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Sample records for forschungsreaktor triga heidelberg

  1. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl…

  2. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl…

  3. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  4. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  5. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  6. 78 FR 26811 - Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Supplemental Information and Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor,'' to inform the public that the NRC is considering issuance of a...

  7. Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A270 956 L11L1I~I1 11 11 :1Ji ili! August 1993 AFRRI 93-5 TECHNICAL REPORT Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water L OCT 1 93 John Dickson Robert...COVER~ED I August 1993 Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S.FNDN NUMBERS Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water PE: NWED QAXM 6, AUTHOR(S) Dickson...AVAILABIIY STATEMENT 1 2b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT tMaxtm -um 200 words ) 14. SUBJECTTERMS 1S

  8. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  9. Archaeometry using the Cornell TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z.; Bentley, R.A.; Clark, D.D.; Keyser, P.T.; Sadlikova, K.; Silverman, A.; Whitehead, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    There are several archaeological studies in progress at Cornell, and the various excavations include Etruscan (Siena, Italy), Neolithic (Halai, Greece), and late Classical (Sula Valley, northwest Honduras) Honduran sites. As part of these investigations, samples from these sites are analyzed using the Cornell TRIGA reactor. Cornell TRIGA is a 500-kW reactor well suited for high-sensitivity neutron activation analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA). The NAA facilities include several 20 to 30% efficient high-purity germanium detectors coupled to several personal computer-based analyzers. A PGNAA facility using a cold neutron beam is currently under development. The Cornell cold neutron beam is designed for a temperature of {approximately}30 K and a flux of {approximately}1 x 10{sup 7} n /cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s thermal equivalent. The guided beam is extracted and taken 13 m from the TRIGA core into an adjoining laboratory area, where the PGNAA irradiation and counting station will be set up.

  10. Applications of the Dow TRIGA research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, C.W.; Quinn, T.J.; Krueger, D.A.

    1982-07-01

    The Dow TRIGA Mark I reactor is a one-hundred kilowatt nuclear reactor installed by General Atomics using the Torrey Pines reactor console, seventy-five used stainless-steel clad fuel elements and one new aluminium clad fuel element. The reactor is equipped with a forty-position rotating Lazy Susan in the reflector, a pneumatic transfer system with its terminal in the F-ring of the core, and a central thimble which can be used for irradiation of samples in the center of the core or which can be emptied of the shielding water to produce a beam of neutrons and gamma rays in the area atop the pool. Samples can also be irradiated in or near the core. There is no provision for pulsing this TRIGA reactor. The neutron activation analysis program uses the Dow TRIGA reactor as a source of thermal neutrons and a Kaman A711 generator as a source of 14-MeV neutrons. The associated counting equipment includes one Gel(Li) detector and two Nal(Tl) detectors, each using a 100-position sample changer and all interfaced to a Tracor-Northern TN-11 data acquisition and computing system, one Ge(Li) detector and its TN-11 system for the pneumatic transfer system and the beam tube experiments, and two NaKTl)detectors with a TN-4000 system used with the Kaman neutron generator. The activation analysis program gets samples from all parts of the manufacturing and research efforts at Dow: raw materials, intermediates, products, effluents, research samples, samples from customers who use Dow products, and environmental samples. This presentation is devoted to the progress made in the past year on the pneumatic transfer system and the renewed work on prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy including the extensive process of method validation.

  11. Arkansas Tech University TRIGA nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sankoorikal, J.; Culp, R.; Hamm, J.; Elliott, D.; Hodgson, L.; Apple, S.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the TRIGA nuclear reactor (ATUTR) proposed for construction on the campus of Arkansas Tech University in Russellville, Arkansas. The reactor will be part of the Center for Energy Studies located at Arkansas Tech University. The reactor has a steady state power level of 250 kW and can be pulsed with a maximum reactivity insertion of $2.0. Experience gained in dismantling and transporting some of the components from Michigan State University, and the storage of these components will be presented. The reactor will be used for education, training, and research. (author)

  12. Deutsch als Fremdsprachenphilologie: Das Heidelberger Modell (German as a Foreign Language Philology: The Heidelberg Model)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Rainer; Heuer, Fritz

    1975-01-01

    German as a Foreign Language Philology is a new subject developed at the New Philology Faculty of the University of Heidelberg. Students whose native language is not German can earn a Master of Arts in this field. The study plan, educational goals, and the content and organization of the curriculum are described. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  13. Upgrade of the Dow TRIGA research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    Useful operation of the Dow TRIGA{sup a} research reactor over a period of >20 years has led to a commitment to upgrades enabling another two decades of use with increased capabilities. The reactor utilization program and the upgrades are described in this paper. These included requesting a 20-yr license instead of the 10-yr license, which had been used previously; changing the license to allow operation at power levels of up to 300 kW, which provided improved analytical sensitivity; adding fuel elements to the core, which allowed better performance at the higher power levels; renovating the laboratories, which included consolidating the radioactive materials handling areas and improving the sample preparation areas; installing new shielding, detectors, computers, and sample-handling robots for greater productivity and sensitivity; replacing the 1967-1974 era control console and renovating the control rod drives to provide greater safety, reliability, and maintenance capabilities; and identifying, training, and licensing more senior reactor operators to allow the staff to continue operating and improving this system well past the turn of the century.

  14. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  15. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  16. Benchmarking criticality analysis of TRIGA fuel storage racks.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew Loren; DeBey, Timothy M; Higginbotham, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    A criticality analysis was benchmarked to sub-criticality measurements of the hexagonal fuel storage racks at the United States Geological Survey TRIGA MARK I reactor in Denver. These racks, which hold up to 19 fuel elements each, are arranged at 0.61m (2 feet) spacings around the outer edge of the reactor. A 3-dimensional model was created of the racks using MCNP5, and the model was verified experimentally by comparison to measured subcritical multiplication data collected in an approach to critical loading of two of the racks. The validated model was then used to show that in the extreme condition where the entire circumference of the pool was lined with racks loaded with used fuel the storage array is subcritical with a k value of about 0.71; well below the regulatory limit of 0.8. A model was also constructed of the rectangular 2×10 fuel storage array used in many other TRIGA reactors to validate the technique against the original TRIGA licensing sub-critical analysis performed in 1966. The fuel used in this study was standard 20% enriched (LEU) aluminum or stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel.

  17. ORIGEN2 calculations supporting TRIGA irradiated fuel data package

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-09-20

    ORIGEN2 calculations were performed for TRIGA spent fuel elements from the Hanford Neutron Radiography Facility. The calculations support storage and disposal and results include mass, activity,and decay heat. Comparisons with underwater dose-rate measurements were used to confirm and adjust the calculations.

  18. Implementation of an aerodynamic lens for TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Nagy, Sz.; van de Laar, J. J. W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the optimization of the gas-jet system employed to couple the TRIGA-SPEC experiment to the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. CdI2 aerosol particles suspended in N2 as carrier gas are used for an effective transport of fission products from neutron induced 235 U fission from the target chamber to a surface ion source. Operating conditions of the gas-jet were modified to enable the implementation of an aerodynamic lens, fitting into the limited space available in front of the ion source. The lens boosts the gas-jet efficiency by a factor of 4-10. The characterization of the gas-jet system as well as the design of the aerodynamic lens and efficiency studies are presented and discussed.

  19. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-01

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  20. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2016-01-22

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  1. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  2. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; M. Rawi M., Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  3. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  4. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    SciTech Connect

    ZEFRAN, BOJAN

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  5. An RFQ cooler and buncher for the TRIGA-SPEC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krieger, A.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörterhäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Smorra, C.; Will, E.

    2014-01-01

    A linear Paul trap for cooling of ion beams, the former cooler for emittance elimination radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) at MISTRAL/ISOLDE, has been installed and commissioned at the TRIGA-SPEC experiment located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. It is connected to a hot-surface-ionization ion source and a subsequent mass separator for ionization and pre-separation of neutron-rich fission products as delivered from the reactor. The capability of accumulating and bunching ion beams has been implemented to provide low-emittance ion pulses of 250 ns width containing up to 106 ions. A technical description of the upgraded RFQ as well as its characterization with stable ions is presented. Its installation allows delivery of low-emittance ion bunches to the two branches of the TRIGA-SPEC experiment, namely TRIGA-TRAP and TRIGA-LASER.

  6. Sensitive and rapid molecular detection assays for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Heidelberg

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is a significant cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, with S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg being particularly prevalent. S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg have broad host ranges infecting poultry, dairy animals and humans. Traditional methods used fo...

  7. The SANS facility at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ionita, I. Grabcev, B.; Todireanu, S.; Constantin, F.; Shvetsov, V.; Anghel, E.; Popescu, G.; Mincu, M.; Datcu, A.

    2006-12-15

    The SANS facility existing at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor is presented. The main characteristics and the preliminary evaluation of the installation performances are given. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A {<=} {lambda} {<=} 5 A is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. A fruitful partnership was established between INR Pitesti (Romania) and JINR Dubna (Russia). The first step in this cooperation consists in the manufacturing in Dubna of a battery of gas-filled positional detectors devoted to the SANS instrument.

  8. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nurhayati; Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  9. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Nurhayati Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Maskin, Mazleha; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-22

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  10. Transport of fission products with a helium gas-jet at TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibach, M.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Herfurth, F.; Geppert, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.

    2010-02-01

    A helium gas-jet system for the transport of fission products from the research reactor TRIGA Mainz has been developed, characterized and tested within the TRIGA-SPEC experiment. For the first time at TRIGA Mainz carbon aerosol particles have been used for the transport of radionuclides from a target chamber with high efficiency. The radionuclides have been identified by means of γ-spectroscopy. Transport time, efficiency as well as the absolute number of transported radionuclides for several species have been determined. The design and the characterization of the gas-jet system are described and discussed.

  11. A refuge for inorganic chemistry: Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Immediately after its opening in 1855, Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory became iconic as the most modern and best equipped laboratory in Europe. Although comparatively modest in size, the laboratory's progressive equipment made it a role model for new construction projects in Germany and beyond. In retrospect, it represents an intermediate stage of development between early teaching facilities, such as Liebig's laboratory in Giessen, and the new 'chemistry palaces' that came into existence with Wöhler's Göttingen laboratory of 1860. As a 'transition laboratory,' Bunsen's Heidelberg edifice is of particular historical interest. This paper explores the allocation of spaces to specific procedures and audiences within the laboratory, and the hierarchies and professional rites of passage embedded within it. On this basis, it argues that the laboratory in Heidelberg was tailored to Bunsen's needs in inorganic and physical chemistry and never aimed at a broad-scale representation of chemistry as a whole. On the contrary, it is an example of early specialisation within a chemical laboratory preceding the process of differentiation into chemical sub-disciplines. Finally, it is shown that the relatively small size of this laboratory, and the fact that after ca. 1860 no significant changes were made within the building, are inseparably connected to Bunsen's views on chemistry teaching.

  12. An Analysis of Decommissioning Costs for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Laboratory, as provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission publication NUREG /CR-1756. The data in this study were adapted to reflect the decommissioning requirements of the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility.

  13. TRIGA-SPEC: the prototype of MATS and LaSpec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Krämer, J.; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of short-lived nuclei is a challenging task that MATS and LaSpec will handle at the low energy branch of Super-FRS at FAIR. The groundwork for those experiments is laid-out already today at the TRIGA-SPEC facility as a powerful development platform located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. The latest status, new developments and first results of commissioning runs are presented here.

  14. Tri-Gas Pressurization System Testing and Modeling for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.; Polsgrove, R.; Stephens, J.; Hedayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Tri-gas in rocket propulsion systems is somewhat of a new technology. This paper defines Tri-gas as a mixture of gases composed largely of helium with a small percentage of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. When exposed to a catalyst the hydrogen and oxygen in the mixture combusts, significantly raising the temperature of the mixture. The increase in enthalpy resulting from the combustion process significantly decreases the required quantity of gas needed to pressurize the ullage of the vehicle propellant tanks. The objective of this effort was to better understand the operating characteristics of Tri-gas in a pressurization system with low temperature applications. In conjunction with ongoing programs at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, an effort has been undertaken to evaluate the operating characteristics of Tri-gas through modeling and bench testing. Through improved understanding of the operating characteristics, the risk of using this new technology in a launch vehicle propulsion system was reduced. Bench testing of Tri-gas was a multistep process that targeted gas characteristics and performance aspects that pose a risk to application in a pressurization system. Pressurization systems are vital to propulsion system performance. Keeping a target ullage pressure in propulsions tanks is necessary to supply propellant at the conditions and flow rates required to maintain desired engine functionality. The first component of testing consisted of sampling Tri-gas sources that had been stagnant for various lengths of time in order to determine the rate at which stratification takes place. Second, a bench test was set up in which Tri-gas was sent through a catalyst bed. This test was designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Tri-gas, under low temperature inlet temperatures, in a flight-like catalyst bed reactor. The third, most complex, test examined the performance characteristics of Tri-gas at low temperature temperatures

  15. Nuclear physics in Heidelberg in the years 1950 to 1980. Personal recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenmüller, Hans A.

    2015-09-01

    After World War II, nuclear physics was a central research theme in the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy at Heidelberg University. That tendency was amplified by the founding of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg in 1958. The author witnessed these developments as a student and, later, as a member of the Heidelberg Faculty and of the Max-Planck-Institut.

  16. [Heidelberger study on psychoanalytic therapy of children and adolescents: methodology].

    PubMed

    Fahrig, H

    1999-11-01

    In the representative studies published so far on the outcome of analytic child psychotherapy (Dührssen 1964; Fonagy and Target 1996) no techniques of treatment were mentioned. The following paper describes in detail the technique of treatment on which the Heidelberg Study "On the Therapeutic Outcome in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy" is based, as it developed from 1975 to 1993 at the Heidelberg Institute for Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Starting from Piaget's findings that the cognitive faculties of a child up to the age of 11 completely differ from those of an adult and taking into consideration the cerebral information processing and "the intellect pervadet sensory" (Schopenhauer) it is demonstrated that children take their intrapsychic and interpersonal conflicts into analytic play therapy or into role play on analogous levels. Protected by a safe distance from being aware of their conflicts they will on the analogous levels understand, work through, partially solve their conflicts and make use of it in reality without conscious recognition. The term "analogous level" is defined and the manifold possibilities of therapeutic intervention on this level are demonstrated. The efficacy of therapeutic treatment on analogous levels is discussed.

  17. 76 FR 69296 - University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed... University of Utah (UU, the licensee), which authorizes continued operation of the UU TRIGA Nuclear Reactor...

  18. 77 FR 68155 - The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R-84

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW for an additional 20 years from the date of issuance. DATES: Submit comments by December 17, 2012. Requests for a... authorize the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW...

  19. TRIGA Mark II Criticality Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz

    2000-12-15

    The experimental results of criticality benchmark experiments performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor are presented. The experiments were performed with partly burned fuel in two compact and uniform core configurations in the same arrangements as were used in the fresh fuel criticality benchmark experiment performed in 1991. In the experiments, both core configurations contained only 12 wt% U-ZrH fuel with 20% enriched uranium. The first experimental core contained 43 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.22 MWd or 2.8% {sup 235}U burned. The last experimental core configuration was composed of 48 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.15 MWd or 2.6% {sup 235}U burned. The experimental determination of k{sub eff} for both core configurations, one subcritical and one critical, are presented. Burnup for all fuel elements was calculated in two-dimensional four-group diffusion approximation using the TRIGLAV code. The burnup of several fuel elements was measured also by the reactivity method.

  20. The Heidelberg CSR: Stored Ion Beams in a Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Orlov, D. A.; Fadil, H.; Welsch, C. P.; Andrianarijaona, V.; Diehl, A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Weber, T.; Mallinger, V.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rappaport, M.; Urbain, X.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-03-20

    A cryogenic electrostatic ion storage ring CSR is under development at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Cooling of the ultrahigh vacuum chamber is envisaged to lead to extremely low pressures as demonstrated by cryogenic ion traps. The ring will apply electron cooling with electron beams of a few eV up to 200 eV. Through long storage times of 1000 s as well as through the low wall temperature, internal cooling of infrared-active molecular ions to their rotational ground state will be possible and their collisions with merged collinear beams of electrons and neutral atoms can be detected with high energy resolution. In addition storage of slow highly charged ions is foreseen. Using a fixed in-ring gas target and a reaction microscope, collisions of the stored ions at a speed of the order of the atomic unit can be kinematically reconstructed. The layout and the cryogenic concept are introduced.

  1. Decommissioning of the TRIGA mark II and III and radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Doo Seong Hwang; Yoon Ji Lee; Gyeong Hwan Chung; Jei Kwon Moon

    2013-07-01

    KAERI has carried out decommissioning projects for two research reactors (KRR-1 and 2). The decommissioning project of KRR-1 (TRIGA Mark II) and 2 (TRIGA Mark III) was launched in 1997 with a total budget of 23.25 million US dollars. KRR-2 and all auxiliary facilities were already decommissioned, and KRR-1 is being decommissioned now. Much more dismantled waste is generated than in any other operations of nuclear facilities. Thus, the waste needs to be reduced and stabilized through decontamination or treatment before disposal. This paper introduces the current status of the decommissioning projects and describes the volume reduction and conditioning of decommissioning waste for final disposal. (authors)

  2. Heidelberg edge perimeter employment in glaucoma diagnosis--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Mulak, Małgorzata; Szumny, Dorota; Sieja-Bujewska, Anna; Kubrak, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the authors have seen huge progress in the diagnosis of eye diseases. One of the new diagnostic devices is HEP (Heidelberg Edge Perimeter) - for early diagnosis of glaucoma and its progression. It combines visual field test and HRT (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph), which allows authors to obtain the image of the mutual relation between the structure and the function of the sight organ. It could be also used to assess patients with impaired retina, optic nerve and neurological deficits. The SAP function is more suitable for the detection and monitoring of neurological deficits, moderately advanced and advanced glaucoma as well as other diseases associated with extensive or deep visual field deficits, such as ischemic optic neuropathy. FDF stimulus was designed specifically to detect early glaucoma-related changes in the visual field. For about a year, the Ophthalmology Clinic in Wrocław has owned a new, unique HEP perimeter. The authors present examples of patients diagnosed and treated at the Clinic, with respect to whom the perimeter results obtained using Octopus type perimeter and HEP contour perimeter have been compared. This method has its advantages: it is non-invasive, objective, provides the opportunity to repeat and compare results obtained from subsequent tests. The disadvantages are the difficulty in adapting to a new stimulus, which is not a circular light stimulus, but an outline that is hard to notice for some patients. Although according to the manufacturer the testing time should not exceed 4-5 minutes, it takes 14-15 minutes in many patients. The test is not suitable for patients showing lower manual skills and less attention and those who tire out easily. The HEP perimeter is an innovative method for diagnosing the earliest changes in ganglion cells, that is pre-perimetric glaucoma, or when changes in the visual field are undetectable in a standard test.

  3. Automated power control system for reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Anith Khairunnisa; Minhat, Mohd Sabri; Hassan, Mohd Khair

    2017-01-01

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) Mark II type undergoes safe operation for more than 30 years and the only research reactor exists in Malaysia. The main safety feature of Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system design is such that any failure in the electronic, or its associated components, does not lead to an uncontrolled rate of reactivity. The existed controller using feedback approach to control the reactor power. This paper introduces proposed controllers such as Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) and Proportional Integral Derivatives (PID) controller for the RTP simulation. In RTP, the most important considered parameter is the reactor power and act as nervous system. To design a controller for complex plant like RTP is quite difficult due to high cost and safety factors cause by the failure of the controller. Furthermore, to overcome these problems, a simulator can be used to replace functions the hardware and test could then be simulated using this simulator. In order to find the best controller, several controllers were proposed and the result will be analysed for study the performances of the controller. The output result will be used to find out the best RTP power controller using MATLAB/Simulink and gives result as close as the real RTP performances. Currently, the structures of RTP was design using MATLAB/Simulink tool that consist of fission chamber, controller, control rod position, height-to-worth of control rods and a RTP model. The controller will control the control rod position to make sure that the reactivity still under the limitation parameter. The results given from each controller will be analysed and validated through experiment data collected from RTP.

  4. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  5. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 machine learning classifiers for glaucoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, K A; Wollstein, G; Danks, D; Sung, K R; Ishikawa, H; Kagemann, L; Gabriele, M L; Schuman, J S

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess performance of classifiers trained on Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (HRT3) parameters for discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Methods Classifiers were trained using HRT3 parameters from 60 healthy subjects and 140 glaucomatous subjects. The classifiers were trained on all 95 variables and smaller sets created with backward elimination. Seven types of classifiers, including Support Vector Machines with radial basis (SVM-radial), and Recursive Partitioning and Regression Trees (RPART), were trained on the parameters. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for classifiers, individual parameters and HRT3 glaucoma probability scores (GPS). Classifier AUCs and leave-one-out accuracy were compared with the highest individual parameter and GPS AUCs and accuracies. Results The highest AUC and accuracy for an individual parameter were 0.848 and 0.79, for vertical cup/disc ratio (vC/D). For GPS, global GPS performed best with AUC 0.829 and accuracy 0.78. SVM-radial with all parameters showed significant improvement over global GPS and vC/ D with AUC 0.916 and accuracy 0.85. RPART with all parameters provided significant improvement over global GPS with AUC 0.899 and significant improvement over global GPS and vC/D with accuracy 0.875. Conclusions Machine learning classifiers of HRT3 data provide significant enhancement over current methods for detection of glaucoma. PMID:18523087

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Associated with Mechanically Separated Chicken at a Correctional Facility.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda L; Murphree, Rendi; Ingram, L Amanda; Garman, Katie; Solomon, Deborah; Coffey, Eric; Walker, Deborah; Rogers, Marsha; Marder, Ellyn; Bottomley, Marie; Woron, Amy; Thomas, Linda; Roberts, Sheri; Hardin, Henrietta; Arjmandi, Parvin; Green, Alice; Simmons, Latoya; Cornell, Allyson; Dunn, John

    2015-12-01

    We describe multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Heidelberg infections associated with mechanically separated chicken (MSC) served at a county correctional facility. Twenty-three inmates met the case definition. All reported diarrhea, 19 (83%) reported fever, 16 (70%) reported vomiting, 4 (17%) had fever ≥103°F, and 3 (13%) were hospitalized. A case-control study found no single food item significantly associated with illness. Salmonella Heidelberg with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was isolated from nine stool specimens; two isolates displayed resistance to a total of five drug classes, including the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone. MDR Salmonella Heidelberg might have contributed to the severity of illness. Salmonella Heidelberg indistinguishable from the outbreak subtype was isolated from unopened MSC. The environmental health assessment identified cross-contamination through poor food-handling practices as a possible contributing factor. Proper hand-washing techniques and safe food-handling practices were reviewed with the kitchen supervisor.

  7. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in crops of challenged birds, significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio, and increased weight gain compared with controls. The 0.025% and 0.015% EO in drinking water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed.

  8. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Tri-gas Thruster Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorado, Vanessa; Grunder, Zachary; Schaefer, Bryce; Sung, Meagan; Pedersen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft reaction control systems have primarily utilized cold gas thrusters because of their inherent simplicity and reliability. However, cold gas thrusters typically have a low specific impulse. It has been determined that a higher specific impulse can be achieved by passing a monopropellant fluid mixture through a catalyst bed prior to expulsion through the thruster nozzle. This research analyzes the potential efficiency improvements from using tri-gas, a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and an inert gas, which in this case is helium. Passing tri-gas through a catalyst causes the hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water vapor, ultimately heating the exiting fluid and generating a higher specific impulse. The goal of this project was to optimize the thruster performance by characterizing the effects of varying several system components including catalyst types, catalyst lengths, and initial catalyst temperatures.

  9. Experimental power density distribution benchmark in the TRIGA Mark II reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Stancar, Z.; Radulovic, V.; Podvratnik, M.; Zerovnik, G.; Trkov, A.; Barbot, L.; Domergue, C.; Destouches, C.

    2012-07-01

    In order to improve the power calibration process and to benchmark the existing computational model of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Josef Stefan Inst. (JSI), a bilateral project was started as part of the agreement between the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA) and the Ministry of higher education, science and technology of Slovenia. One of the objectives of the project was to analyze and improve the power calibration process of the JSI TRIGA reactor (procedural improvement and uncertainty reduction) by using absolutely calibrated CEA fission chambers (FCs). This is one of the few available power density distribution benchmarks for testing not only the fission rate distribution but also the absolute values of the fission rates. Our preliminary calculations indicate that the total experimental uncertainty of the measured reaction rate is sufficiently low that the experiments could be considered as benchmark experiments. (authors)

  10. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system.

  11. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  12. Verifying the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method using the TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-Sam; Leyine, S.H.

    1984-07-01

    A new experimental/analytical method has been developed using the Penn State Breazeale (TRIGA) reactor, to measure the k{sub eff} of a damaged core, e.g., the TMI-2 core, and unfold its k{sub infinity} distribution. This new method, the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method, uses the response of several neutron detectors in fixed positions around the core periphery (and possibly in the core) when a neutron source is placed sequentially in different discrete core positions. Experiments have been performed with the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR) and analyzed with appropriate neutron calculations, using PSU-LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II (EXT-II), to verify the method.

  13. Production of {sup 99}Mo using LEU and molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The production of {sup 99}Mo using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and natural molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor is investigated. The successive linear programming technique is applied to minimize the target loadings for different yield constraints. The irradiation time is related to the kinetics of the growth and decay of {sup 99}Mo. The feasibility of a neutron generated based {sup 99}Mo production system is discussed.

  14. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-01

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP).

  15. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    SciTech Connect

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-12

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP)

  16. Fundamental approach to TRIGA steady-state thermal-hydraulic CHF analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-03-30

    Methods are investigated for predicting the power at which critical heat flux (CHF) occurs in TRIGA reactors that rely on natural convection for primary flow. For a representative TRIGA reactor, two sets of functions are created. For the first set, the General Atomics STAT code and the more widely-used RELAP5-3D code are each employed to obtain reactor flow rate as a function of power. For the second set, the Bernath correlation, the 2006 Groeneveld table, the Hall and Mudawar outlet correlation, and each of the four PG-CHF correlations for rod bundles are used to predict the power at which CHF occurs as a function of channel flow rate. The two sets of functions are combined to yield predictions of the power at which CHF occurs in the reactor. A combination of the RELAP5-3D code and the 2006 Groeneveld table predicts 67% more CHF power than does a combination of the STAT code and the Bernath correlation. Replacing the 2006 Groeneveld table with the Bernath CHF correlation (while using the RELAP5-3D code flow solution) causes the increase to be 23% instead of 67%. Additional RELAP5-3D flow-versus-power solutions obtained from Reference 1 and presented in Appendix B for four specific TRIGA reactors further demonstrates that the Bernath correlation predicts CHF to occur at considerably lower power levels than does the 2006 Groeneveld table. Because of the lack of measured CHF data in the region of interest to TRIGA reactors, none of the CHF correlations considered can be assumed to provide the definitive CHF power. It is recommended, however, to compare the power levels of the potential limiting rods with the power levels at which the Bernath and 2006 Groeneveld CHF correlations predict CHF to occur.

  17. Neutron flux characterisation of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II research reactor for radiobiological and microdosimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Prata, M; Salvini, A; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays the Pavia TRIGA reactor is available for national and international collaboration in various research fields. The TRIGA Mark II nuclear research reactor of the Pavia University offers different in- and out-core neutron irradiation channels, each characterised by different neutron spectra. In the last two years a campaign of measurements and simulations has been performed in order to guarantee a better characterisation of these different fluxes and to meet the demands of irradiations that require precise information on these spectra in particular for radiobiological and microdosimetric studies. Experimental data on neutron fluxes have been collected analysing and measuring the gamma activity induced in thin target foils of different materials irradiated in different TRIGA experimental channels. The data on the induced gamma activities have been processed with the SAND II deconvolution code and finally compared with the spectra obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison between simulated and measured spectra showed a good agreement allowing a more precise characterisation of the neutron spectra and a validation of the adopted method.

  18. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriangchaiporn, Nateekool

    This dissertation addresses the development of a reactor core physics model based on 3-D transport methodology utilizing 3-D multigroup fuel lattice cross-section generation and core calculation for PSBR. The proposed 3-D transport calculation scheme for reactor core simulations is based on the TORT code. The methodology includes development of algorithms for 2-D and 3-D cross-section generation. The fine- and broad-group structures for the TRIGA cross-section generation problems were developed based on the CPXSD (Contributon and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology that selects effective group structure. Along with the study of cross section generation, the parametric studies for SN calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of the spatial meshing, angular, and scattering order variables and to obtain the suitable values for cross-section collapsing of the TRIGA cell problem. The TRIGA core loading 2 is used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Finally, the 13 group structure was selected to use for core calculations. The results agree with continuous energy for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distribution. The Monte Carlo solutions are used as the references.

  19. Modeling of γ field around irradiated TRIGA fuel elements by R2S method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemen, Ambrožič; Luka, Snoj

    2017-09-01

    The JSI TRIGA reactor has several irradiation facilities with well characterized neutron fields. The characterization was performed by measurements and by utilizing Monte Carlo particle transport computational methods. Because of this, JSI TRIGA has become a reference center for neutron irradiation of detectors for ATLAS experiment (CERN). Thorough γ characterization of the reactor is however yet to be performed. Current Monte Carlo particle transport code only account for the prompt generation of neutron induced γ rays, which have been characterized, but are neglecting the time dependent delayed part, which may in some cases amount to more then 30% of total γ flux in an operation reactor, and is the only source of γ-rays after reactor shutdown. Several common approaches of modeling delayed -rays , namely D1S and R2S exist. In this paper an in-house developed R2S method code is described, coupling a Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP6 and neutron activation code FISPACT-II, with intermediate steps performed by custom Python scripts. An example of its capabilities is presented in terms of evaluation of utilization of JSI TRIGA nuclear fuel as a viable γ-ray source. In the model, fresh nuclear fuel is considered and a silicon pipe sample is modeled in. Fuel activities, dose and kerma rates on the sample, as well as emitted γ-ray spectra and isotopic contribution to the contact dose are calculated and presented.

  20. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  1. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  2. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-06-22

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  3. Use of tri-gas incubator for routine culture of Campylobacter species from fecal specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J S; Hodge, D S; Smith, D E; Yong, Y A

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated a tri-gas incubator for Campylobacter isolation to be used instead of an anaerobic jar. Fecal specimens were cultured in duplicate onto charcoal selective medium and incubated at 43 degrees C for 48 h in two different environments: a tri-gas incubator (Forma Scientific) adjusted to provide an atmosphere of 10% CO2, 10% O2, and the balance N2; and evacuated anaerobic jars with a replacement gas mixture of 10% CO2, 5% O2, and 85% N2. A total of 106 Campylobacter jejuni and 8 Campylobacter coli isolates were obtained from 2,348 stool specimens. Of the positive specimens, 113 isolates came from the incubator and 111 isolates came from the anaerobic jars. An additional 32 previously positive specimens were replated onto charcoal selective medium and retested by both methods. We recovered 27 C. jejuni isolates, 26 isolates by each method. The isolates from the incubator typically produced discrete colonies, while the isolates from the anaerobic jar showed some degree of swarming in colony formation. The tri-gas incubator provided a cost-effective method for culturing Campylobacter spp. PMID:2280012

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of 17 Canadian Isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Human, Animal, and Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Geneviève; Ziebell, Kim; Bekal, Sadjia; Parmley, E. Jane; Agunos, Agnes; Desruisseau, Andrea; Daignault, Danielle; Slavic, Durda; Hoang, Linda; Ramsay, Danielle; Pollari, Frank; Robertson, James; Nash, John H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is a highly clonal serovar frequently associated with foodborne illness. To facilitate subtyping efforts, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 17 Canadian S. Heidelberg isolates including six pairs of epidemiologically related strains. The plasmid sequences of eight isolates contain several drug resistance genes. PMID:27635008

  5. Comparison of Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Human Patients with Those from Animal and Food Sources▿†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; David, Donna E.; Deck, Joanna; Lynne, Aaron M.; Kaldhone, Pravin; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Foley, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Seventy-eight Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates from humans were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance genes, and plasmids and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Most (88%) contained plasmids, and 47% were resistant to antimicrobials. The overall results were compared to those of previous S. Heidelberg studies of food- and animal-related sources, and multiple similarities were observed. PMID:21177888

  6. The history and perspective of Romania-USA cooperation in the field of technologic transfer of TRIGA reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocaanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-08-01

    The cooperation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW{sub t} TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW{sub t} level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this cooperation and the perspective for a new cooperation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited.

  7. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  8. THE JOINT EUROPEAN-UNITED STATES NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY, MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN TESLAAR, A.P.

    THE EUROPEAN COORDINATOR AND RESIDENT CO-DIRECTOR OF THE MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG BRANCH OF THE SUMMER 1966 LANGUAGE INSTITUTE IN FRANCE AND GERMANY PREPARED THIS EVALUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL VENTURE. DESIGNED TO ANALYZE THE INNOVATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE 1966 INSTITUTE WITH THE IDEA OF STRENGTHENING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS AND SIMILAR PROGRAMS, THE…

  9. The Heidelberg Laureate Forum on the moving frontier between mathematics and computer science

    DOE PAGES

    Begoli, Edmon; Schlegel, Vincent; Atiyah, Michael; ...

    2017-04-05

    Here, young and early-career researchers at the 2016 Heidelberg Laureate Forum discuss how the frontier between mathematics and computer science is shifting, what the future promises, and the implications the frontier's shape and dynamics will have on both fields.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulation of the TRIGA Mark II Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jeraj, Robert; Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-03-15

    Monte Carlo calculations of a criticality experiment with burned fuel on the TRIGA Mark II research reactor are presented. The main objective was to incorporate burned fuel composition calculated with the WIMSD4 deterministic code into the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code and compare the calculated k{sub eff} with the measurements. The criticality experiment was performed in 1998 at the ''Jozef Stefan'' Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the same fuel elements and loading pattern as in the TRIGA criticality benchmark experiment with fresh fuel performed in 1991. The only difference was that in 1998, the fuel elements had on average burnup of {approx}3%, corresponding to 1.3-MWd energy produced in the core in the period between 1991 and 1998. The fuel element burnup accumulated during 1991-1998 was calculated with the TRIGLAV in-house-developed fuel management two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code. The burned fuel isotopic composition was calculated with the WIMSD4 code and compared to the ORIGEN2 calculations. Extensive comparison of burned fuel material composition was performed for both codes for burnups up to 20% burned {sup 235}U, and the differences were evaluated in terms of reactivity. The WIMSD4 and ORIGEN2 results agreed well for all isotopes important in reactivity calculations, giving increased confidence in the WIMSD4 calculation of the burned fuel material composition. The k{sub eff} calculated with the combined WIMSD4 and MCNP4B calculations showed good agreement with the experimental values. This shows that linking of WIMSD4 with MCNP4B for criticality calculations with burned fuel is feasible and gives reliable results.

  11. Argon-41 production and evolution at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Anellis, L.G.; Johnson, A.G.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1988-07-01

    In this study, argon-41 concentrations were measured at various locations within the reactor facility to assess the accuracy of models used to predict argon-41 evolution from the reactor tank, and to determine the relationship between argon gas evolution from the tank and subsequent argon-41 concentrations throughout the reactor room. In particular, argon-41 was measured directly above the reactor tank with the reactor tank lids closed, at other accessible locations on the reactor top with the tank lids both closed and open, and at several locations on the first floor of the reactor room. These measured concentrations were then compared to values calculated using a modified argon-41 production and evolution model for TRIGA reactor tanks and ventilation values applicable to the OSTR facility. The modified model was based in part on earlier TRIGA models for argon-41 production and release, but added features which improved the agreement between predicted and measured values. The approximate dose equivalent rate due to the presence of argon-41 in reactor room air was calculated for several different locations inside the OSTR facility. These dose rates were determined using the argon-41 concentration measured at each specific location, and were subsequently converted to a predicted quarterly dose equivalent for each location based on the reactor's operating history. The predicted quarterly dose equivalent values were then compared to quarterly doses measured by film badges deployed as dose-integrating area radiation monitors at the locations of interest. The results indicate that the modified production and evolution model is able to predict argon-41 concentrations to within a factor of ten when compared to the measured data. Quarterly dose equivalents calculated from the measured argon-41 concentrations and the reactor's operating history seemed consistent with results obtained from the integrating area radiation monitors. Given the argon-41 concentrations measured

  12. Technical Specifications for the Neutron Radiography Facility (TRIGA Mark 1 Reactor). Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.L.; Perfect, J.F.

    1988-04-01

    These Technical Specifications state the limits under which the Neutron Radiography Facility, with its associated TRIGA Mark I Reactor, is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. These specifications cover operation of the Facility for the purpose of examination of specimens (including contained fissile material) by neutron radiography, for the irradiation of specimens in the pneumatic transfer system and approved in-core or in-pool irradiation facilities and operator training. The Final Safety Analysis Report (TC-344) and its supplements, and these Technical Specifications are the basic safety documents of the Neutron Radiography Facility.

  13. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  14. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    SciTech Connect

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-22

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  15. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented.

  16. Radionuclide mass inventory, activity, decay heat, and dose rate parametric data for TRIGA spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Parametric burnup calculations are performed to estimate radionuclide isotopic mass and activity concentrations for four different Training, Research, and Isotope General Atomics (TRIGA) nuclear reactor fuel element types: (1) Aluminum-clad standard, (2) Stainless Steel-clad standard, (3) High-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP), and (4) Low-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP-LEU-1). Parametric activity data are tabulated for 145 important radionuclides that can be used to generate gamma-ray emission source terms or provide mass quantity estimates as a function of decay time. Fuel element decay heats and dose rates are also presented parametrically as a function of burnup and decay time. Dose rates are given at the fuel element midplane for contact, 3.0-feet, and 3.0-meter detector locations in air. The data herein are estimates based on specially derived Beginning-of-Life (BOL) neutron cross sections using geometrically-explicit TRIGA reactor core models. The calculated parametric data should represent good estimates relative to actual values, although no experimental data were available for direct comparison and validation. However, because the cross sections were not updated as a function of burnup, the actinide concentrations may deviate from the actual values at the higher burnups.

  17. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  18. Development of neutron beam projects at the University of Texas TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Unlu, Kenan; Bauer, Thomas L.; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1992-07-01

    Recently, the UT-TRIGA research reactor was licensed and has become fully operational. This reactor, the first new US university reactor in 17 years, is the focus of a new reactor laboratory facility which is located on the Balcones Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin. The TRIGA Mark II reactor is licensed for 1.1 MW steady power operation, 3 dollar pulsing, and includes five beam ports. Various neutron beam-line projects have been assigned to each beam port. Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) and the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) are close to completion and will be operational in the near future. The design of the NDP instrument has been completed, a target chamber has been built, and the thermal neutron collimator, detectors, data acquisition electronics, and data processing computers have been acquired. The target chamber accommodates wafers up to 12'' in diameter and provides remote positioning of these wafers. The design and construction of the TCNS has been completed. The TCNS consists of a moderator (mesitylene), a neon heat pipe, a cryogenic refrigerator, and neutron guide tubes. In addition, fission-fragment research (HIAWATHA), Neutron Capture Therapy, and Neutron Radiography are being pursued as projects for the other three beam ports. (author)

  19. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is noticing the termination of Facility Operating...

  20. First experiences in implementing a software-based support for patient recruitment at Heidelberg university hospital.

    PubMed

    Schreiweis, Björn; Grüber, Günter; Bergh, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials have often got problems in achieving their recruitment target. Making the recruitment process more efficient and timely is tried to achieve in Heidelberg by implementing a software-based system to support patient recruitment. The architecture implemented in Heidelberg was developed in a multi-center research project named 'EHR-based support for patient recruitment'. The architecture is generic as five distinct university hospitals developed it and found it implementable. The same architecture is also implemented at four other university hospitals in Germany. The system was implemented into the existing system architecture and can thus be implemented by the vendor of the system. This makes the system available to all customers of named systems.

  1. DNA Sequence Analysis of Plasmids from Multidrug Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Heidelberg Isolates

    PubMed Central

    David, Donna E.; Tang, Hailin; Xu, Joshua; Nayak, Rajesh; Kaldhone, Pravin; Logue, Catherine M.; Foley, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is among the most detected serovars in swine and poultry, ranks among the top five serotypes associated with human salmonellosis and is disproportionately associated with invasive infections and mortality in humans. Salmonella are known to carry plasmids associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. To identify plasmid-associated genes in multidrug resistant S. enterica serovar Heidelberg, antimicrobial resistance plasmids from five isolates were sequenced using the 454 LifeSciences pyrosequencing technology. Four of the isolates contained incompatibility group (Inc) A/C multidrug resistance plasmids harboring at least eight antimicrobial resistance genes. Each of these strains also carried a second resistance plasmid including two IncFIB, an IncHI2 and a plasmid lacking an identified Inc group. The fifth isolate contained an IncI1 plasmid, encoding resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and sulfonamides. Some of the IncA/C plasmids lacked the full concert of transfer genes and yet were able to be conjugally transferred, likely due to the transfer genes carried on the companion plasmids in the strains. Several non-IncA/C resistance plasmids also carried putative virulence genes. When the sequences were compared to previously sequenced plasmids, it was found that while all plasmids demonstrated some similarity to other plasmids, they were unique, often due to differences in mobile genetic elements in the plasmids. Our study suggests that Salmonella Heidelberg isolates harbor plasmids that co-select for antimicrobial resistance and virulence, along with genes that can mediate the transfer of plasmids within and among other bacterial isolates. Prevalence of such plasmids can complicate efforts to control the spread of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg in food animal and human populations. PMID:23251446

  2. Molecular detection assay of five Salmonella serotypes of public interest: Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Hadar.

    PubMed

    Bugarel, M; Tudor, A; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses due to Salmonella represent an important public-health concern worldwide. In the United States, a majority of Salmonella infections are associated with a small number of serotypes. Furthermore, some serotypes that are overrepresented among human disease are also associated with multi-drug resistance phenotypes. Rapid detection of serotypes of public-health concern might help reduce the burden of salmonellosis cases and limit exposure to multi-drug resistant Salmonella. We developed a two-step real-time PCR-based rapid method for the identification and detection of five Salmonella serotypes that are either overrepresented in human disease or frequently associated with multi-drug resistance, including serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, Hadar, and Heidelberg. Two sets of four markers were developed to detect and differentiate the five serotypes. The first set of markers was developed as a screening step to detect the five serotypes; whereas, the second set was used to further distinguish serotypes Heidelberg, Newport and Hadar. The utilization of these markers on a two-step investigation strategy provides a diagnostic specificity of 97% for the detection of Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Newport and Hadar. The diagnostic sensitivity of the detection makers is >96%. The availability of this two-step rapid method will facilitate specific detection of Salmonella serotypes that contribute to a significant proportion of human disease and carry antimicrobial resistance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. [Innovation and extermination--psychiatric research and "euthanasia" at the Heidelberg Psychiatric Clinic 1939-1945].

    PubMed

    Hohendorf, G; Roelcke, V; Rotzoll, M

    1996-11-01

    The history of German psychiatry is characterized not only by innovative thought in the tradition of Kraepelin and Jaspers, but also by the "euthanasia" program that resulted in the killing of more than 100,000 psychiatric patients and mentally handicapped people. Exemplified by the Psychiatric Department at the University of Heidelberg, the relation between psychiatric research and the systematic killing of patients during the time of National Socialism is analysed. The first part of the paper summarizes the historical background of the general condition of German psychiatry in the 1930s and 1940s. The second part gives an outline of the biography and work of Carl Schneider (1891-1946), head of the Psychiatric Department at Heidelberg until 1945. It can be shown that the call for intensive therapy for those patients who were to be reintegrated into society was connected with the killing of those who were considered to be beyond reach of any active therapeutic approach. This is also the context of C.Schneider's research program concerning mentally handicapped children. The historical reconstruction of research activities, drawing on the patients' files and other documents, reveals that out of 52 children who had been examined, 20 were killed in the asylum of Eichberg in order that their brains might be examined in Heidelberg. The findings are discussed in view of the ongoing historiographical debate on the relationship between the politics of National Socialism and contemporary science.

  4. Association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and utilization of colonoscopy in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Silke; Friedrich, Susanne; Haug, Ulrike; Rohrmann, Sabine; Becker, Nikolaus; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to describe the utilization of colonoscopy and its association with sociodemographic characteristics within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort study. We included 15 014 study participants (43% men) of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort recruited between 1994 and 1998. At baseline recruitment, as well as in the 3-yearly follow-up surveys, study participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, socioeconomic background variables, health status, and use of medications and medical services, including colonoscopy examinations. The present analyses focused on participants who completed the question on colonoscopy examination in all follow-up rounds. Our results show that by the end of the fourth follow-up round, more than half of all participants of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort had had a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was associated with some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics: a positive association with vocational training level as well as overall socioeconomic status level [International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification]. A negative association was found for household size and employment status. Colonoscopy usage increased steeply within the subgroup of participants older than 55 years of age and decreased again within the subgroup of participants older than 75 years of age. Organized colorectal cancer screening should include a written invitation system, to overcome the problem of sociodemographic-related differential awareness of and attendance at colonoscopy examinations. Also, the high proportion of prescreened individuals should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary re-examinations.

  5. Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Rebecca; Finley, Rita; Ng, Lai King; Avery, Brent; Boerlin, Patrick; Bourgault, Anne-Marie; Cole, Linda; Daignault, Danielle; Desruisseau, Andrea; Demczuk, Walter; Hoang, Linda; Horsman, Greg B.; Ismail, Johanne; Jamieson, Frances; Maki, Anne; Pacagnella, Ana; Pillai, Dylan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance describes a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p<0.0001) between ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from retail chicken and incidence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella serovar Heidelberg infections in humans across Canada. In Québec, changes of ceftiofur resistance in chicken Salmonella Heidelberg and Escherichia coli isolates appear related to changing levels of ceftiofur use in hatcheries during the study period, from highest to lowest levels before and after a voluntary withdrawal, to increasing levels after reintroduction of use (62% to 7% to 20%, and 34% to 6% to 19%, respectively). These events provide evidence that ceftiofur use in chickens results in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in bacteria from chicken and humans. To ensure the continued effectiveness of extended-spectrum cephalosporins for treating serious infections in humans, multidisciplinary efforts are needed to scrutinize and, where appropriate, limit use of ceftiofur in chicken production in Canada. PMID:20031042

  6. University of Illinois nuclear pumped laser program. [experiments with a TRIGA pulsed reactor with a broad pulse and a low peak flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of nuclear pumped lasers with improved efficiency, energy storage capability, and UF6 volume pumping is reviewed. Results of nuclear pumped laser experiments using a TRIGA-type pulsed reactor are outlined.

