Science.gov

Sample records for forschungszentrum fuer umwelt

  1. Science Students' Classroom Discourse: Tasha's Umwelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jenny

    2012-04-01

    Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal identities. The research reported here is unusual in its use of discourse analysis in social psychology to contribute to an understanding of the way students make meaning in secondary school science. Data constructed for the study was drawn from videotapes of nine consecutive lessons in a year-seven science classroom in Melbourne, post-lesson video-stimulated interviews with students and the teacher, classroom observation and the students' written work. The classroom videotapes were recorded using four cameras and seven audio tracks by the International Centre for Classroom Research at the University of Melbourne. Student talk within and about their science lessons was analysed from a discursive perspective. Classroom episodes in which students expressed their sense of personal identity and agency, knowledge, attitude or emotion in relation to science were identified for detailed analysis of the function of the discourse used by students, and in particular the way students were positioned by others or positioned themselves. This article presents the discursive Umwelt or life-space of one middle years science student, Tasha. Her case is used here to highlight the complex social process of meaning making in science classrooms and the need to attend to local moral orders of rights and duties in research on student language use, identity and learning in science.

  2. World, environment, Umwelt, and innerworld: a biological perspective on visual awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2013-03-01

    The world is all physical reality (Higgs bosons, and so forth), the "environment" is a geographical locality (your city, …), the "Umwelt" is the totality of possible actions of the environment on the sensitive body surface of an agent (you, your dog, …) and the possible actions of the agent on the environment (mechanical, chemical, …), whereas the "innerworld" is what it is for the agent to be, that is awareness. Awareness is pre-personal, proto-conscious, and (perhaps) proto-rational. The various "worlds" described above are on distinct ontological levels. The world, and the environment are studied in the exact sciences, the Umwelt is studied by physiology and ethology. Ethology is like behavioristic psychology, with the difference that it applies to all animals. It skips the innerworld, e.g., it considers speech to be a movement of air molecules.The innerworld can only be known through first person reports, thus is intrinsically subjective. It can only be approached through "experimental phenomenology", which is based on intersubjectivity among humans. In this setting speech may mean something in addition to the movements of molecules. These views lead to a model of vision as an "optical user interface". It has consequences for many applications.

  3. The Umwelt of an embodied agent--a measure-theoretic definition.

    PubMed

    Ay, Nihat; Löhr, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    We consider a general model of the sensorimotor loop of an agent interacting with the world. This formalises Uexküll's notion of a function-circle. Here, we assume a particular causal structure, mechanistically described in terms of Markov kernels. In this generality, we define two σ-algebras of events in the world that describe two respective perspectives: (1) the perspective of an external observer, (2) the intrinsic perspective of the agent. Not all aspects of the world, seen from the external perspective, are accessible to the agent. This is expressed by the fact that the second σ-algebra is a subalgebra of the first one. We propose the smaller one as formalisation of Uexküll's Umwelt concept. We show that, under continuity and compactness assumptions, the global dynamics of the world can be simplified without changing the internal process. This simplification can serve as a minimal world model that the system must have in order to be consistent with the internal process. PMID:26650201

  4. Cutting space-cutting body: the nature of the grotesque in umwelt.

    PubMed

    Maslov, Kirill; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2011-06-01

    We give psychological elaboration to some of Rayner's (2011) ideas. For the idea of a space and boundaries within it many psychological explanations are possible. We elaborate the boundaries as these occur in urban contexts as well as in the flow of irreversible time (between future and past). Shifting boundaries or any act of transforming them leads to changes in the understanding of the whole. Boundaries within space and between different fields-while having a physical existence-have also a symbolic component, which is specific to human beings. We reframe the dynamic concept of boundaries along the lines of Bergson's idea of durée, which allows us conceptualize boundaries between bodies and environments, as well as boundaries in the environment, as ever transforming in spaces of ambiguity and, following Bakhtin, grotesque. This opens way for treating the boundary phenomena as functionally emerging in person-environment-or, in von Uexküll's terms, organism-Umwelt relation. Following Heidegger, we conclude that through dynamic boundary-making we as species dwell in the world and make the world.

  5. 20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT TO RIGHT: RUDOLF NEBEL, FRANZ RITTER, UNKNOWN, KURT HEINISCH, UNKNOWN, HERMANN OBERTH, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL, WERNHER VON BRAUN, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL HOLDS EARLY VERSION OR MODEL FOR THE MINIMUM ROCKET, 'MIRAK'. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. Entwicklung von umwelt- und naturschutzgerechten Verfahren der landwirtschaftlichen Landnutzung für das Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Die Umsetzung von Zielen des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes in Verfahren der Landnutzung ist mit verschiedenen Schwierigkeiten verbunden. Diese liegen zum einen in der Konkretisierung der Ziele, um diese umsetzen zu können, zum anderen in vielfach unzulänglichem Wissen über den Zusammenhang zwischen unterschiedlichen Formen der Landnutzung und insbesondere den biotischen Naturschutzzielen. Zunächst wird die Problematik der Zielfestlegung und Konkretisierung erörtert. Das Umweltqualitätszielkonzept von Fürst et al. (1992) stellt einen Versuch dar, Ziele des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes zu konkretisieren. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. (1997) auf einen Landschaftsausschnitt von ca. 6000 ha im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin im Nordosten Brandenburgs angewendet. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. (1997) formulierten Umweltqualitätsziele bildet die Basis dieser Arbeit. Für die ausgewählten Umweltqualitätsziele wurden wesentliche Einflussfaktoren der Landnutzung identifiziert und ein Bewertungssystem entwickelt, mit dem die Auswirkungen von landwirtschaftlichen Anbauverfahren auf diese Umweltqualitätsziele abgebildet werden können. Die praktizierte Landnutzung von 20 Betrieben im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde von 1994 bis 1997 hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele analysiert. Die Analyse ergab ein sehr differenziertes Bild, das zum Teil Unterschiede in der Auswirkung auf die Umweltqualitätsziele für den Anbau einzelner Kulturen oder für bestimmte Betriebstypen zeigte. Es zeigte sich aber auch, dass es bei der Gestaltung des Anbaus einzelner Kulturarten große Unterschiede gab, die für Umweltqualitätsziele Bedeutung haben. Neben der Analyse der Landnutzung im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem die modellhafte

  7. Science Students' Classroom Discourse: Tasha's Umwelt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal…

  8. Exploring an ultracold Fermi-Fermi mixture: interspecies Feshbach resonances of ^6Li-^40K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Florian

    2008-03-01

    We report on the observation of interspecies Feshbach resonances in an ultracold mixture of two fermionic species, ^6Li and ^40K. Interpretation of the data unambiguously assigns molecular bound states to the various resonances and fully characterizes the ground-state scattering properties in any combination of spin states. Using this knowledge we hope to be able to produce ^6Li-^40K molecules, cool them to quantum degeneracy, and study their BEC-BCS crossover. In collaboration with: F. Schreck, Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria; E. Wille, Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria and Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Forschungszentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria; F.M. Spiegelhalder, G. Kerner, D. Naik, A. Trenkwalder, G. Hendl, Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria; R. Grimm, Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria and Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Forschungszentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria; T.G. Tiecke, J.T.M. Walraven,Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute of the University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE, The Netherlands; S.J.J.M.F. Kokkelmans, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands; E. Tiesinga, P.S. Julienne, Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8423, USA

  9. Active motion, communicative aggregations, and the spatial closure of Umwelt.

    PubMed

    Kull, K

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of a simple model of movable organisms that are supplied by semiotic force of attraction or repulsion, several general features of spatial behavior are demonstrated: (1) the stochastic spatial distribution of actively moving organisms is unstable; (2) simple or complex aggregations of organisms appear as a result of active motion; and (3) the ability for active motion ties the organisms with place. These results show that models that apply an internalist approach can considerably simplify the theory of spatial behavior of organic systems. Explanations based on the effects of Darwinian fitness may not be necessary for understanding the origin of biological aggregations.

  10. Ozone measurements along vertical transects in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Kirchner, M; Welzl, G; Hangartner, M

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the vertical profiles of air pollutants in the boundary layer, aircraft and balloon-born measurements and measurements using a cable car as an instrument platform have been performed in different parts of the Alps. This on-line monitoring of atmospheric pollutants requires expensive and sophisticated techniques. In order to control ambient air quality in remote regions, where no infrastructure like power supply is available, simple instruments are required. The objective of this study, which was coordinated and evaluated by the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit was first, to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone in different parts of the Alps and secondly, in addition to continuous analyser measurements, to test monitoring by means of two types of passive samplers. The selection of these samplers - one for one week use and another one for two week application - was based on a passive sampler intercomparison done in a preliminary study one year earlier.

  11. Nothingness and the human umwelt: a cultural-ecological approach to meaning.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jytte

    2009-12-01

    In the paper I argue that the great impact of empiricism on psychology and the enclosed dualist agenda traps psychological phenomena into subjectivism. By discussing the phenomena of nothingness in biological and cultural life it is argued that meaning must be considered as a phenomenon that represents both a fit and a misfit of the individual with the environment. By stressing the overall presence of nothingness phenomena it is argued how the reduced ontology of empiricism--and its blindness to relations and transformations out of which meaning grows--should be overcome. In human cultural life, transformations are constitutive and ongoing changes are being produced to make sure that continuity as well as discontinuity will happen. The analysis of especially one case--the removal of an Amish school after a shooting episode--serves to prove how meaning grows out of cultural processes as people produce their own conditions of life. From a cultural-ecological point of view, analyzing meaning at the level of individual phenomenology, hence, means analyzing the 'total psychological situation' (legacy of Kurt Lewin). This may for instance include analyzing how people live, what they consider important and worth preserving, what must be changed, what are their core values and how do institutional arrangements contribute to keeping up that which is valued or to changing that which is not, etc. Meaning may be viewed the lived-out experience-the domain of self-generativity in human life.

  12. Understanding and managing health and environmental risks of CIS, CGS, and CdTe photovoltaic module production and use: A workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1994-04-28

    Environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risks presented by CIS, CGS and CdTe photovoltaic module production, use and decommissioning have been reviewed and discussed by several authors. Several EH&S concerns exit. The estimated EH&S risks are based on extrapolations of toxicity, environmental mobility, and bioavailability data for other related inorganic compounds. Sparse data, however, are available for CIS, CGS or CdTe. In response to the increased interest in these materials, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been engaged in a cooperative research program with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Technology (IFT), the Institute of Ecotoxicity of the GSF Forschungszentrum fair Umwelt und Gesundheit, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to develop fundamental toxicological and environmental data for these three compounds. This workshop report describes the results of these studies and describes their potential implications with respect to the EH&S risks presented by CIS, CGS, and CdTe module production, use and decommissioning.

  13. (HFR-B1 experiment reporting and capsule disassembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.

    1991-02-22

    The traveler visited the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten, The Netherlands, the Forschungszentrum GmbH (KFA), Juelich, Germany; and the Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung (ZfK), Rossendorf, Germany, during the period January 28 through February 9. At JRC, the analysis of the experiment HFR-B1 was discussed; a new schedule for issuance of the final data report was established. Other discussions at JRC concerned the capabilities of Petten to conduct two reactor experiments being proposed under the US/FRG cooperative program and the initial results of a proof test of Germany fuel spheres. At KFA, the main emphasis was on the disassembly of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment and agreement on the examinations and tests to be conducted with the disassembled components. The disassembly of capsule 3 was observed. Extensive discussions were conducted on the work, both experimental and analytical, being conducted in the Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktor Technologie. A major portion of the experimental work is being conducted at ZfK and a visit to this laboratory, sponosored by the KFA, was made on February 6 and 7. Cooperation with the US on the experimental and analytical work in the safety area was strongly emphasized. 1 tab.

  14. Current knowledge on radon risk: implications for practical radiation protection? radon workshop, 1/2 December 2015, Bonn, BMUB (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit; Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety).

    PubMed

    Müller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Rühm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m(-3)). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. PMID:27334644

  15. Current knowledge on radon risk: implications for practical radiation protection? radon workshop, 1/2 December 2015, Bonn, BMUB (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit; Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety).

    PubMed

    Müller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Rühm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m(-3)). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop.

  16. Neue Spiele fuer den Deutschunterricht (New Games for the German Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf-Manfre, Eva

    This document includes games and activities for the German as a foreign language class. There are games designed to help students get to know one another, games to help develop vocabulary skills and grammar, and activities for role playing. A list of references and resources is included as well as an index to abbreviations and symbols. (AB)

  17. Une lecon de "Franzoesisch fuer Sie" - Niveau 1 (A Lesson of "French for You," Level 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhendler, Daniel; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Using as an example Lesson 12 from the text for adults, "Franzoesisch fur Sie" ("French for You") (Huber, Munich), a teaching outline addressed to language learners at the beginners' level is presented. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Hoer-Sprech-Uebungen fuer Iraner (Aural-Oral Exercises for Iranians).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    Exercises are presented as supplementary material for beginning classes. Many examples illustrate ways to consolidate the learned material, with particular reference to the textbook "Ich lerne Deutsch" and its pictures. Other exercises are designed to compare German and Farsi sentence structure. (IFS/WGA)

  19. The Fringe Reading Facility at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Stroemungsforschung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, F.; Meier, G. E. A.; Wegner, H.; Timm, R.; Wenskus, R.

    1987-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for optical flow measurements in a transonic wind tunnel. Holographic interferograms are reconstructed by illumination with a He-Ne-laser and viewed by a video camera through wide angle optics. This setup was used for investigating industrial double exposure holograms of truck tires in order to develop methods of automatic recognition of certain manufacturing faults. Automatic input is achieved by a transient recorder digitizing the output of a TV camera and transferring the digitized data to a PDP11-34. Interest centered around sequences of interferograms showing the interaction of vortices with a profile and subsequent emission of sound generated by this process. The objective is the extraction of quantitative data which relates to the emission of noise.

  20. Lesekurse fuer Anfaenger-Fachbereich Psychologie (Reading Courses for Beginners-Psychology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armaleo-Popper, Lore

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for psychologists, given in Italy by the author, using eight original texts by Freud and Mitscherlich. These were assigned for 40-50 hours' continuation reading at home, or were discussed in the 100-120 hours in the classroom. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  1. > Elektromobilität - Elemente, Herausforderungen, Potenziale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanselka, Holger; Jöckel, Michael

    Begrenzte Ressourcen, die CO2-Debatte und der Schutz unserer Umwelt sind beherrschende Themen in der öffentlichen Diskussion. Es ist mittlerweile Konsens, dass der effiziente Umgang mit Energie eine der vordringlichsten Herausforderungen der Zukunft darstellt.

  2. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Annual Scientific Meeting, Wiesbaden, West Germany, April 16-20, 1979, Reports. Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    The journal reports on research in flow mechanics, applied analysis and mathematical physics, along with optimization and stochastic procedures and mathematical methods for economics. Papers are presented on transport processes in a magnetized plasma, flow and heat movement between rotating disks, 3-D characteristic surfaces in the analytical method of characteristics, and a comparison of high flow theory and experimental results for supersonic flow. Attention is also given to the transient development of an electrochemical process, a Galerkin based finite difference algorithm for nonlinear branching problems, the stability of implicit Runge-Kutta procedures with parabolic differential equations, and analytical results in random fields filtering theory.

  3. Manufacturing of microcomponents in a research institute under DIN EN ISO 9001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Dieter; Karl, Bernhard; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2000-08-01

    The Institute for Microstructure Technology at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has implemented a rigorous quality management system and was certified according to the DIN ISO EN 9001 standard in January 2000.

  4. Development of a 10 kW PEM fuel cell for stationary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barthels, H.; Mergel, J.; Oetjen, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    A 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is being developed as part of a long-term energy storage path for electricity in the photovoltaic demonstration plant called PHOEBUS at the Forschungszentrum Julich.

  5. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Scientific Annual Meeting, Universitaet Hannover, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 8-12, 1990, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on applied mathematics and mechanics are presented. Among the individual topics addressed are: dynamical systems with time-varying or unsteady structure, micromechanical modeling of creep rupture, forced vibrations of elastic sandwich plates with thick surface layers, postbuckling of a complete spherical shell under a line load, differential-geometric approach to the multibody system dynamics, stability of an oscillator with stochastic parametric excitation, identification strategies for crack-formation in rotors, identification of physical parameters of FEMs, impact model for elastic and partly plastic impacts on objects, varying delay and stability in dynamical systems. Also discussed are: parameter identification of a hybrid model for vibration analysis using the FEM, vibration behavior of a labyrinth seal with through-flow, similarities in the boundary layer of fiber composite materials, distortion parameter in shell theories, elastoplastic crack problem at finite strain, algorithm for computing effective stiffnesses of plates with periodic structure, plasticity of metal-matrix composites in a mixed stress-strain space formation, constitutive equations in directly formulated plate theories, microbuckling and homogenization for long fiber composites.

  6. Plaedoyer fuer den "RCT"--Zu Peter W. Kahls "Bemerkungen" (A Plea for the Reading Comprehension Test--On Peter W. Kahl's "Bemerkungen")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Gerhard

    1977-01-01

    Rejects criticism of Kahl's position in his article on the Reading Comprehension Test (in this journal, issue no. 3, 1977), pointing out that the test is constructed according to the prescribed guidelines. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  8. Materialien und Modelle fuer den Franzoesischunterricht in der Sekundarstufe Zwei (Materials and Models for Teaching French in Grades 11-13)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frei, Alfons

    1978-01-01

    Texts available for French courses in the highest grades are listed according to topics, which include: position of women, today's youth, the language of advertising, French colonialism, holidays and tourism, modern city living, criminality, French politics. Hints for the teacher are included. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  9. Entwicklung eines Einstufungstests fuer Deutsch als Fremdsprache an der Universitaet Bonn (Developing a Placement Test for German as a Foreign Language at the University of Bonn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummer, Manfred; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses various test types, and specifically the placement test for German as a foreign language at Bonn University, describing the segments: multiple-choice questions and "fill-in" dictations based on given texts. Test content varies according to students' nationality. Grading procedures are also described. (IFS/WGA)

  10. A Semiotic Study of Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Learning and Teaching of Minority and Latino/a Immigrant Students: The Encounter of Different Umwelten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta Posada, Ana Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Semiotic paradigm and Carspecken's (1996) critical ethnography were used in a qualitative research study of elementary teachers' beliefs about minority and Latino/a immigrant students and the role of life experiences, culture and Umwelt in the formation and influence of beliefs. The participants were a kindergarten, first grade, and…

  11. Neuropathological research at the "Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Psychiatrie" (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute). Scientific utilization of children's organs from the "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Children's Special Departments) at Bavarian State Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Steger, Florian

    2006-09-01

    During National Socialism, the politically motivated interest in psychiatric genetic research lead to the founding of research departments specialized in pathological-anatomical brain research, the two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes (KWI) in Berlin and Munich. The latter was indirectly provided with brain material by Bavarian State Hospitals, to three of which "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Special Pediatric Units) were affiliated. As children became victims of the systematically conducted child "euthanasia" in these Special Pediatric Units, this paper will address the question whether and to which extent the organs from victims of child "euthanasia" were used for (neuro-) pathological research at the KWI in Munich. By means of case studies and medical histories (with focus on the situation in Kaufbeuren-Irsee), I will argue that pediatric departments on a regular base delivered slide preparations, that the child "euthanasia" conduced in these departments systematically contributed to neuropathological research and that slide preparations from victims of child "euthanasia" were used in scientific publications after 1945.

  12. Utopische Literatur im Leistungskurs Englisch. Vorschlaege fuer Planung und Durchfuehrung eines halbjaehrigen Kurses (Utopian Literature in the English Honors Course. Suggestions for Planning and Teaching a Half-Year Course)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitter, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    Gives prerequisites for participation, editions of texts used (Orwell, "1984"; Huxley, "Brave New World"; More, "Utopia") and mentions auxiliary materials. After listing aims of the course, gives suggestions as to method and organization of the course. Sketches various phases of discussion and forms for checking on learning goals. (Text is in…

  13. Integrierter Sprach- und Sachunterricht im Spanischkurs fuer Fortgeschrittene am Beispiel des Themas "La Emigracion actual" (Integrated Instruction in Language and Realia in the Advanced Spanish Course, with, as an Example, the Topic "The Present Emigration")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Ingeborg

    1975-01-01

    Advanced-level Spanish courses often lead outside everyday situations. Text, topic, language content and skill orientation form a complex of conditions for advanced learning. Consequences of significance for the learning process are discussed, with the topic "la emigracion actual" ("the present emigration") as a base. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. A General Framework of Persistence Strategies for Biological Systems Helps Explain Domains of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yafremava, Liudmila S.; Wielgos, Monica; Thomas, Suravi; Nasir, Arshan; Wang, Minglei; Mittenthal, Jay E.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism’s environmental niche: scope, umwelt, and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism’s perception of these events. The gap is the organism’s blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness, and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call “a persistence triangle.” Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback loop

  15. Akteure in der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Lüderitz, Volker

    Dieses Kapitel behandelt die Bedeutung von Akteuren in Renaturierungsprojekten. Renaturierung ist die absichtliche Veränderung der Umwelt in Richtung auf einen von den Akteuren als "naturnäher“ erachteten Zustand (Kapitel 1). Betroffen davon ist nicht nur die Umwelt der Akteure, sondern auch die Umwelt anderer. Daraus ergeben sich sowohl aktive wie passive Bezüge zur Renaturierung. Aktive und passive Rollen sind je nach Ausdehnung, Zeithorizont und Trägerschaft nicht immer trennbar, sodass die Unterscheidung in Akteure und Betroffene nur begrenzte Gültigkeit hat. Methodisch basiert die Untersuchung der Teilhabe an Renaturierung auf Akteurs- und Akzeptanzanalysen (vgl. Segert und Zierke 2004, Newig 2004). Die vorliegenden Ausführungen befassen sich schwerpunktmäßig mit dem Aspekt der Akteursanalyse. Die Frage der Akzeptanz wird kurz angesprochen (Kapitel 15, Umweltethische Aspekte). Anhand der Analyse zweier Fallstudien werden dann einige Schlussfolgerungen gezogen. Die Darstellung soll im Wesentlichen das Feld für zukünftig nötige Forschungsarbeiten strukturieren.

  16. Storage Ring Based EDM Search — Achievements and Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrach, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the experimental achievements of the JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) Collaboration to exploit and demonstrate the feasibility of charged particle Electric Dipole Moment searches with storage rings at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Recent experimental results, design and optimization of critical accelerator elements, progress in beam and spin tracking, and future goals of the R & D program at COSY are presented.

  17. 18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT (GERMAN SOCIETY FOR SPACE TRAVEL), DRIVES HIS ROCKET CAR IN 1931. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The end of 2008 cannot pass without remarking that the economic news has repeatedly strengthened the case for nuclear fusion; not perhaps to solve the immediate crises but to offer long-term security of energy supply. Although temporary, the passage of the price of oil through 100 per barrel is a portent of things to come and should bolster our collective determination to develop nuclear fusion into a viable energy source. It is with great pride, therefore, that I can highlight the contributions that the Nuclear Fusion journal has made to the research programme and the consolidation of its position as the lead journal in the field. Of course, the journal would be nothing without its authors and referees and I would like to pass on my sincere thanks to them all for their work in 2008 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2009. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion Editorial Office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most loyal referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. To select the top referees we have adopted the criterion that a researcher should have acted as a referee or adjudicator for at least two different manuscripts during the period from November 2007 to November 2008 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board members and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. According to our records the following people met this criterion. Congratulations and many, many thanks! T. Hino (Hokkaido University, Japan) M. Sugihara (ITER Cadarache, France) M. Dreval (Saskatchewan University, Canada) M. Fenstermacher (General Atomics, USA) V.S. Marchenko (Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine) G.V. Pereverzev (Max-Planck-Institut fuer

  19. De-Infinitiv oder reiner Infinitiv im Franzoesischen. Ein Beispiel fuer die Verwertung von Ergebnissen der linguistischen Grammatik in einer didaktischen Grammatik. ("De-" Infinitive or Pure Infinitive in French. An Example of the Utilization of Findings of Linguistic Grammar in a Teaching Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelbach, Dieter

    1978-01-01

    Recommends the "distributional" and transformational grammar approach as especially suitable for developing a teaching grammar for dealing with the French simple infinitive and infinitive with "de". (IFS/WGA)

  20. Allgemeine Sprachfaehigkeit und Fremdsprachenerwerb. Zur Struktur von Leistungsdimensionen und linguistischer Kompetenz des Fremdsprachenlerners (General Language Ability and Foreign Language Acquisition. On the Structure of Performance Dimensions and the Linguistic Competence of the Foreign Language Learner). Diskussions beitraege aus dem Institute fuer Bildungsforschung, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Fritz; Vollmer, Helmut J.

    This study investigates the theoretical plausibility and empirical validity of the assumption that all performance in a foreign language can be traced back to a single factor, the general language ability factor. The theoretical background of this hypothesis is reviewed in detail. The concept of a unitary linguistic competence, interpreted as an…

  1. Interim report on the post irradiation examination of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Pott, G.; Schenk, W.; Schroeder, R.; Kuehlein, W.; Buecker, H.J.; Dahmen, H.; Landsgesell, K.; Nieveler, F.

    1994-09-01

    This is an interim report on the post irradiation examination (PIE) of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment The PIE has been conducted by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and is nearing completion. After disassembly of the capsules, the examination focused on capsule components including fuel compacts, inert compacts fired in different media, graphite cylinders of different grades, unbonded coated fuel particles and unfueled graphite; in addition, heating experiments with intermittent injections of water vapor were conducted using fuel compacts and the kernels of uranium oxycarbide. Measurement involved gamma scanning and counting, photography, metallography, dimensional and weight changes, burnup determination and fission product release.

  2. Measurement of electric dipole moments at storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörg Pretz JEDI Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) is a fundamental property of a particle, like mass, charge and magnetic moment. What makes this property in particular interesting is the fact that a fundamental particle can only acquire an EDM via {P} and {T} violating processes. EDM measurements contribute to the understanding of the matter over anti-matter dominance in the universe, a question closely related to the violation of fundamental symmetries. Up to now measurements of EDMs have concentrated on neutral particles. Charged particle EDMs can be measured at storage ring. Plans at Forschungszentrum Jülich and results of first test measurements at the COoler SYnchrotron COSY will be presented.

  3. Spectral brilliance of channeling radiation at the ASTA photoinjector

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Tanaji; Lynn, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We study channeling radiation from electron beams with energies under 100 MeV. We introduce a phenomenological model of dechanneling, correct nonradiative transition rates from thermal scattering, and discuss in detail the population dynamics in low-order bound states. These are used to revisit the X-ray properties measured at the ELBE facility in Forschungszentrum Dresden–Rosenstock (FZDR), extract parameters for dechanneling states, and obtain satisfactory agreement with measured photon yields. The importance of rechanneling phenomena in thick crystals is emphasized. The model is then used to calculate the expected X-ray energies, linewidths and brilliance for forthcoming channeling radiation experiments at Fermilab's ASTA photoinjector.

  4. Rossendorf SRF-Gun Cavity Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Moeller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schamlott, A.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R.; Kamps, T.; Rudolph, J.; Schenk, M.; Klemz, G.; Will, I.; Volkov, V.

    2009-08-04

    At the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf the development and the setup of the 2nd superconducting radio frequency photo electron injector (SRF-Photo-Gun) is finished. This new injector is placed next to the existing thermionic gun of the superconducting linear accelerator ELBE. A connection between the accelerator and the SRF-Gun will provide improved beam parameters for the users at the second half of 2009. At the moment the commissioning is fully under way. We will report on important results concerning cavity commissioning like measurements of: Q vs. E, microphonics, Lorentz detuning, tuner parameters, pressure sensibility and in-situ fundamental mode field distribution calculated from measured pass band.

  5. Cryogenic Topics Associated with the Superconducting Linac Proposed for the Cosy-Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, R.; Esser, F.; Laatsch, B.; Lennartz, M.; Schug, G.; Stassen, R.

    2004-06-23

    An upgrade of the existing proton and deuteron accelerator facility COSY at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, based on a superconducting linac is under investigation. This paper will report on the cryogenic aspects of the project: The cryomodule layout will be shown and special emphasis will put on the short cold-warm transition, the heat transfer of which was calculated using finite element simulation techniques. The cavity tuner, based on fast piezo-electric actuators to adjust the resonators' frequency, will be shown as well as the adjustable power coupler that uses a cold siphon-shaped window to prevent surface contamination of the cavity during assembly and operation.

  6. Teilchenphysik SESAME - Forschung für den Frieden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopper, Herwig

    2002-01-01

    Unter der Schirmherrschaft der UNESCO entsteht in den kommenden Jahren in Jordanien ein internationales Forschungszentrum, dessen wichtigste Forschungsanlage eine Quelle für Synchrotronstrahlung sein wird. Die SESAME (Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) genannte Anlage soll auch dazu beitragen, Vertrauen und Toleranz zwischen Wissenschaftlern und Politikern aus verschiedenen Kulturkreisen und Traditionen zu fördern. Das europäische Teilchenlabor CERN diente hier in mancher Hinsicht als Vorbild. Technische Grundlage für SESAME wird das 1999 stillgelegte Berliner Synchrotron BESSY I sein.

  7. Availability measurement of grid services from the perspective of a scientific computing centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is the merger of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe. The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) was one of the first new organizational units of KIT, combining the former Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the University. IT service management according to the worldwide de-facto-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [1] was chosen by SCC as a strategic element to support the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km. The availability and reliability of IT services directly influence the customer satisfaction as well as the reputation of the service provider, and unscheduled loss of availability due to hardware or software failures may even result in severe consequences like data loss. Fault tolerant and error correcting design features are reducing the risk of IT component failures and help to improve the delivered availability. The ITIL process controlling the respective design is called Availability Management [1]. This paper discusses Availability Management regarding grid services delivered to WLCG and provides a few elementary guidelines for availability measurements and calculations of services consisting of arbitrary numbers of components.

  8. ["Directed perception", "mood", "social reinforcement". Sketches towards the historical semantics of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses three basic concepts of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. It shows first that Fleck's notion of "directed perception" is closely linked to Jakob von Uexküll's writings on the "Umwelt" of animals and humans. The article then proposes to regard the epistemological debates surrounding parapsychology as an important testing ground for the Fleckian concept of „mood“ and his concomitant hypotheses about „the tenacity of systems of opinion and the harmony of illusions". It finally argues that Fleck's modification of Wilhelm Jerusalem's idea of the "social consolidation" of knowledge helps us to understand the indebtedness of Fleck towards early functionalist sociology as well as his strong belief in "specific historical laws governing the development of ideas"The historical semantics of Fleck's works hence proves that his insights are neither marginal nor revolutionary but rather deeply rooted within scientific traditions from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  9. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  10. Working Time and the Volume of Work in Germany: The IAB Concept of Measurement. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Hans-Uwe; Koch, Susanne

    The Institut fuer Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) or Institute for Employment Research has developed a detailed working time and volume of work measurement concept in order to more comprehensively assess the demand for labor. The individual components of working time in Germany are obtained from various data sources and combined to form…

  11. Analysen zum Unterrichtshandeln - Band 5, IDM-Reihe, Untersuchungen zum Mathematikunterricht. (Analysis of Instructional Actions - Volume 5, IDM Series, Inquiries into Mathematics Instruction.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauersfeld, Heinrich; And Others

    This set of five papers, written in German with abstracts in English, was collected by the Institut fuer Didaktit der Mathematik (Institute for the Teaching of Mathematics) at the University of Bielefeld in West Germany. In the first paper, Bauersfeld used a transcript of a videotaped scene of group work out of school as a basis for analyzing…

  12. Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik-Analysen zum Unterrichtshandeln II - Band 6, IDM-Reihe, Untersuchungen zum Mathematikunterricht. (Learning and Teaching of Mathematics - Analysis of Instructional Actions II - Volume 6, IDM Series, Inquiries into Mathematics Instruction.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauersfeld, Heinrich; And Others

    This set of five papers, written in German with abstracts in English, was collected by the Institut fuer Didaktit der Mathematik (Institute for the Teaching of Mathematics) at the University of Bielefeld in West Germany. In the first paper, Bauersfeld considers domains of subjective experiences as the best issue for an interactive theory of…

  13. BKG/DGFI Combination Center Annual Report 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Loesler, Michael; Heinkelmann, Robert; Gerstl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, BKG) and the German Geodetic Research Institute (Deutsches Geodaetisches Forschungsinstitut, DGFI)BKG/DGFI Combination Center in 2011 and outlines the planned activities for the year 2012. The main focus was to stabilize outlier detection and to update the Web presentation of the combined products.

  14. 22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS THE ENGINE IS FOR THE VFR'S (VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT) 4 STICK REPULSOR. ENGINE IN PHOTOS IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX (NOTICE THE FROST FORMING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK BEHIND THE LADDER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. The Biodemography of Fertility: A Review and Future Research Frontiers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Melinda C; Tropf, Felix C

    In sozialwissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen von Fertilitätsentscheidungen und –verhalten sind biodemographische Ansätze bislang kaum integriert worden, was zu überwiegend sozial-deterministischen Theorien und Befunden geführt hat. Der vorliegende Beitrag diskutiert zunächst die Gründe für diese weitgehend fehlende Integration, gibt dann einen Überblick über frühere Untersuchungen, fasst die bisher vorliegenden Erkenntnisse zusammen und zeigt schließlich Perspektiven zukünftiger Forschung auf. Ausgehend von grundlegenden Arbeiten zu den proximalen Determinanten der Fertilität werden verhaltensgenetische (Familien- und Zwillings-)Studien besprochen, die das Ausmaß genetischer Einflüsse auf Fertilitätsmerkmale isolieren konnten. Anschließend wird die Forschung zur Gen-Umwelt-Interaktion, zur Bedeutung von kohorten- und länderspezifischen Analysen sowie von Modellen, die Bildung und Fertilitätsentscheidungen vorausgehende Motivlagen berücksichtigen, betrachtet. Darüber hinaus werden Möglichkeiten und Grenzen molekulargenetischer Studien besprochen, bevor schließlich ein kurzer Überblick über Arbeiten aus der evolutionären Anthropologie und Biologie mit einem Fokus auf den Aspekt der natürlichen Auslese gegeben wird. Es zeigt sich, dass biologische und genetische Faktoren für das Verständnis und die Vorhersage von Fertilitätsmerkmalen relevant sind und dass ihre Interaktion mit sozialen Umweltfaktoren zentral für das Verständnis von Fertilitätsoutcomes ist. Für die Vorhersage zukünftiger Fertilitätstrends wird die Untersuchung des Zusammenspiels von Gen-Umwelt-Faktoren sowie die Nutzbarmachung neuer Datenquellen und die Integration neuer Methoden eine wesentliche Rolle spielen.

  16. Avalanche risk assessment for mountain roads - a comparison of case studies from Iceland and the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wastl, M.; Stötter, J.

    2009-04-01

    ðarvegur between Siglufjörður and Straumnes in northern Iceland (Wastl et al. 2008). The total length of the public road network in Iceland is ca. 13000 km, mostly low-volume roads outside built-up areas. Almost 10500 km of these roads are open all year. Substantial parts of the public road network e.g. in central northern Iceland, northwestern and eastern Iceland lie in alpine mountain areas and are affected by characteristic natural hazard processes. Though the resulting road maintenance costs are considerable there is no general overview of the natural hazard situation up to now. The case study for Siglufjarðarvegur shows that a regional scale risk based approach is practical to determine, analyse and assess the natural hazard situation on mountain roads in Iceland and helps to assign priorities in following detailed investigations and the planning of measures. Thus road sections of a high risk level which should be given priority for possible protective measures can be identified and distinguished from areas of avalanche hazard where the collective avalanche death risk is low and acceptable according to international practice. The calculated risks can further be reduced by measures like temporary closing of parts of the road, which can bring the risk to an acceptable level almost everywhere in the investigated road section. This requires, however, a systematic monitoring of the development of the natural hazard situation along the road. The cumulative risk for the investigated section of Siglufjarðarvegur, for the case that no measures of avalanche prevention or control or temporary closing of the road are taken, agrees well with values determined for mountain roads in the Alps. References Borter P. (1999a) Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (ed) Umwelt-Materialien 107/I Naturgefahren, Bern. Borter P. (1999b) Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Fallbeispiele und Daten. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald

  17. Physics at COSY-Juelich

    SciTech Connect

    Stroeher, Hans

    2011-10-21

    COSY, a storage and cooler synchrotron, which is fed by an injector cyclotron, is operated at Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). It provides phase space cooled polarized or unpolarized beams of protons and deuterons with momenta between 0.3 and 3.7 GeV/c for internal experiments and to external target stations. The major experimental facilities, used for the ongoing physics program, are ANKE and WASA (internal) and TOF (external). A new internal target station to investigate polarization build-up by spin-filtering (PAX) has recently been commissioned. COSY is the machine for hadron spin physics on a world-wide scale, which is also used for tests in conjunction with plans to build a dedicated storage ring for electric dipole moment (EDM) measurements of proton, deuteron and {sup 3}He. In this contribution recent results as well as future plans are summarized.

