Extract of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan inhibited adjuvant arthritis in rats
Zhang, Rui-Xin; Fan, Arthur Yin; Zhou, An-Nan; Moudgil, Kamal D.; Ma, Zhong-Ze; Lee, David Yue-Wei; Fong, Harry HS; Berman, Brian M.; Lao, Lixing
2010-01-01
Ethnopharmacological relevance The herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) and its modifications have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about one hundred years to alleviate pain and inflammation. Aim To investigate the effects of HLXL on complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced multiple-joint arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods Male Lewis rats, 190–210g, were immunized subcutaneously at the base of the tail with 200 µl of heat-killed M. tuberculosis in mineral oil (5 mg/ml). HLXL (2.30g/kg and 4.60g/kg) or vehicle control (n=8 per group) was administered orally (i.g.) once a day between days 16–25 post-CFA injection. The rats were observed for signs of arthritis with arthritic changes (erythema, edema, induration) being scored on a scale of 0 to 4 of increasing severity using a standard scoring system. The maximum arthritis score per rat was 16. A plethysmometer was used to measure edema volume in each paw. Adverse effects of HLXL were monitored by closely observing the animals for unusual behavioral changes. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) in local tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 25 post-CFA. Results HLXL significantly decreased arthritis scores between days 23–25 in the 2.30g/kg group and 21–25 in the 4.60g/kg group (p<0.05). It reduced paw edema on days 22 and 24 in the 2.30g/kg group and on days 20, 22 and 24 in the 4.60g/kg group compared to control (p<0.05). Local tissue TNF-α and IL-1β levels on day 25 post-CFA injection were significantly (p<0.05) lower in rats treated with HLXL than in control rats. No observable adverse effects were found. Conclusion The data suggest that HLXL produces significant anti-arthritic effects that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it appears to be safe. PMID:19100323
Wang, Fenrong; Ai, Yu; Wu, Yun; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua
2015-03-01
Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan, a Chinese herbal formula consisting of 11 different herbs, has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the chemical compositions of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan are not completely characterized. In the present study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method in positive and negative ion modes was employed to identify biochemical constitutes in Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan. As a result, a total of 76 compounds including alkaloids, monoterpene glycosides, iridoids, phenolic acids, and tanshinones, coumarins, lactones, flavones, and their glycosides, triterpenes, and triterpene saponins were characterized by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with reference standards within 5 ppm error or by reference to the reference literature. These results would provide the basis for a further in vivo study of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan and information for potential new drug candidates for treating arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases.
Yang, Ying-Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Lee, David Y.-W; Ma, Zhongze; Yu, Hua; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.
2011-01-01
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major autoimmune diseases of global prevalence. The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. This limitation has necessitated the search for novel therapeutic products. We report here a traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal formula, Huo luo xiao ling dan (HLXL), which has potent antiarthritic activity as validated in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. HLXL (2.3 g/Kg) was fed to Lewis (RT.11) rats daily by gavage beginning at the onset of arthritis and then continued through the observation period. HLXL inhibited the severity of ongoing AA. This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). There was a reduction in the level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-1β but enhancement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. Thus, HLXL is a promising CAM modality for further testing in RA patients. PMID:20981317
Han, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wei; Ye, Hang-Cheng; Xu, Ying-Zi; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Shu-Feng
2015-01-01
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and remains a major life-threatening factor in humans. Apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IHD. The Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), one of the commonly used Chinese herbal formulas, consists of Salviae miltiorrhizae, Angelica sinensis, Gummi olibanum, and Commiphora myrrha, with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. However, the mechanism of action and molecular targets of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD are unclear. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD and key regulators of apoptosis and then examine the effect of HLXLD on coronary artery ligation-induced acute myocardial ischemia in rats. The molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD, including ferulic acid, ligustilide, succinic acid, vanillic acid, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone IIB, danshensu, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, protocatechuic aldehyde, and β-boswellic acid and human protein molecules including B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), B cell lymphoma 2 antagonist/killer 1 (Bak1), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), procaspase 3, and caspase 9 with regard to hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking using Discovery Studio(®) program 3.1. The 12 HLXLD components were predicted by ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) Predictor to have favorable pharmacokinetic and low hepatotoxicity profiles. The acute myocardial ischemia was established by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats were divided into a sham operative group, a model group, a positive control group treated with 0.2 mg/kg isosorbide mononitrate, and groups treated with 2.7, 5.4, or 10.8 g/kg HLXLD. The results showed that administration of HLXLD increased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate, and maximal rate
Han, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wei; Ye, Hang-Cheng; Xu, Ying-Zi; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Shu-Feng
2015-01-01
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and remains a major life-threatening factor in humans. Apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IHD. The Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), one of the commonly used Chinese herbal formulas, consists of Salviae miltiorrhizae, Angelica sinensis, Gummi olibanum, and Commiphora myrrha, with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. However, the mechanism of action and molecular targets of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD are unclear. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD and key regulators of apoptosis and then examine the effect of HLXLD on coronary artery ligation-induced acute myocardial ischemia in rats. The molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD, including ferulic acid, ligustilide, succinic acid, vanillic acid, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone IIB, danshensu, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, protocatechuic aldehyde, and β-boswellic acid and human protein molecules including B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), B cell lymphoma 2 antagonist/killer 1 (Bak1), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), procaspase 3, and caspase 9 with regard to hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking using Discovery Studio® program 3.1. The 12 HLXLD components were predicted by ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) Predictor to have favorable pharmacokinetic and low hepatotoxicity profiles. The acute myocardial ischemia was established by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats were divided into a sham operative group, a model group, a positive control group treated with 0.2 mg/kg isosorbide mononitrate, and groups treated with 2.7, 5.4, or 10.8 g/kg HLXLD. The results showed that administration of HLXLD increased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate, and maximal rate of
Wang, Fenrong; Wu, Yun; Ai, Yu; Bian, Qiaoxia; Ma, Wen; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua
2016-03-01
Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a Chinese herbal formula, is used in folk medicine for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its multiple components remains unknown. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for detection and identification of HLXLD metabolites in rat urine at high and normal clinical dosages. The prototype constituents and their metabolites in urine were analyzed. The mass measurements were accurate within 8 ppm, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 85 compounds were detected in high dosages urine samples by a highly sensitive extracted ion chromatograms method, including 31 parent compounds and 54 metabolites. Our results indicated that phase 2 reactions (e.g. glucuronidation, glutathionidation and sulfation) were the main metabolic pathways of lactones, alkaloids and flavones, while phase I reactions (e.g. hydrogenation and hydroxylation) were the major metabolic reaction for coumarins, paeoniflorin and iridoids. This investigation provided important structural information on the metabolism of HLXLD and provided scientific evidence to obtain a more comprehensive metabolic profile.
Ma, Wen; Wang, Weihui; Peng, Yan; Bian, Qiaoxia; Wang, Nannan; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua
2016-06-01
A fast, sensitive, and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation and pharmacokinetic study of five phthalides (senkyunolide A, ligustilide, butylidenephthalide, 3-butylphthalide, and levistilide A) in rat plasma after oral administration of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD) or Angelica sinensis--Ligusticum chuanxiong herb pair (DG-CX) between normal and arthritis rats. After extraction from blood, the analytes and internal standard were subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75 × 3.0 mm(2) , 2.2 μm particles) and mobile phase was composed of methanol and water (containing 0.05% formic acid) under gradient elution conditions, with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification were 0.192-0.800 ng/mL for all the analytes. Satisfactory linearity, precision, accuracy, mean extraction recovery, and acceptable matrix effect have been achieved. The validated method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of five bioactive components in rat plasma after oral administration of HLXLD or DG-CX alone, respectively, between normal and arthritic rats. The results showed that there were unlike characters of pharmacokinetics among different groups. PMID:27062714
Xu, Yuping; Huang, Kexin; Pan, Yu; Wang, Xianqin; Yan, Pengcheng; Ren, Yiping; Xiang, Zheng
2013-08-01
Bu Shen Huo Xue formula (BSHX) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription used for clinical treatment of chronic kidney diseases. A rapid and selective Ultra fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of four bioactive components of BSHX including formononetin, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone IIA, and emodin in control and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model rat plasma for the first time. Atorvastatin was used as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid. The detection was performed on a triple-quad tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via electrospray ionization (ESI) source with positive ionization mode for formononetin, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone IIA, and negative mode for emodin. The method was linear for four analytes over the range of investigated concentration with all coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9938. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) for formononetin, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone IIA, and emodin were defined as 0.3, 0.5, 1.5, and 0.3ng/mL, respectively. The rapid and sensitive method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of formononetin, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone IIA and emodin in rats following oral administration of Bu Shen Huo Xue formula. PMID:23831702
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
(Released 5 June 2002) The Science A portion of an ancient channel called the Huo Hsing Vallis seen in the center of this image. As with all channel forms on Mars, it was carved by some moving fluid but that fluid can not automatically be assumed to be water. Lava and even wind can sculpt channel forms that mimic those of flowing water. In this case, the presence of pronounced oxbow bends in the channel favors the conclusion that water was the fluid. It is interesting that the ripple-like ridges on the channel floor mimic current ripples found in many streams on Earth. But the fluid responsible for their formation likely is the wind. Similar ripples occur in many places on Mars that have no relationship to channels. Surrounding the channel is an intensely eroded landscape known as etched terrain. The many layers that were deposited in the past are now being eroded away by the wind. In the process, unusual polygonal ridges are being exposed, the most prominent of which appear just north of the oxbow bends. The mechanism by with they form is poorly understood. It is possible that they began as polygonal troughs similar in form and origin as those that form in permafrost regions on Earth like the Canadian Arctic. If the troughs were subsequently filled in by sediment that solidified into a more resistant deposit than the surrounding material, later erosion would leave behind ridges in place of the former troughs. Known as inverted topography, there are examples of this type of landform in other etched terrains on Mars. The Story For thousands of years, many cultures the world over have studied the planets, first by observing their motions in the night sky, later through telescopes, and today through up-close observation enabled by spacecraft. Many places on Mars are given names that honor the long history of contributions by all peoples to Mars exploration. Huo Hsing, the Chinese word for the planet Mars, is the namesake of the ancient channel shown above. As with all
Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan
2010-01-01
Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human Aβ. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756
Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Qian, Min; Shi, Tieliu
2013-01-01
A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called "formula pair," to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb "Forsythia suspensa" in the formula "the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY)" with a common herb "Thunberg Fritillary Bulb" and simplifying two formulae, "the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST)" and "Fang Feng Tang" (FFT) to a new formula "Fang Feng Du Huo Tang" (FFDHT).
Chwuech Manimba: Indigenous Creative Education among Women of the Luo Community of Western Kenya
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wadende, Pamela Akinyi
2011-01-01
The aim of this dissertation is to present the procedure and proceedings of an instructional research into the teaching and learning among Luo women of Western Kenya. The purposes of the research are threefold. First, it seeks to document a system of indigenous adult education that has proved sustainable among Luo women from generation to…
... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...
O'Connor, Nina R
2009-04-01
Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873
On the photoelectron velocity-map imaging of lutetium monoxide anion LuO(-).
Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Hua; Li, Quanjiang; Qin, Zhengbo; Cong, Ran; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao; Fan, Hongjun
2014-01-21
We report a combined photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation on lutetium monoxide anion. Transition between the X (1)Σ(+) anion electronic ground state and the neutral X (2)Σ(+) electronic ground state is observed. Vibrationally resolved spectra were obtained at four different photon energies, providing a wealth of spectroscopic information for the electronic ground states of the anionic lutetium monoxide and corresponding neutral species. Franck-Condon simulations of the ground-state transition are performed to assign vibrational structure in the spectra and to assist in identifying the observed spectral bands. The electronic ground state of LuO(-) is found to have a vibrational frequency of 743 ± 10 cm(-1) and an equilibrium bond length of 1.841 Å. The electron affinity of LuO is measured to be 1.624 ± 0.002 eV. The fundamental frequency of ground-state LuO is estimated to be 839 ± 10 cm(-1).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin
1997-01-01
Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)
Chen, Yan; Li, Jinlong; Li, Qiang; Wang, Tengteng; Xing, Lianping; Xu, Hao; Wang, Yongjun; Shi, Qi; Zhou, Quan; Liang, Qianqian
2016-01-01
To investigate whether Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang (DHJST) attenuate inflammation of RA related to lymphatic drainage function in vivo, we treated eight 3-month-old TNF-Tg mice with DHJST (12 g/kg) or the same volume of physiological saline once every day for 12 weeks, and 3-month-old WT littermates were used as negative control. After twelve weeks, we performed NIR-ICG imaging and found that DHJST increased the ICG clearance at the footpad and the pulse of efferent lymphatic vessel between popliteal lymph node and footpad. Histology staining at ankle joints showed that DHJST decreases synovial inflammation, bone erosion, cartilage erosion, and TRAP+ osteoclast area in TNF-Tg mice. Immunohistochemical staining by using anti-Lyve-1 and anti-podoplanin antibody showed that DHJST stimulated lymphangiogenesis in ankle joints of TNF-Tg mice. And zebrafish study suggested that DHJST promoted the formation of lymphatic thoracic duct. In conclusion, DHJST inhibits inflammation severity and promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic drainage function of TNF-Tg mice. PMID:27239212
Ice, Gillian H; Sadruddin, Aalyia F A; Vagedes, Amy; Yogo, Jaja; Juma, Elizabeth
2012-06-01
Globally, a growing number of grandparents are caring for their grandchildren. The impact and burden associated with increases in custodial grandparenting, however, may differ by culture. In the United States, the caregiving role has been shown to be a significant source of stress for older adults. In cultures in which grandparents are more commonly involved in the care of young children, however, increasing caregiving roles may not be viewed as stressful. This study examines the impact of caregiving on perceived and physiological measures of stress among 640 Luo elders (60+) in western Kenya, where high HIV prevalence among younger-to-middle aged adults has led to a heavy burden of orphan care. Perceived stress levels were measured using the Luo Perceived Stress Scale (LPSS). Salivary cortisol and casual blood pressure were used as biomarkers of stress. Results were analyzed using random mixed effects models. Overall this study showed that caregivers have higher levels of perceived stress than non-caregivers. For women, household composition, including the number of orphans and adults in the homestead impacted perceived stress. Among men, those who perceived caregiving as burdensome had higher perceived stress. Despite the association between caregiving and perceived stress, there was a minimal relationship between caregiving and the two biomarkers of stress. This may be because caregiving is superimposed onto other stressors and therefore has a minimal physiological impact. These results highlight the importance of local context in determining the impact of the caregiving role on older adult well-being. PMID:22475406
Becoming "One Who Treats": A Case Study of a Luo Healer and Her Grandson in Western Kenya.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prince, Ruth; Geissler, P. Wenzel
2001-01-01
This case study of a Luo healer and her grandson shows how learning to heal is embedded in the close relationship of reciprocity and care between grandmother and grandchild. Through shared daily life, the child develops social sense, respect, compassion, and practical skills. Learning to heal is embedded in everyday practice and social relations…
Practice of sumo kodhi among the Luo and implications for HIV transmission in western Kenya.
Olang'o, Charles Omondi; Nyambedha, Erick; Aaagard-Hansen, Jens; Aagaard, Jens
2014-01-01
This paper discusses the practice of sumo kodhi among the Luo ethnic group and its implications for spread of HIV in western Kenya. Sumo kodhi is a practice in which a woman arranges to have sex with a man other than her legitimate sexual partner (husband or levir/inheritor) to give birth to children with specific qualities she wants in them. Data were drawn from a 16-month ethnographic study on reproductive aspirations of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA). The study found that WLWHA engaged in sumo kodhi as they believe they will get gender balanced, beautiful, and academically talented and healthy children who are free from HIV. The WLWHA targeted agnates of their husbands living in distant villages, former boyfriends (before marriage) and other men who were new in the area such as civil servants, employees in local institutions and businessmen who would not suspect their HIV status. These WLWHA kept their HIV status secret and exposed the targeted men to the risk of being infected with HIV. It can be deduced that having knowledge of HIV status does not always translate into taking action towards protecting sexual partner(s). Moreover, continued childbearing is not always as a result of unmet contraceptives needs. It is apparent from this study that social factors sometimes overrule health considerations. The study recommends that further research be conducted among other ethnic groups to gauge whether they also have a practice similar to sumo kodhi. Women living with HIV/AIDS should be involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention strategies. There is also need for an intervention that would ensure that WLWHA meet their reproductive aspirations without putting their sexual partners at risk of contracting HIV. PMID:25555104
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine
2009-01-01
This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…
[The formula book. The pharmacies' own formulas].
Loldrup, Hans-Otto
2011-01-01
During the 19th century and part of the 20th, a book of formulas was a useful tool for many Danish pharmacists in their daily work in the pharmacy laboratory. These books were handwritten and contained formulas that supplemented the official formula books, e.g. the pharmacopoeias. They originated from many different sources such as colleagues, the pharmaceutical press, local doctors, veterinarians and dentists. The book of formulas could be a pharmacist's personal document, or it could belong to a pharmacy for general use in the laboratory. The formulas included many drugs, but a number of the products were intended for daily domestic life: ingredients for food and spirits, cosmetics, cleaning and maintenance, etc. Other products were for use by the local hairdresser or photographer, for example. The article provides an overview of 52 formula books in a wide variety of shapes and sizes with instructions for a total of 8,000-10,000 compositions. Part of this large body of practical knowledge by individual pharmacists was collected and published in books in order to be available to all pharmacists. Some of this knowledge was also printed in booklets written for the general public under such pseudonyms as "An old Pharmacist". In the mid-20th century, Sven Holm enjoyed a prominent career as a well-known pharmacist giving advice on the radio and TV and in newspapers and magazines. The need for these formula books declined as pharmacies gradually stopped making up their own medicines towards the end of 20th century and finally ceased altogether in 1990.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Roy G
1927-01-01
The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.
... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bogdany, Melvin
This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…
Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi
2014-01-01
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999
Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi
2014-01-01
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fonte, Richard
Formula funding in Illinois reflects decisions on value choices which can be grouped in the categories of enrollment linkage, mission and diversity recognition, equity and fair share, and quality and program improvement. The enrollment linkage of the Illinois formula ties credit hour grants and categorical programs directly to full-time equivalent…
Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Minmin; Ding, Weijing; Xiang, Congkun; Tian, Yulu; Li, Tao; Fu, Shan; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Qiao
2015-01-01
A novel sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of six constituents including geniposide, andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide, ophiopogonin D, methylophiopogonanone A and methylophiopogonanone B in Qing-huo-zhi-mai (QHZM) tablet, a well-known Chinese herbal preparation. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column, and the mobile phase was composed of 0.04% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elution. The detection of analytes was carried out by multiple reaction monitoring scanning with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. The total run time was 15 min. The calibration curves were linear with all correlation coefficients >0.9979 in the tested ranges. The intra- and interday variations were no >7.0%, and the average recoveries were in the range of 93.2-108.5% with the relative standard deviations no >5.4%. The developed method was successfully employed to analyze five batches of QHZM tablet samples. This is the first time for the determination of ophiopogonin D, methylophiopogonanone A and methylophiopogonanone B in QHZM tablets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Jia; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Huang, Meizhen; Shi, Hong; Huang, Hao
2015-04-01
We have evaluated the capabilities of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology for analyzing two Huo-Xue-Hua-Yu decoctions (HXHYDs) prepared according to different prescriptions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of SERS technology applied to decoction of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). HXHYD I was prepared according to the original prescription; the same preparation method was used for the HXHYD II, except for the crudeweight ratio described in the original prescription. There was no Raman signal in conventional Raman spectra of HXHYDs. Silver nanoparticles were directly mixed with HXHYDs to enhance the Raman scattering of biochemical constituents, and high quality SERS spectra were obtained. Significant differences in SERS spectra between HXHYD I and II can be observed, which showed special changes in the percentage of biochemical constituents in different decoctions. Principal components analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to generate diagnostic algorithms for classification of SERS spectra of two HXHYDs, and showed that a diagnostic accuracy of 100% can be achieved. This work demonstrated that the SERS technique has potential for spectral characteristic detection for decoction of TCM with high sensitivity, and that this technique, combined with PCA-LDA, can be used for quality control of the extracted decoction of TCM and production management of Chinese herbal preparations.
Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...
Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rygiel, Mary Ann
1982-01-01
Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)
The Formula Essay Reconsidered
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haluska, Jan
2012-01-01
Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…
The Mystical "Quadratic Formula."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
March, Robert H.
1993-01-01
Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)
Research Timeline: Formulaic language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wray, Alison
2013-01-01
Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hernik, Mikolaj; Southgate, Victoria
2012-01-01
This reply article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). This is a response to the commentaries on Hernik and Southgate (2012) by Biro (2012), Kuhlmeier and Robson (2012) and Luo and Choi (2012). Both L&C and K&R reject the authors' conclusion that an absence of a Woodward-effect in some single-object versions of the…
Pan, Lin
2016-01-01
One of the main dose-limiting complications of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin (OXL) is painful neuropathy. Glial activation and nociceptive sensitization may be responsible for the mechanism of neuropathic pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wen-luo-tong (WLT) has been widely used in China to treat chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain. However, there is no study on the effects of WLT on spinal glial activation induced by OXL. In this study, a rat model of OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain was established and WLT was administrated. Pain behavioral tests and morphometric examination of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were conducted. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining was performed, glial activation was evaluated, and the excitatory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and glial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were analyzed. WLT treatment alleviated OXL-induced mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. Changes in the somatic, nuclear, and nucleolar areas of neurons in DRG were prevented. In the spinal dorsal horn, hypertrophy and activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes were averted, and the level of GFAP mRNA decreased significantly. Additionally, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels decreased. Collectively, these results indicate that WLT reversed both glial activation in the spinal dorsal horn and nociceptive sensitization during OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain in rats.
Pan, Lin
2016-01-01
One of the main dose-limiting complications of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin (OXL) is painful neuropathy. Glial activation and nociceptive sensitization may be responsible for the mechanism of neuropathic pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wen-luo-tong (WLT) has been widely used in China to treat chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain. However, there is no study on the effects of WLT on spinal glial activation induced by OXL. In this study, a rat model of OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain was established and WLT was administrated. Pain behavioral tests and morphometric examination of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were conducted. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining was performed, glial activation was evaluated, and the excitatory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and glial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were analyzed. WLT treatment alleviated OXL-induced mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. Changes in the somatic, nuclear, and nucleolar areas of neurons in DRG were prevented. In the spinal dorsal horn, hypertrophy and activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes were averted, and the level of GFAP mRNA decreased significantly. Additionally, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels decreased. Collectively, these results indicate that WLT reversed both glial activation in the spinal dorsal horn and nociceptive sensitization during OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:27642352
Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Pan, Lin; Song, Aiping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Tan, Huangying; Xiang, Qing; Yu, Lili; Ke, Dandan
2016-01-01
One of the main dose-limiting complications of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin (OXL) is painful neuropathy. Glial activation and nociceptive sensitization may be responsible for the mechanism of neuropathic pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wen-luo-tong (WLT) has been widely used in China to treat chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain. However, there is no study on the effects of WLT on spinal glial activation induced by OXL. In this study, a rat model of OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain was established and WLT was administrated. Pain behavioral tests and morphometric examination of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were conducted. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining was performed, glial activation was evaluated, and the excitatory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and glial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were analyzed. WLT treatment alleviated OXL-induced mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. Changes in the somatic, nuclear, and nucleolar areas of neurons in DRG were prevented. In the spinal dorsal horn, hypertrophy and activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes were averted, and the level of GFAP mRNA decreased significantly. Additionally, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels decreased. Collectively, these results indicate that WLT reversed both glial activation in the spinal dorsal horn and nociceptive sensitization during OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:27642352
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glaister, P.
1999-01-01
In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. In a recent article, some of these cases are discussed in detail. However, a single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turu, Michi
2003-07-01
May we say?, the distribution of all particle masses are "Random" or "Chaos" or "Fractal" or "Bushing" as a whole. We can say perfectly, it is "Bushing". It's looks like a relationship among the masses of galaxy, sun, earth, moon, lunar orbiter. And also like the structure of contents(section, paragraph, item) in books. Generally, mass structures have the power of it's interaction constants. I state a fundamental formulae about particle masses in this purview.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
2005-01-01
First we modified J.G. Williams' formulation of precession/nutation by using the 3-1-3-1 rotation matrix as NP = R1( -ɛ -Δɛ) R1( -ψ -Δψ) R1(ϕ) R1(γ). Next we determined the polynomial formulas of the modified planetary precession angles numerically from the non-linear harmonic analysis of DE405. Then we estimated those of the modified luni-solar precession angles from their corrections converted from the VLBI pole offset observations during 1979-2000 by adopting the above planetary precession formulas and a recent theory of nutation SF2001. The results in the rotational sense are γR = +0.04126 +10.55378 t +0.49318 t2 ϕR = 84381.41461 -46.81325 t +0.04843 t2 ψR = -0.04305 +5038.47776 t +1.55835 t2 ɛR = 84381.40955 -46.83607 t -0.00017 t2 +0.00200 t3 and the differences between the rotational and inertial senses are γR - γI = +0.09366 +0.00060 t ϕR - ϕI = +0.00334 -0.00060 t ψR - ψI = -0.00001 -0.00035 t ɛR - ɛI = +0.00334 -0.00148 t. These consitute a new set of precession formulas referred to ICRF.
Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack
1979-01-01
Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)
Aluminum concentrations in infant formulae.
Simmer, K; Fudge, A; Teubner, J; James, S L
1990-02-01
The aluminum concentrations in breast milk and in 25 commercially available infant formulae were measured. The mean concentration in breast milk was 49 micrograms/L while concentrations in most of the humanized formulae were less than 500 micrograms/L. Higher concentrations were found in Nan, Prem Enfamil and the three soya formulae. We suggest that all formulae have the potential to be contaminated with aluminium, and to varying degrees in different batches. Until it is known whether aluminium toxicity occurs in normal infants fed these formulae, it seems reasonable to expect manufacturers to routinely measure aluminium and keep aluminium contamination to a minimum. This may be especially important for formula fed to infants with compromised gastrointestinal and renal systems.
A Salary Formula for Principals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilbert, Michael B.
1975-01-01
When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)
Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oliver, Bernard M.
1993-01-01
Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)
Formulas for Image Factor Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hakstian, A. Ralph
1973-01-01
Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Peter O.
1983-01-01
Presents the formula for writing poetry as containing three elements: the content of the poet's mind; the poetic medium--language; and the creative spark that fuses experience and language, or content and medium, into poetry. (MM)
Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...
Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas.
Georgeot, B; Giraud, O
2008-04-01
We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.
A formula for charmonium suppression
Pena, C. Blaschke, D.
2012-07-15
In this work a formula for charmonium suppression obtained by Matsui in 1989 is analytically generalized for the case of complex cc-barpotential described by a 3-dimensional and isotropic time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO). It is suggested that under certain scheme the formula can be applied to describe J/{psi} suppression in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SPS, RHIC, and LHC with the advantage of analytical tractability.
27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and 17.182, manufacturers shall file quantitative formulas for all preparations for which they intend...
Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McClintock, David L.
Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…
24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...
Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olson, Arthur V.
Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…
Moebius inversion formula and inverting lattice sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millane, Rick P.
2000-11-01
The Mobius inversion formula is an interesting theorem from number theory that has application to a number inverse problems, particularly lattice problems. Specific inverse problems, however, often require related Mobius inversion formulae that can be derived from the fundamental formula. Derivation of such formulae is not easy for the non- specialist, however. Examples of the kinds of inversion formulae that can be derived and their application to inverse lattice problems are described.
Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron
2015-01-01
As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…
Empiric formulae combustor flow losses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Mingqi
1991-07-01
Approaches to calculation of the flow losses in components of the combustor, such as diffuser, swirler, and flame tube and the flow losses in combustor under combustion conditions are investigated. The empiric formulas are derived from tests. They feature simplicity and sufficient accuracy and are applicable to design and redesign of combustor. The tests were conducted on the models of four types of diffusers, ten kinds of swirlers, seven types of flame tubes, and seven simulators of inlet flowfield distortion. In comparison with the existing methods, the presented method considerably improves the calculation of the flow losses in the diffuser. For the swirler, the correlation between flow resistance and the discharge coefficient and the formula for heating losses are determined.
Koide's Mass Formula for Neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brannen, Carl
2006-05-01
We derive Koide's mass formula as an eigenvector equation. We show that to within current experimental error, the square roots of the masses of the charged leptons follow the simple equation (m^-n)^0.5 = μ1(1 + √2(δ1+ 2nπ/3)) where δ1 is the interesting number .22222204717(48) and μ1 is a constant. Next we generalize the Koide formula to the neutrinos by assuming that the square root of the mass of the smallest neutrino must be taken to be negative. Then masses of the simple form (m^0n)^0.5 = μ0(1 + √2(δ1+ π/12 + 2nπ/3)) where 3;μ0= 3^12 ;μ1, satisfy recent neutrino oscillation measurements close to the centers of the error bars. Finally, we discuss the preon model for the fermions that led to the above discovery.
Trace formula for broken symmetry
Creagh, S.C.
1996-05-01
We derive a trace formula for systems that exhibit an approximate continuous symmetry. It interpolates between the sum over continuous families of periodic orbits that holds in the case of exact continuous symmetry, and the discrete sum over isolated orbits that holds when the symmetry is completely broken. It is based on a simple perturbation expansion of the classical dynamics, centered around the case of exact symmetry, and gives an approximation to the usual Gutzwiller formula when the perturbation is large. We illustrate the computation with some 2-dimensional examples: the deformation of the circular billiard into an ellipse, and anisotropic and anharmonic perturbations of a harmonic oscillator. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
Blackhole formula and example relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Philip
Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.
Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?
Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan
2016-01-01
Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594
Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?
Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan
2016-01-01
Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence.
Composition formulas of binary eutectics
Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.
2015-01-01
The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618
New Determination of Precession Formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
First we modified J.G. Williams' formulation of precession/nutation by using the 3-1-3-1 rotation matrix as NP = R1( -ɛ -Δɛ) R1( -ψ -Δψ) R1(ϕ) R1(γ). Next we determined the polynomial formulas of the modified planetary precession angles numerically from the non-linear harmonic analysis of DE405. Then we estimated those of the modified luni-solar precession angles from their corrections converted from the VLBI pole offset observations during 1979-2000 by adopting the above planetary precession formulas and a recent theory of nutation SF2001. The results in the rotational sense are γR = +0.04126 +10.55378 t +0.49318 t2 ϕR = 84381.41461 -46.81325 t +0.04843 t2 ψR = -0.04305 +5038.47776 t +1.55835 t2 ɛR = 84381.40955 -46.83607 t -0.00017 t2 +0.00200 t3 and the differences between the rotational and inertial senses are γR - γI = +0.09366 +0.00060 t ϕR - ϕI = +0.00334 -0.00060 t ψR - ψI = -0.00001 -0.00035 t ɛR - ɛI = +0.00334 -0.00148 t. These consitute a new set of precession formulas referred to ICRF
How to Save Money on Infant Formula
... samples. Consider generic or store-brand formulas. By law, they must meet the same nutritional and quality standards as brand-name formulas. Avoid using disposable bottles. You will have to use a different liner with each ...
Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto
2010-01-01
The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.
2014-11-01
In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ≥10 and proton number Z ≥6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.
Binet's formula for generalized tribonacci numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cereceda, José Luis
2015-11-01
In this note, we derive Binet's formula for the general term ? of the generalized tribonacci sequence. This formula gives ? explicitly as a function of the index n, the roots of the associated characteristic equation, and the initial terms ?, ?, and ?. By way of illustration, we obtain Binet's formula for the Cordonnier, Perrin, and Van der Laan numbers. In addition, we establish a double identity that can be regarded as a parent of Binet's formula for generalized tribonacci numbers.
27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.201... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by...
7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 26.31 Section 26... States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise.... The formula shall be as follows: (1) Multiply the total excise taxes collected on rum brought into...
27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.211 Formula required. The proprietor who desires to produce wine other than standard wine shall first obtain approval of the formula...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... Denaturation § 19.452 Formulas. Spirits shall be denatured in accordance with formulas as authorized in 27 CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas. 19.452 Section 19.452 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section 20... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article made with specially denatured spirits shall be made in accordance...
A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cramer, Eugene H.
1978-01-01
Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)
The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.
2008-01-01
This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…
Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.
1996-01-01
One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).
Sakamaki, Tetsuya
2013-10-01
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) groom in gatherings in which many individuals may be connected via multiple chains of grooming and they often exchange partners with each other. They sometimes groom another while receiving grooming; that is, one animal can play two roles (i.e., groomer and groomee) simultaneously. Although this feature of chimpanzees is notable from the viewpoint of the evolution of human sociality, information on our other closest living relative, the bonobo (Pan paniscus), is still lacking. In this study, I describe grooming interactions of bonobos at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), with a particular focus on the formation of grooming gatherings. Like chimpanzees, the bonobos also performed mutual grooming (two individuals grooming each other simultaneously) and polyadic grooming (three or more individuals). However, unlike chimpanzees, these sessions lasted for only a short time. Bonobos rarely groomed another while receiving grooming. Because social grooming occurred not only in trees but also in open spaces, including treefall gaps, the conditions did not necessarily limit the opportunity to make multiple chains of grooming. However, bonobos also engaged in social grooming in different ways from chimpanzees; That is, many individuals were involved simultaneously at a site, in which they separated for dyadic grooming. Some cases clearly showed that bonobos preferred a third party not to join while grooming in a dyad, suggesting that bonobos have a preference for grooming in dyads and that immature individuals formed the preference that was shared among adults while growing up. Most members of the study group ranged together during the majority of the study period. Although bonobos show a fission-fusion grouping pattern, when group members frequently encounter one another on a daily basis, they may not be motivated to form multiple grooming chains at this site, as do chimpanzees.
Berseth, Carol Lynn; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Marunycz, John D; Vanderhoof, Jon
2009-01-01
Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120 PMID:19545360
Preclinical assessment of infant formula.
Lönnerdal, Bo
2012-01-01
Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.
Cosmological parallax-distance formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, Ashok K.
2015-09-01
The standard cosmological parallax-distance formula, as found in the literature, including text-books and reference books on cosmology, requires a correction. This correction stems from the fact that in the standard text-book derivation it has been ignored that any chosen baseline in a gravitationally bound system does not partake in the cosmological expansion. Though the correction is available in the literature for some time, the text-books still continue to use the older, incorrect formula, and its full implications are not yet fully realized. Apart from providing an alternate correct, closed-form expression that is more suitable and convenient for computations for certain limiting cases of FRW () world models, we also demonstrate how one can compute parallax distance for the currently favored flat-space accelerating-universe (, ) cosmologies. Further, we show that the correction in parallax distance at large redshifts could amount to a factor of three or even more. Moreover, even in an infinite universe the parallax distance does not increase indefinitely with redshift and that even the farthest possible observable point may have a finite parallax angle, a factor that needs to be carefully taken into account when using distant objects as the background field against which the parallax of a foreground object is to be measured. Some other complications that could arise in parallax measurements of a distant source, like that due to the deflection of incoming light by the gravitation field of the Sun and other planetary bodies in the solar system, are pointed out.
[Hypoallergenic milks (HA formulas) in infant nutrition].
Zoppi, G
1993-01-01
According to the definition of the European Scientific Committee for Food, hypoallergenic or hypoantigenic formulas (HA-formulas) are those which contain hydrolysed protein derived both from casein or whey. Soy-based formulas are not comprised in this definition since it has been demonstrated from several years that soy-protein, in several circumstances, may be highly allergenic. Hypoallergenic formulas contain besides hydrolysed protein, carbohydrate and lipid in amount and proportion similar to those indicated by ESPGAN recommendations on adapted formulas. As far as it concerns composition in lipid, recently great attention has been given to optimal supply and ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Hypoallergenic formulas are therefore suitable for balanced nutrition of suckling infants. Specific indications on prevention of atopic diseases are not treated.
New finite difference formulas for numerical differentiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Ishtiaq Rasool; Ohba, Ryoji
2000-12-01
Conventional numerical differentiation formulas based on interpolating polynomials, operators and lozenge diagrams can be simplified to one of the finite difference approximations based on Taylor series, and closed-form expressions of these finite difference formulas have already been presented. In this paper, we present new finite difference formulas, which are more accurate than the available ones, especially for the oscillating functions having frequency components near the Nyquist frequency. Closed-form expressions of the new formulas are given for arbitrary order. A comparison of the previously available three types of approximations is given with the presented formulas. A computer program written in MATHEMATICA, based on new formulas is given in the appendix for numerical differentiation of a function at a specified mesh point.
Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formulas.
Chen, C.-L.
