental ratios of crustal noble gases (4He/40Ar, 21Ne/40Ar, 4He/136Xe, and 21Ne/136Xe) in these brines vary over several orders of magnitude with respect to the expected production ratios from the crystalline basement rocks and display a systematic pattern within the basin. Specifically, samples above the Salina Group (shallow formations) are relatively enriched in 4Hecrust and 21Necrust with respect to 40Arcrust and 136Xecrust, as opposed to those below the massive Salina evaporite layer (deeper formations) which exhibit complementary patterns. We show that such a general trend is best explained by a Rayleigh-type elemental fractionation model involving upward transport of crustal noble gases and associated elemental fractionation processes, controlled by both diffusion- and solubility-related mechanisms. As previously indicated by the mantle and atmospheric noble gas signatures in these same Michigan brine samples, release of deep crustal noble gases into the basin is yet another independent indicator pointing to the occurrence of a past thermal event in the basin. We suggest that recent reactivation of the ancient midcontinent rift system underneath the Michigan Basin is likely responsible for the upward transport of heat and loss of the atmospheric noble gas component

  18. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  19. Method of and means for disposing of waste salts and brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1988-01-19

    A method for disposing of waste brine is described comprising the steps of: a. building a salt water solar pond having a halocline overlying a heat storage layer; and b. introducing the waste brine into the solar pond.

  20. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  1. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site. PMID:23971876

  2. Comparing (semi-) analytic solutions used to model the impact of deep carbon injection on the displacement and pressurization of the resident brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Kraemer, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into deep saline formations is seen as one possible technology for mitigating carbon emissions from utilities. The safety of the sequestered carbon dioxide is the focus of many studies with leakage through faults or abandoned wells as some of the main failure mechanisms. The focus of this study is on the displacement of resident brine and the resulting changes in pressure due to the injection of large volumes of super-critical phase carbon dioxide into the subsurface. The movement of brine becomes important if it travels vertically and reaches an existing or potential underground source of drinking water where an increase in salt content may threaten the viability of the drinking water source. Vertical displacement of brine may occur slowly through confining layers, or more rapidly through faults and abandoned wells. This presentation compares several (semi-) analytic solutions to determine their applicability to the problem of brine pressurization and displacement. The goal is to find ranges of formation parameters (e.g., formation seal conductivity, distance to lateral boundary, … ) for which simplifying assumption are justifiable Each simplification in the conceptual model (e.g., neglecting the lateral boundary turns a bounded domain into an infinite one) leads to a simpler (semi-) analytic solution. The process involves a solution hierarchy from the most complex solution down to the basic Theis solution. A software tool-kit implementing several (semi-) analytic solutions was developed for this study to facilitate the comparison of the solutions.

  3. Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than

  4. First results of an integrated monitoring concept to detect brine migration processes in freshwater aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, M.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Wagner, F.; Schröder, S.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of new carbon dioxide emissions is an important contribution to realise climate change mitigation solutions. One possibility consists in the long-term storage of industrial produced greenhouse gas in deep saline aquifers. The most important research focus of the multidisciplinary integrated project BRINE is to ensure the safe storage operation. This research work refers to an area in eastern Brandenburg (Germany). However, the analysis can be applied to regions with comparable geological characteristics. The relevant reservoir horizon is located within a classic anticlinal structure, generated by salt tectonic processes. Due to the local geological site specifics, the CO2 injection could cause a pressure build-up and thus a brine migration in the reservoir layer. For this reason, an adequate monitoring system for the observation of possible brine displacement into upper freshwater aquifers is essential. For both the qualitatively and quantitatively investigation a combination of several geophysical methods is needed. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a measurement method with a comparatively high spatial resolution on small scales. Therefore it will be generally used for borehole and near subsurface investigations. The presented monitoring concept focusses on three potential pathways. Beside regional fault-zones, also formation defects in the upper aquitards and leakages around the wellbore could promote a saltwater migration. The main objective is to find an optimal combination of several electrode arrays like surface, surface-downhole and cross-borehole configurations to detect time-lapse effects of the resistivity distribution in the subsurface. By means of numerical modelling studies of different salinisation scenarios, we have tested several standard and several adapted electrode arrays. In order to further improve the results, an inversion code based on the measured resistance ratios is used. Parallel to the large-scale modelling

  5. Formation of biogenic sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides in a near-neutral pH hot spring: Implications for the origin of microfossils in high-temperature, Fe-rich environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Chen, Shun; Xu, Hengchao

    2013-12-01

    small hot spring that is informally called "Fe-waterfall spring" and is located in the Rehai geothermal area discharges hot (42 to 73°C), near-neutral (pH = 7.65) Fe-rich water. Submerged reddish precipitates are composed largely of ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, opal-A, quartz, and anorthite, as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the bacterial community in these precipitates is mainly composed of Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, β-proteobacteria, Deinococci-Thermus, and Chlorobi. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy examinations show that abundant sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides, which exhibit different morphologies and sizes, are present in Fe-rich precipitates. These sheath-like structures are composed of ferrihydrite rather than more crystalline lepidocrocite or goethite. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry reveal that they are mainly composed of Fe, Si, and O, together with some trace elements. Most of the sheath-like structures are not morphologically comparable to biogenic Fe oxyhydroxides produced by known chemolithotrophic Fe oxidizers, which is consistent with the fact that no chemolithotrophic Fe oxidizers were identified by molecular analysis in the precipitates. We suggest that the sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides are formed through passive Fe sorption and nucleation onto the cell walls of various thermophiles rather than by the direct metabolic activities of chemolithotrophic Fe oxidizers. Biogenic sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides in Fe-waterfall spring have important implications for geochemical cycles driven by microorganisms, the origin of microfossils, and the formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) in the Archean ocean.

  6. A First Look at Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data in an Area of Altered Volcanic Rocks and Carbonate Formations, Hot Creek Range, South Central Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.; Mouat, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Three flight lines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected in 128 bands between 1.2 and 2.4 microns in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada on July 25, 1984. The flight lines are underlain by hydrothermally altered and unaltered Paleozoic carbonates and Tertiary rhyolitic to latitic volcanics in the Tybo mining district. The original project objectives were to discriminate carbonate rocks from other rock types, to distinguish limestone from dolomite, and to discriminate carbonate units from each other using AIS imagery. Because of high cloud cover over the prime carbonate flight line and because of the acquisition of another flight line in altered and unaltered volcanics, the study has been extended to the discrimination of alteration products. In an area of altered and unaltered rhyolites and latites in Red Rock Canyon, altered and unaltered rock could be discriminated from each other using spectral features in the 1.16 to 2.34 micron range. The altered spectral signatures resembled montmorillonite and kaolinite. Field samples were gathered and the presence of montmorillonite was confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  7. Implications of formation water movement based on isotopic data and elemental geochemistry, southwestern Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Frape, S.K.; Dollar, P.; Fritz, P.; Travail, R.A.; McNutt, R.H.; MacQueen, R.W.

    1986-08-01

    Formation waters in Paleozoic sediments analyzed for /sup 2/H, /sup 18/O, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, tritium, and major/minor contents show the following. (1) The stable isotope contents are typical for formation brines, but have /sup 18/O and /sup 2/H values that group according to formation age, with waters in Cambrian strata being most depleted; and the most concentrated brines do not compare well to known Michigan basin brines. Many waters are Ca-Na-Cl brines similar to typical Canadian shield brines, although the origin of the various chemical species may be masked by intense rock-water interaction. (2) The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values for Cambrian brines range from 0.7095 to 0.7102. In one detailed study, the brine and calcite cement had the same value (0.7095), which is slightly higher than Cambrian seawater (0.7091-0.7092), and indicates that the cement precipitated from the brine during diagenesis. The reservoir rock has a /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr value of 0.7330, indicating little or no water/rock exchange. Sr isotopic values for Ordovician brines range from 0.7095 to 0.7103, which is higher than Ordovician seawater (0.7085). In contrast, the Silurian Salina Formation brines and Silurian seawater values are the same (0.7085-0.7087). Despite an active tectonic history, causing considerable faulting and movement within Paleozoic and Precambrian rock strata, the isotopic results for the Cambrian indicate isotopic equilibrium between brine and cement; therefore, these formation waters have not moved since the calcite formed.