  7. Relative fission product yield determination in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Michael A.

    Fission product yield data sets are one of the most important and fundamental compilations of basic information in the nuclear industry. This data has a wide range of applications which include nuclear fuel burnup and nonproliferation safeguards. Relative fission yields constitute a major fraction of the reported yield data and reduce the number of required absolute measurements. Radiochemical separations of fission products reduce interferences, facilitate the measurement of low level radionuclides, and are instrumental in the analysis of low-yielding symmetrical fission products. It is especially useful in the measurement of the valley nuclides and those on the extreme wings of the mass yield curve, including lanthanides, where absolute yields have high errors. This overall project was conducted in three stages: characterization of the neutron flux in irradiation positions within the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Mark I Reactor (GSTR), determining the mass attenuation coefficients of precipitates used in radiochemical separations, and measuring the relative fission products in the GSTR. Using the Westcott convention, the Westcott flux, modified spectral index, neutron temperature, and gold-based cadmium ratios were determined for various sampling positions in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor. The differential neutron energy spectrum measurement was obtained using the computer iterative code SAND-II-SNL. The mass attenuation coefficients for molecular precipitates were determined through experiment and compared to results using the EGS5 Monte Carlo computer code. Difficulties associated with sufficient production of fission product isotopes in research reactors limits the ability to complete a direct, experimental assessment of mass attenuation coefficients for these isotopes. Experimental attenuation coefficients of radioisotopes produced through neutron activation agree well with the EGS5 calculated results. This suggests mass attenuation coefficients of molecular

  8. A consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Stephanie; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Deep drillings in the Heidelberg Basins provide access to one of the thickest and most complete successions of Quaternary and Upper Pliocene continental sediments in Central-Europe [1]. In absence of any comprehensive chronostratigraphic model, these sediments are so far classified by lithological and hydrogeological criteria. Therefore the age of this sequence is still controversially discussed ([1], [2]). In spite of the fact that fluvial sediments are a fundamental challenge for the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy we performed a thorough study on four drilling cores (from Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen and nearby Viernheim). Here, we present the results from the analyses of these cores, which yield to a consistent chronostratigraphic framework. The components of natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) were separated by alternating field and thermal demagnetisation techniques and the characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) were isolated by principle component analysis [3]. Due to the coring technique solely inclination data of the ChRM is used for the determination of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Rock magnetic proxies were applied to identify the carriers of the remanent magnetisation. The investigations prove the NRM as a stable, largely primary magnetisation acquired shortly after deposition (PDRM). The Matuyama-Gauss boundary is clearly defined by a polarity change in each core, as suggested in previous work [4]. These findings are in good agreement with the biostratigraphic definition of the base of the Quaternary ([5], [6], [7]). The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary could be identified in core Heidelberg UniNord 1 and 2 only. Consequently, the position of the Jaramillo and Olduvai subchron can be inferred from the lithostratigraphy and the development of fluvial facies architecture in the Rhine system. The continuation of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy into the Gilbert chron (Upper Pliocene) allows alternative correlation schemes for the cores

  9. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-22

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 ({sup 233}U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  10. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  11. Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Hernández-Dávila, V M; Aguilar, F; Paredes, L; Rivera, T

    2014-01-01

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a (6)LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port.

  12. Production and release rate of (37)Ar from the UT TRIGA Mark-II research reactor.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christine; Biegalski, Steven R; Artnak, Edward J; Moll, Ethan; Haas, Derek A; Lowrey, Justin D; Aalseth, Craig E; Seifert, Allen; Mace, Emily K; Woods, Vincent T; Humble, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Air samples were taken at various locations around The University of Texas at Austin's TRIGA Mark II research reactor and analyzed to determine the concentrations of (37)Ar, (41)Ar, and (133)Xe present. The measured ratio of (37)Ar/(41)Ar and historical records of (41)Ar releases were then utilized to estimate an annual average release rate of (37)Ar from the reactor facility. Using the calculated release rate, atmospheric transport modeling was performed in order to determine the potential impact of research reactor operations on nearby treaty verification activities. Results suggest that small research reactors (∼1 MWt) do not release (37)Ar in concentrations measurable by currently proposed OSI detection equipment.

  13. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz

    2009-08-01

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C+24 were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO+ ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented. This paper comprises partly the PhD theses of J Ketelaer and C Smorra.

  14. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N.; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  15. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy, Irwan, M. N.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of 134Cs, 137Cs, 152Eu, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co and 65Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of 152Eu and 134Cs were leached out from the spent resin while 60Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  16. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  17. Neutron flux and spectrum characterization in the University of Illinois TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, R.O.; Williams, J.G.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1988-07-01

    The principal irradiation facilities at the University of Illinois TRIGA are a central thimble, a pneumatic 'rabbit' tube in the G-hexagon, a forty- position Lazy Susan facility in the reflector, a through-port passing tangentially through the reflector, and a recently installed rotating tube in a three-element cluster position in the F- and G-hexagons. These facilities are used primarily for thermal and epithermal neutron activation, and for radiation damage studies in semiconductor and other materials. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rates have recently been measured by means of radiometric monitors in all the core and reflector facilities at a variety of reactor power levels. In addition, the fast neutron fluences have been characterized by means of threshold and non-threshold activation reaction rates measured in those positions used for radiation damage studies. Unfolding of neutron spectra from the measured reaction rates was done by means of the code LSL-M2, which was made available in 1986 from the Radiation Shielding Information Center. This code uses the generalized least squares method and incorporates a full propagation of uncertainties due to errors in measured reaction rates, cross section data, and input neutron spectra. The input spectra, needed in LSL-M2, were taken from the General Atomic report GA4361 which includes 24-group spectra, calculated by the code GAZE, for the center of the core, the F-hexagon and the Lazy Susan. These positions, and some of the material and geometrical specifications, do not correspond exactly with the actual ones at the University of Illinois TRIGA, but the differences in the neutron spectra were found to be small. The unfolded neutron spectra may be used to obtain fast neutron spectrum parameters needed in radiation damage studies and hardness testing. For example, the 1-MeV equivalent fluence rates for displacement damage in silicon, calculated according to the ASTM Standard E722, are reported. (author)

  18. Criticality safety assessment of a TRIGA reactor spent-fuel pool under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Glumac, B; Ravnik, M.; Logar, M.

    1997-02-01

    Additional criticality safety analysis of a pool-type storage for TRIGA spent fuel at the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. Previous results have shown that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents (earthquake with subsequent fuel rack disintegration resulting in contact fuel pitch) under the assumption that the fuel rack is loaded with fresh 12 wt% standard fuel. To mitigate this deficiency, a study was done on replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with cadmium-loaded absorber rods. The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4A with an ENDF/B-V library and detailed three-dimensional geometrical model of the spent-fuel rack was used for this purpose. First, a minimum critical number of fuel elements was determined for contact pitch, and two possible geometries of rack disintegration were considered. Next, it was shown that subcriticality can be ensured when pitch is decreased from a rack design pitch of 8 cm to contact, if a certain number of fuel elements (8 to 20 out of 70) are replaced by absorber rods, which are uniformly mixed into the lattice. To account for the possibility that random mixing of fuel elements and absorber rods can occur during rack disintegration and result in a supercritical configuration, a probabilistic study was made to sample the probability density functions for random absorber rod lattice loadings. Results of the calculations show that reasonably low probabilities for supercriticality can be achieved (down to 10{sup {minus}6} per severe earthquake, which would result in rack disintegration and subsequent maximum possible pitch decrease) even in the case where fresh 12 wt% standard TRIGA fuel would be stored in the spent-fuel pool.

  19. High Temperature Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions Between TRIGA Fuels and 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Emmanuel; Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Forsmann, Bryan; Janney, Dawn E.; Henley, Jody; Woolstenhulme, Eric C.

    2016-02-01

    High-temperature fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) fuel elements and the 304 stainless steel (304SS) are of interest to develop an understanding of the fuel behavior during transient reactor scenarios. TRIGA fuels are composed of uranium (U) particles dispersed in a zirconium-hydride (Zr-H) matrix. In reactor, the fuel is encased in 304-stainless-steel (304SS) or Incoloy 800 clad tubes. At high temperatures, the fuel can readily interact with the cladding, resulting in FCCI. A number of FCCI can take place in this system. Interactions can be expected between the cladding and the Zr-H matrix, and/or between the cladding and the U-particles. Other interactions may be expected between the Zr-H matrix and the U-particles. Furthermore, the fuel contains erbium-oxide (Er-O) additions. Interactions can also be expected between the Er-O, the cladding, the Zr-H and the U-particles. The overall result is that very complex interactions may take place as a result of fuel and cladding exposures to high temperatures. This report discusses the characterization of the baseline fuel microstructure in the as-received state (prior to exposure to high temperature), characterization of the fuel after annealing at 950C for 24 hours and the results from diffusion couple experiments carries out at 1000C for 5 and 24 hours. Characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with sample preparation via focused ion beam in situ-liftout-technique.

  20. Proposed design for the PGAA facility at the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Bruno T; Jacimovic, Radojko; Menezes, Maria Angela Bc; Leal, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an initial proposed design of a Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) facility to be installed at the TRIGA IPR-R1, a 60 years old research reactor of the Centre of Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) in Brazil. The basic characteristics of the facility and the results of the neutron flux are presented and discussed. The proposed design is based on a quasi vertical tube as a neutron guide from the reactor core, inside the reactor pool, 6 m below the room's level where shall be located the rack containing the set sample/detector/shielding. The evaluation of the thermal and epithermal neutron flux in the sample position was done considering the experimental data obtained from a vertical neutron guide, already existent in the reactor, and the simulated model for the facility. The experimental determination of the neutron flux was obtained through the standard procedure of using Au monitors in different positions of the vertical tube. In order to validate both, this experiment and calculations of the simulated model, the flux was also determined in different positions in the core used for sample irradiation. The model of the system was developed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The preliminary results suggest the possibility of obtaining a beam with minimum thermal flux of magnitude 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), which confirm the technical feasibility of the installation of PGAA at the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor. This beam would open new possibilities for enhancing the applications using the reactor.

  1. Preparation and planning for the replacement of the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor rotary specimen rack assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Johnson, A.G.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1984-07-01

    Recently there have been a number of indications that the rotating rack may be approaching the end of its useful life. In order to benefit from the experience of other reactors who have removed and replaced their rotating racks, General Atomic (GA) was contacted and previous TRIGA Conference proceedings were scanned. It was determined that a number of facilities, had experienced difficulties with their lazy susans and eventually had to replace them. However, most of the written descriptions of this project were not sufficiently detailed to be of great use. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the more important questions related to the replacement of our rotating rack assembly and OSU's currently proposed solutions, with a view towards soliciting ideas from other members of the TRIGA reactor community.

  2. Migration of Salmonella serotypes Heidelberg and Enteritidis in previously frozen chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Tozzo, Kamila; Neto, Américo F G; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Ronnau, Milton; Soares, Vanessa M; Bersot, Luciano S

    2018-02-01

    Salmonella spp. have been shown to migrate to the internal regions of meat cuts. Storage conditions and the presence of proteolytic microbiota can influence this process. Our study assessed the impact of storage time, temperature, and the presence of proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria on migration. Samples of previously frozen chicken breast with skin and bone were then sterilized using gamma ray irradiation and a cobalt-60 source (11 KGy) and them were inoculated with cultures of S. Enteritidis, S. Enteritidis and psychrotrophs, S. Heidelberg, or S. Heidelberg and psychrotrophs. Inoculated samples were stored for 6, 12, 24, 48, or 168 h at 2, 7, or -30 °C. After treatment, samples were divided into similar-sized segments and bacterial counts were determined in different regions (A - superface, B - intermediate region, and C - internal region). S. Heidelberg and S. Enteritidis both demonstrated successful internal migration for each time, temperature, and bacterial combination (p < 0.05). Our data revealed that Salmonella migration proceeded for 24 h, but slowed at 48 h (p < 0.05). S. Enteritidis with psychrotrophs showed a low amount of internal migration (p < 0.05). We therefore conclude that Salmonella spp. are able to migrate into the internal regions of meat cuts in a short period of time, even at low temperatures. The presence of proteolytic psychrotrophs inhibits the migration of S. Enteritidis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypermutator Salmonella Heidelberg induces an early cell death in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Zenbaa, Neila; Bouchard, Damien; Lavault, Marie-Thérèse; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Bousarghin, Latifa

    2015-10-22

    We have previously described that a strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with a hypermutator phenotype, B182, adhered strongly to HeLa cells. In this work, we showed that this hypermutator Salmonella strain invaded HeLa epithelial cells and induced cytoskeleton alteration. Those changes lead to HeLa cell death which was characteristic of apoptosis. For the first time, we showed that this hypermutator strain induced apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases 2, 9 and 3. Complementation of B182 strain showed a decrease in cells death induction. In the presence of other Salmonella Heidelberg with a normomutator phenotype, such as WT and SL486, cell death and caspase 3 were undetectable. These results suggested that early apoptosis and caspase 3 activation were specific to B182. Besides, B182 induced LDH release and caspase 3 activation in CaCo-2 and HCT116 cells. Heat-treated B182 and diffusible products failed to induce this phenotype. Epithelial cells treatment with cytochalasin D caused the inhibition of B182 internalisation and caspase 3 activation. These results showed that this cell death required active S. Heidelberg B182 protein synthesis and bacterial internalisation. However sipB and sopB, usually involved in apoptosis induced by Salmonella were not overexpressed in B182, contrary to fimA and fliC. Comparative genome analysis showed numerous mutations as in rpoS which would be more investigated. The role of the hypermutator phenotype might be suspected to be implicated in these specific features. This result expands our knowledge about strong mutators frequently found in bacterial organisms isolated from clinical specimens.

  4. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Strains, the Netherlands1

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Yvon; Dierikx, Cindy M.; Brouwer, Michael S.M.; Kant, Arie; Wit, Ben; Heymans, Raymond; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mevius, Dik J.

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains (JF6X01.0022/XbaI.0251, JF6X01.0326/XbaI.1966, JF6X01.0258/XbaI.1968, and JF6X01.0045/XbaI.1970) have been identified in the United States with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our examination of isolates showed introduction of these strains in the Netherlands and highlight the need for active surveillance and intervention strategies by public health organizations. PMID:27314180

  5. The Heidelberg circle: German inflections on the professionalization of Russian chemistry in the 1860s.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The success of the "second importation" of science to Russia during the Great Reforms of the 1860s is illustrated by examining the extended postdoctoral study of chemists in Heidelberg. While there, they adapted the Russian intelligentsia institution of the "circle," or kruzhok, to cope with their alienation from the German culture they were confronting. Upon their return to Russia, they felt the lack of the communicative network they had established while abroad and reimported the kruzhok to serve as a central model for the formation of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868.

  6. Disc photography and Heidelberg retinal tomography documentation of reversal of cupping following trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Darana; Buys, Yvonne M

    2010-11-01

    Reversal of cupping is a widely recognized phenomenon. However, whether or not functional improvement is associated with reversal of cupping is controversial. There has not been any documentation in the literature of reversal of cupping with accompanying Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) images and visual field (VF) changes at each time point. Case report based on one patient. Reversible cupping was seen following a dramatic reduction of IOP post-trabeculectomy, which was associated with an improved HRT but unchanged VF. This case documents reversal of cupping with VF and HRT testing accompanying the disc photos at each time point. Despite improvement in disc appearance and on structural testing, functional testing was unchanged.

  7. [Cerebral dysfunction, neurologic symptoms and persistent deliquency. II. Results of the Heidelberg Delinquency Project].

    PubMed

    Kröber, H L; Scheurer, H; Sass, H

    1994-07-01

    In a multidimensional model, the "Heidelberg Delinquency Study" explores biological, biographical, psychological and social factors that may be important to the development and persistence of violent crimes. After a survey of the literature in part I (22) the empirical results in the areas of neurological anamnesis, neurological findings and nonfocal neurological ("soft") signs and their correlations with other variables, e.g. criminal relapses, are reported. In our population of 129 adult offenders we found a high relevance of nonfocal neurological signs. These symptoms were associated with problems in social adjustment and conduct disorder in childhood, cognitive impairment, reduced emotional response, externalizing attributional style and a pattern of rapid delinquent relapses.

  8. Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures” – Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education

    PubMed Central

    Nikendei, C.; Ganschow, P.; Groener, J. B.; Huwendiek, S.; Köchel, A.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Pjontek, R.; Rodrian, J.; Scheibe, F.; Stadler, A.-K.; Steiner, T.; Stiepak, J.; Tabatabai, J.; Utz, A.; Kadmon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures”, which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties. PMID:27579354

  9. Nationwide outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections associated with ground turkey: United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Routh, J A; Pringle, J; Mohr, M; Bidol, S; Arends, K; Adams-Cameron, M; Hancock, W T; Kissler, B; Rickert, R; Folster, J; Tolar, B; Bosch, S; Barton Behravesh, C; Williams, I T; Gieraltowski, L

    2015-11-01

    On 23 May 2011, CDC identified a multistate cluster of Salmonella Heidelberg infections and two multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from ground turkey retail samples with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. We defined cases as isolation of outbreak strains in persons with illness onset between 27 February 2011 and 10 November 2011. Investigators collected hypothesis-generating questionnaires and shopper-card information. Food samples from homes and retail outlets were collected and cultured. We identified 136 cases of S. Heidelberg infection in 34 states. Shopper-card information, leftover ground turkey from a patient's home containing the outbreak strain and identical antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical and retail samples pointed to plant A as the source. On 3 August, plant A recalled 36 million pounds of ground turkey. This outbreak increased consumer interest in MDR Salmonella infections acquired through United States-produced poultry and played a vital role in strengthening food safety policies related to Salmonella and raw ground poultry.

  10. The Effect of Pitch, Burnup, and Absorbers on a TRIGA Spent-Fuel Pool Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Marjan; Jeraj, Robert; Glumac, Bogdan

    2003-02-15

    It has been shown that supercriticality might occur for some postulated accident conditions at the TRIGA spent-fuel pool. However, the effect of burnup was not accounted for in previous studies. In this work, the combined effect of fuel burnup, pitch among fuel elements, and number of uniformly mixed absorber rods for a square arrangement on the spent-fuel pool k{sub eff} is investigated.The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with the ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. The WIMS-D code was used to model the isotopic composition of the standard TRIGA and FLIP fuel for 5, 10, 20 and 30% burnup level and 2- and 4-yr cooling time.The results show that out of the three studied effects, pitch from contact (3.75 cm) up to rack design pitch (8 cm), number of absorbers from zero to eight, and burnup up to 30%, the pitch has the greatest influence on the multiplication factor k{sub eff}. In the interval in which the pitch was changed, k{sub eff} decreased for up to {approx}0.4 for standard and {approx}0.3 for FLIP fuel. The number of absorber rods affects the multiplication factor much less. This effect is bigger for more compact arrangements, e.g., for contact of standard fuel elements with eight absorber rods among them, k{sub eff} values are smaller for {approx}0.2 ({approx}0.1 for FLIP) than for arrangements without absorber rods almost regardless of the burnup. The effect of burnup is the smallest. For standard fuel elements, it is {approx}0.1 for almost all pitches and numbers of absorbers. For FLIP fuel, it is smaller for a factor of 3, but increases with the burnup for compact arrangements. Cooling time of fuel has just a minor effect on the k{sub eff} of spent-fuel pool and can be neglected in spent-fuel pool design.

  11. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, G. Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-23

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 10{sup 12} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer{sup ®} PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas{sup ®} as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  12. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  13. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations.

  14. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  15. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  16. Estimation of Na-24 activity concentration in BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajijul Hoq, M.; Malek Soner, M. A.; Salam, M. A.; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S. M.

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) TRIGA Research Reactor is a unique nuclear installation of the country generally implemented for a wide variety of research applications and serves as an excellent source of neutron. During reactor operation it is necessary to measure and control the activity concentration of the pool water for fuel element failure detection and for the determination of contamination. The present study deals with the estimation of activity concentration for Na-24 present in water coolant produced as a result of 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. Several governing equations have been employed to estimate the Na-24 activity concentrations theoretically at different reactor power levels including maximum reactor power of 2.4 MW. From the obtained result it is ensured that the estimated Na-24 activity of 8.83 × 10-3 μCi /cm3 is not significant enough for any radiological hazard. Thus for ensuring radiological safety issues of the research reactor the assessment performed under the present study has an implication.

  17. Refurbishment of the rotating rack of the OSU TRIGA MKII reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Anderson, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    Many TRIGA reactors have experienced operational difficulties with the rotating racks used for sample irradiation. Generally the rack gradually becomes more difficult to rotate until it finally seizes. The recommended action at that point is replacement of the entire facility at a significant cost. The purpose of this paper is to describe the symptoms leading to rack failure and to present the results of a refurbishment procedure that does not involve the use of solvents which create mixed chemical and radioactive hazardous waste. The primary reason for rack failure is the buildup of sludge produced through irradiation of lubrication oil. The refurbishment procedure involves using a commercially available degreasing solution which can be pumped into and out of the rack with the objective of removing this sludge. The solution used is sold under the trade name 'Simple Green'. No radioactive material was detected on smear or air samples taken of the work area during the reifurbishment activities and the rack rotates freely in both direction even after eighteen months of operation. The only disadvantage to performing this procedure has been the need to maintain a very aggressive contamination control program when unloading samples from the rack. A very fine particulate material attaches to the outside of tubes used to encapsulate samples. This material can produce contamination levels of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} in the worst cases but will typically produce local hot spots on the order of 1000 dpm. (author)

  18. Assessment and mitigation of power quality problems for PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohd Fazli; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.

    2017-01-01

    An electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances. Investigation and monitoring of power quality are necessary to maintain accurate operation of sensitive equipment especially for nuclear installations. This paper will discuss the power quality problems observed at the electrical sources of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP). Assessment of power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards) then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. Field power quality data is collected by power quality recorder and analyzed with reference to power quality standards. Normally the electrical power is supplied to the RTP via two sources in order to keep a good reliability where each of them is designed to carry the full load. The assessment of power quality during reactor operation was performed for both electrical sources. There were several disturbances such as voltage harmonics and flicker that exceeded the thresholds. To reduce these disturbances, mitigation techniques have been proposed, such as to install passive harmonic filters to reduce harmonic distortion, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) to reduce voltage disturbances and isolate all sensitive and critical loads.

  19. Production of 37Ar in The University of Texas TRIGA reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Egnatuk, Christine M.; Lowrey, Justin; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Woods, Vincent T.; Keillor, Martin E.

    2011-06-19

    The detection of {sup 37}Ar is important for on-site inspections for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. In an underground nuclear explosion this radionuclide is produced by {sup 40}Ca(n,{alpha}){sup 37}Ar reaction in surrounding soil and rock. With a half-life of 35 days, {sup 37}Ar provides a signal useful for confirming the location of an underground nuclear event. An ultra-low-background proportional counter developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is used to detect {sup 37}Ar, which decays via electron capture. The irradiation of Ar gas at natural enrichment in the 3L facility within the Mark II TRIGA reactor facility at The University of Texas at Austin provides a source of {sup 37}Ar for the calibration of the detector. The {sup 41}Ar activity is measured by the gamma activity using an HPGe detector after the sample is removed from the core. Using the {sup 41}Ar/{sup 37}Ar production ratio and the {sup 41}Ar activity, the amount of {sup 37}Ar created is calculated. The {sup 41}Ar decays quickly (half-life of 109.34 minutes) leaving a radioactive sample of high purity {sup 37}Ar and only trace levels of {sup 39}Ar.

  20. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    SciTech Connect

    Mojaverian, P.; Ferguson, R.K.; Vlasses, P.H.; Rocci, M.L. Jr.; Oren, A.; Fix, J.A.; Caldwell, L.J.; Gardner, C.

    1985-08-01

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals.

  1. National Outbreak of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to a Single Poultry Company

    PubMed Central

    Gieraltowski, Laura; Higa, Jeffrey; Peralta, Vi; Green, Alice; Schwensohn, Colin; Rosen, Hilary; Libby, Tanya; Kissler, Bonnie; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Booth, Hillary; Kimura, Akiko; Grass, Julian; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Defibaugh-Chávez, Stephanie; Williams, Ian; Wise, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Importance This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry. Objective To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. Design Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures. Setting United States. Outbreak period was March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014 Patients A case was defined as illness in a person infected with a laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Heidelberg with 1 of 7 outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI patterns with illness onset from March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A total of 634 case-patients were identified through passive surveillance; 200/528 (38%) were hospitalized, none died. Results Interviews were conducted with 435 case-patients: 371 (85%) reported eating any chicken in the 7 days before becoming ill. Of 273 case-patients interviewed with a focused questionnaire, 201 (74%) reported eating chicken prepared at home. Among case-patients with available brand information, 152 (87%) of 175 patients reported consuming Company A brand chicken. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed on 69 clinical isolates collected from case-patients; 67% were drug resistant, including 24 isolates (35%) that were multidrug resistant. The source of Company A brand chicken consumed by case-patients was traced back to 3 California production establishments from which 6 of 7 outbreak strains were isolated. Conclusions Epidemiologic, laboratory, traceback, and environmental investigations conducted by local, state, and federal public health and regulatory officials indicated that consumption of Company A chicken

  2. National Outbreak of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to a Single Poultry Company.

    PubMed

    Gieraltowski, Laura; Higa, Jeffrey; Peralta, Vi; Green, Alice; Schwensohn, Colin; Rosen, Hilary; Libby, Tanya; Kissler, Bonnie; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Booth, Hillary; Kimura, Akiko; Grass, Julian; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Defibaugh-Chávez, Stephanie; Williams, Ian; Wise, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry. To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures. United States. Outbreak period was March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A case was defined as illness in a person infected with a laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Heidelberg with 1 of 7 outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI patterns with illness onset from March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A total of 634 case-patients were identified through passive surveillance; 200/528 (38%) were hospitalized, none died. Interviews were conducted with 435 case-patients: 371 (85%) reported eating any chicken in the 7 days before becoming ill. Of 273 case-patients interviewed with a focused questionnaire, 201 (74%) reported eating chicken prepared at home. Among case-patients with available brand information, 152 (87%) of 175 patients reported consuming Company A brand chicken. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed on 69 clinical isolates collected from case-patients; 67% were drug resistant, including 24 isolates (35%) that were multidrug resistant. The source of Company A brand chicken consumed by case-patients was traced back to 3 California production establishments from which 6 of 7 outbreak strains were isolated. Epidemiologic, laboratory, traceback, and environmental investigations conducted by local, state, and federal public health and regulatory officials indicated that consumption of Company A chicken was the cause of this outbreak. The outbreak involved multiple

  3. Characterization of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg outbreak strain in commercial turkeys: colonization, transmission, and host transcriptional response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg has been associated with numerous human foodborne illness outbreaks due to consumption of poultry. For example, in 2011, an MDR S. Heidelberg outbreak associated with ground turkey sickened 136 individuals and resulted...

  4. Recombination and Ionization Measurements at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Storage Ring TSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, M.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotný, O.; Savin, D. W.; Bernhardt, D.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Krantz, C.; Grieser, M.; Repnow, R.; Wolf, A.

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of the charge state distribution (CSD) of astrophysical plasmas is important for the interpretation of spectroscopic data. To accurately calculate CSDs, reliable rate coefficients are needed for dielectronic recombination (DR), which is the dominant electron-ion recombination mechanism for most ions, and for electron impact ionization (EII). We are carrying out DR and EII measurements of astrophysically important ions using the TSR storage ring at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Storage ring measurements are largely free of the metastable contamination found in other experimental geometries, resulting in more unambiguous DR and EII reaction rate measurements. The measured data can be used in plasma modelling as well as for benchmarking theoretical atomic calculations.

  5. The Heidelberg test storage ring for heavy ions and its use for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1986-11-01

    A brief description of the Heavy-Ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) presently being built at the Max-Planck Institut in Heidelberg is given. It will be able to store ions injected from the tandem postaccelerator combination up to about 30 MeV/nucleon for a charge to mass ratio of 0.5. One of the main purposes of the TSR will be the study of electron cooling. Some atomic physics experiments are discussed using the electron cooling device which provides an electron-ion collision facility with good energy resolution and ion beams of high currents and low emittances. Here the possibilities for measurements of spontaneous and laser-induced radiative recombination and dielectronic recombination in the electron cooling section are discussed.

  6. Dependence of optic disc parameters on disc area according to Heidelberg Retina Tomograph: Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machekhin, V.; Manaenkova, G.; Bondarenko, O.

    2007-05-01

    With the help of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT-II) optic disc parameters in 211 eyes of 115 healthy patients with refraction Em +/- 3,0 D and 96 eyes of 72 patients with myopia 3,5-14,0 D without any signs of glaucoma were studied. Analysis of optic disc parameters were carried out in 5 groups of patients according to disc area: less than 1,5 mm2, 1,5- 2,5 mm2, 2,5-3,0 mm2, 3,0-3,5 mm2 and more than 3,5 mm2. An accurate depending on disc area was revealed for all optic disc parameters in all sectors, which was manifested by increasing cup disc and rim disc (area and volume) and other parameters. We consider it is necessary to use the proper tables for right interpretation of received data for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  7. Curriculum for medical informatics at the University of Heidelberg/School of Technology Heilbronn.

    PubMed

    Leven, F J

    1994-06-01

    The specialized university curriculum for medical informatics at the University of Heidelberg/School of Technology Heilbronn described in this paper is one of the oldest educational approaches in the field of medical informatics, and has been successful for more than 20 years with more than 600 graduates (Diplom-Informatiker der Medizin). It is based on the concept of medical informatics as an independent medical discipline, and covers the total spectrum ranging from health care economics, biosignal and medical image processing, model building in medicine, to information and knowledge processing in medicine. It is a program of 4.5 years duration with a strong emphasis on the methodological foundations of medical informatics and on practical education in a number of specific laboratories. Thirty-five students are admitted each semester, and in total about 390 students enrolled. The faculty consists of 17 full-time members and about 25 part-time lecturers.

  8. International outbreak investigation of Salmonella Heidelberg associated with in-flight catering.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, J; Garvey, P; Ryan, A; O'Donnell, J; Cormican, M; Jackson, S; Cloak, F; Cullen, L; Swaan, C M; Schimmer, B; Appels, R W; Nygard, K; Finley, R; Sreenivasan, N; Lenglet, A; Gossner, C; McKeown, P

    2014-04-01

    Rapid and wide dispersal of passengers after flights makes investigation of flight-related outbreaks challenging. An outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in a group of Irish travellers returning from Tanzania. Additional international cases sharing the same flight were identified. Our aim was to determine the source and potential vehicles of infection. Case-finding utilized information exchange using experts' communication networks and national surveillance systems. Demographic, clinical and food history information was collected. Twenty-five additional cases were identified from Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, USA and Canada. We conducted a case-control study which indicated a significant association between illness and consumption of milk tart (OR 10.2) and an egg dish (OR 6) served on-board the flight. No food consumed before the flight was associated with illness. Cases from countries other than Ireland provided supplementary information that facilitated the identification of likely vehicles of infection. Timely, committed international collaboration is vital in such investigations.

  9. Optics and experimental resolution of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow fluorometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Wickert, Burkhard; Vogel, Michael; Schurwanz, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Wolf, Dietmar; Aldinger, Klaus; Cremer, Christoph G.

    1996-01-01

    Slit-scan flow fluorometry is a laser-technological approach for accelerated screening and sorting of fluorescence labelled metaphase chromosomes. Details of the optics of the Heidelberg slit-scan sorter are presented. In a fluid stream the fluorescence labelled chromosomes rapidly pass one at a time by a scanning laser beam. The laser can be focused by a less complex optic consisting of only a few commercially available lenses. The laser intensity distribution around the focus was measured for 488 nm for two lens configurations. Although the light distribution obtained by such an optic is normally not aberration free, the requirements of a 'ribbonlike' shape in the center of the fluid stream can be fulfilled. Since the chromosomes are oriented perpendicularly to the laser beam by hydrodynamic focusing of the fluid stream, the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be measured time (equals spatially) resolved. According to their intensity profiles the chromosomes can be classified. Signal processing of the profiles can be performed in less than 600 microseconds, so that in the order of hundred chromosomes per second can be sorted out by a computer controlled electro-acoustic sorting unit. The final spatial resolution of a slit-scan flow sorter is not only affected by the focusing optics of the laser but also by the fluid stream, the detection optics and electronics, as well as by the computer analysis algorithm. Calculations often consider only the optics under ideal conditions. Here, a method is shown how to estimate the overall resolution of a slit-scan flow fluorometer experimentally. According to this criterion the resolution of the Heidelberg slit-scan sorter for 488 nm fluorescence excitation was estimated to be 2.4 micrometer in its basic optical configuration and 1.7 micrometer with additional correction of chromatic aberration effects.

  10. Maximizing time from the constraining European Working Time Directive (EWTD): The Heidelberg New Working Time Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) has greatly reduced training hours of surgical residents, which translates into 30% less surgical and clinical experience. Such a dramatic drop in attendance has serious implications such compromised quality of medical care. As the surgical department of the University of Heidelberg, our goal was to establish a model that was compliant with the EWTD while avoiding reduction in quality of patient care and surgical training. Methods We first performed workload analyses and performance statistics for all working areas of our department (operation theater, emergency room, specialized consultations, surgical wards and on-call duties) using personal interviews, time cards, medical documentation software as well as data of the financial- and personnel-controlling sector of our administration. Using that information, we specifically designed an EWTD-compatible work model and implemented it. Results Surgical wards and operating rooms (ORs) were not compliant with the EWTD. Between 5 pm and 8 pm, three ORs were still operating two-thirds of the time. By creating an extended work shift (7:30 am-7:30 pm), we effectively reduced the workload to less than 49% from 4 pm and 8 am, allowing the combination of an eight-hour working day with a 16-hour on call duty; thus, maximizing surgical resident training and ensuring patient continuity of care while maintaining EDTW guidelines. Conclusion A precise workload analysis is the key to success. The Heidelberg New Working Time Model provides a legal model, which, by avoiding rotating work shifts, assures quality of patient care and surgical training. PMID:25984433

  11. Cortical reorganization in recent-onset tinnitus patients by the Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krick, Christoph M.; Grapp, Miriam; Daneshvar-Talebi, Jonas; Reith, Wolfgang; Plinkert, Peter K.; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology and treatment of tinnitus still are fields of intensive research. The neuroscientifically motivated Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy, previously developed by the German Center for Music Therapy Research, Heidelberg, Germany, was applied to explore its effects on individual distress and on brain structures. This therapy is a compact and fast application of nine consecutive 50-min sessions of individualized therapy implemented over 1 week. Clinical improvement and long-term effects over several years have previously been published. However, the underlying neural basis of the therapy's success has not yet been explored. In the current study, the therapy was applied to acute tinnitus patients (TG) and healthy active controls (AC). Non-treated patients were also included as passive controls (PTC). As predicted, the therapeutic intervention led to a significant decrease of tinnitus-related distress in TG compared to PTC. Before and after the study week, high-resolution MRT scans were obtained for each subject. Assessment by repeated measures design for several groups (Two-Way ANOVA) revealed structural gray matter (GM) increase in TG compared to PTC, comprising clusters in precuneus, medial superior frontal areas, and in the auditory cortex. This pattern was further applied as mask for general GM changes as induced by the therapy week. The therapy-like procedure in AC also elicited similar GM increases in precuneus and frontal regions. Comparison between structural effects in TG vs. AC was calculated within the mask for general GM changes to obtain specific effects in tinnitus patients, yielding GM increase in right Heschl's gyrus, right Rolandic operculum, and medial superior frontal regions. In line with recent findings on the crucial role of the auditory cortex in maintaining tinnitus-related distress, a causative relation between the therapy-related GM alterations in auditory areas and the long-lasting therapy effects can be assumed. PMID:25745385

  12. [Development and implementation of a 'curriculum complementary and alternative medicine' at the Heidelberg Medical School].

    PubMed

    Joos, Stefanie; Eicher, Christiane; Musselmann, Berthold; Kadmon, Martina

    2008-10-01

    The 9th revision of the Medical Training Regulations for Physicians (AAppO) in October 2003 included the new compulsory interdisciplinary subject 'Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)' (QB 12). The present article describes the development of a 'CAM curriculum' for undergraduate education, its implementation in the QB 12 at the Heidelberg Medical School and its evaluation. According to the 6-step approach by Kern, the following aspects are presented: requirements, experiences/interests of students, learning targets, development of practical training courses and lectures, implementation, and evaluation. Experiences/interests of students were assessed by a self-developed questionnaire. Practical training courses and lectures were evaluated by school marks (1 through 6) and by a modified version of the HILVE-I. A selection of CAM methods to be included in the curriculum was made by the participating lecturers based on the criteria 'evidence' and 'prevalence in health care'. Learning targets were defined in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes. On this basis, practical training courses/lectures comprising classical naturopathy, acupuncture/ traditional Chinese medicine and neural therapy were developed and integrated in the QB 12. Regular evaluations of the practical training courses/lectures constantly reveal good results. 69% of the 219 students questioned indicated to be interested in CAM, 27% already had gained experience with CAM themselves. The well-evaluated CAM courses/lectures indicate a successful development and implementation of the 'CAM curriculum' in the QB 12 at the Heidelberg Medical School. Thus, the requirements of the AAppO are met. Moreover, implementation of CAM in undergraduate education allows for the importance CAM has in every-day care of patients in Germany. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. [From stand-alone solution to longitudinal communication curriculum--development and implementation at the Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg].

    PubMed

    Sator, Marlene; Jünger, Jana

    2015-05-01

    At the Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg, implementation of an interdisciplinary longitudinal curriculum was started in 2001 with the goal of achieving sustained promotion of communicative and clinical competences. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of Heidelberg's longitudinal communication curriculum. Furthermore, innovative aspects and strategies are discussed. The methodological approaches for development and implementation were Kern's "Six-step Approach" and a SWOT analysis. The process resulted in an innovative communication curriculum that starts with an integrated curriculum for developing clinical and communicative competence in the pre-clinical phase and continues in the clinical phase with medical communication and interactive training. Satisfaction with the communication curriculum and its effectiveness were rated highly by students. Residents who had graduated from Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg rated the extent to which they had communicative competencies at the time of their graduation at their disposal significantly higher than residents who had graduated from the other 4 medical faculties in Baden-Württemberg. The experiences gained in Heidelberg can be applied by other faculties. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Poultry litter environment selects for the development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in Salmonella Heidelberg via conjugative IncX plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fitness of S. Heidelberg in poultry litter (PL) was determined following growth preconditioning in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or poultry litter extracts (PLE, a centrifuged and filter sterilized PL slurry). Isolates were monitored by direct culture count for up to 9 days. The concen...

  15. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of new irradiation channels inside the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor core.

    PubMed

    Chham, E; El Bardouni, T; Benaalilou, K; Boukhal, H; El Bakkari, B; Boulaich, Y; El Younoussi, C; Nacir, B

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the capacity of radioisotope production in the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor, which is considered as one of the most important applications of research reactors. The aim of this study is to enhance the utilization of TRIGA core in the field of neutron activation and ensure an economic use of the fuel. The main idea was to create an additional irradiation channel (IC) inside the core. For this purpose, three new core configurations are proposed, which differ according to the IC position in the core. Thermal neutron flux distribution and other neutronic safety parameters such as power peaking factors, excess reactivity, and control rods worth reactivity were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) code and neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII evaluation. The calculated thermal flux in the central thimble (CT) and in the added IC for the reconfigured core is compared with the thermal flux in the CT of the existing core, which is taken as a reference. The results show that all the obtained fluxes in CTs are very close to the reference value, while a remarkable difference is observed between the fluxes in the new ICs and reference. This difference depends on the position of IC in the reactor core. To demonstrate that the Moroccan TRIGA reactor could safely operate at 2MW, with new configurations based on new ICs, different safety-related thermal-hydraulic parameters were investigated. The PARET model was used in this study to verify whether the safety margins are met despite the new modifications of the core. The results show that it is possible to introduce new ICs safely in the reactor core, because the obtained values of the parameters are largely far from compromising the safety of the reactor.

  16. Extraction of pure thermal neutron beam for the proposed PGNAA facility at the TRIGA research reactor of AERE, Savar, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Sabina; Zaman, M. A.; Islam, S. M. A.; Ahsan, M. H.

    1993-10-01

    A study on collimators and filters for the design of a spectrometer for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) at one of the radial beamports of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at AERE, Savar has been carried out. On the basis of this study a collimator and a filter have been designed for the proposed PGNAA facility. Calculations have been done for measuring neutron flux at various positions of the core of the reactor using the computer code TRIGAP. Gamma dose in the core of the reactor has also been measured experimentally using TLD technique in the present work.

  17. Comparative Genomic Analysis and Virulence Differences in Closely Related Salmonella enterica Serotype Heidelberg Isolates from Humans, Retail Meats, and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Maria; Zhao, Shaohua; Pettengill, James; Luo, Yan; Monday, Steven R.; Abbott, Jason; Ayers, Sherry L.; Cinar, Hediye N.; Muruvanda, Tim; Li, Cong; Allard, Marc W.; Whichard, Jean; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W.; McDermott, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) is one of the top serovars causing human salmonellosis. Recently, an antibiotic-resistant strain of this serovar was implicated in a large 2011 multistate outbreak resulting from consumption of contaminated ground turkey that involved 136 confirmed cases, with one death. In this study, we assessed the evolutionary diversity of 44 S. Heidelberg isolates using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) generated by the 454 GS FLX (Roche) platform. The isolates, including 30 with nearly indistinguishable (one band difference) Xbal pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (JF6X01.0032, JF6X01.0058), were collected from various sources between 1982 and 2011 and included nine isolates associated with the 2011 outbreak. Additionally, we determined the complete sequence for the chromosome and three plasmids from a clinical isolate associated with the 2011 outbreak using the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) system. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses, we were able to distinguish highly clonal isolates, including strains isolated at different times in the same year. The isolates from the recent 2011 outbreak clustered together with a mean SNP variation of only 17 SNPs. The S. Heidelberg isolates carried a variety of phages, such as prophage P22, P4, lambda-like prophage Gifsy-2, and the P2-like phage which carries the sopE1 gene, virulence genes including 62 pathogenicity, and 13 fimbrial markers and resistance plasmids of the incompatibility (Inc)I1, IncA/C, and IncHI2 groups. Twenty-one strains contained an IncX plasmid carrying a type IV secretion system. On the basis of the recent and historical isolates used in this study, our results demonstrated that, in addition to providing detailed genetic information for the isolates, WGS can identify SNP targets that can be utilized for differentiating highly clonal S. Heidelberg isolates. PMID:24732280

  18. Comparative genomic analysis and virulence differences in closely related salmonella enterica serotype heidelberg isolates from humans, retail meats, and animals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maria; Zhao, Shaohua; Pettengill, James; Luo, Yan; Monday, Steven R; Abbott, Jason; Ayers, Sherry L; Cinar, Hediye N; Muruvanda, Tim; Li, Cong; Allard, Marc W; Whichard, Jean; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W; McDermott, Patrick F

    2014-05-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) is one of the top serovars causing human salmonellosis. Recently, an antibiotic-resistant strain of this serovar was implicated in a large 2011 multistate outbreak resulting from consumption of contaminated ground turkey that involved 136 confirmed cases, with one death. In this study, we assessed the evolutionary diversity of 44 S. Heidelberg isolates using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) generated by the 454 GS FLX (Roche) platform. The isolates, including 30 with nearly indistinguishable (one band difference) Xbal pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (JF6X01.0032, JF6X01.0058), were collected from various sources between 1982 and 2011 and included nine isolates associated with the 2011 outbreak. Additionally, we determined the complete sequence for the chromosome and three plasmids from a clinical isolate associated with the 2011 outbreak using the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) system. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses, we were able to distinguish highly clonal isolates, including strains isolated at different times in the same year. The isolates from the recent 2011 outbreak clustered together with a mean SNP variation of only 17 SNPs. The S. Heidelberg isolates carried a variety of phages, such as prophage P22, P4, lambda-like prophage Gifsy-2, and the P2-like phage which carries the sopE1 gene, virulence genes including 62 pathogenicity, and 13 fimbrial markers and resistance plasmids of the incompatibility (Inc)I1, IncA/C, and IncHI2 groups. Twenty-one strains contained an IncX plasmid carrying a type IV secretion system. On the basis of the recent and historical isolates used in this study, our results demonstrated that, in addition to providing detailed genetic information for the isolates, WGS can identify SNP targets that can be utilized for differentiating highly clonal S. Heidelberg isolates.

  19. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegner, Markus; Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele; Khan, Rustam; Blaickner, Matthias; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Böck, Helmuth

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  20. License renewal and power upgrade of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, Howard C.

    1984-07-01

    The Cornell Mark II TRIGA reactor has been a principal facility for instruction and research in nuclear science and engineering at Cornell, and it has been extensively used by other departments at Cornell and by nearby universities and industries. Initially the fuel was low hydride, 8.5w/o 19%-enriched, aluminum clad; in 1974 it was changed to high-hydride, stainless-steel-clad. The maximum power has been 100 kW, with pulses to $2, and operation has been on a one-shift demand basis. Annual energy generation of 50 MWH has been typical. Standard features include a 4-inch tangential port and our 6-inch radial ports, a thermal column with hohlraum and vertical access, a central thimble, a 'rabbit', and a set of dry irradiation tubes, replacing the 'Lazy Susan'. The license was renewed and amended in November 1983; the new limits are 500 kW and $3 pulses. Physical changes to the facility included addition of a water-to-water heat exchanger and of a diffuser at the water outlet {approx} 60 cm above the core. The flow rate is 300 liters per minute in the primary (reactor) side of the heat exchanger. The temperature of the chilled water entering the secondary of the exchanger is {approx} 12?C; its flow rate is adjusted by a servo-controlled by-pass valve to maintain the desired range of pool water temperature. Steps taken to go to higher power included rearrangement of fuel elements to increase excess reactivity, recalibration of control rods, and power vs ion chamber current calibrations at successively higher power by comparing the rate of rise of pool temperature with a known rate using electrical heating elements. Steady-state operation has been done up to 480 kW (nominal) but pulsing at the newly allowed higher levels has not been tested as yet.