1983-01-01
A new general rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formula is presented, utilizing a method similar to, but more accurate than one previously developed. The previously developed formula was based on the average depth-duration ratio of about 40% and the mean depth-frequency ratio of 1.48. It is shown that this formula is only a particular form of the writer's more general formulation. -from Author
Analysis of Bridging Formulae in Transitional Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morsa, Luigi; Zuppardi, Gennaro; Schettino, Antonio; Votta, Raffaele
2011-05-01
The most suitable method to compute aerodynamic forces of a spacecraft, at first stage of a design, relies on bridging formulae. There are two kinds of bridging formulae: global and local. The global formulae rely on knowledge of spacecraft aerodynamic force coefficients in continuum and in free molecular flow. The local formulae calculate the skin friction and pressure coefficients on the body surface; the global aerodynamic coefficients are then computed by integration. The aim of this work is to analyze the widely accepted local formulae by Potter and by Kotov. To this purpose, a simple body, like a sphere, has been preliminary considered and the results have been compared with those from the DSMC code DS2V. This comparison led to the corrections of the computation of the skin friction and pressure coefficients. These corrections have been applied to the Potter formula. On the other hand the original Kotov formula showed good results for the pressure coefficient at high altitudes. Therefore a merge of the corrected Potter formula and of the Kotov formula has been made. This methodology, called "new" bridging formula, has been successfully applied to sphere. The "new" formula has been also applied to EXPERT and ORION capsules, but it has to be pointed out that, in this application at low altitudes, a failure of the panel method starts to appear. Both local and global coefficients have been compared with the results by the DS2/3V codes. Finally, for these capsules, the global formula by Wilmoth has been also used by tuning the adjustable parameters.
Preclinical assessment of infant formula.
Lönnerdal, Bo
2012-01-01
Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goedhart, Martin; van Duin, Yvonne
Structural formulas give professional chemists information about physical and chemical properties of corresponding compounds. In chemistry education at secondary schools, structural formulas are introduced in the context of chemical bonding. Structural formulas are not introduced as representations of the properties of chemical compounds. This…
Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity.
Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek
2016-01-01
Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m(2) for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients' mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883
Review of "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Bruce
2009-01-01
The new "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009" from the Reason Foundation provides a simple framework for touting the successes of states and urban school districts that grant greater fiscal autonomy to schools. The report defines the Weighted Student Formula (WSF) reform extremely broadly, presenting a variety of reforms under the WSF umbrella.…
Formulas in Physics Have a "Standard" Form
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moelter, Matthew J.; Jackson, Martin
2012-01-01
We discuss the importance of the ordering of symbols in physics formulas and identify implicit conventions that govern the "standard" form for how formulas are written and interpreted. An important part of writing and reading this form is understanding distinctions among constants, parameters, and variables. We delineate these conventions and…
40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The Administrator will calculate the annual allowance allocation for a combustion source based on the data... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...
15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make...
27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196 Section 24.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required....
27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196 Section 24.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required....
Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spitz, Herman H.
1993-01-01
This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)
Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hancock, Kenneth
2015-01-01
This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…
A Choice of a New Funding Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hancock, Kenneth
2008-01-01
This report examines the fiscal neutrality of three funding formulas that have been proposed to replace the current funding formula for Oklahoma's common schools in an attempt to have greater equity in the distribution of funds to the various districts. Using data from SY-03 to SY-07, calculations of state aid for the 540- districts and fiscal…
Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity
Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek
2016-01-01
Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m2 for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients’ mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883
Formula Funding in Higher Education: A Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noe, Roger C.
1986-01-01
Reviews formula funding in higher education literature, including purpose, historical perspectives, definition and development, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and future trends. In light of citizen demands, the formula approach seems the best method to ensure a satisfactory relationship between state government and state…
Alternative Derivations for the Poisson Integral Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, J. T.; Wu, C. S.
2006-01-01
Poisson integral formula is revisited. The kernel in the Poisson integral formula can be derived in a series form through the direct BEM free of the concept of image point by using the null-field integral equation in conjunction with the degenerate kernels. The degenerate kernels for the closed-form Green's function and the series form of Poisson…
The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and superconductivity
Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M.; Neto, Jose Abdala Helayeel
2013-01-15
We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) Circled-Times U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Elie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenboeck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.
Zheng, Xiao-yong; Cao, Dong-sheng; Ye, Fa-qing; Xiang, Zheng
2014-01-01
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has unique therapeutic effects for complex chronic diseases. However, for the lack of an effective systematic approach, the research progress on the effective substances and pharmacological mechanism of action has been very slow. In this paper, by incorporating network biology, bioinformatics and chemoinformatics methods, an integrated approach was proposed to systematically investigate and explain the pharmacological mechanism of action and effective substances of TCM. This approach includes the following main steps: First, based on the known drug targets, network biology was used to screen out putative drug targets; Second, the molecular docking method was used to calculate whether the molecules from TCM and drug targets related to chronic kidney diseases (CKD) interact or not; Third, according to the result of molecular docking, natural product-target network, main component-target network and compound-target network were constructed; Finally, through analysis of network characteristics and literature mining, potential effective multi-components and their synergistic mechanism were putatively identified and uncovered. Bu-shen-Huo-xue formula (BSHX) which was frequently used for treating CKD, was used as the case to demonstrate reliability of our proposed approach. The results show that BSHX has the therapeutic effect by using multi-channel network regulation, such as regulating the coagulation and fibrinolytic balance, and the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibiting abnormal ECM accumulation. Tanshinone IIA, rhein, curcumin, calycosin and quercetin may be potential effective ingredients of BSHX. This research shows that the integration approach can be an effective means for discovering active substances and revealing their pharmacological mechanisms of TCM. PMID:24598793
Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability
Loennerdal, B.; Cederblad, A.; Davidsson, L.; Sandstroem, B.
1984-11-01
Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using /sup 65/Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation.
The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qian, Li
2015-01-01
Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…
27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas disapproved for... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.137 Formulas disapproved for drawback. A formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not prescribe appropriate ingredients...
27 CFR 21.52 - Formula No. 27.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27. 21.52... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.52 Formula No. 27. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 19. 21.44... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... formulas. 17.122 Section 17.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.122 Amended or revised formulas. Except as provided in this section, amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...
27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of ethyl alcohol of not less than 195...
27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file your formula in writing....
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
Energetic efficiency of infant formulae: a review.
Fleddermann, Manja; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold
2014-01-01
Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in terms of nutrient intake, growth, and metabolic and endocrine responses. The energetic efficiency, i.e. the weight or length gain per 100 kcal of energy intake, of breast-fed infants is about 11% higher than the energetic efficiency of formula-fed infants. Only limited data is available on the influence of formula composition on the energetic efficiency of infant formulae. We conducted a review of controlled trials to identify the impact of the macronutrient composition of infant formulae on energetic efficiency. An electronic literature search was conducted in February 2014. Intervention trials that investigated the effect of an infant formula with a modified macronutrient composition and reported the weight, length, and nutritional intake of apparently healthy, term, fully formula-fed infants with a normal weight were included. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. The results showed no effect of the total content of energy, carbohydrate, protein, or fat on energetic efficiency. In contrast, small increasing effects of higher glycemic carbohydrates on energetic efficiency were identified. Improved fat absorption via the use of palmitic acid at the sn-2 ester position of triacylglycerol increased the energetic efficiency by 11%. The quality of formula protein, specifically an increased whey-to-casein ratio, an increased α-lactalbumin content, or a higher tryptophan content increased the energetic efficiency by about 13%. We conclude that fat absorption and protein quality have the potential to modulate energetic efficiency and may contribute to the observed differences in growth and metabolism between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo
2015-05-01
In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.
Approximate formulas for moderately small eikonal amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kisselev, A. V.
2016-08-01
We consider the eikonal approximation for moderately small scattering amplitudes. To find numerical estimates of these approximations, we derive formulas that contain no Bessel functions and consequently no rapidly oscillating integrands. To obtain these formulas, we study improper integrals of the first kind containing products of the Bessel functions J0(z). We generalize the expression with four functions J0(z) and also find expressions for the integrals with the product of five and six Bessel functions. We generalize a known formula for the improper integral with two functions Jυ (az) to the case with noninteger υ and complex a.
Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour
2016-10-01
The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed.
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
A New Euler's Formula for DNA Polyhedra
Hu, Guang; Qiu, Wen-Yuan; Ceulemans, Arnout
2011-01-01
DNA polyhedra are cage-like architectures based on interlocked and interlinked DNA strands. We propose a formula which unites the basic features of these entangled structures. It is based on the transformation of the DNA polyhedral links into Seifert surfaces, which removes all knots. The numbers of components , of crossings , and of Seifert circles are related by a simple and elegant formula: . This formula connects the topological aspects of the DNA cage to the Euler characteristic of the underlying polyhedron. It implies that Seifert circles can be used as effective topological indices to describe polyhedral links. Our study demonstrates that, the new Euler's formula provides a theoretical framework for the stereo-chemistry of DNA polyhedra, which can characterize enzymatic transformations of DNA and be used to characterize and design novel cages with higher genus. PMID:22022596
Prebiotic carbohydrates in human milk and formulas.
Boehm, Günther; Stahl, Bernd; Jelinek, Jürgen; Knol, Jan; Miniello, Vito; Moro, Guido E
2005-10-01
Human milk oligosaccharides play an important role, as prebiotic soluble fibres, in the postnatal development of the intestinal flora. Infant formulas are virtually free of prebiotic oligosaccharides. As a consequence, formula-fed infants develop an intestinal flora significantly different to the flora of breastfed infants. Due to the complexity of human milk oligosaccharides, it is necessary to use alternative sources of prebiotic ingredients as components of infant formulas. The present review summarizes the data of experimental research and clinical studies with a prebiotic mixture containing 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosacchrides are summarized. The data demonstrate that, with this prebiotic mixture, the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli can be stimulated, the faecal pH can be decreased, and the presence of pathogens can be reduced to levels similar to those of breastfed infants. Thus, prebiotic oligosaccharides such as the studied mixture provide beneficial effects for formula-fed infants.
Second-order corrected Hadamard formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epele, L. N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C. A. García
1985-08-01
The second-order correction to the Hadamard formulas for the Green's function, harmonic measures, and period matrix of a two-dimensional domain is obtained in the context of the domain-variational theory.
Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gross, Peter G.
1977-01-01
Derives the general Doppler formula in a nonstatic universe using assumptions of special relativity, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Examples of applications to physical cosmology are given. (SL)
Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.
1974-01-01
Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)
Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.
2012-01-01
We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.
A Summation Formula for Macdonald Polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael
2016-03-01
We derive an explicit sum formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our expression contains multiple sums over the symmetric group and uses the action of Hecke generators on the ring of polynomials. In the special cases {t = 1} and {q = 0}, we recover known expressions for the monomial symmetric and Hall-Littlewood polynomials, respectively. Other specializations of our formula give new expressions for the Jack and q-Whittaker polynomials.
Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin
2014-01-01
Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043
A Connection Formula for the q-Confluent Hypergeometric Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morita, Takeshi
2013-07-01
We show a connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric functions {}_2ϕ_1(a,b;0;q,x). Combining our connection formula with Zhang's connection formula for {}_2ϕ_0(a,b;-;q,x), we obtain the connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric equation in the matrix form. Also we obtain the connection formula of Kummer's confluent hypergeometric functions by taking the limit qto 1^{-} of our connection formula.
Convergence in [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous posets.
Ruan, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Quan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present one way to generalize [Formula: see text]-convergence and [Formula: see text]-convergence of nets for arbitrary posets by use of the cut operator instead of joins. Some convergence theoretical characterizations of [Formula: see text]-continuity and [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuity of posets are given. The main results are: (1) a poset P is [Formula: see text]-continuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological; (2) P is [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological.
Breath hydrogen responses in infants using lactose-rice formula and regular lactose formula.
Wu, T C; Hwang, B; Lee, P S
2001-01-01
Starch thickened infant formulas have been shown to relieve regurgitation and increase caloric retention. We compared the completeness of digestion of the carbohydrates in lactose-rice formula (study formula) with routine infant formula in infants with GER. A prospective open study of 30 normal, well-nourished infants with simple regurgitation was conducted. The clinical history on regurgitation, stool pattern and baseline breath hydrogen (bH2) test were obtained at entry, with the infants still using their original routine infant formula, and after a wash out period of 7 days, during which they were fed only with study formula. Analysis of bH2 results showed lower levels of bH2 at 1, 2 and 3 hours with study formula compared with the original formula at the 2nd and 3rd hour (p<0.05). The effectiveness of the study formula in managing GER was demonstrated by the fact that 26 out of 30 had either "some improvement" or a "good response." Hardening of the stool pattern was reported in 13 of the 30 infants after 1 week of study formula. The mean of peak bH2 in study formula fed subjects with formed and firm/hard stool was significantly lower than in those with soft and pasty stool. In conclusion, this study has shown the effectiveness of rice thickened infant formulas in managing infants with GER. Rice-starch has an additional advantage of ease of digestion. The hardening of stool pattern was also frequently observed. PMID:11811219
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret
2012-01-01
In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…
Orotic acid content of infant formulas.
Durschlag, R P; Robinson, J L
1980-10-01
The orotic acid content of four commercially available infant formulas has been examined. Enfamil contains 118 microgram orotic acid per milliliter as fed, Similac 98, SMA 27, and Isomil less than 1 microgram/ml. As expressed relative to total solids, these formulas contain less than 0.1% orotic acid. Since consumption of 1% orotic acid does not lead to a fatty liver in any species examined other than the rat and 0.1% orotic acid fails to induce statistically significant hepatic changes in the rat, it is suggested that orotic acid at the level found in these formulas is not likely to pose a health hazard to the infants consuming them.
Orbifold genera, product formulas and power operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganter, Nora
2004-07-01
We generalize the definition of orbifold elliptic genus, and introduce orbifold genera of chromatic level h, using h-tuples rather than pairs of commuting elements. We show that our genera are in fact orbifold invariants, and we prove integrality results for them. If the genus arises from an H-infinity-map into the Morava-Lubin-Tate theory E_h, then we give a formula expressing the orbifold genus of the symmetric powers of a stably almost complex manifold M in terms of the genus of M itself. Our formula is the p-typical analogue of the Dijkgraaf-Moore-Verlinde-Verlinde formula for the orbifold elliptic genus. It depends only on h and not on the genus.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section 21.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4....
24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110... DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1) The amount of annual contributions...
27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 24.81... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate all ingredients and, if required,...
27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1 for each self-manufactured ingredient made with...
27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....
27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...
24 CFR 905.10 - Capital Fund formula (CFF).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital Fund formula (CFF). 905.10... DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING CAPITAL FUND PROGRAM § 905.10 Capital Fund formula (CFF). (a) General. This section describes the formula for allocation of capital funds to PHAs. The formula is referred to as...
27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section 21.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4....
27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....
27 CFR 21.53 - Formula No. 27-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-A. 21.53 Section 21.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.53 Formula No....
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...
Lead content of milk and infant formula
Walker, B.
1980-03-01
Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)
How allergenic are hypoallergenic infant formulae?
Rugo, E; Wahl, R; Wahn, U
1992-06-01
In a comparative study six different protein hydrolysates, marketed as 'hypoallergenic' infant formulae were investigated by skin prick tests, RAST, RAST inhibition and titrated provocation tests. When hydrolysates containing a high percentage of larger peptides were found to have the highest capacity to induce positive skin tests, provocation tests and to bind to human serum IgE antibodies of cow's milk allergic children. Casein hydrolysates appeared to have the least residual allergenic activity. We recommend that 'hypoallergenic' formulae should be tested in each case, before being prescribed to cow's milk sensitive children.
25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians... ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.31 Distribution... the purpose shall be allotted pro rata in accordance with the distribution method outlined in...
Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.
Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia
2016-03-01
Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics.
27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Supplemental or Form 5110.38 shall remain in effect until revoked, superseded, or voluntarily surrendered....
Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005
2005-01-01
Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…
The Economic Vitality Formula of Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Konopnicki, Patrick M.
2012-01-01
An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…
24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...-capita-incidence rate and the average rate for all metropolitan statistical areas with more than 500,000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements... immunodeficiency syndrome used for this purpose shall be the number reported as of March 31 of the fiscal...
Adolescent Formula Literature and Its Promiscuous Progeny.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanek, Lou Willett
This paper discusses the history and effect of popular culture generally and of the adolescent formula novel specifically. Seven primary characteristics of art as popular culture are that the work is accessible, easy to understand, conventional in form, not shocking in content, expressive of common and appropriate values, relative to some element…
38 CFR 9.12 - Reinsurance formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.12 Reinsurance formula. The allocation of... life insurance in force under the policy in proportion to the company's total life insurance in force... section based upon the corresponding in force (excluding the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance in...
ACS Develops Formula For Estimating Salaries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chemical and Engineering News, 1978
1978-01-01
A simple formula and accompanying set of factors has been developed to estimate the average salary of groups of chemists with common characteristics. Five major characteristics in determining salaries are presented: years of experience, highest degree, type of employer, work function, and sex. Tables and a sample problem are included. (MA)
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language
Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.
2014-01-01
Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014
Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee
2016-03-01
Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours. PMID:27244971
Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zdeborová, Lenka; Zecchina, Riccardo
2012-05-01
We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers.
Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.
Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F
2015-05-01
In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications.
Some inversion formulas for the cone transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terzioglu, Fatma
2015-11-01
Several novel imaging applications have lead recently to a variety of Radon type transforms, where integration is made over a family of conical surfaces. We call them cone transforms (in 2D they are also called V-line or broken ray transforms). Most prominently, they are present in the so called Compton camera imaging that arises in medical diagnostics, astronomy, and lately in homeland security applications. Several specific incarnations of the cone transform have been considered separately. In this paper, we address the most general (and overdetermined) cone transform, obtain integral relations between cone and Radon transforms in {{{R}}}n, and a variety of inversion formulas. In many applications (e.g., in homeland security), the signal to noise ratio is very low. So, if overdetermined data is collected (as in the case of Compton imaging), attempts to reduce the dimensionality might lead to essential elimination of the signal. Thus, our main concentration is on obtaining formulas involving overdetermined data.
Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin
We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.
Pizzetti Formulae for Stiefel Manifolds and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulembier, Kevin; Kieburg, Mario
2015-10-01
Pizzetti's formula explicitly shows the equivalence of the rotation invariant integration over a sphere and the action of rotation invariant differential operators. We generalize this idea to the integrals over real, complex, and quaternion Stiefel manifolds in a unifying way. In particular, we propose a new way to calculate group integrals and try to uncover some algebraic structures which manifest themselves for some well-known cases like the Harish-Chandra integral. We apply a particular case of our formula to an Itzykson-Zuber integral for the coset . This integral naturally appears in the calculation of the two-point correlation function in the transition of the statistics of the Poisson ensemble and the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble in random matrix theory.