  8. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  10. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  11. A non-chromate treatment for calcium chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Sotoudeh, K.; Funderburg, I.M.

    1994-12-31

    In refrigeration terminology, a brine is any liquid-cooled refrigerant which is circulated as a heat-transfer fluid. Low toxicity and low cost have helped the popularity of calcium chloride brines. The corrosive nature of this brine has traditionally been managed by using chromates. However, the ever increasing environmental restrictions on the use of chromates, have encouraged the development of non-chromate alternatives. This paper details development of a novel calcium chloride corrosion inhibitor formulation free of chromate and other heavy metals. It also discusses some intermediate formulations which ultimately led to the final formulation. Within the temperature range of {minus}35 C ({minus}30 F) to 820 C (180 F), the inhibitor program is compatible with 0 to 35 wt% (specific gravity 1.00 to 1.35) brine. Its flexible operating pH (6.4--11) eliminates the need for frequent caustic addition. This inhibitor is designed to protect mild steel, copper and, eliminate fouling within the above operating parameters.

  12. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchini, Jean-francois; Khaing, Hnin; Reed, Donald T

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  13. Mechanical Behaviour of Reservoir Rock Under Brine Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Richa; Ranjith, P. G.; Choi, S. K.; Haque, A.; Yellishetty, Mohan; Hong, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic emissions (AE) and stress-strain curve analysis are well accepted ways of analysing crack propagation and monitoring the various failure stages (such as crack closure, crack initiation level during rock failure under compression) of rocks and rock-like materials. This paper presents details and results of experimental investigations conducted for characterizing the brittle failure processes induced in a rock due to monocyclic uniaxial compression on loading of two types of sandstone core samples saturated in NaCl brines of varying concentration (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 % NaCl by weight). The two types of sandstone samples were saturated under vacuum for more than 45 days with the respective pore fluid to allow them to interact with the rocks. It was observed that the uniaxial compressive strength and stress-strain behaviour of the rock specimens changed with increasing NaCl concentration in the saturating fluid. The acoustic emission patterns also varied considerably for increasing ionic strength of the saturating brines. These observations can be attributed to the deposition of NaCl crystals in the rock's pore spaces as well some minor geo-chemical interactions between the rock minerals and the brine. The AE pattern variations could also be partly related to the higher conductivity of the ionic strength of the high-NaCl concentration brine as it is able to transfer more acoustic energy from the cracks to the AE sensors.

  14. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-07-01

    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery.

  15. Treatment of RO brine-towards sustainable water reclamation practice.

    PubMed

    Ng, H Y; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Tao, G; Viawanath, B; Kekre, K; Lay, W; Seah, H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and disposal of RO brine is an important part in sustaining the water reclamation practice. RO brine generated from water reclamation contains high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds. Cost-effective technologies for treatment of RO brine are still relatively unexplored. Thus, this study aim to determine a feasible treatment process for removal of both organic and inorganic compounds in RO brine generated from NEWater production. The proposed treatment consists of biological activated carbon (BAC) column followed by capacitive deionization (CDI) process for organic and inorganic removals, respectively. Preliminary bench-scale study demonstrated about 20% TOC removal efficiency was achieved using BAC at 40 mins empty bed contact time (EBCT) while the CDI process was able to remove more than 90% conductivity reducing it from 2.19 mS/cm to only about 164 microS/cm. More than 90% cations and anions in the BAC effluent were removed using CDI process. In addition, TOC and TN removals of 78% and 91%, respectively were also attained through this process. About 90% water recovery was achieved. This process shows the potential of increased water recovery in the reclamation process while volume for disposal can be further minimized. Further studies on the sustainable operation and process optimization are ongoing. PMID:18776632

  16. Geochemistry of metal-rich brines from central Mississippi Salt Dome basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Maest, A.S.; Carothers, W.W.; Law, L.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Fries, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oil-field brines are the most favored ore-forming solutions for the sediment-hosted Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Detailed inorganic and organic chemical and isotope analyses of water and gas samples from six oil fields in central Mississippi, one of the very few areas with high metal brines, were conducted to study the inorganic and organic complexes responsible for the high concentrations of these metals. The samples were obtained from production zones consisting of sandstone and limestone that range in depth from 1900 to 4000 m (70-120??C) and in age from Late Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. Results show that the waters are dominantly bittern brines related to the Louann Salt. The brines have extremely high salinities that range from 160,000 to 320,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and are NaCaCl-type waters with very high concentrations of Ca (up to 48,000 mg/l) and other alkaline-earth metals, but with low concentrations of aliphatic acid anions. The concentrations of metals in many water samples are very high, reaching values of 70 mg/l for Pb, 245 mg/l for Zn, 465 mg/l for Fe and 210 mg/l for Mn. The samples with high metal contents have extremely low concentrations (<0.02 mg/l) of H2S. Samples obtained from the Smackover Formation (limestone) have low metal contents that are more typical of oil-field waters, but have very high concentrations (up to 85 mg/l) of H2S. Computations with the geochemical code SOLMINEQ.87 give the following results: (1) both Pb and Zn are present predominantly as aqueous chloride complexes (mainly as PbCl42- and ZnCl42-, respectively); (2) the concentrations of metals complexed with short-chained aliphatic acid anions and reduced S species are minor; (3) organic acid anions are important in controlling the concentrations of metals because they affect the pH and buffer capacity of the waters at subsurface conditions; and (4) galena and sphalerite solubilities control the concentrations of Pb and Zn in these waters. ?? 1988.

  17. Characterization of dissolved organic material in the interstitial brine of Lake Vida, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawley, Kaelin M.; Murray, Alison E.; Doran, Peter T.; Kenig, Fabien; Stubbins, Aron; Chen, Hongmei; Hatcher, Patrick G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2016-06-01

    Lake Vida (LV) is located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Victoria Valley, East Antarctica) and has no inflows, outflows, or connectivity to the atmosphere due to a thick (16 m), turbid ice surface and cold (<-20 °C) subsurface alluvium surrounding the lake. The liquid portion of LV has a salinity about seven times that of seawater and is entrained in ice and sediment below the ice cap. This subzero (-13.4 °C), anoxic brine supports a microbial community, which has low levels of activity and has been isolated from the atmosphere for at least 2800 14C years before present. The brine has high dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC; 580 mg-C L-1 or greater); the study of which provides a unique opportunity to better understand biological and/or abiotic processes taking place in an isolated saline ecosystem with no external inputs. We isolated two sub-fractions of LV dissolved organic matter (DOM) by chemical separation using XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in series. This separation was followed by physical separation using ultrafiltration to isolate a higher molecular weight (HMW) fraction that was retained by the membrane and a salty, dilute low molecular weight fraction. This analytical path resulted in three, low salt sub-fractions and allowed comparison to other Antarctic lake DOM samples isolated using similar procedures. Compared to other Antarctic lakes, a lower portion of the DOC was retained by XAD-8 (∼10% vs. 16-24%) resin, while the portions retained by XAD-4 (∼8%) resin and the 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (∼50%) were similar. The 14C radiocarbon ages of the XAD-8 (mean 3940 ybp), XAD-4 (mean 4048 ybp) and HMW (mean 3270 ybp) fractions are all older than the apparent age of ice-cover formation (2800 ybp). Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry showed that compounds with two and three nitrogen atoms in the molecular formulas were common in both the LV-XAD8 and LV-XAD4 fractions, consistent with microbial production and processing. The long-term oxidation