  1. Experimental study of radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ajijul Hoq, M; Malek Soner, M A; Salam, M A; Haque, M M; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S M

    2017-09-09

    The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked. In the present study, neutron, beta and gamma radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the reactor facility with reactor power level of 2.4MW was measured to estimate the rising level of radiation due to its operational activities. From the obtained results high radiation dose is observed at the measurement position of the piercing beam port which is caused by neutron leakage and accordingly, dose rate at the stated position with different reactor power levels was measured. This study also deals with the gamma dose rate measurements at a fixed position of the reactor pool top surface for different reactor power levels under both Natural Convection Cooling Mode (NCCM) and Forced Convection Cooling Mode (FCCM). Results show that, radiation dose rate is higher for NCCM in compared with FCCM and increasing with the increase of reactor power. Thus, concerning the radiological safety issues for working personnel and the general public, the radiation dose level monitoring and the experimental analysis performed within this paper is so much effective and the result of this work can be utilized for base line data and code verification of the nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Vocational rehabilitation in German vocational retraining centres and results of Berufsförderungswerk Heidelberg gGmbH].

    PubMed

    Tews, H P; Schreiber, W K; Schott, J

    2003-02-01

    The article focuses on the results of vocational integration over the last two decades and on actual results from client-surveys as presented by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Berufsförderungswerke (ADB) (working group of the German vocational retraining centres) and the Berufsförderungswerk Heidelberg (BFW Heidelberg, the vocational retraining centre in Heidelberg). Process quality of vocational rehabilitation can be indicated by data like the number of persons dropping out of their training - the ratio to be found in the vocational retraining centres is on a lower level than in other institutions of vocational training. Clients have changed: during the last decade the average age of the clients in the BFW Heidelberg has increased by 3 years, there is a higher proportion of women, but there also are more clients with psychological disorders. A new group of clients is growing - non-handicapped persons who pay for their training themselves. Process quality has improved, with graduates of the BFW Heidelberg saying significantly more often that they can use much or very much of the training courses' contents within their later occupational activities -- the proportion increases with the level of training they had undergone. Additionally the proportion of those is growing who see themselves in an -- according to their training -- adequate occupational situation. These are certainly positive results referring to the indicators of process quality. Concerning outcome quality one has to take the levels of occupational integration into account. Compared with the results of German vocational retraining centres overall, graduates of the Heidelberg centre constantly had a higher level of vocational integration over the last 20 years, one of the reasons being that the vocational training offered in Heidelberg reaches up to the level of degree of a university of applied sciences. The situation on the job market strongly influences occupational integration: it is evident

  3. Implementation of k0-INAA standardisation at ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey based on k0-IAEA software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Ayse Nur; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of k0-INAA method at the Istanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The neutron spectrum parameters such as epithermal neutron flux distribution parameter (α), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and thermal neutron flux (φth) were determined at the central irradiation channel of the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using bare triple-monitor method. HPGe detector calibrations and calculations were carried out by k0-IAEA software. The α, f and φth values were calculated to be -0.009, 15.4 and 7.92·1012 cm-2 s-1, respectively. NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash and intercomparison samples consisting of clay and sandy soil samples were used to evaluate the validity of the method. For selected elements, the statistical evaluation of the analysis results was carried out by z-score test. A good agreement between certified/reported and experimental values was obtained.

  4. [Quality assurance of assessments using the example of the OSCE examination format: experiences of the Medical School of Heidelberg University].

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter; Möltner, Andreas; Fischer, Martin R; Jünger, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Quality management of assessment in medical education plays a key role in Germany--owing to, among other factors, the new medical licensing regulations ("Approbationsordnung"). OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) is a widespread tool to assess clinical competencies. However, the quality of OSCE in terms of reliability as a criterion of a good test is highly debated in the current literature. To improve the reliability of the OSCE three accompanying measures have been implemented at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Heidelberg since the summer of 2006: 1. the application of a checklist for pre- and post-reviews of OSCEs, 2. a specific training of OSCE examiners, 3. an advanced psychometric OSCE test report giving feedback to the item developer. The reliability of the Internal Medicine OSCE at the University of Heidelberg has increased since. Currently Cronbach's alpha of the final OSCE in the summer of 2007 was 0.829.

  5. Impact of a mutator phenotype on motility and cell adherence in Salmonella Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, Hervé; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Renoux, Virginie Madeleine; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Bousarghin, Latifa

    2012-09-14

    In this study, we investigated adherence and motility of the hypermutator Salmonella enterica Heidelberg B182 bovine strain related to a 12bp deletion in mutS. This mutator phenotype was associated with increased adherence to epithelial cells and with high expression of fimA as shown by real-time RT-PCR. Motility studies showed that fliC were up-regulated in the B182 strain, while fljA and fljB were down-regulated. In order to determine if mutated mutS is implicated in this genes expression, isogenic strains, derived from a WT strain, containing the 12bp deletion in mutS (Δ12bpmutS) or an inactivated mutS (ΔmutS) were generated. Δ12bpmutS and ΔmutS strains showed a spontaneous mutation rate similar to the environmental strain B182, but exhibited lower adherence capacity and fimA expression. In contrast to the fimbriae genes, in Δ12bpmutS, fliC expression was up-regulated, but fljA and fljB expression were decreased, as in the B182 strain. Only fljB expression was increased in ΔmutS mutants. Taken together, our data suggest that mutS alteration does not influence fimbriae expression but can impact flagella genes.

  6. Ionization and Recombination Measurements at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Storage Ring TSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, D. W.; Hahn, M.; Lestinsky, M.; Novonty, O.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Krantz, C.; Wolf, A.

    2011-05-01

    Reliable ionization balance calculations are needed to analyze spectra from a wide range of cosmic sources including photoionized objects such as AGNs and X-ray binaries and electron ionized objects such as as stars, supernovae, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. These theoretical charge state distributions (CSD) depend in turn upon the underlying atomic data. Of particular importance are reliable rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination (DR), which is the dominant electron-ion recombination recombination mechanism for most ions, and for electron impact ionization (EII). We are carrying out DR and EII measurements of astrophysically important ions using the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. The storage ring measurements are largely free of the metastable contamination found in other experimental geometries. Storage ring measurements therefore result in more precise DR and EII reaction rate measurements. The measured rate coefficients can be used in modeling cosmic and laboratory plasmas as well as in the benchmarking of theoretical atomic calculations. Here we report results for selected recent DR and EII measurements.

  7. Recombination and Ionization Measurements at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Storage Ring TSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, Michael; Lukic, D.; Savin, D. W.; Hoffmann, J.; Krantz, C.; Orlov, D. A.; Wolf, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Borovyk, O.; Schmidt, E. W.; Yu, D.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Badnell, N. R.

    2008-05-01

    Much of our knowledge of the universe rests on our ability to interpret spectra collected from various cosmic sources. This analysis requires reliably understanding the underlying charge state distribution (CSD) for the observed gas. In turn, this depends on accurate rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination (DR) and electron impact ionization (EII), which play important roles in determining the CSD for a wide range of cosmic objects. To address these needs we have an ongoing experimental program carrying out DR and EII measurements for astrophysically important ions of cosmically abundant elements. Measurements are performed using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Storage rings are currently the only laboratory method capable of studying the astrophysically relevant DR channels for the majority of cosmically important ions. They are also the only method capable of studying EII using beams of ions with multiple electrons in the valence shell which are free of metastable contamination, allowing for unambiguous EII laboratory data. We use our results to produce rate coefficients for plasma modelling. We are also providing our data to atomic theorist to benchmark their calculations. Here we report our recent results for DR measurements of Fe XI and Fe X and show an early status report on the analysis of recent EII measurements of C IV, C V and O IV. This work has been supported in part by NASA, the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, and the German Research Council.

  8. Recombination and Ionization Measurements at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Storage Ring TSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; Bernhardt, D.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Mueller, A.; Novotny, O.; Schippers, S.; Wolf, A.; Savin, D. W.

    2010-03-01

    Reliable ionization balance calculations are needed to analyze spectra from a wide range of cosmic sources including photoionized objects such as AGNs and X-ray binaries and electron ionized objects such as as stars, supernovae, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. These theoretical charge state distributions (CSD) depend in turn upon the underlying atomic data. Of particular importance are reliable rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination (DR), which is the dominant electron-ion recombination recombination mechanism for most ions, and for electron impact ionzation (EII). We are carrying out DR and EII measurements of astrophysically important ions using the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Insitute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. The storage ring measurements are largely free of the metastable contamination found in other experimental geometries. Storage ring measurements therefore result in more precise DR and EII reaction rate measurements. The measured rate coefficients can be used in plasma modelling as well as in the benchmarking of theoretical atomic calculations. Here we report recent DR and EII measurements of Mg VIII and Fe XII.

  9. Topographic optic disc analysis by Heidelberg retinal tomography in ocular Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Berker, Nilufer; Elgin, Ufuk; Ozdal, Pinar; Batman, Aygen; Soykan, Emel; Ozkan, Seyhan S

    2007-09-01

    To compare the topographic characteristics of the optic discs in patients with severe and mild ocular Behçet's disease by using Heidelberg retinal tomographaphy (HRT). This prospective study included 47 eyes of 47 patients with ocular BD who were being followed-up at the Uveitis Clinic of the Ankara Ulucanlar Eye Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 21 eyes with mild uveitis, and group 2 consisted of 26 eyes with severe uveitis. All patients underwent topographic optic disc analysis by HRT II, and the quantitative optic disc parameters of both groups were compared by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. The mean cup volume, rim volume, cup area, disc area and cup depth in group 1 were found to be statistically significantly greater than those in group 2 (p<0.0001, p = 0.03, p = 0.021, p = 0.01 and p = 0.017, respectively), while the difference between the mean cup-to-disc ratios in group 1 and group 2 were found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.148). A relationship was found between the severity of ocular BD and optic disc topography determined by HRT. In eyes with smaller optic discs, uveitis was observed to have a more severe course with more frequent relapses than those with larger discs.

  10. Topographic optic disc analysis by Heidelberg retinal tomography in ocular Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Nilufer; Elgin, Ufuk; Ozdal, Pinar; Batman, Aygen; Soykan, Emel; Ozkan, Seyhan S

    2007-01-01

    Aim To compare the topographic characteristics of the optic discs in patients with severe and mild ocular Behçet's disease by using Heidelberg retinal tomographaphy (HRT). Methods This prospective study included 47 eyes of 47 patients with ocular BD who were being followed‐up at the Uveitis Clinic of the Ankara Ulucanlar Eye Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 21 eyes with mild uveitis, and group 2 consisted of 26 eyes with severe uveitis. All patients underwent topographic optic disc analysis by HRT II, and the quantitative optic disc parameters of both groups were compared by non‐parametric Mann‐Whitney U test. Results The mean cup volume, rim volume, cup area, disc area and cup depth in group 1 were found to be statistically significantly greater than those in group 2 (p<0.0001, p = 0.03, p = 0.021, p = 0.01 and p = 0.017, respectively), while the difference between the mean cup‐to‐disc ratios in group 1 and group 2 were found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.148). Conclusion A relationship was found between the severity of ocular BD and optic disc topography determined by HRT. In eyes with smaller optic discs, uveitis was observed to have a more severe course with more frequent relapses than those with larger discs. PMID:17475703

  11. Whom Do Centenarians Rely on for Support? Findings From the Second Heidelberg Centenarian Study.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Park, Min-Kyung S; Rott, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed picture of the sources and types of informal support available to centenarians, depending on their housing and care arrangements. Participants were 112 centenarians and 96 primary contacts of centenarians enrolled in the population-based Second Heidelberg Centenarian Study. Findings indicate that children of centenarians were their primary source of support in daily life. Those without living children had overall less help. Most frequently reported was help with administrative tasks, regardless of centenarians' residence or living arrangement. All other types of help (e.g., with activities of daily living and housework) were reported by about one-third and were mostly provided by children; centenarians without children were more likely to have friends/neighbors involved in some of these tasks. The one category reported by a third of the centenarians regardless of residence, living arrangements, or presence of a child was help with socializing/companionship. Findings constitute an important step toward identifying and meeting the support needs of centenarians and their families. Policy implications are discussed.

  12. A high-resolution spectrograph for the 72cm Waltz Telescope at Landessternwarte, Heidelberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, M.; Heeren, P.; Grill, M.; Harris, R. J.; Stürmer, J.; Schwab, C.; Gutcke, T.; Reffert, S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Seifert, W.; Mandel, H.; Geuer, L.; Schäffner, L.; Thimm, G.; Seeman, U.; Tietz, J.; Wagner, K.

    2016-08-01

    The Waltz Spectrograph is a fiber-fed high-resolution échelle spectrograph for the 72 cm Waltz Telescope at the Landessternwarte, Heidelberg. It uses a 31.6 lines/mm 63.5° blaze angle échelle grating in white-pupil configuration, providing a spectral resolving power of R 65,000 covering the spectral range between 450-800nm in one CCD exposure. A prism is used for cross-dispersion of échelle orders. The spectrum is focused by a commercial apochromat onto a 2k×2k CCD detector with 13.5μm per pixel. An exposure meter will be used to obtain precise photon-weighted midpoints of observations, which will be used in the computation of the barycentric corrections of measured radial velocities. A stabilized, newly designed iodine cell is employed for measuring radial velocities with high precision. Our goal is to reach a radial velocity precision of better than 5 m/s, providing an instrument with sufficient precision and sensitivity for the discovery of giant exoplanets. Here we describe the design of the Waltz spectrograph and early on-sky results.

  13. Low Energy Electron Cooling and Accelerator Physics for the Heidelberg CSR

    SciTech Connect

    Fadil, H.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, R. von; Orlov, D.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-03-20

    The Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) is currently under construction at MPI-K in Heidelberg. The CSR is an electrostatic ring with a total circumference of about 34 m, straight section length of 2.5 m and will store ions in the 20 {approx} 300 keV energy range (E/Q). The cryogenic system in the CSR is expected to cool the inner vacuum chamber down to 2 K. The CSR will be equipped with an electron cooler which has also to serve as an electron target for high resolution recombination experiments. In this paper we present the results of numerical investigations of the CSR lattice with finite element calculations of the deflection and focusing elements of the ring. We also present a layout of the CSR electron cooler which will have to operate in low energy mode to cool 20 keV protons in the CSR, as well as numerical estimations of the cooling times to be expected with this device.

  14. Glaucomatous Progression in Series of Stereoscopic Photographs and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Images

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Neil; Crabb, David P.; Mansberger, Steven L.; Fortune, Brad; Twa, Michael D.; Lloyd, Michael J.; Kotecha, Aachal; Garway-Heath, David F.; Cioffi, George A.; Johnson, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare optic disc changes using automated analysis of Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) images with assessments, by glaucoma specialists, of change in stereoscopic photographs. Methods Baseline and follow-up stereophotographs and corresponding HRT I series of 91 eyes from 56 patients were selected. The selection criteria were sufficiently long, good-quality HRT series (7 visits in 270 months of follow-up) and follow-up photographs contemporaneous with the final HRT image. Topographic change analysis (TCA), statistic image mapping (SIM), and linear regression of rim area (RALR) across time were applied to HRT series. Glaucomatous change determined from stereophotographs by expert observers was used as the reference standard. Results Expert observers identified 33 eyes (36%) as exhibiting glaucomatous change. Altering HRT progression criteria such that 36% of eyes progressed according to each method resulted in concordance between HRT methods and stereophotograph assessment of 54% for TCA, 65% for SIM, and 67% for RALR (Cohen K=0.05, 0.23, and 0.30, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curves of the HRT analyses revealed poor precision of HRT analyses to predict stereophotograph-assessed change: areas under the curve were 0.61 for TCA, 0.62 for SIM, and 0.66 for RALR. Conclusions Statistical methods for detecting structural changes in HRT images exhibit only moderate agreement with each other and have poor agreement with expert-assessed change in optic disc stereophotographs. PMID:20457976

  15. A unified framework for glaucoma progression detection using Heidelberg Retina Tomograph images

    PubMed Central

    Belghith, Akram; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, is an optic neuropthy characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. The detection of glaucomatous progression is one of the most important and most challenging aspects of primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) management. In this context, ocular imaging equipment is increasingly sophisticated, providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element in determining whether the disease is getting worse. In particular, the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT), a confocal scanning laser technology, has been commonly used to detect glaucoma and monitor its progression. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucomatous progression using HRT images. In contrast to previous works that do not integrate a priori knowledge available in the images, particularly the spatial pixel dependency in the change detection map, the Markov Random Field is proposed to handle such dependency. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the Variational Expectation Maximization (VEM) algorithm for inferring topographic ONH changes in the glaucoma progression detection framework. Diagnostic performance of the proposed framework is compared to recently proposed methods of progression detection. PMID:24709053

  16. A mineral magnetic characterization of the Plio-Pleistocene fluvial infill of the Heidelberg Basin (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Stephanie; Egli, Ramon; Frederichs, Thomas; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The Heidelberg Basin (Germany) hosts a quasi-continuous sedimentary sequence of primarily fluvial sediments with pedogenetic overprints and lacustrine intercalations. This unconsolidated succession has been shown to record a consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Quaternary and the late Neogene. Previous work has reported that sulphides and high-coercive minerals are the carriers of the remanent magnetization. Here, we provide the results of an extended mineral magnetic study that aims to disentangle the complex magnetic mineralogy. In addition, we assess the reliability of these minerals as carriers of palaeomagnetic signals. A major obstacle to the analysis of the drill cores was the large number of samples that were taken from a total core length of 1150 m. Rapid measurements on bulk samples provided only limited information on the magnetic mineralogy. In contrast, time-intensive methods such as first-order reversal curves (FORCs) or coercivity analyses, for example, yielded valuable information. The combined results of all the analyses consider the heterogeneous compositions of the sediments and indicate a varying palaeoenvironmental history. The Pliocene Iffezheim Formation was formed under alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. Magnetite, maghemite, haematite and goethite are the predominant magnetic minerals. Sulphides were only preserved under specific conditions. The Pleistocene sediments reflect predominantly reducing conditions during sedimentation and diagenesis. Greigite, pyrite and most likely pyrrhotite have been shown to occur. Taken together, our work provides a detailed environmental magnetic record of the Plio-Pleistocene and elucidates the capabilities and limitations of rock magnetic studies performed on fluvial dominated sedimentary successions.

  17. A Whole-Genome Sequencing Approach To Study Cefoxitin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Various Sources

    PubMed Central

    Edirmanasinghe, Romaine; Finley, Rita; Parmley, E. Jane; Avery, Brent P.; Carson, Carolee; Bekal, Sadjia; Golding, George

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study characterized cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains from humans, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry to assess the molecular relationships of isolates from these sources in Québec in 2012. Isolates were collected as part of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for CMY-2, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 113 S. Heidelberg isolates from humans (n = 51), abattoir poultry (n = 18), and retail poultry (n = 44) were studied. All cefoxitin-resistant isolates (n = 65) were also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ceftiofur, and ceftriaxone, and all contained the CMY-2 gene. PFGE analysis showed that 111/113 (98.2%) isolates clustered together with ≥90% similarity. Core genome analysis using WGS identified 13 small clusters of isolates with 0 to 4 single nucleotide variations (SNVs), consisting of cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry isolates. CMY-2 plasmids from cefoxitin-resistant isolates all belonged to incompatibility group I1. Analysis of IncI1 plasmid sequences revealed high identity (95 to 99%) to a previously described plasmid (pCVM29188_101) found in Salmonella Kentucky. When compared to pCVM29188_101, all sequenced cefoxitin-resistant isolates were found to carry 1 of 10 possible variant plasmids. Transmission of S. Heidelberg may be occurring between human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry sources, and transmission of a common CMY-2 plasmid may be occurring among S. Heidelberg strains with variable genetic backgrounds. PMID:28137797

  18. A Whole-Genome Sequencing Approach To Study Cefoxitin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Various Sources.

    PubMed

    Edirmanasinghe, Romaine; Finley, Rita; Parmley, E Jane; Avery, Brent P; Carson, Carolee; Bekal, Sadjia; Golding, George; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    This study characterized cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains from humans, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry to assess the molecular relationships of isolates from these sources in Québec in 2012. Isolates were collected as part of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for CMY-2, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 113 S Heidelberg isolates from humans (n = 51), abattoir poultry (n = 18), and retail poultry (n = 44) were studied. All cefoxitin-resistant isolates (n = 65) were also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ceftiofur, and ceftriaxone, and all contained the CMY-2 gene. PFGE analysis showed that 111/113 (98.2%) isolates clustered together with ≥90% similarity. Core genome analysis using WGS identified 13 small clusters of isolates with 0 to 4 single nucleotide variations (SNVs), consisting of cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry isolates. CMY-2 plasmids from cefoxitin-resistant isolates all belonged to incompatibility group I1. Analysis of IncI1 plasmid sequences revealed high identity (95 to 99%) to a previously described plasmid (pCVM29188_101) found in Salmonella Kentucky. When compared to pCVM29188_101, all sequenced cefoxitin-resistant isolates were found to carry 1 of 10 possible variant plasmids. Transmission of S Heidelberg may be occurring between human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry sources, and transmission of a common CMY-2 plasmid may be occurring among S Heidelberg strains with variable genetic backgrounds.

  19. Suns of Gold and Other Precious Items: Heavenly Phenomena Presented in 15th Century Manuscripts of the Heidelberg University Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, R.; Zimmermann, K.

    2011-06-01

    The Heidelberg University Library owns a few manuscripts that belong to the genre of German Volkskalender. These books contain, for instance, the Christian calendar, the lunar phases, the cycles of Sun and Moon, and advice is given how to cope with everyday life. A masterpiece is the Schicksalsbuch ("Book of Fate") which displays a plenty of marvelous illustrations on parchment. In the present paper, special attention is focused on the art and astronomy of this extraordinary manuscript.

  20. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected commercial laying flocks are often implicated as sources of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis, but Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium have also been significantly associated with egg-transmitted illness. Contamination of the edible conten...

  1. Frequency and duration of fecal shedding of Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium by experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are leading sources of human salmonellosis, but S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium are also egg-associated pathogens. The management practices and housing facilities characterizing different systems for housing commercial egg flocks can influence Salmonell...

  2. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  3. Differential ex vivo responses of primary leukocytes from turkey pedigree lines to Salmonella Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tiffany D; Glover, Paige K; Evans, Nicholas P; Dalloul, Rami A

    2016-02-01

    Escalating product recalls as a consequence of Salmonella-contaminated poultry products have resulted in detrimental economic impacts in the poultry industry. One potential long-term alternative method to Salmonella prevention is genetic selection to improve innate resistance. This study evaluated the ex vivo effects of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) on phagocytic and bactericidal leukocyte function in turkeys from six pedigree lines (A-F). Day-of-hatch poults (n = 48) were placed and raised in cages (2 birds/gender/genetic line/cage) to 35 d when heterophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from males and females of each line. Cells were used in phagocytic and bactericidal assays to determine the ex vivo effects of SH on turkey leukocyte activity. Data were analyzed using the Fit Model platform in JMP Pro 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc.) with differences considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and data reported as LS Means with SEM. Although genetic line had no significant effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs, cumulatively, female cells exhibited higher phagocytosis potential than those from males. The main effect of gender was significant on bactericidal activity of PBMCs when incubated at a 1:10 and 1:100 PBMC to SH ratio. Genetic line also had a significant effect on bactericidal activity of PBMCs with cells from line F exhibiting the best activity. These results suggest that gender had a marked cumulative effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs while both genetic line and gender had a prominent effect on bacterial killing of SH by turkey PBMCs. Once able to determine genetic markers associated with these immune responses to Salmonella, genetic selection for increased resistance may become feasible in turkeys.

  4. Optic disk size variability between African, Asian, white, Hispanic, and Filipino Americans using Heidelberg retinal tomography.

    PubMed

    Seider, Michael I; Lee, Roland Y; Wang, Dandan; Pekmezci, Melike; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2009-01-01

    To compare the optic disk size of African, Asian, white, Hispanic, and Filipino-American patients in a multiethnic glaucoma practice. Five hundred seventy-six eyes of 319 patients who had consecutively received Heidelberg retinal tomography 2 (HRT) from February 2006 to October 2007 in a glaucoma clinic that met inclusion criteria were included. The 5 ethnic groups represented were white (n=215, 37.3%), Asian (non-Filipino) (n=178, 30.8%), African (n=67, 11.6%), Hispanic (n=66, 11.4%), and Filipino-Americans (n=50, 8.7%). The relationship of optic disk size (global disk area) with race, age, sex, diagnosis, central corneal thickness (CCT), spherical equivalent refraction (SE), and cylindrical refraction was evaluated using multivariate regression analysis adjusting for confounders. Mean optic disk size of white-Americans (2.15 mm) was significantly smaller than that of African (2.55 mm), Asian (2.38 mm), Filipino (2.48 mm), and Hispanic-Americans (2.57 mm) (all, P < or = 0.0007). Global disk area was not statistically different between all other races (all, P > or = 0.054). Global disk area increased with SE (P=0.013), but was not found to vary with age, sex, diagnosis, CCT, or cylindrical refraction (all, P > or = 0.08). In our glaucoma clinic-based population, white-Americans had smaller optic disks than all other races, and there were no optic disk size differences among the other races studied. Optic disk size had no significant relationship to age, sex, CCT, cylindrical refraction or diagnosis, and a small direct relationship to SE. Confirmation of these results in a population-based study is needed.

  5. Effects of cold stress and Salmonella Heidelberg infection on bacterial load and immunity of chickens.

    PubMed

    Borsoi, Anderlise; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete Serrano; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the effects of cold stress (19 ± 1°C, 6 h /day, from the first to the seventh day of life) applied to specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. On experimental Day 1 (ED1), chicks were divided into four groups: C (not infected and kept under thermoneutral condition); CS (not infected and cold stressed); PC (Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) infected and kept under thermoneutral condition) and PCS (SH infected and cold stressed). High concentrations of corticosterone were found in the cold stressed birds on ED7 and ED21, with a greater increase in birds of the PCS group. Stress or non-stressed SH-infected birds had high levels of norepinephrine on ED21. On ED21, an increased percentage and number of SH were found in birds of the PCS group. On ED7, a decrease in macrophages presenting MHCII, CD8(+) and CD8(+) γδ cells was observed in the chickens of the CS group. Decrease was observed in CD3(+) cells in the birds of the PCS group and increase in macrophages presenting MHCII cells and of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in chickens of the CS group on ED21. There was a decrease in CD8(+) γδ cells in birds of the CS group on ED21 and in the CD3(+) and CD8(+)cell numbers in chickens of the PCS group on ED21. Our results suggest that cold stress applied to chickens in the first 7 days of life increases both the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system activities, leading to long-term immune cell dysfunction, thus allowing increased SH invasion and persistence within the birds' body.

  6. The effect of cataract surgery on imaging optic nerve head topography with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph.

    PubMed

    Falck, Aura A K; Saarela, Ville

    2012-06-14

    Purpose. To determine whether phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation interferes with measuring optic nerve head (ONH) topography using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Methods. The study population consisted of 31 women and 12 men aged 63-81 years with no previous history of eye diseases, surgery, laser procedures, or medication. The patients underwent first eye cataract surgery for senile cataract. The HRT II with software version 1.6 was used to obtain 3-dimensional images of the ONH as a part of a comprehensive ocular examination. The quality of the HRT image was assessed using topography standard deviation (TSD). Topography measurements are considered to be unreliable if TSD is more than 50 µm. Re-examination took place 1 month after surgery. Results. Before surgery, the topography measurements were unreliable in 35% (15/43) of the eyes; in 3 of these cases, ONH topography could not be calculated at all. One month after cataract surgery, the ONH topography could be calculated in all eyes and only one displayed unreliable topography measurements. The mean TSD was 40 µm before and 22 µm after surgery when calculated for all eyes with measurable topographies. The change in TSD was statistically significant (p<0.0005). The image alignment between the HRT examinations before and after surgery was excellent in 67% (26/39). Magnification changes occurred in 21% (8/39). Conclusions. Phacoemulsification cataract surgery with IOL implantation improves the image quality of the HRT. However, because of magnification changes and image misalignment, HRT follow-up of the ONH after cataract surgery is often unreliable.

  7. Comparison of objective diagnostic tests in glaucoma: Heidelberg retinal tomography and multifocal visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, C; Graham, S L; Klistorner, A; Goldberg, I

    2006-04-01

    To compare sensitivity and specificity of functional and structural changes in glaucoma using two objective tests: the multifocal visual evoked potential (m-VEP) and Heidelberg retinal tomography II (HRT). 41 glaucoma patients and 25 normal individuals participated in the study. One eye per individual was included in the study. Individuals were evaluated with Humphrey visual field (HVF) perimetry, m-VEP, and HRT. Moorfield regression analysis findings of HRT were compared with presence of scotoma on m-VEP. Linear regression analysis of quantitative variables, such as HVF mean deviation (MD), m-VEP discriminant score (Accumap Severity Index) and, global HRT parameters was also performed. m-VEP sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 96% respectively. HRT sensitivity and specificity were 79% and 92% respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for m-VEP was 0.96 and for HRT varied from 0.79 to 0.86 depending on the parameters used. Linear correlation between MD and Accumap Severity Index score was -77%, while that between HRT global parameters, Accumap Severity Index and MD were at best around 50%. Topographic comparison of the presence of scotoma on HVF and m-VEP in different areas of the visual field showed good agreement. Comparison of optic nerve head structural abnormality with corresponding areas of field defects on HVF and m-VEP showed poor to moderate agreement. The objective test of optic nerve function (m-VEP) and structure (HRT) can detect glaucomatous damage, with limited correlation. The 2 functional tests, HVF and m-VEP correlate better with each other than with HRT. It remains important to look for both functional and structural changes in order to detect all glaucoma cases.

  8. Assessment of optic disc parameters among healthy adult Malays by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Shawarinin; Shaharuddin, Bakiah; Wan Hitam, Wan H

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess the optic disc characteristics in healthy adult Malays and to correlate them with age, gender and refractive errors. Cross-sectional study. A total of 200 voluntary participants (106 women and 94 men) among Malay students aged 20 to 37 years at Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The relationship between Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph parameters with age, gender and refractive error were analysed with correlation tests and multiple linear regression analyses.   Twelve parameters, that is, disc area, rim area, cup area, cup to disc area, cup volume, rim volume, height variation contour, cup shape measure, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and retinal nerve fibre layer cross-sectional area.   Disc area, rim area and cup : disc area ratio averaged 2.24 ± 0.52 (mean ± standard deviation), 1.64 ± 0.32 and 0.25 ± 0.12 mm(2) , respectively. Five parameters (disc area, cup area, cup volume, cup : disc area ratio and mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness) showed statistically significant difference between men and women. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with rim area with coefficient r = -0.21, P = 0.003. All optic disc parameters were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with disc area, except cup shape measure.   One or more of optic disc parameters were affected significantly by age, gender and disc area in healthy adult Malays' eyes. These factors need to be considered during the evaluation of optic disc. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Comparative study of optic disc measurement by Copernicus optical coherence tomography and Heidelberg retinal tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Song; Yu, Ya-Jie; Li, Shu-Ning; Liu, Juan; Hao, Ying-Juan

    2012-08-01

    Copernicus optical coherence tomography (SOCT) is a new, ultra high-speed and high-resolution instrument available for clinical evaluation of optic nerve. The purpose of the study was to compare the agreements between SOCT and Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT). A total of 44 healthy normal volunteers were recruited in this study. One eye in each subject was selected randomly. Agreement between SOCT and HRT-3 in measuring optic disc area was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Relationships between measurements of optic nerve head parameter obtained by SOCT and HRT-3 were assessed by Pearson correlation. There was no significant difference in the average cup area (0.306 vs. 0.355 mm, P = 0.766), cup volume (0.158 vs. 0.130 mm, P = 0.106) and cup/disc ration (0.394 vs. 0.349 mm, P = 0.576) measured by the two instruments. However, other optic disc parameters from SOCT were significantly lower compared with HRT-3. The Bland-Altman plot revealed good agreement of cup area and cup volume measured by SOCT and HRT-3. Bad agreement of disc area, rim area, rim volume and cup/disc ratio were found between SOCT and HRT-3. The highest correlations between the two instruments were observed for cup area (r(2) = 0.783, P = 0.000) and cup/disc ratio (r(2) = 0.669, P = 0.000), whereas the lowest correlation was observed for disc area (r(2) = 0.100, P = 0.037), rim area (r(2) = 0.275, P = 0.000), cup volume (r(2) = 0.005, P = 0.391) and rim volume (r(2) = 0.021, P = 0.346). There were poor agreements between SOCT and HRT-3 for measurement of optic nerve parameters except cup area and cup volume. Measurement results of the two instruments are not interchangeable.

  10. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaer, J.; Audi, G.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Droese, C.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Smorra, C.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Wang, M.

    2011-07-15

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard {sup 12}C. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, {delta}V{sub pn}(Z,N).

  11. Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2004-08-01

    A continuous-flow apparatus was developed to measure thermal resistance (D- and z-values) of microorganisms at temperatures above 65 degrees C. This apparatus was designed to test whether vegetative microorganisms exhibited unusually high thermal resistance that prevented them from being completely eliminated at temperatures applicable to vacuum-steam-vacuum processes (116 to 157 degrees C). The apparatus was composed of a high-pressure liquid chromatography pump, a heating unit, and a cooling unit. It was designed to measure small D-values (<1 s). Three randomly selected organisms, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 suspended in deionized water were tested in the continuous-flow apparatus at temperatures ranging from 60 to 80 degrees C. Studies showed that the D-values of these organisms ranged from 0.05 to 20 s. Heating at 80 degrees C was found to be basically the physical limit of the system. Experimental results showed that L. monocytogenes, Salmonella Heidelberg, and E. coli O157:H7 did not exhibit unusual heat resistance. The conditions used in the vacuum-steam-vacuum processes should have completely inactivated organisms such as L. monocytogenes, Salmonella Heidelberg, and E. coli O157:H7 if present on food surfaces. The complete destruction of bacteria during vacuum-steam-vacuum processes might not occur because the surface temperatures never reached those of the steam temperatures and because bacteria might be hidden beneath the surface and was thus never exposed to the destructive effects of the steam.

  12. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry.

    PubMed

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M; Latorre, Juan D; Mahaffey, Brittany D; Teague, Kyle D; Graham, Lucas E; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  13. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  14. Development of the standard reference plane for the Heidelberg retina tomograph.

    PubMed

    Burk, R O; Vihanninjoki, K; Bartke, T; Tuulonen, A; Airaksinen, P J; Völcker, H E; König, J M

    2000-05-01

    Topometry of the optic disc is the quantitative assessment of the structure of the optic nerve head by means of three-dimensional parameters. The parameter values depend on definitions of intraocular reference planes. To describe the development of intraocular reference planes in laser scanning tomography for the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) using image intrinsic data with a fixed offset reference plane (320 microm) and to present a contour-line-based "flexible" standard reference plane ("SRP") for calculation of intrapapillary stereometric parameters taking the interindividual variability of optic disc topography into account. Ten-degree triple images were obtained by laser scanning tomography from 99 glaucoma eyes and 180 normal eyes. The images were evaluated to assess the variability of height measurements of an optic disc border contour-line segment (6 degrees width) corresponding to the site of the papillo-macular bundle as indicated by the average optic disc surface inclination angle. The average optic disc surface inclination angle was -7 degrees +/- 3 degrees below the horizontal meridian (0 degrees). The 6 degrees wide contour-line segment for the SRP was chosen according to the average surface inclination angle (-10 degrees to -4 degrees). The reproducibility of the SRP-segment height measurements was 16.0+/-10.8 microm for normal eyes and 23.4+/-18.0 microm for glaucoma eyes. To ensure that the automatic reference level determination for intrapapillary parameters remained below the disc border height, we defined the SRP level at a 50 microm offset (>2 SD of average segment height reproducibility in glaucoma) added to the individual height position of the 6 degrees contour line segment. The flexible standard reference plane allows for automatic determination of intrapapillary variables once a disc border contour line is interactively defined. In contrast to a fixed offset reference plane (e.g. 320 microm below the mean retina height), the

  15. Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy Enhances Task-Negative Activity in Tinnitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Krick, Christoph M; Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Plinkert, Peter K; Reith, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Suffering from tinnitus causes mental distress in most patients. Recent findings point toward a diminished activity of the brain's default-mode network (DMN) in subjects with mental disorders including depression or anxiety and also recently in subjects with tinnitus-related distress. We recently developed a therapeutic intervention, namely the Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy (HNMT), which shows an effective reduction of tinnitus-related distress following a 1-week short-term treatment. This approach offers the possibility to evaluate the neural changes associated with the improvements in tinnitus distress. We previously reported gray matter (GM) reorganization in DMN regions and in primary auditory areas following HNMT in cases of recent-onset tinnitus. Here we evaluate on the same patient group, using functional MRI (fMRI), the activity of the DMN following the improvements tinnitus-related distress related to the HNMT intervention. Methods: The DMN activity was estimated by the task-negative activation (TNA) during long inter-trial intervals in a word recognition task. The level of TNA was evaluated twice, before and after the 1-week study period, in 18 treated tinnitus patients ("treatment group," TG), 21 passive tinnitus controls (PTC), and 22 active healthy controls (AC). During the study, the participants in TG and AC groups were treated with HNMT, whereas PTC patients did not receive any tinnitus-specific treatment. Therapy-related effects on DMN activity were assessed by comparing the pairs of fMRI records from the TG and PTC groups. Results: Treatment of the TG group with HNMT resulted in an augmented DMN activity in the PCC by 2.5% whereas no change was found in AC and PTC groups. This enhancement of PCC activity correlated with a reduction in tinnitus distress (Spearman Rho: -0.5; p < 0.005). Conclusion: Our findings show that an increased DMN activity, especially in the PCC, underlies the improvements in tinnitus-related distress triggered

  16. The effect of image alignment on capillary blood flow measurement of the neuroretinal rim using the Heidelberg retina flowmeter

    PubMed Central

    Sehi, M; Flanagan, J G

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the influence of image alignment on the repeatability of blood flow measurements of the optic nerve. Methods: 10 normal subjects were examined. Heidelberg retina tomograph imaging was performed to establish best location and focus for the temporal neuroretinal rim. Two high quality Heidelberg retina flowmeter (HRF) images were acquired for three methods of alignment: central, nasal, and temporal. A 10×10 pixel measurement window was selected and exactly reproduced on all images. The interquartile pixel values were used to calculate capillary flow. ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and the coefficient of repeatability (CoR) were used for analysis. Results: There was no difference between methods (p = 0.47) or between visits (p = 0.51). The ICCs were 0.83 for the central, 0.34 for the nasal, and 0.42 for the temporal alignment. The CoR was 31.5 for central (mean effect 235.1), 234.6 for nasal, and 256.7 for temporal alignment. Conclusion: Central alignment was the most repeatable method for the measurement of neuroretinal rim capillary blood flow using the HRF. PMID:14736775

  17. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates Isolated in the United States from a Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Infections.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maria; Luo, Yan; Lafon, Patricia C; Timme, Ruth; Allard, Marc W; McDermott, Patrick F; Brown, Eric W; Zhao, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the most common bacterial agents of foodborne illness. We report draft genomes of four Salmonella serovar Heidelberg isolates associated with the recent multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Heidelberg infections linked to kosher broiled chicken livers in the United States in 2011. Isolates 2011K-1259 and 2011K-1232 were recovered from humans, whereas 2011K-1724 and 2011K-1726 were isolated from chicken liver. Whole genome sequence analysis of these isolates provides a tool for studying the short-term evolution of these epidemic clones and can be used for characterizing potentially new virulence factors.

  18. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates Isolated in the United States from a Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yan; Lafon, Patricia C.; Timme, Ruth; Allard, Marc W.; McDermott, Patrick F.; Brown, Eric W.; Zhao, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the most common bacterial agents of foodborne illness. We report draft genomes of four Salmonella serovar Heidelberg isolates associated with the recent multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Heidelberg infections linked to kosher broiled chicken livers in the United States in 2011. Isolates 2011K-1259 and 2011K-1232 were recovered from humans, whereas 2011K-1724 and 2011K-1726 were isolated from chicken liver. Whole genome sequence analysis of these isolates provides a tool for studying the short-term evolution of these epidemic clones and can be used for characterizing potentially new virulence factors. PMID:23405335

  19. Analytical analyses of startup measurements associated with the first use of LEU fuel in Romania's 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L. ); Ciocanescu, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) is located in Pitesti, Romania. Beginning with an HEU core (10 wt% U), the reactor first went critical in November 1979 but was shut down ten years later because of insufficient excess reactivity. Last November the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), which operates the SSR, received from the ANL RERTR program a shipment of 125 LEU pins fabricated by General Atomics and of the same geometry as the original fuel but with an enrichment of 19.7% 235U and a loading of 45 wt% U. Using 100 of these pins, four LEU clusters, each containing a 5 x 5 square array of fuel rods, were assembled. These four LEU clusters replaced the four most highly burned HEU elements in the SSR. The reactor resumed operations last February with a 35-element mixed HEU/LEU core configuration. In preparation for full power operation of the SSR with this mixed HEU/LEU core, a number of measurements were made. These included control rod calibrations, excess reactivity determinations, worths of experiment facilities, reaction rate distributions, and themocouple measurements of fuel temperatures as a function of reactor power. This paper deals with a comparison of some of these measured reactor parameters with corresponding analytical calculations.

  20. Comparison of EPR response of alanine and Gd₂O₃-alanine dosimeters exposed to TRIGA Mainz reactor.

    PubMed

    Marrale, M; Schmitz, T; Gallo, S; Hampel, G; Longo, A; Panzeca, S; Tranchina, L

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report some preliminary results regarding the analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets and alanine pellets added with gadolinium used for dosimetry at the TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany. Two set-ups were evaluated: irradiation inside PMMA phantom and irradiation inside boric acid phantom. We observed that the presence of Gd2O3 inside alanine pellets increases the EPR signal by a factor of 3.45 and 1.24 in case of PMMA and boric acid phantoms, respectively. We can conclude that in the case of neutron beam with a predominant thermal neutron component the addition of gadolinium oxide can significantly improve neutron sensitivity of alanine pellets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of both response of alanine and Gd-added alanine pellets with FLUKA code were performed and a good agreement was achieved for pure alanine dosimeters. For Gd2O3-alanine deviations between MC simulations and experimental data were observed and discussed.

  1. Neutronics and thermal hydraulic analysis of TRIGA Mark II reactor using MCNPX and COOLOD-N2 computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiyapun, K.; Wetchagarun, S.

    2017-06-01

    The neutronic analysis of TRIGA Mark II reactor has been performed. A detailed model of the reactor core was conducted including standard fuel elements, fuel follower control rods, and irradiation devices. As the approach to safety nuclear design are based on determining the criticality (keff), reactivity worth, reactivity excess, hot rod power factor and power peaking of the reactor, the MCNPX code had been used to calculate the nuclear parameters for different core configuration designs. The thermal-hydraulic model has been developed using COOLOD-N2 for steady state, using the nuclear parameters and power distribution results from MCNPX calculation. The objective of the thermal-hydraulic model is to determine the thermal safety margin and to ensure that the fuel integrity is maintained during steady state as well as during abnormal condition at full power. The hot channel fuel centerline temperature, fuel surface temperature, cladding surface temperature, the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and DNB ratio were determined. The good agreement between experimental data and simulation concerning reactor criticality proves the reliability of the methodology of analysis from neutronic and thermal hydraulic perspective.

  2. Estimation of (41)Ar activity concentration and release rate from the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor.

    PubMed

    Hoq, M Ajijul; Soner, M A Malek; Rahman, A; Salam, M A; Islam, S M A

    2016-03-01

    The BAEC TRIGA research reactor (BTRR) is the only nuclear reactor in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority (BAERA) regulations require that nuclear reactor licensees undertake all reasonable precautions to protect the environment and the health and safety of persons, including identifying, controlling and monitoring the release of nuclear substances to the environment. The primary activation product of interest in terms of airborne release from the reactor is (41)Ar. (41)Ar is a noble gas readily released from the reactor stacks and most has not decayed by the time it moves offsite with normal wind speed. Initially (41)Ar is produced from irradiation of dissolved air in the primary water which eventually transfers into the air in the reactor bay. In this study, the airborne radioisotope (41)Ar generation concentration, ground level concentration and release rate from the BTRR bay region are evaluated theoretically during the normal reactor operation condition by several governing equations. This theoretical calculation eventually minimizes the doubt about radiological safety to determine the radiation level for (41)Ar activity whether it is below the permissible limit or not. Results show that the estimated activity for (41)Ar is well below the maximum permissible concentration limit set by the regulatory body, which is an assurance for the reactor operating personnel and general public. Thus the analysis performed within this paper is so much effective in the sense of ensuring radiological safety for working personnel and the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) TRAINING RESEARCH ISOTOPE GENERAL ATOMICS (TRIGA) OVERPACK CLOSURE WELDING PROCESS PARAMETER DEVELOPMENT & QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-11

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Oregon State University (OSU) TRIGA{reg_sign} Reactor is currently being stored in thirteen 55-gallon drums at the Hanford Site's low-level burial grounds. This fuel is soon to be retrieved from buried storage and packaged into new containers (overpacks) for interim storage at the Hanford Interim Storage Area (ISA). One of the key activities associated with this effort is final closure of the overpack by welding. The OSU fuel is placed into an overpack, a head inserted into the overpack top, and welded closed. Weld quality, for typical welded fabrication, is established through post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE); however, in this case, once the SNF is placed into the overpack, routine testing and NDE are not feasible. An alternate approach is to develop and qualify the welding process/parameters, demonstrate beforehand that they produce the desired weld quality, and then verify parameter compliance during production welding. Fluor engineers have developed a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) technique and parameters, demonstrating that weld quality requirements for closure of packaged SNF overpacks are met, using this alternate approach. The following reviews the activities performed for this development and qualification effort.

  4. [Three-dimensional analysis of the foot following implantation of a HINTEGRA ankle prosthesis: evaluation with the Heidelberg foot model].

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Wolf, S; Döderlein, L

    2006-05-01

    Detailed foot kinematics after total ankle replacement has not yet been investigated. In this study 11 patients with unilateral Hintegra ankle prosthesis were analysed with the Heidelberg Foot Model. This model measures the kinematics of the fore-, mid- and hindfoot in three clinical planes. Moreover, the kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle was captured. A diminished ROM was found in all foot segments investigated. The timing of the kinematics between sound and involved side appeared similar. A limitation in the hindfoot mobility, as experienced after ankle arthrodesis, was not observed. However, a careful hindfoot alignment is essential for optimal foot function, and previous malalignments should be corrected. Concerning the kinetics, the replaced ankle showed a decreased power generation compensated by an increase in power in the ipsilateral knee. For a more detailed evaluation, further studies are required which include pre- and postoperative data and also take into account different types of prostheses.