A flood-flow formula for Connecticut
Bigwood, B.L.; Thomas, M.P.
1955-01-01
A study of the frequency and magnitude of floods within the Connecticut area is contained in this report. Annual flood discharges for 44 stream-gaging stations whose records range in length from l0 to 40 years are presented and a regional flood-frequency relationship developed based upon the ratios of all floods to the mean annual flood at each of these locations. Definition of this curve for floods of larger recurrence intervals is based upon historical studies of extraordinary floods which have occurred within the area. For ungaged areas, the mean annual flood value may be determined by use of a flood-flow formula based upon the topographic characteristics of drainage area and basin slope. The development of this formula also is included.
Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantini, Luigi; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael
2015-09-01
We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov-Faddeev and Yang-Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1.
A Generalized Formula to Determine Pythagorean Triples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohapatra, Amar Kumar; Prakash, Nupur
2010-01-01
This note proposes a unique solutions to find out the value of x, y and z which satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. The uniqueness of the proposed formulae is to find the total number of y's and z's at a given value of x. The value of y and z can be calculated by factoring x[superscript 2] or…
New analytic formula for edge bootstrap current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, C. S.; Koh, S.; Menard, J.; Weitzner, H.; Choe, W.
2012-10-01
The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. A drift-kinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the low collisionality banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions (represented by O. Sauter, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1999) are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is a significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas. The deviation occurs in different ways between a conventional aspect ratio tokamak and a tight aspect ratio tokamak. A new analytic fitting formula, as a simple modification to the Sauter formula, is obtained to bring the analytic expression to a better agreement with the edge kinetic simulation results.
Algorithm 699 - A new representation of Patterson's quadrature formulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, Fred T.; Van Snyder, W.
1991-01-01
A method is presented to reduce the number of coefficients necessary to represent Patterson's quadrature formulae. It also reduces the amount of storage necessary for storing function values, and produces slightly smaller error in evaluating the formulae.
Plotting Formula for Pearson Type III Distribution Considering Historical Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nguyen, Van Thanh-Van; In-na, Nophadol
1992-01-01
Proposes a plotting position formula for the Pearson type III distribution in the analysis of historical flood information. Presents results of a numerical example using actual flood data to confirm the appropriateness of the plotting formula. (24 references) (MDH)
Infant formula, past and future: opportunities for improvement.
Lo, C W; Kleinman, R E
1996-04-01
Infant formulas provide nutritional support to health infants that promotes growth and development equivalent to that in healthy infants fed human milk. Formula-fed infants are not as well protected against infections, and there remain infants whose health, growth, and development may not be supported optimally by either the formulas currently available or human milk. Some infants may be better supported by genetically engineered formulas that contain immunity-enhancing antibodies or antigens. Formulas that contain cytokines promoting epithelial cell growth and integrity may be protective against necrotizing enterocolitis. Formulas containing proteins with genetically excluded allergenic epitopes or formulas with tolerogenic peptides may be useful in treating allergic diseases of suppressing the development of autoimmune disorders later in life. Formulas with genetically engineered biologically active substances might increase the absorption of nutrients in infants with compromised absorption or digestion, enhance host immunity and mucosal integrity, and, potentially militate or protect against the risk of disease. PMID:8599333
27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.58 New and... special method of manufacture that requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change the contribution...
The Euler-Maclaurin Formula and Extensions - An Elementary Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gearhart, W. B.; Qian, Maijian
2005-01-01
This note offers a derivation of the Euler-Maclaurin formula that is simple and elementary. In addition, the paper shows that the derivation provides Euler-Maclaurin formulas for a variety of functionals other than the trapezoid rule.
Counterexamples on Jumarie's two basic fractional calculus formulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Cheng-shi
2015-05-01
Jumarie proposed a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative definition and gave two basic fractional calculus formulae (u (t) v (t)) (α) =u (α) (t) v (t) + u (t)v (α) (t) and (f (u (t))) (α) = fu‧ u (α) (t) . We give two counterexamples to show that Jumarie's two formulae are not true. Respectively, all results obtained in references by using Jumarie's these two formulae are incorrect. In the end, we give the corresponding formulae.
20 CFR 225.3 - PIA computation formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PIA computation formulas. 225.3 Section 225.3... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS General § 225.3 PIA computation formulas. (a) General. PIA's are generally computed under one of two normal formulas determined by the employee's eligibility year. In addition,...
27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...
40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance deduction formula. 72.95... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.95 Allowance deduction formula. The following formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar...
48 CFR 32.304-3 - Asset formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asset formula. 32.304-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Loan Guarantees for Defense Production 32.304-3 Asset formula. (a) Under..., by use of an asset formula, to an amount that does not exceed a specified percentage (90 percent...
27 CFR 26.197 - Furnishing formula to consignee.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Furnishing formula to... Custody to Internal Revenue Bond § 26.197 Furnishing formula to consignee. Prior to the first shipment... formula covering such spirits to the appropriate TTB officer, and to the proprietor of each...
27 CFR 26.53 - Changes of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes of formulas. 26.53... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.53 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing a...
27 CFR 26.223 - Changes of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes of formulas. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.223 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
27 CFR 19.187 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 19... After Original Qualification § 19.187 Adoption of formulas. (a) Forms 5110.38. The adoption by a... the appropriate TTB officer. The application shall list the formulas for adoption by (1)...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...
7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based infant formula... participation data. (vi) Infant formula usage rates by type (e.g., milk-based or soy-based), form (e.g... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a...
7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based infant formula... participation data. (vi) Infant formula usage rates by type (e.g., milk-based or soy-based), form (e.g... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: 4.25 gallons of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Ellis, Nick C.
2010-01-01
This research creates an empirically derived, pedagogically useful list of formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing, comparable with the Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000), called the Academic Formulas List (AFL). The AFL includes formulaic sequences identified as (i) frequent recurrent patterns in corpora of written and spoken language,…
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...
45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...
45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...
45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...
Certain summation and transformation formulas for generalized hypergeometric series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Allen R.
2009-09-01
We derive summation formulas for generalized hypergeometric series of unit argument, one of which upon specialization reduces to Minton's summation theorem. As an application we deduce a reduction formula for a certain Kampé de Fériet function that in turn provides a Kummer-type transformation formula for the generalized hypergeometric function pFp(x).
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
Design of TiO<formula>_{2}formula> nanotube based X-ray tube with single focusing electrode.
Alivov, Yahya; Feng, Jun; Molloi, Sabee
2013-01-01
We studied in details the effect of various X-ray tube parameters (cathode size, anode size, anode - lens distance, etc.) on TiO<formula>_{2}formula> nanotube field emission electron-beam focal spot size (FSS) and lens voltages for a single electrode lens system. The simulations were performed using commercially available SIMION 8.1 software. A wide range of parameters was simulated to determine conditions when FSS and lens focusing voltage had minimum values. In particular, the dependence of FSS and lens voltages on cathode size (<formula>d_{S}>) was studied for different size lens apertures (<formula>d_{L}>) and different anode voltages. The cathode size <formula>d_{S}> was varied in the range from 0.1 mm to <formula>d_{L}>; the <formula>d_{L}> was changed from 4 to 24 mm in 4 mm increments. The simulations were performed for two different <formula>V_{A}> values 60 kV and 120 kV. It was found that for 20 mm and 24 mm diameter lens apertures the maximum cathode size when the resulting FSS was not greater than 1600 μm (the focal spot size in clinical X-ray CT) were 17.5 mm and 16.2 mm, respectively. The lens voltages <formula>V_{f}> corresponding to 17.5 mm and 16.2 mm cathode size in 20 mm and 24 mm aperture diameter x-ray tubes are 1850 V and -1550 V, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goran, Maria
1980-11-01
Une méthode d'analyse rationnelle a été mise au point qui doit permettre de déterminer la quantité de phase cristalline UO 2 dans les masses vitrocéramiques et la variation de cette quantité en fonction de la distance á la surface de l'échantillon. Cette méthode a été utilisée pour déterminer la distribution radiale de l'UO 2 dans la phase vitreuse dans des aiguilles d'UO 2-SiO 2 obtenus par injection dans des moules de cuivre. La teneur en d'UO 2 dans la phase vitreuse présente une variation très importante dans une couche périphérique de l'échantillon de 60 μm d'épaisseur environ; la valeur moyenne dans cette couche dépasse d'un ordre de grandeur la valeur moyenne dans tout la section. Cette région correspond á une vitesse de refroidissement qui dépasse 10 6°C/s.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kincaid, J. P.; And Others
Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lenke, Joanne M.; And Others
To investigate the effect of violating the assumption of equal item difficulty on Kuder-Richardson (KR) Formula 21 reliability coefficient, 670 eighth-and ninth- grade students were administered 26 short, homogeneous "tests" of mathematics concepts and skills. Both KR Formula 20 and KR Formula 21 were used to estimate reliability on each test. The…
A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samyn, M.; Goriely, S.; Heenen, P.-H.; Pearson, J. M.; Tondeur, F.
2002-03-01
In order to have more reliable predictions of nuclear masses at the neutron drip line, we here go beyond the recent mass formula HFBCS-1 and present a new mass formula, HFB-1, based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. As with the HFBCS-1 mass formula, we use a 10-parameter Skyrme force along with a 4-parameter δ-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. However, with the original HFBCS-1 Skyrme force (MSk7), the rms error becomes unacceptably large and a new force fit is required. With the isoscalar and isovector effective masses constrained to be equal, the remaining 15 degrees of freedom are fitted to the masses of all the 1754 measured nuclei with A⩾16, | N- Z|>2 given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation. The rms error with respect to the masses of all the 1888 measured nuclei with Z, N⩾8 is 0.764 MeV. A complete mass table, HFB-1 (available on the Web), has been constructed, giving all nuclei lying between the two drip lines over the range Z, N⩾8 and Z⩽120. A comparison between HFB-1 and HFBCS-1 mass tables shows that the HFBCS model is a very good approximation of the HFB theory, in particular for masses, the extrapolated masses never differing by more than 2 MeV below Z⩽110. We also find that the behaviour of shell gaps far away from the region of beta stability does not depend on whether the HFBCS or HFB methods are used, in particular, no quenching of astrophysical interest arises from replacing the BCS method by the Bogoliubov method.
Infant formula companies battle for breast.
1996-01-01
The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465
The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.
Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya
2012-05-01
Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life.
Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.
Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C
1985-02-01
An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.
Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.
Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions
Eilbeck, J. Chris; England, Matthew; Ônishi, Yoshihiro
2014-01-01
We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus. PMID:25383018
Wald entropy formula and loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.; Neiman, Y.
2014-10-01
We outline how the Wald entropy formula naturally arises in loop quantum gravity based on recently introduced dimension-independent connection variables. The key observation is that in a loop quantization of a generalized gravity theory, the analog of the area operator turns out to measure, morally speaking, the Wald entropy rather than the area. We discuss the explicit example of (higher-dimensional) Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and comment on recent work on finding the correct numerical prefactor of the entropy by comparing it to a semiclassical effective action.
Implementing successful strategic plans: a simple formula.
Blondeau, Whitney; Blondeau, Benoit
2015-01-01
Strategic planning is a process. One way to think of strategic planning is to envision its development and design as a framework that will help your hospital navigate through internal and external changing environments over time. Although the process of strategic planning can feel daunting, following a simple formula involving five steps using the mnemonic B.E.G.I.N. (Begin, Evaluate, Goals & Objectives, Integration, and Next steps) will help the planning process feel more manageable, and lead you to greater success. PMID:26058285
[Enteral nutrition: ways of access and formulas].
Sauret, C; Humanes, A; Trallero, R
1999-03-01
Enteral nutrition is a very adequate method to feed those patients who can not receive food by oral means, to be used only when their gastrointestinal functions are preserved and carry out a proper assimilation of nutrients. Starting from these facts, this article analyzes the various access ways which can be used in enteral nutrition, and the most commonly used enteral nutrition formulas, noting their possible classifications. The nutritional modules and the material necessary to employ this form of feeding, as well as the administrative guidelines, are also presented in this article.
Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahm, A F
1927-01-01
This report gives the pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. For the cases treated the concordance of theory and measurement is so close as to make a resume of results desirable. Incidentally formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given, some being new forms for ready use derived in a previous paper. (author)
Formulas for premature infants: fate of the calcium and phosphorus.
Bhatia, J; Fomon, S J
1983-07-01
Formulas designed for feeding of premature infants contain minerals added by the manufacturer. Although it is known that these minerals may be poorly suspended in the formula, little is known about concentrations of minerals in formula delivered to the infant under conditions prevailing in premature infant nurseries. In partially empty bottles of Similac Special Care, concentrations of calcium and phosphorus of this residual formula were found to be substantially greater than concentrations in full bottles. Presumably, concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in formula delivered to the infants was relatively low. Enfamil Premature and SMA Preemie infant formulas contain lesser quantities of added calcium and demonstrated less tendency to sedimentation. Substantial decrease in concentration of calcium was observed with all three formulas during continuous infusion, but the decrease was greatest with Similac Special Care. Little or no change in concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were observed with simulated bolus feeding by gavage.
Mathematical formula recognition using graph grammar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavirotte, Stephane; Pottier, Loic
1998-04-01
This paper describes current results of Ofr, a system for extracting and understanding mathematical expressions in documents. Such a tool could be really useful to be able to re-use knowledge in scientific books which are not available in electronic form. We currently also study use of this system for direct input of formulas with a graphical tablet for computer algebra system softwares. Existing solutions for mathematical recognition have problems to analyze 2D expressions like vectors and matrices. This is because they often try to use extended classical grammar to analyze formulas, relatively to baseline. But a lot of mathematical notations do not respect rules for such a parsing and that is the reason why they fail to extend text parsing technic. We investigate graph grammar and graph rewriting as a solution to recognize 2D mathematical notations. Graph grammar provide a powerful formalism to describe structural manipulations of multi-dimensional data. The main two problems to solve are ambiguities between rules of grammar and construction of graph.
Proximate and elemental analysis of infant formula.
Tanner, J T
1982-11-01
The Nutrient Surveillance Branch has been conducting a survey of infant formula products for Fiscal Year 1981. Each product has been carefully analyzed and the results compared to the label declaration and the minimum-maximum limits specified by the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Nutrition (CON/AAP). Proximate and elemental analyses were made. Protein, fat, ash, and total solids (moisture) were determined by AOAC methods. Osmolality, density, and fatty acids (linoleic) were also determined. Carbohydrates were calculated by difference and caloric content was calculated by using the general Atwater factors. Elemental analysis for Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Na, and K were performed by induction coupled plasma absorption spectroscopy. Chloride was assayed by potentiometric titration with AgNO3. A summary of the findings from the infant formula survey have been compared with CON/AAP recommendations. In general, there were only a few exceptions where the label claims and the CON/AAP requirements were not met. However, in none of these cases was the difference considered to be of public health significance.
Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.
Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A
2016-03-01
We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849
[Preliminary study on pharmacodynamic evaluation method of Houpo formula particles].
Ma, Lu; Shao, Li-Jie; Tang, Fang
2014-04-01
To discuss the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula particles, with traditional decoction for reference and the intervention of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC). First of all, the similarity of traditional Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex decoction and formula particles of different manufacturers was defined by using the IR fingerprint. The UC rat model was established and given Houpo formula particles of different doses and manufacturers, with the decoction for reference, in order to observe disease activity index (DAI), colon mucosa damage index (CMDI), pathologic changes, nitric oxide (NO), endothdin (ET), substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Their intervention effects on UC rats were compared to study the difference between Sanjiu and Tianjiang Houpo formula particles, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for Houpo formula particles. According to the results, Houpo formula particles showed similar pharmacodynamic actions with the traditional decoction. The pharmacodynamic comparison of Houpo formula particles of different manufacturers showed no statistical significance. The experiment showed that on the basis of the TCM compounds, a prescription dismantlement study was conducted to define target points of various drugs. The traditional decoction was selected for reference in the comparison of corresponding formula particles for their pharmacodynamic equivalence. This method could avoid controversies about single or combined boiling of formula particles, and give objective comments on the pharmacodynamic effect of the formula particles. The method is proved to be feasible. PMID:25039188
New entropy formula with fluctuating reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biró, T. S.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Ván, P.
2015-01-01
Finite heat reservoir capacity, C, and temperature fluctuation, ΔT / T, lead to modifications of the well known canonical exponential weight factor. Requiring that the corrections least depend on the one-particle energy, ω, we derive a deformed entropy, K(S) . The resultingformula contains the Boltzmann-Gibbs, Rényi, and Tsallis formulas as particular cases. For extreme large fluctuations, in the limit CΔT2 /T2 → ∞, a new parameter-free entropy-probability relation is gained. The corresponding canonical energy distribution is nearly Boltzmannian for high probability, but for low probability approaches the cumulative Gompertz distribution. The latter is met in several phenomena, like earthquakes, demography, tumor growth models, extreme value probability, etc.
Lipids in human milk and infant formulas.
Jensen, R G; Ferris, A M; Lammi-Keefe, C J
1992-01-01
About 50 metabolically important fatty acids can be identified in human milk. The extent of absorption of milk fatty acids varies considerably from infant to infant, particularly in pre-term infants, and requires more study. Human milk provides sufficient vitamins A and E for the term infant, but supplementation with vitamins D and K may be necessary. More research is needed on the amounts of the fat-soluble vitamins in human milk, the efficiency of transfer from mother to infant, the reasons for variation in different women, and the consequences to breast-fed infants of inadequate intake of vitamins D and K. Breast milk contains the PUFA needed by term infants who are able to synthesize the long-chain PUFA soon after birth. Pre-term infants fed formulae need supplementation with n3 and n6 long-chain PUFA, since formulas currently do not contain these acids. More work is needed to determine the requirements for n3 and n6 fatty acids, expressed as weights per kilogram. A larger data base using improved analytical procedures to study the nature and content of lipids in human milk is needed. The impact of maternal genetics and diet on fatty acids in milk should be studied, as well as the effect of maternal diet on eicosanoids secreted by the mammary gland. Information on the structure and function of the milk fat globule and its membrane is needed. Little is known about the effect of milk banking on milk lipids. The reader of this review will no doubt find other gaps in our knowledge of the lipid composition and nutritional value of milk that require additional investigation.
Empirical formula for mass excess of heavy and superheavy nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjunatha, H. C.; Chandrika, B. M.; Seenappa, L.