  18. Assessment of brine migration risks along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, 'renewable' methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas and coal. Additionally, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the subsurface causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. In this work we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale the spatial scale required for this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, as the regional hydrogeology has to be considered. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt domes are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence has to be taken into account. We put the focus of our investigations on the latter type of scenario, since there is still a poor understanding of the role that salt diapirs would play in CO2 storage projects. As there is hardly any field data available on this scale, we compare different levels of model complexity in order to identify the relevant processes for brine displacement and simplify the modeling process wherever possible, for example brine injection vs. CO2 injection, simplified geometries vs. the complex formation geometry and the role of salt induced density differences on flow. Further we investigate the impact of the

  19. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  20. Long Term Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Rate of Creviced Alloy 22 in Chloride Plus Nitrate Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Etien, R A; Hust, G A; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2005-11-05

    Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions and at anodic potentials, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized attack. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, crevice corrosion may be expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that as Alloy 22 becomes passive in a certain environment, its E{sub corr} increases and its corrosion rate (CR) decreases. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in six different mixtures of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) at 100 C. The effect of immersion time on the value of E{sub crit} was also determined. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT). The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, as the immersion time increases, E{sub corr} increased and the CR decreased. Even for highly concentrated brine solutions at 100 C the CR was < 30 nm/year after more than 250 days immersion. Some of the exposed specimens (mainly the SHT specimens) suffered crevice corrosion at the open circuit potential in the naturally aerated brines. Immersion times of over 250 days did not reduce the resistance of Alloy 22 to localized corrosion.

  1. Formation of the Wiesloch Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the extensional setting of the Upper Rhinegraben, SW Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Katharina; Hildebrandt, Ludwig H.; Leach, David L.; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Markl, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the Wiesloch area, Southwest Germany, is controlled by graben-related faults of the Upper Rhinegraben. Mineralization occurs as vein fillings and irregular replacement ore bodies consisting of sphalerite, banded sphalerite, galena, pyrite, sulfosalts (jordanite and geocronite), barite, and calcite in the Middle Triassic carbonate host rock. Combining paragenetic information, fluid inclusion investigations, stable isotope and mineral chemistry with thermodynamic modeling, we have derived a model for the formation of the Wiesloch deposit. This model involves fluid mixing between ascending hot brines (originating in the crystalline basement) with sedimentary formation waters. The ascending brines originally had a near-neutral pH (around 6) and intermediate oxidation state, reflecting equilibrium with granites and gneisses in the basement. During fluid ascent and cooling, the pH of the brine shifted towards more acidic (around 4) and the oxidation state increased to conditions above the hematite-magnetite buffer. These chemical characteristics contrast strongly with those of the pore and fracture fluid residing in the limestone aquifer, which had a pH between 8 and 9 in equilibrium with calcite and was rather reduced due to the presence of organic matter in the limestone. Mixing between these two fluids resulted in a strong decrease in the solubility of silver-bearing sphalerite and galena, and calcite. Besides Wiesloch, several Pb-Zn deposits are known along the Upper Rhinegraben, including hydrothermal vein-type deposits like Badenweiler and the Michael mine near Lahr. They all share the same fluid origin and formation process and only differ in details of their host rock and fluid cooling paths. The mechanism of fluid mixing also seems to be responsible for the formation of other MVT deposits in Europe (e.g., Reocin, Northern Spain; Treves, Southern France; and Cracow-Silesia, Poland), which show notable

  2. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  3. Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.

    PubMed

    Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

    2010-10-01

    Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD.

  4. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  5. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  6. Fluidized bed reactor for the biological treatment of ion-exchange brine containing perchlorate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Zuo, G; Lehman, S G; Badruzzaman, M; Clifford, D A; Roberts, D J

    2008-10-01

    The removal of perchlorate and nitrate from contaminated drinking water using regenerable ion-exchange processes produces a high salt brine (3-10% NaCl) laden with high concentrations of perchlorate and nitrate. This bench-scale research describes the operation of acetate-fed granular activated carbon (GAC) based fluidized bed reactors (FBR) for perchlorate-only, and combined nitrate and perchlorate removal from synthetic brine (6% NaCl). The GAC was inoculated with a salt-tolerant culture developed by the authors and used previously in batch systems. An FBR was an effective design for perchlorate reduction and exhibited first-order degradation kinetics with respect to perchlorate concentrations. Nitrate was also removed by the organisms in the column and had no negative effects on the removal of perchlorate using the FBR design. However, at higher concentrations of nitrate the FBR was more difficult to operate due to loss of carbon and biomass from the formation of nitrogen bubbles and the high recycle flow rates needed.

  7. Potential for preservation of halobacteria and their macromolecular constituents in brine inclusions from bedded salt deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, James K.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Onstott, Tullis C.

    1997-07-01

    Halobacteria cultured from salt deposits as old as 200 m.y. are assumed to be dormant halobacteria entombed in the brine inclusions that formed during deposition of the salt crystals. Hypersaline lakes may have also existed on early Mars. If so, evaporite minerals containing frozen brine inclusions may occur on the surface of Mars today. Analyses of samples of recently-deposited salt from Laguna Grande de la Sal in New Mexico revealed the presence of viable halobacteria. 16S rDNA from archae and eubacteria was also detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of directly-extracted DNA from Laguna Grande de la Sal sal. In contrast, no halophilic bacteria were cultured from 200 my polyhalite from the Salado Formation in New Mexico nor was archaea 16S rDNA detected by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from salt. A combination of microbiological, molecular, and geochemical approaches are being used to probe bedded salt deposits for evidence of microbial entrapment in primary fluid inclusions. A chronosequence of bedded salts from Death Valley, California that range in age from 0 to 200 kyr is the subject of current investigations to constrain the length of time that viable halophilic bacteria and associated macromolecules can be detected in bedded salts.

  8. Volatile contents of mafic magmas from cinder cones in the Central Oregon High Cascades: Implications for magma formation and mantle conditions in a hot arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscitto, D. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Johnson, E. R.; Kent, A. J. R.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2010-09-01

    , compositional proxies for slab surface temperatures in Central Oregon are at the high end of the global arc spectrum, corresponding to temperatures of 850-950 °C, and are consistent with a young, hot incoming plate.

  9. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pH<5 and are the product of evaporation of Dead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  10. Resolution-independent modelling of environmental effects in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include ram-pressure stripping of both hot and cold gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The quenching of star formation in satellite galaxies is observed over a wide range of dark matter halo masses and galaxy environments. In the recent Guo et al. and Fu et al. semi-analytic + N-body models, the gaseous environment of the satellite galaxy is governed by the properties of the dark matter subhalo in which it resides. This quantity depends of the resolution of the N-body simulation, leading to a divergent fraction of quenched satellites in high- and low-resolution simulations. Here, we incorporate an analytic model to trace the subhaloes below the resolution limit. We demonstrate that we then obtain better converged results between the Millennium I and II simulations, especially for the satellites in the massive haloes (log Mhalo = [14, 15]). We also include a new physical model for the ram-pressure stripping of cold gas in satellite galaxies. However, we find very clear discrepancies with observed trends in quenched satellite galaxy fractions as a function of stellar mass at fixed halo mass. At fixed halo mass, the quenched fraction of satellites does not depend on stellar mass in the models, but increases strongly with mass in the data. In addition to the overprediction of low-mass passive satellites, the models also predict too few quenched central galaxies with low stellar masses, so the problems in reproducing quenched fractions are not purely of environmental origin. Further improvements to the treatment of the gas-physical processes regulating the star formation histories of galaxies are clearly necessary to resolve these problems.