  18. Cornelius Schiller (1961-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenlof, Karen; Müller, Rolf

    2012-08-01

    Cornelius Schiller, an international leader in high-altitude water vapor measurements and quality assessment who took charge of several research campaigns and mentored many young scientists, passed away on 3 March 2012 in Neuss, Germany, after a battle with cancer. He was 50 years old. Cornelius spent his childhood and most of his life in the Niederrhein region of Germany, close to Düsseldorf. He studied physics at the University of Bonn, and his developing interest in the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere led him to work with Dieter Ehhalt at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (Research Centre Jülich) in Germany. Cornelius' career started shortly after the discovery of the ozone hole, and he had the opportunity to participate in the first large-scale ozone measurement campaign in the Arctic, known as the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, during January and February 1989; he contributed airborne observations of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine substances.

  19. (Fuel, fission product, and graphite technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.

    1990-07-25

    Travel to the Forschungszentrum (KFA) -- Juelich described in this report was for the purpose of participating in the annual meeting of subprogram managers for the US/DOE Umbrella Agreement for Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Technology. At this meeting the highlights of the cooperative exchange were reviewed for the time period June 1989 through June 1990. The program continues to contribute technology in an effective way for both countries. Revision 15 of the Subprogram Plan will be issued as a result of the meeting. There was interest expressed by KFA management in the level of support received from the NPR program and in potential participation in the COMEDIE loop experiment being conducted at the CEA.

  20. First Results on Strangeness Production from the ANKE Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barsov, S.; Bechstedt, U.; Borchert, G.; Borgs, W.; Buescher, M.; Debowski, M.; Drochner, M.; Erven, W.; Esser, R.; Fedorets, P.; Gotta, D.; Hartmann, M.; Junghans, H.; Kacharava, A.; Kamys, B.; Klehr, F.; Koch, H.R.; Komarov, V.I.; Koptev, V.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Kurbatov, V. Macharashvili, G.; Maier, R.; Mikirtytiants, S. Merzliakov, S.; Mueller, H.; Mussgiller, A.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Petrus, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Pysz, K.; Rathmann, F.; Rimarzig, B.; Rudy, Z.; Schleichert, R.; Schneider, Chr.; Schneider, H.; Schult, O.W.B.; Seyfarth, H.; Sistemich, K.; Stein, H.J.; Stroeher, H.; Wuestner, P.; ANKE Collaboration

    2000-12-31

    ANKE is a second-generation experimental facility at the internal beam of the accelerator COSY at the Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). It has recently (May 1998) been installed in the ring, commissioned, and immediately after this exploited for the first experiments. Using circulating beams of protons with energy between 1.0 and 2.3 GeV, sub- and near-threshold production of K{sup +} mesons in collision with carbon-strip targets has been investigated. The detection system of ANKE used for the first measurements is capable of detecting positively charged ejectiles in the momentum range between about 100 and 600 MeV/c. In particular, it has been optimized for K{sup +} identification in the presence of an intense background of protons and pions. The final results of the experiments (cross sections and momentum spectra) will be used to obtain more detailed information on the subthreshold production mechanism.

  1. Magnetic field distribution inside the aperture of a steerer magnet prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriţă, Ionel; Dan, Daniel; Tănase, Nicolae

    2015-11-01

    The High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), an important part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) international project [1], which will be set up in Darmstadt in the next years, contains, among other magnets, several corrector magnets used for vertical and horizontal beam deviation. A prototype of a 2mrad vertical steerer magnet was designed by National Institute for R&D in Electrical Engineering (ICPE-CA) Romania in close cooperation with Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany [2] and then manufactured and tested by ICPE-CA [3], Romanian Institute for Electrical Engineering—Advanced Research. Magnetic field measurements using a 3D Hall probe were performed. Measured data and their analysis are presented. The system used for Hall probe positioning and data acquisition is also described.

  2. Development of a moderator system for the High Brilliance Neutron Source project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabruck, J. P.; Cronert, T.; Rücker, U.; Bessler, Y.; Klaus, M.; Lange, C.; Butzek, M.; Hansen, W.; Nabbi, R.; Brückel, T.

    2016-11-01

    The project for an accelerator based high brilliance neutron source HBS driven by Forschungszentrum Jülich forsees the use of the nuclear Be(p,n) or Be(d,n) reaction with accelerated particles in the lower MeV energy range. The lower neutron production compared to spallation has to be compensated by improving the neutron extraction process and optimizing the brilliance. Design and optimiziation of the moderator system are conducted with MCNP and will be validated with measurements at the AKR-2 training reactor by means of a prototype assembly where, e.g., the effect of different liquid H2 ortho/para ratios will be investigated and controlled in realtime via online heat capacity measurements.

  3. Low temperature embrittlement behaviour of different ferritic-martensitic alloys for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.

    1996-10-01

    In the last few years a lot of different low activation CrWVTa steels have been developed world-wide. Without irradiation some of these alloys show clearly a better low temperature embrittlement behaviour than commercial CrNiMoV(Nb) alloys. Within the MANITU project a study was carried out to compare, prior to the irradiation program, the embrittlement behaviour of different alloys in the unirradiated condition performing instrumented Charpy impact bending tests with sub-size specimens. The low activation materials (LAM) considered were different OPTIFER alloys (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe), F82H (JAERI), 9Cr2WVTa (ORNL), and GA3X (PNL). The modified commercial 10-11% CrNiMoVNb steels were MANET and OPTIMAR. A meaningful comparison between these alloys could be drawn, since the specimens of all materials were manufactured and tested under the same conditions.

  4. Analysis of CREVONA sodium loop material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Vaidehi; Ganesan, V.; Borgstedt, H. U.

    2003-02-01

    Stainless steel specimens equivalent to AISI type 304 taken from the CREVONA sodium loop (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany), which was operated for more than 80 000 h, were analysed for microstructures and changes in chemical composition of depleted layers using SEM/EDAX. SEM micrographs were obtained in the cross-section of the specimens to reveal the thickness of the corroded layer. EDX analysis confirms depletion of Ni and Cr in the corroded layer. The leaching rates of chromium and nickel are obtained from the depleted layer width. These results are compared with the degraded layer and corrosion resistant node formation in sodium-exposed AISI type 316 SS specimens. The corroded layer widths of the specimens taken from the CREVONA loop determined using known models for life prediction like those proposed by Thorley and Tyzack are found to be much less than the actual layer widths observed experimentally after sodium exposure. The materials were exposed to flowing sodium for about 10 years.

  5. New developments at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at ANKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendebach, B.; Dardenne, K.; Denecke, M. A.; Rothe, J.; Vitova, T.

    2007-11-01

    The INE-Beamline for actinide research at the synchrotron source Ångströmquelle Karlsruhe (ANKA) completed its first year of operation in October 2006. Experiments on radioactive samples with activities up to 10 6 times the limit of exemption at X-ray energies from around 2.1 keV (P K-edge) to 25 keV (Pd K-edge) are possible. Three recent instrumental developments at the Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE)-Beamline are presented: a Quick-XAFS mode of operating the Lemonnier-type monochromator in fixed exit for time-resolved experiments, total electron yield detection, and the use of one-dimensional compound refractive lenses, fabricated at the Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT) at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), as a virtual slit for surface sensitive X-ray studies. Future upgrades for lowering the attainable energy, installing a microfocus option, and commissioning a cryostat for radioactive samples are planned.

  6. Investigations on sump cooling after core melt down

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, J.U.

    1995-09-01

    This article presents the basic physical phenomena and scaling criteria of decay heat removal from a large coolant pool by single-phase and two-phase natural circulation flow. The physical significance of the dimensionless similarity groups derived is evaluated. The above results are applied to the SUCO program that is performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The SUCO program is a three-step series of scaled model experiments investigating the possibility of an optional sump cooling concept for the European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR. This concept is entirely based on passive safety features within the containment. The work is supported by the German utilities and the Siemens dimensional SUCOS-2D test facility. The experimental results of the model geometry are transformed to prototypic conditions.

  7. [Systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases competence network].

    PubMed

    Rufenach, C; Burmester, G-R; Zeidler, H; Radbruch, A

    2004-04-01

    The foundation of the competence network for rheumatology, which is funded by the "Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung" (BMBF) since 1999, succeeded to create a unique research structure in Germany: medical doctors and scientists from six university rheumatology centres (Berlin, Düsseldorf, Erlangen, Freiburg, Hannover und Lübeck/Bad Bramstedt) work closely together with scientists doing basic research at the Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ), with rheumatological hospitals, reha-clinics, and rheumatologists. Jointly they are searching for causes of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and try to improve therapies-nationwide and with an interdisciplinary approach. The primary objective of this collaboration is to transfer new scientific insights more rapidly in order to improve methods for diagnosis and patients treatment.

  8. Interface science of controlled metal/metal and metal/ceramic interfaces prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.; Campbell, G.H.; Coombs, A.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Kelly, B.E.; Reitz, T.C.; Stoner, S.L.; Wien, W.L.; Wilson, D.M.

    1993-04-01

    We have designed, constructed, and are operating a capability for production of controlled homophase and heterophase interfaces: an ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding machine. This machine is based on a previous design which is operating at the Max Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Stuttgart, FRG. In this method, flat-polished single or polycrystals of materials with controlled surfaced topography can be heat treated up to 1500C in ultrahigh vacuum. Surfaces of annealed samples can be sputter cleaned and characterized prior to bonding. Samples can then be precisely aligned crystallographically to obtain desired grain boundary misorientations. Material couples can then be bonded at temperatures up to 1500C and pressures up to 10 MPa. Results are presented from initial work on Mo grain boundaries and Cu/Al{sub 2}A{sub 3} interfaces.

  9. European whole body counter measurement intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Thieme, M; Hunt, E L; König, K; Schmitt-Hannig, A; Gödde, R

    1998-04-01

    In order to test the common quality standards for the performance of measurements of internal radioactivity, the European Commission funded a European intercomparison of whole body counters, which was organized and carried out by the Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene (part of the German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). Forty-four whole body counting facilities from forty-two institutions in nineteen countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union plus Hungary, the Czech Republic, Switzerland and Norway) took part in this intercomparison, which made it the most comprehensive ever carried out in Europe. For the study, the 70 kg tissue equivalent St Petersburg phantom was used with rods containing 40K, 57Co, 60Co, and 137Cs. The overall results of the whole body counter study were rather good.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Edition 1969 (Gliese, 1979)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliese, W.

    2015-11-01

    The Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Edition 1969, is a new edition of the "Katalog der Sterne naeher als 20pc fuer 1950.0" (Giiese 1957, Astron. Rechen-Inst. Heidelberg Mitt. A, 8). It contains the data available at the end of 1968 for the 915 stars of the first edition, as well as stars with parallaxes >=0.045arcsec. (1 data file).

  11. Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

  12. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for in-flight experiments under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt

    Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peter-diedrich.hansen@tu-berlin.de Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The

  13. MoZis: mobile zoo information system: a case study for the city of Osnabrueck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a new project of the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing, funded by the German Federal Foundation for the Environment (DBU, Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt www.dbu.de). The goal of this project is to develop a mobile zoo information system for Pocket PCs and Smart phones. Visitors of the zoo will be able to use their own mobile devices or use Pocket PCs, which could be borrowed from the zoo to navigate around the zoo's facilities. The system will also provide additional multimedia based information such as audio-based material, animal video clips, and maps of their natural habitat. People could have access to the project at the zoo via wireless local area network or by downloading the necessary files using a home internet connection. Our software environment consists of proprietary and non-proprietary software solutions in order to make it as flexible as possible. Our first prototype was developed with Visual Studio 2003 and Visual Basic.Net.

  14. "Ein Liebhaber des Mysterii, und ein grosser Verwandter desselben." Toward the Life of Balthasar Walther: Kabbalist, Alchemist and Wandering Paracelsian Physician.

    PubMed

    Penman, Leigh T I

    2010-01-01

    Despite the attention recently paid to Jakob Böhme's life and works, the Görlitz theosopher's most famous disciple, Balthasar Walther (1558-c.1630), remains something of a historical puzzle. Utilizing several recently rediscovered print and manuscript sources located by the author, the present article seeks to provide the first detailed biographical study of Walther, highlighting his significance to sixteenth and seventeenth century history in a myriad of contexts. Far from being merely a follower of Böhme, Walther emerges as significant in his own right as a physician, Paracelsian, Kabbalist, Weigelian, religious heretic, and distributor of magical manuscripts, whose personal networks extended across Europe and beyond. In addition to providing a biography, this article seeks to discover new avenues of enquiry in which information concerning Walther's life and thought might be uncovered and contextualized. This investigation simultaneously throws light upon Walther himself, as well as Jakob Böhme's often neglected intellectual and social Umwelt. It also points to new and entirely unexamined sources for Böhme's thought. PMID:21294442

  15. Functional Information: Towards Synthesis of Biosemiotics and Cybernetics

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2012-01-01

    Biosemiotics and cybernetics are closely related, yet they are separated by the boundary between life and non-life: biosemiotics is focused on living organisms, whereas cybernetics is applied mostly to non-living artificial devices. However, both classes of systems are agents that perform functions necessary for reaching their goals. I propose to shift the focus of biosemiotics from living organisms to agents in general, which all belong to a pragmasphere or functional universe. Agents should be considered in the context of their hierarchy and origin because their semiosis can be inherited or induced by higher-level agents. To preserve and disseminate their functions, agents use functional information - a set of signs that encode and control their functions. It includes stable memory signs, transient messengers, and natural signs. The origin and evolution of functional information is discussed in terms of transitions between vegetative, animal, and social levels of semiosis, defined by Kull. Vegetative semiosis differs substantially from higher levels of semiosis, because signs are recognized and interpreted via direct code-based matching and are not associated with ideal representations of objects. Thus, I consider a separate classification of signs at the vegetative level that includes proto-icons, proto-indexes, and proto-symbols. Animal and social semiosis are based on classification, and modeling of objects, which represent the knowledge of agents about their body (Innenwelt) and environment (Umwelt). PMID:22368439

  16. Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of electromagnetic fields on the health of humans and animals is still an intensively discussed and scientifically investigated issue (Prakt Tierarzt 11:15-20, 2003; Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 17:326-332, 2004; J Toxicol Environment Health, Part B 12:572–597, 2009). We are surrounded by numerous electromagnetic fields of variable strength, coming from electronic equipment and its power cords, from high-voltage power lines and from antennas for radio, television and mobile communication. Particularly the latter cause’s controversy, as everyone likes to have good mobile reception at anytime and anywhere, whereas nobody wants to have such a basestation antenna in their proximity. Results In this experiment, the NIR has resulted in changes in the enzyme activities. Certain enzymes were disabled, others enabled by NIR. Furthermore, individual behavior patterns were observed. While certain cows reacted to NIR, others did not react at all, or even inversely. Conclusion The present results coincide with the information from the literature, according to which NIR leads to changes in redox proteins, and that there are individuals who are sensitive to radiation and others that are not. However, the latter could not be distinctly attributed – there are cows that react clearly with one enzyme while they do not react with another enzyme at all, or even the inverse. The study approach of testing ten cows each ten times during three phases has proven to be appropriate. Future studies should however set the post-exposure phase later on. PMID:24946856

  17. Domesticating nature? Surveillance and conservation of migratory shorebirds in the "Atlantic Flyway".

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kristoffer

    2014-03-01

    Using a recent environmental controversy on the U.S. east coast over the conservation of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) as a lens, I present a history of North American efforts to understand and conserve migratory shorebirds. Focusing on a few signal pieces of American legislation and their associated bureaucracies, I show the ways in which migratory wildlife have been thoroughly enrolled in efforts to quantify and protect their populations. Interactions between wildlife biologists and endangered species have been described by some scholars as "domestication"-a level of surveillance and intervention into nonhuman nature that constitutes a form of dependence. I pause to reflect on this historical trajectory, pointing out the breaks and continuities with older forms of natural history. Using the oft-mobilized Foucauldian metaphor of the panopticon as a foil, I question the utility and ethics of too-easily declaring "domesticated" wildlife an act of "biopower." Instead, I argue that Jacob von Uexküll's "umwelt" from early ecology and ethology, and more contemporary Science and Technology Studies (STS) analyses emphasizing multiple ontologies, offer more illuminating accounts of endangered species science. Neither science, conservation, nor history are well-served by the conflation of wildlife "surveillance" with the language of Foucauldian discipline.

  18. Functional Information: Towards Synthesis of Biosemiotics and Cybernetics.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2010-04-27

    Biosemiotics and cybernetics are closely related, yet they are separated by the boundary between life and non-life: biosemiotics is focused on living organisms, whereas cybernetics is applied mostly to non-living artificial devices. However, both classes of systems are agents that perform functions necessary for reaching their goals. I propose to shift the focus of biosemiotics from living organisms to agents in general, which all belong to a pragmasphere or functional universe. Agents should be considered in the context of their hierarchy and origin because their semiosis can be inherited or induced by higher-level agents. To preserve and disseminate their functions, agents use functional information - a set of signs that encode and control their functions. It includes stable memory signs, transient messengers, and natural signs. The origin and evolution of functional information is discussed in terms of transitions between vegetative, animal, and social levels of semiosis, defined by Kull. Vegetative semiosis differs substantially from higher levels of semiosis, because signs are recognized and interpreted via direct code-based matching and are not associated with ideal representations of objects. Thus, I consider a separate classification of signs at the vegetative level that includes proto-icons, proto-indexes, and proto-symbols. Animal and social semiosis are based on classification, and modeling of objects, which represent the knowledge of agents about their body (Innenwelt) and environment (Umwelt).

  19. PREFACE: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Europhysics Conference `Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III' (NPA3) took place from 26 31 March 2007 in Dresden, Germany, hosted by Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The present special issue of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics contains all peer-reviewed contributions to the proceedings of this conference. NPA3 is the third conference in the Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics series of conferences devoted to the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. The first and second editions of the series were held in 2002 and 2005 in Debrecen, Hungary. NPA3 has been organized under the auspices of the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society as its XXI Divisional Conference. The conference marks the 50th anniversary of the landmark paper B2FH published in 1957 by E M Burbidge, G R Burbidge, W A Fowler and F Hoyle. A public lecture by Claus Rolfs (Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany) commemorated the progress achieved since 1957. NPA3 aimed to bring together experimental and theoretical nuclear physicists, astrophysicists and astronomers to address the important part played by nuclear physics in current astrophysical problems. A total of 130 participants from 71 institutions in 26 countries attended the conference, presenting 33 invited and 38 contributed talks and 25 posters on six subject areas. The astrophysical motivation and the nuclear tools employed to address it are highlighted by the titles of the subject areas: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Stellar Nucleosynthesis and Low Cross Section Measurement Explosive Nucleosynthesis and Nuclear Astrophysics with Photons Nuclei far from Stability and Radioactive Ion Beams Dense Matter in Neutron Stars and Relativistic Nuclear Collisions Neutrinos in Nuclear Astrophysics The presentations and discussions proved that Nuclear Astrophysics is a truly interdisciplinary subject. The remarkable progress in astronomical observations achieved in recent years is matched by advances in

  20. Spectral radiance calibrations between 165-300 nm - An interlaboratory comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, J. M.; Ott, W. R.; Pitz, E.; Schulz, A.; Einfeld, D.; Stuck, D.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral radiance of deuterium lamps calibrated by the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPI), by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS), and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are compared to check the agreement of UV radiometric scales. The NBS group used the optically thin continuum radiation from a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc as its fundamental radiometric standard, while the MPI and PTB groups used the synchrotron radiation facility in DESY. It is found that the spectral radiance scales based upon the DESY synchrotron and the NBS hydrogen arc are consistent, at least for one wavelength relative to another.

  1. Roentgensatellit (ROSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenbiehl, F.; Ousley, G. W., Sr.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for ROSAT (Roentgensatellit) are summarized. ROSAT is an international cooperative program between NASA and the Bundesministerium fuer Forschung and Technologie (BMFT). The satellite was launched on a Delta 2 vehicle and placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 580 km, with a 53-deg inclination. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry and command; and tracking support responsibility.

  2. STORAGE RING MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRON IMPACT IONIZATION FOR Mg{sup 7+} FORMING Mg{sup 8+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Wolf, A.

    2010-04-01

    We report electron impact ionization cross section measurements for Mg{sup 7+} forming Mg{sup 8+} at center of mass energies from approximately 200 eV to 2000 eV. The experimental work was performed using the heavy-ion storage ring TSR located at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. We find good agreement with distorted wave calculations using both the GIPPER code of the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Code suite and using the Flexible Atomic Code.

  3. Current status of fusion-relevant covariance data

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.W.

    1994-09-12

    The following review of the current status of formatted data covariance files and their multigroup processing is a contribution to the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ``Improved Evaluations and Integral Data Testing for FENDL,`` to be held at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany, 12--16 September 1994. The draft agenda of this meeting lists as Item 6 the ``assessment of present status and role of uncertainty files, their processing and sensitivity studies related to FENDL.`` We conclude that this is an important and timely topic and recommend needed actions in this field.

  4. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, Stephan; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Holzaepfel, Frank; VanValkenburg, Randal L.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  5. Barrel time-of-flight detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, L.; Brunner, S. E.; Marton, J.; Orth, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2016-07-01

    The barrel time-of-flight detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR is foreseen as a Scintillator Tile (SciTil) Hodoscope based on several thousand small plastic scintillator tiles read-out with directly attached Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The main tasks of the system are an accurate determination of the time origin of particle tracks to avoid event mixing at high collision rates, relative time-of-flight measurements as well as particle identification in the low momentum regime. The main requirements are the use of a minimum material amount and a time resolution of σ < 100 ps. We have performed extensive optimization studies and prototype tests to prove the feasibility of the SciTil design and finalize the R&D phase. In a 2.7 GeV/c proton beam at Forschungszentrum Jülich a time resolution of about 80 ps has been achieved using SiPMs from KETEK and Hamamatsu with an active area of 3 × 3mm2. Employing the Digital Photon Counter from Philips a time resolution of about 30 ps has been reached.

  6. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  7. Observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and organic nitrate yields from NO3 oxidation of isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, A. W.; Fry, J. L.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Brown, S. S.; Fuchs, H.; Dube, W.; Mensah, A.; Tillmann, R.; Dorn, H.; Brauers, T.; Cohen, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Formation of organic nitrates and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the NO3 oxidation of isoprene has been studied at atmospheric concentrations of VOC (10 ppb) and oxidant (<100 ppt NO3) in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. Cavity Ringdown (CaRDS) and thermal dissociation - CaRDS measurements of NO3 and N2O5 as well as Thermal Dissociation - Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) detection of alkyl nitrates (RONO2) and Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements of aerosol composition were all used in comparison to a Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) based chemical kinetics box model to quantify the product yields from two stages in isoprene oxidation. We find significant yields of organic nitrate formation from both the initial isoprene + NO3 reaction (71%) as well as from the reaction of NO3 with the initial oxidation products (30% - 60%). Under these low concentration conditions (~1 μg / m3), measured SOA production was greater than instrument noise only for the second oxidation step. Based on the modeled chemistry, we estimate an SOA mass yield of 10% (relative to isoprene mass reacted) for the reaction of the initial oxidation products with NO3. This yield is found to be consistent with the estimated saturation concentration (C*) of the presumed gas products of the doubly oxidized isoprene, where both oxidations lead to the addition of nitrate, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups.

  8. Systematics of magnetic dipole strength in the stable even-mass Mo isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Erhard, M.; Frauendorf, S.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Käubler, L.; Kosev, K.; Kostov, L. K.; Mallion, S.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.; Garrel, H. Von; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Kreutz, M.; Pitz, H. H.; Scheck, M.; Stedile, F.; Brentano, P. Von; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Pietralla, N.; Werner, V.

    2006-04-01

    The nuclides Mo92, Mo98, and Mo100 have been studied in photon-scattering experiments by using bremsstrahlung produced at an electron energy of 6 MeV at the ELBE accelerator of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf and at electron energies from 3.2 to 3.8 MeV at the Dynamitron accelerator at the University of Stuttgart. Six dipole transitions in Mo98 and 19 in Mo100 were observed for the first time in the energy range from 2 to 4 MeV. The experimental results are compared with predictions of the shell model and with predictions of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) in a deformed basis. The latter show significant contributions of isovector-orbital and isovector-spin vibrations. The change of the magnetic dipole strength in the isotopic chain of the even-mass isotopes from Mo92 to Mo100 is discussed. The calculations within the QRPA are extrapolated to the particle-separation energies to estimate the possible influence of M1 strength on the stability of the nuclides against photodissociation in cosmic scenarios.

  9. Investigating local controls on soil moisture temporal stability using an inverse modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogena, Heye; Qu, Wei; Huisman, Sander; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    A better understanding of the temporal stability of soil moisture and its relation to local and nonlocal controls is a major challenge in modern hydrology. Both local controls, such as soil and vegetation properties, and non-local controls, such as topography and climate variability, affect soil moisture dynamics. Wireless sensor networks are becoming more readily available, which opens up opportunities to investigate spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture with unprecedented resolution. In this study, we employed the wireless sensor network SoilNet developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich to investigate soil moisture variability of a grassland headwater catchment in Western Germany within the framework of the TERENO initiative. In particular, we investigated the effect of soil hydraulic parameters on the temporal stability of soil moisture. For this, the HYDRUS-1D code coupled with a global optimizer (DREAM) was used to inversely estimate Mualem-van Genuchten parameters from soil moisture observations at three depths under natural (transient) boundary conditions for 83 locations in the headwater catchment. On the basis of the optimized parameter sets, we then evaluated to which extent the variability in soil hydraulic conductivity, pore size distribution, air entry suction and soil depth between these 83 locations controlled the temporal stability of soil moisture, which was independently determined from the observed soil moisture data. It was found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was the most significant attribute to explain temporal stability of soil moisture as expressed by the mean relative difference (MRD).

  10. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  11. Predictive study of current sharing temperature test in the Toroidal Field Model Coil without LCT coil using the M&M code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2000-08-01

    The Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC) will be tested next year at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, in the frame of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The TFMC is pancake-wound on radial plates using 10 Nb 3Sn two-channel cable-in-conduit conductors, jointed on the inner- and outer-side of the coil. The drivers for the test of current sharing temperature ( Tcs) are the resistive heaters located on the inlet plumbing to each conductor (DP1.1, DP1.2) of the first double pancake (DP1). Since all available sensors are outside the coil, Tcs in the conductor must be measured indirectly, which requires sophisticated analysis tools because of the complexity of the system. In the present work we use the recently developed Multi-conductor Mithrandir (M&M) code. The main aim of the paper is of assessing computationally possible scenarios of normal zone initiation in the high field region of the conductor, without quench propagation out of the inlet joint, in the test configuration without LCT coil.

  12. Sintering of advanced ceramics using a 30-GHz, 10-kW, CW industrial gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Link, G.; Feher, L.; Boehme, R.; Weisenburger, A. ); Thumm, M. Univ. of Karlsruhe . Inst. of Microwaves and Electronics); Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.J. )

    1999-04-01

    At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, a compact gyrotron system was established in 1994 to investigate technological applications in the field of high-temperature materials processing by means of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radiation. Besides the improvement of the system design, research activities are mainly engaged in studies on debindering and sintering of various types of advanced structural and functional ceramics. Due to volumetric heating and enhanced sintering kinetics, the application of microwaves allows one to shorten the processing rime and therefore reduce energy consumption. Besides these effects, microwave technology gives the unique possibility of influencing the microstructure and physical properties of the ceramic materials. This paper will discuss the benefits of the mm-wave technology with respect to sintering of structural ceramics, such as TiO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2]-MgO multicomponent ceramics, nanocrystalline oxide ceramics, and Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], as well as lead-zirconate-titanate piezoceramics as one of the most interesting classes of functional ceramics.

  13. Efficiency analysis of a hydrogen-fueled solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Roland; Deja, Robert; Engelbracht, Maximilian; Frank, Matthias; Nguyen, Van Nhu; Blum, Ludger; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-10-01

    This study analyzes different hydrogen-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system layouts. It begins with a simple system layout without any anode off-gas recirculation, continues with a configuration equipped with off-gas recirculation, including steam condensation and then considers a layout with a dead-end anode off-gas loop. Operational parameters such as stack fuel utilization, as well as the recirculation rate, are modified, with the aim of achieving the highest efficiency values. Drawing on experiments and the accumulated experience of the SOFC group at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, a set of operational parameters were defined and applied to the simulations. It was found that anode off-gas recirculation, including steam condensation, improves electrical efficiency by up to 11.9 percentage-points compared to a layout without recirculation of the same stack fuel utilization. A system layout with a dead-end anode off-gas loop was also found to be capable of reaching electrical efficiencies of more than 61%.

  14. TESTING THE IDEAS GUIDELINES AS APPLIED TO PLUTONIUM INTAKES.

    PubMed

    Bull, Richard; Roberts, Gareth

    2016-09-01

    The IDEAS Guidelines [Doerfel, H., et al General Guidelines for the Estimation of Committed Effective Dose from Incorporation Monitoring Data. Report FZKA 7243, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, GmbH (2006); Castellani, C. M., Marsh, J. W., Hurtgen, C., Blanchardon, E., Berard, P., Giusani, A. and Lopez, M. A. IDEAS Guidelines (Version 2) for the Estimation of Committed Doses from Incorporation Monitoring Data. EURADOS Report 2013-01, Braunschweig (2013)] provide a structured approach to the assessment of intakes of radionuclides. In order to check that the guidelines, when applied to typical monitoring programmes, lead to reliable assessments, a number of numerically-generated datasets have been constructed and assessed using the guidelines. The dose and intake obtained by the assessment can be compared with the 'true' dose and intake. In this way, the accuracy of the IDEAS assessment process can be examined when applied to monitoring programmes that are typically used in the nuclear industry. The simulations focus on assessments carried out as a result of elevated (239)Pu activities in routine urine samples, which lead to follow-up urine and faecal samples being provided. Cases where the assessor makes the correct initial assumption about lung solubility can be compared with cases where this initial choice is wrong. The results of these simulations and the implication for the use of monitoring programmes are discussed. PMID:26822423

  15. Experimental demonstration of a homogeneous two-scale dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, R.; Muller, U.

    2002-06-01

    It has been shown theoretically in the past that homogeneous dynamos may occur for various velocity fields. G.O. Roberts investigated spatially periodic velocity fields, which Busse confined to a finite cylindrical domain. Using a mean field approach he derived an approximate condition for the onset of dynamo action. Based on Busse's idea at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe a conceptual design for an experimental homogeneous dynamo was developed, and a test facility was set up. The first experiments demonstrated that a permanent dynamo can exist in a cylindrical container filled with liquid sodium in which by means of guide vanes counter rotating and counter current spiral vortices are arranged. The dynamo is self-exciting at sufficiently high flow rates, and the magnetic field saturates at a mean value. The instantaneous magnetic field fluctuates around this mean value by about 5%. As predicted by theory the mode of the observed magnetic field is strongly non-axisymmetric. In a series of experiments a phase and a bifurcation diagramm for dynamo action was derived which depend on the spiral and axial flow rates. Figs 5, Refs 14.

  16. Spin coherence time studies of a horizontally polarized deuteron beam at COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G Guidoboni JEDI Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of a non-zero electric dipole moment (EDM) aligned along the spin of sub-atomic particles would probe new physics beyond the standard model. It has been proposed to search for the EDM of charged particles using a storage ring and a longitudinally polarized beam. The EDM signal would be a rotation of the polarization from the horizontal plane toward the vertical direction as a consequence of the radial electric field always present in the particle frame. This experiment requires ring conditions that can ensure a lifetime of the in-plane polarization (spin coherence time, SCT) up to 1000 s. A study has begun at the COoler SYnchrotron (COSY) located at the Forschungszentrum Jülich to examine the effects of emittance and momentum spread on the SCT of a polarized deuteron beam at 0.97 GeV c-1. A special Data AcQuisition has been developed in order to provide a direct measurement of a rapidly rotating horizontal polarization as a function of time. The set of data presented here shows how second-order effects from emittance and momentum spread of the beam affect the lifetime of the horizontal polarization of a bunched beam. It has been demonstrated that sextupole fields can be used to correct for these depolarizing sources and increase the SCT up to hundreds of seconds.

  17. Effect of process parameters on metal transfer of hyperbaric GMAW of duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, J.M.; Dos Santos, J.F.; Richardson, I.M.

    1994-12-31

    This work presents the preliminary results of a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of current rise and fall rates as well as shielding gas composition and their affect on the metal transfer, when duplex stainless steels are GMA welded under hyperbaric conditions using the short circuit metal transfer mode. The evaluation of the test results are based on an examination of the welding process signals recorded on a transient recorder. Over a time period of 500 ms, the signal was measured to assess the process instability, current rise and fall rates and their inter-relationship. The results presented in this study indicate that for a given welding condition, the appropriate selection of current rise and fall rates can minimize the effect of instabilities caused by high ambient pressure. The presence of active gases in the shielding did not significantly affect the metal transfer behavior. All the experiments described in this work have been carried out in the hyperbaric test facilities of the GKSS-Forschungszentrum in Germany.

  18. Theoretical Investigations of the COMET Concept for Ex-Vessel Core Melt Retention

    SciTech Connect

    Widmann, Walter; Buerger, Manfred; Lohnert, Guenter; Alsmeyer, Hans

    2004-07-01

    In the very unlikely case of a core melt accident in a nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel could fail and corium melt could be released into the reactor cavity. A threat of the containment integrity could result. As a counter-measure the implementation of a core catcher device into nuclear power plants is envisaged. Such a core catcher concept has been developed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK, Germany) within the COMET project. It is based on water injection into the melt from the bottom yielding fragmentation of the corium, porosity formation and thus coolability. The conceptual and experimental work at FZK is accompanied by theoretical investigations at IKE, Univ. of Stuttgart. These investigations address porosity formation as well as quenching and long-term coolability of layers with given porosities. The aim of this theoretical work is to get a better understanding of the underlying processes of porosity formation in order to generally support the applicability of the concept for real conditions and to allow checks and optimization for various conditions. Here, a model for porosity formation is presented. It is assumed that this process is essentially determined by strong local pressure buildup from strong evaporation due to water injection from below and the restriction of steam removal by friction in the melt. The effect of key parameters is investigated and compared to experimental results. Agreement about the influence and importance of these parameters as well as essential quantitative effects is found. (authors)

  19. Semi-Technical Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed for the Tritium Extraction System of the Test Blanket Module for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Beloglazov, S.; Bekris, N.; Glugla, M.; Wagner, R.

    2005-07-15

    The tritium extraction from the ITER Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Module purge gas is proposed to be performed in a two steps process: trapping water in a cryogenic Cold Trap, and adsorption of hydrogen isotopes (H{sub 2}, HT, T{sub 2}) as well as impurities (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}) in a Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) at 77K. A CMSB in a semi-technical scale (one-sixth of the flow rate of the ITER-HCPB) was design and constructed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The full capacity of CMSB filled with 20 kg of MS-5A was calculated based on adsorption isotherm data to be 9.4 mol of H{sub 2} at partial pressure 120 Pa. The breakthrough tests at flow rates up to 2 Nm{sup 3}h{sup -1} of He with 110 Pa of H{sub 2} conformed with good agreement the adsorption capacity of the CMSB. The mass-transfer zone was found to be relatively narrow (12.5 % of the MS Bed height) allowing to scale up the CMSB to ITER flow rates.