2016-08-01
A new empirical formula is proposed for mass excess of heavy and superheavy nuclei in the region Z = 96-129. The parameters of the formula are obtained by making a polynomial fit to the available theoretical and experimental data. The calculated mass excess values are compared with the experimental values and other results of the earlier proposed models such as finite range droplet model (FRDM) and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method. Standard deviation of calculated mass excess values for each atomic number is tabulated. The good agreement of present formula with the experiment and other models suggests that the present formula could be used to evaluate the mass excess values of heavy and superheavy nuclei in the region 96 ≤Z ≥129. This formula is a model-independent formula and is first of its kind that produces a mass excess values with the only simple inputs of only Z and A.
Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.
Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L
2016-04-01
The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic.
An approximate formula for recalescence in binary eutectic alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.
1993-01-01
In alloys, solidification takes place along various paths which may be ascertained via phase diagrams; while there would be no single formula applicable to all alloys, an approximate formula for a specific solidification path would be useful in estimating the fraction of the solid formed during recalescence. A formulation is here presented of recalescence in binary eutectic alloys. This formula is applied to Ag-Cu alloys which are of interest in containerless solidification, due to their formation of supersaturated solutions.
A simple formula for the energies of doubly excited states
Lin, C.D.; Watanabe, S.
1986-11-01
A simple formula for the energy levels of doubly excited states of atoms and multiply charged ions is derived and expressed in terms of a set of new correlation quantum numbers. The accuracy of the formula is checked by comparing with the results from other elaborate calculations. Modification of the formula for doubly excited states of multielectron atoms are also presented. 12 refs., 2 tabs.
Improvement in a phenomenological formula for ground state binding energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, G.
2016-07-01
The phenomenological formula for ground state binding energy derived earlier [G. Gangopadhyay, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 20 (2011) 179] has been modified. The parameters have been obtained by fitting the latest available tabulation of experimental values. The major modifications include a new term for pairing and introduction of a new neutron magic number at N = 160. The new formula reduced the root mean square deviation to 363keV, a substantial improvement over the previous version of the formula.
Infant formulas with increased concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin.
Lien, Eric L
2003-06-01
Human and bovine milk differ substantially in the ratio of whey to casein protein (approximately 60:40 in human milk and approximately 20:80 in bovine milk) and in the proportions of specific proteins. Although current infant formulas closely mimic the ratio of total whey to casein inhuman milk, the concentration of a-lactalbumin (the dominant protein in human milk) is relatively low in formula, whereas beta-lactoglobulin, a protein not found in human milk, is the most dominant whey protein in formula. Because of the differences in the protein profiles of human milk and infant formula, amino acid profiles also differ. To meet all essential amino acid requirements of infants, formula concentrations of protein must be higher than those in human milk. Recently, whey sources with elevated concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin have become available, which permitted the development of formulas with increased concentrations of this protein and decreased concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin. alpha-Lactalbumin is rich in tryptophan, which is typically the limiting amino acid in formula, and as a result, formulas have been developed with lower protein but higher tryptophan concentrations. This type of formula may offer a number of advantages to the neonate, which include producing plasma tryptophan concentrations equal to those found in breastfed infants and obviating the need for the body to dispose of excess nitrogen loads.
Holomorphicity and the Walczak formula on Sasakian manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brînzănescu, Vasile; Slobodeanu, Radu
2006-12-01
The Walczak formula is a very nice tool for understanding the geometry of a Riemannian manifold equipped with two orthogonal complementary distributions. M. Svensson [Holomorphic foliations, harmonic morphisms and the Walczak formula, J. London Math. Soc. (2) 68 (3) (2003) 781-794] has shown that this formula simplifies to a Bochner-type formula when we are dealing with Kähler manifolds and holomorphic (integrable) distributions. We show in this paper that such results have a counterpart in Sasakian geometry. To this end, we build on a theory of (contact) holomorphicity on almost contact metric manifolds. Some other applications for (pseudo-)harmonic morphisms on Sasaki manifolds are outlined.
Physicians, formula companies, and advertising. A historical perspective.
Greer, F R; Apple, R D
1991-03-01
The recent advent of new advertising campaigns for infant formulas aimed at the general public via television commercials, newspapers, free formula coupons, and lay periodicals has disrupted a comfortable symbiotic relationship between infant food manufacturers and the medical profession that has endured for more than 50 years. In the late 19th century, physicians were concerned about the advertising claims of these products and generally felt that indications and directions for their use should be the province of the physician. Between 1929 and 1932, the American Medical Association, through its Committee on Foods and "Seal of Acceptance," essentially required the entire formula industry to advertise only to the medical profession. Since 1932, the US formula industry has developed into a $1.6 billion market. In 1988, Nestlé (absent from the US infant formula industry since the 1940s) acquired the Carnation Company and launched an advertising campaign to the general public for its formula products. Bristol Myers/Mead Johnson, in cooperation with Gerber Products Company, quickly followed suit. These actions threaten to once again remove the realm of infant feeding from the exclusive supervision of the medical profession. The new multimedia public advertising campaigns may increase the cost of infant formula to the general public and have a negative impact on the incidence of breast-feeding. In addition, formula advertising campaigns will likely increase the danger of advertising hyperbole and affect the level of financial support by formula companies for scientific meetings, medical research, education, and social events at medical meetings.
Power formula for open-channel flow resistance
Chen, Cheng-lung
1988-01-01
This paper evaluates various power formulas for flow resistance in open channels. Unlike the logarithmic resistance equation that can be theoretically derived either from Prandtl's mixing-length hypothesis or von Karman's similarity hypothesis, the power formula has long had an appearance of empiricism. Nevertheless, the simplicity in the form of the power formula has made it popular among the many possible forms of flow resistance formulas. This paper reexamines the concept and rationale of the power formulation, thereby addressing some critical issues in the modeling of flow resistance.
Development of formula varsity race car chassis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdullah, M. A.; Mansur, M. R.; Tamaldin, N.; Thanaraj, K.
2013-12-01
Three chassis designs have been developed using commercial computer aided design (CAD) software. The design is based on the specifications of UTeM Formula VarsityTM 2012 (FV2012). The selection of the design is derived from weighted matrix which consists of reliability, cost, time consumption and weight. The score of the matrix is formulated based on relative weighted factor among the selections. All three designs are then fabricated using selected materials available. The actual cost, time consumption and weight of the chassis's are compared with the theoretical weighted scores. Standard processes of cuttings, fittings and welding are performed in chassis mock up and fabrication. The chassis is later assembled together with suspension systems, steering linkages, brake systems, engine system, and drive shaft systems. Once the chassis is assembled, the studies of driver's ergonomic and part accessibility are performed. The completion in final fittings and assembly of the race car and its reliability demonstrate an outstanding design for manufacturing (DFM) practices of the chassis.
Dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter.
Deng, Xiaocheng; Meng, Fanning; Lin, Jianming; Yuan, Wenjun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter is studied. We say that a real parameter [Formula: see text] belongs to the set [Formula: see text] for a positive integer n if [Formula: see text] has an attracting cycle of n-order. We prove that the Fatou set [Formula: see text] is a completely invariant attracting basin for every parameter [Formula: see text]. Further, regarding the set [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text], we prove the following results: (1) There exists [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text]. (2) For every positive integer [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] is non-empty. (3) For every prime number [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] has at least two components.
Dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter.
Deng, Xiaocheng; Meng, Fanning; Lin, Jianming; Yuan, Wenjun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter is studied. We say that a real parameter [Formula: see text] belongs to the set [Formula: see text] for a positive integer n if [Formula: see text] has an attracting cycle of n-order. We prove that the Fatou set [Formula: see text] is a completely invariant attracting basin for every parameter [Formula: see text]. Further, regarding the set [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text], we prove the following results: (1) There exists [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text]. (2) For every positive integer [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] is non-empty. (3) For every prime number [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] has at least two components. PMID:27386299
Gastric motility in premature infants fed two different formulas.
Hancock, P J; Bancalari, E
1984-11-01
The effect of two different formulas on gastric contractions was investigated in 10 preterm infants, of mean birth weight 1,149 g and mean gestational age 30.5 weeks, who were being advanced from a 20 calorie per ounce formula (Enfamil) to a 24 calorie per ounce formula (Similac Special Care 24). The neonates were fed by gravity with a feeding tube on a 2-h schedule. The orogastric tube was connected between feedings to a pressure transducer and recorder system upon which pressure waves reflecting gastric contractions were recorded. In the 1st h after feeding there were significantly fewer gastric contractions with 24 calorie than 20 calorie formula. The mean intensity of the gastric contractions per minute of contraction time was significantly less in the 1st h after feeding with the 24 calorie compared with the 20 calorie formula. In the 2nd h after feeding these values were similar. Gastric contractions are decreased with 24 calorie formula compared with 20 calorie formula during the 1st h after feeding. This difference in contractions may influence tolerance to different formulas.
A Simple Approach to the Landau-Zener Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vutha, Amar C.
2010-01-01
The Landau-Zener formula provides the probability of non-adiabatic transitions occurring when two energy levels are swept through an avoided crossing. The formula is derived here in a simple calculation that emphasizes the physics responsible for non-adiabatic population transfer. (Contains 2 figures.)
A Preliminary Analysis of California's New Local Control Funding Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolf, Rebecca; Sands, Janelle
2016-01-01
California recently overhauled its K-12 public education finance system. Enacted in 2013, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) replaced California's 40-year-old funding formula. The LCFF increases district officials' fiscal flexibility; provides more resources to districts serving larger proportions of low-income, English learner (EL), and…
14 CFR 271.7 - Subsidy payout formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidy payout formula. 271.7 Section 271.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... payout formula. (a) Subsidy will be paid by the Department to the air carrier monthly, based on...
9 CFR 381.134 - Requirement of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement of formulas. 381.134 Section 381.134 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Requirement of formulas. Copies of each label submitted for approval, shall when the Administrator requires...
45 CFR 1385.8 - Formula for determining allotments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Formula for determining allotments. 1385.8 Section 1385.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT... Formula for determining allotments. The Commissioner will allocate funds appropriated under the Act...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225....202 Formula, production, and distribution records. Records shall be maintained identifying the... Management and Budget under control number 0910-0152)...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225....202 Formula, production, and distribution records. Records shall be maintained identifying the... Management and Budget under control number 0910-0152)...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records § 225.202 Formula, production, and...
Simple analytic formula for the strength of spin depolarizing resonance
Lee, S.Y.
1985-01-01
A simple analytic formula is derived to explain the periodicity of spin depolarizing resonance. The spin depolarizing resonance strengths of CPS and SPS at CERN and the lattices of meson factory at TRIUMF are used to compare with the analytic formula.
27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
....C. 5232, the formula shall include a statement to that effect. If any product contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These.... If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...
78 FR 23818 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-04-22
... 11, 2000, at 65 FR 19477-8 or http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... Urbanized Area Formula Program. The purpose of this proposed circular is to provide recipients of...
27 CFR 21.78 - Formula No. 42.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 42. 21.78 Section 21.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section 21.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section 21.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section 21.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.59 - Formula No. 32.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 32. 21.59 Section 21.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section 21.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.78 - Formula No. 42.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 42. 21.78 Section 21.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
20 CFR 225.3 - PIA computation formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
.... The Average Monthly Earnings PIA formula is used to compute a PIA for one of two reasons: either the... the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974, and are always computed using the Average Monthly Earnings PIA formula. (i) Combined Earnings Dual Benefit PIA described in § 225.12. (ii)...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... communications with the respective PHAs. (e) Inapplicability of 24 CFR 85.25. Formula income is not subject to the provisions regarding program income in 24 CFR 85.25. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of formula income....
State Funding Formulas for Public Four-Year Institutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKeown, Mary P.
This article reviews the development of state funding formulas or guidelines for public higher education. Originally viewed as a means to distribute public funds in a rational and equitable manner, they now are complicated methodologies. Funding formulas are all-inclusive or itemized; most states use the itemized approach. There are three…
A precompiler for the formula manipulation system TRIGMAN.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jefferys, W. H.
1972-01-01
Discussion of a translator designed to simplify the programming of problems involving the TRIGMAN formula manipulation system. The translator allows for the introduction of a new data type, SERIES, into a FORTRAN program and translates a user's program into legal FORTRAN. The translator is adaptable to other formula manipulation systems presently used in celestial mechanics.
27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... approved formula on Form 27-B Supplemental indicates that carbon dioxide will be added to, or retained...
"Your Eye Is Sparkling": Formulaic Expressions and Routines in Turkish.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogancay, Seran
There are certain pre-coded (formulaic) utterances conventionally triggered by certain communication situations, and their use is expected and deemed appropriate because they are seen as part of everyday politeness formulas. Lack of an English equivalent indicates cultural differences governing their use. Some routines are taught explicitly and…
12 CFR 324.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA....144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements for the SSFA. To use the SSFA to determine the risk weight for a securitization exposure, an FDIC-supervised institution...
12 CFR 3.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 3.211 Simplified supervisory formula... (with unpaid principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the...
12 CFR 3.143 - Supervisory formula approach (SFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervisory formula approach (SFA). 3.143... Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.143 Supervisory formula approach (SFA). (a) Eligibility... than L + T, the national bank or Federal savings association must apply a 1,250 percent risk weight...
12 CFR 324.143 - Supervisory formula approach (SFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervisory formula approach (SFA). 324.143... Supervisory formula approach (SFA). (a) Eligibility requirements. An FDIC-supervised institution must use the... than L +T, the FDIC-supervised institution must apply a 1,250 percent risk weight to an amount equal...
12 CFR 3.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements for the SSFA. To use the SSFA to determine the risk weight for...
12 CFR 324.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Risk § 324.211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements. To use the... principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the underlying...
A Formula for Writing Environmental Scans for Community Colleges.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Marcia M.
This paper proposes a five-part formula for conducting an environmental scan for community colleges and writing up the results. To fulfill its mission effectively, administrators should be informed about various aspects of the community they serve. The formula is designed to make the project as easy as possible, focused, and usable the next time…
The Infant Formula Controversy: Is the Boycott Justified?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia H.
1982-01-01
Discusses problems involved with the use of infant formulas in developing countries and then examines the other side of the story, the legitimate need for infant formula. The International Code for the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is also presented and discussed. (RM)
Evaporation from flowing channels ( mass-transfer formulas).
Fulford, J.M.; Sturm, T.W.
1984-01-01
Stability-dependent and Dalton-type mass transfer formulas are determined from experimental evaporation data in ambient and heated channels and are shown to have similar performance in prediction of evaporation. The formulas developed are compared with those proposed by other investigators for lakes and flowing channels. -from ASCE Publications Information
Formulaic Sequences and the Implications for Second Language Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu, Qi
2016-01-01
The present paper is a review of literature in relation to formulaic sequences and the implications for second language learning. The formulaic sequence is a significant part of our language, and plays an essential role in both first and second language learning. The paper first introduces the definition, classifications, and major features of…
Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement
Zhang, M.
1996-10-01
In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed.
27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... approved formula on Form 27-B Supplemental indicates that carbon dioxide will be added to, or retained...
27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... approved formula on Form 27-B Supplemental indicates that carbon dioxide will be added to, or retained...
27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... approved formula on Form 27-B Supplemental indicates that carbon dioxide will be added to, or retained...
27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... approved formula on Form 27-B Supplemental indicates that carbon dioxide will be added to, or retained...
Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine
1982-01-01
Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)
A More Intuitive Version of the Lorentz Velocity Addition Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devlin, John F.
2009-01-01
The Lorentz velocity addition formula for one-dimensional motion presents a number of problems for beginning students of special relativity. In this paper we suggest a simple rewrite of the formula that is easier for students to memorize and manipulate, and furthermore is more intuitive in understanding the correction necessary when adding…
Origin of the Formulas of Dihydrogen and Other Simple Molecules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Andrew
2007-01-01
The logic and experimental data are described with which chemists originally deduced the formulas of the fundamental compounds such as H[subscript 2], H[subscript 2]O, Cl[subscript 2], NH[subscript 3], CH[subscript 4], and HCl. This information is never provided in current texts at any level and the formulas of such simple compounds are taken as…
47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas....
47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas....
Formula Student as Part of a Mechanical Engineering Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davies, Huw Charles
2013-01-01
Formula Student (FS) is a multi-university student design competition managed by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Students are required to demonstrate and prove their creativity and engineering skills through the design, manufacture and financing of a small formula style race car. This paper seeks to explore the educational value that…
27 CFR 21.3 - Stocks of discontinued formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stocks of discontinued..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM General Provisions § 21.3 Stocks of discontinued formulas. Denaturers, or specially denatured spirits dealers or users, having on hand stocks...
But Can They Read It? A Look at Readability Formulas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ricker, Kenneth S.
1978-01-01
Examines six science books in reference to their reading levels as determined by the Fry, SMOG, and Fog formulas. A disparity in calculated values is noted and explained to be the result of the use of different comprehension levels by the formulas. Suggestions concerning the selection of science reading materials for the classroom are provided.…
Geometrical Simplification of the Dipole-Dipole Interaction Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kocbach, Ladislav; Lubbad, Suhail
2010-01-01
Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice…
27 CFR 21.22 - Formula No. 18.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 18. 21.22 Section 21.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol...
27 CFR 21.23 - Formula No. 19.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 19. 21.23 Section 21.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol...
Concise Formulas for the Standard Errors of Component Loading Estimates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogasawara, Haruhiko
2002-01-01
Derived formulas for the asymptotic standard errors of component loading estimates to cover the cases of principal component analysis for unstandardized and standardized variables with orthogonal and oblique rotations. Used the formulas with a real correlation matrix of 355 subjects who took 12 psychological tests. (SLD)
27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.220 Section 26.220 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands §...
27 CFR 21.71 - Formula No. 39-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.71 Formula No. 39-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Two.... (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 112.Bay rum. 113.Lotions and creams (hand, face.... 141.Shampoos. 142.Soap and bath preparations. 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F....
27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.76 Formula No. 40-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One...) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 112.Bay rum. 113.Lotions and creams (hand... colognes. 141.Shampoos. 142.Soaps and bath preparations. 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or...
27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.76 Formula No. 40-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One...) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 112.Bay rum. 113.Lotions and creams (hand... colognes. 141.Shampoos. 142.Soaps and bath preparations. 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or...
27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.76 Formula No. 40-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One...) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 112.Bay rum. 113.Lotions and creams (hand... colognes. 141.Shampoos. 142.Soaps and bath preparations. 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or...
A transform involving Chebyshev polynomials and its inversion formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciaurri, Oscar; Navas, Luis M.; Varona, Juan L.