  11. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    PubMed Central

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  12. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  13. Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia M. Wilson

    2009-11-30

    Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

  14. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extraction control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.

  15. Groundwater Quality Impacts Related to Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into a Shallow, Unconfined Limestone Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, D. H.; Hou, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zheng, L.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the impact of leaks related to geologic carbon sequestration on groundwater quality is limited by the complexity of subsurface aquifers and the geochemical reactions that control drinking water compositions. As a result, there is a high uncertainty associated with predictions, hampering monitoring plans, interpretation of the monitoring results, and mitigation plans for a given site. As a part of the National Risk Assessment Program (NRAP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a model of the Edwards Aquifer in Texas has been developed to examine the geochemical impacts of leakage of CO2 and brine containing trace metals into an oxidizing unconfined, carbonate aquifer. We use STOMP-CO2-R, which is a multiphase flow simulator, coupled with the reactive transport module ECKEChem, both developed at PNNL, to simulate CO2 sequestration in deep saline formations and the associated reactions with formation minerals. The limestone almost entirely consists of calcite, with lesser amounts of dolomite and trace metals adsorbed on minor amounts of clay and iron oxides. A reduced order model of this more complex chemistry and physics based model has been developed to be included in a framework for quantifying the overall risks associated with CO2 injection, leaks and groundwater impacts. The aquifer model uses reduced-order models, provided by other NRAP groups, of CO2 and brine leakage from wellbores and faults as inputs. Geochemical input parameters were varied to determine parameter sensitivity and to generate a response surface of output variables. The output variables were pH < 6.5 or TDS > 500 ppm plume size and CO2 flux to atmosphere, as well the volume of aquifer with trace metal concentrations greater than their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels. The uncertain input parameters were CO2/brine leak rate, brine composition, mineral surface area and volumetric percent, equilibrium coefficients, and kinetic rates

  16. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  17. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  18. Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  19. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  20. Larval brine shrimp (Nauplii): a potentially useful model to study cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bargman, G J

    1976-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of cystic fibrosis is the abnormal handling of electrolytes by exocrine glands. The present study has examined the possibility that diminished respiratory energy formation is a primary biochemical error responsible for this abnormality. Using oxygen consumption of intact larval brine shrimp, quantitative differences have been observed from reaction of mixed mouth saliva between CF heterozygotes and CF homozygotes. In addition, information demonstrating a correlation between a biochemical abnormality and disease severity was observed. The differences observed in inhibition by saliva from both CF homozygotes and obligate heterozygotes may occur as the result of 1) interference with electron transfer from organic fuel molecules to molecular oxygen or 2) interference with the mechanism responsible for generating the biochemical reducing power necessary for multiple biosynthetic reactions. PMID:996791

  1. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  2. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation

  3. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  4. Deposit model for closed-basin potash-bearing brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2011-01-01

    Closed-basin potash-bearing brines are one of the types of potash deposits that are a source of potash production within the United States, as well as other countries. Though these deposits are of highly variable size, they are important sources of potash on a regional basis. In addition, these deposits have a high potential of co- and by-product production of one or more commodities such as lithium, boron, magnesium, and others.

  5. Predicting amounts of radiolytically produced species in brine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.A.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1983-11-01

    The corrosion of iron overpack materials for nuclear waste forms in salt is highly dependent upon the species produced by the radiolysis of brines which may contact the metal. A computer code has been developed to predict the concentrations of the radiolytically produced species as a function of time using published values for radiation yields of species, chemical reaction rate constants, and parameters derived from experimental evidence.

  6. POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE-RICH POLYPHENLENESULFIDE BLEND TOP COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN 300 DEGREE CELCIUS BRINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA, T.; JUNG, D.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated usefulness of a coating system consisting of an underlying polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) layer and top polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-blended PPS layer as low friction, water repellent, anti-corrosion barrier film for carbon steel steam separators in geothermal power plants. The experiments were designed to obtain information on kinetic coefficient of friction, surface free energy, hydrothermal oxidation, alteration of molecular structure, thermal stability, and corrosion protection of the coating after immersing the coated carbon steel coupons for up to 35 days in CO{sub 2}-laden brine at 300 C. The superficial layer of the assembled coating was occupied by PTFE self-segregated from PPS during the melt-flowing process of this blend polymer; it conferred an outstanding slipperiness and water repellent properties because of its low friction and surface free energy. However, PTFE underwent hydrothermal oxidation in hot brine, transforming its molecular structure into an alkylated polyfluorocarboxylate salt complex linked to Na. Although such molecular transformation increased the friction and surface free energy, and also impaired the thermal stability of PTFE, the top PTFE-rich PPS layer significantly contributed to preventing the permeation of moisture and corrosive electrolytes through the coating film, so mitigating the corrosion of carbon steel.

  7. Constraints on Upward Migration of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid and Brine

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, Samuel A; Sharma, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to aid extraction of oil and gas from black shales have raised concerns regarding potential environmental effects associated with predictions of upward migration of HF fluid and brine. Some recent studies have suggested that such upward migration can be large and that timescales for migration can be as short as a few years. In this article, we discuss the physical constraints on upward fluid migration from black shales (e.g., the Marcellus, Bakken, and Eagle Ford) to shallow aquifers, taking into account the potential changes to the subsurface brought about by HF. Our review of the literature indicates that HF affects a very limited portion of the entire thickness of the overlying bedrock and therefore, is unable to create direct hydraulic communication between black shales and shallow aquifers via induced fractures. As a result, upward migration of HF fluid and brine is controlled by preexisting hydraulic gradients and bedrock permeability. We show that in cases where there is an upward gradient, permeability is low, upward flow rates are low, and mean travel times are long (often >106 years). Consequently, the recently proposed rapid upward migration of brine and HF fluid, predicted to occur as a result of increased HF activity, does not appear to be physically plausible. Unrealistically high estimates of upward flow are the result of invalid assumptions about HF and the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins. PMID:23895673

  8. Losses of nitrogen fractions from herring to brine during marinating.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz; Kołakowski, Edward

    2012-05-01

    Fish meat is characterized by a high content of valuable nutrients. During the marinating process, however, the process of proteins diffusion and other nitrogen fractions from fish to the surrounding brine is commonly observed. It was determined that the total nitrogen loss from herring meat of industrial maturity (4-5day) amounted to 6-19% of raw material nitrogen. Extension of the marinating time to 16-18days increases nitrogen losses even to 18-27%. Less loss was observed during marinating of fresh than of frozen herring and during marinating of carcasses, as opposite to fillets. Higher nitrogen content in fish was not proved to influence higher nitrogen losses in a brine. The majority of loss consisted of nitrogen fractions soluble in TCA, of which one third was formed by α-amine nitrogen. Nitrogen contained in brine suspension accounted for only 1.5-4% of total nitrogen losses. With increasing salt or acid concentration the amount of total nitrogen loss was lower from fresh herring and higher from frozen one. Higher salt concentration significantly reduced the amount of non-protein nitrogen and all its fractions during marinating of fresh and frozen herring. In case of acetic acid, the influence of its concentration was diverse and depended on type of herring and its dressing.