  20. Fabrication, Treatment and Testing of a 1.6 Cell Photo-injector Cavity for HZB

    SciTech Connect

    P. Kneisel, T. Kamps, J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler, A. Neumann, R. Nietubyc, J.K. Sekutowicz

    2011-03-01

    As part of a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) between Forschungszentrum Dresden (FZD) and JLab we have fabricated and tested after appropriate surface treatment a 1.5 cell, 1300 MHz RRR niobium photo-injector cavity to be used in a demonstration test at BESSY*. Following a baseline test at JLab, the cavity received a lead spot coating of ~8 mm diameter deposited with a cathode arc at the Soltan Institute on the endplate made from large grain niobium. It had been demonstrated in earlier tests with a DESY built 1.5 cell cavity the original design that a lead spot of this size can be a good electron source, when irradiated with a laser light of 213 nm . In the initial test with the lead spot we could measure a peak surface electric field of ~ 29 MV/m; after a second surface treatment, carried out to improve the cavity performance, but which was not done with sufficient precaution, the lead spot was destroyed and the cavity had to be coated a second time. This contribution reports about the experiences and results obtained with this cavity.

  1. Position-sensitive detectors of the detector group at Jülich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, R.; Clemens, U.; Kemmerling, G.; Nöldgen, H.; Schelten, J.

    2009-06-01

    The detector group of the Central Institute of Electronics at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH was founded in 1968. First developments aimed at a detector system with a position-sensitive BF 3 proportional counter for small-angle neutron scattering, which was later used at a beamline of the research reactor FRJ2. At the end of the 1970s first measurements were carried out with photomultiplier (PM)-based detector systems linked with a LiI crystal from Harshaw. Based on this experience we started with the spectrum of position-sensitive neutron scintillation detectors, which have been developed and designed in our institute during the last three decades comprising several high-resolution linear and two-dimensional detectors. The general design of those detectors is based on a modified Anger principle using an array of PMs and a 1 mm 6Li glass scintillator. The sensitive detector area varies on the type of the PMs used and is related to the spatial resolution of the detector type. The neutron sensitivity at 1 Å is about 65% and the remaining gamma sensitivity is less than 10 -4 with a maximum count rate up to 500 kHz depending on the used detector system.

  2. Precipitation and microphysical processes observed by three polarimetric X-band radars and ground-based instrumentation during HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinxin; Evaristo, Raquel; Simmer, Clemens; Handwerker, Jan; Trömel, Silke

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a first analysis of precipitation and related microphysical processes observed by three polarimetric X-band Doppler radars (BoXPol, JuXPol and KiXPol) in conjunction with a ground-based network of disdrometers, rain gauges and vertically pointing micro rain radars (MRRs) during the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) during April and May 2013 in Germany. While JuXPol and KiXPol were continuously observing the central HOPE area near Forschungszentrum Jülich at a close distance, BoXPol observed the area from a distance of about 48.5 km. MRRs were deployed in the central HOPE area and one MRR close to BoXPol in Bonn, Germany. Seven disdrometers and three rain gauges providing point precipitation observations were deployed at five locations within a 5 km × 5 km region, while three other disdrometers were collocated with the MRR in Bonn. The daily rainfall accumulation at each rain gauge/disdrometer location estimated from the three X-band polarimetric radar observations showed very good agreement. Accompanying microphysical processes during the evolution of precipitation systems were well captured by the polarimetric X-band radars and corroborated by independent observations from the other ground-based instruments.

  3. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  4. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  5. Assessment of Local HOx and ROx Measurement Techniques: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - Outcomes from the International HOx Workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Heard, Dwayne

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of HOx radicals are an important tool for the investigation of tropospheric chemistry in field campaigns and simulation chamber experiments. The measured data allow us to test chemical models simulating the atmospheric concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2, and help to improve chemical mechanisms used in regional and global models for predictions of the atmospheric chemical composition. In Spring 2015, an international, IGAC-endorsed workshop took place at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, to assess the performance and reliability of current HOx measurement techniques. Fifteen international groups from Germany, UK, Ireland, France, Finland, USA, China and Japan came together to discuss achievements, challenges and future directions of laser-based, mass-spectrometry based, and chemical techniques. Following the discussions, a working group was established to guide the community in the near future in making progress on continued improvement in HOx measurements. Three goals will be persued: the development of a common calibration unit, the development of procedures to investigate and, if necessary, eliminate possible measurement artefacts, and planning for future instrumental intercomparisons. This poster contribution will give an overview of the workshop, its outcome and planned activites.

  6. Zeppelin NT - Measurement Platform for the Exploration of Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics in the Planetary Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Oebel, Andreas; Rohrer, Franz; Mentel, Thomas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas; Brauchle, Artur; Steinlein, Klaus; Gritzbach, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the chemically most active and complex part of the atmosphere where freshly emitted reactive trace gases, tropospheric radicals, atmospheric oxidation products and aerosols exhibit a large variability and spatial gradients. In order to investigate the chemical degradation of trace gases and the formation of secondary pollutants in the PBL, a commercial Zeppelin NT was modified to be used as an airborne measurement platform for chemical and physical observations with high spatial resolution. The Zeppelin NT was developed by Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik (ZLT) and is operated by Deutsche Zeppelin Reederei (DZR) in Friedrichshafen, Germany. The modification was performed in cooperation between Forschungszentrum Jülich and ZLT. The airship has a length of 75 m, can lift about 1 ton of scientific payload and can be manoeuvered with high precision by propeller engines. The modified Zeppelin can carry measurement instruments mounted on a platform on top of the Zeppelin, or inside the gondola beneath the airship. Three different instrument packages were developed to investigate a. gas-phase oxidation processes involving free radicals (OH, HO2) b. formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) c. new particle formation (nucleation) The presentation will describe the modified airship and provide an overview of its technical performance. Examples of its application during the recent PEGASOS flight campaigns in Europe will be given.

  7. Hydrogen from methanol for fuel cells in mobile systems: development of a compact reformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, B.; Boe, M.; Bøgild-Hansen, J.; Bröckerhoff, P.; Colsman, G.; Emonts, B.; Menzer, R.; Riedel, E.

    On-board generation of hydrogen from methanol with a reformer in connection with the use of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an attractive option for a passenger car drive. Special considerations are required to obtain low weight and volume. Furthermore, the PEMFC of today cannot tolerate more than 10 ppm of carbon monoxide in the fuel. Therefore a gas conditioning step is needed after the methanol reformer. Our main research activities focus on the conceptual design of a drive system for a passenger car with methanol reformer and PEMFC: engineering studies with regard to different aspects of this design including reformer, catalytic burner, gas conditioning, balances of the fuel cycles and basic design of a compact methanol reformer. The work described here was carried out within the framework of a JOULE II project of the European Union (1993-1995). Extensive experimental studies have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (KFA) in Germany and at Haldor Topsøe A/S in Denmark.

  8. Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.

  9. Benchmarking MCNP and TRIPOLI with PGNAA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Perot, B.; Sikora, A.; Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Kring, T.; Ma, J. L.

    2014-06-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache), the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), and the RWTH Aachen University (RWTH) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The design of an optimized measurement system and the assessment of its performances for realistic scenarios can be conveniently studied by numerical Monte Carlo simulation, provided the model and nuclear data offer a sufficient precision. Previous studies performed with MCNP have shown that when the nuclear data libraries lack of precision, relevant results can still be obtained by performing calculations in multiple steps (by first determining the radiative capture rate, and transporting the induced gamma toward the detector) and by injecting valid gamma-ray production data in-between [1]. In such cases, it is interesting to compare the results obtained with different codes. In the present paper, we propose to compare the MCNP and TRIPOLI codes with measurements obtained in MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), which is the new FZJ PGNAA facility [2]. The aim of the measurement campaign is to assess capture gamma rays of toxic elements that can be found in 200 L waste drums which are expected for geological repository.

  10. Mechanical studies of the multi-gap spoke cavity for European project HIPPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassot, H.; Blivet, S.; Junquera, T.; Olry, G.; Zaplatine, E.

    2006-07-01

    Within the HIPPI (high intensity pulsed proton injector) project, supported by the 6th PCRD (framework programme for research and development) of the European Union, the German research centre Forschungszentrum Jülich proposed a multi-spoke H-cavity for the intermediate energy section ( β = 0.5) of high power proton linear accelerators. The IPN Orsay is associated with FZ Jülich for the prototype design, and before that, all preliminary mechanical studies. A triple-spoke superconducting cavity has a more complicated geometry, compared to the same beta elliptical cavity. As a consequence the design requires some sophisticated tools, like the CAD (computer aided design) code CATIA. In addition, in order to solve the specific mechanical problems imposed by external constraints, a sophisticated mechanical simulation tool CAST3M (Calcul et Analyse de Structure et Thermique par la méthode des Eléments Finis) is used [H. Gassot, in: Proceedings of the 8th European Particle Accelerator Conference, June 2002, Paris, [1

  11. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  12. Swedish-German actinide migration experiment at ASPO hard rock laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, B; Vejmelka, P; Römer, J; Fanghänel, E; Jansson, M; Eriksen, T E; Wikberg, P

    2003-03-01

    Within the scope of a bilateral cooperation between Svensk Kärnbränslehantering (SKB) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (FZK-INE), an actinide migration experiment is currently being performed at the Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. This paper covers laboratory and in situ investigations on actinide migration in single-fractured granite core samples. For the in situ experiment, the CHEMLAB 2 probe developed by SKB was used. The experimental setup as well as the breakthrough of inert tracers and of the actinides Am, Np and Pu are presented. The breakthrough curves of inert tracers were analyzed to determine hydraulic properties of the fractured samples. Postmortem analyses of the solid samples were performed to characterize the flow path and the sorbed actinides. After cutting the cores, the abraded material was analyzed with respect to sorbed actinides. The slices were scanned optically to visualize the flow path. Effective volumes and inner surface areas were measured. In the experiments, only breakthrough of Np(V) was observed. In each experiment, the recovery of Np(V) was < or = 40%. Breakthrough of Am(III) and Pu(IV) as well as of Np(IV) was not observed.

  13. Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2009-07-01

    A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.

  14. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, Kirk A; Gaillard, Sandrine A; Offermann, D T; Cobble, J A; Schmitt, M J; Gautier, D C; Kwan, T J T; Montgomery, D S; Kluge, Thomas; Bussmann, Micheal; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Gall, B; Geissel, M; Korgan, G; Kovaleski, S; Lockard, T; Malekos, S; Schollmeier, M; Sentoku, Y; Cowan, T E

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  15. Infrared spectrum of nitric acid dihydrate: Influence of particle shape.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Stetzer, Olaf; Schurath, Ulrich

    2005-03-24

    In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) extinction spectra of airborne alpha-NAD microparticles generated by two different methods were recorded in the large coolable aerosol chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The extinction spectrum of alpha-NAD crystals obtained by shock freezing of a HNO3/H2O gas mixture could be accurately reproduced using Mie theory with published refractive indices of alpha-NAD as input. In contrast, Mie theory proved to be inadequate to properly reproduce the infrared extinction spectrum of alpha-NAD crystals which were formed via homogeneous nucleation of supercooled HNO3/H2O solution droplets, evaporating slowly on a time scale of several hours at about 195 K. Much better agreement between measured and calculated extinction spectra was obtained by T-matrix calculations assuming oblate particles with aspect ratios greater than five. This indicates that strongly aspherical alpha-NAD crystals are obtained when supercooled nitric acid solution droplets freeze and grow slowly, a process which has been discussed as a potential pathway to the formation of crystalline polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. PMID:16833561

  16. Efficiency and timing resolution of scintillator tiles read out with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooth, O.; Weingarten, S.; Weinstock, L.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are semiconductor photo sensors that have the potential to replace photomultiplier tubes (PMT) in various fields of application. We present detectors consisting of 30 × 30 × 0.5 cm3 fast plastic scintillator tiles read out with SiPMs. The detectors offer great electronic and mechanical advantages over the classical PMT-scintillator combination. SiPMs are very compact devices that run independent of magnetic fields at low voltages and no light guides between the scintillator and the SiPM are necessary in the presented layouts. Three prototypes, two of which with integrated wavelength shifting fibres, have been tested in a proton beam at the COSY accelerator at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The different layouts are compared in terms of most probable pulse height, detection efficiency and noise behaviour as well as timing resolution. The spatial distributions of these properties across the scintillator surface are presented. The best layout can be operated at a mean efficiency of bar epsilon=99.9 % while sustaining low noise rates in the order of 10 Hz with a timing resolution of less than 3 ns. Both efficiency and timing resolution show good spatial homogeneity.

  17. Enhanced crystal fabric analysis of a lava flow sample by neutron texture diffraction: A case study from the Castello d'Ischia dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Jens M.; Iezzi, Gianluca; Albertini, Gianni; Gunter, Mickey E.; Piochi, Monica; Ventura, Guido; Jansen, Ekkehard; Fiori, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The crystal fabric of a lava has been analyzed for the first time by neutron texture diffraction. In this study we quantitatively investigate the crystallographic preferred orientation of feldspars in the Castello d'Ischia (Ischia Island, Italy) trachytic exogenous dome. The crystallographic preferred orientation was measured with the monochromatic neutron texture diffractometer SV7 at the Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany and a Rietveld refinement was applied to the sum diffraction pattern. The complementary thin section analysis showed that the three-dimensional crystal shape and the corresponding shape preferred orientation are in agreement with the quantitative orientation distributions of the neutron texture data. The (0k0) crystallographic planes of the feldspars are roughly parallel to the local flow bands, whereas the other corresponding pole figures show that a pivotal rotation of the anorthoclase and sanidine crystals was active during the emplacement of this lava dome. In combination with scanning electron microscopy investigations, electron probe microanalysis, XRF, and X-ray diffraction, the Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data indicates a slow cooling dynamic on the order of several months during their crystallization under subaerial conditions. Results attained here demonstrate that neutron texture diffraction is a powerful tool that can be applied to lava flows.

  18. In situ monitoring of atmospheric nitrous acid based on multi-pumping flow system and liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhan; Lu, Keding; Dong, Huabin; Li, Xin; Cheng, Peng; Zou, Qi; Wu, Yusheng; Liu, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-05-01

    In the last four decades, various techniques including spectroscopic, wet chemical and mass spectrometric methods, have been developed and applied for the detection of ambient nitrous acid (HONO). We developed a HONO detection system based on long path photometry which consists of three independent modules i.e., sampling module, fluid propulsion module and detection module. In the propulsion module, solenoid pumps are applied. With solenoid pumps the pulsed flow can be computer controlled both in terms of pump stroke volume and pulse frequency, which enables the attainment of a very stable flow rate. In the detection module, a customized Liquid Waveguide Capillary Cell (LWCC) is used. The customized LWCC pre-sets the optical fiber in-coupling with the liquid wave guide, providing the option of fast startup and easy maintenance of the absorption photometry. In summer 2014, our system was deployed in a comprehensive campaign at a rural site in the North China Plain. More than one month of high quality HONO data spanning from the limit of detection to 5ppb were collected. Intercomparison of our system with another established system from Forschungszentrum Juelich is presented and discussed. In conclusion, our instrument achieved a detection limit of 10pptV within 2min and a measurement uncertainty of 7%, which is well suited for investigation of the HONO budget from urban to rural conditions in China. PMID:27155434

  19. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions. PMID:20530821

  20. System design development for microwave and millimeter-wave materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, Lambert; Thumm, Manfred

    2002-06-01

    The most notable effect in processing dielectrics with micro- and millimeter-waves is volumetric heating of these materials, offering the opportunity of very high heating rates for the samples. In comparison to conventional heating where the heat transfer is diffusive and depends on the thermal conductivity of the material, the microwave field penetrates the sample and acts as an instantaneous heat source at each point of the sample. By this unique property, microwave heating at 2.45 GHz and 915 MHz ISM (Industrial, Medical, Scientific) frequencies is established as an important industrial technology since more than 50 years ago. Successful application of microwaves in industries has been reported e.g. by food processing systems, domestic ovens, rubber industry, vacuum drying etc. The present paper shows some outlines of microwave system development at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM by transferring properties from the higher frequency regime (millimeter-waves) to lower frequency applications. Anyway, the need for using higher frequencies like 24 GHz (ISM frequency) for industrial applications has to be carefully verified with respect to special physical/engineering advantages or to limits the standard microwave technology meets for the specific problem.

  1. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleines, H.; Sarkadi, J.; Zwoll, K.; Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Seyfarth, H.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.

    2006-05-01

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  2. High throughput SAFT for an experimental USCT system as MATLAB implementation with use of SIMD CPU instructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, M.; Schwarzenberg, G. F.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2008-03-01

    At Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an Ultrasound Computer Tomography system USCT) is under development for early breast cancer detection. To detect morphological indicators in sub-millimeter resolution, the visualization is based on a SAFT algorithm (synthetic aperture focusing technique). The current 3D demonstrator system consists of approx. 2000 transducers, which are arranged in layers on a cylinder of 18 cm diameter and 15 cm height. With 3.5 millions of acquired raw data sets and up to one billion voxels for an image, a reconstruction may last up to months. In this work a performance optimized SAFT algorithm is developed. The used software environment is MathWorks' MATLAB. Several approaches were analyzed: a plain M-code (MATLAB's native language), an optimized M-code, a C-code implementation, and a low-level assembler implementation. The fastest found solution uses an SIMD enhanced assembler code wrapped in the C-interface of MATLAB. Additionally a 10% speed up is gained by reducing the function call overhead. The overall speed up is more than one order of magnitude. The resulting computational efficiency is near the theoretical optimum. The reconstruction time is significantly reduced without losing MATLAB's comfortable development environment.

  3. PREFACE: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics VI (NPA6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics VI conference was the 6th event of the NPA biannual conference series. Previous events of this series were held at the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen, Hungary, in 2002 and 2005; at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany, in 2007; at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), L'Aquila, Italy, in 2009; and in Eilat, Israel, in 2011. This edition of the NPA conference series was organized by the European Physical Society (EPS) through its Nuclear Physics Division, corresponding to the 26th edition of the Topical Conferences of the EPS. As in previous editions, the goal of the NPA conference was to bring together the specialists in the fields of Nuclear Physics (theory and experiment) and Nuclear Astrophysics (theory and observation), providing the appropriate forum for review and discussion of the status and prospects of the field of Nuclear Astrophysics. During the discussions, special attention was given to the Nuclear Physics aspects that have an impact in Astrophysics.

  4. Heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of bacteria: new laboratory experiments at simulated cloud conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Morris, C. E.; Benz, S.; Ebert, V.; Hunsmann, S.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2008-04-01

    The ice nucleation activities of five different Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola bacterial species and of SnomaxTM were investigated in the temperature range between -5 and -15°C. Water suspensions of these bacteria were directly spray into the cloud chamber of the AIDA facility of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe at a temperature of -5.7°. At this temperature, about 1% of the SnomaxTM cells induced freezing of the spray droplets before they evaporated in the cloud chamber. The other suspensions of living cells didn't induce any measurable ice concentration during spray formation at -5.7°. The remaining aerosol was exposed to typical cloud activation conditions in subsequent experiments with expansion cooling to about -11°C. During these experiments, the bacterial cells first acted as cloud condensation nuclei to form cloud droplets and then eventually acted as ice nuclei to freeze the droplets. The results indicate that the bacteria investigated in the present study are mainly ice active in the temperature range between -7 and -11°C with an INA fraction of the order of 10-4. The ice nucleation efficiency of SnomaxTM cells was much larger with an INA fraction of 0.2 at temperatures around -8°C.

  5. Heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of bacteria: new laboratory experiments at simulated cloud conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Morris, C. E.; Benz, S.; Ebert, V.; Hunsmann, S.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2008-10-01

    The ice nucleation activities of five different Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola bacterial species and of Snomax™ were investigated in the temperature range between -5 and -15°C. Water suspensions of these bacteria were directly sprayed into the cloud chamber of the AIDA facility of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe at a temperature of -5.7°C. At this temperature, about 1% of the Snomax™ cells induced immersion freezing of the spray droplets before the droplets evaporated in the cloud chamber. The living cells didn't induce any detectable immersion freezing in the spray droplets at -5.7°C. After evaporation of the spray droplets the bacterial cells remained as aerosol particles in the cloud chamber and were exposed to typical cloud formation conditions in experiments with expansion cooling to about -11°C. During these experiments, the bacterial cells first acted as cloud condensation nuclei to form cloud droplets. Then, only a minor fraction of the cells acted as heterogeneous ice nuclei either in the condensation or the immersion mode. The results indicate that the bacteria investigated in the present study are mainly ice active in the temperature range between -7 and -11°C with an ice nucleation (IN) active fraction of the order of 10-4. In agreement to previous literature results, the ice nucleation efficiency of Snomax™ cells was much larger with an IN active fraction of 0.2 at temperatures around -8°C.

  6. Realisation of an anode supported planar SOFC system

    SciTech Connect

    Buchkremer, H.P.; Stoever, D.; Diekmann, U.

    1996-12-31

    Lowering the operating temperature of S0FCs to below 800{degrees}C potentially lowers production costs of a SOFC system because of a less expensive periphery and is able to guarantee sufficient life time of the stack. One way of achieving lower operating temperatures is the development of new high conductive electrolyte materials. The other way, still based on state-of-the-art material, i.e. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, is the development of a thin film electrolyte concept. In the Forschungszentrum Julich a program was started to produce a supported planar SOFC with an YSZ electrolyte thickness between 10 to 20 put. One of the electrodes, i.e. the anode, was used as support, in order not to increase the number of components in the SOFC. The high electronic conductivity of the anode-cermet allows the use of relatively thick layers without increasing the cell resistance. An additional advantage of the supported planar concept is the possibility to produce single cells larger than 10 x 10 cm x cm, that is with an effective electrode cross area of several hundred cm{sup 2}.

  7. LIF instrument for airborne measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals in the upper troposphere deployed on HALO during the OMO 2015 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künstler, Christopher; Broch, Sebastian; Bachner, Mathias; Bayer, Norbert; Dahlhoff, Knut; Fuchs, Hendrik; Holland, Frank; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Jansen, Peter; Wolters, Jörg; Zöger, Martin; Wahner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present the first deployment of our instrument for the measurement of OH, HO2 and RO2 radical concentrations in the upper troposphere aboard the German research aircraft HALO during the OMO (Oxidation Mechanism Observation) campaigns in winter and summer 2015. Radicals are detected by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in two separate measurement cells. One for the direct detection of OH (OH channel) and one for alternating measurements of HO2 and RO2 radicals after chemical conversion to OH by the reaction with NO (ROx channel). A special air inlet for the OH channel was developed and built at Forschungszentrum Jülich, based on the shrouded-inlet design by Eisele et al. It allows a controlled reduction of the air flow velocity prior to sampling as well as the performance of inflight calibrations via photolysis of ambient water vapor. The inflight calibrations show that the OH detection sensitivity increases substantially - roughly by a factor of 5 - over the altitude range from ground to 10 km. This is supported by the theoretical pressure dependence which is in good accordance with the measured data. The ROx channel has no special inlet system and samples directly from the fast airflow along the aircraft. We will give an overview of the instrumental setup for the application on HALO and show first results from flights performed during the OMO-EU (winter 2015) and OMO-Asia campaign (summer 2015).

  8. Experimental and numerical assessment of normal heat flux first wall qualification mock-ups under ITER relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Bürger, A.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th; Bellin, B.; Zacchia, F.; Eaton, R.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R.

    2014-04-01

    The ITER first wall (FW) panel consists of beryllium in the form of tiles covering its surface, high strength copper alloy as the heat sink material and stainless steel as the structural material. Small-scale normal heat flux FW mock-ups, provided by Fusion for Energy, are tested in the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 at Forschungszentrum Jülich to determine the performance of this design under thermal fatigue. The mock-ups are loaded cyclically under a surface heat flux of 2 MW m-2 with ITER relevant water coolant conditions. In this study, three-dimensional finite element method thermo-mechanical analyses are performed with ANSYS to simulate the thermal fatigue behaviour of the mock-ups. The temperature results indicate that the beryllium surface temperature is below the maximum allowed temperature (600 °C) of beryllium to be tested. The thermal mechanical results indicate that copper rupture and debonding between Be and copper are the drivers of the failure of a mock-up. In addition, the experimental data, e.g. the surface temperature measured using an infrared camera and the bulk temperature measured using thermocouples, are reported. A comparative study between experimental and simulation results is performed.

  9. Radio Emission in Atmospheric Air Showers Measured by LOPES-30

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, P. G.

    2008-01-24

    When Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) interact with particles in the Earth's atmosphere, they produce a shower of secondary particles propagating towards the ground. These relativistic particles emit synchrotron radiation in the radio frequency range when passing the Earth's magnetic field. The LOPES (LOFAR Prototype Station) experiment investigates the radio emission from these showers in detail and will pave the way to use this detection technique for large scale applications like in LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) and the Pierre Auger Observatory. The LOPES experiment is co-located and measures in coincidence with the air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. LOPES has an absolute amplitude calibration array of 30 dipole antennas (LOPES-30). After one year of measurements of the single East-West polarization by all 30 antennas, recently, the LOPES-30 set-up was configured to perform dual-polarization measurements. Half of the antennas have been configured for measurements of the North-South polarization. Only by measuring at the same time both, the E-W and N-S polarization components of the radio emission, the geo-synchrotron effect as the dominant emission mechanism in air showers can be verified. The status of the measurements, including the absolute calibration procedure of the dual-polarized antennas as well as analysis of dual-polarized event examples are reported.

  10. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  11. Measurement of Quantum Phase-Slips in Josephson Junction Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Wiebke

    2011-03-01

    Quantum phase-slip dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit or for the implementation of a new current standard. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-slips on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-slips. These phase-slips are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-slip interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. European STREP MIDAS, ANR QUANTJO.

  12. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Volume 4. Part A, air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Five authors have each contributed one chapter to this first part (A) of the series on Air Pollution (Volume 4). Thus the book is neither a handbook compilation of reference data nor a text on the subject of air pollution. The first and shortest chapter (22 pages) by A. Wint of the University of Nottingham, England, is an overview called Air Pollution in Perspective. The second chapter, by P. Fabian of Max-Planck-Institute fuer Aeronomie, FRG, is titled Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. This chapter, in 29 pages, summarizes current data on twenty of these compounds. Hans Guesten of the Institute fuer Radiochemie, Karlsruhe, FRG, contributed chapter 3 on Formation, Transport, and Control of Photochemical Smog (52 pages). This chapter is a good survey of current understanding of smog although each of the three topics promised in the title could by itself take up a good sized book. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants and Modeling of Air Pollution Dispersion by H. van Dop of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Netherlands, makes up Chapter 4 (42 pages). The article is written from a meteorological perspective. The last chapter, by J.M. Hales of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, USA, is titled The Mathematical Characterization of Precipitation Scavenging and Precipitation Chemistry (74 pages). Removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is good news/bad news.

  13. SUNRISE: a balloon-borne telescope for high resolution solar observations in the visible and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.; Gandorfer, Achim M.; Schuessler, Manfred; Curdt, W.; Lites, Bruce W.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    Sunrise is a light-weight solar telescope with a 1 m aperture for spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar atmosphere. The telescope is planned to be operated during a series of long-duration balloon flights in order to obtain time series of spectra and images at the diffraction-limit and to study the UV spectral region down to ~200 nm, which is not accessible from the ground. The central aim of Sunrise is to understand the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Through its interaction with the convective flow field, the magnetic field in the solar photosphere develops intense field concentrations on scales below 100 km, which are crucial for the dynamics and energetics of the whole solar atmosphere. In addition, Sunrise aims to provide information on the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and on the physics of solar irradiance changes. Sunrise is a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (MPAe), Katlenburg-Lindau, with the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik (KIS), Freiburg, the High-Altitude Observatory (HAO), Boulder, the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab. (LMSAL), Palo Alto, and the Instituto de Astrofi sica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife. In addition, there are close contacts with associated scientists from a variety of institutes.

  14. Pathogene Mikroorganismen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Martin

    Infektionen, die vom Tier auf den Menschen übertragen werden, werden als Zoonosen bezeichnet. Pathogene Mikroorganismen können entweder durch Mensch-Mensch, Mensch-Tier-Kontakt oder durch Kontakt mit kontaminierten Vektoren übertragen werden [39]. Vektoren können einerseits belebt (z. B. blutsaugende Insekten), andererseits unbelebt sein. Kontaminierte Lebensmittel und Wasser gehören zu den wichtigsten unbelebten Vektoren. Neben Lebensmitteln können aber auch kontaminierte Gegenstände oder der Kontakt mit Kontaminationsquellen in der Umwelt Auslöser von Krankheitsfällen sein. Weltweit sind mehr als 1400 krankheitsverursachende biologische Agentien bekannt, von denen über 60 % ein zoonotisches Potenzial aufweisen. Als Ergebnis von Expertengesprächen wurde kürzlich berichtet, dass etwa 3 bis 4, meist virale, neu auftretende Infektionskrankheiten ("emerging diseases“) pro Jahr erwartet werden können [15]. Es handelt sich bei diesen Vorgängen aber nicht nur um das Auftauchen vollkommen neuer oder unbeschriebener Spezies, sondern auch um evolutionsbedingte Anpassungen von mikrobiellen Populationen an neue Bedingungen in ihrem Ökosystem [7]. Molekulare Analysen an Umweltchlamydien erbrachten Hinweise, dass die Evolution erste genetische Pathogenitätsmerkmale in dieser Spezies schon vor 700 Mio. Jahren entstehen ließ [14]. Viele Faktoren befeuern den Prozess der Anpassung, unter anderem auch alle Strategien, mit denen der Mensch seit Jahrtausenden versucht, Lebensmittel sicher und haltbar zu machen. Als die treibenden Kräfte des Auftretens neuer Krankheitserreger werden in der Gegenwart vor allem das sich ändernde Weltklima, die globalen Warenströme und die sich verändernden Konsumgewohnheiten genannt. Es steht auch außer Zweifel, dass viele dieser Erreger Tiere als ihr natürliches Reservoir haben werden, d. h. Zoonosen im klassischen Sinne sind [15].

  15. The sensory ecology of adaptive landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lyndon A.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In complex environments, behavioural plasticity depends on the ability of an animal to integrate numerous sensory stimuli. The multidimensionality of factors interacting to shape plastic behaviour means it is difficult for both organisms and researchers to predict what constitutes an adaptive response to a given set of conditions. Although researchers may be able to map the fitness pay-offs of different behavioural strategies in changing environments, there is no guarantee that the study species will be able to perceive these pay-offs. We thus risk a disconnect between our own predictions about adaptive behaviour and what is behaviourally achievable given the umwelt of the animal being studied. This may lead to erroneous conclusions about maladaptive behaviour in circumstances when the behaviour exhibited is the most adaptive possible given sensory limitations. With advances in the computational resources available to behavioural ecologists, we can now measure vast numbers of interactions among behaviours and environments to create adaptive behavioural surfaces. These surfaces have massive heuristic, predictive and analytical potential in understanding adaptive animal behaviour, but researchers using them are destined to fail if they ignore the sensory ecology of the species they study. Here, we advocate the continued use of these approaches while directly linking them to perceptual space to ensure that the topology of the generated adaptive landscape matches the perceptual reality of the animal it intends to study. Doing so will allow predictive models of animal behaviour to reflect the reality faced by the agents on adaptive surfaces, vastly improving our ability to determine what constitutes an adaptive response for the animal in question. PMID:26018831

  16. Reconstruction of multistage massive rock slope failure: Polymethodical approach in Lake Oeschinen (CH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Sibylle; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    damalige Umwelt. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 98(1), 83-95.

  17. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  18. Innovative Conditioning Procedures for the Generation of Radioactive Waste Products which are Stable for Intermediate Storage or Repository-Independent in Final Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, H.J.; Heimbach, H.; Odoj, R.; Pruesse, R.; Wartenberg, W.

    2006-07-01

    The German Federal Government aims at a future final storage site for all kinds of radioactive waste within 30 years. Existing and newly-produced radioactive waste therefore has to be stored in interim storage facilities over very long periods of time. At present, most German radioactive waste or waste packages are produced and qualified according to the acceptance criteria of the projected final repository KONRAD. [1] Nevertheless, conditioning strategies for crude radioactive waste have to take into account the open question of the future repository site as well as requirements for long-term interim storage. The Quality Control Group for Radioactive Waste (in German: Produktkontrollstelle fuer radioaktive Abfaelle - PKS) works as an independent expert organisation for the quality checking of radioactive waste packages as well as evaluating conditioning procedures for waste containers suitable for final storage on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (in German: Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). The Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology (in German: Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung and Reaktortechnik - ISR) of the Research Centre Juelich investigates scientific/technical problems of nuclear disposal, especially in the field of waste treatment. In this context, ISR and PKS investigated and/or evaluated innovative procedures, by means of which radioactive waste flows may be minimized and rendered inert. QSA Global (formerly: AEA Technology QSA) conditions radioactive waste of German users from the fields of medicine, research and industry as well as from its own radioactive source production and operates an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste containers. This poster deals with the characteristics and possible applications of new waste fixation media on the basis of organic and inorganic mineral polymers; with the approach of producing inherently safe waste forms for various geological formations. Plasma technology

  19. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  20. PREFACE: 16th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Wolfhard; Guerassimov, Nikolay; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2010-04-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977 when the series of VEIT Schools was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with the aim to act as a forum for interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. Beginning from 2001, the school has been jointly organized with the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. Whereas, the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance grew issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions or exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Sixteenth VEIT school was held in the Black Sea resort Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 28 September to 2 October 2009. It was attended by close to 110 participants from 13 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the originality and quality criteria of acceptance by the journal, including

  1. PREFACE: Fifteenth International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerassimov, Nikolay; Möller, Wolfhard; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2008-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biannually since 1977. It is a forum for the interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the event (since 2001) have been the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany, and the Evrika Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria. The fifteenth meeting of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sozopol, Bulgaria from 17-21 September 2007 and was attended by around 120 participants from 17 countries: Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Pakistan, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all peer reviewed to meet the originality and quality criteria of the journal. The school consisted of 11 oral and 3 poster sessions. There were 17 invited talks of general interest and 12 progress reports were presented orally. In total 86 contributed papers were presented during the three poster sessions. There were several scientific highlights covering the fundamentals of gas discharges and interaction of fast particles with solids, a wide range of conventional and novel applications such as for hard coatings and optical/protective layers, nanosized structures produced by evaporation, sputtering or external irradiation. Recent achievements in the modification of materials using charged particles or laser beams, thin layers deposition, properties, and characterization and novel materials, techniques, devices were highlighted. Despite the busy scientific program, the atmosphere was relaxed and informal

  2. PREFACE: 16th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Wolfhard; Guerassimov, Nikolay; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2010-04-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977 when the series of VEIT Schools was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with the aim to act as a forum for interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. Beginning from 2001, the school has been jointly organized with the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. Whereas, the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance grew issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions or exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Sixteenth VEIT school was held in the Black Sea resort Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 28 September to 2 October 2009. It was attended by close to 110 participants from 13 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the originality and quality criteria of acceptance by the journal, including

  3. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum

  4. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-01

    The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) [1]. The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  5. Comparison of measured data and model-results during PEGASOS-campaign 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Christian; Elbern, Hendrik; Klemp, Dieter; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In the Forschungszentrum Jülich a mobile Lab (MOBILAB) has been developed to perform mobile measurements with a high temporal resolution covering rural background regions and highly polluted urban areas. During the west campaign of the PEGASOS-project the MOBILAB was used as a mobile ground station and as a tool for mapping the concentrations in the rural background regions in the Netherlands. As a part of the PEGASOS-project high resolution day by day forecasts have been calculated by EURAD. The forecast quality is based on the implementation of atmospheric chemistry and transport processes and the consistency of the emission inventories. Values calculated in the EURAD-model represent average values for the corresponding 1x1 km grid-cells of the model. For comparison with the mobile ground-based measurements the lowest layer from the model has been used. Based on the GPS-track recorded from MOBILAB the corresponding model-results were derived via a web interface provided by EURAD. For the model-evaluation 80 hours of measurements were used. The dataset ranges from high concentrations in urban areas and on motorways to low concentrations in rural agricultural areas and a large forest. As the MOBILAB has been measuring while driving along the roads, the effects of local emissions from single cars were eliminated from the data using a 5%-percentile filter with a 180 seconds time base. The results indicate that the model can predict the concentrations for CO very well while the nitric oxides are significantly underestimated by a factor of two. As transport and mixing processes would affect all species in the same way, the results indicate that deviations of the emission inventories are the most probable explanation for the underestimation found for the nitric oxides.