  5. Long-term effects of the “Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy” in patients with chronic tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Plinkert, Peter; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2012-01-01

    Objective The “Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy for Chronic Tinnitus” is a manualized short term treatment (nine 50-minutes sessions of individualized therapy on five consecutive days). It has proven to be efficient in reducing tinnitus symptoms in the short run. Now the long-term impact of the treatment after up to 5.4 years should be explored. Materials and methods 206 patients who had attended the neuro-music therapy were addressed in a structured follow-up questionnaire survey. 107 complete questionnaires entered analysis. Follow-up time was 2.65 (SD 1.1) years. Results 76% of the patients achieved a reliable reduction in their tinnitus scores, the overall tinnitus distress as measured by the Mini-TQ diminished from 11.9 (SD = 4.9) to 7.4 (SD = 5.2) points, 87% of the patients were satisfied by the way they were treated during therapy, and 71% of the patients did not undergo any further treatment after. Evaluation of therapeutic elements displays, that only music therapy specific interventions were rated helpful by the patients. Tinnitus related factors (such as tinnitus pitch or loudness, time since onset) did not influence therapy outcome but female gender, positive therapeutic relationship, and higher initial Mini-TQ scores became apparent as factors predicting better chances for greater therapy success. Discussion The “Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy for Chronic Tinnitus” seems to be effective in the long run. The outcome effect size of d’ = 0.89, can be accounted for as “large” effect and falls into the upper range value compared to established treatments. PMID:22993646

  6. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).

    PubMed

    Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. In the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), which was recruited in 1994-1998, 23,943 participants without pre-existing cancer and myocardial infarction/stroke at baseline were included in the analyses. Vitamin/mineral supplementation was assessed at baseline and during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 11 years, 1,101 deaths were documented (cancer deaths = 513 and cardiovascular deaths = 264). After adjustment for potential confounders, neither any vitamin/mineral supplementation nor multivitamin supplementation at baseline was statistically significantly associated with cancer, cardiovascular, or all-cause mortality. However, baseline users of antioxidant vitamin supplements had a significantly reduced risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.97) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). In comparison with never users, baseline non-users who started taking vitamin/mineral supplements during follow-up had significantly increased risks of cancer mortality (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.77) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.14). Based on limited numbers of users and cases, this cohort study suggests that supplementation of antioxidant vitamins might possibly reduce cancer and all-cause mortality. The significantly increased risks of cancer and all-cause mortality among baseline non-users who started taking supplements during follow-up may suggest a "sick-user effect," which researchers should be cautious of in future observational studies.

  7. A dedicated software application for treatment verification with off-line PET/CT imaging at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Bauer, J.; Kurz, C.; Tessonnier, T.; Handrack, J.; Haberer, T.; Debus, J.; Parodi, K.

    2017-01-01

    We present the workflow of the offline-PET based range verification method used at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, detailing the functionalities of an in-house developed software application, SimInterface14, with which range analysis is performed. Moreover, we introduce the design of a decision support system assessing uncertainties and facilitating physicians in decisions making for plan adaptation.

  8. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed.

  9. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg from a ground turkey-associated outbreak in the United States in 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In March 2011, a multi-state outbreak of Salmonella enterica ser. Heidelberg infections was investigated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of isolates from suspected cases and an epidemiologic investigation identified 136 case patients from 34 states from February to September. Two...

  10. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected commercial laying flocks are often implicated as sources of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis, but Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium have also been associated with egg-transmitted illness. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is ...

  11. Modification of the rotary specimen rack (Lazy Susan) at the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) to permit pneumatic unloading of samples

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, P.G.; Rusling, D.H.

    1986-07-01

    With a continuing sample load of about 18,000 samples per year, the U.S.G.S. TRIGA facility has installed a modified rotary specimen rack that allows samples to be unloaded from the rack using a closed loop blower system. The radiation exposure to operating personnel is lowered due to remote operation. Time required to unload large numbers of samples is reduced dramatically, and the sample capacity of the lazy susan can be doubled due to design changes of the. irradiation capsule allowed by the pneumatic unloading system. The safety, versatility, time and costs are improved by the addition of the pneumatic unloading lazy susan. (author)

  12. Adaption of a PIN-diode detector as an online neutron monitor for the thermal column of the TRIGA research reactor.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    A BNCT online neutron monitoring system was tested in a TRIGA reactor, using a silicon PIN-diode with a conversion foil. The setup was tested with different reactor powers at the hot and cold ends of the irradiation channel, using activation foils to compare with measured fluxes. The results demonstrate good reproducibility and show a linear correlation between signal of the PIN-diode and neutron flux at all positions, demonstrating this approach to be suitable for online monitoring of the neutron flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calculation of the Activity Inventory for the TRIGA Reactor at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH) in Preparation for Dismantling the Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, G.; Scheller, F.; Bernnat, W.; Pfister, G.; Klaux, U.; Gerhards, E.

    2002-02-25

    It is planned to dismantle the TRIGA reactor facility at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH). Radioactive waste resulting from this dismantling will be disposed of externally, any remaining materials as well as the building structures will then be measured to ensure there is no residual activity. In preparation for this and to plan the techniques which will be used to dismantle the reactor, calculations were made in order to determine the amount of activity and the dose rates for the reactor tank and its inside components as well as for the biological shield and its radial beam tube.

  14. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, I.; Yunus, S. M.; Datta, T. K.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-01

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30˚ (2θ) at each step and covers 120˚ in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20˚ at each step and covers 120˚ in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  15. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, I. Yunus, S. M. Datta, T. K. Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-12

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6 mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3 mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30° (2θ) at each step and covers 120° in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20° at each step and covers 120° in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  16. Comparison of ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography with the Heidelberg Spectralis® noncontact ultra-widefield module versus the Optos® Optomap®

    PubMed Central

    Witmer, Matthew T; Parlitsis, George; Patel, Sarju; Kiss, Szilárd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography imaging using the Optos® Optomap® and the Heidelberg Spectralis® noncontact ultra-widefield module. Methods Five patients (ten eyes) underwent ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography using the Optos® panoramic P200Tx imaging system and the noncontact ultra-widefield module in the Heidelberg Spectralis® HRA+OCT system. The images were obtained as a single, nonsteered shot centered on the macula. The area of imaged retina was outlined and quantified using Adobe® Photoshop® C5 software. The total area and area within each of four visualized quadrants was calculated and compared between the two imaging modalities. Three masked reviewers also evaluated each quadrant per eye (40 total quadrants) to determine which modality imaged the retinal vasculature most peripherally. Results Optos® imaging captured a total retinal area averaging 151,362 pixels, ranging from 116,998 to 205,833 pixels, while the area captured using the Heidelberg Spectralis® was 101,786 pixels, ranging from 73,424 to 116,319 (P = 0.0002). The average area per individual quadrant imaged by Optos® versus the Heidelberg Spectralis® superiorly was 32,373 vs 32,789 pixels, respectively (P = 0.91), inferiorly was 24,665 vs 26,117 pixels, respectively (P = 0.71), temporally was 47,948 vs 20,645 pixels, respectively (P = 0.0001), and nasally was 46,374 vs 22,234 pixels, respectively (P = 0.0001). The Heidelberg Spectralis® was able to image the superior and inferior retinal vasculature to a more distal point than was the Optos®, in nine of ten eyes (18 of 20 quadrants). The Optos® was able to image the nasal and temporal retinal vasculature to a more distal point than was the Heidelberg Spectralis®, in ten of ten eyes (20 of 20 quadrants). Conclusion The ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography obtained with the Optos® and Heidelberg Spectralis® ultra-widefield imaging systems are both excellent modalities that provide views of the

  17. Validation of the prognostic Heidelberg re-irradiation score in an independent mono-institutional patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Re-irradiation has been shown to be a valid option with proven efficacy for recurrent high-grade glioma patients. Overall, up to now it is unclear which patients might be optimal candidates for a second course of irradiation. A recently reported prognostic score developed by Combs et al. may guide treatment decisions and thus, our mono-institutional cohort served as validation set to test its relevance for clinical practice. Patients and methods The prognostic score is built upon histology, age (< 50 vs. ≥ 50 years) and the time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation (≤ 12 vs. > 12 months). This score was initially introduced to distinguish patients with excellent (0 points), good (1 point), moderate (2 points) and poor (3–4 points) post-recurrence survival (PRS) after re-irradiation. Median prescribed radiation dose during re-treatment of recurrent malignant glioma was 36 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions. A substantial part of the patients was additionally treated with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously at d1 and d15 during re-irradiation). Results 88 patients (initially 61 WHO IV, 20 WHO III, 7 WHO II) re-irradiated in a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Median follow-up was 30 months and median PRS of the entire patient cohort 7 months. Seventy-one patients (80.7%) received bevacizumab. PRS was significantly increased in patients receiving bevacizumab (8 vs. 6 months, p = 0.027, log-rank test). KPS, age, MGMT methylation status, sex, WHO grade and the Heidelberg score showed no statistically significant influence on neither PR-PFS nor PRS. Conclusion In our cohort which was mainly treated with bevacizumab the usefulness of the Heidelberg score could not be confirmed probably due to treatment heterogeneity; it can be speculated that larger multicentric data collections are needed to derive a more reliable score. PMID:24893775

  18. Sector-based analysis with the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3 across disc sizes and glaucoma stages: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Francesco; Centofanti, Marco; Iester, Michele; Rossetti, Luca; Fogagnolo, Paolo; Michelessi, Manuele; Capris, Elisabetta; Manni, Gianluca

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the ability of sectorial analysis using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3 (HRT3) to discriminate between healthy and glaucomatous eyes and to determine whether this is affected by disc size and glaucoma severity. Multicenter, cross-sectional evaluation of diagnostic tests. Two hundred thirty-three eyes from 137 normal subjects and 96 glaucoma patients classified by the presence of a repeatable visual field defect. Participants underwent imaging with the HRT3, and the diagnostic accuracy of stereometric parameters, Moorfields regression analysis (MRA), and glaucoma probability score (GPS) were analyzed sectorially by glaucoma stage and optic disc size. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Of stereometric parameters, the cup-to-disc area ratio of the inferotemporal sector had the largest AUC (AUC, 0.74). Both MRA and GPS algorithms showed the best diagnostic accuracy in the inferotemporal sector, with a sensitivity and specificity of 63% and 88% for MRA and 80% and 62% for GPS, respectively. In small discs, sectorial MRA analysis had higher diagnostic accuracy than the global optic nerve head (ONH) analysis (sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 82% in the inferonasal sector), and these findings were confirmed in very large discs (sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 85% in the inferotemporal sector). Similarly, stereometric parameters discriminated better sectorially rather than globally, with different parameters giving the best results in different optic disc size subgroups. MRA sensitivity was weak in the early-glaucoma stage, with slightly higher figures if considered sectorially rather than globally. GPS diagnostic accuracy was very consistent across ONH sectors in each disc size and glaucoma stage subgroup, with no single sector demonstrating better diagnostic accuracy than the global analysis. Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3 sectorial analysis

  19. [Integration of a doctor/patient-communication-training into clinical teaching. Examples from the reform-curricula of Heidelberg and Dreden Universities].

    PubMed

    Jünger, Jana; Köllner, Volker

    2003-02-01

    It is an important demand of educational reforms to improve the skills of the communication with patients. To reach this goal neither interdisciplinary courses nor tutorials with paper-cases are sufficient. This is the reason why teaching modules including a training to improve doctor-patient-communication were integrated into the reform-curricula at the universities of Heidelberg (Heidelberger Curriculum Medicale, HEICUMED) and Dresden (Dresdner Integrated Patient-Oriented Learning, DIPOL). These modules were originated in cooperation of psychosomatic/psychotherapeutic clinics with representatives of other departments, which provides a chance to integrate psychosomatic issues into the teaching of other disciplines and to promote basic psychosomatic competences. The concept, the realization, and the results of the evaluation of these teaching modules will be described. The evaluation showed that the students rated them as mainly positive, as more effective than traditional learning and that the training improved their self-efficacy related to communicative competences.

  20. Improvements for extending the time between maintenance periods for the Heidelberg ion beam therapy center (HIT) ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, Tim Cee, Rainer; Haberer, Thomas; Naas, Bernd; Peters, Andreas; Schreiner, Jochen

    2014-02-15

    The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.

  1. Heidelberg Phoneme Discrimination Test (HLAD): normative data for children of the third grade and correlation with spelling ability.

    PubMed

    Brunner, M; Baeumer, C; Dockter, S; Feldhusen, F; Plinkert, P; Proeschel, U

    2008-01-01

    The Heidelberg Phoneme Discrimination Test (HLAD), developed and standardized in 1998, is widely used in the differential diagnosis of dyslexia. Normative data have only been available for children of the 2nd and 4th grades, while norms for the 3rd grade are still missing. We assessed three HLAD subtests [auditory phoneme discrimination, kinesthetic phoneme discrimination (repeating minimal pairs) and phoneme analysis] in 140 children of the 3rd grade from eight elementary schools. Writing capacity was tested via DRT3. Comparing children of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades, we found a continuing increase in phoneme discrimination capacity with age. This increase was especially evident for the task of auditory comparison. For the 3rd grade, the correlation between HLAD and writing test (qualitative analysis) was 0.55, and 0.36 between HLAD and writing (quantitative analysis). The correlation with writing tasks was highest in the 2nd grade. The steady increase in phoneme discrimination capacity from the 2nd to 4th grade may indicate maturation and learning effects at least until the age of 10 years. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Quality management and accreditation of research tissue banks: experience of the National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Herpel, Esther; Röcken, Christoph; Manke, Heike; Schirmacher, Peter; Flechtenmacher, Christa

    2010-12-01

    Tissue banks are key resource and technology platforms in biomedical research that address the molecular pathogenesis of diseases as well as disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Due to the central role of tissue banks in standardized collection, storage, and distribution of human tissues and their derivatives, quality management and its external assessment is becoming increasingly relevant for the maintenance, acceptance, and funding of tissue banks. Little experience exists regarding formalized external evaluation of tissue banks, especially regarding certification and accreditation. Based on the accreditation of the National Center of Tumor Diseases (NCT) tissue bank in Heidelberg (Germany), criteria, requirements, processes, and implications were compiled and evaluated. Accreditation formally approved professional competence and performance of the tissue bank in all steps involved in tissue collection, storage, handling as well as macroscopic and histologic examination and final (exit) examination of the tissue and transfer supervised by board-certified competent histopathologists. Thereby, accreditation provides a comprehensive measure to evaluate and document the quality standard of tissue research banks and may play a significant role in the future assessment of tissue banks. Furthermore, accreditation may support harmonization and standardization of tissue banking for biomedical research purposes.

  3. Classification of Bleeding Events: Comparison of ECASS III (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study) and the New Heidelberg Bleeding Classification.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Ulf; Möhlenbruch, Markus Alfred; Herweh, Christian; Ulfert, Christian; Bendszus, Martin; Pfaff, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after acute ischemic stroke treatments represents a feared complication with possible prognostic implications. In recent years, ICHs were commonly classified according to the ECASS (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study). To improve the clinical applicability and relevance, the new Heidelberg Bleeding Classification (HBC) has been proposed in 2015. Here, we compared the ECASS and HBC classification with regard to observed events and prognostic relevance. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively compiled database of patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation who received mechanical thrombectomy between February 2011 and March 2016 was performed. Presence of ICH after mechanical thrombectomy was evaluated on postinterventional computed tomographic imaging. ICHs were specified according to both ECASS III and HBC classification and analyzed with regard to their symptoms and outcome. ICHs were observed in 156 of 768 patients (20.3%). Using ECASS III classification, 101 ICHs could be unambiguously assigned, of which 28 (27.7%; 3.6% of all treated patients) were symptomatic ICHs. Using HBC, 55 additional ICHs could be categorized. Of these total 156 ICHs, 29 (18.6%; 3.8% of all treated patients) were classified as symptomatic according to HBC. Classification of ICH by ECASS III and HBC criteria show distinct differences. These differences warrant special attention during interpretation and comparison of scientific publications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. In Vivo Non Linear Optical (NLO) Imaging in Live Rabbit Eyes Using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ming; Flynn, Kevin; Nien-Shy, Chyong; Jester, Bryan E.; Winkler, Moritz; Brown, Donald J.; La Schiazza, Olivier; Bille, Josef; Jester, James V.

    2010-01-01

    Imaging of non-linear optical (NLO) signals generated from the eye using ultrafast pulsed lasers has been limited to the study of ex vivo tissues because of the use of conventional microscopes with slow scan speeds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel, high scan rate ophthalmoscope to generate NLO signals using an attached femtosecond laser. NLO signals were generated and imaged in live, anesthetized albino rabbits using a newly designed Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope with attached 25 mW femtosecond laser having a central wavelength of 780 nm, pulsewidth of 75 fs, and a repetition rate of 50 MHz. To assess two-photon excited fluorescent (TPEF) signal generation, cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts (RCF) were first labeled by Blue-green fluorescent FluoSpheres (1 μm diameter) and then cells were micro-injected into the central cornea. Clumps of RCF cells could be detected by both reflectance and TPEF imaging at 6 hours after injection. By 6 days, RCF containing fluorescent microspheres confirmed by TPEF showed a more spread morphology and had migrated from the original injection site. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of using NLO microscopy to sequentially detect TPEF signals from live, intact corneas. We conclude that further refinement of the Two-photon laser Ophthalmoscope should lead to the development of an important, new clinical instrument capable of detecting NLO signals from patient corneas. PMID:20558159

  5. In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ming; Flynn, Kevin; Nien-Shy, Chyong; Jester, Bryan E; Winkler, Moritz; Brown, Donald J; La Schiazza, Olivier; Bille, Josef; Jester, James V

    2010-08-01

    Imaging of non-linear optical (NLO) signals generated from the eye using ultrafast pulsed lasers has been limited to the study of ex vivo tissues because of the use of conventional microscopes with slow scan speeds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel, high scan rate ophthalmoscope to generate NLO signals using an attached femtosecond laser. NLO signals were generated and imaged in live, anesthetized albino rabbits using a newly designed Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope with attached 25 mW fs laser having a central wavelength of 780 nm, pulsewidth of 75 fs, and a repetition rate of 50 MHz. To assess two-photon excited fluorescent (TPEF) signal generation, cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts (RCF) were first labeled by Blue-green fluorescent FluoSpheres (1 mum diameter) and then cells were micro-injected into the central cornea. Clumps of RCF cells could be detected by both reflectance and TPEF imaging at 6 h after injection. By 6 days, RCF containing fluorescent microspheres confirmed by TPEF showed a more spread morphology and had migrated from the original injection site. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of using NLO microscopy to sequentially detect TPEF signals from live, intact corneas. We conclude that further refinement of the Two-photon laser Ophthalmoscope should lead to the development of an important, new clinical instrument capable of detecting NLO signals from patient corneas. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips--a newly identified risk factor for Salmonella Heidelberg infection in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Laura; Fyfe, Murray; McIntyre, Lorraine; Paccagnella, Ana; Cordner, Keir; Kerr, Alan; Aramini, Jeff

    2004-06-01

    Salmonella enterica var. Heidelberg was isolated from an unusual food source during routine case follow-up, prompting a case control investigation of frozen chicken nuggets and strips. Most frozen nuggets and strips are raw; however, par-frying lends a cooked appearance. As such, suitable food preparation precautions might not be undertaken by consumers. Cases were confirmed in the laboratory between 1 January and 1 April 2003. Controls were generated through forward-digit dialing and individually matched by age category. Telephone interviews were conducted, and limited sampling of unopened product was performed. Eighteen matched pairs were interviewed. The odds of infection were 11 times higher in individuals who had consumed frozen processed chicken nuggets and strips (95% confidence interval, 1.42 < odds ratio < 85.20). One-third of cases and controls considered frozen nuggets and strips to be precooked, and one quarter used the microwave, an ill-advised cooking method. Consumer misconceptions contributed to the risk of infection. Clear labels identifying nuggets and strips as raw poultry are needed.

  7. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips and eggs are leading risk factors for Salmonella Heidelberg infections in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Currie, A.; MacDougall, L.; Aramini, J.; Gaulin, C.; Ahmed, R.; Isaacs, S.

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted from 1 January to 31 May 2003 to identify risk factors for S . Heidelberg infection in Canada. Controls were pair-matched by age group and telephone exchange to 95 cases. Exposures in the 7 days before illness/interview were assessed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. Consumption of home-prepared chicken nuggets and/or strips [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.8], and undercooked eggs (mOR 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-75.5) increased the risk of illness. Exposure to a farm setting lowered the risk (mOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03-1.00). The population-attributable fraction associated with chicken nuggets/strips was 34% and with undercooked eggs was 16%. One-third of study participants did not perceive, handle or prepare chicken nuggets and strips as high-risk products, although the majority of the products on the Canadian market are raw. These findings have prompted changes in product-labelling policy and consumer education. PMID:16181499

  8. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips and eggs are leading risk factors for Salmonella Heidelberg infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, A; MacDougall, L; Aramini, J; Gaulin, C; Ahmed, R; Isaacs, S

    2005-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted from 1 January to 31 May 2003 to identify risk factors for S . Heidelberg infection in Canada. Controls were pair-matched by age group and telephone exchange to 95 cases. Exposures in the 7 days before illness/interview were assessed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. Consumption of home-prepared chicken nuggets and/or strips [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.8], and undercooked eggs (mOR 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-75.5) increased the risk of illness. Exposure to a farm setting lowered the risk (mOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03-1.00). The population-attributable fraction associated with chicken nuggets/strips was 34% and with undercooked eggs was 16%. One-third of study participants did not perceive, handle or prepare chicken nuggets and strips as high-risk products, although the majority of the products on the Canadian market are raw. These findings have prompted changes in product-labelling policy and consumer education.

  9. Twenty five years of medical informatics education at Heidelberg/Heilbronn: discussion of a specialized curriculum for medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Leven, F J; Haux, R

    1998-06-01

    The specialized university curriculum for medical informatics (MI) at the University of Heidelberg/School of Technology Heilbronn is one of the oldest educational approaches in the field of MI and has been successful now for 25 years with about 1000 graduates (Diplom-Informatikerin der Medizin or Diplom-Informatiker der Medizin). It belongs to the category of dedicated master's programs for MI and is based on the concept of MI as a medical discipline of its own. It is oriented towards the total spectrum of MI ranging from health care economics, biosignal and medical image processing, medical documentation, to information and knowledge processing in medicine. It is a 4.5 years program with a strong emphasis on the methodological foundations of MI and on practical education in a number of specific laboratories. A total of 35 students are admitted each semester and in total about 440 students are enrolled. The faculty consists of 17 full-time members and about 25 part-time lecturers. The authors report on characteristics, structure and contents of the new fifth version of the curriculum and discuss the features of a specialized curriculum for MI with respect to the challenges for MI in the 21st century.

  10. Improvements for extending the time between maintenance periods for the Heidelberg ion beam therapy center (HIT) ion sources.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Tim; Cee, Rainer; Haberer, Thomas; Naas, Bernd; Peters, Andreas; Schreiner, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.

  11. Creating student sleuths: how a team of graduate students helped solve an outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg infections associated with kosher broiled chicken livers.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heather; Hancock, W Thane; Harrison, Cassandra; Kornstein, Laura; Waechter, HaeNa; Reddy, Vasudha; Luker, John; Malavet, Michelle; Huth, Paula; Gieraltowski, Laura; Balter, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Since 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) has received FoodCORE funding to hire graduate students to conduct in-depth food exposure interviews of salmonellosis case patients. In 2011, an increase in the number of Salmonella Heidelberg infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Xba I pattern JF6X01.0022 among observant Jewish communities in New York and New Jersey was investigated. As this pattern is common nationwide, some cases identified were not associated with the outbreak. To reduce the number of background cases, DOHMH focused on the community initially identified in the outbreak and defined a case as a person infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with illness onset from 1 April to 17 November 2011 and who consumed a kosher diet, spoke Yiddish, or self-identified as Jewish. Nationally, 190 individuals were infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg; 63 New York City residents met the DOHMH case definition. In October 2011, the graduate students (Team Salmonella) interviewed three case patients who reported eating broiled chicken livers. Laboratory testing of chicken liver samples revealed the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg. Although they were only partially cooked, the livers appeared fully cooked, and consumers and retail establishment food handlers did not cook them thoroughly before eating or using them in a ready-to-eat spread. This investigation highlighted the need to prevent further illnesses from partially cooked chicken products. Removing background cases helped to focus the investigation. Training graduate students to collect exposure information can be a highly effective model for conducting foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak investigations for local and state departments of public health.

  12. The Design and Construction of a Cold Neutron Source for Use in the Cornell University Triga Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Lydia Jane

    A cold neutron source has been designed and constructed for insertion into the 6"-radial beam port of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor for use with a neutron guide tube system. The main differences between this cold source and other existing sources are the use of heat conduction as the method of cooling and the use of mesitylene (1,3,5 -trimethylbenzene; melting point, 228(DEGREES)K; boiling point, 437(DEGREES)K) as the moderating material. This thesis describes the design and construction details of the cold neutron source, discusses its safety aspects, and presents its cryogenic performance curves and also the results of a test of its neutron moderating ability. A closed-cycle helium gas refrigerator, located outside the reactor shielding, cools the 500 cm('3) moderator chamber and its surrounding heat shield by heat conduction through two meters of copper and rod tubing. Moderator temperatures of 23 (+OR-) 3(DEGREES)K have been achieved. Mesitylene, a hydrocarbon, is an effective cold moderator because even at low temperatures the weakly hindered rotational motions of its methyl groups enable the absorption of small amounts of energy ((LESSTHEQ) 0.005 eV) from neutrons. The use of mesitylene simplifies the cold source design because it is a liquid at room temperature and thus, the usual design safeguards required for sources using gaseous moderators are not necessary. Moreover, the flammability of mesitylene is much smaller than that of hydrogen and methane, which are the commonly used cold moderators. A method of transferring and handling the mesitylene, a carcinogen, was devised to ensure minimal contact with this substance. To test the neutron moderating ability of the cold neutron source, an out-of-reactor neutron transmission experiment was performed with the moderator chamber first at room temperature and then at about 23(DEGREES)K. The results indicate that the neutron energy spectrum is strongly shifted to lower energies when the chamber is cold

  13. Design, construction, and demonstration of a neutron beamline and a neutron imaging facility at a Mark-I TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.

    The fleet of research and training reactors is aging, and no new research reactors are planned in the United States. Thus, there is a need to expand the capabilities of existing reactors to meet users' needs. While many research reactors have beam port facilities, the original design of the United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) did not include beam ports. The MInes NEutron Radiography (MINER) facility developed by this thesis and installed at the GSTR provides new capabilities for both researchers and students at the Colorado School of Mines. The facility consists of a number of components, including a neutron beamline and beamstop, an optical table, an experimental enclosure and associated interlocks, a computer control system, a multi-channel plate imaging detector, and the associated electronics. The neutron beam source location, determined through Monte Carlo modeling, provides the best mixture of high neutron flux, high thermal neutron content, and low gamma radiation content. A Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the neutron beam provides researchers with a tool for designing experiments before placing objects in the neutron beam. Experimental multi-foil activation results, compared to calculated multi-foil activation results, verify the model. The MCNP model predicts a neutron beamline flux of 2.2*106 +/- 6.4*105 n/cm2-s based on a source particle rate determined from the foil activation experiments when the reactor is operating at a power of 950 kWt with the beam shutter fully open. The average cadmium ratio of the beamline is 7.4, and the L/D of the neutron beam is approximately 200+/-10. Radiographs of a sensitivity indicator taken using both the digital detector and the transfer foil method provide one demonstration of the radiographic capabilities of the new facility. Calibration fuel pins manufactured using copper and stainless steel surrogate fuel pellets provide additional specimens for demonstration of the new facility and offer a

  14. The history of the library of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. With a catalogue of books which have arrived at Heidelberg from the library of the institute at Berlin. (German Title: Die Geschichte der Bibliothek des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts. Mit einem Verzeichnis von Büchern, die aus der Berliner Institutsbibliothek nach Heidelberg gelangt sind.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute; Hefele, Herbert; Heinrich, Inge

    We describe and document the long and eventfull history of the library of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. This library emerged from the library of the Berlin Observatory which was founded in 1700. Since 1874 the institute had its own collection of books. In 1897 the library of the institute became an independent facility. Since 1912 the institute and its library were located at Dahlem near Berlin. During the Second World War, some parts of the library were secured at external locations. The institute itself and most of its library were evacuated in 1944 to Sermuth in Saxonia. In 1945 the institute was transferred from Sermuth to Heidelberg. We describe the reconstruction of the library in Heidelberg. We give details about the library, especially on its book collection as function of time. In Berlin, the library stock numbered about 15 000 units; in Heidelberg, there are presently about 29 000 units available. In a detailed list, we record those books which have found their way from the library in Berlin to Heidelberg. This list contains more than 800 items. Among these volumes, there are many valuable old books: the oldest from 1533, and a work by Kepler (Tabulae Rudolphinae) from 1627. For some of these, we present images of their cover and title page.

  15. Association of Transferable Quinolone Resistance Determinant qnrB19 with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Salmonella Give and Salmonella Heidelberg in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    González, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    Four nontyphoidal Salmonella strains with resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype were studied. Two S. Give were isolated from pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis, and two S. Heidelberg were recovered from raw chicken meat. Phenotypic characterization included antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) by the double-disc synergy method. The detection of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, and gyrC genes, bla ESBLs genes, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants was carried out by molecular methods. Plasmid analysis included Southern blot and restriction patterns. Transferability of resistance genes was examined by transformation. bla TEM-1 + bla SHV-12 genes were detected in S. Give SG9611 and bla TEM-1 + bla CTX-M-2 in the other three strains: S. Give SG9811, S. Heidelberg SH7511, and SH7911. Regardless of origin and serovars, the qnrB19 gene was detected in the 4 strains studied. All determinants of resistance were localized in plasmids and successfully transferred by transformation. This study highlights the circulation of qnrB19 associated with bla TEM-1, bla SHV-12, and bla CTX-M-2 in S. Give and S. Heidelberg in Venezuela. The recognition of factors associated with increasing resistance and the study of the molecular mechanisms involved can lead to a more focused use of antimicrobial agents. PMID:24187555

  16. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias; Schütz, Christian; Wiehl, Norbert; Kratz, Jens V; Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Otto, Gerd; Hampel, Gabriele

    2010-10-01

    To establish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for non-resectable liver metastases and for in vitro experiments at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz, Germany, it is necessary to have a reliable dose monitoring system. The in vitro experiments are used to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of liver and cancer cells in our mixed neutron and gamma field. We work with alanine detectors in combination with Monte Carlo simulations, where we can measure and characterize the dose. To verify our calculations we perform neutron flux measurements using gold foil activation and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using FLUKA, a multipurpose Monte Carlo transport code. The pin-diode is augmented by a lithium fluoride foil. This foil converts the neutrons into alpha and tritium particles which are products of the (7)Li(n,α)(3)H-reaction. These particles are detected by the diode and their amount correlates to the neutron fluence directly. Results and discussion. Gold foil activation and the pin-diode are reliable fluence measurement systems for the TRIGA reactor, Mainz. Alanine dosimetry of the photon field and charged particle field from secondary reactions can in principle be carried out in combination with MC-calculations for mixed radiation fields and the Hansen & Olsen alanine detector response model. With the acquired data about the background dose and charged particle spectrum, and with the acquired information of the neutron flux, we are capable of calculating the dose to the tissue. Conclusion. Monte Carlo simulation of the mixed neutron and gamma field of the TRIGA Mainz is possible in order to characterize the neutron behavior in the thermal column. Currently we also

  17. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Guard, Jean; Anderson, Kenneth E; Karcher, Darrin M

    2017-05-01

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected commercial laying flocks are often implicated as sources of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis, but Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium have also been associated with egg-transmitted illness. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is a consequence of the colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. In recent years, the animal welfare implications of diverse poultry housing and management systems have been vigorously debated, but the food safety significance of laying hen housing remains uncertain. The present study evaluated the effects of 2 different bird stocking densities on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas. Laying hens were distributed at 2 different stocking densities (648 and 973 cm2/bird) into colony cages and (along with a group housed in conventional cages at 648 cm2/bird) orally inoculated with doses of 107 cfu of 2-strain cocktails of either Salmonella Heidelberg or Salmonella Typhimurium. At 5 to 6 d post-inoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs (cecum, liver, spleen, ovary, and oviduct) were removed for bacteriologic culturing. The overall frequency of Salmonella isolation from ceca after inoculation with strains of serovar Heidelberg (83.3%) was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the corresponding value for strains of serovar Typhimurium (53.8%), whereas Salmonella was recovered significantly more often from both livers (85.2% vs. 53.7%; P < 0.0001) and spleens (78.7% vs. 56.5%; P = 0.0008) after inoculation with strains of serovar Typhimurium than strains of serovar Heidelberg. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between stocking densities or cage systems in the frequencies of isolation of either Salmonella serovar from any of the five sampled

  18. Comparison of Ethnic-specific Databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography-3 to Discriminate Between Early Glaucoma and Normal Chinese Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiu Ling; Yap, Sae Cheong; Li, Xiang; Yip, Leonard W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the 3 race-specific normative databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT)-3, in differentiating between early glaucomatous and healthy normal Chinese eyes. Method: 52 healthy volunteers and 25 glaucoma patients were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. All underwent standardized interviews, ophthalmic examination, perimetry and HRT optic disc imaging. Area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristics, sensitivity and specificity were derived to assess the discriminating abilities of the 3 normative databases, for both Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA) and Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS). Results: A significantly higher percentage (65%) of patients were classified as “within normal limits” using the MRA-Indian database, as compared to the MRA-Caucasian and MRA-African-American databases. However, for GPS, this was observed using the African-American database. For MRA, the highest sensitivity was obtained with both Caucasian and African-American databases (68%), while the highest specificity was from the Indian database (94%). The AUC for discrimination between glaucomatous and normal eyes by MRA-Caucasian, MRA-African-American and MRA-Indian databases were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88), 0.79 (0.69-0.89) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84) respectively. For GPS, the highest sensitivity was obtained using either Caucasian or Indian databases (68%). The highest specificity was seen with the African-American database (98%). The AUC for GPS-Caucasian, GPS-African-American and GPS-Indian databases were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.66-0.87), 0.77 (0.67-0.87) and 0.76 (0.66-0.87) respectively. Conclusion: Comparison of the 3 ethnic databases did not reveal significant differences to differentiate early glaucomatous from normal Chinese eyes. PMID:28400890

  19. Factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph parameters to glaucomatous progression in disc photographs.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Ville; Falck, Aura; Airaksinen, P Juhani; Tuulonen, Anja

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the stereometric optic nerve head (ONH) parameters of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) to glaucomatous progression in stereoscopic ONH photographs. The factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the vertical cup : disc ratio, the cup : disc area ratio, the cup volume, the rim area and a linear discriminant function to progression were analysed. These parameters were the best indicators of progression in a retrospective study of 476 eyes. The reference standard for progression was the masked evaluation of stereoscopic ONH photographs. The factors having the most significant effect on the sensitivity and specificity of the stereometric ONH parameters were the reference height difference and the mean topography standard deviation (TSD), indicating image quality. Also, the change in the TSD and age showed consistent, but variably significant, influence on all parameters tested. The sensitivity and specificity improved when there was little change in the reference height, the image quality was good and stable, and the patients were younger. The sensitivity and specificity of the vertical cup : disc ratio was improved by a large disc area and high baseline cup : disc area ratio. The rim area showed a better sensitivity and specificity for progression with a small disc area and low baseline cup : disc area ratio. The factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the stereometric ONH parameters to glaucomatous progression in disc photographs are essentially the same as those affecting the measurement variability of the HRT. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2010 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of a genetically modified live vaccine in broilers challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Eduardo Correa; Verdi, Renato; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2017-08-22

    Salmonellosis ranks among the major diseases of commercial poultry, and its presence in poultry flocks is responsible for economic losses and risks related to public health. Vaccines are an important tool within integrated programmes to control salmonellosis. The purpose of this study was to assess cross-protection provided by the Poulvac® ST vaccine in the control of Salmonella Heidelberg in experimentally challenged 3- and 21-day-old birds. Eighty birds were identified and separated into four treatments (T1: vaccinated and challenged at 3 days of age, T2: unvaccinated and challenged at 3 days of age, T3: vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age, and T4: unvaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age). The inoculum was produced from a Brazilian field strain of SH. At the end of the experiment, caecum and liver/spleen samples were collected for quantitative and qualitative analysis of SH, respectively. Analysis of the liver/spleen showed that Poulvac® ST significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the percentage of SH positivity in the group challenged at 3 days of age, while in the group challenged at 21 days this difference was almost considered significant (P = 0.1818). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in SH count in the caecum (CFU/g) in the group challenged at 3 days, but for the group challenged at 21 days the SH counts were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower in the vaccinated group when compared to the positive control.

  1. Comparison of Ethnic-specific Databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography-3 to Discriminate Between Early Glaucoma and Normal Chinese Eyes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu Ling; Yap, Sae Cheong; Li, Xiang; Yip, Leonard W

    2017-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the 3 race-specific normative databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT)-3, in differentiating between early glaucomatous and healthy normal Chinese eyes. 52 healthy volunteers and 25 glaucoma patients were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. All underwent standardized interviews, ophthalmic examination, perimetry and HRT optic disc imaging. Area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristics, sensitivity and specificity were derived to assess the discriminating abilities of the 3 normative databases, for both Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA) and Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS). A significantly higher percentage (65%) of patients were classified as "within normal limits" using the MRA-Indian database, as compared to the MRA-Caucasian and MRA-African-American databases. However, for GPS, this was observed using the African-American database. For MRA, the highest sensitivity was obtained with both Caucasian and African-American databases (68%), while the highest specificity was from the Indian database (94%). The AUC for discrimination between glaucomatous and normal eyes by MRA-Caucasian, MRA-African-American and MRA-Indian databases were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88), 0.79 (0.69-0.89) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84) respectively. For GPS, the highest sensitivity was obtained using either Caucasian or Indian databases (68%). The highest specificity was seen with the African-American database (98%). The AUC for GPS-Caucasian, GPS-African-American and GPS-Indian databases were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.66-0.87), 0.77 (0.67-0.87) and 0.76 (0.66-0.87) respectively. Comparison of the 3 ethnic databases did not reveal significant differences to differentiate early glaucomatous from normal Chinese eyes.

  2. The impact of social status inconsistency on cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction and stroke in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in cardiovascular diseases are well documented. Yet, the relation of social status inconsistency (having different ranks in two or more status indicators like education, occupational position or income) and medical conditions of heart or vessels is not clear. Status inconsistency (SI) is assumed to be stressful, and the association of psychosocial distress and health is well known. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and status inconsistency. Another target was to assess the influence of behaviour related risk factors on this association. Methods 8960 men and 6070 women, aged 45-65 years, from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) were included. Socio-economic status was assessed by education/vocational training and occupational position at recruitment. During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, information on CVD was collected. Results Compared to status consistent subjects, men who were in a higher occupational position than could be expected given their educational attainment had a nearly two-fold increased incidence of CVD (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.5; 2.4, adjusted for age). Smoking behaviour and BMI differed significantly between those who had adequate occupational positions and those who did not. Yet, these lifestyle factors, as opposed to age, did not contribute to the observed differences in CVD. No association of cardiovascular diseases and status inconsistency was found for women or in cases where education exceeded occupational position. Conclusions Status inconsistent men (occupational position > education) had a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than status consistent men. However, harmful behaviour did not explain this relationship. PMID:21324154

  3. The impact of education on risk factors and the occurrence of multimorbidity in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Gabriele; Peter, Richard; Braig, Stefanie; Hermann, Silke; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Background In aging populations, the prevalence of multimorbidity is high, and the role of socioeconomic status and its correlates is not well described. Thus, we investigated the association between educational attainment and multimorbidity in a prospective cohort study, taking also into account intermediate factors that could explain such associations. Methods We included 13,781 participants of the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who were 50–75 years at the end of follow-up. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at recruitment (1994–1998). During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, information on chronic conditions and death were collected. Results Overall, the prevalence of multimorbidity (>= 2 concurrent chronic diseases) was 67.3%. Compared to the highest educational category, the lowest was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of multimorbidity in men (OR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.28–1.61) and women (OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.18–1.57). After adjustment, the positive associations were attenuated (men: OR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.12–1.46; women: OR = 1.16; 95% CI 0.99–1.36). Increasing BMI was more strongly than smoking status an intermediate factor in the association between education and multimorbidity. Conclusion In this German population, the prevalence of multimorbidity is high and is significantly associated with educational level. Increasing BMI is the most important predictor of this association. However, even the fully adjusted model, i.e. considering also other known risk factors for chronic diseases, could not entirely explain socio-economic inequalities in multimorbidity. Educational level should be considered in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of multimorbidity. PMID:19014444

  4. Association Between Alzheimer's Disease and Glaucoma: A Study Based on Heidelberg Retinal Tomography and Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry

    PubMed Central

    Cesareo, Massimo; Martucci, Alessio; Ciuffoletti, Elena; Mancino, Raffaele; Cerulli, Angelica; Sorge, Roberto P.; Martorana, Alessandro; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Nucci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the frequency of glaucoma-like alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III (HRT-3) and Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry. Methods: The study included 51 eyes of 51 AD subjects and 67 eyes of 67 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects underwent an ophthalmological examination including measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), Matrix FDT visual field testing, optic nerve head morphology and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLt) assessment by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and HRT-3. Results: The frequency of alterations was significantly higher in the AD group (27.5 vs. 7.5%; p = 0.003; OR = 4.69). AD patients showed lower IOP (p = 0.000) despite not significantly different values of central corneal thickness (CCT) between the groups (p = 0.336). Of all the stereometric parameters measured by HRT-3, RNFLt was significantly lower in AD patients (p = 0.013). This group also had significantly worse results in terms of Moorfields Regression Analysis (p = 0.027). Matrix showed significantly worse Mean Deviation (MD) (p = 0.000) and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD) (p = 0.000) values and more altered Glaucoma Hemifield Test (p = 0.006) in AD patients. Pearson's R correlation test showed that Mini Mental State Examination is directly correlated with MD (R = 0.349; p = 0.034) and inversely correlated with PSD (R = −0.357; p = 0.030). Conclusion: Patients with AD have a higher frequency of glaucoma-like alterations, as detected by the use of HRT-3. These alterations were not associated with elevated IOP or abnormal CCT values. PMID:26733792

  5. Reproducibility of optic disk evaluation in supine subjects with a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II laser tomographic scanner

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Yosuke; Akita, Tomoyuki; Takenaka, Joji; Nakamura-Kadohiro, Yuko; Tanaka, Junko; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of optic disk evaluation in supine subjects with a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT II). Methods One eye was randomly selected for evaluation by HRT II in each of eleven healthy subjects. Five images were obtained by each of two experienced operators at two separate visits with the subjects in both sitting and supine positions. A stand was constructed to allow stable, handheld operation of the HRT II head for imaging of the supine subjects. Measurements of optic disk parameters obtained in the supine position were compared with those obtained in the sitting position. The reliability of measurements in the supine position was evaluated by calculating both the coefficients of variation for measurements made by one observer on the first visit and the interobserver and intervisit intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs); the values obtained were compared with those obtained for the sitting position. Results Measurements of all parameters made in the supine position were highly similar to those made in the sitting position. The coefficients of variation obtained for each parameter in the sitting and supine positions ranged from 5.67% to 14.16% and from 2.18% to 16.08%, respectively. The interobserver ICC values in the sitting and supine positions were ≥0.978 and ≥0.989, respectively. The intervisit ICC values in the sitting and supine positions were ≥0.958 and ≥0.983, respectively. Conclusion Handheld operation of the HRT II in a custom-designed stand is feasible for optic disk evaluation in the supine subjects who were not able to maintain the sitting position. PMID:27601876

  6. Optic nerve head parameters of high-definition optical coherence tomography and Heidelberg retina tomogram in perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Viquar Unnisa; Addepalli, Uday Kumar; Senthil, Sirisha; Garudadri, Chandra Sekhar; Rao, Harsha Laxmana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heidelberg retina tomogram (HRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are two widely used imaging modalities to evaluate the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucoma. Purpose: To compare the ONH parameters of HRT3 and high-definition OCT (HD-OCT) and evaluate their diagnostic abilities in perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Methods: 35 control eyes (24 subjects), 21 preperimetric glaucoma eyes (15 patients), and 64 perimetric glaucoma eyes (44 patients) from the Longitudinal Glaucoma Evaluation Study underwent HRT3 and HD-OCT examinations. Statistical Analysis: Agreement between the ONH parameters of HRT and HD-OCT were assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Diagnostic abilities of ONH parameters were evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), sensitivity at fixed specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR). Results: Optic disc area, vertical cup to disc ratio, and cup volume with HD-OCT were larger than with HRT, while the rim area was smaller with HD-OCT (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). AUCs of all HD-OCT ONH parameters (0.90-0.97 in perimetric and 0.62-0.71 in preperimetric glaucoma) were comparable (P > 0.10) to the corresponding HRT ONH parameters (0.81-0.95 in perimetric and 0.55-0.72 in preperimetric glaucoma). LRs associated with diagnostic categorization of ONH parameters of both HD-OCT and HRT were associated with larger effects on posttest probability of perimetric compared to preperimetric glaucoma. Conclusions: ONH measurements of HD-OCT and HRT3 cannot be used interchangeably. Though the diagnostic abilities of ONH parameters of HD-OCT and HRT in glaucoma were comparable, the same were significantly lower in preperimetric compared to perimetric glaucoma. PMID:27221679

  7. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S; Basco, Maria D S; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L; Hart, Mark E; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together.

  8. OpenHELP (Heidelberg laparoscopy phantom): development of an open-source surgical evaluation and training tool.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, H G; Wünscher, J J; Wagner, M; Preukschas, A; Wekerle, A L; Neher, P; Suwelack, S; Speidel, S; Nickel, F; Oladokun, D; Albala, Lorenzo; Maier-Hein, L; Dillmann, R; Meinzer, H P; Müller-Stich, B P

    2015-11-01

    Apart from animal testing and clinical trials, surgical research and laparoscopic training mainly rely on phantoms. The aim of this project was to design a phantom with realistic anatomy and haptic characteristics, modular design and easy reproducibility. The phantom was named open-source Heidelberg laparoscopic phantom (OpenHELP) and serves as an open-source platform. The phantom was based on an anonymized CT scan of a male patient. The anatomical structures were segmented to obtain digital three-dimensional models of the torso and the organs. The digital models were materialized via rapid prototyping. One flexible, using an elastic abdominal wall, and one rigid method, using a plastic shell, to simulate pneumoperitoneum were developed. Artificial organ production was carried out sequentially starting from raw gypsum models to silicone molds to final silicone casts. The reproduction accuracy was exemplarily evaluated for ten silicone rectum models by comparing the digital 3D surface of the original rectum with CT scan by calculating the root mean square error of surface variations. Haptic realism was also evaluated to find the most realistic silicone compositions on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10). The rigid and durable plastic torso and soft silicone organs of the abdominal cavity were successfully produced. A simulation of pneumoperitoneum could be created successfully by both methods. The reproduction accuracy of ten silicone rectum models showed an average root mean square error of 2.26 (0-11.48) mm. Haptic realism revealed an average value on a VAS of 7.25 (5.2-9.6) for the most realistic rectum. The OpenHELP phantom proved to be feasible and accurate. The phantom was consecutively applied frequently in the field of computer-assisted surgery at our institutions and is accessible as an open-source project at www.open-cas.org for the academic community.