  9. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    PubMed

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments. PMID:22799449

  10. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of the basic physical chemical properties of the components of brine produced in the US DOE geopressured wells is necessary to provide the fundamental data necessary for understanding the mechanisms by which constituents of petroleum migrate and are partitioned into different phases in various geologic strata. The cryocondensate materials, which we sample, are present in the geopressured brines of all the wells observed to date. These materials are a complex mixture of aromatic compounds ranging in complexity from benzene to highly substituted anthracenes. While data is available for room temperature and for solutions of pure water, there is little earlier information on these compounds in solutions of higher salinity and at elevated temperatures. Our work extended the basic solubility data for benzene and toluene (two of the major aromatic constituents of the geopressured brine) to higher sodium chloride concentrations. The techniques we have developed during the course of this work allows us to make solubility measurements with precision and to make major contributions to the basic literature. It is important to realize that reliable data on these fundamental quantities comes only with great attention to detail and an insistence on consistency and reproducibility. To determine the solubility of one compound at one set of conditions requires the manual injection of a minimum of 45 samples into a gas chromatograph and an analysis of each chromatogram. 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Geochemical Modeling of CO2, Brine, and Reservoir Rock Interactions in the Knox Group, Western Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Parris, T. M.; Bowersox, J.; Harris, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Regionally extensive dolostones and sandstones in the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group could provide commercial-scale CO2 storage capacity in the Illinois Basin of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana. This 1200 m thick interval of dolostone and less abundant quartz sandstone is a prospective sequestration target in the southern part of the Illinois Basin, where the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone, a main sequestration target in the central part of the basin, is thin to absent, or deeply buried. The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) has successfully injected 690 tons of CO2 into the Knox Group through a 2477 m deep well (KGS #1 Blan well) at a test site in western Kentucky. To understand the long-term fate of CO2 stored in a saline reservoir in the Knox group, this study uses TOUGHREACT to model geochemical reactions among injected CO2, brine, and the reservoir rocks. Data collected in the KGS #1 Blan well, including rock cores, deep brine water samples, temperatures, and pressures, are the main data sources. A kinetic batch model is used first to simulate the impacts of dissolved CO2 on a mineral assemblage representing the Gunter Sandstone, a subgroup of the Knox Formation. The mineral assemblage consists of mainly quartz and dolomite with small amount of k-feldspar. The batch simulation results show precipitation of calcite, magnesite, illite, and quartz and dissolution of dolomite and k-feldspar. A 1-D radial reactive transport model is being constructed to simulate the injection test to evaluate the migration of the injected CO2, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and changes of porosity and permeability of formation rocks. The reactive model will be used to simulate hypothetical commercial scale injection scenarios to evaluate the long-term impacts of large scale CO2 injection on the Knox reservoir.

  12. Dissolution of CO2 in Brines and Mineral Reactions during Geological Carbon Storage: AN Eor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in formation brines is likely to be a major process which stabilises stored CO2 on longer time scales and mitigates CO2 migrating through storage complexes. However very little is known about the likely rates of CO2 dissolution as CO2 flows through natural heterogeneous brine filled reservoirs. Here we report the results of sampling fluids over 6 months after a phase of CO2 injection commenced for enhanced oil recovery coupled with injection of isotopically enriched 3He and 129Xe. Modelling of the changes in fluid chemistry has previously been interpreted to indicate significant dissolution of silicate minerals where fluids remained close to saturation with calcite. These calculations, which are based on modal decomposition of changes in cation concentrations, are supported by changes in the isotopic compositions of Sr, Li and Mg. Analysis of Sr-isotopic compositions of samples from outcrops of the Frontier Formation, which forms the reservoir sampled by the EOR experiment, reveals substantial heterogeneity. Silicate mineral compositions have 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.719 whereas carbonate cements have values around 0.7076. Calculation of CO2 dissolution based on simplified 2-D flow models shows that fluids likely sample reservoir heterogeneities present on a finer scale with CO2 fingers occupying the most permeable horizons and most water flow in the adjacent slightly less permeable zones. Smaller time scale variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios are interpreted to reflect variations in flow paths on small length scales driven by invading CO2.

  13. The solubility of noble gases in water and in NaCl brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. P.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1983-03-01

    A direct-sampling, mass-spectrometric technique has been used to measure simultaneously the solubilities of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in fresh water and NaCl brine (0 to 5.2 molar) from 0° to 65 °C, and at 1 atm total pressure of moist air. The argon solubility in the most concentrated brines is 4 to 7 times less than in fresh water at 65 °C and 0°C, respectively. The salt effect is parameterized using the Setschenow equation. ln [ β io(T) /β i(T) = MK iM(T) where M is NaCl moiarity, βio( T) and βi( T) the Bunsen solubility coefficients for gas i in fresh water and brine, and KiM( T) the empirical salting coefficient. Values of KiM( T) are calculated using volumetric concentration units for noble gas and NaCl content and are independent of NaCl molarity. Below about 40°C, temperature coefficients of all KiM are negative. The value of KHeM is a minimum at 40°C. KArM decreases from about 0.40 at 0°C to 0.28 at 65 °C. The absolute magnitudes of the differences in salting coefficients (relative to KArM) decrease from 0° to 65°C. Over the range of conditions studied, all noble gases are salted out, and KHeM ≲ KNeM < KArM < KKrM < KXeM. From the solubility data, we calculated Δ overlineG0tr, Δ overlineS0tr, Δ overlineH0tr and Δ overlineCOp,tr for the transfer of noble gases from fresh water to 1 molar NaCl solutions. At low temperatures Δ overlineS0tr, is positive, but decreases and becomes negative at temperatures ranging from about 25°C for He to 45°C for Xe. At low temperatures, the dissolved electrolyte apparently interferes with the formation of a cage of solvent molecules about the noble gas atom. At higher temperatures, the local environment of the gas atom in the brine appears to be slightly more ordered than in pure water, possibly reflecting the longer effective range of the ionic fields at higher temperature. The measured solubilities can be used to model noble gas partitioning in two-phase geothermal systems at low temperatures. The data

  14. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    populations in the field and to compare the field subdwarf population with the globular clusters’ hot subdwarfs. New fast-moving subdwarfs will allow the mass of the Galactic dark matter halo to be constrained and additional unbound hyper-velocity stars may be discovered. Subdwarf O/B stars and extremely low mass white dwarfs: atmospheric parameters and abundances, formation and evolution, binaries, planetary companions, pulsation, and kinematics.

  15. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    populations in the field and to compare the field subdwarf population with the globular clusters’ hot subdwarfs. New fast-moving subdwarfs will allow the mass of the Galactic dark matter halo to be constrained and additional unbound hyper-velocity stars may be discovered. Subdwarf O/B stars and extremely low mass white dwarfs: atmospheric parameters and abundances, formation and evolution, binaries, planetary companions, pulsation, and kinematics.

  16. Parameterization of and Brine Storage in MOR Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, J.; Lowell, R. P.; Cummings, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Single-pass parameterized models of high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers use observational constraints such as vent temperature, heat output, vent field area, and the area of heat extraction from the sub-axial magma chamber to deduce fundamental hydrothermal parameters such as total mass flux Q, bulk permeability k, and the thickness of the conductive boundary layer at the base of the system, δ. Of the more than 300 known systems, constraining data are available for less than 10%. Here we use the single pass model to estimate Q, k, and δ for all the seafloor hydrothermal systems for which the constraining data are available. Mean values of Q, k, and δ are 170 kg/s, 5.0x10-13 m2, and 20 m, respectively; which is similar to results obtained from the generic model. There is no apparent correlation with spreading rate. Using observed vent field lifetimes, the rate of magma replenishment can also be calculated. Essentially all high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers undergo phase separation, yielding a low chlorinity vapor and a high salinity brine. Some systems such as the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the 9°50’N sites on the East Pacific Rise vent low chlorinity vapor for many years, while the high density brine remains sequestered beneath the seafloor. In an attempt to further understand the brine storage at the EPR, we used the mass flux Q determined above, time series of vent salinity and temperature, and the depth of the magma chamber to determine the rate of brine production at depth. We found thicknesses ranging from 0.32 meters to ~57 meters over a 1 km2 area from 1994-2002. These calculations suggest that brine maybe being stored within the conductive boundary layer without a need for lateral transport or removal by other means. We plan to use the numerical code FISHES to further test this idea.