  6. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds & their photochemical transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhujun; Hohaus, Thorsten; Tillmann, Ralf; Andres, Stefanie; Kuhn, Uwe; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic activities emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. While it is known that land vegetation accounts for 90% of the global VOC emissions, only a few molecules' emission factors are understood. Through VOCs atmospheric oxidation intermediate products are formed. The detailed chemical mechanisms involved are insufficiently known to date and need to be understood for air quality management and climate change predictions. In an experiment using a PTR-ToF-MS with the new-built plant chamber SAPHIR-PLUS in Forschungszentrum Juelich, biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from Quercus ilex trees were measured. The BVOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, minor emissions of isoprene and methanol were also observed with the overall emission pattern typical for Quercus ilex trees in the growing season. Monoterpenes and isoprene emissions showed to be triggered by light. Additionally, their emissions showed clear exponential temperature dependence under constant light condition as reported in literature. As a tracer for leaf growth, methanol emission showed an abrupt increase at the beginning of light exposure. This is explained as instantaneous release of methanol produced during the night once stomata of leaves open upon light exposure. Emission of methanol showed a near linear increase with temperature in the range of 10 to 35 °C. BVOC were transferred from the plant chamber PLUS to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR, where their oxidation products from O3 oxidation were measured with PTR-ToF-MS. Gas phase oxidation products such as acetone and acetaldehyde were detected. A quantitative analysis of the data will be presented, including comparison of observations to the Master Chemical Mechanism model.

  7. Benefits of an ultra large and multiresolution ensemble for estimating available wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Jonas; Hoppe, Charlotte; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate the benefits of an ultra large ensemble with up to 1000 members including multiple nesting with a target horizontal resolution of 1 km. The ensemble shall be used as a basis to detect events of extreme errors in wind power forecasting. Forecast value is the wind vector at wind turbine hub height (~ 100 m) in the short range (1 to 24 hour). Current wind power forecast systems rest already on NWP ensemble models. However, only calibrated ensembles from meteorological institutions serve as input so far, with limited spatial resolution (˜10 ‑ 80 km) and member number (˜ 50). Perturbations related to the specific merits of wind power production are yet missing. Thus, single extreme error events which are not detected by such ensemble power forecasts occur infrequently. The numerical forecast model used in this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Model uncertainties are represented by stochastic parametrization of sub-grid processes via stochastically perturbed parametrization tendencies and in conjunction via the complementary stochastic kinetic-energy backscatter scheme already provided by WRF. We perform continuous ensemble updates by comparing each ensemble member with available observations using a sequential importance resampling filter to improve the model accuracy while maintaining ensemble spread. Additionally, we use different ensemble systems from global models (ECMWF and GFS) as input and boundary conditions to capture different synoptic conditions. Critical weather situations which are connected to extreme error events are located and corresponding perturbation techniques are applied. The demanding computational effort is overcome by utilising the supercomputer JUQUEEN at the Forschungszentrum Juelich.

  8. Quick look data report for COMET Test U2

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M.T.; Spencer, B.W.; Kilsdonk, D.J.; Aeschlimann, R.W.

    1998-01-08

    Investigations are underway at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) addressing methods to terminate and stabilize a core melt accident situation ex-vessel. In this approach, the molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) begins erosion of the concrete, and after erosion proceeds to some modest depth, it exposes and unseals an array of tubes. The tubes are connected to a water reservoir pressurized by static water head. Upon unsealing, the tubes direct a flow of water into the bottom of the corium layer. The water is forced up through the melt, cooling the melt and causing it to solidify in a form that allows continued permeation and heat removal by the water. Thus, the accident progression can be halted, and the debris may be permanently cooled. The key aspect of the passive ex-vessel core retention approach described above is the ability of water injected at the bottom of a corium melt layer to quench the melt forming a coolable debris bed in the process. This process has been tested using iron-alumina thermite as a corium simulant with promising results. As a part of a collaborative research agreement between FZK and the US DOE, two scoping tests are being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to test the FZK core retention concept using real reactor materials. The second of these two tests, denoted COMET Test U2, was successfully conducted on December 17, 1997. The objectives of this data report are to: summarize the experiment facility and operating procedure for COMET Test U2, and present the test data.

  9. The Development of a Pulse Tube Cooler with More than 1 W at 4.2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.; Stautner, W.; Pan, H.; Crowley, D.; Gilgrass, G.

    2006-04-01

    A pulse tube cooler (PTR) for shield cooling and for re-condensation of Helium in MRI magnets has been developed successfully by co-operation of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) and Siemens Magnet Technology Ltd. (SMT, formerly Oxford Magnet Technology, OMT). Refrigeration power of 1.1 W at 4.2 K and 40 W at 45 K were achieved with less than 8 kW of compressor input power. The two-stage PTR is of a '4-valve type on each stage. A special non-wear rotary valve has been developed at SMT. The design of the cooler is based on investigations carried out at FZK on a test rig, which was versatile enough to allow many different experiments to be carried out. They have been accompanied by numeric studies. The code FZKPTR based on the thermoacoustic theory has proved a very helpful tool. This development work at FZK and SMT lead to a commercial PTR solution for MRI magnets. The industrial partner, SMT, defined the needs for his application, and has modified the FZK design according to these requirements and those of industrial production. Some of the intermediate development steps performed during several years of co-operation are mentioned. Prototype units have been successfully installed at clinical sites. A preliminary version, a 10 K shield cooler has been running continuously for two years. More than two months of recondensing performance on the 4K unit fitted to an MRI magnet, with a margin sufficient to prevent boil off of liquid He during imaging, has been obtained.

  10. Aerosol chamber study of optical constants and N2O5 uptake on supercooled H2SO4/H2O/HNO3 solution droplets at polar stratospheric cloud temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Mangold, Alexander; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schurath, Ulrich

    2005-09-15

    The mechanism of the formation of supercooled ternary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O/HNO(3) solution (STS) droplets in the polar winter stratosphere, i.e., the uptake of nitric acid and water onto background sulfate aerosols at T < 195 K, was successfully mimicked during a simulation experiment at the large coolable aerosol chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Supercooled sulfuric acid droplets, acting as background aerosol, were added to the cooled AIDA vessel at T = 193.6 K, followed by the addition of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. N(2)O(5), the product of the gas phase reaction between O(3) and NO(2), was then hydrolyzed in the liquid phase with an uptake coefficient gamma(N(2)O(5)). From this experiment, a series of FTIR extinction spectra of STS droplets was obtained, covering a broad range of different STS compositions. This infrared spectra sequence was used for a quantitative test of the accuracy of published infrared optical constants for STS aerosols, needed, for example, as input in remote sensing applications. The present findings indicate that the implementation of a mixing rule approach, i.e., calculating the refractive indices of ternary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O/HNO(3) solution droplets based on accurate reference data sets for the two binary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O and HNO(3)/H(2)O systems, is justified. Additional model calculations revealed that the uptake coefficient gamma(N(2)O(5)) on STS aerosols strongly decreases with increasing nitrate concentration in the particles, demonstrating that this so-called nitrate effect, already well-established from uptake experiments conducted at room temperature, is also dominant at stratospheric temperatures.

  11. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 3: Assessment Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, C.; Hughes, E. D.; Niederauer, G. F.; Wilkening, H.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Royl, P.; Baumann, W.

    1998-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best- estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume

  12. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 2: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B. D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G. A.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Lam, K. L.; Royl, P.; Wilson, T. L.

    1998-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume III

  13. Development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for the utilization of coal mine gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groß, B.; Blum, L.; de Haart, L. G. J.; Dengel, A.

    Apart from natural gas there is another important natural source of methane. The so-called coal mine gas is a by-product of the geochemical process of the carbonization of sediments from marsh woods of the Earth's Carboniferous Period. Methane evaporates from the coal and has to be removed out of the active mines where it represents one of the main safety risks. Methane also evaporates in abandoned coal mines. In the federal state Saarland in Germany exists above ground a more than 110 km pipeline for the drained coal mine gas from 12 different sources. The content of methane varies between 25 and 90%, the oxygen content (from air) is in the range up to 10%. This wide range or variation, respectively, of fuel and oxygen content, causes a lot of problems for the use in conventional engines. Therefore the company Evonik New Energies GmbH is interested in using SOFC with coal mine gas as efficient as possible to produce electric power. For that purpose at Forschungszentrum Jülich the available SOFC technology was adapted to the use with coal mine gas and a test facility was designed to operate an SOFC stack (approximately 2 kW electrical power output) together with a pre-reformer. This paper presents the results of the coal mine gas analysis and the effect on the pre-reformer and the fuel cell. The composition of the coal mine gas was determined by means of micro-gas chromatography. The results obtained from preliminary tests using synthetic and real coal mine gas on the pre-reformer and on the fuel cell are discussed.

  14. Design of a rugged 308 nm tunable UV laser for airborne LIF measurements on top of Zeppelin NT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strotkamp, M.; Munk, A.; Jungbluth, B.; Dahlhoff, K.; Jansen, P.; Broch, S.; Gomm, S.; Bachner, M.; Fuchs, H.; Holland, F.; Hofzumahaus, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a detailed analysis and redesign of a tunable UV laser is presented. The laser is part of measurement system of "IEK 8, Forschungszentrum Jülich" for airborne LIF analysis of the OH-radical concentration. The design concept of the laser comprises a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser as pump source, a dye as active medium to emit light at 616 nm, and a NLO crystal as intracavity frequency doubler. The output wavelength is tunable by a combination of dispersion prisms and an etalon. During measurement campaigns, the laser is mounted on top of Zeppelin NT and therefore is exposed to temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C and ambient pressures from 800 to 1000 hPa. In former flights the output power of an existing laser decreased rapidly and the wavelength was unstable during the flights and therefore hinders continuous measurements. The analysis of the existing laser combines a theoretical study of tolerance requirements with experimental testing of opto-mechanical components and of the entire laser system in a climatic test chamber. The performance of the laser is measured over the expected temperature range. It is shown that changing the baseplate temperature by a few Kelvin stops laser emission completely. The optical mounts that are used in the laser and worthwhile alternatives were tested separately in the climatic chamber. The stability of the best mounts exceeds those currently used by a factor of 50. A new laser has been built based on the results of the analysis and further experiments for an optical redesign. This laser was on a field campaign for several weeks and worked reliably.

  15. A new plant chamber facility, PLUS, coupled to the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been built and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow-through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees is mixed with synthetic air and transferred to the SAPHIR chamber, where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil relative humidity (RH)) are well controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leaves of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to only fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 light-emitting diode (LED) panels, which have an emission strength up to 800 µmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light- and temperature- dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental setup and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  16. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    SciTech Connect

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Kettler, J.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-19

    The Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  17. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-11-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc.) are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  18. Aerosol chamber study of optical constants and N2O5 uptake on supercooled H2SO4/H2O/HNO3 solution droplets at polar stratospheric cloud temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Mangold, Alexander; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schurath, Ulrich

    2005-09-15

    The mechanism of the formation of supercooled ternary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O/HNO(3) solution (STS) droplets in the polar winter stratosphere, i.e., the uptake of nitric acid and water onto background sulfate aerosols at T < 195 K, was successfully mimicked during a simulation experiment at the large coolable aerosol chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Supercooled sulfuric acid droplets, acting as background aerosol, were added to the cooled AIDA vessel at T = 193.6 K, followed by the addition of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. N(2)O(5), the product of the gas phase reaction between O(3) and NO(2), was then hydrolyzed in the liquid phase with an uptake coefficient gamma(N(2)O(5)). From this experiment, a series of FTIR extinction spectra of STS droplets was obtained, covering a broad range of different STS compositions. This infrared spectra sequence was used for a quantitative test of the accuracy of published infrared optical constants for STS aerosols, needed, for example, as input in remote sensing applications. The present findings indicate that the implementation of a mixing rule approach, i.e., calculating the refractive indices of ternary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O/HNO(3) solution droplets based on accurate reference data sets for the two binary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O and HNO(3)/H(2)O systems, is justified. Additional model calculations revealed that the uptake coefficient gamma(N(2)O(5)) on STS aerosols strongly decreases with increasing nitrate concentration in the particles, demonstrating that this so-called nitrate effect, already well-established from uptake experiments conducted at room temperature, is also dominant at stratospheric temperatures. PMID:16834200

  19. Benefits of an ultra large and multiresolution ensemble for estimating available wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Jonas; Hoppe, Charlotte; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate the benefits of an ultra large ensemble with up to 1000 members including multiple nesting with a target horizontal resolution of 1 km. The ensemble shall be used as a basis to detect events of extreme errors in wind power forecasting. Forecast value is the wind vector at wind turbine hub height (~ 100 m) in the short range (1 to 24 hour). Current wind power forecast systems rest already on NWP ensemble models. However, only calibrated ensembles from meteorological institutions serve as input so far, with limited spatial resolution (˜10 - 80 km) and member number (˜ 50). Perturbations related to the specific merits of wind power production are yet missing. Thus, single extreme error events which are not detected by such ensemble power forecasts occur infrequently. The numerical forecast model used in this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Model uncertainties are represented by stochastic parametrization of sub-grid processes via stochastically perturbed parametrization tendencies and in conjunction via the complementary stochastic kinetic-energy backscatter scheme already provided by WRF. We perform continuous ensemble updates by comparing each ensemble member with available observations using a sequential importance resampling filter to improve the model accuracy while maintaining ensemble spread. Additionally, we use different ensemble systems from global models (ECMWF and GFS) as input and boundary conditions to capture different synoptic conditions. Critical weather situations which are connected to extreme error events are located and corresponding perturbation techniques are applied. The demanding computational effort is overcome by utilising the supercomputer JUQUEEN at the Forschungszentrum Juelich.

  20. Simulating functional magnetic materials on supercomputers.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Markus Ernst; Entel, Peter

    2009-07-22

    The recent passing of the petaflop per second landmark by the Roadrunner project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory marks a preliminary peak of an impressive world-wide development in the high-performance scientific computing sector. Also, purely academic state-of-the-art supercomputers such as the IBM Blue Gene/P at Forschungszentrum Jülich allow us nowadays to investigate large systems of the order of 10(3) spin polarized transition metal atoms by means of density functional theory. Three applications will be presented where large-scale ab initio calculations contribute to the understanding of key properties emerging from a close interrelation between structure and magnetism. The first two examples discuss the size dependent evolution of equilibrium structural motifs in elementary iron and binary Fe-Pt and Co-Pt transition metal nanoparticles, which are currently discussed as promising candidates for ultra-high-density magnetic data storage media. However, the preference for multiply twinned morphologies at smaller cluster sizes counteracts the formation of a single-crystalline L1(0) phase, which alone provides the required hard magnetic properties. The third application is concerned with the magnetic shape memory effect in the Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloy, which is a technologically relevant candidate for magnetomechanical actuators and sensors. In this material strains of up to 10% can be induced by external magnetic fields due to the field induced shifting of martensitic twin boundaries, requiring an extremely high mobility of the martensitic twin boundaries, but also the selection of the appropriate martensitic structure from the rich phase diagram.

  1. 100G Ethernet in the wild - first experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, Bruno; Stoy, Robert; Schröder, Frank; Reymund, Aurelie; Niederberger, Ralf; Mextorf, Olaf; Werner, Sabine

    2011-12-01

    A 100 Gigabit Testbed was established in a collaboration of 6 partners. Three industry partners have contributed the fiber infrastructure, the DWDM equipment, as well as the required routers. 447 kilometer was the distance of the wide area testbed established in collaboration with the German NREN DFN between Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and Forschungszentrum Jülich Before starting, DFN assured the quality of the fiber infrastructure, the operation of the DWDM systems at both locations, as well as the connection of the routers to this WAN link with a bandwidth of 100GE. 12*10GE interfaces were available at each site for connecting the local testnodes to the routers. A monitoring and measurement framework was installed for recording the most important IP network performance metrics, among them the One Way Delay (OWD) and its Variation, Packet Loss and Packet Reordering. The delay measurements were conducted between the GPS time synchronized Hades[1]measurement nodes at each location. Additionally all relevant counters at the routers have been recorded using a SNMP based Network Manangement Station and supplemented special command line interface output gathering and parsing scripts. The interfaces statistics were stored in 60 second intervals. The aim of the testbed was to demonstrate a failure-free transmission of one or more IP datastreams over 100GE during the whole period of 4 weeks.This included the evaluation of the 100 Gbit/s optical transmission system, the 100GE interfaces between the routers and the optical system, and the evaluation of a sustained 100GE transmission as well as the evaluation of the use of 100GE in a production like environment. The evaluation included a circulated (in a routing loop) tunable load between 1 and 100 Gbit/s, measurement of transmission quality of TCP and UDP datastreams between the endsystems, measurements of one way latency, a ramping up data transmission from approx. 8 Gbit/s up to 96 Gbit/s.

  2. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  3. Twenty years of ambient observations of nitrogen oxides and specified hydrocarbons in air masses dominated by traffic emissions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Rohrer, Franz; Mihelcic, Djuro; Wegener, Robert; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2016-07-18

    The analysis of the individual composition of hydrocarbon (VOC) mixtures enables us to transform observed VOC-concentrations into their respective total VOC-reactivity versus OH radicals (RVOC = Σ(kOH+VOCi × [VOCi])). This is particularly useful because local ozone production essentially depends on this single parameter rather than on the details of the underlying hydrocarbon mixture (Klemp et al., Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Energy & Environment, 2012, 21). The VOC composition also enables us to pin down the major emission source of hydrocarbons in urban areas to be petrol cars with temporarily reduced catalyst efficiency (the so-called cold-start situation) whereas the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) is expected to be nowadays dominated by diesel cars. The observations in the vicinity of main roads in German cities show a decrease in the ratio of OH reactivities of VOC and NO2 (RVOC/RNO2) by a factor of 7.5 over the time period 1994-2014. This is larger than the expected decrease of a factor of 2.9 taking estimated trends of VOC and NOx traffic emissions in Germany (Umweltbundesamt Deutschland, National Trend Tables for the German Atmospheric Emission Reporting, 2015), during this time period. The observed reduction in the RVOC/RNO2 ratio leads to a drastic decrease in local ozone production driven by the reduction in hydrocarbons. The analysis reveals that the overall reduction of ozone production benefits from the low decrease of NOx emissions from road traffic which is a consequence of the eventual absence of catalytic converters for nitrogen oxide removal in diesel cars up to now. PMID:27117015

  4. Decommissioning of German Nuclear Research Facilities under the Governance of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Weigl, M.

    2008-07-01

    Since the announcement of the first nuclear program in 1956, nuclear R and D in Germany has been supported by the Federal Government under four nuclear programs and later on under more general energy R and D programs. The original goal was to help German industry to achieve safe, low-cost generation of energy and self-sufficiency in the various branches of nuclear technology, including the fast breeder reactor and the fuel cycle. Several national research centers were established to host or operate experimental and demonstration plants. These are mainly located at the sites of the national research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe. In the meantime, all these facilities were shut down and most of them are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D). Meanwhile, Germany is one of the leading countries in the world in the field of D and D. Two big demonstration plants, the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant (KKN) a heavy-water cooled pressure tube reactor with carbon-dioxide cooling and the Karlstein Superheated Steam Reactor (HDR) a boiling light water reactor with a thermal power of 100 MW, are totally dismantled and 'green field' is reached. For two other projects the return to 'green field' sites will be reached by the end of this decade. These are the dismantling of the Multi-Purpose Research Reactor (MZFR) and the Compact Sodium Cooled Reactor (KNK) both located at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Within these projects a lot of new solutions und innovative techniques were tested, which were developed at German universities and in small and medium sized companies mostly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). For example, high performance underwater cutting technologies like plasma arc cutting and contact arc metal cutting. (authors)

  5. Validation studies of a computational model for molten material freezing

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Ninokata, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akinao

    1996-02-01

    Validation studies are described of a computational model for the freezing of molten core materials under core disruptive accident conditions of fast breeder reactors. A series of out-of-pile experiments named SIMBATH, performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany, has already been analyzed with the SIMMER-II code. In the current study, TRAN simulation tests in the SIMBATH facility are analyzed by SIMMER-II for its modeling validation of molten material freezing. The original TRAN experiments were performed at Sandia National laboratories to examine the freezing behavior of molten UO{sub 2} injected into an annular channels. In the TAN simulation experiments of the SIMBATH series, similar freezing phenomena are investigated for molten thermite, a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and iron, instead of UO{sub 2}. Two typical TRAN simulation tests are analyzed that aim at clarification of the applicability of the code to the freezing process during the experiments. The distribution of molten materials that are deposited in the test section according to the experimental measurements and in calculations by SIMMER-II is compared. These studies confirm that the conduction-limited freezing model combined with the rudimentary bulk freezing (particle-jamming) model of SIMMER-II is compared. These studies confirm that the conduction-limited freezing model combined with the rudimentary bulk freezing (particle-jamming) model of SIMMER-II could be used to reproduce the TRAN simulation experiments satisfactorily. This finding encourages the extrapolation of the results of previous validation research for SIMMER-II based on other SIMBATH tests to reactor case analyses. The calculation by SIMMER-II suggest that further improvements of the model, such as freezing on a convex surface of pin cladding and the scraping of crusts, make possible more accurate simulation of freezing phenomena.

  6. Twenty years of ambient observations of nitrogen oxides and specified hydrocarbons in air masses dominated by traffic emissions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Rohrer, Franz; Mihelcic, Djuro; Wegener, Robert; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2016-07-18

    The analysis of the individual composition of hydrocarbon (VOC) mixtures enables us to transform observed VOC-concentrations into their respective total VOC-reactivity versus OH radicals (RVOC = Σ(kOH+VOCi × [VOCi])). This is particularly useful because local ozone production essentially depends on this single parameter rather than on the details of the underlying hydrocarbon mixture (Klemp et al., Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Energy & Environment, 2012, 21). The VOC composition also enables us to pin down the major emission source of hydrocarbons in urban areas to be petrol cars with temporarily reduced catalyst efficiency (the so-called cold-start situation) whereas the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) is expected to be nowadays dominated by diesel cars. The observations in the vicinity of main roads in German cities show a decrease in the ratio of OH reactivities of VOC and NO2 (RVOC/RNO2) by a factor of 7.5 over the time period 1994-2014. This is larger than the expected decrease of a factor of 2.9 taking estimated trends of VOC and NOx traffic emissions in Germany (Umweltbundesamt Deutschland, National Trend Tables for the German Atmospheric Emission Reporting, 2015), during this time period. The observed reduction in the RVOC/RNO2 ratio leads to a drastic decrease in local ozone production driven by the reduction in hydrocarbons. The analysis reveals that the overall reduction of ozone production benefits from the low decrease of NOx emissions from road traffic which is a consequence of the eventual absence of catalytic converters for nitrogen oxide removal in diesel cars up to now.

  7. Measuring the polarization of a rapidly precessing deuteron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasarian, Z.; Bertelli, S.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Dietrich, J.; Dymov, S.; Eversmann, D.; Fanourakis, G.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Gou, B.; Guidoboni, G.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lorentz, B.; Magallanes, L.; Maier, R.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Morse, W. M.; Nass, A.; Oellers, D.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Pretz, J.; Rathmann, F.; Shmakova, V.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Talman, R.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Valdau, Yu.; Weidemann, C.; Wüstner, P.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a time-marking system that enables a measurement of the in-plane (horizontal) polarization of a 0.97-GeV/c deuteron beam circulating in the Cooler Synchrotron (COSY) at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The clock time of each polarimeter event is used to unfold the 120-kHz spin precession and assign events to bins according to the direction of the horizontal polarization. After accumulation for one or more seconds, the down-up scattering asymmetry can be calculated for each direction and matched to a sinusoidal function whose magnitude is proportional to the horizontal polarization. This requires prior knowledge of the spin tune or polarization precession rate. An initial estimate is refined by resorting the events as the spin tune is adjusted across a narrow range and searching for the maximum polarization magnitude. The result is biased toward polarization values that are too large, in part because of statistical fluctuations but also because sinusoidal fits to even random data will produce sizable magnitudes when the phase is left free to vary. An analysis procedure is described that matches the time dependence of the horizontal polarization to templates based on emittance-driven polarization loss while correcting for the positive bias. This information will be used to study ways to extend the horizontal polarization lifetime by correcting spin tune spread using ring sextupole fields and thereby to support the feasibility of searching for an intrinsic electric dipole moment using polarized beams in a storage ring. This paper is a combined effort of the Storage Ring EDM collaboration and the JEDI collaboration.

  8. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    , StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L. Thompson, SheffieldF. Vannucci, Paris

    Local Organizing Committee

    S. Danaher, NorthumbriaC. Rhodes, Imperial College London
    J. Perkin, SheffieldT. Sloan, Lancaster
    L. Thompson, SheffieldD. Waters, University College London

    Participants

    Joseph Allen, Northumbria University, UK Miguel Ardid, Univ. Polit. de Valencia, Spain
    Thomas Asch, IPE, FZKa, Germany Karl-Heinz Becker, BU Wuppertal, Germany
    Dave Besson, U. of Kansas, USA Simon Bevan, University College London, UK
    Manuel Bou Cabo, Politecnic University Valencia, Spain Sebastian Böser, DESY Zeuthen, Germany
    Antonio Capone, University La Sapienza and INFN, Italy Paula Chadwick, University of Durham, UK
    Masami Chiba, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan Amy Connolly, UCLA, USA
    Sean Danaher, Northumbria University, UK Giulia De Bonis, Univ. Rome `La Sapienza', Italy
    Freija Descamps, University of Gent, BelgiumKay Graf, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Andreas Haungs, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany Kara Hoffman, University of Maryland, USA
    Stephen Hoover, UCLA, USA Tim Huege, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany
    Paula Gina Isar, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany Timo Karg, BU Wuppertal, Germany
    Johannes Knapp, University of Leeds, UK Robert Lahmann, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Mark Lancaster

  9. Preparation and properties of evaporated CdTe films compared with single crystal CdTe. Progress report No. 1, October 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bube, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    This program is concerned with the investigation of the materials properties of CdTe thin films deposited by hot-wall vacuum evaporation and of CdTe single crystalline material, particularly those relevant to solar cell applications in which CdTe is the absorbing member. Progress is reported on: (a) an evaluation of CdTe homojunctions formed by HWVE of CdTe by Walter Huber at the laboratory of Dr. Adolfo Lopez-Otero at the Institut fuer Physik of the University of Linz, using single crystal p-type CdTe from Stanford as a substrate; (b) the design and construction of a HWVE apparatus at Stanford; and (c) properties of grain boundaries in large grain polycrystalline CdTe.

  10. Proceedings of the 8th high energy heavy ion study

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This was the eighth in a series of conferences jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Science Division of LBL and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in West Germany. Sixty papers on current research at both relativistic and intermediate energies are included in this report. Topics covered consisted of: Equation of State of Nuclear Matter, Pion and High Energy Gamma Emission, Theory of Multifragmentation, Intermediate Energies, Fragmentation, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Structure, Electromagnetic Processes, and New Facilities planned for SIS-ESR. The latest design parameters of the Bevalac Upgrade Proposal were reviewed for the user community. Also, the design of a new electronic 4..pi.. detector, a time projection chamber which would be placed at the HISS facility, was presented.

  11. The Nagra-DOE Cooperative Project

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Levitch, R.A.; Zuidema, P.

    1993-04-01

    The Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra). Scientists participating in this project explored the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Six joint tasks were defined and are described briefly below. Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 5 were concerned with the characterization of fractured rock. Task 5 in particular was focused on investigations at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory in the Swiss Alps. Tasks 2 and 6 focused on the phenomenology associated with storing radioactive waste underground.

  12. The NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor for ERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Antichi, J.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.; Carbonaro, L.; Agapito, G.; Biliotti, V.; Briguglio, R.; Di Rico, G.; Dolci, M.; Ferruzzi, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Xompero, M.; Marchetti, E.; Fedrigo, E.; Le Louarn, M.; Conzelmann, R.; Delabre, B.; Amico, P.; Hubin, N.

    2014-07-01

    ERIS is the new Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) instrument for VLT in construction at ESO with the collaboration of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, ETH-Institute for Astronomy and INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. The ERIS AO system relies on a 40×40 sub-aperture Pyramid Wavefront Sensor (PWFS) for two operating modes: a pure Natural Guide Star high-order sensing for high Strehl and contrast correction and a low-order visible sensing in support of the Laser Guide Star AO mode. In this paper we present in detail the preliminary design of the ERIS PWFS that is developed under the responsibility of INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in collaboration with ESO.

  13. Thick Nano-Crystalline Diamond films for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dawedeit, Christoph

    2010-06-30

    This Diplomarbeit deals with the characterization of 9 differently grown diamond samples. Several techniques were used to determine the quality of these specimens for inertial confinement fusion targets. The quality of chemical vapor deposition diamond is usually considered in terms of the proportion of sp3-bonded carbon to sp2-bonded carbon in the sample. For fusion targets smoothness, Hydrogen content and density of the diamonds are further important characteristics. These characteristics are analyzed in this thesis. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institut für angewandte Festkörperphysik Freiburg, Germany. Additionally the Lehrstuhl fuer Nukleartechnik at Technical University of Germany supported the work.

  14. Mechanism of 'GSI oscillations' in electron capture by highly charged hydrogen-like atomic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Krainov, V. P.

    2012-07-15

    We suggest a qualitative explanation of oscillations in electron capture decays of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions observed recently in an ion experimental storage ring (ESR) of Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) mbH, Darmstadt, Germany. This explanation is based on the electron multiphoton Rabi oscillations between two Zeeman states of the hyperfine ground level with the total angular momentum F = 1/2. The Zeeman splitting is produced by a constant magnetic field in the ESR. Transitions between these states are produced by the second, sufficiently strong alternating magnetic field that approximates realistic fields in the GSI ESR. The Zeeman splitting amounts to only about 10{sup -5} eV. This allows explaining the observed quantum beats with the period 7 s.

  15. Observatory Improvements for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.

  16. An intelligent ground operator support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerlach, Thomas; Ohlendorf, Gerhard; Plassmeier, Frank; Bruege, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents first results of the project 'Technologien fuer die intelligente Kontrolle von Raumfahrzeugen' (TIKON). The TIKON objective was the demonstration of feasibility and profit of the application of artificial intelligence in the space business. For that purpose a prototype system has been developed and implemented for the operation support of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), a scientific spacecraft designed to perform the first all-sky survey with a high-resolution X-ray telescope and to investigate the emission of specific celestial sources. The prototype integrates a scheduler and a diagnosis tool both based on artificial intelligence techniques. The user interface is menu driven and provides synoptic displays for the visualization of the system status. The prototype has been used and tested in parallel to an already existing operational system.

  17. Highlights from the 2013 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, Santa Fe, NM

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-15

    The 2013 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference was held in Santa Fe, NM from April 15-17. There were 15 invited talks spanning the field of fusion theory on topics such as stellerator theory, intrinsic rotation in tokamaks, transport in the plasma edge, and plasma-wall interactions. Author-provided summaries of several of the invited talks are included on pages 5 to 10 of this document. Plenary talks were given by Per Helander (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald, Germany) on “Overview of recent developments in stellerator theory”, Amit Misra (Los Alamos National Laboratory) on “Stable storage of Helium at interfaces in nanocomposites”, Sergei Krasheninnikov (UC San Diego) on “On the physics of the first wall in fusion devices”, and Stuart Bale (UC Berkeley) on “Solar wind thermodynamics and turbulence: collisional – collisionless transitions”.

  18. Dedicated Max-Planck beamline for the in situ investigation of interfaces and thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Stierle, A.; Steinhaeuser, A.; Ruehm, A.; Renner, F.U.; Weigel, R.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.

    2004-12-01

    A dedicated beamline for the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung was recently taken into operation at the Angstroemquelle Karlsruhe (ANKA). Here we describe the layout of the beamline optics and the experimental end-station, consisting of a heavy duty multiple circle diffractometer. For both a new design was realized, combining a maximum flexibility in the beam properties [white, pink (focused) monochromatic, energy range 6-20 keV] with a special diffractometer for heavy sample environments up to 500 kg, that can be run in different geometrical modes. In addition the angular-reciprocal space transformations for the diffractometer in use are derived, which allows an operation of the instrument in the convenient six circle mode. As an example, results from surface x-ray diffraction on a Cu{sub 3}Au(111) single crystal are presented.

  19. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Overview of the German industrial research project ADAPTRONIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanselka, Holger

    2000-06-01

    In 1997 BMBF, within the framework of an idea competition for future-oriented key technologies and their industrial utilization, called for project proposals from industries and research for so-called 'Leitprojekts'. An independent group of experts selected few project proposals form the many submitted, and prosed them to BMBF for promotion. One of these projects is the BMBF-Leitprojekt ADAPTRONIK which is introduced in this paper. The Leitprojekt ADAPTRONIK which is conducted under the responsibility of Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt e.V. in Brunswick, focuses on the strucutre-conforming integration of piezoelectric fibers and patches in structures for lightweight construction. It is aimed at active vibration and noise reduction, contour deformation and micro-positioning in the very sense of adaptronics in various industrial applications. The project targets are prototype assemblies from the fields of automotive industry, rail vehicles, mechanical engineering, medical engineering, and aerospace.

    1. Observation of Spontaneous Neoclassical Tearing Modes

      SciTech Connect

      E.D. Fredrickson

      2001-10-03

      We present data in this paper from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) which challenges the commonly held belief that extrinsic MHD events such as sawteeth or ELMs [edge localized modes] are required to provide the seed islands that trigger Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). While sawteeth are reported to provide the trigger for most of the NTMs on DIII-D [at General Atomics in San Diego, California] and ASDEX-U [at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany], the majority of NTMs seen in TFTR occur in plasmas without sawteeth, that is which are above the beta threshold for sawtooth stabilization. Examples of NTMs appearing in the absence of any detectable extrinsic MHD activity will be shown. Conversely, large n=1 modes in plasmas above the NTM beta threshold generally do not trigger NTMs. An alternative mechanism for generating seed islands will be discussed.

    2. CRYOGENIC AND VACUUM TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE LOW-ENERGY ELECTROSTATIC CRYOGENIC STORAGE RING

      SciTech Connect

      Orlov, D. A.; Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Sieber, T.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A.; Rappaport, M.

      2008-03-16

      The cryogenic and vacuum concepts for the electrostatic Cryogenic ion Storage Ring (CSR), under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, is presented. The ring will operate in a broad temperature range from 2 to 300 K and is required to be bakeable up to 600 K. Extremely high vacuum and low temperatures are necessary to achieve long lifetimes of the molecular ions stored in the ring so that the ions will have enough time to cool by radiation to their vibrational and rotational ground states. To test cryogenic and vacuum technological aspects of the CSR, a prototype is being built and will be connected to the commercial cryogenic refrigerator recently installed, including a specialized 2-K connection system. The first results and the status of current work with the prototype are also presented.

    3. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      Data acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 4, 1994 from the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour were used to generate interferometric fringes, which were overlaid on the X-SAR image of Kilauea. The volcano is centered in this image at 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. The image covers about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.6 miles by 8 miles). The X-band fringes correspond clearly to the expected topographic image. The yellow line indicates the area below which was used for the three-dimensional image using altitude lines. The yellow rectangular frame fences the area for the final topographic image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in interferometry analysis.