  9. Reproducibility of optic disk evaluation in supine subjects with a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II laser tomographic scanner.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yosuke; Akita, Tomoyuki; Takenaka, Joji; Nakamura-Kadohiro, Yuko; Tanaka, Junko; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of optic disk evaluation in supine subjects with a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT II). One eye was randomly selected for evaluation by HRT II in each of eleven healthy subjects. Five images were obtained by each of two experienced operators at two separate visits with the subjects in both sitting and supine positions. A stand was constructed to allow stable, handheld operation of the HRT II head for imaging of the supine subjects. Measurements of optic disk parameters obtained in the supine position were compared with those obtained in the sitting position. The reliability of measurements in the supine position was evaluated by calculating both the coefficients of variation for measurements made by one observer on the first visit and the interobserver and intervisit intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs); the values obtained were compared with those obtained for the sitting position. Measurements of all parameters made in the supine position were highly similar to those made in the sitting position. The coefficients of variation obtained for each parameter in the sitting and supine positions ranged from 5.67% to 14.16% and from 2.18% to 16.08%, respectively. The interobserver ICC values in the sitting and supine positions were ≥0.978 and ≥0.989, respectively. The intervisit ICC values in the sitting and supine positions were ≥0.958 and ≥0.983, respectively. Handheld operation of the HRT II in a custom-designed stand is feasible for optic disk evaluation in the supine subjects who were not able to maintain the sitting position.

  10. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature.

  11. Optimised k0-instrumental neutron activation method using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, M. Â. B. C.; Jaćimović, R.

    2006-08-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CDTN/CNEN, is the only Brazilian Institution to apply the k0-standardisation method of instrumental neutron activation technique determining elements using its own nuclear reactor, TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1. After changes in the reactor core configuration, the reactor neutron flux distribution in typical irradiation channels had to be updated, as well as the parameters f and α, needed to apply the k0-method of neutron activation analysis. The neutron flux distribution in the rotary rack was evaluated through the specific count rate of 198Au and the parameters f and α, were determined in five selected channels applying the "Cd-ratio for multi-monitor" method, using a set of Al-(0.1%)Au and Zr (99.8%) monitors. Several reference materials were analysed, indicating the effectiveness of the improved method.

  12. Fabrication and testing of a 4-node micro-pocket fission detector array for the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2017-08-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) have been fabricated and tested previously, but successful testing of these prior detectors was limited to single-node operation with specialized designs. Described in this work is a modular, four-node MPFD array fabricated and tested at Kansas State University (KSU). The four sensor nodes were equally spaced to span the length of the fuel-region of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor core. The encapsulated array was filled with argon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the MPFDs. The unified design improved device ruggedness and simplified construction over previous designs. A 0.315-in. (8-mm) penetration in the upper grid plate of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor was used to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The MPFD array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been developed to support pulse-mode operation. Neutron-induced pulses were observed on all four sensor channels. Stable device operation was confirmed by testing under steady-state reactor conditions. Each of the four sensors in the array responded to changes in reactor power between 10 kWth and full power (750 kWth). Reactor power transients were observed in real-time including positive transients with periods of 5, 15, and 30 s. Finally, manual reactor power oscillations were observed in real-time.

  13. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor.

  14. Effect of Photorefractive Keratectomy on Optic Nerve Head Topography and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3

    PubMed Central

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Azadi, Pejvak; Soudi, Reza; Shaheen, Yahya; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) has a significant effect on optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) in eyes with low to moderate myopia. Methods: This prospective, interventional case series, includes 43 consecutive myopic eyes which were assessed on the day of PRK and 3 months postoperatively using the HRT3. Among the stereometric parameters, we compared disc area, linear cup disc ratio, cup shape measure, global rim area, global rim volume, RNFL height variation contour and mean RNFL thickness; out of the Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS) we assessed changes in global value, rim steepness temporal/superior, and temporal/inferior, as well as cup size and cup depth before and after PRK. Results: Mean refractive error before and after PRK were −3.24 ± 1.31 and −0.20 ± 0.42 diopters, respectively. No significant change occurred in disc area, linear cup disc ratio, cup shape measure, rim area and rim volume among the stereometric parameters; and in rim steepness temporal/superior and rim steepness temporal/inferior in the GPS before and after PRK using the default average keratometry. However, RNFL height variation contour, mean RNFL thickness, and cup size and depth were significantly altered after PRK (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PRK can affect some HRT3 parameters. Although the most important stereometric parameters for differentiating normal, suspect or glaucomatous patients such as rim and cup measurements in stereometric parameters were not changed. PMID:27413492

  15. Helium ions at the heidelberg ion beam therapy center: comparisons between FLUKA Monte Carlo code predictions and dosimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessonnier, T.; Mairani, A.; Brons, S.; Sala, P.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Haberer, T.; Debus, J.; Parodi, K.

    2017-08-01

    In the field of particle therapy helium ion beams could offer an alternative for radiotherapy treatments, owing to their interesting physical and biological properties intermediate between protons and carbon ions. We present in this work the comparisons and validations of the Monte Carlo FLUKA code against in-depth dosimetric measurements acquired at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT). Depth dose distributions in water with and without ripple filter, lateral profiles at different depths in water and a spread-out Bragg peak were investigated. After experimentally-driven tuning of the less known initial beam characteristics in vacuum (beam lateral size and momentum spread) and simulation parameters (water ionization potential), comparisons of depth dose distributions were performed between simulations and measurements, which showed overall good agreement with range differences below 0.1 mm and dose-weighted average dose-differences below 2.3% throughout the entire energy range. Comparisons of lateral dose profiles showed differences in full-width-half-maximum lower than 0.7 mm. Measurements of the spread-out Bragg peak indicated differences with simulations below 1% in the high dose regions and 3% in all other regions, with a range difference less than 0.5 mm. Despite the promising results, some discrepancies between simulations and measurements were observed, particularly at high energies. These differences were attributed to an underestimation of dose contributions from secondary particles at large angles, as seen in a triple Gaussian parametrization of the lateral profiles along the depth. However, the results allowed us to validate FLUKA simulations against measurements, confirming its suitability for 4He ion beam modeling in preparation of clinical establishment at HIT. Future activities building on this work will include treatment plan comparisons using validated biological models between proton and helium ions, either within a Monte Carlo

  16. First experimental-based characterization of oxygen ion beam depth dose distributions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, C.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, the application of proton and heavy-ion beams to external beam radiotherapy has rapidly increased. Due to the favourable lateral and depth dose profile, the superposition of narrow ion pencil beams may enable a highly conformal dose delivery to the tumour, with better sparing of the surrounding healthy tissue in comparison to conventional radiation therapy with photons. To fully exploit the promised clinical advantages of ion beams, an accurate planning of the patient treatments is required. The clinical treatment planning system (TPS) at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) is based on a fast performing analytical algorithm for dose calculation, relying, among others, on laterally integrated depth dose distributions (DDDs) simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Important input parameters of these simulations need to be derived from a comparison of the simulated DDDs with measurements. In this work, the first measurements of 16O ion DDDs at HIT are presented with a focus on the determined Bragg peak positions and the understanding of factors influencing the shape of the distributions. The measurements are compared to different simulation approaches aiming to reproduce the acquired data at best. A simplified geometrical model is first used to optimize important input parameters, not known a priori, in the simulations. This method is then compared to a more realistic, but also more time-consuming simulation approach better accounting for the experimental set-up and the measuring process. The results of this work contributed to a pre-clinical oxygen ion beam database, which is currently used by a research TPS for corresponding radio-biological cell experiments. A future extension to a clinical database used by the clinical TPS at HIT is foreseen. As a side effect, the performed investigations showed that the typical water equivalent calibration approach of experimental data acquired with water column systems leads to slight

  17. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G; Diarra, Moussa S

    2015-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. This study showed that the predominant Salmonella serovars in broiler chickens harbor genes encoding adhesins

  18. Phase Space Generation for Proton and Carbon Ion Beams for External Users’ Applications at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center

    PubMed Central

    Tessonnier, Thomas; Marcelos, Tiago; Mairani, Andrea; Brons, Stephan; Parodi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    In the field of radiation therapy, accurate and robust dose calculation is required. For this purpose, precise modeling of the irradiation system and reliable computational platforms are needed. At the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT), the beamline has been already modeled in the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. However, this model was kept confidential for disclosure reasons and was not available for any external team. The main goal of this study was to create efficiently phase space (PS) files for proton and carbon ion beams, for all energies and foci available at HIT. PSs are representing the characteristics of each particle recorded (charge, mass, energy, coordinates, direction cosines, generation) at a certain position along the beam path. In order to achieve this goal, keeping a reasonable data size but maintaining the requested accuracy for the calculation, we developed a new approach of beam PS generation with the MC code FLUKA. The generated PSs were obtained using an infinitely narrow beam and recording the desired quantities after the last element of the beamline, with a discrimination of primaries or secondaries. In this way, a unique PS can be used for each energy to accommodate the different foci by combining the narrow-beam scenario with a random sampling of its theoretical Gaussian beam in vacuum. PS can also reproduce the different patterns from the delivery system, when properly combined with the beam scanning information. MC simulations using PS have been compared to simulations, including the full beamline geometry and have been found in very good agreement for several cases (depth dose distributions, lateral dose profiles), with relative dose differences below 0.5%. This approach has also been compared with measured data of ion beams with different energies and foci, resulting in a very satisfactory agreement. Hence, the proposed approach was able to fulfill the different requirements and has demonstrated its capability for application to

  19. Helium ions at the heidelberg ion beam therapy center: comparisons between FLUKA Monte Carlo code predictions and dosimetric measurements.

    PubMed

    Tessonnier, T; Mairani, A; Brons, S; Sala, P; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Haberer, T; Debus, J; Parodi, K

    2017-08-01

    In the field of particle therapy helium ion beams could offer an alternative for radiotherapy treatments, owing to their interesting physical and biological properties intermediate between protons and carbon ions. We present in this work the comparisons and validations of the Monte Carlo FLUKA code against in-depth dosimetric measurements acquired at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT). Depth dose distributions in water with and without ripple filter, lateral profiles at different depths in water and a spread-out Bragg peak were investigated. After experimentally-driven tuning of the less known initial beam characteristics in vacuum (beam lateral size and momentum spread) and simulation parameters (water ionization potential), comparisons of depth dose distributions were performed between simulations and measurements, which showed overall good agreement with range differences below 0.1 mm and dose-weighted average dose-differences below 2.3% throughout the entire energy range. Comparisons of lateral dose profiles showed differences in full-width-half-maximum lower than 0.7 mm. Measurements of the spread-out Bragg peak indicated differences with simulations below 1% in the high dose regions and 3% in all other regions, with a range difference less than 0.5 mm. Despite the promising results, some discrepancies between simulations and measurements were observed, particularly at high energies. These differences were attributed to an underestimation of dose contributions from secondary particles at large angles, as seen in a triple Gaussian parametrization of the lateral profiles along the depth. However, the results allowed us to validate FLUKA simulations against measurements, confirming its suitability for (4)He ion beam modeling in preparation of clinical establishment at HIT. Future activities building on this work will include treatment plan comparisons using validated biological models between proton and helium ions, either within a Monte Carlo

  20. Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy Restores Attention-Related Activity in the Angular Gyrus in Chronic Tinnitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Krick, Christoph M; Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Plinkert, Peter K; Reith, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound without external acoustic stimulation. Recent tinnitus research suggests a relationship between attention processes and tinnitus-related distress. It has been found that too much focus on tinnitus comes at the expense of the visual domain. The angular gyrus (AG) seems to play a crucial role in switching attention to the most salient stimulus. This study aims to evaluate the involvement of the AG during visual attention tasks in tinnitus sufferers treated with Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy (HNMT), an intervention that has been shown to reduce tinnitus-related distress. Methods: Thirty-three patients with chronic tinnitus, 45 patients with recent-onset tinnitus, and 35 healthy controls were tested. A fraction of these (21/21/22) were treated with the "compact" version of the HNMT lasting 1 week with intense treatments, while non-treated participants were included as passive controls. Visual attention was evaluated during functional Magnet-Resonance Imaging (fMRI) by a visual Continous Performance Task (CPT) using letter-based alarm cues ("O" and "X") appearing in a sequence of neutral letters, "A" through "H." Participants were instructed to respond via button press only if the letter "O" was followed by the letter "X" (GO condition), but not to respond if a neutral letter appeared instead (NOGO condition). All participants underwent two fMRI sessions, before and after a 1-week study period. Results: The CPT results revealed a relationship between error rates and tinnitus duration at baseline whereby the occurrence of erroneous "GO omissions" and the reaction time increased with tinnitus duration. Patients with chronic tinnitus who were treated with HNMT had decreasing error rates (fewer GO omissions) compared to treated recent-onset patients. fMRI analyses confirmed greater activation of the AG during CPT in chronic patients after HNMT treatment compared to treated recent-onset patients. Conclusions: Our

  1. Genomic Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Hadar and Kentucky Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dhanani, Akhilesh S.; Block, Glenn; Dewar, Ken; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Topp, Edward; Beiko, Robert G.; Diarra, Moussa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Methodology/Principal Finding The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,[5],12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that the predominant

  2. Retinal Nerve Fiber and Optic Disc Morphology in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography 3

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Kozak, Igor; Grant, Igor; Knudsen, Victoria L.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Byung Ro; Freeman, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To use novel confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy technology to test hypothesis that HIV-seropositive patients without history of retinitis with a history of a low CD4 count are more likely to have damage to their retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) when compared to patients with high CD4 count. In addition, we compared optic disc morphologic changes with glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants and Controls 171 patients were divided into four groups. The control group consisted of 40 eyes of 20 HIV-seronegative patients. The second group consisted of 80 eyes of 41 HIV-positive patients whose CD4 cell count never dropped below 100 (1.0 x 109/L). The third group consisted of 44 eyes of 26 HIV-positive patients with a history of low CD4 counts <100. Fourth group consisted of 79 eyes of 79 patients with confirmed glaucoma who served as positive controls. Testing Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy was performed with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3) and data were analyzed with HRT3, software (Heyex version 1.5.10.0). Main Outcome Measures Disc area, cup area, cup volume, rim volume, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup-to-disc ration, mean RNFL thickness, and RNFL cross-sectional area. Results Analysis of the global optic nerve and cup parameters showed no difference in disk area among the four groups. There was also no difference in cup, rim volume, mean cup depth, or maximum cup depth among the first three groups but they were all different from glaucoma group. The RNFL was thinner in glaucoma and both HIV-positive groups compared to HIV-seronegative subjects. The cross sectional RNFL area was thinner in both high and low CD4 HIV-positive groups compared to HIV-seronegative group in the nasal and temporal/inferior sectors, respectively. Glaucoma group showed thinning in all sectors. Conclusions HIV retinopathy results in retinal nerve fiber layer loss without structural optic nerve supportive tissue change. RNFL damage may occur early in HIV

  3. Characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States 2009.

    PubMed

    Folster, J P; Pecic, G; Singh, A; Duval, B; Rickert, R; Ayers, S; Abbott, J; McGlinchey, B; Bauer-Turpin, J; Haro, J; Hise, K; Zhao, S; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Whichard, J; McDermott, P F

    2012-07-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Although salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, severe infections typically require antimicrobial treatment, and ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), is commonly used in both adults and children. Surveillance conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has shown a recent increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from food animals at slaughter, retail meat, and humans. ESC resistance among Salmonella in the United States is usually mediated by a plasmid-encoded bla(CMY) β-lactamase. In 2009, we identified 47 ESC-resistant bla(CMY)-positive Heidelberg isolates from humans (n=18), food animals at slaughter (n=16), and retail meats (n=13) associated with a spike in the prevalence of this serovar. Almost 90% (26/29) of the animal and meat isolates were isolated from chicken carcasses or retail chicken meat. We screened NARMS isolates for the presence of bla(CMY), determined whether the gene was plasmid-encoded, examined pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to assess the genetic diversities of the isolates, and categorized the bla(CMY) plasmids by plasmid incompatibility groups and plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST). All 47 bla(CMY) genes were found to be plasmid encoded. Incompatibility/replicon typing demonstrated that 41 were IncI1 plasmids, 40 of which only conferred bla(CMY)-associated resistance. Six were IncA/C plasmids that carried additional resistance genes. pMLST of the IncI1-bla(CMY) plasmids showed that 27 (65.8%) were sequence type (ST) 12, the most common ST among bla(CMY)-IncI1 plasmids from Heidelberg isolated from humans. Ten plasmids had a new ST profile, ST66, a type very similar to ST12. This work showed that the 2009 increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg was caused mainly by the dissemination of bla(CMY) on IncI1 and IncA/C plasmids in a variety of

  4. Comparison of methods for quantitating Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Heidelberg strain attachment to reusable plastic shipping container coupons and preliminary assessment of sanitizer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhaohao; Baker, Christopher A; Lee, Sang In; Park, Si Hong; Kim, Sun Ae; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella serovars, one of the leading contributors to foodborne illness and are especially problematic for foods that are not cooked before consumption, such as fresh produce. The shipping containers that are used to transport and store fresh produce may play a role in cross contamination and subsequent illnesses. However, methods for quantitatively attached cells are somewhat variable. The overall goal of this study was to compare conventional plating with molecular methods for quantitating attached representative strains for Salmonella Typhimurium and Heidelberg on reusable plastic containers (RPC) coupons, respectively. We attached Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and serovar Heidelberg SL486 (parent and an antibiotic resistant marker strain) to plastic coupons (2.54 cm(2)) derived from previously used shipping containers by growing for 72 h in tryptic soy broth. The impact of the concentration of sanitizer on log reductions between unsanitized and sanitized coupons was evaluated by exposing attached S. Typhimurium cells to 200 ppm and 200,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Differences in sanitizer effectiveness between serovars were also evaluated with attached S. Typhimurium compared to attached S. Heidelberg populations after being exposed to 200 ppm peracetic acid (PAA). Treatment with NaClO caused an average of 2.73 ± 0.23 log CFU of S. Typhimurium per coupon removed with treatment at 200 ppm while 3.36 ± 0.54 log CFU were removed at 200,000 ppm. Treatment with PAA caused an average of 2.62 ± 0.15 log CFU removed for S. Typhimurium and 1.41 ± 0.17 log CFU for S. Heidelberg (parent) and 1.61 ± 0.08 log CFU (marker). Lastly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize cell attachment and coupon surface topography. SEM images showed that remaining attached cell populations were visible even after sanitizer application. Conventional plating and qPCR yielded similar levels of enumerated bacterial populations

  5. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  6. Analytical analyses of startup measurements associated with the first use of LEU fuel in Romania`s 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Ciocanescu, M.

    1992-12-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) is located in Pitesti, Romania. Beginning with an HEU core (10 wt% U), the reactor first went critical in November 1979 but was shut down ten years later because of insufficient excess reactivity. Last November the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), which operates the SSR, received from the ANL RERTR program a shipment of 125 LEU pins fabricated by General Atomics and of the same geometry as the original fuel but with an enrichment of 19.7% 235U and a loading of 45 wt% U. Using 100 of these pins, four LEU clusters, each containing a 5 x 5 square array of fuel rods, were assembled. These four LEU clusters replaced the four most highly burned HEU elements in the SSR. The reactor resumed operations last February with a 35-element mixed HEU/LEU core configuration. In preparation for full power operation of the SSR with this mixed HEU/LEU core, a number of measurements were made. These included control rod calibrations, excess reactivity determinations, worths of experiment facilities, reaction rate distributions, and themocouple measurements of fuel temperatures as a function of reactor power. This paper deals with a comparison of some of these measured reactor parameters with corresponding analytical calculations.

  7. Dose estimation in B16 tumour bearing mice for future irradiation in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor after B/Gd/LDL adduct infusion.

    PubMed

    Protti, N; Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Stella, S; Geninatti, S; Alberti, D; Aime, S; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    To test the efficacy of a new (10)B-vector compound, the B/Gd/LDL adduct synthesised at Torino University, in vivo irradiations of murine tumours are in progress at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Pavia University. A localised B16 melanoma tumour is generated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infused with the adduct. During the irradiation, the mouse will be put in a shield to protect the whole body except the tumour in the back-neck area. To optimise the treatment set-up, MCNP simulations were performed. A very simplified mouse model was built using MCNP geometry capabilities, as well as the geometry of the shield made of 99% (10)B enriched boric acid. A hole in the shield is foreseen in correspondence of the back-neck region. Many configurations of the shield were tested in terms of neutron flux, dose distribution and mean induced activity in the tumour region and in the radiosensitive organs of the mouse. In the final set-up, up to five mice can be treated simultaneously in the reactor thermal column and the neutron fluence in the tumour region for 10 min of irradiation is of about 5×10(12) cm(-2).

  8. 1(st) EMBL/DFG Women in Science Network Conference Heidelberg 2016: From Genes, Cells and the Immune System towards Therapies - Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Stripecke, Renata; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Förster, Irmgard

    2016-11-01

    The 1(st) EMBL/DFG Women in Science (WiS) Conference "From Genes, Cells and the Immune System towards Therapies" was held on 19(th) - 20(th) September 2016 in Heidelberg, Germany. The WiS conference was funded by nine Collaborative Research Centers (CRCs) of the German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG; Table 1) and benefited from an outstanding hosting environment at the Advanced Training Center of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). Scientific talks focused at genetic, cellular and immunologic mechanisms, and immune therapy, and progress from all stages of development covering basic research to clinical developments was described. The presentations were embedded between structured networking sessions and a round table discussion with representatives of the DFG, EMBL, European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO), and the German Society of Immunology (DGfI).

  9. Assessment of Early Toxicity and Response in Patients Treated With Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center Using the Raster Scanning Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Jensen, Alexandra; Haberer, Thomas; Jaekel, Oliver; Muenter, Marc W.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2011-12-01

    Puropose: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Patients and Methods: Between November 2009 and June 2010, we treated 118 patients with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) using active beam delivery. The main indications included skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, salivary gland tumors, and gliomas. We evaluated early toxicity within 6 weeks after RT and the initial clinical and radiologic response for quality assurance in our new facility. Results: In all 118 patients, few side effects were observed, in particular, no high numbers of severe acute toxicity were found. In general, the patients treated with particle therapy alone showed only a few single side effects, mainly Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Common Terminology Criteria grade 1. The most frequent side effects and cumulative incidence of single side effects were observed in the head-and-neck patients treated with particle therapy as a boost and photon intensity-modulated RT. The toxicities included common radiation-attributed reactions known from photon RT, including mucositis, dysphagia, and skin erythema. The most predominant imaging responses were observed in patients with high-grade gliomas and those with salivary gland tumors. For skull base tumors, imaging showed a stable tumor outline in most patients. Thirteen patients showed improvement of pre-existing clinical symptoms. Conclusions: Side effects related to particle treatment were rare, and the overall tolerability of the treatment was shown. The initial response was promising. The data have confirmed the safe delivery of carbon ions and protons at the newly opened Heidelberg facility.

  10. Imported poultry meat as a source of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant CMY-2-producing salmonella heidelberg and s. minnesota in european union, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Silveira, Leonor; Saraiva, Margarida; Correia, Cristina Belo; Maçãs, Ana Paula; Peixe, Luísa; Antunes, Patrícia

    2017-09-14

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella has been described at low level in EU, nevertheless the increasing importation of poultry meat could be an important source of epidemic strains carrying ESC-resistant genes. We evaluated ESC resistance and characterized genetic platforms as well as the clonal relatedness of Salmonella isolates from poultry meat products imported into Portugal. All Salmonella isolates recovered from samples of fresh meat destined to be imported into the EU in the scope of Portuguese official border control between 2014 and 2015 were studied. Susceptibility to antibiotics and detection of β-lactamase production was performed by disk diffusion/microdilution methods. Molecular studies included detection of genes encoding for qAmpC and extended-spectrum β-lactamases, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and other antibiotic resistance by PCR/sequencing and clonality by MLST and XbaI-PFGE. Plasmid characterization was assessed by conjugation assays, replicon typing (PCR-PBRT/pMLST) and hybridization experiments (I-CeuI/S1-PFGE nuclease). Salmonella belonged to S. Heidelberg (n=6; ST15/eBG26) and S. Minnesota (n=1; ST548/eBG77) serotypes and presented multidrug-resistant profiles, including to ESC and/or fluoroquinolones. All but one carried blaCMY-2 gene, located on two epidemic plasmids, IncA/C (ST2-n=5) or a transferable IncI1 (ST12-n=1). S. Heidelberg was associated with 5 PFGE-types, including one similar to an American epidemic clone. This study reveals imported poultry products as a source of uncommon and/or invasive ESC resistant Salmonella strains in EU. The increase of those clinically-relevant poultry-related serotypes in Europe, as described here, must be taken into account in the current monitoring of antibiotic resistance trends and in re-evaluation of food regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of avian-specific probiotic and Salmonella enteritidis-, Salmonella typhimurium-, and Salmonella heidelberg-specific antibodies on cecal colonization and organ invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tellez, G; Petrone, V M; Escorcia, M; Morishita, T Y; Cobb, C W; Villaseñor, L; Promsopone, B

    2001-03-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis colonizes the intestinal tract of poultry and causes foodborne illness in humans. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in the intestinal tract of poultry reduces potential carcass contamination during slaughter. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an avian-specific probiotic combined with Salmonella Enteritidis-, Salmonella Typhimurium-, and Salmonella Heidelberg-specific antibodies on the cecal colonization and organ invasion of Salmonella Enteritidis in broiler as well as on body weights. The treatment group was defined as chicks spray-vaccinated with Avian Pac Plus at the hatchery and given Avian Pac Plus for the first 3 days after placement. An intermediate treatment was given at 10 and 14 days, 2 days prior to vaccination and 2 days postvaccination. All birds were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, La Sota virus (one drop/eye) at 12 days of age. A final treatment was given 3 days preslaughter. The control group was defined as chicks not given Avian Pac Plus at any time. Six hours after oral administration of the probiotic suspension (treatment group) or water (control group) at placement, the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. All chickens were orally inoculated with 0.25 ml of Salmonella Enteritidis that contained 4 x 10(7) CFU/1.0 ml. Cecal colonization and organ invasion were evaluated for Salmonella Enteritidis on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, and 41. The probiotic-treated group had a significantly lower concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis cecal colonization at days 3, 7, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, and 41 when compared to the nontreated, control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from the internal organs (liver and spleen) when probiotic-treated and nonprobiotic-treated groups were compared. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean body weight between the two experimental

  12. Heidelberg-mCT-Analyzer: a novel method for standardized microcomputed-tomography-guided evaluation of scaffold properties in bone and tissue research

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Christian; Hoellig, Melanie; Swing, Tyler; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Weber, Marc-André; Stiller, Wolfram; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Moghaddam, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering and bone scaffold development represent two challenging fields in orthopaedic research. Micro-computed tomography (mCT) allows non-invasive measurement of these scaffolds’ properties in vivo. However, the lack of standardized mCT analysis protocols and, therefore, the protocols’ user-dependency make interpretation of the reported results difficult. To overcome these issues in scaffold research, we introduce the Heidelberg-mCT-Analyzer. For evaluation of our technique, we built 10 bone-inducing scaffolds, which underwent mCT acquisition before ectopic implantation (T0) in mice, and at explantation eight weeks thereafter (T1). The scaffolds’ three-dimensional reconstructions were automatically segmented using fuzzy clustering with fully automatic level-setting. The scaffold itself and its pores were then evaluated for T0 and T1. Analysing the scaffolds’ characteristic parameter set with our quantification method showed bone formation over time. We were able to demonstrate that our algorithm obtained the same results for basic scaffold parameters (e.g. scaffold volume, pore number and pore volume) as other established analysis methods. Furthermore, our algorithm was able to analyse more complex parameters, such as pore size range, tissue mineral density and scaffold surface. Our imaging and post-processing strategy enables standardized and user-independent analysis of scaffold properties, and therefore is able to improve the quantitative evaluations of scaffold-associated bone tissue-engineering projects. PMID:26716008

  13. Treatment of progressive keratoconus by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: ultrastructural analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II in vivo confocal microscopy in humans.

    PubMed

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Traversi, Claudio; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Tommasi, Cristina; Caporossi, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    To assess ultrastructural stromal modifications after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in patients with progressive keratoconus. This was a second-phase prospective nonrandomized open study in 10 patients with progressive keratoconus treated by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen and assessed by means of Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II Rostock Corneal Module (HRT II-RCM) in vivo confocal microscopy. The eye in the worst clinical condition was treated for each patient. Treatment under topical anesthesia included corneal deepithelization (9-mm diameter) and instillation of 0.1% riboflavin phosphate-20% dextran T 500 solution at 5 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for a total of 30 minutes. UVA irradiation was 7 mm in diameter. Patients were assessed by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy in vivo at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rarefaction of keratocytes in the anterior and intermediate stroma, associated with stromal edema, was observed immediately after treatment. The observation at 3 months after the operation detected keratocyte repopulation in the central treated area, whereas the edema had disappeared. Cell density increased progressively over the postoperative period. At approximately 6 months, keratocyte repopulation was complete, accompanied by increased density of stromal fibers. No endothelial damage was observed at any time. Reduction in anterior and intermediate stromal keratocytes followed by gradual repopulation has been confirmed directly in vivo in humans by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy after riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking.

  14. Comparison of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph-3 glaucoma probability score and Moorfields regression analysis of optic nerve head in glaucoma patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Çagatay; Gul, Adem; Batur, Muhammed; Yasar, Tekin

    2017-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and glaucoma probability score (GPS) between healthy and glaucomatous eyes with Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3 (HRT-3). The study included 120 eyes of 75 glaucoma patients and 138 eyes of 73 normal subjects, for a total of 258 eyes of 148 individuals. All measurements were performed with the HRT-3. Diagnostic test criteria (sensitivity, specificity, etc.) were used to evaluate how efficiently GPS and MRA algorithms in the HRT-3 discriminated between the glaucoma and control groups. The GPS showed 88 % sensitivity and 66 % specificity, whereas MRA had 71.5 % sensitivity and 82.5 % specificity. There was 71 % agreement between the final results of MRA and GPS in the glaucoma group. Excluding borderline patients from both analyses resulted in 91.6 % agreement. In the control group the level of agreement between MRA and GPS was 64 % including borderline patients and 84.1 % after excluding borderline patients. The accuracy rate is 92 % for MRA and 91 % for GPS in the glaucoma group excluding borderline patients. The difference was nor statistically different. In both cases, agreement was higher between MRA and GPS in the glaucoma group. We found that both sensitivity and specificity increased with disc size for MRA, while the sensitivity increased and specificity decreased with larger disc sizes for GPS. HRT is able to quantify and clearly reveal structural changes in the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma.

  15. Treatment of pediatric patients and young adults with particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): establishment of workflow and initial clinical data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To report on establishment of workflow and clinical results of particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Materials and methods We treated 36 pediatric patients (aged 21 or younger) with particle therapy at HIT. Median age was 12 years (range 2-21 years), five patients (14%) were younger than 5 years of age. Indications included pilocytic astrocytoma, parameningeal and orbital rhabdomyosarcoma, skull base and cervical chordoma, osteosarcoma and adenoid-cystic carcinoma (ACC), as well as one patient with an angiofibroma of the nasopharynx. For the treatment of small children, an anesthesia unit at HIT was established in cooperation with the Department of Anesthesiology. Results Treatment concepts depended on tumor type, staging, age of the patient, as well as availability of specific study protocols. In all patients, particle radiotherapy was well tolerated and no interruptions due to toxicity had to be undertaken. During follow-up, only mild toxicites were observed. Only one patient died of tumor progression: Carbon ion radiotherapy was performed as an individual treatment approach in a child with a skull base recurrence of the previously irradiated rhabdomyosarcoma. Besides this patient, tumor recurrence was observed in two additional patients. Conclusion Clinical protocols have been generated to evaluate the real potential of particle therapy, also with respect to carbon ions in distinct pediatric patient populations. The strong cooperation between the pediatric department and the department of radiation oncology enable an interdisciplinary treatment and stream-lined workflow and acceptance of the treatment for the patients and their parents. PMID:23072718

  16. Cup-to-Disc Ratio From Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 and High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Agrees Poorly With Clinical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Perera, Shamira A; Foo, Li Lian; Cheung, Carol Y L; Allen, John C; Chua, Daniel; Tham, Yih Chung; Loon, Seng Chee; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the agreement of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) measured from Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (HRT-3), high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT), and clinical grading. A total of 933 consecutive subjects underwent optic nerve head imaging with HRT-3 and HD-OCT during a single visit. The vertical dimensions of the disc and cup were measured by slit-lamp examination using an eyepiece graticule. Bland-Altman plots evaluated the agreement in the VCDR obtained by the 2 instruments and clinical grading. We found a significant trend for the difference in VCDR measured clinically and with HRT and HD-OCT (P<0.001 for both). The mean VCDR differed significantly between clinical measurement and that evaluated by HRT and HD-OCT, respectively (0.40 ± 0.12 vs. 0.37 ± 0.21 and 0.40 ± 0.12 vs. 0.50 ± 0.14, P<0.001 for both), with significantly poor correlation (r(2)=0.35 and 0.34, P<0.001 for both). In general, there is poor correlation and a lack of agreement of VCDR measured using HRT-3, HD-OCT, and clinical grading. HD-OCT has somewhat better agreement with clinical measurements of VCDR. Compared with clinical grading, HD-OCT tended to overestimate VCDR, whereas HRT-3 tended to underestimate it.

  17. Dosimetric verification in water of a Monte Carlo treatment planning tool for proton, helium, carbon and oxygen ion beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessonnier, T.; Böhlen, T. T.; Ceruti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.; Brons, S.; Haberer, T.; Debus, J.; Parodi, K.; Mairani, A.

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of ‘new’ ion species in particle therapy needs to be supported by a thorough assessment of their dosimetric properties and by treatment planning comparisons with clinically used proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the latter two ions, helium and oxygen ion beams are foreseen at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) as potential assets for improving clinical outcomes in the near future. We present in this study a dosimetric validation of a FLUKA-based Monte Carlo treatment planning tool (MCTP) for protons, helium, carbon and oxygen ions for spread-out Bragg peaks in water. The comparisons between the ions show the dosimetric advantages of helium and heavier ion beams in terms of their distal and lateral fall-offs with respect to protons, reducing the lateral size of the region receiving 50% of the planned dose up to 12 mm. However, carbon and oxygen ions showed significant doses beyond the target due to the higher fragmentation tail compared to lighter ions (p and He), up to 25%. The Monte Carlo predictions were found to be in excellent geometrical agreement with the measurements, with deviations below 1 mm for all parameters investigated such as target and lateral size as well as distal fall-offs. Measured and simulated absolute dose values agreed within about 2.5% on the overall dose distributions. The MCTP tool, which supports the usage of multiple state-of-the-art relative biological effectiveness models, will provide a solid engine for treatment planning comparisons at HIT.

  18. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity
department of addictive behaviour and addiction medicine, central institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Addictive behaviour is as prevalent in Germany as in other western countries, but in contrast to some European countries and the United States, very little money was given to this research field. Change came in the early 1990s, when the German government started to launch specific grants for addiction research. The first chair in addiction research was created in 1999 (Karl Mann) at the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (CIMH; University of Heidelberg). The recruitment of a pre-clinical alcohol researcher as head of the department of psychopharmacology followed (Rainer Spanagel). This 'addiction research cluster' collaborates with several research groups at the CIMH (such as genetics). We inaugurated a clinical trial network which now comprises up to 20 treatment centres throughout Germany. Like most authors, we found effect sizes of different treatment modalities more in the low to moderate range, perhaps because of the heterogeneity of large patient samples. Therefore, we concentrated upon the biological basis of addiction in order to define more homogeneous 'subtypes' of patients for a better match with existing treatments. Results concerning genetics and neuroimaging (both animal and human) are promising, and could move our field towards a more personalized treatment approach. Our funding has been extended over the years, including involvement in several large European grants. We are studying substance-related problems as well as so-called 'behavioural addictions'. As a natural consequence of this development, we are deeply involved both in informing the general public on addiction issues as well as in counselling policy makers in Germany. © 2010 The Author, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Dosimetric verification in water of a Monte Carlo treatment planning tool for proton, helium, carbon and oxygen ion beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center.

    PubMed

    Tessonnier, T; Böhlen, T T; Ceruti, F; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Brons, S; Haberer, T; Debus, J; Parodi, K; Mairani, A

    2017-07-31

    The introduction of 'new' ion species in particle therapy needs to be supported by a thorough assessment of their dosimetric properties and by treatment planning comparisons with clinically used proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the latter two ions, helium and oxygen ion beams are foreseen at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) as potential assets for improving clinical outcomes in the near future. We present in this study a dosimetric validation of a FLUKA-based Monte Carlo treatment planning tool (MCTP) for protons, helium, carbon and oxygen ions for spread-out Bragg peaks in water. The comparisons between the ions show the dosimetric advantages of helium and heavier ion beams in terms of their distal and lateral fall-offs with respect to protons, reducing the lateral size of the region receiving 50% of the planned dose up to 12 mm. However, carbon and oxygen ions showed significant doses beyond the target due to the higher fragmentation tail compared to lighter ions (p and He), up to 25%. The Monte Carlo predictions were found to be in excellent geometrical agreement with the measurements, with deviations below 1 mm for all parameters investigated such as target and lateral size as well as distal fall-offs. Measured and simulated absolute dose values agreed within about 2.5% on the overall dose distributions. The MCTP tool, which supports the usage of multiple state-of-the-art relative biological effectiveness models, will provide a solid engine for treatment planning comparisons at HIT.

  20. Symmetry of optic nerve head parameters measured by the heidelberg retina tomograph 3 in healthy eyes: the Blue Mountains Eye study.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Healey, Paul R; Tariq, Yasser M; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul

    2013-03-01

    To assess the symmetry of optic nerve head parameters measured by the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (HRT 3) between fellow eyes in a normal elderly population. Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study 10-year follow-up who did not have optic disc disease, including glaucoma, were included. Optic nerve head parameters measured by HRT 3 were compared between fellow eyes. The normal range of interocular asymmetry (larger disc minus smaller disc) was determined by the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. A total of 1276 eligible participants had HRT scans of both eyes. HRT measurements in right eyes differed slightly in rim steepness and rim volume from those in left eyes (P < .05). The 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of interocular asymmetry limits were -0.41 and 0.45 for cup-to-disc ratio and -0.19 and 0.22 for cup-to-disc area ratio, respectively. The highest interocular correlation was found in disc area and cup area (r ranged from 0.74-0.76), whereas mean cup depth, cup volume, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness had the poorest correlation (r ≤ 0.07). Greater optic disc area asymmetry was associated with a larger interocular difference in the other optic nerve head parameters. There was minimal interocular difference and substantial interocular correlation in optic nerve head parameters measured by HRT 3. Interocular asymmetry greater than 0.2 for cup-to-disc area ratio was considered outside the normal range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Corneal Segmentation Analysis Increases Glaucoma Diagnostic Ability of Optic Nerve Head Examination, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph's Moorfield's Regression Analysis, and Glaucoma Probability Score.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Frances, F; Jañez, L; Berrozpe-Villabona, C; Borrego-Sanz, L; Morales-Fernández, L; Acebal-Montero, A; Mendez-Hernandez, C D; Martinez-de-la-Casa, J M; Santos-Bueso, E; Garcia-Sanchez, J; Garcia-Feijoo, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To study whether a corneal thickness segmentation model, consisting in a central circular zone of 1 mm radius centered at the corneal apex (zone I) and five concentric rings of 1 mm width (moving outwards: zones II to VI), could boost the diagnostic accuracy of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph's (HRT's) MRA and GPS. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. 121 healthy volunteers and 125 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Six binary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed (MOD-A1, MOD-A2, MOD-B1, MOD-B2, MOD-C1, and MOD-C2). The dependent variable was the presence of glaucoma. In MOD-A1, the predictor was the result (presence of glaucoma) of the analysis of the stereophotography of the optic nerve head (ONH). In MOD-B1 and MOD-C1, the predictor was the result of the MRA and GPS, respectively. In MOD-B2 and MOD-C2, the predictors were the same along with corneal variables: central, overall, and zones I to VI thicknesses. This scheme was reproduced for model MOD-A2 (stereophotography along with corneal variables). Models were compared using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Results. MOD-A1-AUC: 0.771; MOD-A2-AUC: 0.88; MOD-B1-AUC: 0.736; MOD-B2-AUC: 0.845; MOD-C1-AUC: 0.712; MOD-C2-AUC: 0.838. Conclusion. Corneal thickness variables enhance ONH assessment and HRT's MRA and GPS diagnostic capacity.

  2. Evaluation of interprofessional education: lessons learned through the development and implementation of an interprofessional seminar on team communication for undergraduate health care students in Heidelberg - a project report.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sarah; Mahler, Cornelia; Krug, Katja; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    This project report describes the development, "piloting" and evaluation of an interprofessional seminar on team communication bringing together medical students and Interprofessional Health Care B.Sc. students at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg University, Germany. A five-member interprofessional team collaborated together on this project. Kolb's experiential learning concept formed the theoretical foundation for the seminar, which explored three interprofessional competency areas: team work, communication and values/ethics. Evaluation for the purposes of quality assurance and future curricula development was conducted using two quantitative measures: descriptive analysis of a standardized course evaluation tool (EvaSys) ANOVA analysis of the German translation of the University of the West of England Interprofessional Questionnaire (UWE-IP-D). The key finding from the standardized course evaluation was that the interprofessional seminars were rated more positively [M=2.11 (1 most positive and 5 most negative), SD=1, n=27] than the monoprofessional seminars [M=2.55, SD=0.98, n=90]. The key finding from the UWE-IP-D survey, comparing pre and post scores of the interprofessional (IP) (n=40) and monoprofessional (MP) groups (n=34), was that significant positive changes in mean scores for both groups towards communication, teamwork and interprofessional learning occurred. Lessons learnt included: a) recognising the benefit of being pragmatic when introducing interprofessional education initiatives, which enabled various logistical and attitudinal barriers to be overcome; b) quantitative evaluation of learning outcomes alone could not explain positive responses or potential influences of interprofessional aspects, which highlighted the need for a mixed methods approach, including qualitative methods, to enrich judgment formation on interprofessional educational outcomes.

  3. Usefulness of High-Quality Core Genome Single-Nucleotide Variant Analysis for Subtyping the Highly Clonal and the Most Prevalent Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Clone in the Context of Outbreak Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Berry, C.; Reimer, A. R.; Van Domselaar, G.; Beaudry, G.; Fournier, E.; Doualla-Bell, F.; Levac, E.; Gaulin, C.; Ramsay, D.; Huot, C.; Walker, M.; Sieffert, C.; Tremblay, C.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is the second most frequently occurring serovar in Quebec and the third-most prevalent in Canada. Given that conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping for common Salmonella serovars, such as S. Heidelberg, yields identical subtypes for the majority of isolates recovered, public health laboratories are desperate for new subtyping tools to resolve highly clonal S. Heidelberg strains involved in outbreak events. As PFGE was unable to discriminate isolates from three epidemiologically distinct outbreaks in Quebec, this study was conducted to evaluate whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and phylogenetic analysis as an alternative to conventional subtyping tools. Genomes of 46 isolates from 3 Quebec outbreaks (2012, 2013, and 2014) supported by strong epidemiological evidence were sequenced and analyzed using a high-quality core genome single-nucleotide variant (hqSNV) bioinformatics approach (SNV phylogenomics [SNVphyl] pipeline). Outbreaks were indistinguishable by conventional PFGE subtyping, exhibiting the same PFGE pattern (SHEXAI.0001/SHEBNI.0001). Phylogenetic analysis based on hqSNVs extracted from WGS separated the outbreak isolates into three distinct groups, 100% concordant with the epidemiological data. The minimum and maximum number of hqSNVs between isolates from the same outbreak was 0 and 4, respectively, while >59 hqSNVs were measured between 2 previously indistinguishable outbreaks having the same PFGE and phage type, thus corroborating their distinction as separate unrelated outbreaks. This study demonstrates that despite the previously reported high clonality of this serovar, the WGS-based hqSNV approach is a superior typing method, capable of resolving events that were previously indistinguishable using classic subtyping tools. PMID:26582830

  4. [Sensitivity and Specificity of the Nerve Fibre Imaging Using Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and of Optic Nerve Analysis Using Heidelberg Retina Tomography in Glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, T; Hirsch, F; Koch, E C; Fuest, M; Plange, N

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of the optic nerve head and the nerve fibre layer are used in the diagnosis of glaucoma. We have investigated the diagnostic precision of nerve fibre layer imaging using a manually operated scanning laser ophthalmoscope and analysis of the optic nerve head using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT). 42 patients with glaucoma, 16 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and 24 healthy control subjects were included in a clinical study. Nerve fibre layer imaging was performed using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO, Rodenstock Instr. argon laser 488 nm). Nerve fibre layer defects were analysed peripapillarily for every single degree (defect or no defect) at 1.7 mm (near) and at 3.4 mm (far) distance to the optic nerve head. Specificity and sensitivity of the HRT II were calculated using the Moorfields regression analysis (MRA). Patients with glaucoma were found to have 109 ± 92° (near) and 109 ± 92° (far) defects of the nerve fibre layer. Patients with OHT (8 ± 14° [far] and 6 ± 11° [near]) and control subjects (0 ± 0° [far] and 0 ± 1° [near]) showed significantly smaller defects (p < 0.0001). Sensitivity at > 90 % specificity for POAG and controls was 85.7 % (far) and 82.9 % (near). Sensitivity at > 90 % specifity for OHT and POAG was 85.7 % (far) und 82.9 % (near). Specificity of controls for the MRA was 83.3 % (borderline classified as normal). Specificity of OHT patients was 93.8 % (borderline classified normal). Sensitivity of the MRA for POAG was 80.9 % (borderline classified normal) and 90.5 % (borderline classified glaucoma). Nerve fiber layer imaging using a manually operated scanning laser ophthalmoscope was found to achieve a higher diagnostic precision as compared to optic disc evaluation using the HRT II. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Spatial variation in quartz cement type and concentration: An example from the Heidelberg formation (Teufelsmauer outcrops), Upper Cretaceous Subhercynian Basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Waldmann, Svenja; von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2013-06-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of cement abundance in sandstones is an important factor for reservoir compartmentalization. Here we present results on the variety of diagenetic products and spatial distribution of intense and focused silica cementation within otherwise friable sandstone without silica cements. The Cretaceous quartz arenite of the Teufelsmauer outcrops near Quedlinburg (Upper Cretaceous Heidelberg formation, Subhercynian Basin, Germany) is cemented by various types of diagenetic silica. The highly cemented sandstone sections contain both syntaxial quartz cement (concentrations: 11-31 vol.%) and microcrystalline pore-filling quartz cement (10-34 vol.%). Microcrystalline cement generations form the latest SiO2 precipitations and overgrow moderate to intense syntaxial rims. At outcrop and sedimentary basin scales, the occurrence of highly cemented sandstone is limited to an area of several hundreds of meters in lateral extension, but does not exceed a layer thickness of about 5 m. The highly cemented sandstone shows internal heterogeneity in cementation with preferred orientation of their length axis, suggesting mainly stationary fluid flow pathways during cementation of several silica generations. Most likely, the source of all diagenetic silica is owing to enhanced dissolution at cataclastic deformation bands, which are found within the same sandstone strata. As a mechanism for locally focused precipitation, we suggest a combination of (1) local enhancement of silica dissolution due to deformation and cataclasis and (2) enhanced fluid flow and expulsion during deformation related to the synchronous thrusting of the Harz block onto the Cretaceous Subhercynian Basin. We interpret that the expelled silica-enriched formation water experienced fluid mixing with ascending water from an overpressured, deeper regime, implying that the observed silica generations trace this unique zone of fluid expulsion, ascension, and mixing. Our investigations show that silica

  6. Effect of xylanase and a blend of essential oils on performance and Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Mathis, G; Hofacre, C L

    2012-04-01

    The present experiment examined the influence of xylanase supplementation and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) on performance and Salmonella horizontal transmission in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella. Two thousand 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments (8 pens/treatment of 50 male broilers each). Four dietary treatments were challenged with Salmonella: 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with EO, 3) basal diet supplemented with xylanase (2,000 U/kg of feed), and 4) basal diet supplemented with a combination of EO and xylanase (2,000 U/kg of feed). One treatment served as an unchallenged control and was not supplemented with either additive. Broiler starter and finisher diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated, pelleted, and fed ad libitum. At d 1, before placement, half of the birds from each pen were tagged and dosed with Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (5 × 10(5) cfu/mL). On d 42, 5 random untagged birds from each pen were killed and their ceca removed and tested for Salmonella. Performance data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using GLM. The frequency of positive Salmonella in the untagged birds was compared between treatments by using a chi-squared test of homogeneity. Challenging the birds with Salmonella had no effect (P > 0.05) on any of the measured performance parameters. Xylanase and EO supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the 42-d BW gain and feed efficiency, with no effect (P > 0.05) on feed intake, compared with that of the control treatment. Xylanase supplementation improved (P < 0.05) BW gain and feed efficiency compared with the results of EO supplementation. The combination treatment of xylanase and EO numerically improved BW gain and feed efficiency compared with the xylanase treatment. Xylanase and EO supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) the incidence of horizontal transmission of Salmonella infection between birds by 61 and 77

  7. ["Should the staff's attitude towards the patients remain unchanged, I will not guarantee anything." Protest masculinity and coping of "rebellious patients" at the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital on the eve of deinstitutionalization].