2006-11-01
We define a functional analytic transform involving the Chebyshev polynomials Tn(x), with an inversion formula in which the Mobius function [mu](n) appears. If with Re(s)>1, then given a bounded function from [-1,1] into , or from into itself, the following inversion formula holds: if and only if Some other similar results are given.
12 CFR 217.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements. To use the SSFA to determine the... the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the underlying exposures calculated...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... assigns weights to various performance factors reflecting program compliance, safety priorities,...
Developing a Workload Formula for High Technology Faculty.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Wanda E.; Barker, Stephen C.
A set of criteria for determining faculty workloads in light of changing roles and responsibilities is presented along with a formula that institutions can use to assess faculty workloads. After introductory material, the first section defines a workload formula as a method of determining the responsibilities a faculty member must carry out in a…
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... assigns weights to various performance factors reflecting program compliance, safety priorities,...
Estimating ideal body weight--a new formula.
Lemmens, Harry J M; Brodsky, Jay B; Bernstein, Donald P
2005-08-01
A simple formula for estimating ideal body weight (IBW) in kilograms for both men and women is presented. The equation IBW = 22 x H2, where H is equal to patient height in meters, yields weight values midway within the range of weights obtained using published IBW formulae.
47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas....
47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas....
Formulas for fixing serum sodium: curb your enthusiasm
Sterns, Richard H.
2016-01-01
A variety of formulas have been proposed to predict changes in serum sodium concentration. All are based on an experiment done over 50 years ago by Edelman, who derived a formula relating the plasma sodium concentration to isotopically measured body sodium, potassium, and water. Some of these formulas fail because they do not include urinary losses of electrolytes and water. Even those that include these essential variables are not accurate enough for clinical use because it is impractical to adjust calculations to rapid changes in urinary composition, and because the formulas do not account for changes in serum sodium caused by internal exchanges between soluble and bound sodium stores or shifts of water into or out of cells resulting from changes in intracellular organic osmolytes. Nephrologists should curb their enthusiasm for predictive formulas and rely instead on frequent measurements of the serum sodium when correcting hyponatremia and hypernatremia. PMID:27478590
On the construction of general cubature formula by flat extensions
Bucero, Marta Abril; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2016-01-01
We describe a new method to compute general cubature formulae. The problem is initially transformed into the computation of truncated Hankel operators with flat extensions. We then analyze the algebraic properties associated to flat extensions and show how to recover the cubature points and weights from the truncated Hankel operator. We next present an algorithm to test the flat extension property and to additionally compute the decomposition. To generate cubature formulae with a minimal number of points, we propose a new relaxation hierarchy of convex optimization problems minimizing the nuclear norm of the Hankel operators. For a suitably high order of convex relaxation, the minimizer of the optimization problem corresponds to a cubature formula. Furthermore cubature formulae with a minimal number of points are associated to faces of the convex sets. We illustrate our method on some examples, and for each we obtain a new minimal cubature formula. PMID:27563154
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...
2015-06-23
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the regulations on nutrient specifications and labeling for infant formula to add the mineral selenium to the list of required nutrients and to establish minimum and maximum levels of selenium in infant formula.
Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.
Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi
2015-03-01
The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.
Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion
Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi
2015-01-01
The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units—i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)—may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the ‘added-mass’ matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called ‘fundamental theorem for wave power’. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies. PMID:26064612
Comparison of IOL power calculation formulae for pediatric eyes.
Vasavada, V; Shah, S K; Vasavada, V A; Vasavada, A R; Trivedi, R H; Srivastava, S; Vasavada, S A
2016-09-01
PurposeTo evaluate and compare the accuracy of modern intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae in pediatric eyes and compare prediction error (PE) obtained with manufacturer's vs personalized lens constant.Patients and methodsAn observational case study was conducted in 117 eyes (117 patients) undergoing pediatric cataract surgery with IOL implantation. PE was calculated as predicted refraction minus actual postoperative refraction, and absolute PE as absolute difference independent of the sign, (APE)=predicted refraction minus actual postoperative refraction. This was done for each formula using manufacturer's and personalized lens constant. Further, PE and APE were evaluated according to axial length (AL).ResultsMean age of children was 2.97 years. About 66/117 eyes (56.4%) were below 2 years of age. Using Holladay 2, Holladay 1, Hoffer Q, and SRK/T formulae with manufacturer's lens constant, mean PE was 0.36, 0.41, 0.69, and 0.28 diopter (D), respectively. With personalized lens constant, it was 0.16, 0.15, 0.50, and -0.12 D, respectively. Difference in mean PE between the formulae was statistically significant (P<0.0001). SRK/T and Holladay 2 formulae had the least PE, both with manufacturer's and personalized constant. For eyes with AL<20 mm, SRK/T and Holladay 2 formulae gave the least PE. Personalizing the lens constant led to a decrease in mean PE in all formulae, except the Hoffer Q formula. However, personalizing the lens constant did not significantly improve the APE. At least 21% eyes had an APE of >2 D with all formulae, even with personalized lens constants.ConclusionIn pediatric eyes, SRK/T and the Holladay 2 formulae had the least PE. Personalizing the lens formula constant did reduce the PE significantly for all formulae except Hoffer Q. In extremely short eyes (AL<20 mm), SRK/T and Holladay 2 formulae gave the best PE. PMID:27494083
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itami, Masato; Sasa, Shin-ichi
2015-11-01
We study the friction coefficient of a macroscopic sphere in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. First, Kirkwood's formula for the friction coefficient is reviewed on the basis of the Hamiltonian description of particle systems. According to this formula, the friction coefficient is expressed in terms of the stress correlation on the surface of the macroscopic sphere. Then, with the aid of large deviation theory, we relate the surface stress correlation to the stress correlation in the bulk of the fluid, where the latter is characterized by the viscosity in the Green-Kubo formula. By combining Kirkwood's formula and the Green-Kubo formula in large deviation theory, we derive Stokes' law without explicitly employing the hydrodynamic equations.
Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants
Macdonald, P; Ross, S; Grant, L; Young, D
2003-01-01
Objective: To define the range of neonatal weight loss in a population relative to feeding method. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Maternity service providing geographically defined, community based newborn follow up. Participants: 971 consecutive term newborns of birth weight ⩾ 2500 g during the first 2–3 weeks of life; 34 excluded (inadequate data). 937 included: 45% breast fed, 42% formula fed, 13% breast and formula fed. Outcome measures: Maximum weight loss and timing, age on regaining birth weight. Results: Median weight loss: formula fed 3.5%, breast fed 6.6%. Upper centiles for maximum weight loss differ considerably (95th centiles: breast fed = 11.8%, formula fed = 8.4%; 97.5th centiles: breast fed = 12.8%, formula fed = 9.5%). Median time of maximum weight loss: 2.7 days for breast fed and formula fed. Recovery of birth weight: breast fed median 8.3 days, 95th centile 18.7 days, 97.5th centile 21.0 days; formula fed median 6.5 days, 95th centile 14.5 days, 97.5th centile 16.7 days. The time taken to regain birth weight correlates with both the degree and timing of initial weight loss for all groups. Conclusions: Early neonatal weight loss is defined allowing identification of infants who merit closer assessment and support. PMID:14602693
Formula feed preparation: helping reduce the risks; a systematic review
Renfrew, M; Ansell, P; Macleod, K
2003-01-01
Aims: To assess what is known about the risks associated with errors in reconstituting the present generation of infant formula feeds, and to examine which methods are likely to be safest. Methods: Systematic review, and examination of the range of infant formula products currently on sale in the UK. Studies from developed countries conducted after 1977 were included. All studies investigating the reconstitution of formula feeds for full term, healthy babies were eligible. Parameters studied were: measures of accuracy of feed reconstitution including fat, protein, total solids, energy content, and osmolality of feed; weight of powder in scoop; and reported method of preparing feed and measuring powder. Formula products were collected from one large UK supermarket in 2002. Number of different types of infant formula preparations available for sale were determined, together with scoop sizes for powdered preparations. Results: Only five studies were identified, none of adequate quality or size. All found errors in reconstitution, with a tendency to over-concentrate feeds; under-concentration also occurred. Thirty one different formula preparations were available for sale in one UK supermarket, with a range of scoop sizes. Some preparations had never been tested. Conclusions: There is a paucity of evidence available to inform the proper use of breast milk substitutes, and a large array of different preparations for sale. Given the impact incorrect reconstitution of formula feeds can have on the health of large numbers of babies, there is an important and urgent need to examine ways of minimising the risks of feed preparation. PMID:14500301
Simple formula for determining the location of the equator.
Kim, Seunghyun; Suh, Youngwoo; Cho, Yoonae A
2005-04-01
The determination of the position of the equator is very important during strabismus surgery for safe maximum recession. The purpose of this study is to present a simple formula for estimating the location of the equator (E = axial length x pi/4 - corneal diameter/2). A previous formula (E = 2(pi)r[beta/360]), although well presented, proved relatively complex to understand and apply to the clinical situation. There was no significant difference between the values calculated by the new formula and the previous formula when the horizontal corneal diameter was between 10.0 and 11.5 mm (P = 0.23, r = 0.998). In this range, the mean difference between the values calculated by the two formulae was only 0.1 +/- 0.08 mm (range 0-0.35 mm). Another advantage of the new formula is that the actual measured values of corneal diameter and axial length can be used. It is hoped that this simple formula can be used as an alternative for determining the location of the equator.
21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...
21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...
27 CFR 20.113 - Proprietary solvents general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... general-use formula. 20.113 Section 20.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.113 Proprietary solvents general-use formula.... Formula No. 1 or 3-A containing, for every 100 parts (by volume) of alcohol: (1) No less than 1 part...
27 CFR 20.113 - Proprietary solvents general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... general-use formula. 20.113 Section 20.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.113 Proprietary solvents general-use formula.... Formula No. 1 or 3-A containing, for every 100 parts (by volume) of alcohol: (1) No less than 1 part...
27 CFR 20.113 - Proprietary solvents general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... general-use formula. 20.113 Section 20.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.113 Proprietary solvents general-use formula.... Formula No. 1 or 3-A containing, for every 100 parts (by volume) of alcohol: (1) No less than 1 part...
21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...
21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...
21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...
27 CFR 20.113 - Proprietary solvents general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... general-use formula. 20.113 Section 20.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.113 Proprietary solvents general-use formula.... Formula No. 1 or 3-A containing, for every 100 parts (by volume) of alcohol: (1) No less than 1 part...
Physicians, formula companies, and advertising. A historical perspective.
Greer, F R; Apple, R D
1991-03-01
The recent advent of new advertising campaigns for infant formulas aimed at the general public via television commercials, newspapers, free formula coupons, and lay periodicals has disrupted a comfortable symbiotic relationship between infant food manufacturers and the medical profession that has endured for more than 50 years. In the late 19th century, physicians were concerned about the advertising claims of these products and generally felt that indications and directions for their use should be the province of the physician. Between 1929 and 1932, the American Medical Association, through its Committee on Foods and "Seal of Acceptance," essentially required the entire formula industry to advertise only to the medical profession. Since 1932, the US formula industry has developed into a $1.6 billion market. In 1988, Nestlé (absent from the US infant formula industry since the 1940s) acquired the Carnation Company and launched an advertising campaign to the general public for its formula products. Bristol Myers/Mead Johnson, in cooperation with Gerber Products Company, quickly followed suit. These actions threaten to once again remove the realm of infant feeding from the exclusive supervision of the medical profession. The new multimedia public advertising campaigns may increase the cost of infant formula to the general public and have a negative impact on the incidence of breast-feeding. In addition, formula advertising campaigns will likely increase the danger of advertising hyperbole and affect the level of financial support by formula companies for scientific meetings, medical research, education, and social events at medical meetings. PMID:1781817
The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.
Malone, A J; Kearney, P J; Duggan, P F
1999-09-01
These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley's First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer's quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer's quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.
Analytical formula connecting entangled states and the closest disentangled state
Ishizaka, Satoshi
2003-06-01
The separable state closest to a given entangled state in the relative entropy measure is called the closest disentangled state. We provide an analytical formula connecting the entangled states and the closest disentangled state in two qubits. Using this formula, when any disentangled state {sigma} located at the entangle-disentangle boundary is given, entangled states to which {sigma} is closest can be obtained analytically. Further, this formula naturally defines the direction normal to the boundary surface. The direction is uniquely determined by {sigma} in almost all cases.
Improving accessibility to mathematical formulas: the Wikipedia Math Accessor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuentes Sepúlveda, J.; Ferres, L.
2012-09-01
Mathematics accessibility is an important topic for inclusive education. In this paper, we make Wikipedia's repository of mathematical formulas accessible by providing a natural language description of its more than 420,000 formulas using a well-researched sub-language. We also contribute by targeting Spanish speakers, for whom assistive technologies, particularly domain-specific technologies like the one described here, are scarce. Our focus on the semantics of formulas (rather than their visual appearance) allowed us to generate verbalizations with a precision of approximately 80% of understandable descriptions, as shown in an evaluation with sighted users.
Eling-Oz formula for the holographic bulk viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchel, Alex
2011-05-01
Recently Eling and Oz [1] proposed a simple formula for the bulk viscosity of holographic plasma. They argued that the formula is valid in the high temperature (near-conformal) regime, but is expected to break down at low temperatures. We point out that the formula is in perfect agreement with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of the cascading plasma [2, 3], as well as with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of {N} = {2^*} plasma [4, 5]. In the latter case it correctly reproduces the critical behaviour of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the critical point with the vanishing speed of sound.
An analytic formula for heating due to ozone absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindzen, R. S.; Will, D. I.
1972-01-01
An attempt was made to devise a simple expression or formula to describe radiative heating in the atmosphere by ozone absorption. Such absorption occurs in the Hartley, Huggins, and Chappuis bands and is only slightly temperature and pressure dependent.
The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula
Vass, Arpad Alexander
2011-01-01
The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.
Quantum mechanical derivation of the Wallis formula for π
Friedmann, Tamar; Hagen, C. R.
2015-11-15
A famous pre-Newtonian formula for π is obtained directly from the variational approach to the spectrum of the hydrogen atom in spaces of arbitrary dimensions greater than one, including the physical three dimensions.
An improved bootstrap current formula for edge pedestal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hager, Robert; Chang, C.-S.
2014-10-01
An improved version of a bootstrap current formula based on the results of the neoclassical guiding-center particle-in-cell code XGC0 is presented. The original formula improved the accuracy of the predicted bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the ion orbit width can be comparable to the pressure gradient scale length, the passing particle region is narrow, and the ions experience orbit loss. We improved two aspects of this formula. We corrected the asymptotic behavior of the bootstrap current coefficients at higher collisionality from what was inherited from the Sauter formula. We also improved the jumpy aspect-ratio dependence of the transition between an enhanced (NSTX) and reduced (DIII-D) bootstrap current regime found by Koh et al. In addition, we elucidate the physical origins of the improvement and of the difference from a local analysis that includes the importance of finite ion orbit excursion effects on the electron current in the edge pedestal.
An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Steven D.
1996-01-01
Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)
Readability Formulas as Applied to College Economics Textbooks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McConnell, Campbell R.
1982-01-01
Determines from empirical information on the application of four readability formulas to a group of widely used college economics textbooks that there is no consistency in the absolute reading levels or the rank orderings of these books. (AEA)
Comparison of the performances of several modified bituminous mix formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saoula, Samia; Haddadi, Smail; Mokhtar, Khedidja Ait
2012-09-01
The mechanical behaviour of several formulas of bituminous concrete containing polymer (HDPE), polymer-bitumens (EVA) and waste of sole of shoes (containing copolymer butadiene-styrene-SBR noted DSBR and ethylene and vinyl acetate-EVA noted DEVA) were studied. The aim of this work is to improvement of the poor mechanicals performances of a bituminous concrete formula (0/14) which isn't conforming to the Algerian standards. Also, the mechanical tests showed that the permanent deformations and the indirect tensile strength at the temperatures of service resistances are improved. At high-temperature service, formulas of asphalt bitumen-EVA most resistant against the average temperature in service, it mixes made with waste are best resistant. All the formulas have a good behaviour with water.
27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F. 249.Miscellaneous external...). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....
Cow milk allergy in infancy and hypoallergenic formulas.
Kleinman, R E
1992-11-01
Substitute feedings have been used to treat infants with cow milk protein allergy for most of this century. For the past 50 years, several infant formulas based on animal proteins, both intact and chemically modified, or on vegetable protein have been labeled "hypoallergenic." Because of the risk of anaphylaxis and other serious adverse reactions, formulas that are claimed to be hypoallergenic should be subjected to rigorous preclinical and clinical testing. At a minimum, such formulas should not provoke any allergic signs or symptoms in 90% of infants with documented cow milk protein allergy when tested in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. A standardized definition of "hypoallergenic" will allow clinicians and parents to understand the true risks to a cow milk-allergic infant fed such hypoallergenic formulas.
A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers
Chen, Ya-Ling; Liao, Fang-Hsuean
2016-01-01
We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides) on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers. PMID:27403155
On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friot, Samuel
2015-02-01
Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella FC functions.
A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers.
Chen, Ya-Ling; Liao, Fang-Hsuean; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Chien, Yi-Wen
2016-01-01
We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides) on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.
Data Sharing of Mechanical Design Formulas Using Semantic Web Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jun; Watanuki, Keiichi
Speed and efficiency are necessary in the field of mechanical design. CAD/CAM/CAE technologies have advanced and attention has also been paid to increasing the efficiency of data sharing and agent processes in the web environment. In this paper, Semantic Web technology is used to enable the sharing of metadata. The metadata consists of design documents and design formulas, with additional semantic information inserted. Mathematical information is expressed by adding metadata into conventional mechanical design formulas using a Resource Description Framework (RDF). The design formulas are later written in MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) for the sake of data sharing. In this way, data sharing and advanced searching is made easy, because the relevant information is made machine readable in the web environment. The calculation of design formulas is made possible using a mathematical processing system, thus increasing the efficiency of mechanical design.
A note on the loop formula for the fermionic determinant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiler, Erhard; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu
2016-08-01
A formula expressing the fermionic determinant as an infinite product of smaller determinants is derived and discussed. These smaller determinants are of a fixed size, independent of the size of the lattice and are indexed by loops of increasing length.
Asymptotic formula for eigenvalues of one dimensional Dirac system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulusoy, Ismail; Penahlı, Etibar
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the spectral problem for one dimensional Dirac system with Dirichlet boundary conditions. By using Counting lemma, we give an asymptotic formulas of eigenvalues of Dirac system.