    4. Long-term MAX-DOAS measurement of trace gases and aerosol in the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Zhuoru; Hao, Nan; Hendrick, François; Van Roozendael, Michel; Holla, Robert; Valks, Pieter

      2016-04-01

      The Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (Umwelt Forschungsstation Schneefernerhaus, UFS) is located immediately under the summit of Zugspitze (2962 m), the highest mountain of Germany, at a height of 2650 m. The UFS is a rare observation site in Germany with mostly clean and unpolluted air. It is ideal for both stratospheric composition measurements and trace gas measurements in the free-troposphere. It is optimal for detecting pollution events in the free-troposphere, which are indications of short- or long-range transport of air pollutants. A MAX-DOAS instrument has been working in the UFS since February 2011. With the zenith spectrum of each cycle used as the reference, the differential slant column densities (DSCDs) of trace gases are calculated from the spectra with Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The DSCDs of both O4 and NO2 are calculated in two different wavelength intervals, 338-370 nm in the UV region and 440-490 nm in the VIS region. For HCHO and HONO, optimal fitting windows have been determined in the UV region. A retrieval algorithm, based on the radiative transfer model LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, is used to provide information on the vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs) of aerosol and trace gases. Meanwhile, zenith-sky radiance spectra during twilight hours are analyzed using DOAS method to derive the total vertical column densities (VCDs) of O3 and NO2. A zenith spectrum measured in the noon of a summer day was chosen as the reference spectrum. The slant column densities (SCDs) of O3 and NO2, which are the direct product of the DOAS analysis, are then converted into VCDs using the air mass factors (AMFs) derived by radiative transfer calculations. This work presents the results of the MAX-DOAS measurement in the UFS from 2012 to 2015, including aerosol (derived from O4 measurement), NO2, HCHO, and HONO, etc. The vertical profiles as well as the seasonal and diurnal variation

    5. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment: quantification of the near-infrared water vapor continuum from atmospheric measurements

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Reichert, Andreas; Sussmann, Ralf; Rettinger, Markus

      2016-04-01

      previously no precise measurements under atmospheric conditions were available. Our results allow resolving the present contradiction between the predictions of the widely used MT_CKD continuum model and current laboratory studies. Acknowledgements: Funding by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) and the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection (contracts TLK01U-49581 and VAO-II TP I/01) is gratefully acknowledged.

    6. Complementary education for healthcare personnel: a strategy to increase hospital performance.

      PubMed

      Ghanem, Mohamed

      2014-01-01

      Einleitung: Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen steht vor anhaltenden Umbrüchen und Entwicklungen. Die zunehmende Tendenz, Krankenhäuser und medizinisches Personal zu drängen, ertragsorientiert zu arbeiten, stellt zusammen mit anderen Faktoren eine Herausforderung für Gegenwart und Zukunft dar. Ärzte und Chirurgen klagen über zunehmenden Stress, der auf Maßnahmen zur Kostensenkung in Krankenhäusern zurückzuführen ist. Die höchste Priorität muss immer die Zufriedenheit der Patienten und die Sicherstellung von gutem medizinischen und menschlichen Service haben.Problembeschreibung: Der Gesundheitsmarkt in Deutschland wurde zu einem immer komplexer werdenden Geschäft mit unsicheren und unvorhersehbaren zukünftigen Ereignissen. Die strategische Planung muss den Krankenhäusern ermöglichen, die Strategie schnell und flexibel an die Veränderungen in der Umwelt anzupassen, da dies für ihren Erfolg wesentlich ist. Die wichtigste Aufgabe ist es, eine Strategie zu entwickeln, die mit Erfolg in allen möglichen Zukunftsszenarien angewendet werden kann. Diese ist als die Kernstrategie bekannt.Diskussion: Die Kernstrategie für Krankenhäuser in Deutschland ist die komplementäre Ausbildung des medizinischen Personals sowie des Top-Managements. Dementsprechend sollen Kurse, Workshops oder auch Teilzeit-Studium oder weiterführende Ausbildung in Betriebs- und Volkswirtschaft für das medizinische Personal empfohlen werden. Soweit nicht-medizinische Krankenhausführungskräfte betroffen sind, gibt es keinen besseren Weg, als sie in medizinischen Krankenhausabteilungen für einen Zeitraum von 6–12 Monaten hospitieren zu lassen. Dies bahnt den Weg für besseres Verständnis und bessere Kooperation und somit erhöhte Krankenhausleistung.Fazit: Die angemessene und komplementäre Ausbildung des medizinischen Personals und der nicht-medizinischen Top-Führungskräfte und Manager von Krankenhäusern wird als Kernstrategie empfohlen. Dies bringt die Bemühungen der Mediziner

    7. Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

      2009-04-01

      Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the strongest greenhouse gases per molecule in the atmosphere. SF6 emissions are also one of the six greenhouse gases targeted for reduction under the Kyoto Protocol. Here we present a long-term data set of globally distributed high-precision atmospheric SF6 observations which show an increase in mixing ratios from near zero in the 1970s to a global mean value of 6.3 ppt by the end of 2007. Because of its long atmospheric lifetime of around 3000 years, the accumulation of SF6 in the atmosphere is a direct measure of its global emissions: Analysis of our long-term data records implies a decrease of global SF6 sources after 1995, most likely due to emission reductions in industrialised countries. However, after 1998 the global SF6 source increases again, which is probably due to enhanced emissions from transition economies such as in China and India. Moreover, observed north-south concentration differences in SF6 suggest that emissions calculated from statistical (bottom-up) information and reported by Annex II parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) may be too low by up to 50%. This clearly shows the importance and need for atmospheric (top-down) validation of Kyoto reporting which is only feasible with a dense world-wide observational network for greenhouse and other trace gases. Other members of the Global SF6 Trends Team: R. Heinz (1), D. Osusko (1), E. Cuevas (2), A. Engel (3), J. Ilmberger (1), R.L. Langenfelds (4), B. Neininger (5), C.v. Rohden (1), L.P. Steele (4), A. Varlagin (6), R. Weller (7), D.E. Worthy (8), S.A. Zimov (9) (1) Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, (2) Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM), 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, (3) Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany, (4) Centre for Australian Weather and

    8. Hydraulic and thermal soil Parameter combined with TEM data at quaternary coastal regions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Grabowski, Ima; Kirsch, Reinhard; Scheer, Wolfgang

      2014-05-01

      Geosciences Union Burval Working Group (2006) Groundwater Resources in buried valleys- a challenge for Geosciences. - Leibniz-Institut für Angewandte Geophysik, Hannover Scheer W, König B, Steinmann F (2012): Die Grundwasserverhältnisse von Föhr. - In: Der Untergrund von Föhr: Geologie, Grundwasser und Erdwärme - Ergebnisse des INTERREG-Projektes CLIWAT. - Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek

    9. Jahr der Geowissenschaften

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wohnlich, Stefan

      2002-06-01

      Das System Erde ist Leitthema des "Jahres der Geowissenschaften", das von der Bundesministerin für Bildung und Forschung in den Vordergrund der Initiative "Wissenschaft im Dialog" für 2002 gestellt wurde. Es soll aufzeigen, dass wir in einer empfindlichen Umwelt leben, die auf die natürlichen Schwankungen, z. B. des Klimas, genauso empfindlich reagiert wie auf die rücksichtslose Nutzung der Erde durch den Menschen. Damit rückt auch das Thema Grundwasser als Teil des globalen Wasserkreislaufes in den Mittelpunkt der derzeitigen Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. Wenn wir uns die bisherige Resonanz auf das Jahr der Geowissenschaften anschauen, dann ist festzustellen, dass gerade die Bereitschaft aus den Medien zur Aufnahme von Geowissenschaftlichen Themen erstaunlich groß ist. Aus dem Bereich des Grund- und Trinkwassers snd vor allem in Universitätsstädten bereits größere Veranstaltungen durchgeführt worden oder stehen noch im Laufe des Jahres aus (Information unter: www.planeterde.de). Tatsächlich ist der Dialog von Wissenschaft und Praxis mit der Öffentlichkeit ein vorrangiges Ziel auch der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie. Nur allzu leicht tritt dieses Ziel im Alltagsbetrieb in den Hintergrund. Die deutschen Universitäten und Wissenschaftsorganisationen haben in die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit erst in den letzten Jahren verstärkt Ideen und Mittel investiert. Dabei ist gerade das Verständnis für die Chancen und Risiken der Forschung und damit auch der Hochschullehre in der breiten Öffentlichkeit eine unabdingbare Voraussetzung. Aber nicht nur die wissenschaftliche Organisationen sind auf die Akzeptanz einer breiten Öffentlichkeit für wissenschaftlich fundiertes Arbeiten angewiesen, sondern auch die von Fachwissen geprägten Aufgaben im Umfeld des Grundwassers brauchen das Verständnis für ihre oft aufwändigen Untersuchungen. Ich habe in den letzten Monaten mehrere Vorträge an verschiedenen Gymnasien zum Thema "Ressource Grundwasser" gehalten. Die Resonanz war f

    10. Creation of the relevant next: How living systems capture the power of the adjacent possible through sign use.

      PubMed

      Favareau, Donald F

      2015-12-01

      Stuart Kauffman's revolutionary notion of the Adjacent Possible as an organizing principle in nature shares much in common with logician Charles S. Peirce's understanding of the universe as an ever-unfolding 'process ontology' of possibility space that is brought about through the recursive interaction of genuine possibility, transiently actualized order, and emergent (but never fully deterministic) lawfulness. Proceeding from these three fundamental categories of becoming-as-being, Peirce developed a complimentary logic of sign relations that, along with Estonian biologist Jakob von Uexküll's action-as-meaning-imprinting Umwelt theory, informs the work that is currently being undertaken under the aegis of Biosemiotics. In this paper, I will highlight the deep affinities between Kauffman's notion of the Adjacent Possible and Biosemiotics' hybrid Peircean/Uexküllian "sign" concept, by which living systems - both as individuals and in the aggregate (i.e., as co-actors, communities and lineages) - "capture" relevant aspects of their relations with the immediately given Adjacent Possible and preserve those recipes for future interaction possibilities as biologically instantiated signs. By so doing, living systems move into the Adjacent Possible by "collapsing the wave function" of possibility not just probabilistically, but guided by system-internal values arising from previously captured sign relations that are biologically instantiated as replicable system biases and generative constraints. The influence of such valenced and end-directed action in the world introduces into the universe the phenomenon of the Relevant (and not just deterministic, or even stochastic) Next. My argument in this paper is that organisms live out their lives perpetually confronted with negotiating the omnipresent Relevant Next, and are informed by the biological capture of their (and their lineage's) previous engagements in doing so. And because that "capture" of previous agent

    11. Creation of the relevant next: How living systems capture the power of the adjacent possible through sign use.

      PubMed

      Favareau, Donald F

      2015-12-01

      Stuart Kauffman's revolutionary notion of the Adjacent Possible as an organizing principle in nature shares much in common with logician Charles S. Peirce's understanding of the universe as an ever-unfolding 'process ontology' of possibility space that is brought about through the recursive interaction of genuine possibility, transiently actualized order, and emergent (but never fully deterministic) lawfulness. Proceeding from these three fundamental categories of becoming-as-being, Peirce developed a complimentary logic of sign relations that, along with Estonian biologist Jakob von Uexküll's action-as-meaning-imprinting Umwelt theory, informs the work that is currently being undertaken under the aegis of Biosemiotics. In this paper, I will highlight the deep affinities between Kauffman's notion of the Adjacent Possible and Biosemiotics' hybrid Peircean/Uexküllian "sign" concept, by which living systems - both as individuals and in the aggregate (i.e., as co-actors, communities and lineages) - "capture" relevant aspects of their relations with the immediately given Adjacent Possible and preserve those recipes for future interaction possibilities as biologically instantiated signs. By so doing, living systems move into the Adjacent Possible by "collapsing the wave function" of possibility not just probabilistically, but guided by system-internal values arising from previously captured sign relations that are biologically instantiated as replicable system biases and generative constraints. The influence of such valenced and end-directed action in the world introduces into the universe the phenomenon of the Relevant (and not just deterministic, or even stochastic) Next. My argument in this paper is that organisms live out their lives perpetually confronted with negotiating the omnipresent Relevant Next, and are informed by the biological capture of their (and their lineage's) previous engagements in doing so. And because that "capture" of previous agent

    12. A new Geo-Information Architecture for Risk Management in the Alps

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Baruffini, Mi.; Thuering, M.

      2009-04-01

      gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode, Fallbeispiele und Daten (Risk analyses for gravitational natural hazards). Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL). Umwelt-Materialen Nr. 107, 1-244. Loat, R. & Zimmermann, M. 2004 : La gestion des risques en Suisse (Risk Management in Switzerland). In: Veyret, Y., Garry, G., Meschinet de Richemont, N. & Armand Colin (eds) 2002: Colloque Arche de la Défense 22-24 octobre 2002, dans Risques naturels et aménagement en Europe, 108-120. Smith, K. 2001: Environmental hazards. Assessing the risk and reducing disaster. Third edition. London

    13. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Baruffini, Mirko

      2010-05-01

      GIS-based system can be for effective and efficient disaster response management. In the coming years our GIS application will be a data base containing all information needed for the evaluation of risk sites along the Gotthard line. Our GIS application can help the technical management to decide about protection measures because of, in addition to the visualisation, tools for spatial data analysis will be available. REFERENCES Bründl M. (Ed.) 2009 : Risikokonzept für Naturgefahren - Leitfaden. Nationale Plattform für Naturgefahren PLANAT, Bern. 416 S. BUWAL 1999: Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode, Fallbeispiele und Daten (Risk analyses for gravitational natural hazards). Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL). Umwelt-Materialen Nr. 107, 1-244. Loat, R. & Zimmermann, M. 2004: La gestion des risques en Suisse (Risk Management in Switzerland). In: Veyret, Y., Garry, G., Meschinet de Richemont, N. & Armand Colin (eds) 2002: Colloque Arche de la Défense 22-24 octobre 2002, dans Risques naturels et aménagement en Europe, 108-120. Maggi R. et al, 2009: Evaluation of the optimal resilience for vulnerable infrastructure networks. An interdisciplinary pilot study on the transalpine transportation corridors, NRP 54 "Sustainable Development of the Built Environment", Projekt Nr. 405 440, Final Scientific Report, Lugano

    14. PREFACE: International Conference on Magnetism (ICM 2009)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

      2010-11-01

      The International Conference on Magnetism 2009 (ICM 2009) was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, from 26-31 July 2009. Previous conferences in this series were organized in Edingburgh, United Kingdom (1991), Warsaw, Poland (1994), Cairns, Australia (1997), Recife, Brazil (2000), Rome, Italy (2003) and Kyoto, Japan (2006). As with previous ICM conferences, the annual Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was integrated into ICM 2009. Conference photograph Participants of ICM 2009 in front of the Stadthalle Karlsruhe. Topics of ICM 2009 were: Strongly Correlated Electron Systems; Quantum and Classical Spin Systems; Magnetic Structures and Interactions; Magnetization Dynamics and Micromagnetics; Spin-Dependent Transport; Spin Electronics; Magnetic Thin Films, Particles, and Nanostructures; Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials and their Applications; Novel Materials and Device Applications; Magnetic Recording and Memories; Measuring Techniques and Instrumentation, as well as Interdisciplinary Topics. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for their help in putting up an attractive program encompassing practically all aspects of magnetism, both experimentally and theoretically. The program committee comprised A Loidl, Germany (Chair), M A Continentino, Brazil, D E Dahlberg, USA, D Givord, France, G Güntherodt, Germany, H Mikeska, Germany, D Kaczorowski, Poland, Ching-Ray Chang, South Korea, I Mertig, Germany, D Vollhardt, Germany and E F Wassermann, Germany was also head of the National Organizing Committee. His help is gratefully acknowledged. Photographs Left: Poster session in the Stadthalle Karlsruhe. Upper right: H v Löhneysen (Conference Chairman), Nobel Laureates A Fert and P. Grünberg, E Umbach (Chairman of the Executive Board of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe) (left to right). Lower right: Nobel Laureate P W Anderson. The scientific program started on Monday 27 July 2009 with opening addresses by the Conference Chairman, the deputy

    15. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Scheurer, A.; German CMS Community

      2010-04-01

      The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool "HappyFace", which was

    16. From 1D-Multi-Layer-Conductivity-Inversion to Pseudo-3D-Imaging of Quantified Electromagnetic Induction Data Acquired at a Heterogeneous Test Site

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      von Hebel, Christian; Rudolph, Sebastian; Huisman, Johan A.; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

      2013-04-01

      Electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems enable the non-invasive spatial characterization of soil structural and hydrogeological variations, since the measured apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) can be related to changes in soil moisture, soil water, clay content and/or salinity. Due to the contactless operation, ECa maps of relatively large areas, i.e. field to (small) catchment scale, can be measured in reasonably short times. A multi-configuration EMI system with one electromagnetic field transmitter and various receivers with different offsets provide simultaneous ECa measurements that are representative of different sensing depths. Unfortunately, measured ECa values can only be considered as qualitative values due to external influences like the operator, cables or other metal objects. Of course, a better vertical characterization of the subsurface is possible when quantitative measurement values could be obtained. To obtain such quantitative ECa values, the measured EMI apparent conductivities are calibrated using a linear regression approach with predicted apparent conductivities obtained from a Maxwell-based full-solution forward model using inverted electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data as input. These calibrated apparent conductivities enable a quantitative multi-layer-inversion to resolve for the electrical conductivity of certain layers. To invert for a large scale three-layer model, a one-dimensional (1D) shuffled-complex-evolution inversion scheme was parallelized and run on JUROPA - one of the supercomputers of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. This novel inversion routine was applied to calibrated electromagnetic induction data acquired at the Selhausen test site (Germany), which has a size of about 190 x 70 m. The test site is weakly inclined and a distinct gradient in soil texture is present with considerably higher gravel content at the upper part of the field. Parallel profiles with approximately three meter distance were measured using

    17. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

      SciTech Connect

      J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

      2009-09-01

      The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

    18. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 1: Theory and Computational Model

      SciTech Connect

      Nichols, B.D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G.A.; Travis, J.R.; Spore, J.W.; Lam, K.L.; Royl, P.; Redlinger, R.; Wilson, T.L.

      1998-10-01

      Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior (1) in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and (2) during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included

    19. Estimation of gaseous real-world traffic emissions downstream a motorway

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kohler, M.; Corsmeier, U.; Vogt, U.; Vogel, B.

      The consequences of air pollution scenarios caused by road traffic or the impact of exhaust gas reduction techniques are estimated by emission models. To ensure the quality of model results, it is necessary to evaluate the used emission factors under real-world conditions. Therefore, the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe initiated the field campaign BAB II (BundesAutoBahn, Federal motorway). The campaign was conducted in May 2001 with the objective of measuring the traffic emissions at a motorway section and to compare them to modelled emissions. Based on experiences during a precursor campaign (BAB I, 1997), a symmetric experimental set-up was installed which allowed measurements up- and downwind of a motorway nearby Heidelberg, Germany. This paper focuses on the determination of source intensities and emission factors for CO and NO x, whereas other papers in this issue handle VOC and particulate matter. First the basic approach of BAB II measurements up- and downwind of a motorway was approved, showing that it is possible to detect the plume originating from traffic emissions. A case study during a traffic jam illustrates that driving patterns have a strong impact on the emissions and therefore a detailed traffic census is required to obtain reliable emission calculations. Two different strategies were used: (i) long-time measurements during the whole campaign to obtain vertical profiles each 30 min and (ii) measurements during eight special operation periods (SOP) in a higher temporal resolution of 5 min, using instrumentation in elevators. It could be shown that even at a distance of 60-80 m from the motorway the structure of the plume is still inhomogeneous, and concentration changes within short times. The inhomogeneity of the plume not only affects the temporal scale, the spatial scale is also influenced and frequently concentration maxima in higher altitudes are observed. Mean source intensities of 9.5 kg

    20. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement of NAPL contaminated soils

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

      2010-12-01

      The potential applicability of spectral induce polarization (SIP) as a tool to map NAPLs (non aqueous phase liquids) contaminants at the subsurface lead researchers to investigate the electric signature of those contaminant on the spectral response. However, and despite the cumulative efforts, the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of soil, and the mechanisms that control this effect are largely unknown. In this work a novel experiment is designed to further examine the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of partially saturated soil. The measurement system that used is the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany. The system accurately (nominal phase precision of 0.1 mrad below 1 kHz) measures the phase and the amplitude of a material possessing a very low polarization (such as soil). The sample holder has a dimension of 60 cm long and 4.6 cm in diameter. Current and potential electrodes were made of brass, and while the current electrodes were inserted in full into the soil, the contact between the potential electrode and the soil was made through an Agarose bridge. Two types of soils were used: clean quartz sand, and a mixture of sand with clean Bentonite. Each soil (sandy or clayey) was mixed with water to get saturation degree of 30%. Following the mixture with water, NAPL was added and the composite were mixed again. Packing was done by adding and compressing small portions of the soil to the column. A triplicate of each mixture was made with a good reproducible bulk density. Both for the sandy and clayey soils, the results indicate that additions of NAPL decrease the real part of the complex resistivity. Additionally, for the sandy soil this process is time depended, and that a further decrease in resistivity develops over time. The results are analyzed considering geometrical factors: while the NAPL is electrically insulator, addition of NAPL to the soil is expected to increase the connectivity of the

    1. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing: the PRIMA Project

      SciTech Connect

      Malony, Allen D.; Wolf, Felix G.

      2014-01-31

      The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to accomplish

    2. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing. The PRIMA Project

      SciTech Connect

      Malony, Allen D.; Wolf, Felix G.

      2014-01-31

      The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-­end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-­performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-­fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to

    3. LIF-instrument for Airborne and Ground-Based Measurement of OH and HO2 Radicals in the Troposphere.

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Broch, Sebastian; Bachner, Mathias; Dahlhoff, Knut; Holland, Frank; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Jansen, Peter; Meier, Andreas; Raak, Dominik; Wolters, Jörg; Wahner, Andreas

      2010-05-01

      The radicals OH and HO2 (also named HOx) play an important role in the chemical degradation and transformation of most trace gases in the troposphere. The rate of these processes depends strongly on the magnitude of the radical concentrations. Due to their high reactivity, their concentrations are very low (sub pptv and pptv range) and exhibit a strong regional variability. Therefore exact measurement of HOx in different regions and at different altitudes in the troposphere are very important for the understanding and modelling of the self cleaning ability of the atmosphere. Here, we present the technical concept and results of laboratory test measurements of a new, mobile instrument for measurement of OH and HO2 radicals based on the proven laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique (Holland et al., 1995, 2003; Schlosser et al., 2007, 2009). The instrument is planned to be used for ground-based field measurements, for airborne application on a Zeppelin (h = 0-2 km) and on the new German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream V, h = 0-15 km). The setup of the new instrument is modular to allow different configurations for different applications and all components are newly designed to reduce weight, size and power requirement. For the implementation on HALO completely new air-inlet systems for OH and HO2 were developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The OH inlet is based on the shrouded-inlet design by Eisele et al. (1997). The design has been modified to reduce size and weight, and cope with the flight conditions and certification requirements of HALO. These are different than those for the original design, like higher speed, greater ceiling height and strength against bird strike. Compared to our ground-based measurement system, the aircraft inlet requires long inlet tubes which modify the detection sensitivity and possible interferences. Since the sensitivity of our instrument depends on ambient pressure, the OH inlet system is equipped with a calibration system

    4. POWTEX Neutron Diffractometer at FRM II - New Perspectives for In-Situ Rock Deformation Analysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Walter, J. M.; Stipp, M.; Ullemeyer, K.; Klein, H.; Leiss, B.; Hansen, B. T.; Kuhs, W. F.

      2012-04-01

      In Geoscience quantitative texture analysis here defined as the quantitative analysis of the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), is a common tool for the investigation of fabric development in mono- and polyphase rocks, their deformation histories and kinematics. Bulk texture measurements also allow the quantitative characterisation of the anisotropic physical properties of rock materials. A routine tool to measure bulk sample volumes is neutron texture diffraction, as neutrons have large penetration capabilities of several cm in geological sample materials. The new POWTEX (POWder and TEXture) Diffractometer at the neutron research reactor FRM II in Garching, Germany is designed as a high-intensity diffractometer by groups from the RWTH Aachen, Forschungszentrum Jülich and the University of Göttingen. Complementary to existing neutron diffractometers (SKAT at Dubna, Russia; GEM at ISIS, UK; HIPPO at Los Alamos, USA; D20 at ILL, France; and the local STRESS-SPEC and SPODI at FRM II) the layout of POWTEX is focused on fast time-resolved experiments and the measurement of larger sample series as necessary for the study of large scale geological structures. POWTEX is a dedicated beam line for geoscientific research. Effective texture measurements without sample tilting and rotation are possible firstly by utilizing a range of neutron wavelengths simultaneously (Time-of-Flight technique) and secondly by the high detector coverage (9.8 sr) and a high flux (~1 - 107 n/cm2s) at the sample. Furthermore the instrument and the angular detector resolution is designed also for strong recrystallisation textures as well as for weak textures of polyphase rocks. These instrument characteristics allow in-situ time-resolved texture measurements during deformation experiments on rocksalt, ice and other materials as large sample environments will be implemented at POWTEX. The in-situ deformation apparatus is operated by a uniaxial spindle drive with a maximum axial load of

    5. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Panek, John

      2010-01-01

      A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

    6. Characterisation and first application of a cavity ring-down instrument for measurements of NO3 and N2O5

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schrade, Stephanie; Bachner, Mathias; Kubik, Kamil; Fuchs, Hendrik

      2014-05-01

      A new instrument was built for atmospheric measurements using the cavity ringdown technique for a simultaneous measurement of nitrate radicals (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) using a red laser diode at 662 nm. The instrument consists of two channels: The inlet and the cavity of the first one is heated up to 120 °C to force the thermal equlibrium of N2O5 and NO3 to the side of NO3, so that this channel measures the sum NO3 and N2O5. The other channel stays at ambient temperature to measure NO3 only. To prevent aerosol extinction, a filter is installed upstream of the cavities. The detection limit is within the range of a few ppt at 1 s time resolution. Measurements have an accuracy of 15 %. Instrument losses were characterized by a titration method using the conversion of NO3 to NO2 by adding NO. Two addition points where chosen, right before and after the NO3 intrument.The NO2 concentration was measured downstream of the instrument with another CRDS intrument using a blue laser diode at 405 nm. Estimated losses are within the range of 40 % due two a high point loss on the used filter housing. First application took place at the SAPHIR simulation chamber at Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH. Experiments were made by injecting known concentrations of NO2 and ozone into the dark chamber filled with pure synthetic air to analyse the behavior of NO3 and N2O5 in the clean chamber. Possible losses were estimated from the steady-state lifetime of NO3, which can be calculated from measured NO3, NO2 and ozone concentrations. Estimated lifetimes of NO3 and N2O5 were within the range of 19 min and 44 min, respetively. During futher experiments organic compounds (isoprene, β-pinene, limonene) were additionally injected, in order to test the applicability of chamber experiments for the invertigation of oxidation processes by NO3.

    7. Aerosol behavior during SIC control rod failure in QUENCH-13 test

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lind, Terttaliisa; Csordás, Anna Pintér; Nagy, Imre; Stuckert, Juri

      2010-02-01

      In a nuclear reactor severe accident, radioactive fission products as well as structural materials are released from the core by evaporation, and the released gases form particles by nucleation and condensation. In addition, aerosol particles may be generated by droplet formation and fragmentation of the core. In pressurized water reactors (PWR), a commonly used control rod material is silver-indium-cadmium (SIC) covered with stainless steel cladding. The control rod elements, Cd, In and Ag, have relatively low melting temperatures, and especially Cd has also a very low boiling point. Control rods are likely to fail early on in the accident due to melting of the stainless steel cladding which can be accelerated by eutectic interaction between stainless steel and the surrounding Zircaloy guide tube. The release of the control rod materials would follow the cladding failure thus affecting aerosol source term as well as fuel rod degradation. The QUENCH experimental program at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe investigates phenomena associated with reflood of a degrading core under postulated severe accident conditions. QUENCH-13 test was the first in this program to include a silver-indium-cadmium control rod of prototypic PWR design. To characterize the extent of aerosol release during the control rod failure, aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements in the off-gas pipe of the QUENCH facility were carried out. For the first time, it was possible to determine on-line the aerosol concentration and size distribution released from the core. These results are of prime importance for model development for the proper calculation of the source term resulting from control rod failure. The on-line measurement showed that the main aerosol release started at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1570 K at hottest bundle elevation. A very large burst of aerosols was detected 660 s later at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1650 K, followed by a relatively

    8. LIF instrument for airborne measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals in the upper troposphere

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Broch, S.; Künstler, C.; Bachner, M.; Dahlhoff, K.; Holland, F.; Bayer, N.; Fuchs, H.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Jansen, P.; Wolters, J.; Zöger, M.; Wahner, A.

      2015-12-01

      We present the development and first deployment of a new instrument for the measurement of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals in the upper troposphere aboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and LOng range). The instrument is based on the well-established laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique (Holland et al., 2003; Fuchs et al., 2008). It has two separate measurement cells, one for the direct detection of OH (OH channel) and one for alternating measurements of HO2 and RO2 radicals (ROx channel) after chemical conversion to OH by the reaction with NO. For its deployment on HALO, a Gulfstream-V aircraft, a special air inlet for the OH channel was developed and built at Forschungszentrum Jülich. It is based on the shrouded-inlet design by Eisele et al. (1995) and allows for a controlled reduction of the air flow velocity prior to sampling as well as the performance of inflight calibrations. There is no special inlet system for the ROx channel. It samples directly from the fast airflow along the aircraft. In contrast to our ground based instrument, longer inlet tubes are required to bring the ambient air into the detection cells inside the aircraft. The inflight calibration unit of the OH inlet allows for monitoring relative changes of the OH detection sensitivity with height. Ambient water vapor is photolysed at 185 nm upstream of the inlet nozzle to produce an additional OH signal which can be evaluated by using measurements of water vapor mixing ratio, lamp intensity, and airflow velocity. Due to the very small water vapor mixing ratios in the UTLS region this technique is limited to altitudes up to 11 km. We will give an overview of the technical concept and instrumental setup for the application on HALO. We will show results from laboratory characterization measurements concerning the radical detection sensitivities and first results from flights performed during the OMO-Asia campaign in summer 2015. Literature: Holland et al., J. Geophys. Res., 108

    9. Modelling Contribution of Biogenic VOCs to New Particle Formation in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liao, L.; Boy, M.; Mogensen, D.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillman, R.; Kulmala, M. T.; Dal Maso, M.

      2012-12-01

      Biogenic VOCs are substantially emitted from vegetation to atmosphere. The oxidation of BVOCs by OH, O3, and NO3 in air generating less volatile compounds may lead to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol, and thus presents a link to the vegetation, aerosol, and climate interaction system (Kulmala et al, 2004). Studies including field observations, laboratory experiments and modelling have improved our understanding on the connection between BVOCs and new particle formation mechanism in some extent (see e.g. Tunved et al., 2006; Mentel et al., 2009). Nevertheless, the exact formation process still remains uncertain, especially from the perspective of BVOC contributions. The purpose of this work is using the MALTE aerosol dynamics and air chemistry box model to investigate aerosol formation from reactions of direct tree emitted VOCs in the presence of ozone, UV light and artificial solar light in an atmospheric simulation chamber. This model employs up to date air chemical reactions, especially the VOC chemistry, which may potentially allow us to estimate the contribution of BVOCs to secondary aerosol formation, and further to quantify the influence of terpenes to the formation rate of new particles. Experiments were conducted in the plant chamber facility at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany (Jülich Plant Aerosol Atmosphere Chamber, JPAC). The detail regarding to the chamber facility has been written elsewhere (Mentel et al., 2009). During the experiments, sulphuric acid was measured by CIMS. VOC mixing ratios were measured by two GC-MS systems and PTR-MS. An Airmodus Particle size magnifier coupled with a TSI CPC and a PH-CPC were used to count the total particle number concentrations with a detection limit close to the expected size of formation of fresh nanoCN. A SMPS measured the particle size distribution. Several other parameters including ozone, CO2, NO, Temperature, RH, and flow rates were also measured. MALTE is a modular model to predict

    10. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

      2014-05-01

      Due to depletion of the conventional energy sources, wind energy is becoming more popular these days. Wind energy is being produced mostly from onshore farms, but there is a clear tendency to transfer wind farms to the sea. The foundations of offshore wind turbines may be truss structures and might be located in shallow water, where are subjected to highly varying hydrodynamic loads, particularly from plunging breaking waves. There are models for impact forces prediction on monopiles. Typically the total wave force on slender pile from breaking waves is a superposition of slowly varying quasi-static force, calculated from the Morison equation and additional dynamical, short duration force due to the impact of the breaker front or breaker tongue. There is not much research done on the truss structures of wind turbines and there are still uncertainties on slamming wave forces, due to plunging breaking waves on those structures. Within the WaveSlam (Wave slamming forces on truss structures in shallow water) project the large scale tests were carried out in 2013 at the Large Wave Flume in Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hannover, Germany. The following institutions participated in this initiative: the University of Stavanger and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (project management), University of Gdańsk, Poland, Hamburg University of Technology and the University of Rostock, Germany and Reinertsen AS, Norway. This work was supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of the Integrating Activity HYDRALAB IV. The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the wave slamming forces on truss structures, development of new and improvement of existing methods to calculate forces from the plunging breakers. The majority of the measurements were carried out for regular waves with specified frequencies and wave heights as well as for the irregular waves based on JONSWAP spectrum. The truss structure was equipped with both

    11. The Polar Stratosphere in a Changing Climate (POLSTRACC)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Oelhaf, Hermann; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Engel, Andreas; Boenisch, Harald

      2015-04-01

      The POLSTRACC mission aims at providing new scientific knowledge on the Arctic lowermost stratosphere (LMS) and upper troposphere under the present load of halogens and state of climate variables. POLSTRACC is the only HALO (High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft, German Research Community) mission dedicated to study the UTLS at high latitudes several years after the last intensive Arctic campaigns. The scientific scope of POLSTRACC will be broadened by its combination with the SALSA (Seasonality of Air mass transport and origin in the Lowermost Stratosphere using the HALO Aircraft) and GW-LCYCLE (Gravity Wave Life Cycle Experiment, a BMBF/ROMIC project) missions, which address complementary scientific goals sharing the same HALO payload. POLSTRACC, SALSA and GW-LCYCLE will offer the unique opportunity to study the bottom of the polar vortex and the high-latitude UTLS along with their impact on lower latitudes throughout an entire winter/spring cycle. The POLSTRACC consortium includes national (KIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich, DLR, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Universities of Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Mainz and Wuppertal) and international partners (e.g. NASA). The payload for the combined POLSTRACC, SALSA and GW-LCYCLE campaigns comprises an innovative combination of remote sensing techniques providing 2- and 3-D distributions of temperature and a large number of substances, and precise in-situ instruments measuring T, O3, H2O, tracers of different lifetimes and chemically active species at the aircraft level with high time-resolution. Drop sondes will add information about temperature, humidity and wind in the atmosphere underneath the aircraft. The field campaign will be divided into three phases for addressing (i) the early polar vortex and its wide-scale vicinity in December 2015 (from Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany), (ii) the mid-winter vortex from January to March 2016 (from Kiruna, Sweden), and (iii) the late dissipating vortex and its wide

    12. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium: Kinetics, long-time annealing and effect or crack formation

      SciTech Connect

      Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H.

      1995-09-01

      Since beryllium is considered as one of the best neutron multiplier materials in the blanket of the next generation fusion reactors, several studies have been started to evaluate its behaviour under irradiation during both operating and accidental conditions. Based on safety considerations, tritium produced in beryllium during neutron irradiation represents one important issue, therefore it is necessary to investigate tritium transport processes by using a comprehensive mathematical model and comparing its predictions with well characterized experimental tests. Because of the difficulties in extrapolating the short-time tritium release tests to a longer time scale, also long-time annealing experiments with beryllium samples from the SIBELIUS irradiation. have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Samples were annealed up to 12 months at temperatures up to 650{degrees}C. The inventory after annealing was determined by heating the samples up to 1050{degrees}C with a He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2} purge gas. Furthermore, in order to investigate the likely effects of cracks formation eventually causing a faster tritium release from beryllium, the behaviour of samples irradiated at low temperature (40-50{degrees}C) but up to very high fast neutron fluences (0.8-3.9{center_dot}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, E{sub n}{ge}1 MeV) in the BR2 reactor has been investigated. Tritium was released by heating the beryllium samples up to 1050{degrees}C and purging them with He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2}. Tritium release from high-irradiated beryllium samples showed a much faster kinetics than from the low-irradiated ones, probably because of crack formation caused by thermal stresses in the brittle material and/or by helium bubbles migration. The obtained experimental data have been compared with predictions of the code ANFIBE with the goal to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tritium behaviour in beryllium and to assess the prediction capabilities of the code.

    13. Seasonal and event-scale dynamics of spatial soil moisture patterns at the small catchment scale

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bogena, H.; Rosenbaum, R.; Herbst, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Peterson, T. J.; Western, A. W.; Vereecken, H.