  17. Primary producing prokaryotic communities of brine, interface and seawater above the halocline of deep anoxic lake L'Atalante, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Denaro, Renata; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Decembrini, Franco; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2007-12-01

    Meso- and bathypelagic ecosystems represent the most common marine ecological niche on Earth and contain complex communities of microorganisms that are for the most part ecophysiologically poorly characterized. Gradients of physico-chemical factors (for example, depth-related gradients of light, temperature, salinity, nutrients and pressure) constitute major forces shaping ecosystems at activity 'hot spots' on the ocean floor, such as hydrothermal vents, cold seepages and mud volcanoes and hypersaline lakes, though the relationships between community composition, activities and environmental parameters remain largely elusive. We report here results of a detailed study of primary producing microbial communities in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The brine column of the deep anoxic hypersaline brine lake, L'Atalante, the overlying water column and the brine-seawater interface, were characterized physico- and geochemically, and microbiologically, in terms of their microbial community compositions, functional gene distributions and [(14)C]bicarbonate assimilation activities. The depth distribution of genes encoding the crenarchaeal ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA), and the bacterial ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (RuBisCO), was found to coincide with two different types of chemoautotrophy. Meso- and bathypelagic microbial communities were enriched in ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota, whereas the autotrophic community at the oxic/anoxic interface of L'Atalante lake was dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria and sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria. These autotrophic microbes are thus the basis of the food webs populating these deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:18059497

  18. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the

  19. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    PubMed

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  20. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  1. Great Salt Lake, Utah: chemical and physical variations of the brine, 1963-1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahl, D.C.; Handy, A.H.

    1969-01-01

    Great Salt Lake is a shallow, closed-basin lake in northern Utah. Its surface area and concentration of dissolved solids vary in response to both annual and long-term climatic changes. The lake gains water mainly as streamflow from mountains to the east and loses water through evaporation. In 1965, at a lake-surface altitude of 4,194 feet, the surface area was about 1,000 square miles, and the maximum measured depth was 27 feet. Studies to define the variations in chemical and physical characteristics of the brine began in 1963, and detailed sampling of the lake at 29 sites was made in October 1965 and May 1966. Data resulting from concurrent sampling of the 29 sites indicated that four types of brine coexist in the lake. The concentration of dissolved solids in the Great Salt Lake brine has always varied from place to place and with depth. Inflow, evaporation, currents, wind, and density differences resulted in brine stratification in the deep parts and brine concentration in the shallow, isolated parts of the lake. Completion of a railroad causeway by the Southern Pacific Co. in 1957 divided the lake into two parts and altered the movement of brine. The northwestern part of the lake was essentially cut off from direct fresh-water inflow by the causeway, and as a result it was saturated and well mixed from 1963 to 1966. During the main evaporation season (June-October), a layer of salt crust was precipitated on the lakebed north of the causeway. Near Rozel Point the salt crust contained 99.6 percent sodium chloride. The southern two-thirds of the lake receives over 90 percent of the surface inflow and since 1957 has rarely reached saturation. The southern part of the lake is not well mixed, and three types of brine have been identified by their location, concentrations of specific ions, and concentrations of dissolved solids. These brines are located (1) in a zone from the surface to a depth of 16 feet, (2) in a zone below 16 feet south of the causeway, and (3) in

  2. (abstract) A Polarimetric Model for Effects of Brine Infiltrated Snow Cover and Frost Flowers on Sea Ice Backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A polarimetric scattering model is developed to study effects of snow cover and frost flowers with brine infiltration on thin sea ice. Leads containing thin sea ice in the Artic icepack are important to heat exchange with the atmosphere and salt flux into the upper ocean. Surface characteristics of thin sea ice in leads are dominated by the formation of frost flowers with high salinity. In many cases, the thin sea ice layer is covered by snow, which wicks up brine from sea ice due to capillary force. Snow and frost flowers have a significant impact on polarimetric signatures of thin ice, which needs to be studied for accessing the retrieval of geophysical parameters such as ice thickness. Frost flowers or snow layer is modeled with a heterogeneous mixture consisting of randomly oriented ellipsoids and brine infiltration in an air background. Ice crystals are characterized with three different axial lengths to depict the nonspherical shape. Under the covering multispecies medium, the columinar sea-ice layer is an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium composed of ellipsoidal brine inclusions preferentially oriented in the vertical direction in an ice background. The underlying medium is homogeneous sea water. This configuration is described with layered inhomogeneous media containing multiple species of scatterers. The species are allowed to have different size, shape, and permittivity. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is extended to account for the multispecies in the derivation of effective permittivities with distributions of scatterer orientations characterized by Eulerian rotation angles. Polarimetric backscattering coefficients are obtained consistently with the same physical description used in the effective permittivity calculation. The mulitspecies model allows the inclusion of high-permittivity species to study effects of brine infiltrated snow cover and frost flowers on thin ice. The results suggest that the frost cover with a rough interface

  3. Origins of Hot Jupiters, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods less than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances (a > 2AU) in protoplanetary disks, only to subsequently experience large-scale inward migration to the small orbital radii at which they are observed. Here, we propose that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population forms in situ, with the Galactically prevalent short-period super-Earths acting as the source population. Our calculations suggest that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated for solid cores of 10-20 Earth masses, in line with the conventional picture of core-nucleated accretion. The planetary conglomeration process, coupled with subsequent gravitational contraction and spin down of the host star, drives sweeping secular resonances through the system, increasing the mutual inclinations of exterior, low-mass companions to hot Jupiters. Accordingly, this formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional non-transiting planets, reminiscent of those observed in large numbers by NASA’s Kepler Mission and Doppler velocity surveys. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  4. Origins of Hot Jupiters, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods less than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances (a > 2AU) in protostellar disks, only to subsequently experience large-scale inward migration to the small orbital radii at which they are observed. Here, we propose that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population forms in situ, with the Galactically prevalent short-period super-Earths acting as the source population. Our calculations suggest that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protostellar disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated for solid cores of 10-20 Earth masses, in line with the conventional picture of core-nucleated accretion. This formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional planets, reminiscent of those observed in large numbers by NASA’s Kepler Mission and Doppler velocity surveys. However, dynamical interactions during the early stages of planetary systems' evolutionary lifetimes tend to increase the mutual inclinations of exterior, low-mass companions to hot Jupiters, making transits rare. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  5. Results of the GCMS Effluent Gas Analysis for the Brine Processing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Lee, Jeffrey; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Harris, Linden

    2015-01-01

    The effluent gas for the Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) were analyzed using Headspace GCMS Analysis in the recent AES FY14 Brine Processing Test. The results from the analysis describe the number and general chemical species of the chemicals produced. Comparisons were also made between the different chromatograms for each system, and an explanation of the differences in the results is reported.