27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... the formula number, quantities of spirits and herbs used, and the amount produced; (g) The quantity of... record of the receipt and use or other disposition of all herbs, aromatics, essences, extracts, or...
27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... the formula number, quantities of spirits and herbs used, and the amount produced; (g) The quantity of... record of the receipt and use or other disposition of all herbs, aromatics, essences, extracts, or...
27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... the formula number, quantities of spirits and herbs used, and the amount produced; (g) The quantity of... record of the receipt and use or other disposition of all herbs, aromatics, essences, extracts, or...
27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... the formula number, quantities of spirits and herbs used, and the amount produced; (g) The quantity of... record of the receipt and use or other disposition of all herbs, aromatics, essences, extracts, or...
27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... the formula number, quantities of spirits and herbs used, and the amount produced; (g) The quantity of... record of the receipt and use or other disposition of all herbs, aromatics, essences, extracts, or...
Multidimensional Extension of the Generalized Chowla-Selberg Formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elizalde, E.
After recalling the precise existence conditions of the zeta function of a pseudodifferential operator, and the concept of reflection formula, an exponentially convergent expression for the analytic continuation of a multidimensional inhomogeneous Epstein-type zeta function of the general form<FORMULA FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> with A the p×p$ matrix of a quadratic form, a p vector and q a constant, is obtained. It is valid on the whole complex s-plane, is exponentially convergent and provides the residua at the poles explicitly. It reduces to the famous formula of Chowla and Selberg in the particular case p=2, , q=0. Some variations of the formula and physical applications are considered.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-16
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Formula Grant for the Electronic Application... of Collection: Formula Grant for the Electronic Application System for Indian Education (EASIE). OMB... the Department of Education (ED) requests clearance for the Indian Education Formula Grant...
[Usefulness of a soy- and oatmeal-based formula in infant nutrition. Nitrogen balance].
del Valle Canseco, F; Villanueva Clift, H; Escobedo, M; Reyes Govea, J; Hernández Nevárez, M C; Briones, J; Muñóz, M de J; Talamás Abbud, A
1980-01-01
A soy flour and oatmeal formula added with vitamins and minerals is presented. Nitrogen balance is carried out in 6 malnourished infants undergoing recovery as compared with a commercial milk formula, finding no significant statistical differences between the two formulas.
q-Extension of the Euler formula and trigonometric functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, T.
2007-09-01
In this paper, we introduce a Daehee constant, the so-called q-extension of the Napier constant, and consider the Daehee formula associated with the q-extensions of trigonometric functions. That is, we derive the q-extensions of sine and cosine functions from our Daehee formula. Finally, we present the q-calculus related to the q-extensions of sine and cosine functions.
Anti-diabetic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine formula.
Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang
2012-11-01
An anti-diabetic TCM formula consisting of Schizandra chinensis Baill. (SC), Coptis chinensis (CC), Psidium guajava L. leaves (PG) and Morus alba L. leaves (MA) was developed based on its α-glucosidase, DPP-4 and AGE inhibitory activities in vitro using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the in vivo study was carried out to confirm the anti-diabetic function of the formula. RSM results showed that the optimum anti-diabetic TCM formula is the combination SC (3000 μg mL(-1)), CC (80 μg mL(-1)), PG (374.56 μg mL(-1)) and MA (480 μg mL(-1)). For the in vivo study, insulin resistant mice were induced by high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) feeding for 6 weeks. Administration of the developed formula significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose in the HF/HS diet mice. Moreover, the formula decreased blood glucose levels in the insulin tolerance test. These results indicated that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the formula might be due to decreased insulin resistance. The serum fructosamine level in the high dose group was significantly lower than the HF/HS and normal control groups, indicating that the formula could improve middle term glucose levels and reduce the risk of complications. The contents of berberine and 1-deoxynojirimycin in the formula were 4.7 ± 0.4 and 77.1 ± 1.1 μg mL(-1), respectively. These two compounds can be used as indicators for quality control during production. PMID:22899105
Nuclear binding energy using semi empirical mass formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ankita, Suthar, B.
2016-05-01
In the present communication, semi empirical mass formula using the liquid drop model has been presented. Nuclear binding energies are calculated using semi empirical mass formula with various constants given by different researchers. We also compare these calculated values with experimental data and comparative study for finding suitable constants is added using the error plot. The study is extended to find the more suitable constant to reduce the error.
Defective Infant Formulas and Expressive Language Problems: A Case Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wing, Clara S.
1990-01-01
Children who used chloride-deficient soy-based infant formulas (Neo-Mull-Soy and Cho-Free) have been found to exhibit expressive language disorders. Medical studies of such children are reviewed, and a case study compares the language development deficits of an eight-year-old boy who used the formula with that of his fraternal twin who did not.…
27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.55 Formulas for... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor.” For purposes of this paragraph: (i) Removal of any volume of water from beer, filtration of beer...
27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.55 Formulas for... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor.” For purposes of this paragraph: (i) Removal of any volume of water from beer, filtration of beer...
27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.55 Formulas for... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor.” For purposes of this paragraph: (i) Removal of any volume of water from beer, filtration of beer...
27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.55 Formulas for... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor.” For purposes of this paragraph: (i) Removal of any volume of water from beer, filtration of beer...
27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.55 Formulas for... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor.” For purposes of this paragraph: (i) Removal of any volume of water from beer, filtration of beer...
The Kirchhoff Formula for a Supersonically Moving Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.
1996-01-01
The Kirchhoff formula for radiation from stationary surfaces first appeared in 1882, and it has since found many applications in wave propagation theory. In 1930, Morgans extended the formula to apply to surfaces moving at speeds below the wave propagation speed; we refer to Morgans formula as the subsonic formulation. A modern derivation of Morgans result was published by Farassat and Myers in 1988, and it has now been used extensively in acoustics, particularly for high speed helicopter rotor noise prediction. Under some common conditions in this application, however, the appropriate Kirchhoff surface must be chosen such that portions of it travel at supersonic speed. The available Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces is not suitable for this situation. In the current paper we derive the Kirchhoff formula applicable to a supersonically moving surface using some results from generalized function theory. The new formula requires knowledge of the same surface data as in the subsonic case. Complications that arise from apparent singularities in the new formulation are discussed briefly in the paper.
Extension of Kirchhoff's formula to radiation from moving surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.
1988-01-01
Kirchhoff's formula for radiation from a closed surface has been used recently for prediction of the noise of high speed rotors and propellers. Because the closed surface on which the boundary data are prescribed in these cases is in motion, an extension of Kirchhoff's formula to this condition is required. In this paper such a formula, obtained originally by Morgans for the interior problem, is derived for regions exterior to surfaces moving at speeds below the wave propagation speed by making use of some results of generalized function theory. It is shown that the usual Kirchhoff formula is a special case of the main result of the paper. The general result applies to a deformable surface. However, the special form it assumes for a rigid surface in motion is also noted. In addition, Morgans' result is further extended by showing that edge line integrals appear in the formula when applied to a surface that is piecewise smooth. Some possible areas of application of the formula to problems of current interest in aeroacoustics are discussed.
Extension of Kirchhoff's formula to radiation from moving surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.
1987-01-01
Kirchhoff's formula for radiation from a closed surface has been used recently for prediction of the noise of high speed rotors and propellers. Because the closed surface on which the boundary data are prescribed in these cases is in motion, an extension of Kirchhoff's formula to this condition is required. In this paper such a formula, obtained originally by Morgans for the interior problem, is derived for regions exterior to surfaces moving at speeds below the wave propagation speed by making use of some results of generalized function theory. It is shown that the usual Kirchhoff formula is a special case of the main result of the paper. The general result applies to a deformable surface. However, the special form it assumes for a rigid surface in motion is also noted. In addition, Morgans' result is further extended by showing that edge line integrals appear in the formula when applied to a surface that is piecewise smooth. Some possible areas of application of the formula to problems of current interest in aeroacoustics are discussed.
Clarification of the new XGC0-based bootstrap current formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hager, Robert; Chang, Choong-Seock
2013-10-01
Additional proof for the validity of a new bootstrap current formula based on the results of the neoclassical particle-in-cell code XGC0 is presented. In the collisional regime in the pedestal region of tight aspect ratio tokamaks, this formula predicts a higher bootstrap current than the popular formula by Sauter. Otherwise, bootstrap currents from XGC0 agree approximately to Sauter's formula. Koh et al. argue that collisions in conjunction with the almost toroidal field lines at the high field side of a spherical tokamak enable some of the trapped particles to contribute to the bootstract current. To corroborate this rationale, corresponding s- α, concentric-circle, and Grad-Shafranov configurations are examined. Since the field line pitch is uniform on a flux surface in s- α configuration, the bootstrap current in s- α geometry is found to agree approximately with Sauter's formula. With the field line pitch variation becoming more pronounced in the concentric-circle and Grad-Shafranov configurations, the current increases continuously to the level predicted by Koh's formula. This study has been performed as part of the SciDAC EPSI project activities. HPC time has been provided through NERSC ERCAP and OLCF INCITE programs.
Analytic formulae for transit timing variations of planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deck, Katherine Michele; Agol, Eric
2015-12-01
Gravitational interactions between planets in transiting exoplanetary systems lead to variations in the times of transit (TTVs) that are diagnostic of the planetary masses and the dynamical state of the system. I will present analytic formulae for TTVs which can be applied to planetary systems with nearly circular orbits which are not caught in a mean motion resonance. The formulae relate physical parameters, like masses and orbital elements, to direct TTV observables, including shape, amplitude, and timescales. Importantly, the formulae highlight which components of TTVs break degeneracies to allow for unique measurements of planet masses and eccentricities. Additionally, modeling of TTV data using our analytic formulae can be nearly 4 orders of magnitude faster compared with n-body integration. For a number of Kepler systems with TTVs, I will show that our formulae lead to accurate mass and orbital element measurements without full dynamical analyses involving direct integration of the equations of motion. The analytic formulae may ultimately allow for a homogenous analysis of the TTVs (or lack thereof) of many multi-planet systems.
Isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formulas.
Torres-Chavolla, Edith; Ramírez-Cerda, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Rojo, Rosalba
2007-01-01
Enterobacter sakazakii is a pathogen of increasing medical concern, due to it being implicated in cases of meningitis, sepis, and necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the consumption of contaminated infant milk formula. At present, the method adopted by the Mexican food industry for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii is based on the methodology of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, this procedure is laborious and requires 7 days to obtain a confirmative result. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of E. sakazakii in two types of powdered infant milk formula, using an alternative method that requires less time and a smaller sample size than the FDA protocol. We adapted Leuschner's procedure by eliminating violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) plates and instead adopting white light incubation to stimulate yellow pigment development. This allowed for isolation of E. sakazakii from powdered infant milk formula using a smaller sample and requiring only 5 days for analysis. Results showed that 92% of formula 1 and 32% of formula 2 was positive for E. sakazakii. The high contamination level of E. sakazakii suggests the need for monitoring hygienic conditions in the manufacturing plant and to assess the prevalence of E. sakazakii in powdered infant milk formulas sold in México. PMID:17600483
Zhang, Fangbo; Tang, Shihuan; Liu, Xi; Gao, Yibo; Wang, Yanping
2013-01-01
At the molecular level, it is acknowledged that a TCM formula is often a complex system, which challenges researchers to fully understand its underlying pharmacological action. However, module detection technique developed from complex network provides new insight into systematic investigation of the mode of action of a TCM formula from the molecule perspective. We here proposed a computational approach integrating the module detection technique into a 2-class heterogeneous network (2-HN) which models the complex pharmacological system of a TCM formula. This approach takes three steps: construction of a 2-HN, identification of primary pharmacological units, and pathway analysis. We employed this approach to study Shu-feng-jie-du (SHU) formula, which aimed at discovering its molecular mechanism in defending against influenza infection. Actually, four primary pharmacological units were identified from the 2-HN for SHU formula and further analysis revealed numbers of biological pathways modulated by the four pharmacological units. 24 out of 40 enriched pathways that were ranked in top 10 corresponding to each of the four pharmacological units were found to be involved in the process of influenza infection. Therefore, this approach is capable of uncovering the mode of action underlying a TCM formula via module analysis. PMID:24376467
Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
Ziegler, Ekhard E
2006-01-01
Growth and nutrition during infancy are being viewed with renewed interest because of the possibility that they may be linked to cardiovascular and metabolic health in later life. Of particular interest are differences between breast- and formula-fed infants with regard to nutrient intake and growth because breastfeeding has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of obesity in later life. During the first 6-8 weeks of life there is little difference in growth (gain in weight and length) between breast- and formula-fed infants. However, from about 2 months of age to the end of the first year of life formula-fed infants gain weight and length more rapidly than breast-fed infants. There are no consistent differences in adiposity during the first 4-5 months of life, but during the later part of the first year of life the preponderance of the evidence suggests that breast-fed infants are leaner than formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants at 4-5 months of age show higher plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin and certain amino acids than breast-fed infants. Whereas the protein intake of breast-fed infants decreases with age and closely matches the requirements for protein during the early months of life, the protein intake of formula-fed infants exceeds requirements after the first 1-2 months of life. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in protein intake are mainly responsible for differences in growth between breast- and formula-fed infants. Differences in energy intake probably are responsible for differences in adiposity observed in older infants.
Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report
Truett, L.F.
2000-09-12
In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistance in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.
Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report
Truett, L.F.; Davis, S.C.; Hu, P.S.
2000-09-01
In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistance in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.
Identification of immunogenic maize proteins in a casein hydrolysate formula.
Frisner, H; Rosendal, A; Barkholt, V
2000-05-01
Cow's milk-based formulas used for infants with cow's milk allergy are based on hydrolyzed proteins. The formulas that are successful in preventing allergic responses are extensively hydrolyzed. Nevertheless, reactions to such formulas are occasionally reported, and protein material of higher molecular weight than expected has been detected by binding immunoglobulin E (IgE) from patients' sera. This paper presents the identification of high-molecular-weight material in the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula, Nutramigen. The material was concentrated by simple centrifugation. The proteins in the pellet were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein-containing bands were analyzed by protein sequencing after electroblotting. The proteins were identified as maize zeins, which are water-insoluble proteins of apparent M(r) 20,000 and 23,000, presumably originating from the maize starch in Nutramigen. Rabbits immunized with this formula developed antibodies against zeins but not against milk proteins. The maize zeins are probably identical to the recently reported components in Nutramigen (1), detected by binding of IgE from milk allergic patients, but not correlated to clinical allergic reactivity. The clinical relevance of maize proteins in Nutramigen remains to be established. PMID:10893013
Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis
Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N
1997-01-01
Accepted 17 March 1997 The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants. PMID:9279143
Probability plotting position formulas for flood records with historical information
Hirsch, R.M.
1987-01-01
For purposes of evaluating fitted flood frequency distributions or for purposes of estimating distributions directly from plots of flood peaks versus exceedance probabilities (either by subjective or objective techniques), one needs a probability plotting position formula which can be applied to all of the flood data available: both systematic and historic floods. Some of the formulas in use are simply extensions of existing formulas (such as Hazen and Weibull) used on systematic flood records. New plotting position formulas proposed by Hirsch and Stedinger (1986) and in this paper are based on a recognition that the flood data arises from partially censored sampling of the flood record. The theoretical appropriateness, bias in probability and bias in discharge of the various plotting position formulas are considered. The methods are compared in terms of their effects on flood frequency estimation when an objective curve-fitting method of estimation is employed. Consideration is also given to the correct interpretation of the historical record length and the effect of incorrectly assuming that record length equals the time since the first known historical flood. This assumption is employed in many flood frequency studies and may result in a substantial bias in estimated design flood magnitudes. ?? 1987.
Effect of infant formula with probiotics on intestinal microbiota.
Baldeón, Manuel E; Naranjo, Gabriela; Granja, Diego
2008-03-01
Weaning during infancy refers to the initiation of complementary food to breast milk. During weaning, there are significant changes on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Deleterious alterations of the gastrointestinal microbiota can result in pathological processes while measures that stimulate its development and stability, like the use of probiotics, are beneficial. The mechanisms by which probiotics achieve their effects have not been clearly established. Present work compares the microbial composition of feces from infants that were weaned to regular family food, formula with probiotics (B. Lactis BL y S. Thermophilus) or formula without probiotics. Accordingly, analysis of rDNA of microbial fecal samples by molecular techniques was used. Formula with or without probiotics was well tolerated and safe for all participating children. Probiotics present in formula were viable and susceptible to culture. There was not difference on physical growth or development among all participants. The microbiota of children supplemented with formula with- or without probiotics was different than that observed in children supplemented with regular food. It was not possible to determine enrichment of B. Lactis BL and S. Thermophilus in the feces of children that consumed the probiotics. Present work contributes to the understanding of probiotics effects in human health. PMID:18589566
Students' Understanding of Chemical Formulae: A review of empirical research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha
2014-01-01
The fluent use of the chemical language is a major tool for successfully passing chemistry courses at school or university as well as for working as a chemist, since chemical formulae are both a descriptive and a heuristic tool. However, numerous studies have revealed remarkable difficulties of students with chemical formulae both at school and at university. Although analysed for decades, current studies and practical experiences indicate that the misinterpretation of symbolic representations by students is still an ongoing problem. This review intends not only to summarize but also to categorize students' problems and difficulties when dealing with chemical formulae as reported in empirical studies. For this purpose, two categories of descriptive character were deduced from the empirical data: the type of chemical formulae and the operational activities that were required in the tasks of the studies. All in all, 38 articles were analysed on the basis of these categories. Students' problems and difficulties are then reflected based on three main problem areas: language-based problems, problems due to conceptual understanding, and problems due to inadequate selection and interpretation of formulae. These three areas call for a broader perspective in the interpretation of students' problems and thus lead to a discussion of implications for further research and changes in teaching practice.
Lönnerdal, Bo
2014-03-01
Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic.
Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J
2013-01-01
A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23141821
Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J
2013-01-01
A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae.
Nutritional balance studies: evaluation of a premature infant formula.
Cordano, A; Bancalari, E; Hansen, J W; Feller, R
1985-06-01
A 24 kcal/oz (81 kcal/100 ml) premature infant formula (Enfamil Premature Formula) with moderately high mineral content (117 mg Ca/100 ml and 58 mg P/100 ml) and a protein content of 3 g/100 kcal was evaluated in sixteen 3-day balance studies at 10 and 21 days of age in nine premature infants with birth weights from 1,200 to 1,400 g. Growth rates were similar to in utero rates, and the formula was well accepted and tolerated. Calcium retention (62.5%) was similar to in utero accretion, and phosphorus retention was only slightly lower. Nitrogen retention was high without the development of metabolic acidosis or abnormal serum urea nitrogen levels.