      2012-04-01

      Due to measurement constraints, our knowledge of short- and long-term dynamics of spatial soil water content (SWC) patterns at the small catchment scale has reached an impasse in recent years. The wireless sensor network technique has the potential to continuously monitor SWC fields with high spatial and temporal resolution and coverage, i.e. to detect seasonal and event-scale changes in SWC patterns. This research aims to examine seasonal and event-scale spatial SWC dynamics in the top- and subsoil throughout the small spruce covered TERENO test site Wüstebach, Germany, using highly detailed four-dimensional data from the wireless sensor network system SoilNet developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich and univariate and geostatistical methods. We found high variation of spatial SWC patterns in the topsoil as response to climate forcing, whereas in the subsoil, temporal dynamics were diminished due to soil water redistribution processes and root water uptake. The relationship between topsoil SWC variability and mean soil water content (STD(MSWC)) showed a 'convex parabolic shape' as it is typical under temperate climate conditions. Observed scattering in topsoil STD(MSWC) in the intermediate SWC state was explained by seasonal and event-scale STD(MSWC) dynamics, possibly involving hysteresis at both time scales. Clockwise hysteretic STD(MSWC) dynamics at the event-scale were generated under moderate SWC conditions after precipitation events that rapidly wet the topsoil and in which SWC variability is mainly controlled by spruce throughfall patterns. This hysteretic effect was increased by larger precipitation magnitude, reduced root water uptake and high groundwater level. Intense precipitation on dry antecedent topsoil abruptly increased STD but only marginal increased SWC. This was due to different soil rewetting behaviour in drier upslope areas (hydrophobicity and preferential flow caused minor topsoil recharge) compared to the moderately wet valley bottom

    14. Abrupt changes in soil water content variability for various time scales and at different depths at the catchment scale

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rosenbaum, U.; Herbst, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Weuthen, A.; Petersen, T. J.; Western, A. W.; Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H. R.

      2010-12-01

      A current challenge in hydrology is to observe, explain and model soil water content (SWC) patterns across multiple space-time scales. A promising technique for the assessment of SWC patterns at the catchment scale is the wireless sensor network. This technique has the potential to continuously monitor three-dimensional SWC fields with high spatial and temporal resolution, i.e. to detect abrupt changes in SWC patterns. The objective of this study was to analyze the dynamics of SWC patterns at the TERENO forest hydrologic observatory Wüstebach (0.27 km2) for different depths (surface and subsurface soil) and various time scales (annual, seasonal scale and wetting and drying periods). We used the SoilNet wireless network system developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich. SWC measurements were taken every 15 minutes in three depths (5, 20, 50 cm) at 150 locations using EC-5 and 5TE sensors (Decagon Devices). This particular analysis is based on hourly aggregated SWC data measured from 1st of August 2009 to 31st of July 2010. Descriptive statistics and geostatistics were used to investigate the data set depending on soil depth and time scale. We analyzed the mean SWC, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and geostatististical parameters (nugget, sill and range) as a function of time and mean SWC. We found that the dynamics of SWC variability depended on depth, mean soil moisture status, time scale and wetting versus drying period. The magnitude and the variability of the mean SWC, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and the range decreased with depth depending on soil moisture status. As already observed by others, the standard deviation peaked at medium (critical) SWC, which means that during wetting the standard deviation increased for mean SWC below the critical SWC and decreased above the mean SWC (and vice versa for drying). In addition, we observed that the standard deviation was higher during wetting periods than during drying periods in the

    15. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

    16. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    17. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    18. Healthcare, molecular tools and applied genome research.

      PubMed

      Groves, M

      2000-11-01

      Biotechnology 2000 offered a rare opportunity for scientists from academia and industry to present and discuss data in fields as diverse as environmental biotechnology and applied genome research. The healthcare section of the meeting encompassed a number of gene therapy delivery systems that are successfully treating genetic disorders. Beta-thalassemia is being corrected in mice by continous erythropoeitin delivery from engineered muscles cells, and from naked DNA electrotransfer into muscles, as described by Dr JM Heard (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). Dr Reszka (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin, Berlin, Germany), meanwhile, described a treatment for liver metastasis in the form of a drug carrier emolization system, DCES (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin), composed of surface modified liposomes and a substance for chemo-occlusion, which drastically reduces the blood supply to the tumor and promotes apoptosis, necrosis and antiangiogenesis. In the molecular tools section, Willem Stemmer (Maxygen Inc, Redwood City, CA, USA) gave an insight into the importance that techniques, such as molecular breeding (DNA shuffling), have in the evolution of molecules with improved function, over a range of fields including pharmaceuticals, vaccines, agriculture and chemicals. Technologies, such as ribosome display, which can incorporate the evolution and the specific enrichment of proteins/peptides in cycles of selection, could play an enormous role in the production of novel therapeutics and diagnostics in future years, as explained by Andreas Plückthun (Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland). Applied genome research offered technologies, such as the 'in vitro expression cloning', described by Dr Zwick (Promega Corp, Madison, WI, USA), are providing a functional analysis for the overwhelming flow of data emerging from high-throughput sequencing of genomes and from high-density gene expression microarrays (DNA chips). The

    19. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California - 3D view

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      . X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    20. Space Radar Image of Colima Volcano, Jalisco, Mexico

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    1. Space Radar Image of Raco Vegetation Map

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    2. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii - interferometry 1

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      This X-band image of the volcano Kilauea was taken on October 4, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The area shown is about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.5 miles by 8 miles) and is centered at about 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. This image and a similar image taken during the first flight of the radar instrument on April 13, 1994 were combined to produce the topographic information by means of an interferometric process. This is a process by which radar data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle is overlaid to obtain elevation information. Three additional images are provided showing an overlay of radar data with interferometric fringes; a three-dimensional image based on altitude lines; and, finally, a topographic view of the region. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo

    3. SPace Radar Image of Fort Irwin, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    4. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California in 3-D

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    5. Space Radar Image of Kennedy Space Center, Florida

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    6. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    7. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong, China

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      This is an X-SAR image spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the imaging radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the image. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of image) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in

    8. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    9. North Central Thailand

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1998-01-01

      NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

    10. Space Radar Image of Raco Biomass Map

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    11. Multiscale investigations in a mesoscale catchment - hydrological modelling in the Gera catchment

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Krause, P.; Bäse, F.; Bende-Michl, U.; Fink, M.; Flügel, W.; Pfennig, B.

      2006-09-01

      The application of the hydrological process-oriented model J2000 (J2K) is part of a cooperation project between the Thuringian Environmental Agency (Thüringer Landesanstalt für Umwelt und Geologie - TLUG) and the Department of Geoinformatics of the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena focussing on the implementation of the EU water framework directive (WFD). In the first project phase J2K was parametrised and calibrated for a mesoscale catchment to quantify if it can be used as hydrological part of a multi-objective tool-box needed for the implementation of the WFD. The main objectives for that pilot study were:

      1. The development and application of a suitable distribution concept which provide the spatial data basis for various tasks and which reflects the specific physiogeographical variability and heterogeneity of river basins adequately. This distribution concept should consider the following constraints: The absolute number of spatial entities, which forms the basis for any distributive modelling should be as small as possible, but the spatial distributed factors, which controls quantitative and qualitative hydrological processes should not be generalised to much. The distribution concept of hydrological response units HRUs (Flügel, 1995) was selected and enhanced by a topological routing scheme (Staudenrausch, 2001) for the simulation of lateral flow processes.
      2. J2K should be calibrated for one subbasin of the pilot watershed only. Then the parameter set should be used on the other subbasins (referred as transfer basins) to investigate and quantify the transferability of a calibrated model and potential spatial dependencies of its parameter set. In addition, potential structural problems in the process description should be identified by the transfer to basins which show a different process dominance as the one which was used for calibration does.
      3. Model calibration and selection of efficiency criteria for the quantification of the model

      4. Cybersemiotics: A suggestion for a transdisciplinary framework for description of observing, anticipatory and meaning producing systems

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Brier, Soren

        1998-07-01

        language in the true sense I have extended his concept into ethology and bio-semiotics by talking of sign games related to specific motivations and innate response mechanisms. Life as such seems to be an anticipatory function generating expectations through evolution through open genetic programs as Konrad Lorenz pointed out. The phenomenon of imprinting in ducks for instance is a standard example of programmed anticipation. Expectations are expectations of meaning and order (information) related to the semiosphere the organism constructs as its individual world view and live in. (The Umwelt of von Uexküll). On this basis events that perpetuates the semiosphere are reduced to meaning, i.e. something related to the survival and procreation of the individual living system, it conatus, to use one of Spinoza's terms. The framework of cybersemiotics, uniting second order cybernetics, semiotics and language game theory, is created to make transdisciplinary concepts and models that can handle the process of cognition, information and communication across the domains of the sciences, the arts and social sciences in a non-reductionistic way. It is seen as an alternative based on biological and semiotic thinking (biosemiotics) to the functionalistic information processing paradigm of cognitive science that is build on the computer as paradigm and based on classical logic and mechanistic physics—and therefore has severe problems of dealing with semantics and signification.

      5. Comparison of primary lung tumor incidences in the rat evaluated by the standard microscopy method and by multiple step sections.

        PubMed

        Kolling, Angelika; Ernst, Heinrich; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Heinrich, Uwe; Pott, Friedrich

        2008-08-01

        The data presented in this paper have been derived from a carcinogenicity experiment with rats as part of a comprehensive research project focused on experimental studies on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of intratracheally instilled granular dusts [Ernst H, Rittinghausen S, Bartsch W, Creutzenberg O, Dasenbrock C, Görlitz B-D et al. Pulmonary inflammation in rats after intratracheal instillation of quartz, amorphous SiO(2), carbon black, and coal dust and the influence of poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO). Exp Toxicol Pathol 2002; 54: 109-26; Ernst H, Kolling A, Bellmann B, Rittinghausen S, Heinrich U, Pott F. Pathogenetische und immunbiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage: Ist die Extrapolation der Staubkanzerogenität von der Ratte auf den Menschen gerechtfertigt? Teil II: Histologie. Abschlussbericht. Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit. November 2005. http://www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3033.pdf]. The results of the standard approach to histological sampling in rodent carcinogenicity inhalation studies were compared to those obtained after supplemental evaluation of step sections at intervals of 250microm through the entire lung. Seven lung tissue specimens (six sections) each of 251 rats (55 rats of the control group, 53 rats of the group treated with quartz DQ 12, 56 rats of the group treated with quartz DQ 12 and PVNO (poly-2-vinylpyridine-N-oxide), 53 rats of the group treated with amorphous SiO(2), and 17 rats each of the groups treated with coal dust and carbon black) were evaluated by light microscopy. At least 60 hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections per lung were evaluated of 99 female rats (30 rats of the control group, 7 rats each of the groups treated with quartz, quartz and PVNO, and carbon black, 31 rats of the group treated with amorphous SiO(2), and 17 rats treated with coal dust). For the neoplastic and pre-neoplastic lesions detected in the serial slides an

      6. Fracture properties from tight reservoir outcrop analogues with application to geothermal exploration

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Philipp, Sonja L.; Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Bauer, Johanna F.; Meier, Silke; Reinecker, John

        2015-04-01

        ür Wissen¬schaft und Kultur' and 'Baker Hughes' within the gebo research project (http://www.gebo-nds.de), the Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU; FKZ: 0325302, AuGE) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. GeoEnergy GmbH, Karlsruhe, is thanked for explorational data.

      7. Quantification of the water vapor greenhouse effect: setup and first results of the Zugspitze radiative closure experiment

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Reichert, Andreas; Sussmann, Ralf; Rettinger, Markus

        2014-05-01

        -altitude location and the available permanent instrumentation, the Zugspitze observatory meets the necessary requirements to determine highly accurate water vapor continuum absorption parameters in the far- and mid-infrared spectral range from a more extensive set of closure measurements compared to previous campaign-based studies. Furthermore, we will present a novel radiometric calibration strategy for the solar FTIR spectral radiance measurements based on a combination of the Langley method and measurements of a high-temperature blackbody source that allows for the determination of continuum absorption parameters in the near-infrared spectral region, where previously no precise measurements under atmospheric conditions were available. This improved quantification of water vapor continuum absorption parameters allows us to further validate the current standard continuum model MT_CKD (Mlawer et al., 2012). Acknowledgements: Funding by KIT/IMK-IFU, the State Government of Bavaria as well as by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) is gratefully acknowledged. References: Clough, S. A., Shephard, M. W., Mlawer, E. J., Delamere, J. S., Iacono, M. J., Cady-Pereira, K., Boukabara, S., and Brown, P. D: Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes, Short Communication, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 91, 233-244, 2005. Mlawer, E. J., Taubman, J., Brown, P.D., Iacono, M.J, and Clough, S.A.: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16,663-16,682, 1997. Mlawer, E. J., Payne V. H., Moncet, J., Delamere, J. S., Alvarado, M. J. and Tobin, D.C.: Development and recent evaluation of the MT_CKD model of continuum absorption, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 370, 2520-2556, 2012.

      8. The Wonders of Physics Outreach Program

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Sprott, J. C.; Mirus, K. A.; Newman, D. E.; Watts, C.; Feeley, R. E.; Fernandez, E.; Fontana, P. W.; Krajewski, T.; Lovell, T. W.; Oliva, S.; Stoneking, M. R.; Thomas, M. A.; Jaimison, W.; Maas, K.; Milbrandt, R.; Mullman, K.; Narf, S.; Nesnidal, R.; Nonn, P.

        1996-11-01

        One important step toward public education about fusion energy is to first elevate the public's appreciation of science in general. Toward this end, the Wonders of Physics program was started at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1984 as a public lecture and demonstration series in an attempt to stem a growing tide of science illiteracy and to bolster the public's perception of the scientific enterprise. Since that time, it has grown into a public outreach endeavor which consists of a traveling demonstration show, educational pamphlets, videos, software, a website (http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/wop.htm), and the annual public lecture demonstration series including tours highlighting the Madison Symmetric Torus and departmental facilities. The presentation has been made about 400 times to a total audience in excess of 50,000. Sample educational materials and Lecture Kits will be available at the poster session. Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Currently at Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik. *Currently at Johnson Controls.

      9. Application of Surface Micro-Discharge plasma to spacecraft component decontamination

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus

        2013-09-01

        In the field of extinct or extant extraterrestrial life research on other planets and moons, the prevention of biological contamination through spaceprobes is one of the most important requirements, and its detailed conditions are defined by the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Currently, a dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) method is the only applicable way to satisfy the demand, which could, however, damage the sophisticated components like integrated circuits. In this study, cold atmospheric plasma based on the Surface Micro-Discharge technology was investigated for inactivation of different types of bacteria and endospores as an alternative method. After 90 min of plasma gas exposure, 3-6 log reductions were observed for the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coliand Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, B. safensis, B. megaterium, B. megaterium 2c1 and B. thuringiensis E24. Furthermore, the applicability of the system for spacecraft decontamination was checked by studying the inactivation homogeneity, the temperature at the area of interest and the effects of the plasma gas exposure on different materials. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Deutches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (FKZ 50 JR1005).

      10. The first educational interferometer in Mexico (FEYMANS): A novel project

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Guesten, Rolf; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Carreto, Francisco; Valdes Estrada, Erik; Wendolyn Blanco Cardenas, Monica; Rodríguez Garza, Carolina B.; Pech Castillo, Gerardo A.; Ángel Vaquerizo, Juan

        2016-07-01

        An interferometer is composed of several radio telescopes (dishes) separated by a defined distance and used in synchrony. This kind of array produces a superior angular resolution, better than the resolution achieved by a single dish of the same combined area. In this work we propose the First Educational Youth Mexican Array North South, FEYMANS. It consists of an educational interferometer with initially four dishes. This array harvests Mexico's geography by locating each dish at the periphery of the country; creating new scientific links of provincial populations with the capital. The FEYMANS project focus in high school students and their projects on physics, chemistry and astronomy as a final project. Also, it can be used for bachelor theses. The initial and central dish-node is planed to be in Mexico City. After its construction, the efforts will focus to build subsequent nodes, on the Northwest region, Northeast, or Southeast. Region Northwest will give service to Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua states. Region Northeast will cover Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. Finally, region Southeast will give access to Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas. This project has been conceived by young professional astronomers and Mexican experts that will operate each node. Also, we have the technical support of the "Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomy in Bonn Germany" and the educational model of the "PARTNeR" project in Spain. This interferometer will be financed by Mexico's Federal Congress and by Mexico City's Legislative Assembly (ALDF).

      11. Experimental verification of a real-time compensation functionality for dose changes due to target motion in scanned particle therapy

        SciTech Connect

        Luechtenborg, Robert; Saito, Nami; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph

        2011-10-15

        Purpose: Implementation and experimental assessment of a real-time dose compensation system for beam tracking in scanned carbon beam therapy of intrafractionally moving targets. Methods: A real-time dose compensation functionality has been developed and implemented at the experimental branch of the beam tracking system at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI). Treatment plans for different target geometries have been optimized. They have been delivered using scanned carbon ions with beam tracking (BT) and real-time dose compensation combined with beam tracking (RDBT), respectively. Target motion was introduced by a rotating table. Dose distributions were assessed by ionization chamber measurements and dose reconstructions. These distributions have been compared to stationary delivery for BT as well as RDBT. Additionally simulations have been performed to investigate the dependence of delivered dose distributions on varying motion starting phases for BT and RDBT, respectively. Results: Average measured dose differences between static delivery and motion influenced delivery could be reduced from 27-68 mGy when BT was used to 12-37 mGy when RDBT was used. Nominal dose was 1000 mGy. Simulated dose deliveries showed improvements in dose delivery and robustness against varying starting motion phases when RDBT was used. Conclusions: A real-time dose compensation functionality extending the existing beam tracking functionality has been implemented and verified by measurements. Measurements and simulated dose deliveries show that real-time dose compensation can substantially improve delivered dose distributions for large rotational target motion compared to beam tracking alone.

      12. Extraction of the vibrational dynamics from the spectra of highly excited molecules and periodic orbit quantization by harmonic inversion

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Atilgan, Erdinc

        Part I. The effective spectroscopic Hamiltonian fitted to experiment by Troellsch and Temps {A. Troellsch, F. Temps Zeitschrift fuer Physikalische Chemie 215, 207, (2001)} and describing high vibrational excitation to bound and resonant states, is used in conjunction with methods of nonlinear classical dynamics and semiclassical mechanics to extract for all the observed highly excited resonance levels in Polyad 8, the molecular motions upon which they are quantized. Two types of interlaced dynamically distinct ladders of states are revealed. The rungs of these ladders intersperse making the spectra complex. The resonant 2:2:1 frequency ratio of the DC, CO stretches and the bend respectively is what causes the complexity and is what caused past attempts at interpretation to be at best incomplete. All states are assigned with physically meaningful quantum numbers corresponding to quasiconserved quantities. Most interestingly it is pointed out that much of the information and assignment can be done without any calculations at all, using only the qualitative ideas from nonlinear, semiclassical and quantum mechanics along with the information supplied by the experimentalist. Part II. In systems with few degrees of freedom modern quantum calculations are, in general, numerically more efficient than semiclassical methods. However, this situation can be reversed with increasing dimension of the problem. For a three-dimensional system, viz. the hyperbolic four-sphere scattering system, we demonstrate the superiority of semiclassical versus quantum calculations. Semiclassical resonances can easily be obtained even in energy regions which are unattainable with the currently available quantum techniques.

    1. Upgrade to the control system of the reflectometry diagnostic of ASDEX upgrade

      SciTech Connect

      Graca, S.; Santos, J.; Manso, M.E.

      2004-10-01

      The broadband frequency modulation-continuous wave microwave/millimeter wave reflectometer of ASDEX upgrade tokamak (Institut fuer Plasma Physik (IPP), Garching, Germany) developed by Centro de Fusao Nuclear (Lisboa, Portugal) with the collaboration of IPP, is a complex system with 13 channels (O and X modes) and two types of operation modes (swept and fixed frequency). The control system that ensures remote operation of the diagnostic incorporates VME and CAMAC bus based acquisition/timing systems. Microprocessor input/output boards are used to control and monitor the microwave circuitry and associated electronic devices. The implementation of the control system is based on an object-oriented client/server model: a centralized server manages the hardware and receives input from remote clients. Communication is handled through transmission control protocol/internet protocol sockets. Here we describe recent upgrades of the control system aiming to: (i) accommodate new channels; (ii) adapt to the heterogeneity of computing platforms and operating systems; and (iii) overcome remote access restrictions. Platform and operating system independence was achieved by redesigning the graphical user interface in JAVA. As secure shell is the standard remote access protocol adopted in major fusion laboratories, secure shell tunneling was implemented to allow remote operation of the diagnostic through the existing firewalls.

    2. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

      SciTech Connect

      Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.

      1986-12-01

      This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

    3. Proton microscopy at GSI and FAIR

      SciTech Connect

      Merrill, Frank E; Mariam, Fesseha G; Golubev, A A; Turtikov, V I; Varentsov, D

      2009-01-01

      Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and facilities have been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international collaboration was formed to develop a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR (PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. These dynamic experiments will be driven with many energy sources including heavy ions, high explosives and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

    4. Round-robin pretest analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model subject to static internal pressurization

      SciTech Connect

      Clauss, D.B.

      1987-05-01

      Analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that will be tested to failure at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 1987 were conducted by the following organizations in the United States and Europe: Sandia National Laboratories (USA), Argonne National Laboratory (USA), Electric Power Research Institute (USA), Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (France), HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (UK), Comitato Nazionale per la ricerca e per lo sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy), UK Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate (UK), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (FRG), Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), and Central Electricity Generating Board (UK). Each organization was supplied with a standard information package, which included construction drawings and actual material properties for most of the materials used in the model. Each organization worked independently using their own analytical methods. This report includes descriptions of the various analytical approaches and pretest predictions submitted by each organization. Significant milestones that occur with increasing pressure, such as damage to the concrete (cracking and crushing) and yielding of the steel components, and the failure pressure (capacity) and failure mechanism are described. Analytical predictions for pressure histories of strain in the liner and rebar and displacements are compared at locations where experimental results will be available after the test. Thus, these predictions can be compared to one another and to experimental results after the test.

    5. Seismic sounding of convection in the Sun

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

      2015-11-01

      Thermal convection is the dominant mechanism of energy transport in the outer envelope of the Sun (one-third by radius). It drives global fluid circulations and magnetic fields observed on the solar surface. Convection excites a broadband spectrum of acoustic waves that propagate within the interior and set up modal resonances. These acoustic waves, also called seismic waves, are observed at the surface of the Sun by space- and ground-based telescopes. Seismic sounding, the study of these seismic waves to infer the internal properties of the Sun, constitutes helioseismology. Here we review our knowledge of solar convection, especially that obtained through seismic inference. Several characteristics of solar convection, such as differential rotation, anisotropic Reynolds stresses, the influence of rotation on convection and supergranulation, are considered. On larger scales, several inferences suggest that convective velocities are substantially smaller than those predicted by theory and simulations. This discrepancy challenges the models of internal differential rotation that rely on convective stresses as a driving mechanism and provide an important benchmark for numerical simulations. In collaboration with Shravan Hanasoge, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai and Laurent Gizon, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Goettingen.

    6. 3D-PIC simulation of an inductively coupled ion source

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Henrich, Robert; Muehlich, Nina Sarah; Becker, Michael; Heiliger, Christian

      2015-09-01

      Inductively coupled ion sources are applied to a wide range of plasma applications, especially surface modifications. The knowledge of the behavior and precise information of the plasma parameters are of main importance. These values are tedious to measure without influencing the discharge. By applying our fully three-dimensional PlasmaPIC tool we are able to reach these plasma parameters with a spatial and temporal resolution which is quite hard to achieve experimentally. PlasmaPIC is used for modeling discharges in arbitrary geometries without limitations to any symmetry. By this means we are able to demonstrate that the plasma density has an irrotational character. Furthermore, we will show the dependence of the plasma parameters of different working conditions. We will show that for gridded inductively coupled ion sources the neutral gas pressure inside the discharge chamber depends on the extraction of ions. This effect is considered in PlasmaPIC by a self-consistent coupling of the neutral gas simulation and the plasma simulation whereas the neutral gas distribution is calculated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). This work has been supported by the ``Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Energie.'' Grant 50RS1507.

    7. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

      2012-01-01

      The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

    8. BioRef: A versatile time-of-flight reflectometer for soft matter applications at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

      SciTech Connect

      Strobl, M.; Kreuzer, M.; Steitz, R.; Rose, M.; Herrlich, H.; Mezei, F.; Grunze, M.; Dahint, R.

      2011-05-15

      BioRef is a versatile novel time-of-flight reflectometer featuring a sample environment for in situ infrared spectroscopy at the reactor neutron source BER II of the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB). After two years of design and construction phase the instrument has recently undergone commissioning and is now available for specular and off-specular neutron reflectivity measurements. BioRef is especially dedicated to the investigation of soft matter systems and studies at the solid-liquid interface. Due to flexible resolution modes and variable addressable wavelength bands that allow for focusing onto a selected scattering vector range, BioRef enables a broad range of surface and interface investigations and even kinetic studies with subsecond time resolution. The instrumental settings can be tailored to the specific requirements of a wide range of applications. The performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements, and the unique option of in situ on-board infrared spectroscopy is illustrated by the example of a phase transition study in a lipid multilayer film.

    9. DKIST visible tunable filter control software: connecting the DKIST framework to OPC UA

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bell, Alexander; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Kentischer, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar; Sigwarth, Michael; Fischer, Andreas

      2014-07-01

      The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry based on large-format Fabry Perot interferometers that is currently built by the Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). The control software must handle around 30 motorised drives, 3 etalons, a polarizing modulator, a helium neon laser for system calibration, temperature controllers and a multitude of sensors. The VTF is foreseen as one of the DKISTs first-light instruments and should become operational in 2019. In the design of the control software we strongly separate between the high-level part interfacing to the DKIST common services framework (CSF) and the low-level control system software which guarantees real-time performance and synchronization to precision time protocol (PTP) based observatory time. For the latter we chose a programmable logic controller (PLC) from Beckhoff Automation GmbH which supports a wide set of input and output devices as well as distributed clocks for synchronizing signals down to the sub-microsecond level. In this paper we present the design of the required control system software as well as our work on extending the DKIST CSF to use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) standard which provides a cross-platform communication standard for process control and automation as an interface between the high-level software and the real-time control system.

    10. Asgard impact structure on Callisto

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1996-01-01

      This four-frame mosaic shows the ancient impact structure Asgard on Jupiter's moon Callisto. This image is centered at 30 degrees north, 142 degrees west. The Asgard structure is approximately 1700 km across (1,056 mi) and consists of a bright central zone surrounded by discontinuous rings. The rings are tectonic features with scarps near the central zone and troughs at the outer margin. Several large impacts have smashed into Callisto after the formation of Asgard. The very young, bright-rayed crater Burr is located on the northern part of Asgard. This mosaic has been projected to show a uniform scale between the four mosaiced images. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.

      This image was taken on November 4, 1996, at a distance of 111,891 kilometers (69,070 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its third orbit around Jupiter.

      The Galileo mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

      This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

    11. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

      SciTech Connect

      Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

      1993-06-01

      This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency`s (NEA`s) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG.

    12. CO submillimeter observations from Gornergrat

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Winnewisser, G.; Zimmermann, P.; Hernichel, J.; Miller, M.; Schieder, R.; Ungerecht, Sh.

      1990-04-01

      The KOSMA (Koelner Observatorium fuer Submillimeter Astronomie) 3-m telescope on Gornergrat near Zermatt, Switzerland, has been successfully operated in the sub-mm region for observations of the J = 3-2 transition of CO at 345.8 GHz from December 1988 through April 1989. The observations were carried out with a GaAs Schottky mixer receiver which has a system temperature of 600 K (DSB). The excellent weather conditions are demonstrated by a total content of precipitable water frequently less than 2 mm, and 20 percent of the time reaching below 1 mm, sometimes as low as 0.5 mm. The telescope reflector surface was manufactured to be within 30 microns (rms) of the ideal paraboloid and thus well suited for sub-mm observations. Pointing accuracy has been improved with the aid of an optical telescope to 14 arcsec (rms) in azimuth and elevation. Representative spectra from molecular clouds, some of which have been mapped extensively, are shown.

    13. Experiments on Synthesis of the Heaviest Element at RIKEN

      SciTech Connect

      Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.; Kaji, D.; Haba, H.; Kanumgo, R.; Katori, K.; Kikunaga, H.; Ohnishi, T.; Suda, T.; Yoneda, A.; Yoshida, A.; Akiyama, T.; Goto, S.; Ideguchi, E.; Koura, H.; Kudo, H.; Ozawa, A.; Sueki, K.; Sato, N.; Tokanai, F.

      2007-02-26

      At the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) a series of experiments studying the productions and their decays of the heaviest elements have been performed by using a gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS. Results on the isotope of the 112th element, 277112, and on that of the 113th element, 278113, are reviewed. Tow decay chains which are assigned to be ones originating from the isotope 277112 were observed in the 208Pb(70Zn, n) reaction. Both chains consisted of four consecutive alpha decays followed by a spontaneous fission. The results provide a confirmation of the production and decay of the isotope 277112 reported by a research group at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany, produced via the same reaction by using a velocity filter. Tow decay chains, both consisted of four consecutive alpha decays followed by a spontaneous fission, were observed also in the reaction 209Bi(70Zn, n). Those are assigned to be the convincing candidate events of the decays of the isotope of the 113th element, 278113, and its daughter nuclei, 274Rg, 270Mt, 266Bh, and 262Db.

    14. Nuclear quantum effects in water

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Morrone, Joseph; Car, Roberto

      2008-03-01

      In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamicsootnotetextCPMD V3.11 Copyright IBM Corp 1990-2006, Copyright MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung Stuttgart 1997-2001. simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first-principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed ``open'' path integral molecular dynamics methodologyootnotetextJ.A. Morrone, V. Srinivasan, D. Sebastiani, R. Car J. Chem. Phys. 126 234504 (2007).. It is shown that these results, which are consistent with our computations of the liquid structure, are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering dataootnotetextG.F. Reiter, J.C. Li, J. Mayers, T. Abdul-Redah, P. Platzman Braz. J. Phys. 34 142 (2004).. The remaining discrepancies between experiment and the present results are indicative of some degree of over-binding in the hydrogen bond network, likely engendered by the use of semi-local approximations to density functional theory in order to describe the electronic structure.

    15. The ARCHES project

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Motch, C.; Arches Consortium

      2014-07-01

      ARCHES (Astronomical Resource Cross-matching for High Energy Studies) is a FP7-Space funded project started in 2013 and involving the Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg including the CDS (France), the Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (Germany), the University of Leicester (UK), the Universidad de Cantabria (IFCA, Spain) and the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (Madrid, Spain). ARCHES aims at providing the international astronomical community with well-characterised multi-wavelength data in the form of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for large sets of objects extracted from the 3XMM catalogue. The project develops new tools implementing fully probabilistic simultaneous cross-correlation of several catalogues. SEDs are based on an enhanced version of the 3XMM catalogue and on a careful selection of the most relevant multi-wavelength archival catalogues. In order to ensure the largest audience, SEDs will be distributed to the international community through CDS services and through the Virtual Observatory. These enhanced resources are currently tested in the framework of several science cases. An integrated cluster finder is developed at Potsdam, AGN science is studied at Leicester and IFCA while populations of Galactic X-ray sources are investigated at Strasbourg and Madrid.

    16. Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines

      SciTech Connect

      Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.

      2000-04-01

      The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.

    17. The University of Stuttgart IKE/University of Arizona student research program

      SciTech Connect

      Seale, R.L. )

      1988-01-01

      The University of Stuttgart's Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE) and the University of Arizona have had a joint program in which graduate students from the IKE spend 1 yr on the University of Arizona campus. This program started in 1982 largely as the result of an initiative begun by K.H. Hoecker, then director of IKE. Since 1985, Alfred Voss has been director and the program has continued without interruption. Under the program, the Deutscher Akademisher Austauschdienst, a government agency of the Federal Republic of Germany has funded scholarships for students from IKE, which provide support for 1 yr during which they attend the University of Arizona as visiting student scholars and engage in a research project under the direction of one of our faculty, which satisfies a part of the requirements for the Ingenieur-Diplom Fachrichtung Maschinenbau. The students get credit for their research from the University of Stuttgart. The topics have a broad range and include software development, artificial intelligence, radiation transport, and energy management studies.

    18. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      DeLombard, Richard

      1998-01-01

      The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

    19. German Data Center for the Solar Dynamics Observatory: A model for the PLATO mission?

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Burston, R.; Gizon, L.; Saidi, Y.; Solanki, S. K.

      2008-12-01

      The German Data Center for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (GDC-SDO), hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany, will provide access to SDO data for the German solar physics community. The GDC-SDO will make available all the relevant Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data for helioseismology and smaller se- lected Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data sets. This project commenced in August 2007 and is funded by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt or DLR) until December 2012. An important component of the GDC-SDO is the Data Record Management System (DRMS), developed in collaboration with the Stan- ford/Lockheed Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC). The PEGASUS workflow manage- ment system will be used to implement GDC-SDO data analysis pipelines. This makes use of the CONDOR High Throughput Computing Project for optimal job scheduling and also the GLOBUS Toolkit to enable grid technologies. Additional information about the GDC-SDO can be found at http://www.mps.mpg.de/projects/seismo/GDC1/index.html. Here, we sug- gest a similar structure and philosophy should be ideal for the PLATO mission, which looks for planetary transits and stellar oscillations and is being studied by ESA for an M-Mission slot in Cosmic Vision.

    20. Construction and manufacturing of a microgearhead with 1.9-mm outer diameter for universal application

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Thuerigen, Christian; Beckord, Ulrich; Bessey, Reiner

      1999-03-01

      Many new applications in medicine, telecommunication, automation systems etc. require powerful microdrives. Speeds up to 100.000 rpm and output torques in the (mu) Nm-range are typical characteristics of electromagnetic micromotors with diameters of a few millimeters. To accomplish a powerful microdrive, these micromotors have to be combined with micro gearheads of the same outer diameter. For such a micro gearhead with toothed wheels manufactured by use of the LIGA process a multi-stage planetary gear has many advantages. Many stages with different gear ratios can be combined to achieve a great number of different transmission, but manufacturing tolerances and a clearance for assembly must be respected. Therefore besides the selection of a reliable gearhead type and a suitable manufacturing process the optimization of the tooth profile is the key to the implementation of powerful micro gear systems with high output torques and efficiencies. The involute profile is the most suitable toothing, but many calculations and simulations are required to find the right modulus, total depth of teeth, profile offset etc. In a joint project Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH and Co. KG and the Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH developed a powerful microdevice with an outer diameter of only 1.9 mm.

    1. PlasmaPIC: A tool for modeling low-temperature plasma discharges

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Muehlich, Nina Sarah; Becker, Michael; Henrich, Robert; Heiliger, Christian

      2015-09-01

      PlasmaPIC is a three-dimensional particle in cell (PIC) code. It consists of an electrostatic part for modeling dc and rf-ccp discharges as well as an electrodynamic part for modeling inductively coupled discharges. The three-dimensional description enables the modeling of discharges in arbitrary geometries without limitations to any symmetry. These geometries can be easily imported from common CAD tools. A main feature of PlasmaPIC is the ability of an excellent massive parallelization of the computation, which scales linearly up to a few hundred cpu cores. This is achieved by using a multigrid algorithm for the field solver as well as an effective load balancing of the particles. Moreover, PlasmaPIC includes the interaction of the neutral gas and the plasma discharge. Because the neutral gas and the plasma simulation are acting on different time scales we perform the simulation of both separately in a self-consistent treatment, whereas the neutral gas distribution is calculated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The merge of these features turns PlasmaPIC into a powerful simulation tool for a wide range of plasma discharges and introduces a new way of understanding and optimizing low-temperature plasma applications. This work has been supported by the ``Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Energie.'' Grant 50RS1507.

    2. Microscopy of semiconducting materials

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pennycook, S. J.

      1991-04-01

      The purpose of the trip was to present an invited talk at the 7th Oxford Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials entitled, High-Resolution Z-Contrast Imaging of Heterostructures and Superlattices, (Oxford, United Kingdom) and to visit VG Microscopes, East Grinstead, for discussions on the progress of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 300-kV high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), which is currently on order. The traveler also visited three other institutions with 100-kV STEMs that either have or intend to purchase the necessary modifications to provide Z-contrast capability similar to that of the existing ORNL machine. Specifically, Max-Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung (Stuttgart, Germany); Cambridge University, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy (Cambridge, United Kingdom); and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University (Cambridge, United Kingdom) were visited. In addition, discussions were held with C. Humphreys on the possibility of obtaining joint funding for collaborative research involving electron beam writing and Z-contrast imaging in the Cambridge and Oak Ridge STEMs, respectively.