  6. Imaging an Englacial Brine Conduit within a -17°C Polar Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgeley, J.; Pettit, E. C.; Carr, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Mikucki, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite cold ice, there is evidence of an active zone of englacial brine that taps the subglacial brine reservoir of Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys (average annual air temperature -17°C). As part of the MIDGE (Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Exploration) project, our geophysical study aims to reveal the hydraulic path of brine through Taylor Glacier prior to surface discharge at Blood Falls. We collected ground-penetrating-radar surveys at the terminus of Taylor Glacier that show a horizontal, linear scattering zone, the first evidence for englacial brine near Blood Falls. The scattering zone extends from Blood Falls upglacier and its trend matches that of past brine discharge cracks. By measuring depression of the basal ice reflector, we estimate a > 4% liquid brine content at the edge of the englacial scattering zone, assuming even dispersal of water within the ice column extending from the top of the scattering zone to the basal reflector. The brine content likely increases towards the center of the scattering zone as the underlying, depressed basal reflector disappears altogether. The concentration of brine at the center of the scattering zone may involve processes such at cryoconcentration and active input of brine from a nearby source. We use hydraulic potential models to map the source pathway of the englacial brine; the glacier's significant surface relief drives channelization of subglacial fluids. On the northern side of the eastward flowing glacier, channeled fluids are trapped between ice-cored moraines to the north and east and an area of high hydraulic potential to the south. The trapped fluids pond beneath and upglacier from Blood Falls and provide a likely source pool for the observed englacial brine. Although Blood Falls is a unique feature, our results suggest that polar glaciers can support subglacial and englacial hydraulic systems despite a temperature difference between the ice and the brine of nearly 10°C.

  7. Induced Seismicity of the Paradox Valley Brine Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Foxall, W.; Daley, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Paradox Valley Unit (PVU) is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and is built to control the water quality of the Dolores River - a feeder of the Colorado River. Brine is extracted along the river from several shallow wells. Before it is injected into a 4.8km deep well for long-term storage, it is filtered at a surface-treatment facility. The target zone of the injection is a subhorizontal formation of a Mississippian-age limestone. The first injection test started in 1991, continuous injections started in 1996 and are still ongoing. The injection of the fluid in the underground induces micro-seismicity that is monitored by the USBR with the 15-station Paradox Valley Seismic Network. This network located more then 5700 events in the 20 years since the injection started. The locations of the seismic events give crucial insights to the pathways of the injected fluid. In this study we analyze the seismicity up to the end of 2011, which does not include the magnitude 3.9 event that caused a temporary shut down of the PVU in January 2013. The largest event included in our study period is an event with M4.3 of May 2000. The majority (75%) of events are micro-seismic events with magnitudes of 1 or smaller; only 74 events have magnitudes larger or equal to 2.5 of which only 4 are larger or equal to 3.5. Most of the seismicity is constrained to the vicinity of the injection well with roughly 80% of the events occurring within a 4km radius. However, there is one active zone more then 10 km away from the injection well that showed first activity in late 2010. More than 500 micro-seismic events occurred within several weeks in this new zone. The goal behind this study is to understand the processes behind a long-term injection of fluid into the underground where no circulation takes place. While other such projects exist, such as different wastewater injections, none of them has been monitored as well as the Paradox Valley seismicity and or has been going on

  8. Isotopic composition and origin of the red sea and salton sea geothermal brines.

    PubMed

    Craig, H

    1966-12-23

    Abstract. Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls the circulation of the Red Sea. On this sill sea water penetrates a thick evaporite sequence to a depth of 2000 meters, and, driven by its increased density relative to sea water, flows northward to emerge in the brine-filled deeps. PMID:17807292

  9. Modeling the interaction of mine brines with chloride minerals of potassium-magnesium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article is devoted to study of dynamics of saturation degree of suprasalt brines with respect to major chloride minerals of salt strata in the initial phase of an accident related to discontinuity of waterproof stratum in the mine of the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit (Berezniki-3 mine, 1986). Physicochemical modeling has showed that the brines discharged into mine are in equilibrium with halite during all period of observation. At the same time, their degree of saturation with respect to sylvite and carnallite regularly decreases with the increase in inflow of the suprasalt Cl-Na brines. The initial stage of suprasalt brine penetration into mine is characterized by an increase in the saturation degree with respect to the considered chloride minerals, which is showed on the chart presented in the article. However, there are brines oversaturated with respect to halite, which occurs over a brief period. In contrast to the mine brines of different genesis being in equilibrium or close to equilibrium with sylvite, saturation index (SI) for this mineral decreases in the suprasalt brine. This allows one to recommend the use of this parameter in the study of the mine brines to timely detect suprasalt brines entering the mine.

  10. Isotopic composition and origin of the red sea and salton sea geothermal brines.

    PubMed

    Craig, H

    1966-12-23

    Abstract. Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls the circulation of the Red Sea. On this sill sea water penetrates a thick evaporite sequence to a depth of 2000 meters, and, driven by its increased density relative to sea water, flows northward to emerge in the brine-filled deeps.

  11. Whistler Solitons in Plasma with Anisotropic Hot Electron Admixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse modulation instability of whistler waves in plasma, with a small admixture of hot anisotropic electrons, is discussed. If the hot particles temperature anisotropy is positive, it is found that, in such plasma, longitudinal perturbations can lead to soliton formation for frequencies forbidden in cold plasma. The soliton is enriched by hot particles. The frequency region unstable to transverse modulation in cold plasma in the presence of hot electrons is divided by stable domains. For both cases the role of hot electrons is more significant for whistlers with smaller frequencies.

  12. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO2 was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO2 injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO2 injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO2 breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO3- and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO2 plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO2 concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO2 could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  14. Detection of brine plumes in an oil reservoir using the geoelectric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, María Victoria; Osella, Ana; de la Vega, Matías; Tichno, Adrián

    2013-08-01

    During water injection in a reservoir at the secondary recovery phase, oil is replaced by salt water, producing different saturation zones in the formation containing this reservoir. This process could be optimized if the direction of the fluids is monitored. Since there are large contrasts in the electric conductivity between salt water and oil, geoelectrical methods could provide a water saturation map at any given moment of the production. The case we study here corresponds to a rather shallow reservoir (between 500 and 600 m in depth). As the wells are in production, electrodes for borehole measurements cannot be introduced. Hence, our objectives are to determine the possibilities of detecting the channelling direction of saline water between injection and producing wells, and applying the method of placing electrodes on the surface or even burying them, but at depths corresponding to shallow layers. We design an electrical model of the reservoir and then numerically simulate the geoelectrical response in order to determine the conditions under which the anomaly, i.e. the accumulation of brine in a reduced area, can be detected. We find that the channelling of the brine can be detected for the reservoir studied here if the electrodes are placed at 180 m depth. The Wenner configuration using 16 electrodes provides the best resolution. Therefore, monitoring the voltage at a number of electrodes embedded at rather shallow depths (from a technical-logistic point of view) could give information about the direction of the saline channelling even if a quantitative image of the subsoil cannot be obtained due to the reduced number of electrodes used in the study.

  15. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  16. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Electrodeposition of minerals in geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Objective was to study the materials electrodeposited from geothermal brine, from the HGP-A well in Puna, Hawaii. Due to limitations, only one good set of electrodeposited material was obtained; crystallography indicates that vaterite forms first, followed by calcite and then perhaps aragonite as current density is increased. While the cost to weight ratio is reasonable, the deposition rate is very slow. More research is needed, such as reducing the brittleness. The electrodeposited material possibly could be used as building blocks, tables, benches, etc. 49 figs, 4 tabs, 7 refs.

  17. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  18. Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. ); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. ); Pilger, P.F. )

    1993-09-20

    A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

  19. HOT HYDROGEN IN DIFFUSE CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Duley, Walt W.; Williams, David A. E-mail: wwduley@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-08-20

    Laboratory evidence suggests that recombination of adsorbed radicals may cause an abrupt temperature excursion of a dust grain to about 1000 K. One consequence of this is the rapid desorption of adsorbed H{sub 2} molecules with excitation temperatures of this magnitude. We compute the consequences of injection of hot H{sub 2} into cold diffuse interstellar gas at a rate of 1% of the canonical H{sub 2} formation rate. We find that the level populations of H{sub 2} in J = 3, 4, and 5 are close to observed values, and that the abundances of CH{sup +} and OH formed in reactions with hot hydrogen are close to the values obtained from observations of diffuse clouds.