Conditions for predicting quasistationary states by rearrangement formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y.; Ogawa, Shun
2015-10-01
Predicting the long-lasting quasistationary state for a given initial state is one of central issues in Hamiltonian systems having long-range interaction. A recently proposed method is based on the Vlasov description and uniformly redistributes the initial distribution along contours of the asymptotic effective Hamiltonian, which is defined by the obtained quasistationary state and is determined self-consistently. The method, to which we refer as the rearrangement formula, was suggested to give precise prediction under limited situations. Restricting initial states consisting of a spatially homogeneous part and small perturbation, we numerically reveal two conditions that the rearrangement formula prefers: One is a no Landau damping condition for the unperturbed homogeneous part, and the other comes from the Casimir invariants. Mechanisms of these conditions are discussed. Clarifying these conditions, we validate to use the rearrangement formula as the response theory for an external field, and we shed light on improving the theory as a nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.
Modular forms and a generalized Cardy formula in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaghoulian, Edgar
2016-06-01
We derive a formula which applies to conformal field theories on a spatial torus and gives the asymptotic density of states solely in terms of the vacuum energy on a parallel plate geometry. The formula follows immediately from global scale and Lorentz invariance, but to our knowledge has not previously been made explicit. It can also be understood from the fact that log Z on T2×Rd -1 transforms as the absolute value of a nonholomorphic modular form of weight d -1 , which we show. The results are extended to theories which violate Lorentz invariance and hyperscaling but maintain a scaling symmetry. The formula is checked for the cases of a free scalar, free Maxwell gauge field, and free N =4 super Yang-Mills. The case of a Maxwell gauge field gives Casimir's original calculation of the electromagnetic force between parallel plates in terms of the entropy of a photon gas.
Einstein's Radiation Formula and Modifications to the Einstein Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, C. Y.
1995-12-01
Einstein's radiation formula is supported by the Taylor-Hulse experiment, but its derivation is not self-consistent. Furthermore, as discovered by Einstein, his radiation formula is not compatible with his field equation. As suggested by Einstein's own remark, modifications to the source tensor are necessary. Based on the Taylor-Hulse experiment, in this paper a theory is developed within the theoretical framework of general relativity within which the radiation formula remains the same for binary stars. Concurrently, it is determined that, because of radiation, the source tensor is not zero in a vacuum. Antigravity coupling, suggested by Pauli as a possibility, is a necessary feature. In addition, it is shown that the current theory of linearized gravity is not valid for radiation.
Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
2016-02-01
We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain "componential" map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory.
An analytic formula for the supercluster mass function
Lim, Seunghwan; Lee, Jounghun E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr
2014-03-01
We present an analytic formula for the supercluster mass function, which is constructed by modifying the extended Zel'dovich model for the halo mass function. The formula has two characteristic parameters whose best-fit values are determined by fitting to the numerical results from N-body simulations for the standard ΛCDM cosmology. The parameters are found to be independent of redshifts and robust against variation of the key cosmological parameters. Under the assumption that the same formula for the supercluster mass function is valid for non-standard cosmological models, we show that the relative abundance of the rich superclusters should be a powerful indicator of any deviation of the real universe from the prediction of the standard ΛCDM model.
Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.
Two Prophecy Formulas for Assessing the Reliability of Item Response Theory-Based Ability Estimates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raju, Nambury S.; Oshima, T.C.
2005-01-01
Two new prophecy formulas for estimating item response theory (IRT)-based reliability of a shortened or lengthened test are proposed. Some of the relationships between the two formulas, one of which is identical to the well-known Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, are examined and illustrated. The major assumptions underlying these formulas are…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Although breast feeding is recommended, most US infants are formula-fed. In this study, neonatal piglets were breast-fed or were fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) from PND 2 until sacrifice at PND21. Commercial formulas were used with modifications to meet pig NRC recommendations. Serum chol...
New double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules.
Xiang, Zhong-Qi
2016-01-01
In this work, we establish two types of double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules, which involve scalars [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. It is shown that the results we obtained can immediately lead to the existing corresponding results when taking [Formula: see text].
21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...
21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...
21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant... by the infant formula. (b) Carry out additional effectiveness checks, if the agency's audits,...
24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is formula current assisted... current assisted stock? Formula current assisted stock is current assisted stock as described in § 1000... recipient and are under management as indicated in the Formula Response Form. Formula current assisted...
24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is formula current assisted... current assisted stock? Formula current assisted stock is current assisted stock as described in § 1000... recipient and are under management as indicated in the Formula Response Form. Formula current assisted...
24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is formula current assisted... current assisted stock? Formula current assisted stock is current assisted stock as described in § 1000... recipient and are under management as indicated in the Formula Response Form. Formula current assisted...
24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is formula current assisted... current assisted stock? Formula current assisted stock is current assisted stock as described in § 1000... recipient and are under management as indicated in the Formula Response Form. Formula current assisted...
24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is formula current assisted... current assisted stock? Formula current assisted stock is current assisted stock as described in § 1000... recipient and are under management as indicated in the Formula Response Form. Formula current assisted...
New Proofs of Some q-Summation and q-Transformation Formulas
Liu, Xian-Fang; Bi, Ya-Qing; Luo, Qiu-Ming
2014-01-01
We obtain an expectation formula and give the probabilistic proofs of some summation and transformation formulas of q-series based on our expectation formula. Although these formulas in themselves are not the probability results, the proofs given are based on probabilistic concepts. PMID:24895675
New double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules.
Xiang, Zhong-Qi
2016-01-01
In this work, we establish two types of double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules, which involve scalars [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. It is shown that the results we obtained can immediately lead to the existing corresponding results when taking [Formula: see text]. PMID:27441144
21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...
21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...
21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...
21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...
21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...
21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 8075, Feb. 10, 2014. The recalling...
21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...
21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...
27 CFR 20.112 - Special industrial solvents general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... solvents general-use formula. 20.112 Section 20.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.112 Special industrial solvents general-use formula. (a) A special industrial solvent is any article made with any other...
The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high
2013-01-01
Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Methods Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Results Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. Conclusions All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium. PMID:24103160
Asymptotically optimal unsaturated lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer
Ramazanov, M D
2013-07-31
This paper describes a new algorithm for constructing lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer. These formulae are unsaturated (in the sense of Babenko) both with respect to the order and in regard to the property of asymptotic optimality on W{sub 2}{sup m}-spaces, m element of (n/2,∞). Most of the results obtained apply also to W{sub 2}{sup μ}(R{sup n})-spaces with a hypoelliptic multiplier of smoothness μ. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Formula {E = mc2} in the Year of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okun, L. B.
2006-04-01
The ``famous formula'' E = mc2 and the concept of ``relativistic mass'' increasing with velocity, which follows from it, are historical artifacts, contradicting the basic symmetry of Einstein's Special Relativity. The relation discovered by Einstein is not E = mc2, but E0 = mc2, where E0 is the energy of a free body at rest. The source of the longevity of the ``famous formula'' is irresponsible attitude of relativity theory experts to the task of explaining it to the non-experts.
An algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matone, Marco
2015-05-01
A simple algorithm, which exploits the associativity of the BCH formula, and that can be generalized by iteration, extends the remarkable simplification of the BakerCampbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, recently derived by Van-Brunt and Visser. We show that if [ X, Y] = uX + vY + cI, [ Y, Z] = wY + zZ + dI, and, consistently with the Jacobi identity, [ X, Z] = mX + nY + pZ + eI, then
The ATA-67 Formula for Direct Operating Cost
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faulkner, H. B.
1972-01-01
The ATA formulas for direct operating cost were developed for the purpose of comparing different aircraft, existing or not, on the same route or the same aircraft on different routes. Such characteristics of the airline as crew pay, maintenance procedures, and depreciation schedules are kept constant. In air transportation systems analysis the 1967 ATA formula is usually used with appropriate exceptions or modifications, such as: different maintenance labor rate, total maintenance multiplied by a factor, maintenance burden deleted, different depreciation schedule, or different spares percentages.
The Parkland formula under fire: is the criticism justified?
Blumetti, Jennifer; Hunt, John L; Arnoldo, Brett D; Parks, Jennifer K; Purdue, Gary F
2008-01-01
Controversy has continued regarding the practicality and accuracy of the Parkland burn formula since its introduction over 35 years ago. The best guide for adequacy of resuscitation is urine output (UOP) per hour. A retrospective study of patients resuscitated with the Parkland formula was conducted to determine the accuracy (calculated vs. actual volume) based on UOP. A review of burn resuscitation from a single institution over 15 years was conducted. The Parkland formula was defined as fluid resuscitation of 3.7 to 4.3 ml/kg/% total body surface area (TBSA) burn in the first 24 hours. Adequate resuscitation was defined as UOP of 0.5 to 1.0 ml/kg/hr. Over-resuscitation was defined as UOP > 1.0 ml/kg/hr. Patients were stratified according to UOP. Burns more than 19% TBSA were included. Electrical burns, trauma, and children (<15 years) were excluded. Four hundred and eighty-three patients were reviewed. Forty-three percent (n = 210) received adequate resuscitation. Forty-eight percent (n = 233) received over-resuscitation. The mean fluid in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups was 5.8 and 6.1 ml/kg/%, respectively (P = .188). Mean TBSA and full thickness burns in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups were 38 and 43%, and 19 and 24%, respectively (P < .05). Inhalation injury was present in 12 and 18% (P = .1). Only 14% of adequately resuscitated and 12% of over-resuscitated patients met Parkland formula criteria. The mean Ivy index in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups was 216 and 259 ml/kg (P < .05). There was no significant difference in complication rates (80 vs. 82%) or mortality (14 vs. 17%). The actual burn resuscitation infrequently met the standard set forth by the Parkland formula. Patients commonly received fluid volumes higher than predicted by the Parkland formula. Emphasis should be placed not on calculated formula volumes, as these should represent the initial resuscitation volume only, but instead on parameters used to guide
On some reduction formulas of Kampe De Feriet function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Shoukat; Lachhwani, Kailash
2013-06-01
In a recent paper [A reducibility of the Kampé de Fériet function, Advances in Comput. Math. and its Applications, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 76-79 (2012)], the author has evaluated one very interesting reduction formula. In this paper, two new reduction formulas of Kampe de Feriet function have been evaluated by using Gauss's second summation theorem on the sum of a 3F2. The results established in this paper are simple, interesting, easily established and may be useful.
General formulas and charts for the calculation of airplane performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oswald, W Bailey
1933-01-01
This report presents general formulas for the determination of all major airplane performance characteristics. A rigorous analysis is used, making no assumption regarding the attitude of the airplane at which maximum rate of climb occurs, but finding the attitude at which the excess thrust horsepower is maximum. Equations and charts are developed which show the variation of performance due to a change in any of the customary design parameters. Performance determination by use of the formulas and charts is rapid and explicit. The results obtained by this performance method have been found to give agreement with flight tests that is, in general, equal or superior to results obtained by present commonly used methods.
ψ-Contraction and [Formula: see text]-contraction in Menger probabilistic metric space.
Ma, Pengcheng; Guan, Jinyu; Tang, Yanxia; Xu, Yongchun; Su, Yongfu
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present the definition of [Formula: see text]-contractive mapping and to discuss the relation of [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings and [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings. Furthermore, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been proved without the uniqueness condition. Meanwhile, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been obtained by using an ingenious method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.
2008-01-01
Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…
An approximation formula for a class of Markov reliability models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, A. L.
1984-01-01
A way of considering a small but often used class of reliability model and approximating algebraically the systems reliability is shown. The models considered are appropriate for redundant reconfigurable digital control systems that operate for a short period of time without maintenance, and for such systems the method gives a formula in terms of component fault rates, system recovery rates, and system operating time.
Illinois Community College Funding Formula Survey. Volume 21, Number 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fonte, Richard; And Others
A survey was conducted of Illinois community college presidents and business managers to determine current institutional thinking on the Illinois funding formula. Study findings, based on responses from 36 out of the 39 colleges in the state included the following: (1) 64% of the respondents favored the concept of averaging credit hours and unit…
Logarithmic corrections in black hole entropy product formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2016-07-01
It has been shown by explicit and exact calculation that whenever we have taken the effects of stable thermal fluctuations, the entropy product formula should not be mass-independent nor does it quantized. It has been examined by giving some specific examples for non-rotating and rotating black hole.
24 CFR 968.310 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
.... After a PHA is designated as a mod troubled agency under PHMAP (24 CFR part 901), HUD shall inform the... CFR part 950 (subpart I) which are not determined to be high risk under § 950.135 of this chapter, the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of formula...
Monty's Dilemma with No Formulas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Falk, Ruma
2014-01-01
The article presents an attempt to analyse Monty's dilemma by means of conversational formula-free dialogues and to simulate the problem by composing isomorphic stories. The crucial roles of specifying the underlying scenarios and explicating epistemic and probabilistic assumptions are highlighted.
24 CFR 92.454 - Reallocations by formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... jurisdiction under 24 CFR 91.520(f) for failure to submit in a timely manner a performance report required by 24 CFR 91.520 that is satisfactory to HUD; and (4) Any HOME funds remitted to HUD under § 92.503(b... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations by formula....
40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.630...
40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.630...
40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.630...
40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.630...
On Pesin's entropy formula for dominated splittings without mixed behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Yongluo; Yang, Dawei
2016-10-01
For C1 diffeomorphisms, we prove that the Pesin's entropy formula holds for some invariant measure supported on any topological attractor that admits a dominated splitting without mixed behavior. We also prove Shub's entropy conjecture for diffeomorphisms having such kind of splittings.
27 CFR 21.34 - Formula No. 2-C.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... gallon of rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 344.Processing medicinal....Drugs and medicinal chemicals. 579.Other chemicals. (3) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only). (c) Conditions governing use. This formula shall be used in a...
Problem Solvers: Problem--Area beyond the Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dean, Chrystal
2014-01-01
In this article, associate professor Chrystal Dean describes how teachers can challenge their upper elementary students' understanding of area beyond a memorized formula. Herein she describes an activity that will show students the "why" behind using A = l × w to solve rectangular area problems. The activity will help deepen…
24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...
24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...
24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...
24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...
24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...
27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... gallons of n-butyl alcohol (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 430.Sterilizing and preserving solutions... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...
27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... gallons of n-butyl alcohol (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 430.Sterilizing and preserving solutions... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...
24 CFR 570.406 - Formula miscalculation grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Special Purpose... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula miscalculation grants. 570.406 Section 570.406 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...
Developing Formulas by Skipping Rows in Pascal's Triangle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buonpastore, Robert J.; Osler, Thomas J.
2007-01-01
A table showing the first thirteen rows of Pascal's triangle, where the rows are, as usual numbered from 0 to 12 is presented. The entries in the table are called binomial coefficients. In this note, the authors systematically delete rows from Pascal's triangle and, by trial and error, try to find a formula that allows them to add new rows to the…
24 CFR 968.310 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
.... After a PHA is designated as a mod troubled agency under PHMAP (24 CFR part 901), HUD shall inform the... CFR part 950 (subpart I) which are not determined to be high risk under § 950.135 of this chapter, the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of formula...
27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... pounds of gentian violet or gentian violet, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F. 249.Miscellaneous external...). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....
27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... pounds of gentian violet or gentian violet, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F. 249.Miscellaneous external...). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....
27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... pounds of gentian violet or gentian violet, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F. 249.Miscellaneous external...). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....
27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... pounds of gentian violet or gentian violet, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F. 249.Miscellaneous external...). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....
27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... on Form 27-B Supplemental indicates that carbon dioxide will be added to, or retained in, still...
The Remodeling Conjecture and the Faber-Pandharipande Formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchard, Vincent; Catuneanu, Andrei; Marchal, Olivier; Sułkowski, Piotr
2013-01-01
In this note, we prove that the free energies F g constructed from the Eynard-Orantin topological recursion applied to the curve mirror to {{C}^3} reproduce the Faber-Pandharipande formula for genus g Gromov-Witten invariants of {{C}^3} . This completes the proof of the remodeling conjecture for {{C}^3}.
Microwave heating of infant formula: a dilemma resolved.
Sigman-Grant, M; Bush, G; Anantheswaran, R
1992-09-01
Microwave heating of infant formula is a common practice despite concerns of infant scalding. Beyond the issue of physical safety, little is known about the effects on nutrient content of microwave heating of infant formula. Casein-predominant infant formula in 120- and 240-mL glass and plastic nursing bottles of varying colors were heated for 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively. Temperature profiling was monitored during the heating cycle. Analysis of riboflavin and vitamin C was made prior to and after heating. Topmost portions reached a mean temperature of 44.7 +/- 1.7 degrees C and 43.0 +/- 2.4 degrees C for all types of 240-mL and 120-mL bottles, respectively. Topmost temperatures were significantly hotter than temperatures reached at other sites. Routine mixing resulted in formula temperatures which could safely be fed to infants (35.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C and 33.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C for 240-mL and 120-mL bottles, respectively). There was no significant loss of either riboflavin or vitamin C. Protocols for microwave heating are given.
40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar year...) “Allowances surrendered for underutilization” is the total number of allowances calculated in accordance with § 72.92 (a) and (c). (c) “Allowances deducted for Phase I extensions” is the total number of...
State Funding of Higher Education: A New Formula.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edirisooriya, Gunapala
2003-01-01
Asserts that heavy dependence on state support is quite detrimental to operational viability of higher education institutions, and that securing financial stability of higher education institutions should be a major priority among higher education policymakers. Presents a new funding formula that can be adopted by any state. (EV)
27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....
27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....
27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....
27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....
27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....
Acquisition of Formulaic Sequences in Intensive and Regular EFL Programmes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Serrano, Raquel; Stengers, Helene; Housen, Alex
2015-01-01
This paper aims to analyse the role of time concentration of instructional hours on the acquisition of formulaic sequences in English as a foreign language (EFL). Two programme types that offer the same amount of hours of instruction are considered: intensive (110 hours/1 month) and regular (110 hours/7 months). The EFL learners under study are…
Another Intuitive Approach to Stirling's Formula. Classroom Notes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osler, Thomas J.
2004-01-01
An intuitive derivation of Stirling's formula is presented, together with a modification that greatly improves its accuracy. The derivation is based on the closed form evaluation of the gamma function at an integer plus one-half. The modification is easily implemented on a hand-held calculator and often triples the number of significant digits…