    3. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)

      SciTech Connect

      Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wuenderlich, D.

      2012-02-15

      Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

    4. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

      SciTech Connect

      Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Casey, S. C.; Helton, L. A.; Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; Temi, P.; Herter, T. L.; Guesten, R.; Dunham, E. W.; Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M.; Caroff, L. J.; Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Harper, D. A.; Harvey, P. M.; and others

      2012-04-20

      The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

    5. Cryogenic Concept for the Low-energy Electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) at MPI-K in Heidelberg

      SciTech Connect

      Hahn, R. von; Andrianarijaona, V.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Fadil, H.; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Orlov, D. A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Rappaport, M.; Zajfman, D.

      2006-04-27

      At the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg a next generation electrostatic storage ring for cryogenic temperatures is under development. The main focus of this unique machine is the research on ions, molecules and clusters up to bio molecules in the energy range of 20-300 keV at low temperatures down to 2 Kelvin. The achievement of this low temperature for all material walls seen by the ions in the storage ring will allow novel experiments to be performed, such as rotational and vibrational state control of molecular ions and their interaction with ultra-low energy electrons and laser radiation. The low temperature of the storage ring not only causes a strong reduction of black body radiation incident onto the stored particles, but also acts as a large cryopump, expected to lead to a vacuum in the 10-15 mbar range. In this paper the cryogenic concept of the storage ring and the related vacuum design will be presented.

    6. Hot Electron Diagnostics using X-rays and Cerenkov Radiation

      SciTech Connect

      Stein, J; Fill, E E; Pretzler, G; Brandl, F; Kuba, J; Habs, D

      2003-12-21

      The propagation of laser-generated hot electrons through matter and across narrow vacuum gaps is studied. We use the ATLAS titanium-sapphire laser of Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik to irradiate 10 {proportional_to}m to 100 {proportional_to}m thick copper foils at intensities up to 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, generating electrons with temperatures in the MeV-range. After propagating through the target the electrons are detected via Cerenkov radiation generated in a suitable medium and by hard X-rays emitted from an X-ray ''fluor''. In some experiments a plastic scintillator was used to monitor the electrons. These diagnostics allow to characterize the electrons with respect to their energy, number and directionality. We also investigate the propagation of the hot electrons across narrow vacuum gaps, with a width ranging from several 100 {proportional_to}m down to 25 {proportional_to}m. The effect of self-generated fields in preventing electrons to cross the gap is demonstrated. Implications of these experiments with respect to pumping of X-ray lasers, isochoric heating by X-rays and developing optics for 4th-generation light sources will be discussed.

    7. Investigation of potential interferences in the detection of atmospheric ROx radicals by laser-induced fluorescence under dark conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fuchs, Hendrik; Tan, Zhaofeng; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Broch, Sebastian; Dorn, Hans-Peter; Holland, Frank; Künstler, Christopher; Gomm, Sebastian; Rohrer, Franz; Schrade, Stephanie; Tillmann, Ralf; Wahner, Andreas

      2016-04-01

      Direct detection of highly reactive, atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH) is widely accomplished by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments. The technique is also suitable for the indirect measurement of HO2 and RO2 peroxy radicals by chemical conversion to OH. It requires sampling of ambient air into a low-pressure cell, where OH fluorescence is detected after excitation by 308 nm laser radiation. Although the residence time of air inside the fluorescence cell is typically only on the order of milliseconds, there is potential that additional OH is internally produced, which would artificially increase the measured OH concentration. Here, we present experimental studies investigating potential interferences in the detection of OH and peroxy radicals for the LIF instruments of Forschungszentrum Jülich for nighttime conditions. For laboratory experiments, the inlet of the instrument was over flowed by excess synthetic air containing one or more reactants. In order to distinguish between OH produced by reactions upstream of the inlet and artificial signals produced inside the instrument, a chemical titration for OH was applied. Additional experiments were performed in the simulation chamber SAPHIR where simultaneous measurements by an open-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) served as reference for OH to quantify potential artifacts in the LIF instrument. Experiments included the investigation of potential interferences related to the nitrate radical (NO3, N2O5), related to the ozonolysis of alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, α-pinene, limonene, isoprene), and the laser photolysis of acetone. Experiments studying the laser photolysis of acetone yield OH signals in the fluorescence cell, which are equivalent to 0.05 × 106 cm-3 OH for a mixing ratio of 5 ppbv acetone. Under most atmospheric conditions, this interference is negligible. No significant interferences were found for atmospheric concentrations of reactants

    8. The role of the organic layer for phosphorus nutrition of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) at two sites differing in soil Phosphorus availability

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hauenstein, Simon

      2016-04-01

      Simon Hauenstein1, Thomas Pütz2, and Yvonne Oelmann1, 1 Geoecology, Department of Geosciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany 2 Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany The accumulation of an organic layer in forests is linked to the ratio between litterfall rates and decomposition rates with decomposition rates being decelerated due to acidification and associated nutrient depletion with proceeding ecosystem development. Nevertheless, the nutrient pool in the organic layer might still represent an important source for Phosphorus (P) nutrition of forests on nutrient-poor soils. Our objective was to assess the importance of the organic layer to P nutrition of young beech trees at two sites differing in soil P availability. We established a mesocosm experiment including plants and soil from a Phosphorus depleted forest site on a Haplic Podzol in Lüss and a Phosphorus rich forest site on a Eutric Cambisol in Bad Brückenau either with or without the organic layer. After 1 year under outdoor conditions, we applied 33P to the pots. After 0h, 24h, 48h, 96h, 192h, 528h we destructively harvested the young beech trees (separated into leaves, branches, stems) and sampled the organic layer and mineral soil of the pots. In each soil horizon we measured concentrations of resin-extractable P, plant available P fractions and total P. We extracted the xylem sap of the whole 2-year-old trees by means of scholander pressure bomb. 33P activity was measured for every compartment in soil and plant. The applied 33P was recovered mainly in the organic layer in Lüss, whereas it was evenly distributed among organic and mineral horizons in pots of Bad Brückenau soil. Comparing pots with and without an organic layer, the specific 33P activity differed by 323% between pots with and without an organic layer present in the Lüss soil. For both sites, the presence of the organic layer increased 33P activity in xylem sap compared to the treatment without

    9. 241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement

      SciTech Connect

      Bond, Evelyn M; Vieira, David J; Moody, Walter A; Slemmons, Alice K

      2011-01-05

      The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time

    10. Influence of particle aspect ratio on the midinfrared extinction spectra of wavelength-sized ice crystals.

      PubMed

      Wagner, Robert; Benz, Stefan; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Leisner, Thomas

      2007-12-20

      We have used the T-matrix method and the discrete dipole approximation to compute the midinfrared extinction cross-sections (4500-800 cm(-1)) of randomly oriented circular ice cylinders for aspect ratios extending up to 10 for oblate and down to 1/6 for prolate particle shapes. Equal-volume sphere diameters ranged from 0.1 to 10 microm for both particle classes. A high degree of particle asphericity provokes a strong distortion of the spectral habitus compared to the extinction spectrum of compactly shaped ice crystals with an aspect ratio around 1. The magnitude and the sign (increase or diminution) of the shape-related changes in both the absorption and the scattering cross-sections crucially depend on the particle size and the values for the real and imaginary part of the complex refractive index. When increasing the particle asphericity for a given equal-volume sphere diameter, the values for the overall extinction cross-sections may change in opposite directions for different parts of the spectrum. We have applied our calculations to the analysis of recent expansion cooling experiments on the formation of cirrus clouds, performed in the large coolable aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe at a temperature of 210 K. Depending on the nature of the seed particles and the temperature and relative humidity characteristics during the expansion, ice crystals of various shapes and aspect ratios could be produced. For a particular expansion experiment, using Illite mineral dust particles coated with a layer of secondary organic matter as seed aerosol, we have clearly detected the spectral signatures characteristic of strongly aspherical ice crystal habits in the recorded infrared extinction spectra. We demonstrate that the number size distributions and total number concentrations of the ice particles that were generated in this expansion run can only be accurately derived from the recorded infrared spectra when employing aspect ratios as high as

    11. POWTEX Neutron Diffractometer at FRM II - New Perspectives in Rock Deformation and Recrystallisation Analysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Walter, J. M.; Stipp, M.; Ullemeyer, K.; Klein, H.; Leiss, B.; Hansen, B.; Kuhs, W. F.

      2011-12-01

      Neutron diffraction has become a routine method in Geoscience for the quantitative analysis of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) and for (experimental) powder diffraction. Quantitative texture analysis is a common tool for the investigation of fabric development in mono- and polyphase rocks, their deformation histories and kinematics. Furthermore the quantitative characterization of anisotropic physical properties by bulk texture measurements can be achieved due to the high penetration capabilities of neutrons. To cope with increasing needs for beam time at neutron diffraction facilities with the corresponding technical characteristics and equipment, POWTEX (POWder and TEXture Diffractometer) is designed as a high-intensity diffractometer at the neutron research reactor FRM II in Garching, Germany by groups from the RWTH Aachen, Forschungszentrum Jülich and the University of Göttingen. Complementary to existing neutron diffractometers (SKAT at Dubna, Russia; GEM at ISIS, UK; HIPPO at Los Alamos, USA; D20 at ILL, France; and the local STRESS-SPEC and SPODI at FRM II) the layout of POWTEX is focused on fast (texture) measurements for either time-resolved experiments or the measurement of larger sample series as necessary for the study of large scale geological structures. By utilizing a range of neutron wavelengths simultaneously (TOF-technique), a high flux (~1 x 107 n/cm2s) and a high detector coverage ( 9.8 sr) effective texture measurements without sample tilting and rotation are possible. Furthermore the instrument and the angular detector resolution is sufficient for strong recrystallisation textures as well as weak textures of polyphase rocks. Thereby large sample environments will be implemented at POWTEX allowing in-situ time-resolved texture measurements during deformation experiments on rocksalt, ice and other materials. Furthermore a furnace for 3D-recrystallisation analysis of single grains will be realized complementary to the furnace

    12. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

      SciTech Connect

      Mitrica, Bogdan

      2012-11-20

      During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

    13. Foreign Travel Trip Report for LLNL travel with DOE FES funding,May 19th-30th, 2012

      SciTech Connect

      Joseph, I

      2012-07-05

      I attended the 20th biannual International Conference on Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI) in Fusion Devices in Aachen, Germany, hosted this year by the Forschungszentrum Julich (FZJ) research center. The PSI conference is one of the main international forums for the presentation and discussion of results on plasma surface interactions and edge plasma physics relevant to magnetic confinement fusion devices. I disseminated the recent results of FESP/LLNL tokamak research by presenting three posters on: (i) understanding reconnection and controlling edge localized modes (ELMs) using the BOUT++ code, (ii) simulation of resistive ballooning mode turbulence, and (iii) innovative design of Snowflake divertors. I learned of many new and recent results from international tokamak facilities and had the opportunity for discussion of these topics with other scientists at the poster sessions, conference lunches/receptions, etc. Some of the major highlights of the PSI conference topics were: (1) Review of the progress in using metallic tungsten and beryllium (ITER-like) walls at international tokamak facilities: JET (Culham, UK), TEXTOR (FZJ, Germany) and Alcator CMOD (MIT, USA). Results included: effect of small and large-area melting on plasma impurity content and recovery, expected reduction in retention of hydrogenic species, increased heat load during disruptions and need for mitigation with massive gas injection. (2) A review of ELM control in general (T. Evans, GA) and recent results of ELM control using n=2 external magnetic perturbations on ASDEX-Upgrade (MPI-Garching, Germany). (3) General agreement among the international tokamak database that, along the outer midplane of a low collisionality tokamak, the SOL power width in current experiments varies inversely with respect to plasma current (Ip), roughly as 1/Ip, with little dependence on other plasma parameters. This would imply roughly a factor of 1/4 of the width that was assumed for the design of the ITER tokamak

    14. Dual channel airborne hygrometer for climate research

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tatrai, David; Gulyas, Gabor; Bozoki, Zoltan; Szabo, Gabor

      2015-04-01

      Airborne hygrometry has an increasing role in climate research and nowadays the determination of cloud content especially of cirrus clouds is gaining high interest. The greatest challenges for such measurements are being used from ground level up to the lower stratosphere with appropriate precision and accuracy the low concentration and varying environment pressure. Such purpose instrument was probably presented first by our research group [1-2]. The development of the system called WaSUL-Hygro and some measurement results will be introduced. The measurement system is based on photoacoustic spectroscopy and contains two measuring cells, one is used to measure water vapor concentration which is typically sampled by a sideward or backward inlet, while the second one measures total water content (water vapor plus ice crystals) after evaporation in a forward facing sampler. The two measuring cells are simultaneously illuminated through with one distributed feedback diode laser (1371 or 1392 nm). Two early versions have been used within the CARIBIC project. During the recent years, efforts were made to turn the system into a more reliable and robust one [3]. The first important development was the improvement of the wavelength stabilization method of the applied laser. As a result the uncertainty of the wavelength is less than 40fm, which corresponds to less than 0.05% of PA signal uncertainty. This PA signal uncertainty is lower than the noise level of the system itself. The other main development was the improvement of the concentration determination algorithm. For this purpose several calibration and data evaluation methods were developed, the combination of the latest ones have made the system traceable to the humidity generator applied during the calibration within 1.5% relative deviation or within noise level, whichever is greater. The improved system was several times blind tested at the Environmental Simulation Facility (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany) in

    15. Influence of particle aspect ratio on the midinfrared extinction spectra of wavelength-sized ice crystals.

      PubMed

      Wagner, Robert; Benz, Stefan; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Leisner, Thomas

      2007-12-20

      We have used the T-matrix method and the discrete dipole approximation to compute the midinfrared extinction cross-sections (4500-800 cm(-1)) of randomly oriented circular ice cylinders for aspect ratios extending up to 10 for oblate and down to 1/6 for prolate particle shapes. Equal-volume sphere diameters ranged from 0.1 to 10 microm for both particle classes. A high degree of particle asphericity provokes a strong distortion of the spectral habitus compared to the extinction spectrum of compactly shaped ice crystals with an aspect ratio around 1. The magnitude and the sign (increase or diminution) of the shape-related changes in both the absorption and the scattering cross-sections crucially depend on the particle size and the values for the real and imaginary part of the complex refractive index. When increasing the particle asphericity for a given equal-volume sphere diameter, the values for the overall extinction cross-sections may change in opposite directions for different parts of the spectrum. We have applied our calculations to the analysis of recent expansion cooling experiments on the formation of cirrus clouds, performed in the large coolable aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe at a temperature of 210 K. Depending on the nature of the seed particles and the temperature and relative humidity characteristics during the expansion, ice crystals of various shapes and aspect ratios could be produced. For a particular expansion experiment, using Illite mineral dust particles coated with a layer of secondary organic matter as seed aerosol, we have clearly detected the spectral signatures characteristic of strongly aspherical ice crystal habits in the recorded infrared extinction spectra. We demonstrate that the number size distributions and total number concentrations of the ice particles that were generated in this expansion run can only be accurately derived from the recorded infrared spectra when employing aspect ratios as high as

    16. Investigation of potential interferences in the detection of atmospheric ROx radicals by laser-induced fluorescence under dark conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fuchs, H.; Tan, Z.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Broch, S.; Dorn, H.-P.; Holland, F.; Künstler, C.; Gomm, S.; Rohrer, F.; Schrade, S.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

      2015-11-01

      Direct detection of highly reactive, atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH) is widely accomplished by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments. The technique is also suitable for the indirect measurement of HO2 and RO2 peroxy radicals by chemical conversion to OH. It requires sampling of ambient air into a low pressure cell, where OH fluorescence is detected after excitation by 308 nm laser radiation. Although the residence time of air inside the fluorescence cell is typically only on the order of milliseconds, there is potential that additional OH is internally produced, which would artificially increase the measured OH concentration. Here, we present experimental studies investigating potential interferences in the detection of OH and peroxy radicals for the LIF instruments of Forschungszentrum Jülich for nighttime conditions. For laboratory experiments, the inlet of the instrument was overflown by excess synthetic air containing one or more reactants. In order to distinguish between OH produced by reactions upstream of the inlet and artificial signals produced inside the instrument, a chemical titration for OH was applied. Additional experiments were performed in the simulation chamber SAPHIR where simultaneous measurements by an open-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) served as reference for OH to quantify potential artifacts in the LIF instrument. Experiments included the investigation of potential interferences related to the nitrate radical (NO3, N2O5), related to the ozonolysis of alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, α-pinene, limonene, isoprene), and the laser photolysis of acetone. Experiments studying the laser photolysis of acetone yield OH signals in the fluorescence cell, which are equivalent to 0.05 × 106 cm-3 OH for a mixing ratio of 5 ppbv acetone. Under most atmospheric conditions, this interference is negligible. No significant interferences were found for atmospheric concentrations of reactants

    17. The Polar Stratosphere in a Changing Climate (POLSTRACC): Mission overview and first results

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Oelhaf, Hermann; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Engel, Andreas; Bönisch, Harald

      2016-04-01

      The POLSTRACC mission aims at providing new scientific knowledge on the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere under the present load of halogens and state of climate variables. POLSTRACC employs the German High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft (HALO) and is the only HALO mission dedicated to study the UTLS at high latitudes several years after the last intensive Arctic campaigns. The scientific scope of POLSTRACC is broadened by its combination with the SALSA (Seasonality of Air mass transport and origin in the Lowermost Stratosphere using the HALO Aircraft) and GW-LCYCLE (Gravity Wave Life Cycle Experiment, a BMBF/ROMIC project) missions, which address complementary scientific goals sharing the same HALO payload. POLSTRACC, SALSA and GW-LCYCLE offer the unique opportunity to study the bottom of the polar vortex and the high-latitude UTLS along with their impact on lower latitudes throughout an entire winter/spring cycle. The payload for the combined POLSTRACC, SALSA and GW-LCYCLE campaigns comprises an innovative combination of remote sensing techniques providing 2- and 3-D distributions of temperature and a large number of substances, and precise in-situ instruments measuring T, O3, H2O, tracers of different lifetimes and chemically active species at the aircraft level with high time-resolution. Drop sondes will add information about temperature, humidity and wind in the atmosphere underneath the aircraft. The POLSTRACC consortium includes national (KIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich, DLR, Universities of Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Mainz and Wuppertal; PTB) and international partners (e.g. NASA). The field campaign is divided into three phases for addressing (i) the early polar vortex and its wide-scale vicinity in December 2015 (from Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany), (ii) the mid-winter vortex from January to March 2016 (from Kiruna, Sweden), and (iii) the late dissipating vortex and its wide-scale vicinity in March 2016 (from Kiruna and

    18. Space Radar Image of Glascow, Missouri

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    19. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      -C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    20. Space Radar Image of Missouri River, Glasgow, Missouri

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      ) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    1. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      Estaciais, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR system have validated the interpretation of the radar images. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    2. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR system have validated the interpretation of the radar images. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    3. Space Radar Image of Karisoke & Virunga Volcanoes

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      vegetation maps of the area to aid in their studies of the last 650 mountain gorillas in the world. The faint lines above the bamboo forest are the result of agricultural terracing by the people who live in the region. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    4. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      mature in Kamchatka's 120-day growing season. The forest industry is managing these forests and practicing selective cutting to allow younger trees time to grow and reseed. X-SAR images will aid in mapping these deforested areas and in encouraging further recultivation efforts. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    5. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan, ecological test site

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      global changes resulting from climatic warming. Baseline studies of vegetation are essential in monitoring these expected changes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    6. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      the magenta indicate differences in the degree of soil moisture change and differences in surface roughness. This seasonal composite demonstrates the sensitivity of radar to changes in agricultural surface conditions such as soil moisture, tillage, cropping and harvesting. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    7. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      swiftly than is currently possible. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    8. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1998-01-01

      is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The radar image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/ X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The Landsat Program is managed jointly by NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the United States Geological Survey.

      Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

    9. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companiesfor the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency,Agenzia SpazialeItaliana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft undRaumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science,operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

    10. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      site is covered by glaciers. Corner reflectors are set up for calibration. Five corner reflectors can be seen on the Gepatschferner and two can be seen on the Vernagtferner. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    11. Space Radar Image of Rabaul Volcano, New Guinea

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      the image. Ashfall and subsequent rains caused the collapse of most buildings in the town of Rabaul. Mudflows and flooding continue to pose serious threats to the town and surrounding villages. Volcanologists and local authorities expect to use data such as this radar image to assist them in identifying the mechanisms of the eruption and future hazardous conditions that may be associated with the vigorously active volcano. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    12. Space Radar Image of Houston, Texas

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      -C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    13. Space Radar Image of the Lost City of Ubar

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

    14. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrte.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    15. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      -C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    16. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      flanks of the volcano. Paths of these flows can be seen as thin lines in various shades of blue and green on the north flank in the center of the image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    17. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea Ice

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      -ice growth perhaps 5 to 10 centimeters (2 to 4 inches) thick. The more extensive dark zones are covered by a slightly thicker layer of smooth, level ice up to 70 centimeters (28 inches) thick. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

    18. Space Radar Image of Mississippi Delta

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

    19. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm), and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes that are caused by nature and those changes that are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    20. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    1. Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    2. Space Radar Image of Patagonian Ice Fields

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      , a direct indication of the steep meteorological gradients known to exist in this region. The bluer color of the outlet glaciers is probably due to a thin snow cover. A portion of the terminus of the outlet glacier at the top left center of the images has advanced approximately 600 meters (1,970 feet) in the five-and-a-half months between the two missions. Because of the persistent cloud cover this observation was only possible by using the orbiting, remote imaging radar system. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    3. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrte.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    4. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      forthcoming Canadian RADARSAT satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

    5. Space Radar Image of Los Angeles, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      -C/X-SAR, scientists will be able to discern these areas even more clearly. Space Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    6. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      radar missions to help in better understanding the processes responsible for volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    7. Space Radar Image of the Silk route in Niya, Taklamak, China

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      -C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    8. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      . The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    9. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    10. Space Radar Image of the Yucatan Impact Crater Site

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR. Research on the biological effects of the Chicxulub impact is supported by the NASA Exobiology Program.

    11. Precision measurement of the integrated luminosity of the data taken by BESIII at center-of-mass energies between 3.810 GeV and 4.600 GeV

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; R. Baldini, Ferroli; Ban, Y.; W. Bennett, D.; V. Bennett, J.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; A. Briere, R.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; A. Cetin, S.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; F. De, Mori; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; P. Guo, Y.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; A. Harris, F.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; C. Ke, B.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; B. Kolcu, O.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; S. Lange, J.; M., Lara; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; X. Lin(Lin, D.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhiqing, Liu; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; E. Maas, F.; Maggiora, M.; A. Malik, Q.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; G. Messchendorp, J.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; E. Mitchell, R.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; C. Morales, Morales; Moriya, K.; Yu. Muchnoi, N.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; B. Nikolaev, I.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; H. Rashid, K.; F. Redmer, C.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; H. Thorndike, E.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; S. Varner, G.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Yadi, Wang; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; A. Zafar, A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

      2015-09-01

      From December 2011 to May 2014, about 5 fb-1 of data were taken with the BESIII detector at center-of-mass energies between 3.810 GeV and 4.600 GeV to study the charmonium-like states and higher excited charmonium states. The time-integrated luminosity of the collected data sample is measured to a precision of 1% by analyzing events produced by the large-angle Bhabha scattering process. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201) CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy; Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt and WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0)

    12. Measurements of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; C. Ai, X.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, Ferroli R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Y. Deng, Z.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Q. Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Cheng, Li; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Fang, Liu; Feng, Liu; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. Y.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A. A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, B. K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, A. Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; , S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

      2016-06-01

      From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb-1 data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process e+e- → γISR/FSRμ+μ-, the center-of-mass energies of the data samples are measured with a precision of 0.8 MeV. The center-of-mass energy is found to be stable for most of the time during data taking. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, Y61137005C), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Research Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).

    13. Evidence for e+e- →γχc1,2 at center-of-mass energies from 4.009 to 4.360 GeV

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; R. Baldini, Ferroli; Ban, Y.; W. Bennett, D.; V. Bennett, J.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; A. Briere, R.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; A. Cetin, S.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; F. De, Mori; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; P. Guo, Y.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; A. Harris, F.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; C. Ke, B.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; B. Kolcu, O.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; S. Lange, J.; M., Lara; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; X. Lin(Lin, D.; Liu, B. J.; L. Liu, C.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhiqing, Liu; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; E. Maas, F.; Maggiora, M.; A. Malik, Q.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; G. Messchendorp, J.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; E. Mitchell, R.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; C. Morales, Morales; Moriya, K.; Yu. Muchnoi, N.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; B. Nikolaev, I.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; H. Rashid, K.; F. Redmer, C.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; R. Shepherd, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; H. Thorndike, E.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; S. Varner, G.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; D. Wang(Yadi, Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; A. Zafar, A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

      2015-04-01

      Using data samples collected at center-of-mass energies of √s = 4.009, 4.230, 4.260, and 4.360 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider, we perform a search for the process e+e- → γχcJ (J=0, 1, 2) and find evidence for e+e- → γχc1 and e+e- → γχc2 with statistical significances of 3.0σ and 3.4σ, respectively. The Born cross sections σB(e+e- → γχcJ), as well as their upper limits at the 90% confidence level (C.L.) are determined at each center-of-mass energy. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Joint Funds of National Natural Science Foundation of China (11079008, 11179007, U1232201, U1332201, U1232107), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (10935007, 11121092, 11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology; German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0)

    14. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Anderson, Bruce E.

      2015-01-01

      Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

    15. Carbon ion radiotherapy of skull base chondrosarcomas

      SciTech Connect

      Schulz-Ertner, Daniela . E-mail: Daniela.Ertner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Hof, Holger; Didinger, Bernd; Combs, Stephanie E.; Jaekel, Oliver; Karger, Christian P.; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen

      2007-01-01

      Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of carbon ion radiotherapy in chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Patients and Methods: Between November 1998 and September 2005, 54 patients with low-grade and intermediate-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base have been treated with carbon ion radiation therapy (RT) using the raster scan technique at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. All patients had gross residual tumors after surgery. Median total dose was 60 CGE (weekly fractionation 7 x 3.0 CGE). All patients were followed prospectively in regular intervals after treatment. Local control and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE v.3.0) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) score. Results: Median follow-up was 33 months (range, 3-84 months). Only 2 patients developed local recurrences. The actuarial local control rates were 96.2% and 89.8% at 3 and 4 years; overall survival was 98.2%at 5 years. Only 1 patient developed a mucositis CTCAE Grade 3; the remaining patients did not develop any acute toxicities >CTCAE Grade 2. Five patients developed minor late toxicities (RTOG/EORTC Grades 1-2), including bilateral cataract (n = 1), sensory hearing loss (n = 1), a reduction of growth hormone (n = 1), and asymptomatic radiation-induced white matter changes of the adjacent temporal lobe (n = 2). Grade 3 late toxicity occurred in 1 patient (1.9%) only. Conclusions: Carbon ion RT is an effective treatment for low- and intermediate-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base offering high local control rates with low toxicity.

    16. Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Skull-Base Chordomas

      SciTech Connect

      Schulz-Ertner, Daniela . E-mail: Daniela.Ertner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Karger, Christian P.; Feuerhake, Alexandra; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Combs, Stephanie E.; Jaekel, Oliver; Edler, Lutz; Scholz, Michael; Debus, Juergen

      2007-06-01

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of carbon ion radiotherapy in chordomas of the skull base. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and July 2005, a total of 96 patients with chordomas of the skull base have been treated with carbon ion radiation therapy (RT) using the raster scan technique at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. All patients had gross residual tumors. Median total dose was 60 CGE (range, 60-70 CGE) delivered in 20 fractions within 3 weeks. Local control and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE v.3.0) and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) / European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) score. Results: Mean follow-up was 31 months (range, 3-91 months). Fifteen patients developed local recurrences after carbon ion RT. The actuarial local control rates were 80.6% and 70.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Target doses in excess of 60 CGE and primary tumor status were associated with higher local control rates. Overall survival was 91.8% and 88.5% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Late toxicity consisted of optic nerve neuropathy RTOG/EORTC Grade 3 in 4.1% of the patients and necrosis of a fat plomb in 1 patient. Minor temporal lobe injury (RTOG/EORTC Grade 1-2) occurred in 7 patients (7.2%). Conclusions: Carbon ion RT offers an effective treatment option for skull-base chordomas with acceptable toxicity. Doses in excess of 75 CGE with 2 CGE per fraction are likely to increase local control probability.

    17. Performance Simulations for a Spaceborne Methane Lidar Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kiemle, C.; Kawa, Stephan Randolph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Browell, Edward V.

      2014-01-01

      Future spaceborne lidar measurements of key anthropogenic greenhouse gases are expected to close current observational gaps particularly over remote, polar, and aerosol-contaminated regions, where actual in situ and passive remote sensing observation techniques have difficulties. For methane, a "Methane Remote Lidar Mission" was proposed by Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. Simulations assess the performance of this mission with the help of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations of the earth's surface albedo and atmospheric optical depth. These are key environmental parameters for integrated path differential absorption lidar which uses the surface backscatter to measure the total atmospheric methane column. Results showthat a lidar with an average optical power of 0.45W at 1.6 µm wavelength and a telescope diameter of 0.55 m, installed on a low Earth orbit platform(506 km), will measure methane columns at precisions of 1.2%, 1.7%, and 2.1% over land, water, and snow or ice surfaces, respectively, for monthly aggregated measurement samples within areas of 50 × 50 km2. Globally, the mean precision for the simulated year 2007 is 1.6%, with a standard deviation of 0.7%. At high latitudes, a lower reflectance due to snow and ice is compensated by denser measurements, owing to the orbital pattern. Over key methane source regions such as densely populated areas, boreal and tropical wetlands, or permafrost, our simulations show that the measurement precision will be between 1 and 2%.

    18. 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

      SciTech Connect

      Shu, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha; Thomas, Evan; Collette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Northway, Paige; Gruen, Eberhard; Mocker, Anna; Munsat, Tobin; Srama, Ralf; and others

      2012-07-15

      A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -7} torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -10} torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

    19. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

      SciTech Connect

      Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

      2002-02-26

      The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

    20. Measurements of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; C. Ai, X.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, Ferroli R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Y. Deng, Z.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Q. Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Cheng, Li; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Fang, Liu; Feng, Liu; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. Y.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A. A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, B. K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, A. Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; , S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII collaboration

      2016-06-01

      From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb‑1 data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process e+e‑ → γISR/FSRμ+μ‑, the center-of-mass energies of the data samples are measured with a precision of 0.8 MeV. The center-of-mass energy is found to be stable for most of the time during data taking. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, Y61137005C), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Research Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).

    1. Correlation of bone fragments reposition and related parameters in thoracolumbar burst fractures patients

      PubMed Central

      Dai, Jianhui; Lin, Haibin; Niu, Susheng; Wu, Xianwei; Wu, Yujun; Zhang, Huaizhi

      2015-01-01

      The aim of this study is to determine if thoracolumbar vertebral body collapse or canal compromise (CC) is associated with reposition of bone fragment. We retrospective review medical charts of patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures from July 2010 to September 2013. The fractures were classified according to the Arbeit Fuer Osteoosynthese (AO) classification system. Neurological status was classified according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA). Patients were divided into two groups (reposition group and non-reposition group) according to whether the bone fragments were reposition or non-reposition after surgery. Mimics measured mid-sagittal canal diameter (MSD), transverse canal diameter (TCD), local kyphosis (LK) and calculated anterior vertebral body compression ratio (AVBCR), middle vertebral body compression ratio (MVBCR), posterior vertebral body compression ratio (PVBCR), and mid-sagittal canal diameter compression ratio (MSDCR) on the preoperative CT image. The results indicated that 55 patients were included in the study. There are 35 patients with reposition of bone fragment and 20 patients with non-reposition of bone fragment after surgery. There were significant difference on MSD (t = 3.258, P = 0.002), TCD (t = 2.197, P = 0.032), AVBCR (t = -2.063, P = 0.044), MVBCR (t = -2.526, P = 0.015), PVBCR (t = -2.211, P = 0.031), MSDCR (t = -4.975, P = 0.000) between two groups before surgery. There was a significant correlation between reposition of bone fragment and AO classification (OR = 5.251, P = 0.022), and MSDCR (OR = 7.366, P = 0.007). There was no significant correlation between reposition and AVBCR, MVBCR, PVBCR, LK, MSD and TCD. In conclusion, this study indicates that AO classification and MSDCR are predictors of reposition of bone fragment. PMID:26379913

    2. DIY EOS: Experimentally Validated Equations of State for Planetary Fluids to GPa Pressures, Tools for Understanding Planetary Processes and Habitability

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Vance, Steven; Brown, J. Michael; Bollengier, Olivier

      2016-10-01

      Sound speeds are fundamental to seismology, and provide a path allowing the accurate determination of thermodynamic potentials. Prior equations of state (EOS) for pure ammonia (Harr and Gallagher 1978, Tillner-Roth et al. 1993) are based primarily on measured densities and heat capacities. Sound speeds, not included in the fitting, are poorly predicted.We couple recent high pressure sound speed data with prior densities and heat capacities to generate a new equation of state. Our representation fits both the earlier lower pressure work as well as measured sound speeds to 4 GPa and 700 K and the Hugoniot to 70 GPa and 6000 K.In contrast to the damped polynomial representation previously used, our equation of state is based on local basis functions in the form of tensor b-splines. Regularization allows the thermodynamic surface to be continued into regimes poorly sampled by experiments. We discuss application of this framework for aqueous equations of state validated by experimental measurements. Preliminary equations of state have been prepared applying the local basis function methodology to aqueous NH3, Mg2SO4, NaCl, and Na2SO4. We describe its use for developing new equations of state, and provide some applications of the new thermodynamic data to the interior structures of gas giant planets and ocean worlds.References:L. Haar and J. S. Gallagher. Thermodynamic properties of ammonia. American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics for the National Bureau of Standards, 1978.R. Tillner-Roth, F. Harms-Watzenberg, and H. Baehr. Eine neue fundamentalgleichung fuer ammoniak. DKV TAGUNGSBERICHT, 20:67–67, 1993.

    3. Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of the code ATHLET

      SciTech Connect

      Teschendorff, V.; Austregesilo, H.; Lerchl, G.

      1997-07-01

      The thermal-hydraulic computer code ATHLET (Analysis of THermal-hydraulics of LEaks and Transients) is being developed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) for the analysis of anticipated and abnormal plant transients, small and intermediate leaks as well as large breaks in light water reactors. The aim of the code development is to cover the whole spectrum of design basis and beyond design basis accidents (without core degradation) for PWRs and BWRs with only one code. The main code features are: advanced thermal-hydraulics; modular code architecture; separation between physical models and numerical methods; pre- and post-processing tools; portability. The code has features that are of special interest for applications to small leaks and transients with accident management, e.g. initialization by a steady-state calculation, full-range drift-flux model, dynamic mixture level tracking. The General Control Simulation Module of ATHLET is a flexible tool for the simulation of the balance-of-plant and control systems including the various operator actions in the course of accident sequences with AM measures. The code development is accompained by a systematic and comprehensive validation program. A large number of integral experiments and separate effect tests, including the major International Standard Problems, have been calculated by GRS and by independent organizations. The ATHLET validation matrix is a well balanced set of integral and separate effects tests derived from the CSNI proposal emphasizing, however, the German combined ECC injection system which was investigated in the UPTF, PKL and LOBI test facilities.

    4. Biomes computed from simulated climatologies

      SciTech Connect

      Claussen, M.; Esch, M.