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the illness experiences of male patients from the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital during the protests against Psychiatry in the year 1973. Protest is one of the most important expressions of masculinity in socially disadvantaged men, such as men with mental disorders. The analysis of 100 medical records shows that some patients tried to construct themselves as men in a way that was explicitly motivated by antipsychiatric ideas: They questioned psychiatric authority, behaved "sexually inappropriate", or used drugs. On the eve of psychiatric reform in West Germany those patients were well aware that the alternative--complying with the treatment--would put them at considerable risk. In addition to the usual inference of hegemonic or normative masculinities as risk-factors, the behavior of those ,,rebellious patients" has to be interpreted as individual coping strategies.

  8. Deployment of a three-dimensional array of Micro-Pocket Fission Detector triads (MPFD3) for real-time, in-core neutron flux measurements in the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmes, Martin Francis

    A Micro-Pocket Fission Detector (MPFD) is a miniaturized type of fission chamber developed for use inside a nuclear reactor. Their unique design allows them to be located between or even inside fuel pins while being built from materials which give them an operational lifetime comparable to or exceeding the life of the fuel. While other types of neutron detectors have been made for use inside a nuclear reactor, the MPFD is the first neutron detector which can survive sustained use inside a nuclear reactor while providing a real-time measurement of the neutron flux. This dissertation covers the deployment of MPFDs as a large three-dimensional array inside the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor for real-time neutron flux measurements. This entails advancements in the design, construction, and packaging of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Triads with incorporated Thermocouple, or MPFD3-T. Specialized electronics and software also had to be designed and built in order to make a functional system capable of collecting real-time data from up to 60 MPFD3-Ts, or 180 individual MPFDs and 60 thermocouples. Design of the electronics required the development of detailed simulations and analysis for determining the theoretical response of the detectors and determination of their size. The results of this research shows that MPFDs can operate for extended times inside a nuclear reactor and can be utilized toward the use as distributed neutron detector arrays for advanced reactor control systems and power mapping. These functions are critical for continued gains in efficiency of nuclear power reactors while also improving safety through relatively inexpensive redundancy.

  9. Consistency of vitamin and/or mineral supplement use and demographic, lifestyle and health-status predictors: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2010-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that dietary supplement use is associated with favourable demographic and lifestyle factors and certain health conditions. However, factors that affect the consistency of supplement use have not been investigated in prospective cohort studies. The aim of the present study was to seek baseline demographic, lifestyle and health-status predictors of subsequent consistent vitamin and/or mineral supplement use. A total of 8968 men and 10,672 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort, who answered the supplement-use questions in the baseline survey and two follow-up surveys, were categorised into three groups: consistent, inconsistent and never users. At baseline, 28.5 % of men and 38.6 % of women reported vitamin and/or mineral supplement use. After a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 14.6 % of men and 22.9 % of women were consistent users. During follow-up, 36.0 % of male and 26.6 % of female initial users stopped supplement use, whereas 27.8 % of male and 39.4 % of female initial non-users started supplement use. Women were more likely to be consistent users than men. Older age (≥ 50 years), lower BMI (< 25 kg/m2) and self-reported hyperlipidaemia were common predictors of consistent use for both sexes. Additional predictors included higher educational level for men, and being more physically active and higher lifetime alcohol consumption for women. Consistent users had the highest intake of dairy products, fish, fruits and vegetables, and wine but the lowest intake of total meat. We concluded that supplement use is a fairly unstable behaviour in free-living individuals. Individuals with a favourable lifestyle and healthier diet are more likely to show consistent supplementation.

  10. Mixed core calculations for the TRIGA reactor of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazon-Ramirez, R.; Francois, J.L; Gallardo, L.F.

    1990-07-01

    It was decided to use FLIP fuel (70 % enrichment in U235) - against the world tendency to reduce enrichment- because we already had 46 fresh FLIP fuels available in the facility and almost non of the standard type. In order to better use the fuel we had at that time, we decided to find a load scheme that better suited that purpose, we could use 46 FLIP fuel elements no irradiated and about 120 irradiated standard fuel elements. We use EXTERMINATOR to analize several options. We studied the burnup of the reactor core consisting of the two types of fuel, the total numbers of fuel elements was kept constant 85 to compare directly the results. The numbers of inserted FLIP elements was adjusted trying to get realistic core excess reactivity (about 6 $) and trying not to complicate power shapes mixing the two types of fuel in one ring. We selected two of them that were analized in more detail. The first one we called 8th configuration used all 46 FLIP elements placed in ring C, D and E with 59 irradiated standard elements filling the other positions, and the 9th configuration using 26 FLIP fuel elements in rings C and D with irradiated standard fuel completing the load. In both cases the three burned control rods were sustituted with new FLIP follower control rods. After some rough calculations we decided to drop the 8th configuration because we were concerned with the shoutdown margin of that configuration. After we loaded the fuel and performed rod worth measurements we finded out that we were subestimating the worth in our calculations. (author)

  11. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  12. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook for Heidelberg AB, Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    pressure change from Hahn AB ( EDAH ) to EDIE. (1) There are three positive indicators needed prior to using this study. (a) Strong cold FROPA or TROF passage...b) Wasserkunne (10544) winds greater than 44 knots. (c) Winds already meeting warning criteria at EDAH . (2) If the above criteria is met, than

  13. Transcriptional response of turkeys to MDR Salmonella enterica serovar heidelberg

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food-producing animals such as swine, cattle and poultry are a major reservoir of the human foodborne pathogen Salmonella. While some Salmonella serovars can cause disease in food-producing animals, most serovars colonize these animals asymptomatically, resulting in the hosts becoming carriers and ...

  14. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90 " "Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  15. TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor facility. Final report, 1 July 1980--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a final culmination of activities funded through the Department of Energy`s (DOE) University Reactor Sharing Program, Grant DE-FG02-80ER10273, during the period 1 July 1980 through 30 June 1995. Progress reports have been periodically issued to the DOE, namely the Reactor Facility Annual Reports C00-2082/2219-7 through C00-2082/10723-21, which are contained as an appendix to this report. Due to the extent of time covered by this grant, summary tables are presented. Table 1 lists the fiscal year financial obligations of the grant. As listed in the original grant proposals, the DOE grant financed 70% of project costs, namely the total amount spent of these projects minus materials costs and technical support. Thus the bulk of funds was spent directly on reactor operations. With the exception of a few years, spending was in excess of the grant amount. As shown in Tables 2 and 3, the Reactor Sharing grant funded a immense number of research projects in nuclear engineering, geology, animal science, chemistry, anthropology, veterinary medicine, and many other fields. A list of these users is provided. Out of the average 3000 visitors per year, some groups participated in classes involving the reactor such as Boy Scout Merit Badge classes, teacher`s workshops, and summer internships. A large number of these projects met the requirements for the Reactor Sharing grant, but were funded by the University instead.

  16. NEUTRON AND GAMMA DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS AT THE AFRRI=DASA TRIGA REACTOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    IONIZATION CHAMBERS, THERMAL NEUTRONS, FOILS(MATERIALS), RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, PLUTONIUM, NEPTUNIUM , URANIUM, SULFUR, GRAPHITE, SILVER COMPOUNDS, PHOSPHATES, CARBON DIOXIDE, CADMIUM, GOLD, INDIUM.

  17. 77 FR 42771 - License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... releases of radioactive effluents. As discussed in the NRC staff's safety evaluation, the systems and... that releases of radioactive material and personnel exposures were all well within applicable... Reactor Operations Gaseous radioactive effluents are discharged by the facility exhaust system via...

  18. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

    2014-02-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  19. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  20. Reactor Physics Scoping and Characterization Study on Implementation of TRIGA Fuel in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Lyons; Wade R. Marcum; Mark D. DeHart; Sean R. Morrell

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), is conducting feasibility studies for the conversion of its fuel from a highly enriched uranium (HEU) composition to a low enriched uranium (LEU) composition. These studies have considered a wide variety of LEU plate-type fuels to replace the current HEU fuel. Continuing to investigate potential alternatives to the present HEU fuel form, this study presents a preliminary analysis of TRIGA® fuel within the current ATR fuel envelopes and compares it to the functional requirements delineated by the Naval Reactors Program, which includes: greater than 4.8E+14 fissions/s/g of 235U, a fast to thermal neutron flux ratio that is less than 5% deviation of its current value, a constant cycle power within the corner lobes, and an operational cycle length of 56 days at 120 MW. Other parameters outside those put forth by the Naval Reactors Program which are investigated herein include axial and radial power profiles, effective delayed neutron fraction, and mean neutron generation time.

  1. Neutron activation analyses and half-life measurements at the usgs triga reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Robert E.

    Neutron activation of materials followed by gamma spectroscopy using high-purity germanium detectors is an effective method for making measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives and for detecting trace amounts of elements present in materials. This research explores applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two parts. Part 1. High Precision Methods for Measuring Decay Half-Lives, Chapters 1 through 8 Part one develops research methods and data analysis techniques for making high precision measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives. The change in the electron capture half-life of 51Cr in pure chromium versus chromium mixed in a gold lattice structure is explored, and the 97Ru electron capture decay half-life are compared for ruthenium in a pure crystal versus ruthenium in a rutile oxide state, RuO2. In addition, the beta-minus decay half-life of 71mZn is measured and compared with new high precision findings. Density Functional Theory is used to explain the measured magnitude of changes in electron capture half-life from changes in the surrounding lattice electron configuration. Part 2. Debris Collection Nuclear Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility, Chapters 9 through 11 Part two explores the design and development of a solid debris collector for use as a diagnostic tool at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NAA measurements are performed on NIF post-shot debris collected on witness plates in the NIF chamber. In this application NAA is used to detect and quantify the amount of trace amounts of gold from the hohlraum and germanium from the pellet present in the debris collected after a NIF shot. The design of a solid debris collector based on material x-ray ablation properties is given, and calculations are done to predict performance and results for the collection and measurements of trace amounts of gold and germanium from dissociated hohlraum debris.

  2. Methods of reducing liquid effluent from the OSU TRIGA MKII Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Smith, S.; Anderson, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    In 1991, the OSU Radiation Center implemented a program to minimize the liquid effluent generated by the reactor facility. The goal of program is to become a 'zero' release facility with regards to routine liquid discharges. Only two liquid waste streams exist for the OSU reactor facility: discharges resulting from changing resin in the deminerializer and decontamination of equipment, primarily sample loading tubes. This paper describes a system which allows remote resin exchange to performed with the collection of all flush water. This water is then recycled for use as makeup for the primary water system. The service life of the resin is maximized by using a steam distillation unit as the source of makeup water to the deminerializer system instead of water coming directly from the City of Corvallis water supply. The second source of liquid waste water comes from the decontamination of the plastic loading tubes used to encapsulate samples. This process originally involved placing the tubes in a dishwasher and sending the discharge to a hold up tank. If the radionuclide concentrations in the tank were below the maximum permissible concentrations of 10CFR20 then it was released to the sanitary sewerage. This process was replaced in 1991 with a system which involved manual washing and rinsing of the tubes with the liquids being absorbed for disposal as solid waste. This paper will also describe the system which is being built to replace this process. It will use the dishwasher unit again but the liquid discharge will collected for absorption and disposal as solid waste. (author)

  3. Trace elemental analysis of bituminuos coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Kneis, H.; Martin, B.; Nobiling, R.; Traxel, K.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical millieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite-are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China. ?? 1981.

  4. Strategies for Improving Labor and Equipment Data Acquisition for the Heidelberg Directorate of Engineering and Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    connected is also connected to a 3Com network, and the minicomputer is also wired to the LAN via Ethernet cable, faster Transmission Control Protocol ...internet Protocol (TCP/IP) file transfers to the minicomputer are an option. If the optional bar code wand, swipe reader, and employee badges are acquired...I] iI I 1II [LW I LLL-I dIL -F--iq ] ] i I rq-n-- m[ REQ 1D SERIALNo. FY TYPE FACILITY No SUFFIX COAP , TASK UNITS BLOCK 4 , ~~Eli M E H/AS~s ML]3

  5. Improving University Teaching. Proceedings. International Conference (12th, Heidelberg, Germany, July 15-18, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    Proceedings of the twelfth international conference on improving university teaching are presented. Theme presentations and authors include: "Distance Education: The Promise and the Confusion!" (Allan F. Hershfield); "Distance Education: The 'New Frontier' of Learning?" (Kevin C. Smith); "Teacher Training: A Challenge to the University View of…

  6. Luminescence Dating Work From The Heidelberg Group: A Key Technology In Geoarchaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, G. A.; Kadereit, A.

    Geoarchaeology is a growing discipline in archaeological science. It aims at the natural environment as context of past human societies and at the interaction between both, the environment and man as part of a joint ecosystem. This topic is also of considerable concern of present societies. Like other historic sciences, geoarchaeology requires accurate chronologies. Since one deals in geoarchaeology predominantly with sediments and rocks, luminescence methods play a key role. This is demonstrated in two case studies from Phlious in southern Greece and Nasca in southern Peru. The results show clearly climatically triggered social developments and feedbacks to the environment.

  7. Psychosocial characteristics of infertile couples: a study by the 'Heidelberg Fertility Consultation Service'.

    PubMed

    Wischmann, T; Stammer, H; Scherg, H; Gerhard, I; Verres, R

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the study was to identify differences in psychological characteristics between couples with fertility disorders, especially idiopathic infertility, and a representative sample. A total of 564 couples was examined using psychological questionnaires pertaining to sociodemographic factors, motives for wanting a child, dimensions of life satisfaction and couple relationships, physical and psychic complaints, and a personality inventory. Specific to our sample was the high educational level of the couples, and the large number with idiopathic infertility (27% of all diagnoses). There were no remarkable differences in psychological variables between the infertile couples and a representative sample, except that the infertile women showed higher scores on the depression and anxiety scales. Couples with idiopathic infertility showed no remarkable differences in the questionnaire variables compared with couples with other medical diagnoses of infertility. A typical psychological profile for infertile couples could not be identified using standardized psychometric rating methods. This may be an effect of the specific characteristics of our sample. For some couples, the infertility crisis can be seen as a cumulative trauma, which indicates that these couples have a marked need for infertility counselling.

  8. Treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor with imatinib mesylate: a retrospective single-center experience in Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Bernd; Kallinowski, Birgit; Herrmann, Thomas; Lehnert, Thomas; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Geer, Thomas; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Surgery has been the only effective therapy. However, many patients still eventually die of disease recurrence. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been of limited value. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec) is an orally administered competitive inhibitor of tyrosine kinases associated with the KIT, ABL protein, licensed for the treatment of metastatic GIST since 2002 in Germany. We summarized the data of 16 patients with advanced or metastatic GIST treated with imatinib mesylate in palliative and neoadjuvant settings. Overall response was 81%, with no evidence of disease (NED) in 3/16 (19%), partial response (PR) in 9/16 (56%) and stable disease (SD) in 1/16 (6%), whereas 3/16 patients (19%) suffered from progressive disease (PD). Mean follow-up was 18.6 months [range: 4-30]. Mean progression-free survival (PFS) was 17.6 months [range: 0-30], mean overall survival (OS) from initial diagnosis was 32.3 months [range: 5-122]. Most common side effects were periorbital edema and skin rash. Imatinib mesylate is well tolerated in a dose of up to 800 mg/day and has significant activity during long- term treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic GIST. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Improving University Teaching. Proceedings. International Conference (12th, Heidelberg, Germany, July 15-18, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    Proceedings of the twelfth international conference on improving university teaching are presented. Theme presentations and authors include: "Distance Education: The Promise and the Confusion!" (Allan F. Hershfield); "Distance Education: The 'New Frontier' of Learning?" (Kevin C. Smith); "Teacher Training: A Challenge to the University View of…

  10. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky isolates recovered from broiler chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations is critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling wi...

  11. Charles Lyell from 1832 to 1835: marriage, Principles, 2 trips to Heidelberg, snails and loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Ian; Markovic, Slobodan; O'Hara-Dhand, Ken

    2010-03-01

    Charles Lyell, on his way to becoming a famous geologist, married Mary Horner in Bonn in July 1832; volume 3 of his `Principles of Geology' was published by John Murray in London in May 1833. Between these two dates Lyell encountered the loess of the Rhine valley. The loess impressed Lyell and he included mentions of it in the Principles, first in 1833 and then, with some revised ideas, in volume 4 of the 4th edition published in 1835. Twelve editions of the Principles were published between 1830 and 1875 and it became one of the most important works in the development of geology, and made a major contribution to the worldwide spread of loess awareness. It is possible that Lyell was drawn to the loess because of its high molluscan content, he was particularly attracted to the study of shells.

  12. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften¬Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90¬"Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  13. Thermal hydraulic calculations to support increase in operating power in McClellen Nuclear Radiation Center(MNRC) TRIGA reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R. T.

    1998-05-05

    The RELAP5/Mod3.1 computer program has been used to successfully perform thermal-hydraulic analyses to support the Safety Analysis for increasing the MNRC reactor from 1.0 MW to 2.0 MW. The calculation results show the reactor to have operating margin for both the fuel temperature and critical heat flux limits. The calculated maximum fuel temperature of 705 C is well below the 750 C operating limit. The critical heat flux ratio was calculated to be 2.51.

  14. Feasibility study of the University of Utah TRIGA reactor power upgrade in respect to control rod system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutic, Avdo

    The objectives of this thesis are twofold: to determine the highest achievable power levels of the current University of Utah TRIG Reactor (UUTR) core configuration with the existing three control rods, and to design the core for higher reactor power by optimizing the control rod worth. For the current core configuration, the maximum reactor power, eigenvalue keff, shutdown margin, and excess reactivity have been measured and calculated. These calculated estimates resulted from thermal power calibrations, and the control rod worth measurements at various power levels. The results were then used as a benchmark to verify the MCNP5 core simulations for the current core and then to design a core for higher reactor power. This study showed that the maximum achievable power with the current core configuration and control rod system is 150kW, which is 50kW higher than the licensed power of the UUTR. The maximum achievable UUTR core power with the existing fuel is determined by optimizing the core configuration and control rod worth, showing that a power upgrade of 500 kW is achievable. However, it requires a new control rod system consisting of a total of four control rods. The cost of such an upgrade is $115,000.

  15. 77 FR 7613 - Dow Chemical Company; Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Facility Operating License No. R-108

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... provides text and image files of the NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there... governmental bodies, and Federally- recognized Indian tribes do not need to address the standing requirements... on electronic storage media. Participants may not submit paper copies of their filings unless...

  16. McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (MNRC) TRIGA reactor: The national organization of test research and training reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kiger, Kevin M.

    1994-07-01

    This year's TRTR conference is being hosted by the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center. The conference will be held at the Red Lion Hotel in Sacramento, CA. The conference dates are scheduled for October 11-14, 1994. Deadlines for sponsorship commitment and papers have not been set, but are forthcoming. The newly remodeled Red Lion Hotel provides up-to-date conference facilities and one of the most desirable locations for dining, shopping and entertainment in the Sacramento area. While attendees are busy with the conference activities, a spouses program will be available. Although the agenda has not been set, the Sacramento area offers outings to San Francisco, Pier 39, Ghirardelli Square (famous for their chocolate), and a chance to discover 'El Dorado' in the gold country. Not to forget our own bit of history with visits to 'Old Sacramento and Old Folsom', where antiquities abound, to the world renown train museum and incredible eating establishments. (author)

  17. Tel Aviv-Heidelberg three-generation offspring study: Genetic determinants of apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B

    SciTech Connect

    Livshits, G.; Graff, E.; Brunner, D.

    1995-07-03

    The contribution of major gene and multifactorial effects on variation of plasma apolipoproteins A1 and B has been tested in a large sample of population-based Israeli pedigrees. Our most parsimonious and best fitting model for both apolipoproteins is consistent with Mendelian transmissibility, with significant contribution of major genes (with 2 alleles recessive and dominant within each locus) and polygenes, but neglects effects of common sib environment as well as related intergeneration differences in polygenic effects. Total genetic effects explain 71 and 58% of phenotypic variance of APO-A1 and APO-B levels. The major genes account for about 44 and 32% of the variance in APO-A1 and APO-B, respectively, and the frequency of the recessive alleles determining the high level of apolipoproteins under the study in the Israeli population is in the vicinity of 40% at each locus. 27 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Platform for identification of Salmonella serovar differentiating bacterial proteins by top-down mass spectrometry: S. Typhimurium vs S. Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Melinda A; Andrzejewski, Denis; Musser, Steven M; Callahan, John H

    2014-07-15

    Intact protein expression profiling has proven to be a powerful tool for bacterial subspecies differentiation. To facilitate typing, epidemiology, and trace-back of Salmonella contamination in the food supply, a minimum of serovar level differentiation is required. Subsequent identification and validation of marker proteins is integral to rapid screening development and to determining which proteins are subject to environmental pressure. Bacterial sequencing efforts have expanded the number of sequenced genomes available for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses, but annotation is often missing, start site errors are not uncommon, and the likelihood of expression is not known. In this work we show that the combination of intact protein expression profiles and top-down liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) facilitates the identification of proteins that result from expressed serovar specific nonsynonymous SNPs. Combinations of these marker proteins can be used in assays for rapid differentiation of bacteria. LC-MS generated intact protein expression profiles establish which bacterial protein masses differ across samples and can be determined without prior knowledge of the sample. Subsequent top-down LC-MS/MS is used to identify expressed proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTM), identify serovar specific markers, and validate genomic predicted orthologues as expressed biomarkers.

  19. [Behaviour problems of children with Down syndrome in preschool-age – Results from the Heidelberg Down syndrome study].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2017-04-21

    We report on the frequency and the correlations of behaviour problems among children with Down syndrome in preschool-age. Method: As part of a longitudinal study 48 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed the German version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” (SDQ-D) and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). The mothers were asked to fill out the questionnaires when the children had a mean age of five years. The results were compared to norms from children with typical development. Thirty per cent of the children with Down syndrome were rated as abnormal. Specifically, mean scores indicating problems with children of the same age and hyperactivity were elevated. A regression analysis predicting the total problem score of the SDQ-D revealed maternal educational level, optimistic attitude, and subjective parental stress at the age of one year and the degree of behavioural abnormalities at the age of three years as significant influential factors. Early intervention for Down syndrome children should include supporting parenting competence and coping skills in order to prevent behaviour problems.

  20. Colonization of day-of-hatch broiler chicks with antimicrobial resistant strains of salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen linked to poultry and poultry products. However, limited research regarding the in vivo interactions of non-host adapted Salmonella serotypes in broiler chicks is available. In order to evaluate the effect of two serotypes on colonization, 600 day-of-hatch ...

  1. First atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ion beams at the Heidelberg heavy-ion ring TSR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Balykin, V.; Baumann, W.; Berger, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Blatt, P.; Blum, M.; Faulstich, A.; Friedrich, A.; Gerhard, M.; Geyer, C.; Grieser, M.; Grieser, R.; Habs, D.; Heyng, H.W.; Hochadel, B.; Holzer, B.; Huber, G.; Jaeschke, E.; Jung, M.; Karafillidis, A.; Kilgus, G.; Klein, R.; Kraemer, D.; Krause, P.; Krieg, M.; Kuehl, T.; Matl, K.; Mueller, A.; Music, M.; Neumann, R.; Neureither, G.; Ott, W.; Petrich, W.; Povh, B.; Repnow, R.; Schroeder, S.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Sigray, P.; Steck, M.; Stokstad, R.; Szmola, E.; Wagner, M.; Wanner, B.; Welti, K.; Zwickler, S. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg Manne Siegbahn Institute , Stockholm Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung , Darmstadt (Fed

    1990-06-01

    An overview of atomic physics experiments at the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) is given. Highly charged ions up to fully stripped silicon have been stored at energies between 4 and 12 MeV/u. The enhancement of the beam intensity by stacking, the beam lifetime, and electron cooling of these ion beams are discussed. Radiative and state-selective dielectronic recombination rates of hydrogen-like oxygen ions with free electrons from the electron cooler were measured. Beam noise spectra are being investigated with regard to collective effects caused by the Coulomb interaction in the cold ion beams. Resonance fluorescence from stored single-charged ions was observed using tunable narrow-band lasers. First indications of laser cooling in a storage ring were seen.

  2. Boron determination in liver tissue by combining quantitative neutron capture radiography (QNCR) and histological analysis for BNCT treatment planning at the TRIGA Mainz.

    PubMed

    Schütz, C; Brochhausen, C; Altieri, S; Bartholomew, K; Bortolussi, S; Enzmann, F; Gabel, D; Hampel, G; Kirkpatrick, C J; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Schmidberger, H; Otto, G

    2011-09-01

    The typical primary malignancies of the liver are hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, whereas colorectal liver metastases are the most frequently occurring secondary tumors. In many cases, only palliative treatment is possible. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) represents a technique that potentially destroys tumor tissue selectively by use of externally induced, locally confined secondary particle irradiation. In 2001 and 2003, BNCT was applied to two patients with colorectal liver metastases in Pavia, Italy. To scrutinize the rationale of BNCT, a clinical pilot study on patients with colorectal liver metastases was carried out at the University of Mainz. The distribution of the (10)B carrier (p-borono-phenylalanine) in the liver and its uptake in cancerous and tumor-free tissue were determined, focusing on a potential correlation between the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine and the biological characteristics of cancerous tissue. Samples were analyzed using quantitative neutron capture radiography of cryosections combined with histological analysis. Methodological aspects of the combination of these techniques and results from four patients enrolled in the study are presented that indicate that the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine strongly depends on the metabolic activity of cells.

  3. Energy Assessment at Army Installations in Germany: Campbell Barracks - Heidelberg, Coleman Barracks - Manheim, Katterbach Barracks - Ansbach, Storch Barracks - Illesheim, and U.S. Depot - Germersheim

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    ERDC/CERL TR-09-16 xii Recommendations ECMs that apply to all facilities (Table ES6 , and rows labeled “Multiple” in Table ES1), Central Energy...ER D C /C ER L TR -09-16 xiii Table ES6 . Summary of ECMs that apply to multiple facilities. Electrical Savings Thermal ECM # ECM Description...Summary of U.S. Army Depot – Germersheim ECMs.............................................................. xi ES6 Summary of ECMs that apply to multiple

  4. Primary preventive potential for stroke by avoidance of major lifestyle risk factors: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Tikk, Kaja; Sookthai, Disorn; Monni, Stefano; Gross, Marie-Luise; Lichy, Christoph; Kloss, Manja; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Because primary prevention of stroke is a priority, our aim was to assess the primary preventive potential of major lifestyle risk factors for stroke in middle-aged women and men. Among 23,927 persons, 551 (195 women and 356 men) had a first diagnosis of stroke during an average follow-up of 12.7 years. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated the associations of adiposity, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet with risk of developing stroke. A competing risk model built from cause-specific proportional hazards models accounting for concurrent risk of death was used to calculate relative and absolute reductions in stroke occurrences that could have been achieved by maintaining a healthy lifestyle pattern. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical inactivity were each identified as modifiable lifestyle risk factors for stroke. About 38% of stroke cases were estimated as preventable through adherence to a healthy lifestyle profile (never smoking, maintaining optimal body mass index and waist circumference, performing physical exercise, consuming a moderate quantity of alcohol, and following a healthy dietary pattern). Age-specific estimates of 5-year incidence rates for stroke in the actual cohort and in a hypothetical, comparable cohort of individuals following a healthy lifestyle would be reduced from 153 to 94 per 100,000 women and from 261 to 161 per 100,000 men for the age group 60 to 65 years. Our analysis confirms the strong primary prevention potential for stroke based on avoidance of excess body weight, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The effectiveness of neuro-music therapy according to the Heidelberg model compared to a single session of educational counseling as treatment for tinnitus: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans-Volker

    2015-03-01

    Tinnitus is a very common symptom, yet the quest for an effective treatment is challenging. Results from several clinical trials support the notion that neuro-music therapy is an effective means to reduce tinnitus distress with short duration and long lasting effect. However, until now, the effectiveness has not been tested in a controlled trial against an active comparator. The trial was designed as two-center, parallel intervention group controlled study with two intervention groups: Counseling (50minute individualized personal instruction) or neuro-music therapy (counseling plus eight 50-minute sessions of individualized music therapy). Data of n=290 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus were analyzed. Outcome measure was the change in Tinnitus Questionnaire Total Scores (TQ) from baseline (admission) to end of treatment. Both treatment groups achieved a statistically relevant reduction in TQ scores, though 66% of patients in the music therapy group attained a clinically meaningful improvement compared to 33% in the counseling group. A binary logistic regression revealed two variables significantly influencing therapy outcome: initial tinnitus score and type of therapy with an OR for the music therapy compared to the counseling of 4.34 (CI 2.33-8.09). Counseling is an appropriate treatment option with well above chance of improvement. The neuro-music therapy outperformed the counseling. This treatment targets the tinnitus sound itself, is short in duration, intrinsically motivating and easy to operate and thus presents a possible complement to the therapeutic spectrum in chronic tinnitus. The trial was registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov registry (ID: NCT01845155). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States 2009

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Although salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, severe infections typically require antimicrobial treatment and ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, is commonly used in both adults and child...

  7. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovars Heidelberg and Kentucky in the scalder water of a commercial poultry processing plant in the southeastern United States.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Salmonella enterica present in the water of scalder and chiller tanks from a commercial chicken processing plant in the southeaster United States. Three liters of scald and chill water were aseptically sampled three times daily for three consec...

  8. Li-Ion Batteries for Forensic Neutron Dosimetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    and a battery from the consumer electronic device (Cell03) were exposed. The batteries were exposed at two facilities, the TRIGA reactor at Oregon ...at TRIGA for comparison. 21 Figure 13: The spectra of the TRIGA ( Oregon State) and the FNI (UMass Lowell) [7] facilities. Note that the...simulation can be completed. The LIR2032 (CC01) and iPod shuffle battery (Cell03) were irradiated in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. Whereas

  9. (Modeling the distribution of carbon isotopes in the ocean, CO sub 2 uptake, and CO sub 2 exchange and radon measurements, Bern, Switzerland and Heidelberg, W. Germany, June 23--August 31, 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.H.

    1989-09-01

    A joint project with Dr. Siegenthaler, comparing the distribution of radiocarbon in the ocean by using the one-dimensional ten-box PANDORA model and a three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of the ocean, was performed at the Climate and Environmental Physics Laboratory, Physics Institute, the University of Bern. Analysis of vertical and horizontal water fluxes in Princeton's GCM reveals that major mixing processes take place in the Antarctic Ocean, while the flow of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is underestimated. By using average fluxes derived from the GCM, the distribution of radiocarbon is calculated in the PANDORA model. The preliminary results, showing that the ocean is much too young, can be attributed to the large circulation fluxes derived from the GCM. Many more computations and comparisons of results from Oak Ridge and Bern need to be done in order to understand the difference in the modeling results when simple box models and complicated GCMs of the ocean are used.

  10. 76 FR 21928 - Washington State University; Facility Operating License No. R-76; Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Modified TRIGA Nuclear Radiation Center Reactor (NRCR); Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... TRIGA Nuclear Radiation Center Reactor (NRCR), located in the Dodgen Research Facility on Roundtop Drive... of quarterly exposure measurements at 12 locations adjacent to the Nuclear Radiation Center and at...

  11. 76 FR 62868 - Washington State University; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-76

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852... operation of the WSU Modified TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, located in Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. The WSU Modified TRIGA Nuclear Reactor is a pool-type, natural convection, light-water cooled, and shielded...

  12. Postdeployment Behavioral Health Screening: Face-to-Face Versus Virtual Behavioral Health Interviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Research Unit—Europe, Walter Reed Army Insti- tute of Research, Nachrichten Kaserne, Karlsruher Strasse 144, 69126 Heidelberg, Germany. †Behavioral Health...Division, Europe Regional Medical Command, Nachrichten Kaserne, Karlsruher Strasse 144, 69126 Heidelberg, Germany. The views expressed in this...Institute of Research, Nachrichten Kaserne,Karlsruher Strasse 144, 69126,Heidelberg, Germany, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  13. Neutron flux and power in RTP core-15

    SciTech Connect

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie Zin, Muhammad Rawi Md; Usang, Mark Dennis; Bayar, Abi Muttaqin Jalal; Hamzah, Na’im Syauqi Bin

    2016-01-22

    PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor achieved initial criticality on June 28, 1982. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes. This paper describes the reactor parameters calculation for the PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP); focusing on the application of the developed reactor 3D model for criticality calculation, analysis of power and neutron flux distribution of TRIGA core. The 3D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA reactor. The model represents in detailed all important components of the core with literally no physical approximation. The consistency and accuracy of the developed RTP MCNP model was established by comparing calculations to the available experimental results and TRIGLAV code calculation.

  14. Neutron flux and power in RTP core-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Zin, Muhammad Rawi Md; Usang, Mark Dennis; Bayar, Abi Muttaqin Jalal; Hamzah, Na'im Syauqi Bin

    2016-01-01

    PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor achieved initial criticality on June 28, 1982. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes. This paper describes the reactor parameters calculation for the PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP); focusing on the application of the developed reactor 3D model for criticality calculation, analysis of power and neutron flux distribution of TRIGA core. The 3D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA reactor. The model represents in detailed all important components of the core with literally no physical approximation. The consistency and accuracy of the developed RTP MCNP model was established by comparing calculations to the available experimental results and TRIGLAV code calculation.

  15. Determination of Unknown Neutron Cross Sections for the Production of Medical Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen E. Binney

    2004-04-09

    Calculational assessment and experimental verification of certain neutron cross sections that are related to widely needed new medical isotopes. Experiments were performed at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor and the High Flux Irradiation Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. Recent accomplishments in neutron beam projects at the University of Texas Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Uenlue, K.; Wehring, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The design of a cold neutron source facility at the University of Texas TRIGA research reactor is described. The UT-TRIGA has 5 neutron beam ports. Because of the different characteristics of the ports, various research projects are being pursued. Among these projects, The Texas cold neutron source and neutron depth profiling are operational; neutron focusing, prompt gamma activation analysis, and neutron capture therapy research are progressing.

  17. Fast reactor neutrons for the treatment of superficial carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, F.M.; Koester, L. ); Auberger, T.; Reuschel, W.; Mayr, M.; Kneschaurek, P.; Breit, A. ); Schraube, H. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the fast neutron facility at the Munich Research Reactor (Forschungsreaktor Munchen (FRM)) is briefly described, and data about the beam quality are given. After a listing of the biological experiments performed before and in parallel to the clinical irradiations, the treatment scheme, selection of cases and results of the reactor neutron therapy are reported. More than 80% of patients-all with poor prognosis-show complete remission of the tumor or stoppage of growth for at least several months. Possibilities for a support by boron neutron capture therapy are outlined. Preliminary data of an upgraded thermal-to-fast neutron converter for the planned 20-MW reactor FRM-II are given.

  18. Self-triggering readout system for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisbauer, D.; Konorov, I.; Steffen, D.; Paul, S.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of PENeLOPE (Precision Experiment on Neutron Lifetime Operating with Proton Extraction) at the Forschungsreaktor München II is a high-precision measurement of the neutron lifetime and thereby an improvement of the parameter's precision by one order of magnitude. In order to achieve a higher accuracy, modern experiments naturally require state-of-the-art readout electronics, as well as high-performance data acquisition systems. This paper presents the self-triggering readout system designed for PENeLOPE which features a continuous pedestal tracking, configurable signal detection logic, floating ground up to 30 kV, cryogenic environment and the novel Switched Enabling Protocol (SEP). The SEP is a time-division multiplexing transport level protocol developed for a star network topology.

  19. Trace-Element Analysis of Metal Nodules, Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Fractions, and Chondrules of the Qingzhen EH3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Pernicka, E.

    1993-07-01

    The contents of Na, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Sb, W, Ir, and Au in metallic nodules, magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions, and chondrules of the Qingzhen EH3 chondrite have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five of the largest separated chondrules (0.07- 5.77 mg) were selected for INAA. After extraction of the chondrules, the residual sample was gently ground to reduce the grain size and sieved into the following fractions: >500 micrometers, 200-500 micrometers, 100-200 micrometers, 50-100 micrometers, 15-50 micrometers, and <15 micrometers. All fractions were separated by a hand magnet into a nonmagnetic fraction, consisting mainly of silicates and sulfides (mainly troilite), and a magnetic fraction consisting of metal, sulfide, and minor silicates. The separated magnetic nodules from the >500-micrometer fraction weighed between 0.49 mg and 3.99 mg. From all the powders, aliquots of 10 mg were irradiated at the German Cancer Research Institute at Heidelberg (TRIGA-HD II) and counted by using a large-volume, high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. In every irradiation step two samples of the Allende chondrite acted as primary standards. Results: Element concentrations vary with the grain size of the metal due to kamacite in the coarse and schreibersite +- perryite in the intermediate and fine fractions. The element contents (normalized to Fe) of Na, Sc, Cr, Mn, Ni, Se, W, Ir, and Au increase in the metal with decreasing grain size. Cobalt and As display a trend opposite to that of Ni and Au, decreasing with decreasing grain size of the metal in Qingzhen. Whereas the abundance ratios (relative to CI chondrites) of As, Au, and Co are very similar, the refractory siderophile elements Ir and W are depleted in the metal. Under high reducing conditions Ir and W belong to the most refractory siderophiles. The depletion of the refractory elements in Qingzhen with respect to carbonaceous chondrites has been attributed to a partial

  20. [The value of autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of retinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Avetisov, S É; Kiseleva, T N; Vorob'eva, M V; Budzinskaia, M V; Vorob'eva-Pereverzina, O K; Avetisov, K S; Sheremet, N L; Eliseeva, É G

    2011-01-01

    Results of fundus autofluorescence imaging using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope HRA II ("Heidelberg Engeneering", Heidelberg, Germany) are presented. 106 patients with various retinal and optic nerve conditions were examined. The following conditions were diagnosed using autofluorescence imaging: early stage of age-related macular degeneration, macular hard and soft drusen, signs of retinitis pigmentosa, senile macular hole, central serous chorioretinopathy and optic disc drusen.

  1. Linking Cholesterol to Cancer: Circulating 27-Hydroxycholesterol and Breast Cancer Risk by Tumor Subtype and Expression of CYP27A1 and CYP7B1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort. This study capitalizes on the availability of pre-diagnostic serum samples...we identified eligible breast cancer cases (n=530) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) – Heidelberg cohort, verified

  2. A Leadership Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Gene

    2007-01-01

    This article features Ellen Minette, principal of Heidelberg Middle School in Heidelberg, Germany. Minette attended 13 schools before she graduated from high school. Her father, an Air Force pilot who served in the Korean War and who was a part of the Berlin Airlift, was deployed much of the time as they moved from one posting to another. Growing…

  3. A Leadership Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Gene

    2007-01-01

    This article features Ellen Minette, principal of Heidelberg Middle School in Heidelberg, Germany. Minette attended 13 schools before she graduated from high school. Her father, an Air Force pilot who served in the Korean War and who was a part of the Berlin Airlift, was deployed much of the time as they moved from one posting to another. Growing…

  4. In Turbulent Times, 2 Small Colleges Brace for the Worst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    About a year ago, Heidelberg College pumped up its spending for a new, streamlined scholarship program, and then promoted its simplified formula so that students would know how much they could get before they even applied. Heidelberg's strategies worked as it was able to brought in the second-largest class in its 158-year history and a gain in its…

  5. Neutronic Analyses of the Trade Demonstration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rubbia, C.

    2004-09-15

    The TRiga Accelerator-Driven Experiment (TRADE), to be performed in the TRIGA reactor of the ENEA-Casaccia Centre in Italy, consists of the coupling of an external proton accelerator to a target to be installed in the central channel of the reactor scrammed to subcriticality. This pilot experiment, aimed at a global demonstration of the accelerator-driven system concept, is based on an original idea of C. Rubbia. The present paper reports the results of some neutronic analyses focused on the feasibility of TRADE. Results show that all relevant experiments (at different power levels in a wide range of subcriticalities) can be carried out with relatively limited modifications to the present TRIGA reactor.

  6. Differential Host Immune Responses after Infection with Wild-Type or Lab-Attenuated Rabies Viruses in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Li, Zhenguang; Leyson, Christina M.; Cooper, Tanya L.; Platt, Simon R.; Harvey, Stephen B.; Hooper, Douglas C.; Faber, Milosz; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. One of the major problems with rabies is that the infected individuals most often do not develop virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA). In this study we have investigated the host immune response to RABV infection in dogs, using a live-attenuated (TriGAS) or a wild-type (wt) (DRV-NG11) RABV isolated from a rabid dog. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental infection of dogs with TriGAS induced high levels of VNA in the serum, whereas wt RABV infection did not. Dogs infected with TriGAS developed antibodies against the virus including its glycoprotein, whereas dogs infected with DRV-NG11 only developed rabies antibodies that are presumably specific for the nucleoprotein, (N) and not the glycoprotein (G). We show that infection with TriGAS induces early activation of B cells in the draining lymph nodes and persistent activation of DCs and B cells in the blood. On the other hand, infection with DRV-NG11 fails to induce the activation of DCs and B cells and further reduces CD4 T cell production. Further, we show that intrathecal (IT) immunization of TriGAS not only induced high levels of VNA in the serum but also in the CSF while intramuscular (IM) immunization of TriGAS induced VNA only in the serum. In addition, high levels of total protein and WBC were detected in the CSF of IT immunized dogs, indicating the transient enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which is relevant to the passage of immune effectors from periphery into the CNS. Conclusions/Significance IM infection of dogs with TriGAS induced the production of serum VNA whereas, IT immunization of TriGAS in dogs induces high levels of VNA in the periphery as well as in the CSF and transiently enhances BBB permeability. In contrast, infection with wt DRV-NG11 resulted in the production of RABV-reactive antibodies but VNA and antibodies specific for G were absent. As a consequence, all of the dogs infected with wt DRV

  7. Evaluation of the Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Liddicoat, Albert; Ralston, Jesse; Pingree, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The current implementation of the Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA) is equipped with CFDP protocol and CCSDS Telemetry and Telecommand framing schemes to replace the CPU intensive software counterpart implementation for reliable deep space communication. We present the hardware/software co-design methodology used to accomplish high data rate throughput. The hardware CFDP protocol stack implementation is then compared against the two recent flight implementations. The results from our experiments show that TRIGA offers more than 3 orders of magnitude throughput improvement with less than one-tenth of the power consumption.

  8. Physiological Mechanisms of Acute Intestinal Radiation Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    AFRRI TRIGA Reactor . Defense Nuclear Agency Report, DNA 5793F-1, June 1981. 60. Verbiniski, V. V., and Cassapakis, C. G., Calculation of Neutron and...Gamma-ray Environment in and Around the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor . Defense Nuclear Agency Report, DNA 5793F-2, June 1981. 61. Ferlic. K. P., Zeman, G. H...001-83-C-0009 Approvedftw ul zJelaedistribution Is unlimited. THIS WORK WAS SPONSORED BY THE DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY UNDER RDT&E RMSS rODE B350085466

  9. Evaluation of the Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Liddicoat, Albert; Ralston, Jesse; Pingree, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The current implementation of the Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA) is equipped with CFDP protocol and CCSDS Telemetry and Telecommand framing schemes to replace the CPU intensive software counterpart implementation for reliable deep space communication. We present the hardware/software co-design methodology used to accomplish high data rate throughput. The hardware CFDP protocol stack implementation is then compared against the two recent flight implementations. The results from our experiments show that TRIGA offers more than 3 orders of magnitude throughput improvement with less than one-tenth of the power consumption.