  20. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  1. Electrically Conducting, Ca-Rich Brines, Rather Than Water, Expected in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.; Knauth, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    If Mars ever possessed a salty liquid hydrosphere, which later partly evaporated and froze down, then any aqueous fluids left near the surface could have evolved to become dense eutectic brines. Eutectic brines, by definition, are the last to freeze and the first to melt. If CaC12-rich, such brines can remain liquid until temperatures below 220 K, close to the average surface temperature of Mars. In the Martian subsurface, in intimate contact with the Ca-rich basaltic regolith, NaC1-rich early brines should have reacted to become Ca-rich. Fractional crystallization (freezing) and partial melting would also drive brines toward CaC12-rich compositions. In other words, eutectic brine compositions could be present in the shallow subsurface of Mars, for the same reasons that eutectic magma compositions are common on Earth. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, a CaC12-rich eutectic brine, provides a possible terrestrial analog, particularly because it is fed from a basaltic aquifer. Owing to their relative density and fluid nature, brines in the Martian regolith should eventually become sandwiched between ice above and salts beneath. A thawing brine sandwich provides one explanation (among many) for the young gullies recently attributed to seepage of liquid water on Mars. Whether or not brine seepage explains the gullies phenomenon, dense, CaC12-rich brines are to be expected in the deep subsurface of Mars, although they might be somewhat diluted (temperatures permitting) and of variable salt composition. In any case, they should be good conductors of electricity.

  2. Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.

  3. Evaporite Caprock Integrity. An experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Megan M.; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A.

    2012-07-25

    Characterization and geochemical data are presented from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO 2-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO 2-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well asmore » porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO 2-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO 2-enhanced oil recovery operations.« less

  4. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  5. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  6. From evaporated seawater to uranium-mineralizing brines: Isotopic and trace element study of quartz-dolomite veins in the Athabasca system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Antonin; Boulvais, Philippe; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Cuney, Michel; France-Lanord, Christian

    2013-07-01

    .7161 and ɛNd(t) = -8.8 to -20.3) differ from one deposit to another, reflecting both heterogeneity in the basement geology and variable preservation of the original composition of brines. The previously published 87Sr/86Sri and ɛNd(t) values of UO2 compare with the most evolved dolomites, i.e. dolomites precipitated from brines that exchanged the most with the basement. This reinforces a close genetic link between dolomites and UO2 deposition and implies that UO2 deposition occurred in a cooling system during the transition from quartz to dolomite formation. The δ18O and δD values of the mineralizing brines (δ18O = -1‰ to 8‰ and δD = -150‰ to -50‰) are considerably shifted from that of their theoretical original values acquired during evaporation of seawater (δ18O = ˜-3‰ and δD = ˜-40‰). The positive δ18O shift is explained by protracted fluid-rock interaction within the basin and basement rocks. The negative δD shift is attributed to incomplete mixing between the U-mineralizing brines and low δD water. This low δD water was likely produced during the abiogenic synthesis of bitumen by Fisher-Tropsch-like reactions involving CO2 derived from brine-graphite interaction in the basement, and radiolytic H2. The resulting low δD brines have been equilibrated with alteration minerals. This may explain why some alteration minerals yield anomalously low δD values whose significance has long been debated.

  7. Selection of a Brine Processor Technology for NASA Manned Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Gleich, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The current ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) reclaims water from crew urine, humidity condensate, and Sabatier product water. Urine is initially processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which recovers 75% of the urine as distillate. The remainder of the water is present in the waste brine which is currently disposed of as trash on ISS. For future missions this additional water must be reclaimed due to the significant resupply penalty for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA has pursued various technology development programs for a brine processor in the past several years. This effort has culminated in a technology down-select to identify the optimum technology for future manned missions. The technology selection is based on various criteria, including mass, power, reliability, maintainability, and safety. Beginning in 2016 the selected technology will be transitioned to a flight hardware program for demonstration on ISS. This paper summarizes the technology selection process, the competing technologies, and the rationale for the technology selected for future manned missions.

  8. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

  9. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events.

  10. Truscott brine lake solar pond system conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction by the Army Corps of Engineers near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  11. Kinetics of silica deposition from simulated geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Mesmer, R.E.; Berlinski, P.

    1980-03-01

    Supersaturated brines were passed through columns packed with several forms of silica (crystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, polycrystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, and porous Vycor). Also, silica deposition on ThO/sub 2/ microspheres and titanium powder was studied under controlled conditions of supersaturation, pH, temperature, and salinity. The residence time was varied by adjustments of flow rate and column length. The silica contents of the input and effluent solutions were determined colorimetrically by a molybdate method which does not include polymers without special pretreatment. Essentially identical deposition behavior was observed once the substrate was thoroughly coated with amorphous silica and the BET surface area of the coated particles was taken into account. The reaction rate is not diffusion limited in the columns. The silica deposition is a function of the monomeric Si(OH)/sub 4/ concentration in the brine. The deposition on all surfaces examined was spontaneously nucleated. The dependence on the supersaturation concentration, hydroxide ion concentration, surface area, temperature and salinity were examined. Fluoride was shown to have no effect at pH 5.94 and low salinity. The empirical rate law which describes the data in 1 m NaCl in the pH range 5-7 and temperatures from 60 to 120/sup 0/C is given.

  12. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  13. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions.

    PubMed

    Mormile, Melanie R; Biesen, Michelle A; Gutierrez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B; Onstott, Tullis C; Fredrickson, James K

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186 m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9,600 and 97,000 years before present (ybp) respectively. Extracted inclusions were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with haloarchaea-specific 16S rDNA primers or placed into haloarchaea culture medium. Enrichment cultures were obtained from 97 kyr halite crystal inclusion fluid and haloarchaea-containing prepared crystals (positive controls), whereas inclusions from crystals of 9.6 kyr halite and the haloarchaea-free halite crystals (negative controls) resulted in no growth. Phylogenetic analysis (16S rDNA) of the 97 kyr isolate, designated BBH 001, revealed a homology of 100% with Halobacterium salinarum. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that BBH 001 was closely related to H. salinarum (81-75% hybridization) and its ascription to this haloarchaea species. The described method of retrieving particle-containing brine from fluid inclusions offers a robust approach for assessing the antiquity of microorganisms associated with evaporites. PMID:14641589

  14. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions.

    PubMed

    Mormile, Melanie R; Biesen, Michelle A; Gutierrez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B; Onstott, Tullis C; Fredrickson, James K

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186 m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9,600 and 97,000 years before present (ybp) respectively. Extracted inclusions were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with haloarchaea-specific 16S rDNA primers or placed into haloarchaea culture medium. Enrichment cultures were obtained from 97 kyr halite crystal inclusion fluid and haloarchaea-containing prepared crystals (positive controls), whereas inclusions from crystals of 9.6 kyr halite and the haloarchaea-free halite crystals (negative controls) resulted in no growth. Phylogenetic analysis (16S rDNA) of the 97 kyr isolate, designated BBH 001, revealed a homology of 100% with Halobacterium salinarum. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that BBH 001 was closely related to H. salinarum (81-75% hybridization) and its ascription to this haloarchaea species. The described method of retrieving particle-containing brine from fluid inclusions offers a robust approach for assessing the antiquity of microorganisms associated with evaporites.

  15. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  16. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing: Alternate ammonia removal, Advanced oxidation, Brine purification technologies. KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  17. Corrosion of iron by iodide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from brine in an iodine production facility.