  10. 77 FR 4807 - Revised Fee Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel From High-Income...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Spent Nuclear Fuel From High-Income Economy Countries AGENCY: National Nuclear Security Administration... high-income economies, as identified in the World Bank Development Report. The fee will increase in... Atomics (TRIGA) from high-income economy countries. The first phase will take effect immediately and the...

  11. Gamma radiation environment in a fast neutron irradiation facility for electronic parts testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, J.S.; Sandquist, G.M.; Hardy, B.L.

    1994-12-31

    A fast neutron irradiation facility has been constructed to provide a neutron irradiation environement for neutron hardness assurace testing of silicon and gallium arsenide based elctronic components. The facility is located adjacent to the core of the TRIGA research reactor at the University of Utaah. Facility specifics are described.

  12. 77 FR 76601 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Application for Special Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... meeting certain hazard communication and stowage requirements. (mode 4) 15764-N Matheson Tri-Gas 49 CFR.... cars without NE a buffer car. (mode 2) 15768-N E.I. DuPont de 49 CFR 172.302(a); To authorize...

  13. 76 FR 43733 - The University of Utah; Facility Operating License No. R-126; Notice of Acceptance for Docketing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ..., Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor... Renewal for Research Reactors'' (ISG) which can be obtained from the Commission's public document room... licensee) to operate the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor (UUTR) at a maximum steady-state thermal power...

  14. A Study of the Relative Value Unit as a Practice Management Tool for Provider Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-11

    14.8 Internal Medicine (Heidelberg) 14.7 Babenhausen 13.8 Ambulatory Care (Heidelberg) 12.8 Freidberg 11.9 Family Practice (Heidelberg) 10.3 Flight...BDC 6.95 2273.5 15.6 BHBZ 0.13 20.9 7.7 BGA 168.83 52705.9 14.9 Freidberg 16.29 4085.4 11.9 BGX 0.36 - - BHA 200.16 72120.6 17.2 BGAP 6.95 2851.2 19.5

  15. Metabolic parameters linked by Phenotype MicroArray to acid resistance profiles of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenotype microarrays were analyzed for 51 datasets derived from Salmonella enterica. The top 4 serovars associated with poultry products and one associated with turkey, respectively Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis and Senftenberg, were represented. Datasets were clustered into two ...

  16. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  17. 7. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: TWO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: TWO CHICKEN HOUSES, PIG BARN, MILKSHED, BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  18. 6. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: GRANARY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: GRANARY, TWO CHICKEN HOUSES, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  19. 1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, BARN - Konig-Speicher Farm, North side of Church Road, south of Tulpehocken Creek, North Heidelberg Township (moved to Willow Street, Lenhartsville, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  20. Optic Nerve Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... machines can help monitor and detect loss of optic nerve fibers. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) is a special ... keeping organized, you can establish a routine that works for you. Read more » Are You at Risk ...

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Taken from Harold E. Dickson: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Taken from Harold E. Dickson: A Hundred Pennsylvania Buildings (State College, PA.: Bald Eagle Press, 1954) PHOTOCOPY OF C.1906 PHOTOGRAPH. - Heidelberg Apartments & Cottages, Braddock Avenue & Waverly Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Hadron Cancer Therapy - relative merits of X-ray, proton and carbon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakel, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    -Heidelberg University has a long experience in radiotherapy with carbon ions, starting with a pilot project at GSI in 1997. This project was jointly run by the Dep. for Radiation Oncology of Heidelberg University, GSI and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). A hospital based heavy ion center at Heidelberg University, the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) was proposed by the same group in 1998 and started clinical operation in late 2009. Since then nearly 2000 patients were treated with beams of carbon ions and protons. Just recently the operation of the world's first and only gantry for heavy ions also started at HIT. Patient treatments are performed in three rooms. Besides that, a lot of research projects are run in the field of Medical Physics and Radiobiology using a dedicated experimental area and the possibility to use beams of protons, carbon, helium and oxygen ions being delivered with the raster scanning technique.

  3. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. Environmental Quality of Upper Honey Creek: A Preliminary Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    AD-AU98 283 HEIDELBERG COLL TIFFIN OH WATER QUALITY LAB FIG 8/8 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OF UPPER HONEY CREEK: A PRELIMINARY ASSES--EYC(U) JAN 81 K A... Water Quality Lab oo&Ipry Heidelberg College Tiffin, Oio 44883 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Water Quality Section NCBED-HQ...different how Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Copies are available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 19. KEY WORDS

  5. Use of Statechart Assertions for Modeling Human-in-the-Loop Security Analysis and Decision-Making Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. file:///Users/bigschu2/Downloads/citation- 1 . bib . 136 Harel, David. 1987. “Statecharts: A Visual Formalism...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching...of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) WashingtonDC20503. 1 . AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2012

  6. Cognitively Inspired Neural Network for Situation Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-14

    Neurodynamics of Higher-Level Cognition and Consciousness, Eds. Perlovsky, 1.I., Kozma, R. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. Perlovsky, L.I., Deming...Perlovsky L. I., Kozma R. (2007) Eds. Neurodynamics of Higher-Level Cognition and Consciousness. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Perlovsky, L.1...AFRL-RY -HS-TR-20 10-0028 Cognitively Inspired Neural Network for Situation Recognition Roman Ilin and Leonid Perlovsky AFRURYHE 80 Scott Drive

  7. Time Analysis for Improved Upper Limb Movement Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-12

    Systems Theory - EUROCAST 2013, volume 8112 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 191-198. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. [26] A. Attenberger and...volume 361 1 cf Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 165- 174. Springer Berlin Heidelber5, 2005 . [ 43] K. Buchenrieder. Dimensionality reduction... Computer Aided Systems Theory EUROCAST 2007, volume 4739 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 1057-1065. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. [45

  8. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  9. Update on Y-12 national security complex activities to recover enriched uranium in 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, Becky; Andes, Trent; Dunavant, Randy

    2008-07-15

    During Calendar Year 2007, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) has completed recovery missions that resulted in the return of highly enriched uranium from Canada and several locations within the United States. These missions were performed in support of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Central Scrap Management Office for Uranium (U-CSMO). Additionally, Y-12 completed safety basis revisions for the ES-3100 shipping package which resulted in the issuance of a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and a Competent Authority Certificate (CAC) from the United States Department of Transportation for air transport of highly enriched uranium in the form of un- irradiated TRIGA pellets. This certification of the ES-3100 will now allow GTRI to perform recoveries of limited quantities of fresh HEU TRIGA that have been identified at several locations. (author)

  10. Vibro-acoustic Imaging at the Breazeale Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James Arthur; Jewell, James Keith; Lee, James Edwin

    2016-09-01

    The INL is developing Vibro-acoustic imaging technology to characterize microstructure in fuels and materials in spent fuel pools and within reactor vessels. A vibro-acoustic development laboratory has been established at the INL. The progress in developing the vibro-acoustic technology at the INL is the focus of this report. A successful technology demonstration was performed in a working TRIGA research reactor. Vibro-acoustic imaging was performed in the reactor pool of the Breazeale reactor in late September of 2015. A confocal transducer driven at a nominal 3 MHz was used to collect the 60 kHz differential beat frequency induced in a spent TRIGA fuel rod and empty gamma tube located in the main reactor water pool. Data was collected and analyzed with the INLDAS data acquisition software using a short time Fourier transform.

  11. Refurbishment of the Oregon State University rotating rack

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    TRIGA reactors have experienced operational difficulties with the rotating racks used for sample irradiation. The most common problem occurs when the rack seizes, and the corrective action taken is replacement of the rack assembly. This paper describes the symptoms leading to rack failure and a refurbishment procedure to correct the problem without replacing the rack at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) Facility. This procedure was accomplished with extraordinary results from an operational and a radiation protection standpoint. The refurbishment has extended the useful life of this reactor facility with minimal financial impact. Given the declining number of university-based research reactors, it is in the nation's best interest to maintain the currently operating research reactor facilities, and the described procedure can aid in achieving that goal.

  12. Applications for the University of Texas Neutron Depth Profiling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Uenlue, K.; Wehring, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    A permanent neutron depth profiling (NDP) facility is operational at a tangential beam port of the 1-MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). This facility was developed to perform materials research, specifically measurements of interest to the microelectronics industry. After brief descriptions of the UT-NDP facility and its operation, this paper discusses applications we are planning that are not related to microelectronics materials.

  13. Neutron depth profiling at the University of Texas research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Unlu, K.; Wehring, B.W. )

    1993-01-01

    A neutron depth profiling (NDP) facility has been developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory. The UT-NDP utilizes thermal neutrons from a tangential beam port of the 1-MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor. Aspects of the designs of the thermal neutron beam and target chamber for the UT-NDP facility are given in this paper. Also, a brief description of NDP and possible applications are included.

  14. Use of research reactors in multidisciplinary education at Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Multidisciplinary aspects of nuclear science and technology form a large part of the research and teaching activities of the Nuclear Science and Engineering (NS and E) Program at Cornell, and the two reactors housed in Ward Laboratory - a 500-kW TRIGA and a 100-W critical facility (zero-power reactor (ZPR))- play a central role in those activities. Several primarily educational and multidisciplinary features of the NS and E program are described in this paper.

  15. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Meyer

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this meeting were to capture the observations, insights, issues, concerns, and ideas of those involved in the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center (TAMU NSC) TRIGA Reactor Conversion so that future efforts can be conducted with greater effectiveness, efficiency, and with fewer challenges. This workshop was held in conjunction with a similar workshop for the University of Florida Reactor Conversion. Some of the generic lessons from that workshop are included in this report for completeness.

  16. An experimental investigation of 235 sub UF sub 6 fission produced plasmas. [gas handling system for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas handling system capable of use with uranium fluoride was designed and constructed for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments using the TRIGA research reactor. By employing careful design and temperature controls, the UF6 can be first transported into the irradiation chamber, and then, at the conclusion of the experiment, returned to gas cylinders. The design of the system is described. Operating procedures for the UF6 and gas handling systems are included.

  17. Research reactors - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. In vitro production of porcine zygotes using intracytoplasmic injection of vitrified sperm.

    PubMed

    Arraztoa, C C; Baca Castex, C; Alvarez, G M; Cetica, P D; Neild, D M

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate if vitrified porcine spermatozoa are able to maintain their capacity to produce zygotes in vitro using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to evaluate the zygote development in two in vitro atmospheric conditions: 5% CO2 and tri-gas. A group of porcine oocytes maturated in vitro were injected with vitrified-warmed sperm (treatment group) and another group, with sperm diluted and conserved at 17°C (control group). To evidence parthenogenetic activation, some oocytes were submitted to a Sham test. The injected oocytes were cultured in G1 medium at 38°C, 100% humidity and 5% CO2 or tri-gas. No significant differences (p > .05) were observed in embryo development between the oocytes injected with vitrified-warmed sperm (31.8%; 36/113), and those injected with semen diluted and conserved at 17°C (35.5%; 32/90), when cultured in 5% CO2 or under tri-gas atmosphere (42.9%; 39/91 vs. 34.2%; 26/76, respectively). No significant differences (p > .05) were observed in the percentage of pronuclei (PN) obtained between 5% CO2 and tri-gas, within each treatment either. Of the 52 oocytes submitted to the Sham test, only two presented a female PN (activation) indicating that the PN observed in the treatment group were a product of fertilization and not parthenogenetic activation. To conclude, porcine sperm vitrified using spheres, at a concentration of 5 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml in TALP medium with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA), conserve condensed and intact chromatin capable of producing early embryo development up to the pronuclear stage. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. University Reactor Sharing Program. Final report, September 30, 1992--September 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wehring, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the number of nuclear reactors on university campuses in the US declined from more than 70 to less than 40. Contrary to this trend, The University of Texas at Austin constructed a new reactor facility at a cost of $5.8 million. The new reactor facility houses a new TRIGA Mark II reactor which replaces an in-ground TRIGA Mark I reactor located in a 50-year old building. The new reactor facility was constructed to strengthen the instruction and research opportunities in nuclear science and engineering for both undergraduate and graduate students at The University of Texas. On January 17, 1992, The University of Texas at Austin received a license for operation of the new reactor. Initial criticality was achieved on March 12, 1992, and full power operation, on March 25, 1992. The UT-TRIGA research reactor provides hands-on education, multidisciplinary research and unique service activities for academic, medical, industrial, and government groups. Support by the University Reactor Sharing Programs increases the availability of The University of Texas reactor facility for use by other educational institutions which do not have nuclear reactors.

  20. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  1. Noninvasive Ph-telemetric Measurement of Gastrointestinal Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain experience with and validate the Heidelberg pH-telemetric methodology in order to determine if the pH-telemetric methodology would be a useful noninvasive measure of gastrointestinal transit time for future ground-based and in-flight drug evaluation studies. The Heidelberg pH metering system is a noninvasive, nonradioactive telemetric system that, following oral ingestion, continuously measures intraluminal pH of the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, ileocecal junction, and large bowel. Gastrointestinal motility profiles were obtained in normal volunteers using the lactulose breath-hydrogen and Heidelberg pH metering techniques. All profiles were obtained in the morning after an overnight fast. Heidelberg pH profiles were obtained in the fasting and fed states; lactulose breath-hydrogen profiles were obtained after a standard breakfast. Mouth-to-cecum transit time was measured as the interval from administration of lactulose (30 ml; 20 g) to a sustained increase in breath-hydrogen of 10 ppm or more. Gastric emptying time was measured as the interval from the administration of the Heidelberg capsule to a sustained increase in pH of three units or more.

  2. Comparison of optic disc topography in non-glaucomatous eyes of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children.

    PubMed

    Elgin, Ufuk; Cankaya, Bülent; Simsek, Tulay; Batman, Aygen

    2010-01-01

    To compare the optic disc topography parameters of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT III) (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The topographic optic disc parameters (cup volume, cup area, rim volume, rim area, disc area, mean cup-to-disc ratio, and mean cup depth) of 28 non-glaucomatous eyes of 28 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 28 eyes of 28 age-matched healthy children were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between cup volume (P = .782), cup area (P = .878), rim volume (P = .853), disc area (P = .452), mean cup-to-disc ratio (P = .852), and mean cup depth (P = .711) of eyes of cases with diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. This result suggests that non-glaucomatous eyes of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects have similar topographic optic disc characteristics. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Changes in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Ebru N.; Bir, Levent S.; Sarac, Gülden; Yaldızkaya, Filiz; Yaylalı, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to assess optic nerve and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) changes in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its correlation with disease duration and severity. Optic nerve parameters and RNFL thickness were measured in 24 PD patients and 25 age–gender-matched controls by Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II (Heidelberg Engineering, Dossenheim, Germany). Patients with visual acuity below 20/25 were excluded. The mean RNFL in the temporal sector was significantly thinner in the study group than the control group (p = 0.020). Additionally, disease severity and duration negatively correlated with optic disc parameters in some sectors. PMID:28163751

  4. Atrazine Residues in Northern Ohio 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD-A09A 279 HEIDELBERG COLL TIFFIN OH WATER QUALITY LAS F/G 13/2 ATRAZINE RESIDUES IN NORTHERN OHIO 1980.(Ul SE P AG J V SETZLER DACW49-79-C0020 F...NUMBERS Water Quality Laboawtry Heidelberg College Tiff in, Ohio 44883 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Water Quality Section NCBED-HQ ebwwW U.S...are available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 It. KEY WORDS (Continue On revere. side if necessren d identify by

  5. "Hollywood nurses" in West Germany: biographies, self-images, and experiences of academically trained nurses after 1945.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The School of Nursing at Heidelberg University was founded in 1953 on the initiative of the Rockefeller Foundation to generate new, scientifically trained nursing elite to advance the professionalization of nursing in West Germany. The "American" concept met massive resistance. Its "superior nursing training" was seen as creating "Hollywood nurses"-a threat to the traditional Christian understanding of good, caring nursing. Intense social conflicts also caused problems with other groups of nurses. The school nevertheless played a very important role as a "cadre academy" in the history of professionalization. Many of the first German professors in the nursing sciences trained or underwent further training in Heidelberg.

  6. Semantics for a Systemic Grammar: The Chooser and Inquiry Framework.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Boiling Air Force Base, Building 410 PROGRAM PROJECT i ASK WORK UNIT Washington, DC 20332 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO...Linguistics and Social Interaction, Julius Groos Verlag Heidelberg and Exeter University, 1980. [Fawcett 83] Fawcett, R., "Language as a Semiological

  7. Complex Planar Splines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer

  8. Recalling Karl Jaspers' Classic: The Idea of the University. IHE Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This essay revisits Karl Jaspers' classic, "The Idea of the University." Jaspers was reinstated as president of Heidelberg University in 1945, and he presided over its rebuilding. His book, "The Idea of the University," written in 1946, was published in English 13 years later. It interprets an ideal of the university and…

  9. When People Complain Using Communication, Negotiation and Problem Solving to Resolve Complaints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    annoyance is compounded, and conflict escala - make a complaint usually do not go to the tion begins, trouble to find out how to do this. When the mechanisms...Barracks Army Airfield Peter Dressier; Public Affairs Office; Heidelberg Larry Rosenberg ; Public Affairs Office; Mainz MILCOM MILCOM Phil Huber; Office of

  10. Chemical biology 2012: from drug targets to biological systems and back.

    PubMed

    Socher, Elke; Grossmann, Tom N

    2013-01-02

    Multiple sites sharing a common target: This year's EMBO conference on chemical biology encouraged over 340 researchers to come to Heidelberg, Germany, and discuss the use of diverse chemical strategies and tools to investigate biological questions and better understand cellular processes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dotty Wotty Collages: Composing with Fiber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Tyree Guyton is a popular local hero in Detroit, although it's taken years for him to reach the elite status he now occupies. He's taken inner-city houses and fields--previously rundown and littered with trash--and created controversial art installations, each with deep meaning beyond the visual. Guyton grew up on Heidelberg and Ellery Streets in…

  12. A comparative study on invasion, survival, modulation of oxidative burst, and nitric oxide responses of macrophages (HD11), and systemic infection in chickens by prevalent poultry Salmonella serovars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry is a major reservoir for foodborne Salmonella serovars. Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Kentucky, and S. Senftenberg are the most prevalent serovars in poultry. Information concerning the interactions between different Salmonella species and host cells in poultry i...

  13. Cost Comparison Among Provable Data Possession Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    possession,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Ap- plied Cryptography and Network Security. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013...curves,” in Security and Cryptography (SECRYPT), 2013 International Conference on, July 2013, pp. 1–12. [19] R. S. Kumar and A. Saxena, “Data integrity

  14. Disaggregated Imaging Spacecraft Constellation Optimization with a Genetic Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    algorithm used throughout. Genetic algorithms are meant to simulate biological evolution and Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection [41, 42]. Just like...Advances in artificial life: Darwin meets von Neumann - Volume Part II , ECAL’09, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 334–341, Ac- cessed

  15. Long-Term Effects of a Parent-Based Language Intervention on Language Outcomes and Working Memory for Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschmann, Anke; Multhauf, Bettina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Pietz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    A randomized control intervention study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the highly structured Heidelberg Parent-Based Language Intervention (HPLI). The outcomes of 43 children (n = 23 intervention, n = 20 control) who had been identified as late talkers during routine developmental check-ups carried out in pediatric practices at the age…

  16. Initiating Events in Prostate Cancer: The Role of Somatic Activation of Beta-Catening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    B.Sc. 1978 Medical Biochemistry National Institute for Medical Research, London, U.K. PhD 1982 Genetics/Aging Rene Descartes University. Paris FR D.Sc...Rend Descartes , Paris, France. 1989-1998 Research Group Leader, Division of Tumor Immunology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany

  17. CAPE-OPEN WITH .NET TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 7, 2007 in Heidelberg, Germany, the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN) is offering a one-day training seminar on implementing CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling components (PMCs) using .NET-based development tools. This seminar will be geared to component develope...

  18. MOBIUS: Modeling Biology Using Smart Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-09

    Robot Control. In Proc. of the European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2003). W. Banzhaf, T. Christaller , P. Dittrich, J. T. Kim and J. Zieglre...T. Christaller , P. Dittrich, J. T. Kim and J. Zieglre (eds), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Berlin, pp.248-255. [15] Haroun Mahdavi, S. and

  19. Mothers with a History of Abuse Tend to Show More Impulsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, E.; Matheis, V.; Poustka, L.; Marysko, M.; Finke, P.; Kaufmann, C.; Reck, C.; Cierpka, M.; Resch, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Maternal history of abuse is a postulated risk factor for child maltreatment. However, there have been no case-control studies on maternal impulsiveness in a larger sample of mothers with a history of abuse. Method: Women in the area of Heidelberg giving birth to a child between May 2005 and June 2007 were contacted by mail and…

  20. Does Scale Really Matter? Ultra-Large-Scale Systems Seven Years after the Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-24

    148-156. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. Felfernig, Alexander , Monika Schubert, Monika Mandl, Francesco Ricci, and Walid Maalej. "Recommendation and...Dorigo, Gregor Engels, Rehan O’Grady, Marco Platzner, Franz Rammig, Wolfgang Reif, and Ansgar Trächtler. "Engineering Self-coordinating Software

  1. Development of Real Time PCR Using Novel Genomic Target for Detection of Multiple Salmonella Serovars from Milk and Chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: A highly sensitive and specific novel genomic and plasmid target-based PCR platform was developed to detect multiple Salmonella serovars (S. Heidelberg, S. Dublin, S. Hadar, S. Kentucky and S. Enteritidis). Through extensive genome mining of protein databases of these serovars and compar...

  2. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  3. Vatuximab(Trademark): Optimizing Therapeutic Strategies for Prostate Cancer Based on Dynamic MR Tumor Oximetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" CSIC/UAM, Madrid, Spain); Jennifer McAnally; Linda Watkins; Peter Peschke (German Cancer Center, Heidelberg... Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" - CSIC, Madrid, Spain 2University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States Tumor oxygenation play

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-21

    Molecular Biology Institute (Charles Coutelle, et al.; SPECTRUM, No 3, 1987) ....... 108 GDR Interview With Soviet Biotechnology Specialist (furi...expand this area of research in the future. In Heidelberg, a European institution, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), is concerned...exclusively with molecular -biology, genetic engineering, protein-chemistry, and other basic research issues. In addition there is the Center for Molecular

  5. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  6. Markers of Decompression Stress of Mass Stranded/Live Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    prepared and submitted to the Society for Marine Mammalogy 2013 Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals in 3 New Zealand . Dr...component analysis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York). Data collected from the calibration study (Aim 1), from stranded animals (Aim 2), from...Fraser, W. (1990). Complement activation involvement in decompression sickness of rabbits . Undersea Biomed Res. 17, 51-66.

  7. August Kopff, the theory of relativity and two letters from Albert Einstein to Kopff in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. (German Title: August Kopff, die Relativitätstheorie, und zwei Briefe Albert Einsteins an Kopff im Archiv des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    August Kopff (1882-1960) was one of the most eminent German astronomers of his time with a high international reputation. He started his career at the Heidelberg Observatory. In addition to carrying out observations he worked on the theory of relativity. From 1919 to 1924 he gave lectures on special and general relativity at the University of Heidelberg. In 1921 and 1923 he published a scientific textbook on the theory of relativity, which was also translated into English, Italian and Russian. He also wrote many related journal articles. In 1922 he was a member of a solar-eclipse expedition for measuring the light deflection by the Sun. In 1928, a large textbook article by him on relativity theory was published. From 1924 to 1954 Kopff was director of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, first at Berlin and since 1945 in Heidelberg. There he worked mainly on astrometry, especially on the fundamental catalogues FK3 and FK4. From 1947 to 1950 Kopff was also director of the observatory in Heidelberg. An exchange of letters between Kopff and Einstein from the year 1930 is documented in the Albert Einstein Archives. Two original letters by Einstein survived in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. We edit here this correspondence, which concerns the dynamical evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the planetary system due to tidal friction.

  8. Rewriting "The Road to Nowhere": Place Pedagogies in Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Negative representations of parts of our cities are endemic in the Australian media, where certain suburbs function as motifs for failure--past, present, and future. Indeed, as one journalist put it after invoking the "interchangeable" triumvirate of Sydney's Mount Druitt, Melbourne's West Heidelberg, and Brisbane's Inala, "geography is destiny"…

  9. Rewriting "The Road to Nowhere": Place Pedagogies in Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Negative representations of parts of our cities are endemic in the Australian media, where certain suburbs function as motifs for failure--past, present, and future. Indeed, as one journalist put it after invoking the "interchangeable" triumvirate of Sydney's Mount Druitt, Melbourne's West Heidelberg, and Brisbane's Inala, "geography is destiny"…

  10. CAPE-OPEN WITH .NET TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 7, 2007 in Heidelberg, Germany, the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN) is offering a one-day training seminar on implementing CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling components (PMCs) using .NET-based development tools. This seminar will be geared to component develope...

  11. Mothers with a History of Abuse Tend to Show More Impulsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, E.; Matheis, V.; Poustka, L.; Marysko, M.; Finke, P.; Kaufmann, C.; Reck, C.; Cierpka, M.; Resch, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Maternal history of abuse is a postulated risk factor for child maltreatment. However, there have been no case-control studies on maternal impulsiveness in a larger sample of mothers with a history of abuse. Method: Women in the area of Heidelberg giving birth to a child between May 2005 and June 2007 were contacted by mail and…

  12. 77 FR 32622 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Lock 14 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Heidelberg Hydroelectric Project. f....

  13. Analysis of Cognitive Architecture in the Cultural Geography Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. Theory of Planned Behavior (From Ajzen , 1991). ................................ 9 Figure 2. Cognitive Architecture Components (From...tradeoff. 57 LIST OF REFERENCES Ajzen , I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior . In J. Kuhl & J.Beckmann (Eds...Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11–39). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Ajzen , I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior

  14. Positioning of Large Surface Vessels using Multiple Tugboats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Sciences. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2006, vol. 336, pp. 1–19. [10] Y. Fang, E. Zergeroglu, M. S. de Queiroz , and D. M. Dawson, “Global output...neural/). [15] M. S. de Queiroz and D. M. Dawson, “Nonlinear control of active magnetic bearings: A backstepping approach,” IEEE Transactions on

  15. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Transfer 760-0M6-018 Dr. Barry N. Haack Dr. Je-chin Han 36 Detector Placement and Particle Size Interpretation for a Multiple Ratio Single...Jensen, A. R. (1982). Reaction time and psychometric g. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), ^4 model for intelligence. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Kanfer, R

  16. Education for development under the skies of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, Cecilia; Fischer, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    We report on an educational program initiated in Chile in the year 2010 on the frame of an excellence research and graduate exchange program between the University of Heidelberg and the Pontfica Catlica University in Chile, funded by the German International Exchange Office (DAAD).

  17. Impact of litter Salmonella strain on the recovered Salmonella strains from broiler crop and ceca following feed withdrawal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal, 2 pens of 5-wk-old broilers (n=10/pen) in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo (nalidixic acid resistant) or Salmonella Heidelberg (streptomycin resistant) by oral gavage. Three ...

  18. Adventurous Navigator of the Dimensions of High Ability: An Interview with Robert J. Sternberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2008-01-01

    Robert J. Sternberg is Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences, Professor of Psychology, and Adjunct Professor of Education at Tufts University. He also is Honorary Professor of Psychology at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Prior to joining the faculty at Tufts, he was IBM Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of…

  19. 5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN CRIB-WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  20. 4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, -WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  1. The Cholinergic Synapse International Symposium Held in Berlin, Germany on 23-27 September 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-27

    Acetylcholinesterases: Subunit Assembly, Membrane Anchoring and State of Glycosylation Urs Brodbeck,Harald Helder, Jian Liao, Pascal Meyer, and Susi...Blaise Pascal F-67048 Strasbourg, France We have monitored capacitance changes associated with exocytosis and endocytosis in single isolated nerve...Jahnstr. 29, D - 6900 Heidelberg. EGEA, Gustavo, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, C/ Casanova 143, E - 08036 Barcelona. EHRLICH, Gal

  2. Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Lara M

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Principles and Applications. Carr J. C., Carroll T. J., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg/New York, 2012. 412 pp. Price $179.00. ISBN 978-1-4419-1685-3 (hardcover). © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Cognitive Algorithms for Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    63] L. I. Perlovsky and R. Kozma. Eds. Neurodynamics of Higher-Level Cognition and Consciousness. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007. [64...AFRL-RY-HS-TR-2011-0013 ________________________________________________________________________ Cognitive Algorithms for Signal Processing...in more details in [46]. ..................................... 16  1 Abstract Processes in the mind: perception, cognition

  4. Issues and Approaches in the Design of Distributed Ada Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-11

    Gammage, R. F. Kamel, and L. M. Casey , "Remote Rendezvous," Software-Practice and Experience, vol 17, no. 10, October 1987, pp 741-755. 38. Greg Chesson...Heidelberg, Germany, 1981. Paulk , Mark C., "Problems with Distributed Ada Programs," International Phoenix Conference on Computers & Communications: PCCC

  5. Dotty Wotty Collages: Composing with Fiber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Tyree Guyton is a popular local hero in Detroit, although it's taken years for him to reach the elite status he now occupies. He's taken inner-city houses and fields--previously rundown and littered with trash--and created controversial art installations, each with deep meaning beyond the visual. Guyton grew up on Heidelberg and Ellery Streets in…

  6. Domain-Specific Knowledge and Memory Performance: A Comparison of High- and Low-Aptitude Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Wolfgang; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Two studies with 170 third-, 303 fifth-, and 288 seventh-graders in Heidelberg (West Germany) compared memory performance and text comprehension of groups equivalent on domain-specific knowledge of the game of soccer but differing in overall aptitude. Whether prior knowledge or overall aptitude level was more important in acquiring/using new…

  7. Long-Term Effects of a Parent-Based Language Intervention on Language Outcomes and Working Memory for Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschmann, Anke; Multhauf, Bettina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Pietz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    A randomized control intervention study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the highly structured Heidelberg Parent-Based Language Intervention (HPLI). The outcomes of 43 children (n = 23 intervention, n = 20 control) who had been identified as late talkers during routine developmental check-ups carried out in pediatric practices at the age…

  8. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED IMAGING: A Descriptive Review of Characteristics of Retinoschisis, Retinal Detachment, and Schisis Detachments.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vincent Y; Wehmeier, Jarrod M; Shah, Gaurav K

    2016-08-01

    Retinoschisis and retinal detachments are primarily differentiated based on characteristic examination findings. In diagnostically challenging cases, noncontact wide-field infrared imaging can help diagnosis and visualize the extent/margins of retinoschisis, retinal detachment, or combined schisis detachments by comparing reflectivity patterns. This is a retrospective, observational, descriptive case series of 14 eyes of 14 nonconsecutive patients, ranging from 28 to 89 years old (mean 61), diagnosed with retinoschisis, retinal detachment, or schisis detachment from May 5, 2014 to March 4, 2015. Patients with secondary retinoschisis and/or retinal detachment from other causes were not included in the study. Heidelberg Wide-Field Module lens and Heidelberg Spectralis HRA+OCT machine (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) were used to obtain noncontact, wide-field infrared images on each study eye. Seven eyes with retinal detachments, four with retinoschises, and three with schisis detachments were imaged using this novel wide-field infrared technique. Retinoschisis appears light and translucent with prominent vasculature, retinal detachments appear dark and opaque, and combined retinoschisis/retinal detachment exhibit mixed reflectivity patterns. Wide-field infrared imaging provides a quick, noncontact, noninvasive method to accurately diagnose and to monitor for progression of retinoschisis, retinal detachment, or combined schisis detachments.

  9. 3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, BARN, MILKSHED - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  10. Science Fiction Courses: An Example and Some Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stanley A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a science fiction (SF) course conducted twice at Heidelberg College with lists of readings and supplementary aids presented. Indicates that the SF offerings are generally classified into three types and have the value of stimulating students' interests in science and its impact on civilization. (CC)

  11. Cross-Paradigm Simulation Modeling: Challenges and Successes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    model. For example, economic agents in a market model make pricing and production decisions base on macroeconomic variables, such as economic... Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. Volume 4442/2007. North, M. J., and C. M. Macal. 2007. Managing business complexity

  12. Thoughts concerning the BMJ editorial "Kitemarking the west wind" and the WHO dot-health proposal

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2000-01-01

    Tony Delamothe has recently written a BMJ editorial [1], which was partly inspired by the MedCERTAIN workshop in Heidelberg. As the initiator and co-ordinator of an EU project, which could be misunderstood as a "kitemarking" project, I feel obliged to clarify what we want to achieve and how and why our approach differs from what is being described by Tony.

  13. World Stress Map Published

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Müller, Birgit; Fuchs, Karl; Wenzel, Friedemann; Reinecker, John; Tingay, Mark; Sperner, Blanka; Cadet, Jean-Paul; Rossi, Philipp

    2007-11-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM), published in April 2007 by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World and the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, displays the tectonic regime and the orientation of the contemporary maximum horizontal compressional stress at more than 12,000 locations within the Earth's crust. The Mercator projection is a scale of 1:46,000,000.

  14. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

  15. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

  16. Measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Gramer, E; Tausch, M

    1998-04-01

    The possibilities and limitations of methods for indirect and direct nerve fiber layer thickness (NFLT) measurements, and a summary of our own clinical studies using Optic Nerve Head Analyzer (Rodenstock, Munich, Germany) (ONHA), Laser Tomographic Scanner (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) (LTS), Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) (HRT), Nerve Fiber Analyzer (Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, CA) (NFA) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), together with the literature of the review period, are highlighted. A retinal hemifield test with the new parameters, retinal asymmetry difference and retinal asymmetry index, is introduced. These relative nerve fiber layer thickness (NFLT) measurement values are found to be independent of age, reference plane, and disc size. This reduces the interindividual variation of the measurements and may improve screening possibilities for glaucoma. The detection probability for nerve fiber bundle defects was found to be stage-dependent using HRT and NFA. For laser polarimetry, a decreasing correlation between NFLT and visual field loss with advanced glaucomatous disease was found. In the lower retina, a 6.9% higher NFLT was evident compared with the upper peripapillary NFLT in healthy eyes using NFA and OCT. This is not in correlation with perimetric retinal sensitivity, which was found to be 3.9% higher in the lower hemifield compared with the upper hemifield. In general, quantitative NFLT measures (HRT, NFA, OCT) were correlated with visual field loss in glaucoma. The interindividual variability of NFLT measurements, among other things, induces limitations on distinguishing beginning glaucoma from normals. Clinical and scientific significance and future directions of NFLT measurements are discussed.

  17. Nuclear analytical techniques with neutron beams at the Univ. of Texas at Austin

    SciTech Connect

    Uenlue, K.; Wehring, B.W.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron beams produced by nuclear research reactors can be used for analytical chemical analysis by measuring nuclear radiation produced by neutron capture. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) are two such analytical techniques. For the last three decades, these techniques have been applied at a number of research reactors around the world. Within the last 4 yr, we have developed NDP and PGAA facilities at The University of Texas at Austin research reactor, a 1-MW TRIGA Mark II reactor. Brief descriptions of the facilities and summaries of activities for these analytical techniques at the University of Texas at Austin are provided in this paper.

  18. The irradiation effects on zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Ionescu, S.; Stefan, V.; Uta, O.; Prisecaru, I.; Danila, N.

    2007-05-01

    Pressure tube samples were irradiated under helium atmosphere in the TRIGA Steady State Research and Material Test Reactor of the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). These samples are made of the Zr-2.5%Nb alloy used as structural material for the CANDU Romanian power reactors. After irradiation, mechanical tests were performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) to study the influence of irradiation on zirconium alloys mechanical behaviour. The tensile test results were used for structural integrity assessment. Results of the tests are presented. The paper presents, also, pressure tube structural integrity assessment.

  19. Design and Testing of a 10B4C Capsule for Spectral-Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Metz, Lori A.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2014-04-11

    A boron carbide capsule highly enriched in 10B has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. New experiments show that enriching the boron to 96% B-10 results in additional absorption of neutrons in the resonance region thereby producing a neutron spectrum that is much closer to a pure 235U fission spectrum. A cadmium outer cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in very good agreement with measured activation rates from neutron fluence monitors.

  20. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Denton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP {11}/{34} data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair.

  1. Flux and Instrumentation Upgrade for the Epithermal Neutron Beam Facility at Washington State University

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; J.R. Venhuizen; C.E. Wemple; G. E. Tripard; S. Sharp; K. Fox

    2004-11-01

    An epithermal neutron beam facility for preclinical neutron capture therapy research has been constructed at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor installation. Subsequent to a recent upgrade, this new facility offers a high-purity epithermal beam with intensity on the order of 1.2×109 n/cm2 s. Key features include a fluoride-based design for the neutron filtering and moderating components as well as a novel collimator design that allows ease of assembly and disassembly of the beamline components.

  2. Integrating Medical Surveillance into the Mission of the Medical Detachment (Preventive Medicine)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    Hygiene Survey Field (M28909) Provides colorimetric test tubes for indoor air quality monitoring and a tri-gas meter for indoor /confined space use. Only...for indoor air quality monitoring; does not provide capability for monitoring ambient air quality Water Quality Analysis Set- Purification (W47475...CHEM ALARM M8A1 G008 A 100 08498L000 RADIAC SET AN/ PDR -75 G010 A 100 08498L000 RADIAC SET AN/VDR-2 G011 A 100 08498L000 PROTECTIVE

  3. Tritium recovery from nanostructured LiAlO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, L. M.; Jiménez-Becerril, J.; Basurto, R.; Arenas, J.; López M, B. E.; Bulbulian, S.; Bosch, P.

    2001-12-01

    In this work, a complex superlattice is obtained from a simple synthesis method. A detailed study by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is presented to determine the structural composition and the nanostructure of the obtained LiAlO 2 mixtures. To establish the influence of the superlattice presence in the tritium recovery, the obtained samples were irradiated with a mixed thermal and fast neutron flux in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark III (NRTMIII) at Salazar, Mexico. The study is focused on the superlattice effect on tritium mobility.

  4. Advanced BWR stability monitoring tests with a hybrid reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    He, Weidong; Huang, Zhengyu; Edwards, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    A stability monitor for a boiling reactor is implemented and evaluated with the Penn State Hybrid Reactor System. The stability monitor is based on an extended Kalman filter which employs a reduced-order BWR reactor model. The filter uses measured power signal and estimates the void reactivity feedback gain and the decay ratio. The hybrid reactor system is a system combining a simulation module of BWR thermal hydraulics and the Penn State TRIGA reactor. A description of the hybrid system is also presented. (authors)

  5. Study of neutron irradiation-induced colors in Brazilian topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, A. S.; Krambrock, K.; Ribeiro, L. G. M.; Menezes, M. Â. B. C.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2007-09-01

    In this work, preliminary results of the investigation of the coloring mechanisms in topaz from different regions of Brazil, irradiated by the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 and BR1 nuclear reactors of the CDTN/CNEN (Brazil) and SCK.CEN(Belgium), respectively, are presented . The samples were analyzed by the k0-NAA method for impurities and total activity. The color and color centers were investigated by optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The total integrated flux dependence of the induced blue colors and color centers is discussed.

  6. Performance evaluation and post-irradiation examination of a novel LWR fuel composed of U0.17ZrH1.6 fuel pellets bonded to Zircaloy-2 cladding by lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balooch, Mehdi; Olander, Donald R.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Hosemann, Peter; Casella, Andrew M.; Senor, David J.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2017-04-01

    A novel light water reactor fuel has been designed and fabricated at the University of California, Berkeley; irradiated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor; and examined within the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This fuel consists of U0.17ZrH1.6 fuel pellets core-drilled from TRIGA reactor fuel elements that are clad in Zircaloy-2 and bonded with lead-bismuth eutectic. The performance evaluation and post irradiation examination of this fuel are presented here.

  7. Design and Testing of a Boron Carbide Capsule for Spectral Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2012-03-01

    A boron carbide capsule has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. Irradiations were conducted in pulsed mode and in continuous operation for up to 4 hours. A cadmium cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in good agreement with reactor dosimetry measurements using the STAY'SL computer code. The neutron spectrum resembles that of a fast reactor. Design of a capsule using boron carbide enriched in {sup 10}B shows that it is possible to produce a neutron spectrum similar to {sup 235}U fission.

  8. Fuel burnup analysis for Thai research reactor by using MCNPX computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangkaew, S.; Angwongtrakool, T.; Srimok, B.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the fuel burnup analysis of the Thai research reactor (TRR-1/M1), TRIGA Mark-III, operated by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) in Bangkok, Thailand. The modelling software used in this analysis is MCNPX (MCNP eXtended) version 2.6.0, a Fortran90 Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code. The analysis results will cover the core excess reactivity, neutron fluxes at the irradiation positions and neutron detector tubes, power distribution, fuel burnup, and fission products based on fuel cycle of first reactor core arrangement.

  9. Decommissioning of German Research Reactors Under the Governance of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research - 12154

    SciTech Connect

    Weigl, M.

    2012-07-01

    Since 1956, nuclear research and development (R and D) in Germany has been supported by the Federal Government. The goal was to help German industry to become competitive in all fields of nuclear technology. National research centers were established and demonstration plants were built. In the meantime, all these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D). Meanwhile, Germany is one of the leading countries in the world in the field of D and D. Two big demonstration plants, the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant (KKN) a heavy-water cooled pressure tube reactor with carbon-dioxide cooling and the Karlstein Superheated Steam Reactor (HDR) a boiling light water reactor with a thermal power of 100 MW, are totally dismantled and 'green field' is reached. Another big project was finished in 2008. The Forschungs-Reaktor Juelich 1 (FRJ1), a research reactor with a thermal power of 10 MW was completely dismantled and in September 2008 an oak tree was planted on a green field at the site, where the FRJ1 was standing before. This is another example for German success in the field of D and D. Within these projects a lot of new solutions and innovative techniques were tested, which were developed at German universities and in small and medium sized companies mostly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Some examples are underwater-cutting technologies like plasma arc cutting and contact arc metal cutting. This clearly shows that research on the field of D and D is important for the future. Moreover, these research activities are important to save the know-how in nuclear engineering in Germany and will enable enterprises to compete on the increasing market of D and D services. The author assumes that an efficient decommissioning of nuclear installations will help stabilize the credibility of nuclear energy. Some critics of nuclear energy are insisting that a return to 'green field sites' is not possible

  10. Bayesian Statistical Analysis Applied to NAA Data for Neutron Flux Spectrum Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, D.; Previtali, E.; Sisti, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical method, based on Bayesian statistics, to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum from the activation data of different isotopes. The experimental data were acquired during a neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiment [A. Borio di Tigliole et al., Absolute flux measurement by NAA at the Pavia University TRIGA Mark II reactor facilities, ENC 2012 - Transactions Research Reactors, ISBN 978-92-95064-14-0, 22 (2012)] performed at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of Pavia University (Italy). In order to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum, subdivided in energy groups, we must solve a system of linear equations containing the grouped cross sections and the activation rate data. We solve this problem with Bayesian statistical analysis, including the uncertainties of the coefficients and the a priori information about the neutron flux. A program for the analysis of Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, is used to define the problem statistical model and solve it. The energy group fluxes and their uncertainties are then determined with great accuracy and the correlations between the groups are analyzed. Finally, the dependence of the results on the prior distribution choice and on the group cross section data is investigated to confirm the reliability of the analysis.

  11. Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared to assist research reactor operators possessing spent fuel containing enriched uranium of United States origin to prepare part of the documentation necessary to ship this fuel to the United States. Data are included on the nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate, and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies. Isotopic masses of U, Np, Pu and Am that are present in spent research reactor fuel are estimated for MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assembly types. The isotopic masses of each fuel assembly type are given as functions of U-235 burnup in the spent fuel, and of initial U-235 enrichment and U-235 mass in the fuel assembly. Photon dose rates of spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are estimated for fuel assemblies with up to 80% U-235 burnup and specific power densities between 0.089 and 2.857 MW/kg[sup 235]U, and for fission product decay times of up to 20 years. Thermal decay heat loads are estimated for spent fuel based upon the fuel assembly irradiation history (average assembly power vs. elapsed time) and the spent fuel cooling time.

  12. Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel acceptance criteria, the mass of uranium and transuranic elements in spent research reactor fuel must be specified. These data are, however, not always known or readily determined. It is the purpose of this report to provide estimates of these data for some of the more common research reactor fuel assembly types. The specific types considered here are MTR, TRIGA and DIDO fuel assemblies. The degree of physical protection given to spent fuel assemblies is largely dependent upon the photon dose rate of the spent fuel material. These data also, are not always known or readily determined. Because of a self-protecting dose rate level of radiation (dose rate greater than 100 ren-x/h at I m in air), it is important to know the dose rate of spent fuel assemblies at all time. Estimates of the photon dose rate for spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are given in this report.

  13. Analysis of neutron flux distribution for the validation of computational methods for the optimization of research reactor utilization.

    PubMed

    Snoj, L; Trkov, A; Jaćimović, R; Rogan, P; Zerovnik, G; Ravnik, M

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify and validate the computational methods for neutron flux calculation in TRIGA research reactor calculations, a series of experiments has been performed. The neutron activation method was used to verify the calculated neutron flux distribution in the TRIGA reactor. Aluminium (99.9 wt%)-Gold (0.1 wt%) foils (disks of 5mm diameter and 0.2mm thick) were irradiated in 33 locations; 6 in the core and 27 in the carrousel facility in the reflector. The experimental results were compared to the calculations performed with Monte Carlo code MCNP using detailed geometrical model of the reactor. The calculated and experimental normalized reaction rates in the core are in very good agreement for both isotopes indicating that the material and geometrical properties of the reactor core are modelled well. In conclusion one can state that our computational model describes very well the neutron flux and reaction rate distribution in the reactor core. In the reflector however, the accuracy of the epithermal and thermal neutron flux distribution and attenuation is lower, mainly due to lack of information about the material properties of the graphite reflector surrounding the core, but the differences between measurements and calculations are within 10%. Since our computational model properly describes the reactor core it can be used for calculations of reactor core parameters and for optimization of research reactor utilization.

  14. Utilization of the Cornell University research reactors in support of the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Cornell University is licensed to operate two research reactor facilities on its main campus in Ithaca, New York: a 500-kW pulsing TRIGA and a 100-W zero-power reactor (ZPR). The initial criticality of both reactors took place in 1962, and the utilization of each has been, and continues to be, dedicated to the teaching and research programs of Cornell's many academic departments. As the nation's nuclear power industry grew, the demand for services at research and test reactors increased. As a result, and in large part because of special design features of the TRIGA, Cornell responded to a few requests for reactor testing services while maintaining the policy that these services would not interfere with teaching and research programs. The frequency of service requests suddenly mushroomed in November of 1989, when the nation's major testing reactor was shut down for repairs. In spite of a small staff of two full-time reactor operators, a decision was made to support the nuclear industry to the fullest extent possible without jeopardizing Cornell's teaching and research programs. This turned into a monumental task of tight scheduling and meeting precise deadlines. It could only be accomplished by working late evenings and weekends and, on a number of occasions, staying at the facility for up to 5 days continuously.

  15. Pressurized heavy water reactor fuel behaviour in power ramp conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, S.; Uţă, O.; Pârvan, M.; Ohâi, D.

    2009-03-01

    In order to check and improve the quality of the Romanian CANDU fuel, an assembly of six CANDU fuel rods has been subjected to a power ramping test in the 14 MW TRIGA reactor at INR. After testing, the fuel rods have been examined in the hot cells using post-irradiation examination (PIE) techniques such as: visual inspection and photography, eddy current testing, profilometry, gamma scanning, fission gas release and analysis, metallography, ceramography, burn-up determination by mass spectrometry, mechanical testing. This paper describes the PIE results from one out of the six fuel rods. The PIE results concerning the integrity, dimensional changes, oxidation, hydriding and mechanical properties of the sheath, the fission-products activity distribution in the fuel column, the pressure, volume and composition of the fission gas, the burn-up, the isotopic composition and structural changes of the fuel enabled the characterization of the behaviour of the Romanian CANDU fuel in power ramping conditions performed in the TRIGA materials testing reactor.

  16. A Multi-Layer Phoswich Radioxenon Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    David M. Hamby

    2007-07-01

    Further work was performed in optical modeling of the modified (dual planar) XEPHWICH design. Modeling capabilities and understanding were expanded through the performance of three additional simulations. The efficiency of the entire optical modeling process was increased by developing custom software to interface with both the input and output of the simulation program. Work continues on the design and implementation of the analog portion of the read-out system. This component is being prototyped and is nearing completion. The PCB (printed circuit board) is in its design phase for the two-channel digital pulse processor, necessary for the dual planar XEPHWICH. System components are being selected for the signal processor based on a balance of cost and our expectations of quality. Outside the scope of the grant, but entirely related, we continue to work on developing a source of fission-product xenon gases that will be produced in the OSU TRIGA reactor. The amount of HEU necessary to provide the needed activities of xenon fission products, as well as build-in times for each isotope of importance following irradiation, have been calculated. Irradiation times in the TRIGA have been determined. We've finalized our design of the xenon-fission-product collection chamber and initiated in-house fabrication. PNNL will be supplying the thin foils of enriched uranium necessary for xenon production.

  17. Radiocarbon observations in atmospheric CO2: determining fossil fuel CO2 over Europe using Jungfraujoch observations as background.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ingeborg; Hammer, Samuel; Kromer, Bernd; Meinhardt, Frank

    2008-03-01

    Monthly mean 14CO2 observations at two regional stations in Germany (Schauinsland observatory, Black Forest, and Heidelberg, upper Rhine valley) are compared with free tropospheric background measurements at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps) to estimate the regional fossil fuel CO2 surplus at the regional stations. The long-term mean fossil fuel CO2 surplus at Schauinsland is 1.31+/-0.09 ppm while it is 10.96+/-0.20 ppm in Heidelberg. No significant trend is observed at both sites over the last 20 years. Strong seasonal variations of the fossil fuel CO2 offsets indicate a strong seasonality of emissions but also of atmospheric dilution of ground level emissions by vertical mixing.

  18. Health professional workstations and their integration in a hospital information system: the pragmatic approach MEDIAS.

    PubMed

    Winter, A; Lagemann, A; Budig, B; Grothe, W; Haux, R; Herr, S; Pilz, J; Sawinski, R; Schmücker, P

    1996-11-01

    Within the daily workload at a ward there is a considerable amount of information processing. It is the task of a systematic management of hospital information systems to provide health professionals with the right information in the right place at the right time. This paper deals with the consequences for the management of hospital information systems if health professional workstations are introduced as a means for this information logistic and with the experiences gained in the Heidelberg University Hospital. Health professional workstations are formally defined in the context of a three level graph-based model of hospital information systems. It is found that health professional workstations have communication needs not only on the physical level of computer systems in the hospital information system but also on the logical tool level, which is the level of application systems. On this level communication servers or brokers are of considerable importance. In Heidelberg there are about 200 health professional workstations (MEDIAS) in routine use.

  19. Evaluation of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Profiles for Identification of Salmonella Serotypes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wen; Lin, Wei-Jiun; Foley, Steven L.; Chen, Chun-Houh; Nayak, Rajesh; Chen, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a standard typing method for isolates from Salmonella outbreaks and epidemiological investigations. Eight hundred sixty-six Salmonella enterica isolates from eight serotypes, including Heidelberg (n = 323), Javiana (n = 200), Typhimurium (n = 163), Newport (n = 93), Enteritidis (n = 45), Dublin (n = 25), Pullorum (n = 9), and Choleraesuis (n = 8), were subjected to PFGE, and their profiles were analyzed by random forest classification and compared to conventional hierarchical cluster analysis to determine potential predictive relationships between PFGE banding patterns and particular serotypes. Cluster analysis displayed only the underlying similarities and relationships of the isolates from the eight serotypes. However, for serotype prediction of a nonserotyped Salmonella isolate from its PFGE pattern, random forest classification provided better accuracy than conventional cluster analysis. Discriminatory DNA band class markers were identified for distinguishing Salmonella serotype Heidelberg, Javiana, Typhimurium, and Newport isolates. PMID:20631109

  20. High intensity polarized atomic beam source for polarized internal storage ring targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemenz, P.

    1989-05-01

    In collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) für Kernphysik in Heidelberg and the University of Marburg we presently design and construct a high intensity polarized atomic beam source. It is intended to deliver 1*1017 atoms/sec in one hyperfine state into a storage cell for FILTEX. FILTEX is an abbreviation for FILTer EXperiment aiming to polarize storage ring beams. The structure and the vacuum chambers of this source are completed and installed at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring (TSR). Vacuum pumps, gauges etc. are mounted and partly connected to a logical operation system. When atomic beam nozzle and skimmer geometries and distances as well as the nozzle temperature are optimized, the final geometrical arrangement or our new hybrid sixpole magnets will be decided and the whole source should be completed by the end of 1989.

  1. Development of an accommodative smartphone app for medical guidelines in pediatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Schmucker, Michael; Heid, Jörn; Haag, Martin

    2014-01-01

    One of the outcomes of a training concept for physicians and nurses concerning pediatric emergencies at the Heidelberg University Hospital was that the work and procedures in childhood emergencies could be simplified by replacing the existing paper-based guidelines with a smartphone app. Since the project funds for this were already used up, a group of students from the master program "Medical Informatics" of Heidelberg and Heilbronn Universities took over the development of the app. Particular attention was given to the need for compatibility with the variety of devices (device size and screen resolution) and platform independence. The guidelines themselves were scripted in HTML5, JavaScript and CSS (responsive web design); managed by a container programmed in Sencha Touch. Even though the app is not yet available in the App-Store due to the limited timeframe, the students gained a great deal of valuable experience in developing platform independent software for mobile devices.

  2. Bringing new archival sources to Wundt scholarship: the case of Wundt's assistantship with Helmholtz.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Wilhelm Wundt's biography is one of the main domains in Wundt scholarship that deserves more detailed attention. The few existing biographical works present many problems, ranging from vagueness to chronological inaccuracies, among others. One of the important gaps concerns the so-called Heidelberg period (1852-1874), during which he went from being a medical student to holding a professorship at the University of Heidelberg. The aim of this article is to dispel a very common confusion in the secondary literature, which refers to Wundt's assistantship with Helmholtz at the Physiological Institute, by establishing the precise dates of his assistantship. Contrary to what is generally repeated in the secondary literature, the primary sources allow us to determine precisely this period from October 1858 to March 1865. I conclude by pointing out the indispensability of the primary sources not only to Wundt scholarship but also to the historiography of psychology in general.

  3. Fragmentation of 120 and 200 MeV u(-1)(4)He ions in water and PMMA targets.

    PubMed

    Rovituso, M; Schuy, C; Weber, U; Brons, S; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; La Tessa, C; Piasetzky, E; Izraeli, D; Schardt, D; Toppi, M; Scifoni, E; Krämer, M; Durante, M

    2017-02-21

    Recently, the use of (4)He particles in cancer radiotherapy has been reconsidered as they potentially represent a good compromise between protons and (12)C ions. The first step to achieve this goal is the development of a dedicated treatment planning system, for which basic physics information such as the characterization of the beam lateral scattering and fragmentation cross sections are required. In the present work, the attenuation of (4)He primary particles and the build-up of secondary charged fragments at various depths in water and polymethyl methacrylate were investigated experimentally for 120 and 200 MeV u(-1) beams delivered by the synchrotron at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Heidelberg. Species and isotope identification was accomplished combining energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Differential yields and energy spectra of all fragments types were recorded between 0° and 20° with respect to the primary beam direction.

  4. Simultaneous Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Combined with High-Resolution Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Castro Lima, Verônica; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Nunes, Renata P.; Sallum, Juliana F.; Farah, Michel E.; Meyer, Carsten H.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate technical aspects and the clinical relevance of a simultaneous confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a high-speed, high-resolution, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) device for retinal imaging. The principle of confocal scanning laser imaging provides a high resolution of retinal and choroidal vasculature with low light exposure. Enhanced contrast, details, and image sharpness are generated using confocality. The real-time SDOCT provides a new level of accuracy for assessment of the angiographic and morphological correlation. The combined system allows for simultaneous recordings of topographic and tomographic images with accurate correlation between them. Also it can provide simultaneous multimodal imaging of retinal pathologies, such as fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies, infrared and blue reflectance (red-free) images, fundus autofluorescence images, and OCT scans (Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The combination of various macular diagnostic tools can lead to a better understanding and improved knowledge of macular diseases. PMID:22132313

  5. Detection and analysis of two serotypes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in sewage plants by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Völsch, A; Nader, W F; Geiss, H K; Nebe, G; Birr, C

    1990-08-01

    Two different serotypes of the genus Nitrosomonas were isolated from samples of the sewage plant Heidelberg. These nitrifiers were enumerated in activated sludge of various other sewage plants after immunofluorescent labeling and staining with propidium iodide by flow cytometry. The concentrations of these serotypes of Nitrosomonas spp. were in the range of 0.1 to 2%. Also, a test for the determination of the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was developed. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were specifically inhibited with sodium chlorate, and the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria could be calculated from the increase of nitrite. Concentrations and activities of ammonia oxidizers were measured for a period of 6 months in the sewage plant Heidelberg. With one exception, activities and concentrations of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased and increased in parallel.

  6. Detection and analysis of two serotypes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in sewage plants by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Völsch, A; Nader, W F; Geiss, H K; Nebe, G; Birr, C

    1990-01-01

    Two different serotypes of the genus Nitrosomonas were isolated from samples of the sewage plant Heidelberg. These nitrifiers were enumerated in activated sludge of various other sewage plants after immunofluorescent labeling and staining with propidium iodide by flow cytometry. The concentrations of these serotypes of Nitrosomonas spp. were in the range of 0.1 to 2%. Also, a test for the determination of the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was developed. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were specifically inhibited with sodium chlorate, and the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria could be calculated from the increase of nitrite. Concentrations and activities of ammonia oxidizers were measured for a period of 6 months in the sewage plant Heidelberg. With one exception, activities and concentrations of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased and increased in parallel. PMID:2403253

  7. Ocular injuries secondary to alexandrite laser-assisted hair removal.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Mohammed S; Alharbi, Majed; Alkadi, Trad; Abouammoh, Marwan; Al-Amry, Mohammed; ALZahrani, Yahya; Alsulaiman, Sulaiman M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes of 4 patients who had sustained eye injury during alexandrite laser-assisted hair removal. This was a retrospective case series of 4 patients who presented to 2 tertiary eye care hospitals over 2 years. Data on ophthalmic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and fundus fluorescein angiography were collected. Four female patients sustained injuries during alexandrite laser hair removal. One patient presented with acute anterior uveitis, 2 patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, and 1 patient with intraretinal foveal hemorrhage. Visual acuity at last follow-up (range 3-6 months) was 20/15 to 20/20. Ocular injuries can occur as a result of incorrect use of laser-assisted hair removal devices. Ophthalmologists should be aware of ocular damage caused by these devices. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragmentation of 120 and 200 MeV u-1 4He ions in water and PMMA targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovituso, M.; Schuy, C.; Weber, U.; Brons, S.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; La Tessa, C.; Piasetzky, E.; Izraeli, D.; Schardt, D.; Toppi, M.; Scifoni, E.; Krämer, M.; Durante, M.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, the use of 4He particles in cancer radiotherapy has been reconsidered as they potentially represent a good compromise between protons and 12C ions. The first step to achieve this goal is the development of a dedicated treatment planning system, for which basic physics information such as the characterization of the beam lateral scattering and fragmentation cross sections are required. In the present work, the attenuation of 4He primary particles and the build-up of secondary charged fragments at various depths in water and polymethyl methacrylate were investigated experimentally for 120 and 200 MeV u-1 beams delivered by the synchrotron at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Heidelberg. Species and isotope identification was accomplished combining energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Differential yields and energy spectra of all fragments types were recorded between 0° and 20° with respect to the primary beam direction.

  9. [Moleschott and materialism].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Jacques Moleschott (1822-1893), born into a Dutch Roman Catholic family, attended secondary school in Cleve (Germany). There he became captivated by Hegelian philosophy and lost his faith. After medical studies in Heidelberg and a brief spell as physician in Utrecht, where he struck up a life-long friendship with the physiologists Franciscus Donders (1818-1889) and Izaak van Deen (1805-1869), he returned to Heidelberg as lecturer in physiology. In his textbooks and particularly in his book for the general public, 'The circulation of life' (in German), he attested to a strict physicochemical view of biological phenomena, in opposition to contemporary notions of vitalism and teleology. When the atheistic implications had caused a conflict with the authorities in Baden, he moved as professor of physiology to Zürich (1854) and subsequently to the emerging nation of Italy, as professor in Turin (1861) and finally in Rome (1878), where he became a senator.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Edition 1969 (Gliese, 1979)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliese, W.

    2015-11-01

    The Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Edition 1969, is a new edition of the "Katalog der Sterne naeher als 20pc fuer 1950.0" (Giiese 1957, Astron. Rechen-Inst. Heidelberg Mitt. A, 8). It contains the data available at the end of 1968 for the 915 stars of the first edition, as well as stars with parallaxes >=0.045arcsec. (1 data file).

  11. Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert (1824-87)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia), became professor of physics at Heidelberg where he collaborated with Bunsen, later professor in Berlin. With Kirchhoff's laws of electricity he extended the work of Ohm. He worked on black-body radiation and spectrum analysis. With Kirchhoff's laws of radiation he explained the dark lines in the Sun's spectrum as caused by absorption of parti...

  12. Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmadel, Lutz D.; Guski-Leinwand, Susanne

    2011-08-01

    Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after the naming of (635) Vundtia. The paper elucidates some biographical stations of Lohnert.

  13. Link Performance Analysis for a Proposed Future Architecture of the Air Force Satellite Control Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    GENSO) and its purpose was to introduce a possible technique to predict the needed length of contacts thus making more time available to all users...Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Denmark: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Rahim, K. A., Ismail, M., & Abdu , M. (2009). Satellite Link Margin...Analysis Techniques for Spacecraft Dynamic Events. Pasadena, CA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Wertz, J. R., & Larson, W. J. (1999). Space Mission Analysis

  14. Multiscale Hierarchical Decomposition of Images with Applications to Deblurring, Denoising and Segmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-04

    Tikhonov and V. A. Arsenin , Solution of Ill - posed Problems , Winston & Sons, Washington, 1977 . [Va98] V. Vapnik... Problems , Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1984. [Mo93] V.A. Morozov, Regularization Methods for Ill - Posed Problems , Florida, CRC Press, 1993. [MS89] D...functionals described below, with λ being treated as a scaling variable. We assume that the minimization problem has a solution u := uλ, and we let vλ

  15. Optical Strategies for Studying Metastatic Mechanisms, Tumor Cell Detection and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    task 1(a) to test the adhesion of PDT treated MLL cells to the extracellular matrix protein collagen IV. MLL cells were treated with 140 nM BPD for 1 h...cancer cells it is a reliable marker for the detection of circulating prostate cancer cells. We have tested the expression of PSMA in LNCaP and MLL cells...Licha, editors. Molecular Imaging: An Essential Tool in Preclinical Research, Diagnostic Imaging, and Therapy. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2005

  16. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-06-23

    23rd Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: Japan's Earth Simulator Enters Third Year in Top Position MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 23rd edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2004) at the International Supercomputer Conference in Heidelberg, Germany.

  17. Development of a Methodology for Measuring Transfer of Training Effects for Tactical Training Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Gary Kress Human Resources Research Organization S ApRt 4 g. ARI FIELD UNIT, USAREURC * U. S. Army -~ Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...Army Technical Director commander Research accomplished for the Department of the Army Human Resources Research Organization NOTICE S DISTRIBUTION...performed at the Heidelberg office of the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO), under Contract No. MDA903-78-C-2042 with the U.S. Army

  18. Pentobarbital poisoning in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Jurczynski, Kerstin; Zittlau, Erhard

    2007-12-01

    Three Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) at the Heidelberg Zoo in Germany presented with severe neurologic signs. Physical examination and diagnostic tests did not reveal a definitive diagnosis. Two days after initial presenting signs, all of the animals appeared clinically normal. An investigation into this outbreak revealed that all animals received horse meat on the evening before the incident. A toxicologic examination was initiated and serum analysis of the affected female tiger cub and the horse meat revealed contamination with pentobarbital.

  19. Beam diagnostics for the heavy ion cancer therapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andreas; Forck, Peter

    2000-11-01

    A dedicated accelerator facility for cancer treatment is planned for the university hospital in Heidelberg. At GSI the detailed layout of this heavy ion cancer therapy (HICAT) facility has been worked out. The relevant beam parameters and the required diagnostic devices are summarized for the different parts of the facility (Linac, Synchroton, transfer lines and Gantry sections). In addition, special requirements of beam diagnostics concerning the timing and control system will be discussed.

  20. Dr Alexander Graham Bell--audiologist and speech therapist.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, R C

    1976-09-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is best known for his role in the invention of the telephone. However, he had a lifelong involvement in speech therapy and audiology besides many other medical investigations. He was also awarded an honorary MD degree from Heidelberg University. In this, the 100th anniversary of his invention of the telephone, his life and some of his medical interests are briefly reviewed.

  1. From proteases to proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This personal and professional autobiography covers the 50-yr period of 1950–2000 and includes the following topics: History of the University of Washington School of Medicine and its Department of Biochemistry (Mount Rainier and the University of Washington, recruiting faculty, biology, research programs); scientific editing (publication, Biochemistry, Protein Science, electronic publication); Europe revisited (Heidelberg, approaching retirement, the German Research Center, reunion in Vienna); and 50 yr of research on proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidases, mast cell proteases, future developments). PMID:11274481

  2. Fire Suppression Properties of Very Fine Water Mist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    with the University of Heidelberg, developed an in situ oxygen sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy ( TDLAS ) to provide absolute...oxygen number densities in the presence of mist.3 Th e TDLAS oxygen sensor provides real-time, calibra- tion-free, quantitative oxygen...concentrations that are particularly important at times of high mist density. Fire Suppression Performance and Mist Behav- ior: Th e very fi ne water mist was

  3. OCT-angiography: A qualitative and quantitative comparison of 4 OCT-A devices.

    PubMed

    Munk, Marion R; Giannakaki-Zimmermann, Helena; Berger, Lieselotte; Huf, Wolfgang; Ebneter, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-01-01

    To compare the quality of four OCT-angiography(OCT-A) modules. The retina of nineteen healthy volunteers were scanned with four OCT-devices (Topcon DRI-OCT Triton Swept-source OCT, Optovue RTVue-XR, a prototype Spectralis OCT2, Heidelberg-Engineering and Zeiss Cirrus 5000-HD-OCT). The device-software generated en-face OCT-A images of the superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) were evaluated and scored by 3 independent retinal imaging experts. The SCP vessel density was assessed using Angiotool-software. After the inter-grader reliability assessment, a consensus grading was performed and the modules were ranked based on their scoring. There was no significant difference in the vessel density among the modules (Zeiss 48.7±4%, Optovue 47.9±3%, Topcon 48.3±2%, Heidelberg 46.5±4%, p = 0.2). The numbers of discernible vessel-bifurcations differed significantly on each module (Zeiss 2±0.9 bifurcations, Optovue 2.5±1.2, Topcon 1.3±0.7 and Heidelberg 0.5±0.6, p≤0.001). The ranking of each module differed depending on the evaluated parameter. In the overall ranking, the Zeiss module was superior and in 90% better than the median (Bonferroni corrected p-value = 0.04). Optovue was better than the median in 60%, Topcon in 40% and Heidelberg module in 10%, however these differences were not statistically significant. Each of the four evaluated OCT-A modules had particular strengths, which differentiated it from their competitors.

  4. A Predictive Logistic Regression Model of World Conflict Using Open Source Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Freedom House • Military • Conflict history – Heidelberg Institute of Conflict Research • Economic • Male unemployment – World Bank • GDP per capita...some of them require additional discussion. Following are expanded descriptions for these variables. Trade (% of GDP ) – This variable is the...summation of two other World Bank statistics; Imports of goods and services (% of GDP ) and Exports of goods and services (% of GDP ) Conflict in Bordering

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ENTREPRISES & TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Apr 92] 38 Alcatel To Lead Digital HDTV Project „., [Paris ELECTRONIQUE INTERNATIONAL HEBDO, 30 Apr 92] 42...Heidelberg, and in principle can be looked at there by any scientist. The work was financed by the European Community within the framework of the...certain. Following this, there will be no chance of further financing for the project. For the federal German space effort, the first contact with manned

  6. SIAM Conference on Applications of Dynamical Systems (8th) Held in Snowbird, Utah on 22-26 May 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Heidelberg, Germany "o Multiscale Approaches to Transport Modeling and Computation - Parts I and II Peter R . Kramer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute "o...and II Paul Atzberger, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Peter R . Kramer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute "o Robust Flow Stability and Control Kumar M...Germany "o Scaling and Self-Similarity in Dynamical Systems Shankar C. Venkataramani, University of Arizona Govind Menon, Brown University "o The

  7. On the Exponential Convergence of the h-p Version for Boundary Element Galerkin Methods on Polygons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    conforming Galerkin scheme converges, and we have l Lu 1 H 1/2 <C inf Iu I - / (4.8)-() WpESP-1(r,) On IH (r) Let V be the harmonic conjugate of the solution...Value Problems and Applications I. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972. [21] Nedelec , J. C., Planchard. J.: Une m~thode variationelle d

  8. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2005-06-22

    25th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/L LNL BlueGene/L and IBM gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 25th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 22, 2005) at the 20th International Supercomputing Conference (ISC2005) in Heidelberg Germany.

  9. Blocking the Metastatic Phenotype in Prostate Cancer Through Direct Inhibition of the ETV/PEA3 Transcription Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Chemistry Symposium in Chicago; European Molecule Biology Laboratories in Heidelberg; University of Utah; University of Pennsylvania; University of...Further, PI Mapp ran a tutorial for European graduate students at ISOC (Ischia, Italy) in September 2016 that focused on how chemists can impact biology ...no longer a quixotic quest. Nature chemical biology . 2015;11:891-4. 2) Cesa LC, Mapp AK, Gestwicki JE. Direct and Propagated Effects of Small

  10. Analytic Culture in the U.S. Intelligence Community: An Ethnographic Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    des Verstandes (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1931). Leo Weisgerber, Vom Weltbild der Deutschen Sprache (Dusseldorf: Padago- gischer Verlag Schwann , 1953...Cam- bridge: Harvard University Press, 1976. Mills, Theodore . “Power Relations in Three-Person Groups” in Dorwin Cart- wright and Alvin Zander...Intelligence 18 (Winter 1974) (declassified): 45–57. Sarbin, Theodore . “A Contribution to the Study of Actuarial and Individual Methods of Prediction

  11. Supplement to: Astronomical ephemerides, navigation and war. The astonishing cooperation of the ephemeris institutes of Germany, England, France and the USA during the Second World War based on documents in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. Scans of the documents. (German Title: Supplement zu: Astronomische Ephemeriden, Navigation und Krieg. Die erstaunliche Zusammenarbeit der Ephemeriden-Institute von Deutschland, England, Frankreich und den USA im Zweiten Weltkrieg nach Dokumenten im Archiv des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts. Scans der Dokumente.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    In a previous paper (Wielen R. und Wielen U. 2016a: Astronomical Ephemerides, Navigation and War), we have presented the astonishing cooperation of the ephemeris institutes of Germany, England, France and the USA during the Second World War. We were able to use numerous archivalia which we also describe and comment in that paper. In the present paper, we publish colour scans of these archivalia. All the documents shown here are held in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut in Heidelberg.

  12. [Experimental transmission of antibiotic resistance in chicks].

    PubMed

    Todorov, T; Todorova, P; Kokosharov, T

    1977-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance of Salmonella heidelberg was transmitted to normal intestinal flora (E. coli organisms were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oleandomycin. The donor strains of Salmonella heidelberg used in the experiment was a carrier of the following nine markers of resistance: ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oleandomycin. The donor strains of Salmonella heidelberg used in the experiment was a carrier of the following nine markers of resistance: ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oeandomycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oleandomycin. The resistance to drugs was transmitted with the oral administration of the donor strain at the preliminary neutralization of the action of hydrochloric acid in the stomah secretion through sodium bicarbonate (1 cm3 of a 10 per cent sol.) an hour prior to feeding the birds with Salmonella heidelberg (1 cm3 of 10(10). In other experiments carboneum tetrachloratum was injected at rates of 0.08 to 0.15 cm3 (acocrting with the body weight of birds) one day prior to infection, followed by the administration of 0.20 to 0.40 cm3 of a 2 per cent solution of omnopon. Escherichia coli organisms acquired new markers of resistance--to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin and novobiocin. The level of resistance proved equal with that to the donor strain. A total of 1.8 to 5.4 per cent of the intestinal E. coli investigated proved to be carriers of the indicated markers of resitance. Highest level in acquiring markers of multi-drug resistance (13 per cent) showed E. coli organisms isolated from the liver of birds injected additionally with C. tetrachloratum omnopon.

  13. Demonstrating Circulation in Vasculogenic Mimicry Patterns of Uveal Melanoma by Confocal Indocyanine Green Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, S; Barzel, I; Levy, J; Lin, AY; Bartsch, D-U; Majumdar, D; Folberg, R; Pe’er, J

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Vasculogenic mimicry patterns, formed by highly invasive melanoma cells, connect to endothelial cell lined blood vessels and contain fluid in vitro and in vivo. This study was designed to determine if fluid leaks into vasculogenic mimicry patterns without circulation, or if fluid circulates in and clears from these patterns. Methods Indocyanine green laser scanning confocal angiography (Heidelberg HRA, Heidelberg Engineering) was performed on 9 patients with posterior choroidal melanoma in an institutional setting. Blood was drawn before the ICG injection and from the contralateral arm of the ICG injection site and 1 minute after the injection. Outcome measures include time to first filling of retinal vessels and vasculogenic mimicry patterns and the time at which no fluorescence could be detected by the HRA instrument. After fluorescence was no longer detected in vessels or patterns, the tubes containing the patient’s blood was imaged by the Heidelberg HRA. Results Looping vasculogenic mimicry patterns were detected focally in 5 patients within 30 seconds after injection and were detectable up to 12 minutes post injection. Blood drawn before ICG injection did not autofluoresce but ICG-containing blood pooled in the tube continued to fluoresce at 1 month post injection. Conclusions Vasculogenic mimicry patterns are not part of the endothelial cell lined vascular system and fluid enters these patterns through leakage. The rapid infusion of ICG into these patterns after injection and the disappearance of fluorescence detectable by the Heidelberg HRA suggest that fluid circulates in these patterns and does not accumulate as a stagnant pool. PMID:17363922

  14. Calar Alto Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Calar Alto Observatory, or `Centro Astronomico Hispano-Aleman', is located at an altitude of 2168 m in the `Sierra de los Filabres', in southern Spain. Its construction on Calar Alto mountain began in 1973. It is operated jointly by the MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR ASTRONOMIE in Heidelberg (MPIA), Germany, and the `Comision Nacional de Astronomia'. The MPIA provides four telescopes of diameters 3....

  15. Global Topology Optimisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-31

    of the dynamics operates directly on the boundary points. To implement this, Eq. (15) is replaced by a stochastic differential equation (SDE). For...B. K. Oksendal. Stochastic differential equations : an introduction with applications. Universitext. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1998. [15...144 variables, which was solved using the non-gradient method of differential evolution. This required 15,730 function evaluations. In contrast, a

  16. Performance of the LINC NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracker at delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrobin, Matthew; Eckart, Andreas; Beckmann, Udo; Connot, Claus; Dierkes, Jens; Lindhorst, Bettina; Nußbaum, Edmund; Rost, Steffen; Smajić, Semir; Straubmeier, Christian; Wank, Imke; Bertram, Thomas; Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The LINC-NIRVANA Fringe and Flexure Tracking System has nearly completed assembly in the lab in Cologne, and will soon be ready for shipment and integration into the full LINC-NIRVANA system at MPIA Heidelberg. This paper provides an overview of the final assembly and testing phase in Cologne, concentrating on those aspects that directly affect instrument performance, including the detector performance and stability of the detector positioning system.

  17. From proteases to proteomics.

    PubMed

    Neurath, H

    2001-04-01

    This personal and professional autobiography covers the 50-yr period of 1950-2000 and includes the following topics: History of the University of Washington School of Medicine and its Department of Biochemistry (Mount Rainier and the University of Washington, recruiting faculty, biology, research programs); scientific editing (publication, Biochemistry, Protein Science, electronic publication); Europe revisited (Heidelberg, approaching retirement, the German Research Center, reunion in Vienna); and 50 yr of research on proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidases, mast cell proteases, future developments).

  18. AFOSR Chemistry Program Review (25th) FY-80,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    John E. Jensen Dr. Michael Piliavin Dr. Siu-May Wong Gary P . Myer Dr. Hong S. Lim Dr. Leroy J. Miller 7. JUNIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: Camille I. VanAst...Induced Thermal Desorption," Lennard Wharton, J. P . Cowin, D. J. Auerbach and C. Becker, Surf. Sci., 78, 545 (1978). "Chemical Dynamics Investigated by...Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1978). "UHF Application of Spring Loaded Teflon Seals," Daniel J. Auerbach , Charles A. Becker, James P . Cowin

  19. Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    100 detergent ; Serva, Heidelberg, Germany) controls for cell death were run with each set of experiments. Cell viability was also analyzed by...euthanized when tumor volumes exceeded 1000 mm3. Fresh lung, liver, bone, brain, pleural lavage fluid, and axillary lymph nodes were then extracted ...Statistical Analysis Data are expressed as means ± SD , and were analyzed by Student’s t test when only two groups were examined or by using one-way

  20. A temporal study of Salmonella serovars from fluff samples from poultry breeder hatcheries in Ontario between 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramalingam, Theva; Pearl, David L.; McEwen, Scott A.; Ojkic, Davor; Guerin, Michele T.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Salmonella, trends, major serovars, and their clusters from fluff samples, in poultry hatcheries in Ontario between 1998 and 2008. Multi-level logistic regression modelling with random effects for hatchery and sampling visit (day on which samples were collected from a hatchery) was used to identify factors [poultry breeder type, year (trend), and season] associated with the prevalence of Salmonella and a cluster detection test was used to identify clusters of common serovars. The period prevalence of Salmonella in fluff samples was 8.7% in broiler-breeders, 3.1% in layer-breeders, 13.2% in turkey-breeders, and 11.9% in other-breeder birds, such as ducks, geese, quail, partridges, and pheasants. There was an overall increasing trend in Salmonella prevalence in broiler-breeders and other-breeder birds, and a decreasing trend in layer-breeders. The 4 most common serovars identified were Salmonella Kentucky, Heidelberg, Enteritidis, and Senftenberg in broiler-breeders; Salmonella Heidelberg, Senftenberg, Braenderup, and Typhimurium in layer-breeders; Salmonella Senftenberg, Heidelberg, Saintpaul, and Montevideo in turkey-breeders; and Salmonella Enteritidis, Thompson, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg in other-breeder birds. Temporal clusters were identified for 12 of 13 serovars examined in broiler-breeders, and 4 of 4 serovars in all other poultry-breeders. The seasonal effects varied by year with the highest probability of Salmonella most often occurring in the summer, followed by the fall season. Variance components suggested that control measures should be directed at the hatchery and the sampling visit levels. Further studies are needed to identify risk factors for Salmonella in broiler-breeder, turkey-breeder, and other-breeder bird hatcheries in order to implement necessary control measures. PMID:23814352

  1. A comparative study on invasion, survival, modulation of oxidative burst, and nitric oxide responses of macrophages (HD11), and systemic infection in chickens by prevalent poultry Salmonella serovars.

    PubMed

    He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Swaggerty, Christina L; Nisbet, David J; Kogut, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    Poultry is a major reservoir for foodborne Salmonella serovars. Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg are the most prevalent serovars in U.S. poultry. Information concerning the interactions between different Salmonella species and host cells in poultry is lacking. In the present study, the above mentioned Salmonella serovars were examined for invasion, intracellular survival, and their ability to modulate oxidative burst and nitric oxide (NO) responses in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. All Salmonella serovars demonstrated similar capacity to invade HD11 cells. At 24 h post-infection, a 36-43% reduction of intracellular bacteria, in log(10)(CFU), was observed for Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg, whereas a significantly lower reduction (16%) was observed for Salmonella Enteritidis, indicating its higher resistance to the killing by HD11 cells. Production of NO was completely diminished in HD11 cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis, but remained intact when infected with Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg. Phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated oxidative burst in HD11 cells was greatly impaired after infection by each of the five serovars. When newly hatched chickens were challenged orally, a high rate (86-98%) of systemic infection (Salmonella positive in liver/spleen) was observed in birds challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Kentucky, while only 14% of the birds were Salmonella Senftenberg positive. However, there was no direct correlation between systemic infection and in vitro differential intracellular survival and modulation of NO response among the tested serovars.

  2. Central diffractive resonance production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Schicker, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    Central production of resonances resulting from the scattering of Pomerons in the central rapidity region of proton-proton scattering is studied. Estimates for relevant cross sections are presented. L.J. gratefully acknowledges an EMMI visiting Professorship at the University of Heidelberg for completion of this work. He is grateful to the organizers of this meeting for their hospitality and support. His work was supported also by DOMUS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

  3. ARC-2013-ACD13-0061-007

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-18

    Kepler News Briefing, held in the Syvertson auditorium at the NASA Ames Research Center. The briefing presented discoveries from the continuing Kepler mission (K2). The team discovered some of the smallest planets found in the habitable zone of two newly discovered planetary systems. Bill Borucki (left), Kepler Scientist, Principal Investigator, NASA Ames Lisa Kaltengger (right), Research Group Leader, Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg Germany and Research Associate, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge Massachusetts.

  4. FPGA Accelerated Discrete-SURF for Real-Time Homography Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (6326), pp. 475–484, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010. 17. R. E. Mandapat, S. Committee, D. Carl, C. Iii, D. J. Duffy...ESTIMATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

  5. Teaching and research in integrated microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Karlheinz

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we present a concept to train physics students in the field of integrated sensor design realized at the faculty of physics and astronomy at Heidelberg University (Germany). A laboratory for design and test of integrated sensor chips has been set up and a course program for physics students has been introduced. The work of the laboratory is illustrated by the presentation of a project to design and build a tactile vision substitution system based on so-called vision chips.

  6. [PHTLS team course: a pilot project. Structured student education in prehospital care of severely injured patients].

    PubMed

    Woelfl, C G; Guehring, T; Moghaddam, A; Gliwitzky, B; Schaedler, T; Gruetzner, P A; Riess, M; Frank, C B

    2012-03-01

    The training of medical school students at the University of Heidelberg seems to be improvable regarding prehospital trauma treatment compared to an established anaesthesiology-based training for medical emergencies. This study addresses the current situation and possibilities for advancing this training. A baseline was set by interviews of the medical school students. Based on this the hypothesis was postulated that there is a deficit in the education of the medical school students concerning the training in prehospital trauma treatment. This was proved by questionnaires given to the students in the 7th and 8th semesters at the University of Heidelberg Medical School. The results were evaluated and a possible approach for improvement was developed. A total of 111 questionnaires could be evaluated. It could be shown that the existing education was not effectual and that there is a need for a praxis-orientated 1-day course in prehospital trauma treatment. Especially the treatment of multiply injured patients is a challenge for young medical professionals. However, there is a high motivation to learn and train in emergency medicine. The students long for a practical trauma course compared to the advanced medical CPR course provided by the Department of Anaesthesiology of the University of Heidelberg. Those algorithm-based trauma courses do exist with PHTLS® and ATLS®. Based on these courses we developed the PHTLS® TEAM course.

  7. Frieda Fromm-Reichmann: a seminar in the history of psychiatry. VII. Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, MD: her impact on American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Stanton, A H

    1982-05-01

    When Frieda Fromm-Reichmann left Germany in 1933, she characteristically went at first only across the border to Alsace in order to finish her therapy with her patients. She and Erich Fromm had established a private psychiatric sanitarium in Heidelberg in the late 1920s, and although they closed it after four years, she continued to practice as a psychoanalyst in Heidelberg for several years. She brought with her out ot Germany an especially varied and useful psychiatric experience--including her work during World War I with brain-injured soldiers, under Kurt Goldstein; the study of "relaxation training" as a treatment under Schulz; and work in 1923 in Kraepelin's Munich clinic, where she also continued to expand her reading of Freud, whom she had discovered only recently. After her psychoanalytic training in Munich and Berlin, she moved to Heidelberg, where she treated some schizophrenic patients. These various experiences later contributed to her fully developed belief before she emigrated that the personal relations of schizophrenic patients were the touchstone to therapy.

  8. Impression cytology and in vivo confocal microscopy in corneas with total limbal stem cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Aline Lütz de; Ricardo, José Reinaldo da Silva; Sakai, Vivian Naomi; Barros, Jeison Nadai de; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2013-10-01

    To describe corneal changes seen on in vivo confocal microscopy in patients with total limbal stem cell deficiency and to correlate them with cytological findings. A prospective case series including 13 eyes (8 patients) with total limbal deficiency was carried out. Stem cell deficiency was diagnosed clinically and by corneal impression cytology. Confocal images of the central cornea were taken with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II, Rostock Corneal Module (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Impression cytology of the cornea revealed conjunctival epithelial cells and goblet cells in all cases. In vivo confocal microscopy showed disruption of normal layers of the corneal epithelium in all eyes. Confocal images showed cells with characteristics of conjunctival epithelium at the cornea in 76.9% of the total. These findings on confocal microscopy were compatible to limbal stem cell deficiency. Additionally, goblet cells, squamous metaplasia, inflammatory cells and dendritic cells were observed. The sub-basal nerve plexus was not identified in any of the corneas. Corneal neovessels were observed at the epithelium and stroma. All cases showed diffuse hyper-reflective images of the stroma corresponding to opacity of the tissue. Limbal stem cell deficiency had been confirmed by impression cytology in all cases, and 76.9% of the cases could also be diagnosed by in vivo confocal microscopy through the conjunctival epithelial cell visualization on the corneal surface. Frequent confocal microscopy findings were abnormal cells at the cornea (conjunctival epithelial, goblet and inflammatory cells), corneal neovessels and diffuse hyper-reflection of the stroma.

  9. Using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) in a regional electronic patient record for patients with malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Wolff, A C; Mludek, V; van der Haak, M; Bork, W; Bülzebruck, H; Drings, P; Schmücker, P; Wannenmacher, M; Haux, R

    2001-01-01

    Communication between different institutions which are responsible for the treatment of the same patient is of outstanding significance, especially in the field of tumor diseases. Regional electronic patient records could support the co-operation of different institutions by providing ac-cess to all necessary information whether it belongs to the own institution or to a partner. The Department of Medical Informatics, University of Heidelberg is performing a project in co-operation with the Thoraxclinic-Heidelberg and the Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg with the goal: to define an architectural concept for interlinking the electronic patient record of the two clinical institutions to build a common virtual electronic patient record and carry out an exemplary implementation, to examine composition, structure and content of medical documents for tumor patients with the aim of defining an XML-based markup language allowing summarizing overviews and suitable granularities, and to integrate clinical practice guidelines and other external knowledge with the electronic patient record using XML-technologies to support the physician in the daily decision process. This paper will show, how a regional electronic patient record could be built on an architectural level and describe elementary steps towards a on content-oriented structuring of medical records.

  10. Prophage Integrase Typing Is a Useful Indicator of Genomic Diversity in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Colavecchio, Anna; D'Souza, Yasmin; Tompkins, Elizabeth; Jeukens, Julie; Freschi, Luca; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Bekal, Sadjia; Tamber, Sandeep; Levesque, Roger C; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial species that is a major cause of illness in humans and food-producing animals. S. enterica exhibits considerable inter-serovar diversity, as evidenced by the large number of host adapted serovars that have been identified. The development of methods to assess genome diversity in S. enterica will help to further define the limits of diversity in this foodborne pathogen. Thus, we evaluated a PCR assay, which targets prophage integrase genes, as a rapid method to investigate S. enterica genome diversity. To evaluate the PCR prophage integrase assay, 49 isolates of S. enterica were selected, including 19 clinical isolates from clonal serovars (Enteritidis and Heidelberg) that commonly cause human illness, and 30 isolates from food-associated Salmonella serovars that rarely cause human illness. The number of integrase genes identified by the PCR assay was compared to the number of integrase genes within intact prophages identified by whole genome sequencing and phage finding program PHASTER. The PCR assay identified a total of 147 prophage integrase genes within the 49 S. enterica genomes (79 integrase genes in the food-associated Salmonella isolates, 50 integrase genes in S. Enteritidis, and 18 integrase genes in S. Heidelberg). In comparison, whole genome sequencing and PHASTER identified a total of 75 prophage integrase genes within 102 intact prophages in the 49 S. enterica genomes (44 integrase genes in the food-associated Salmonella isolates, 21 integrase genes in S. Enteritidis, and 9 integrase genes in S. Heidelberg). Collectively, both the PCR assay and PHASTER identified the presence of a large diversity of prophage integrase genes in the food-associated isolates compared to the clinical isolates, thus indicating a high degree of diversity in the food-associated isolates, and confirming the clonal nature of S. Enteritidis and S. Heidelberg. Moreover, PHASTER revealed a diversity of 29 different types of prophages and 23

  11. Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  12. Background studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering reactor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnolet, G.; Baker, W.; Barker, D.; Beck, R.; Carroll, T. J.; Cesar, J.; Cushman, P.; Dent, J. B.; De Rijck, S.; Dutta, B.; Flanagan, W.; Fritts, M.; Gao, Y.; Harris, H. R.; Hays, C. C.; Iyer, V.; Jastram, A.; Kadribasic, F.; Kennedy, A.; Kubik, A.; Lang, K.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Marianno, C.; Martin, R. D.; Mast, N.; McDeavitt, S.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Nakajima, K.; Newhouse, J.; Newstead, J. L.; Ogawa, I.; Phan, D.; Proga, M.; Rajput, A.; Roberts, A.; Rogachev, G.; Salazar, R.; Sander, J.; Senapati, K.; Shimada, M.; Soubasis, B.; Strigari, L.; Tamagawa, Y.; Teizer, W.; Vermaak, J. I. C.; Villano, A. N.; Walker, J.; Webb, B.; Wetzel, Z.; Yadavalli, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 m) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5-20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  13. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has not been evaluated as it is very similar to the evaluated core configuration. The benchmark eigenvalue is 1.0012 ± 0.0029. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  14. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2011-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has not been evaluated as it is very similar to the evaluated core configuration. The benchmark eigenvalue is 1.0012 ± 0.0029. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  15. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2013-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  16. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors. PMID:26450669

  17. Research program: The investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, M. S.; Philbin, J. S.; Foushee, F. C.

    1986-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multiyear joint research program being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) with support from Sandia National Laboratories and GA Technologies. This research focuses on heat removal and fluid dynamics in flow regimes characterized by low pressure and low Reynolds number. The program was motivated by a desire to characterize and analyze cooling in a broad class of TRIGA-type reactors under: (1) typical operating conditions, (2) anticipated, new operating regimes, and (3) postulated accident conditions. It has also provided experimental verification of analytical tools used in design analysis. The paper includes descriptions of the UNM thermal-hydraulics test facility and the experimental test sections. During the first two years experiments were conducted using single, electrically heated rod in water and air annuli. This configuration provides an observable and serviceable simulation of a fuel rod and its coolant channel.

  18. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  19. Phantom dosimetry calculations for use in radiation-effects correlations. Technical report, 1 April 1983-30 July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, D.C.; Roberts, J.A.; Egbert, S.D.

    1984-07-30

    Models corresponding to an adult Rhesus Monkey and a simple analogue were created in combinatorial geometry for use in Monte Carlo radiation-transport calculations. The complex monkey phantom is based on anatomical measurements of a sectioned cadaver. Adjoint Monte Carlo calculations were performed to obtain the energy- and angle-differential adjoint fluence for the mid-head, mid-thorax locations in both phantoms and active marrow in the complex monkey phantom. The results were also convoluted with free-field spectra for two TRIGA reactor exposure room configurations at the Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute, using the VCS code system. Comparisons are made between calculated and measured KERMA values in the simple phantom. Good agreement is obtained. However, it is found that good agreement cannot be obtained using simple scalar coupling.

  20. Calculation to experiment comparison of SPND signals in various nuclear reactor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbot, Loic; Radulovic, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka; Tarchalski, Mikolaj; Dewynter-Marty, Veronique; Malouch, Fadhel

    2015-07-01

    In the perspective of irradiation experiments in the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory of CEA Cadarache (France) is developing a numerical tool for SPND design, simulation and operation. In the frame of the SPND numerical tool qualification, dedicated experiments have been performed both in the Slovenian TRIGA Mark II reactor (JSI) and very recently in the French CEA Saclay OSIRIS reactor, as well as a test of two detectors in the core of the Polish MARIA reactor (NCBJ). A full description of experimental set-ups and neutron-gamma calculations schemes are provided in the first part of the paper. Calculation to experiment comparison of the various SPNDs in the different reactors is thoroughly described and discussed in the second part. Presented comparisons show promising final results. (authors)