      1994-01-01

      The biome model of Prentice et al. is used to predict global patterns of potential natural plant formations, or biomes, from climatologies simulated by ECHAM, a model used for climate simulations at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie. This study undertaken in order to show the advantage of this biome model in diagnosing the performance of a climate model and assessing effects of past and future climate changes predicted by a climate model. Good overall agreement is found between global patterns of biomes computed from observed and simulated data of present climate. But there are also major discrepancies indicated by a difference in biomes in Australia, in the Kalahari Desert, and in the Middle West of North America. These discrepancies can be traced back to in simulated rainfall as well as summer or winter temperatures. Global patterns of biomes computed from an ice age simulation reveal that North America, Europe, and Siberia should have been covered largely by tundra and taiga, whereas only small differences are for the tropical rain forests. A potential northeast shift of biomes is expected from a simulation with enhanced CO{sub 2} concentration according to the IPCC Scenario A. Little change is seen in the tropical rain forest and the Sahara. Since the biome model used is not capable of predicting chances in vegetation patterns due to a rapid climate change, the latter simulation to be taken as a prediction of chances in conditions favourable for the existence of certain biomes, not as a reduction of a future distribution of biomes. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

    5. Natural and False Color Views of Europa

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1996-01-01

      This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa. The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa. Dark brown areas represent rocky material derived from the interior, implanted by impact, or from a combination of interior and exterior sources. Bright plains in the polar areas (top and bottom) are shown in tones of blue to distinguish possibly coarse-grained ice (dark blue) from fine-grained ice (light blue). Long, dark lines are fractures in the crust, some of which are more than 3,000 kilometers (1,850 miles) long. The bright feature containing a central dark spot in the lower third of the image is a young impact crater some 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. This crater has been provisionally named 'Pwyll' for the Celtic god of the underworld.

      Europa is about 3,160 kilometers (1,950 miles) in diameter, or about the size of Earth's moon. This image was taken on September 7, 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.

      The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

      This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

    6. CO J = 1-0 AND J = 2-1 LINE OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOLECULAR-CLOUD-BLOCKED SUPERNOVA REMNANT 3C434.1

      SciTech Connect

      Jeong, Il-Gyo; Koo, Bon-Chul; Cho, Wan-Kee; Kramer, Carsten; Stutzki, Juergen; Byun, Do-Young E-mail: koo@astro.snu.ac.kr

      2013-06-20

      We present the results of CO emission line observations toward the semicircular Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) 3C434.1 (G94.0+1.0). We mapped an area covering the whole SNR in the {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 emission line using the Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory 6 m telescope and found a large molecular cloud superposed on the faint western part of the SNR. The cloud was elongated along the north-south direction and showed a very good spatial correlation with the radio features of the SNR. We carried out {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 line observations of this cloud using the Koelner Observatorium fuer Sub-Millimeter Astronomie 3 m telescope and found a region in which the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 to J = 1-0 ratio was high ({approx}1.6). This higher excitation, together with the morphological relation, strongly suggested that the molecular cloud was interacting with the SNR. The systemic velocity of the molecular cloud (-13 km s{sup -1}) gave a kinematic distance of 3.0 kpc to the SNR-molecular cloud system. We derived the physical parameters of the SNR based on this new distance. We examined the variation of the radio spectral index over the remnant and found that it was flatter in the western part, wherein the SNR was interacting with the molecular cloud. We therefore propose that 3C434.1 is the remnant of a supernova explosion that occurred just outside the boundary of a relatively thin, sheet-like molecular cloud. We present a hydrodynamic model showing that its asymmetric radio morphology can result from its interaction with this blocking molecular cloud.

    7. Autocollimators for Deflectometry: Current Status and Future Progress

      SciTech Connect

      Geckeler, Ralf; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

      2009-06-15

      The proliferation of autocollimator-based surface profilometers at synchrotron metrology laboratories worldwide necessitates a detailed understanding of the parameters influencing their angular response. A comprehensive overview of the current status of autocollimator characterization and calibration at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and its implications for their optimal application are provided, as well as information on future challenges and expected progress. Autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometers are in operation at the PTB, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, the BESSY II, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, and the Diamond Light Source Ltd (DLS), UK. A continuous topic of research at the PTB is to investigate the factors influencing the angular response of autocollimators and to provide the most accurate calibration of the instruments to aid users in their application and manufacturers in their improvements [1-3]. At the PTB, the calibration of autocollimators is realized by a direct comparison of the devices with the primary angle reference standard [1]. With highly stable autocollimators, calibrations with standard measurement uncertainties of u = 0.003 arcsec (15 nrad) have been achieved [2,3]. The influence of a number of parameters on the angle measurement with autocollimators have been investigated in detail, such as the reflectivity of the surface under test (SUT), the diameter and shape of the aperture stop, its position both along the autocollimator's optical axis and perpendicular to it [2], as well as the optical path length of the autocollimator beam [3]. Extensive information on these errors and their minimization will be presented.

    8. The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034

      SciTech Connect

      Kunze, V.

      2013-07-01

      Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

    9. LISA 8 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee LISA 8 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      2011-05-01

      Science Organising Committee (SOC) Tom Abel, Stanford University Odylio Aguiar, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Tal Alexander, Wizemann Institute Peter Bender, University of Colorado Pierre Binetruy, APC - College de France Sasha Buchman, Stanford University Robert Byer, Stanford University Manuela Campanelli, University of Texas Joan Centrella, NASA/Goddard Massimo Cerdonio, University of Padova Eugenio Coccia, University of Roma-2 Neil Cornish, Montana State University Michael Cruise, University of Birmingham Curt Cutler, NASA/JPL Karsten Danzmann, University of Hannover Sam Finn, Penn State University Jens Gundlach, NPL Gerhard Heinzel, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik Craig Hogan, University of Washington Jim Hough, University of Glasgow Scott Hughes, MIT Oliver Jennrich, ESTEC Philippe Jetzer, University Zurich Seiji Kawamura, National Observatory, Japan Alberto Lobo, ICE-CSIC and IEEC Avi Loeb, Harvard University Piero Madau, Lick Observatory Yannick Mellier, IAP, Paris Peter Michelson, Stanford University Guido Mueller, University of Florida Sterl Phinney, Caltech Tom Prince, NASA/JPL Doug Richstone, University of Michigan Bernard Schutz, AEI Potsdam Tuck Stebbins, NASA/Goddard Tim Sumner, Imperial College, London Ke-Xun Sun, Stanford University Kip Thorne, Caltech Michele Vallisneri, NASA/JPL Alberto Vecchio, University of Birmingham Jean-Yves Vinet, OCA, Nice Stefano Vitale, University of Trento Rai Weiss, MIT Nick White, NASA/Goddard Local Organising Committee (LOC) Sasha Buchman (Stanford University) Robert Byer (Stanford University) Sara Charbonneau-Lefort (Stanford University) Nancy Christianson (Stanford University) John Conklin (Stanford University) Dan DeBra (Stanford University) Jan Goebel (Stanford University) Vivian Drew (Stanford University) Ke-Xun Sun (Stanford University) Lucy Zhou (Stanford University) Andrea Zoellner (Stanford University)

    10. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      McCullough, Bob

      2007-03-01

      Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006

    11. Investigations and results concerning railway-induced ground-borne vibrations in Germany

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Degen, K. G.; Behr, W.; Grütz, H.-P.

      2006-06-01

      Besides noise reduction, ground-borne vibrations induced by railways are another important environmental issue associated with the construction of new or the reconstruction of existing railway lines that had to be tackled during the last decade. Annoyance can occur, particularly for lines in urban areas at small distances to neighbouring houses or lines in shallow depth tunnels under buildings. The ground-borne vibrations can be perceived by the inhabitants via the floor vibrations, as well as via the air-borne noise radiated inside the building by the vibrating building structures (secondary noise). At present, legal specifications for judging railway-induced ground-borne vibrations do not exist in Germany. In order to review common practices, an experimental psycho-physical laboratory study was performed. To estimate the annoyance of railway-induced vibrations, the mean vibration energy of a train pass-by seems much more significant and related to the annoyance than the commonly used RMS value according to the German standard DIN 4150-2. The minimum difference in vibration that can be felt by people was found at a signal difference of 25%. This paper will review results of a project performed in cooperation with the engineering office Obermeyer in Munich and the Technical University of Munich [A. Said, D. Fleischer, H. Kilcher, H. Fastl, H.-P. Grütz, Zur Bewertung von Erschütterungsimmissionen aus dem Schienenverkehr, Zeitschrift fuer Lärmbekämpfung, Vol. 48(6), Springer VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2001.] and will link them to further demands on research and on development of suitable guiding principles and legislative regulations.

    12. The Musca cloud: A 6 pc-long velocity-coherent, sonic filament

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hacar, A.; Kainulainen, J.; Tafalla, M.; Beuther, H.; Alves, J.

      2016-03-01

      Filaments play a central role in the molecular clouds' evolution, but their internal dynamical properties remain poorly characterized. To further explore the physical state of these structures, we have investigated the kinematic properties of the Musca cloud. We have sampled the main axis of this filamentary cloud in 13CO and C18O (2-1) lines using APEX observations. The different line profiles in Musca shows that this cloud presents a continuous and quiescent velocity field along its ~6.5 pc of length. With an internal gas kinematics dominated by thermal motions (i.e. σNT/cs ≲ 1) and large-scale velocity gradients, these results reveal Musca as the longest velocity-coherent, sonic-like object identified so far in the interstellar medium. The transonic properties of Musca present a clear departure from the predicted supersonic velocity dispersions expected in the Larson's velocity dispersion-size relationship, and constitute the first observational evidence of a filament fully decoupled from the turbulent regime over multi-parsec scales. This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory (ESO programme 087.C-0583).The reduced datacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A97

    13. Industrial approach to piezoelectric damping of large fighter aircraft components

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Simpson, John; Schweiger, Johannes

      1998-06-01

      Different concepts to damp structural vibrations of the vertical tail of fighter aircraft are reported. The various requirements for a vertical tail bias an integrated approach for the design. Several active vibrations suppression concepts had been investigated during the preparatory phase of a research program shared by Daimler-Benz Aerospace Military Aircraft (Dasa), Daimler-Benz Forschung (DBF) and Deutsche Forschungsandstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt (DLR). Now in the main phase of the programme, four concepts were finally chosen: two concepts with aerodynamic control surfaces and two concepts with piezoelectric components. One piezo concept approach will be described rigorously, the other concepts are briefly addressed. In the Dasa concept, thin surface piezo actuators are set out carefully to flatten the dynamic portion of the combined static and dynamic maximum bending moment loading case directly in the shell structure. The second piezo concept by DLR involves pre-loaded lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-block actuators at host structure fixtures. To this end a research apparatus was designed and built as a full scale simplified fin box with carbon fiber reinformed plastic skins and an aluminium stringer-rib substructure restrained by relevant aircraft fixtures. It constitutes a benchmark 3D-structural impedance. The engineering design incorporates 7kg of PZT surface actuators. The structural system then should be excited to more than 15mm tip displacement amplitude. This prepares the final step to total A/C integration. Typical analysis methods using cyclic thermal analogies adapted to induced load levels are compared. Commercial approaches leading onto basic state space model interpretation wrt. actuator sizing and positioning, structural integrity constraints, FE-validation and testing are described. Both piezoelectric strategies are aimed at straight open-loop performance related to concept weight penalty and input electric power. The required actuators, power

    14. GOCE Reduced-dynamic Orbits - Inter-agency Comparisons

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bock, H.; Jaeggi, A.; Meyer, U.; van den IJssel, J.; Visser, P. N.; Swatschina, P.; Montenbruck, O.

      2011-12-01

      The Gravity and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission of the European Space Agency is now in orbit since more than two years. The 12-channel, dual-frequency GPS receiver delivers high-quality data for determination of precise orbits. These orbit solutions are used to accurately geolocate the gradiometer observations and to provide complementary information for the long-wavelength gravity field part. Operational orbit products are routinely generated by the Department of Earth Observation and Space Systems at Delft University of Technology (DEOS, Rapid Science Orbit, RSO) and the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Precise Science Orbit, PSO) using different software packages (GEODYN/GHOST, BERNESE) and analysis strategies. Internal orbit comparisons and external validations with independent Satellite Laser Ranging measurements demonstrate that both orbit products fully meet the corresponding mission accuracy requirements of 50 cm (RSO) and 2 cm (PSO), respectively. For an independent performance assessment, orbit solutions are, furthermore, generated at Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) on a best effort basis using the GHOST software. In addition to the RSO product, post-processed orbit solutions based on GEODYN are generated at DEOS as well. We provide an overview of the adopted analysis strategies and present inter-agency comparisons of the individual reduced-dynamic orbit solutions based on one year of data. A cross-comparison of the various orbits indicates a good agreement of a few cm 3D rms accuracy, but reveals small systematic biases, e.g., in the radial direction. Special emphasis will be given to the assessment and discussion of the systematic biases, which are related to different orbit modeling strategies used to cope with non-gravitational accelerations.

    15. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      1995-06-01

      measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

    16. Space Radar Image of Niya ruins, Taklamakan desert

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstaltfuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    17. Comparison of Biological Effectiveness of Carbon-Ion Beams in Japan and Germany

      SciTech Connect

      Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi Koike, Sachiko; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takai, Nobuhiko; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Scholz, Michael; Elsaesser, Thilo; Peschke, Peter

      2009-04-01

      Purpose: To compare the biological effectiveness of 290 MeV/amu carbon-ion beams in Chiba, Japan and in Darmstadt, Germany, given that different methods for beam delivery are used for each. Methods and Materials: Murine small intestine and human salivary gland tumor (HSG) cells exponentially growing in vitro were irradiated with 6-cm width of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) adjusted to achieve nearly identical beam depth-dose profiles at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, and the SchwerIonen Synchrotron in Darmstadt. Cell kill efficiencies of carbon ions were measured by colony formation for HSG cells and jejunum crypts survival in mice. Cobalt-60 {gamma} rays were used as the reference radiation. Isoeffective doses at given survivals were used for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations and interinstitutional comparisons. Results: Isoeffective D{sub 10} doses (mean {+-} standard deviation) of HSG cells ranged from 2.37 {+-} 0.14 Gy to 3.47 {+-} 0.19 Gy for Chiba and from 2.31 {+-} 0.11 Gy to 3.66 {+-} 0.17 Gy for Darmstadt. Isoeffective D{sub 10} doses of gut crypts after single doses ranged from 8.25 {+-} 0.17 Gy to 10.32 {+-} 0.14 Gy for Chiba and from 8.27 {+-} 0.10 Gy to 10.27 {+-} 0.27 Gy for Darmstadt, whereas isoeffective D{sub 30} doses after three fractionated doses were 9.89 {+-} 0.17 Gy through 13.70 {+-} 0.54 Gy and 10.14 {+-} 0.20 Gy through 13.30 {+-} 0.41 Gy for Chiba and Darmstadt, respectively. Overall difference of RBE between the two facilities was 0-5% or 3-7% for gut crypt survival or HSG cell kill, respectively. Conclusion: The carbon-ion beams at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany are biologically identical after single and daily fractionated irradiation.

    18. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    19. Direct optimization method for reentry trajectory design

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jallade, S.; Huber, P.; Potti, J.; Dutruel-Lecohier, G.

      The software package called `Reentry and Atmospheric Transfer Trajectory' (RATT) was developed under ESA contract for the design of atmospheric trajectories. It includes four software TOP (Trajectory OPtimization) programs, which optimize reentry and aeroassisted transfer trajectories. 6FD and 3FD (6 and 3 degrees of freedom Flight Dynamic) are devoted to the simulation of the trajectory. SCA (Sensitivity and Covariance Analysis) performs covariance analysis on a given trajectory with respect to different uncertainties and error sources. TOP provides the optimum guidance law of a three degree of freedom reentry of aeroassisted transfer (AAOT) trajectories. Deorbit and reorbit impulses (if necessary) can be taken into account in the optimization. A wide choice of cost function is available to the user such as the integrated heat flux, or the sum of the velocity impulses, or a linear combination of both of them for trajectory and vehicle design. The crossrange and the downrange can be maximized during reentry trajectory. Path constraints are available on the load factor, the heat flux and the dynamic pressure. Results on these proposed options are presented. TOPPHY is the part of the TOP software corresponding to the definition and the computation of the optimization problemphysics. TOPPHY can interface with several optimizes with dynamic solvers: TOPOP and TROPIC using direct collocation methods and PROMIS using direct multiple shooting method. TOPOP was developed in the frame of this contract, it uses Hermite polynomials for the collocation method and the NPSOL optimizer from the NAG library. Both TROPIC and PROMIS were developed by the DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt) and use the SLSQP optimizer. For the dynamic equation resolution, TROPIC uses a collocation method with Splines and PROMIS uses a multiple shooting method with finite differences. The three different optimizers including dynamics were tested on the reentry trajectory of the

    20. Space Radar Image Isla Isabela in 3-D

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      , complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    1. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    2. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California in 3-D

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Vertical exaggeration is 1.87 times. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. It was acquired from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV to C-band HV. Blue areas are smooth, and yellow areas are rock out-crops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. Crowley Lake is in the foreground, and Highway 395 crosses in the middle of the image. Mammoth Mountain is shown in the upper right. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    3. Application of Ion and Electron Momentum Imaging to Atomic Collisions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Cocke, C. L.

      2000-06-01

      COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) combines fast imaging detectors with a supersonically cooled gas target to allow the charged particles from any ionizing collision, including both recoil ions and electrons, to be collected with extremely high efficiency and with fully measured vector momenta. Since all particles are measured in event mode, the full multi-dimensional momentum space is mapped. We will review several examples of the use of this technique to study two- , three- and four-body final states created in ionizing interactions of photons and charged particles with He and D2 . The momentum spectra of electrons ejected from these targets by slow projectiles reveal the stucture of the molecular orbitals which are promoted into the continuum. Double photoionization of the same targets reveals patterns which can be interpreted in terms of collective coordinates. Two-electron removal from D2 by Xe ^26+ reveals the influence of the projectile field on the dissociation process. A recent application of the technique to ionization by high intensity laser fields will be discussed. Work performed in collaboration with M.A.Abdallah^1, I.Ali^1, Matthias Achler^2, H.Braeuning^2,3, Angela Braeuning-Deminian^2, Achim Czasch^2,3, R.Doerner^2,3, R.DuBois^6, A. Landers^1,5, V.Mergel^2, R.E.Olson^6, T.Osipov^1, M.Prior^3, H.Schmidt-Boecking^2, M.Singh^1, A.Staudte^2,3, T.Weber^2, W.Wolff^4, and H.E.Wolf^4 ^1J.R.Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506; ^2 Institut fuer Kernphysik, Univ. Frankfurt, August-Euler-Str.6,D-60486 Frankfurt, Germany ; ^3Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720; ^4Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Caixa Postal 68.528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; ^5Physics Dept., Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008; ^6Physics Dept., Univ. Missouri Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 Work supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic

    4. Color Image of Death Valley, California from SIR-C

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    5. Space Radar Image of Namib Desert in Southern Namib

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      This is a C-band, VV polarization radar image of the Namib desert in southern Namibia, near the coast of South West Africa. The image is centered at about 25 degrees South latitude, 15.5 degrees East longitude. This image was one of the first acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it was taken on orbit 4 from the shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The area shown is approximately 78 kilometers by 20 kilometers. The dominant features in the image are complex sand dune patterns formed by the prevailing winds in this part of the Namib desert. The Namib desert is an extremely dry area formed largely because of the influence of the cold Benguela ocean current that flows northward along the coast of Namibia. The bright areas at the bottom of the image are exposed outcrops of Precambrian rocks. This extremely barren area is a region rich in diamonds that through the centuries have washed down from the mountains. The town of Luderitz is located just to the south of the area shown. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Aumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia

    6. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

      SciTech Connect

      Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Srama, Ralf; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Guenter; Matt, Guenter; Otto, Katharina; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Kempf, Sascha; Munsat, Tobin; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Fiege, Katherina; Postberg, Frank; Gruen, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Mellert, Tobias; and others

      2011-09-15

      Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s{sup -1}. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s{sup -1} and with diameters of between 0.05 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and

    7. A Mathematical Physicist's Approach to Virology

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Twarock, Reidun

      2012-02-01

      The following talk has been given in a special session dedicated to Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner at QTS in Prague in August 2011 on the occasion of his 80th birthday. It documents my journey from being a PhD student in Mathematical Physics at the Arnold Sommerfeld Institute in Clausthal under his supervision, to becoming a Professor of Mathematical Biology at the University of York in the UK. I am currently heading an interdisciplinary research group of eight PDRAs and PhDs, focussed on investigating the structures of viruses from a symmetry perspective and unravelling the implications of virus structure on how viruses form and infect their hosts. A central element in my research is my fascination with the development and application of symmetry techniques, which stems from my time in Clausthal when working with Professor Doebner and colleagues. I would like to thank Professor Doebner for these important formative years in Clausthal. Der folgende Vortrag war mein Beitrag zu einer Festsitzung fuer Herrn Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner auf der Tagung QTS im August 2011 anläßlich seines achzigsten Geburtstags. Dieser Beitrag dokumentiert, wie sich meine Forschungen aus der Zeit als Doktorandin von Herrn Professor Doebner in Mathematischer Physik am Arnold Sommerfeld Institut in Clausthal weiterentwickelt haben, und zu meiner Professur in Mathematischer Biologie an der Universität York geführt haben. Ich leite dort zur Zeit eine interdisziplinäre Forschungsgruppe von acht Postdocs und Doktoranden, die sich mit der Entwicklung und Anwendung von Symmetrie-Techniken in der Virologie beschäftigt, und insbesondere untersucht, wie sich die Symmetrie-Eigenschaften von Viren auf deren Entstehung und Funktionsweise auswirken. Eine wichtige Vorraussetzung für dieses Forschungsprogramm ist meine Faszination für die Modellierung von Symmetrie-Eigenschaften, die ich während meiner Zusammenarbeit mit Herrn Professor Doebner und Kollegen in Clausthal entwickelt habe

    8. Relativistic electron beam interaction and Ka - generation in solid targets

      SciTech Connect

      Eder, D C; Eidman, K; Fill, E; Pretzler, G; Saemann, A

      1999-06-01

      When fs laser pulses interact with solid surfaces at intensities I{lambda}{sup 2} > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2}, collimated relativistic electron beams are generated. These electrons can be used for producing intense X-radiation (bremsstrahlung or K{sub {alpha}}) for pumping an innershell X-ray laser. The basic concept of such a laser involves the propagation of the electron beam in a material which converts electron energy into appropriate pump photons. Using the ATLAS titanium-sapphire laser at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, the authors investigate the generation of hot electrons and of characteristic radiation in copper. The laser (200 mJ/130 fs) is focused by means of an off-axis parabola to a diameter of about 10 {micro}m. By varying the position of the focus, they measure the copper K{sub {alpha}} - yield as a function of intensity in a range of 10{sup 15} to 2 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} while keeping the laser pulse energy constant. Surprisingly, the highest emission is obtained at an intensity of about 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. However, this result is readily explained by the weak scaling of the hot-electron temperature with intensity. An efficiency of 2 x 10{sup -4} for the conversion of laser energy into copper K{sub {alpha}} is measured. Simulations of the interaction of the hot electrons with the cold target material and the conversion into X-rays are carried out by means of the TIGER/ITS code, a time-independent, coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code. The code calculates the propagation of individual electrons and the generation of photons in cold material. Comparison of the code predictions with the data shows an efficiency of 15% for the generation of electrons with energies in the 100 keV range. A second experiment involves the demonstration of photopumping of an innershell transition in cobalt by the copper radiation. Comparing the emission with the one of nickel, which is not photopumped by copper K{sub {alpha}} photons

    9. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sealed and Disused/Orphan Sources in Ukraine - German Contribution - 13359

      SciTech Connect

      Brasser, Thomas; Hertes, Uwe; Meyer, Thorsten; Uhlenbruck, Hermann; Shevtsov, Alexey

      2013-07-01

      Within the scope of 'Nuclear Security of Radioactive Sources', the German government implemented the modernization of Ukrainian State Production Company's transport and storage facility for radioactive sources (TSF) in Kiev. The overall management of optimizing the physical protection of the storage facility (including the construction of a hot cell for handling the radioactive sources) is currently carried out by the German Federal Foreign Office (AA). AA jointly have assigned Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Germany's leading expert institution in the area of nuclear safety and waste management, to implement the project and to ensure transparency by financial and technical monitoring. Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research. Their life cycle starts with the production and finally ends with the interim/long-term storage of the disused sources. In Ukraine, IZOTOP is responsible for all radioactive sources throughout their life cycle. IZOTOP's transport and storage facility (TSF) is the only Ukrainian storage facility for factory-fresh radioactive sources up to an activity of about 1 million Ci (3.7 1016 Bq). The TSF is specially designed for the storage and handling of radioactive sources. Storage began in 1968, and is licensed by the Ukrainian state authorities. Beside the outdated state of TSF's physical protection and the vulnerability of the facility linked with it, the lack of a hot cell for handling and repacking radioactive sources on the site itself represents an additional potential hazard. The project, financed by the German Federal Foreign Office, aims to significantly improve the security of radioactive sources during their storage and handling at the TSF site. Main tasks of the project are a) the modernization of the physical protection of the TSF itself in order to prevent any unauthorized access to radioactive sources as well as b) the construction of a hot cell to reduce the number of

    10. Progress in the GEOROC Database - Fast and Simple Access to Analytical Data by Precompilation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sarbas, B.

      2001-12-01

      The geochemical database GEOROC of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie in Mainz http://georoc.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de includes the published chemical analyses of samples from Oceanic Islands, Convergent Margins, and Large Igneous Provinces. As a whole, the database comprises about 77,000 whole-rock, 35,000 mineral and 3,000 inclusion analyses published in about 2,800 papers (status Sept. 2001). For the individual tectonic settings, the following numbers of analyses are available: Oceanic Islands - 25,000 whole rocks, 14,000 minerals, 1,500 inclusions Convergent Margins - 20,000 whole rocks, 9,000 minerals, 500 inclusions Large Igneous Provinces - 32,000 whole rocks, 12,000 minerals, 1500 inclusions. Data entry is complete for samples from Oceanic Islands and Oceanic Large Igneous Provinces. Newly published papers are added regularly. Among the Continental Flood Basalts, which comprise 25,000 whole-rock and 12,000 mineral analyses, large and nearly complete datasets are available for the Columbia River, Deccan, Karoo, Paraná, and Siberian Plateau Basalts. Data for Convergent Margins have been added to the database most recently. The database includes, for instance, for the Honshu Arc 3,300, for the Izu-Bonin Arc 1,550, for the Mariana Arc 1,800, for the Kurile Arc 1,400, for the Aleutian Arc 1,500, for the Cascades 500, for the Andes 1,600, for the Lesser Antilles 1,100, and for the Tonga Arc 1,400 whole-rock analyses. For many localities, huge numbers of analyses (more than 2000) are included in the GEOROC database. The selection and compilation of such substantial datasets proved to be difficult and time-consuming when using the web interface of the database. Therefore, we are building precompiled datasets that include all published whole-rock analyses and a fixed set of location and sample metadata for the respective locations. These precompiled datasets are stored as Excel files and can be downloaded easily and rapidly. If multiple element analyses exist for a

    11. Replacement of the in vivo neutralisation test for efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet.

      PubMed

      Rosskopf, Ute; Noeske, Kerstin; Werner, Esther

      2005-01-01

      The bacterium Clostridium (C.) tetani is an ubiquitous pathogen. This anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium can form spores and can be found in the whole environment. It enters the body via injuries of the skin and wounds where it releases the neurotoxin "tetanospasmin" (= tetanus toxin). The animals most susceptible to tetanus infection are horses and sheep. Only active immunisation by tetanus vaccine provides effective protection against tetanus intoxication. The marketing authorisation requirements stipulate that efficacy of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. must be demonstrated in all target animal species via determination of neutralising tetanus serum antitoxin concentrations. The standard method used for this purpose is still the toxin neutralisation test (TNT), as it quantifies the tetanus toxin-neutralising effect of tetanus serum antibodies in vivo. In this test, tetanus toxin is added to dilutions of serum from vaccinated horse and sheep. The serum dilutions are then administered to mice or guinea pigs, which are observed for toxic symptoms. Against the background of animal protection, the goal of one project of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry for Education and Research), 0312636) was to establish an alternative to the toxin neutralisation test, enabling the testing of efficacy of tetanus vaccines with serological in vitro methods. For this purpose, a so-called double antigen ELISA (DAE) was established which enables the testing of sera of different species in one assay. In addition, the sera were tested in an indirect ELISA for horses and sheep separately. Altogether, ten groups of horses and eight groups of sheep were immunised with ten animals per group each. The tetanus vaccines comprised almost all products authorised for the German market at the start of the project. 564 horse sera and 257 sheep sera were tested using the two ELISA methods. Some sera were also tested in vivo. The kinetics of

    12. Experimental results of the 140 GHz, 1 MW long-pulse gyrotron for W7-X

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Koppenburg, K.; Arnold, A.; Borie, E.; Dammertz, G.; Giguet, E.; Heidinger, R.; Illy, S.; Kuntze, M.; Le Cloarec, G.; Legrand, F.; Leonhardt, W.; Lievin, C.; Neffe, G.; Piosczyk, B.; Schmid, M.; Thumm, M.

      2003-02-01

      depression voltages of 33 kV. The output beam of the gyrotron is injected into an RF-tight microwave chamber which is equipped with two water-cooled mirrors directing the beam towards the 1 MW water load. The second mirror inside the microwave chamber contains a directional output coupler formed by a row of holes in the mirror surface. A diode detector is connected to the directional coupler and the forward power can be determined once the signal has been calibrated. This was performed by calorimetric measurement of the RF wave in short-pulse measurements. The mode purity of the Gaussian beam was measured by an IR camera and a thin dielectric target plate placed at different positions across the RF beam. The measured beam distribution agrees very well with the theoretical predictions. After some problems with the RF load, long-pulse operation was performed: The power measurements were done by the signal of the diode detector placed at the second mirror. The measured output power of the calorimetric RF-load normally shows values reduced by about 20%. Output powers of 1 MW could be achieved for 10 s, and an energy as high as 90 MJ per pulse has been produced with an output power of 0.64 MW. The pulse lengths were mainly determined by the preset values, and due to lack of experimental time no attempt was made to increase the pulse length. Only for a 100 s pulse with 0.74 MW output power, a limitation was found due to a pressure increase beyond about 10-7mbar. The gyrotron was sent back to the manufacturer Thales Electron Devices for a visual inspection, and an improved prototype was built and delivered to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the middle of April 2002.

    13. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

      2009-04-01

      century, resolving the environmental signal annually and even seasonally (Soldati et al., 2008b). High resolution trace elemental analysis by LA-ICPMS and EPMA in the shells show that elements like Mg and Mn are related to the seasonal pattern and can be enriched along the organic-rich annual shell growth lines. Thus, these elements could possibly be bound organically instead of occupying a defined site in the crystal lattice of the calcium carbonate phase. LA-ICP-MS results show that Mn concentrations in these Diplodon shells range between 1000-300 g/g and 100-10 g/g and that the areas of enrichment are in the micrometer range. Raman and XRD measurements at high spatial resolution failed in recognizing whether the Mn is in carbonate solid solution or not. Therefore, speciation techniques like X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy with a high lateral resolution are required to address this question. Prior to XAFS spectroscopy the samples were mapped with the intensity of the Mn Kα fluorescence emission line in order to locate the Mn rich areas of interest. Because of the Mn concentrations in the sub % range the XAFS spectra at the positions of interest have been recorded in fluorescence mode using a 7 element Si(Li) detector. This study focuses on the near edge (XANES: X-ray absorption near edge structure) part of the spectra. For data evaluation, XANES spectra of reference substances were additionally measured in order to get first hints to Mn valence and bonding. As standards were used Mn and Mn rich carbonates, Mn oxides with Mn in different oxidation states, and Mn in organic compounds (Mn-porphyrin and Mn-acetate). The XAFS measurements have been carried out at the SUL-X beamline of the synchrotron radiation source ANKA of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Data evaluation is ongoing. References MEIBOM, A., CUIF, J.P., HOULBREQUE, F., MOSTEFAOUI, S., DAUPHIN, Y., MEIBOM; K.L. & DUNBAR, R. (2008). Compositional variations at ultra-structure length scales

    14. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    15. Space Radar Image of Mt. Rainer, Washington

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      White River, and the river leaving the mountain at the bottom right of the image (south) is the Nisqually River, which flows out of the Nisqually glacier on the mountain. The river leaving to the left of the mountain is the Carbon River, leading west and north toward heavily populated regions near Tacoma. The dark patch at the top right of the image is Bumping Lake. Other dark areas seen to the right of ridges throughout the image are radar shadow zones. Radar images can be used to study the volcanic structure and the surrounding regions with linear rock boundaries and faults. In addition, the recovery of forested lands from natural disasters and the success of reforestation programs can also be monitored. Ultimately this data may be used to study the advance and retreat of glaciers and other forces of global change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), the C-band (6 cm) and the X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    16. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrte.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    17. Space Radar Image of Mount Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    18. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada, seasonal

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      -C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    19. Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm), and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes that are caused by nature and those changes that are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    20. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      cover and alpine glaciers are critical to the radiation and water balances. SIR-C/X-SAR is a powerful tool because it is sensitive to most snowpack conditions and is less influenced by weather conditions than other remote sensing instruments, such as Landsat. In parallel with the operational SIR-C data processing, an experimental effort is being conducted to test SAR data processing using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's massively parallel supercomputing facility, centered around the Cray Research T3D. These experiments will assess the abilities of large supercomputers to produce high throughput SAR processing in preparation for upcoming data-intensive SAR missions. The images released here were produced as part of this experimental effort. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    1. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California -Interferometry/Topography

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      this area is about 1,320 meters (4,330 feet). Brightness variations come from the radar image, which has been geometrically corrected to remove radar distortions and rotated to have north toward the top. The image in the lower right is a three-dimensional perspective view of the northeast rim of the Long Valley caldera, looking toward the northwest. SIR-C C-band radar image data are draped over topographic data derived from the interferometry processing. No vertical exaggeration has been applied. Combining topographic and radar image data allows scientists to examine relationships between geologic structures and landforms, and other properties of the land cover, such as soil type, vegetation distribution and hydrologic characteristics. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    2. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea, Antarctica

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      . Oceanographers believe this process forms most of the oceans' deep water. Sea ice covering all of the southern oceans, including the Weddell Sea, typically reaches its most northerly extent in about September. As periods of daylight become gradually longer in the Southern Hemisphere, ice formation stops and the ice edge retreats southward. By February, most of the sea ice surrounding Antarctica disappears. Imaging radar is extremely useful for studying the polar regions because of the long periods of darkness and extensive cloud cover. The multiple frequencies of the SIR-C/X-SAR instruments allow further study into ways of improving the separation of the various thickness ranges of sea ice, which are vital to understanding the heat balance in the ice, ocean and atmospheric system. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    3. Space Radar Image of Bahia

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      . The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    4. Experiences of a WEB based test site platform for landslide susceptibility and the use of remote sensing interferometric techniques for monitoring landslide movements in Sweden

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Löfroth, H.; Hultén, C.; Ledwith, M.; Nisser-Larsson, M.; Righini, G.

      2009-04-01

      movements. The resistivity measurements from two areas in Vagnhärad showed fairly good correspondence with the traditional geotechnical investigations that were performed as well as with earlier resistivity measurements in the Vagnhärad landslide area (Dahlin et. al., 2001). Thus resistivity measurements have potential as a tool to estimate the soil profile in general, as a s complement to the production of the map 1b. References: Andersson, H, Bengtsson, PE, Berglund, C, Larsson, R, Sällfors, G, Öberg-Högsta, AL. (2000). Landslide at Vagnhärad in Sweden. International symposium on landslides, 8, Landslides in research, theory and practice,. Proceedings, vol. 1, pp 65-70. Cardiff. Dahlin. T, Larsson. R, Leroux. V, Svensson. M, Wisén. R. (2001). Geofysik i släntstabilitetsutredningar. Geophysics in slope stability investigations (In Swedish). SGI Report 62, Linköping,. Fallsvik. J, Viberg. L. (1998). Early stage landslide and erosion risk assessment. A method for a national survey in Sweden Conference Erdwissenschaftliche Aspekte des Umweltschutzes. Arbeitstagung des Bereiches Umwelt, pp 151-153, Vienna. Sällfors, G, Larsson, R, Ottosson, E. (1996). New Swedish national rules for slope stability analysis. International symposium on landslides, 7. Proceedings, vol. 1. Trondheim.

    5. Stabile Expression von Sulfotransferasen - allein oder in Kombination mit Cytochrom P450 - in Zelllinien für Mutagenitätsuntersuchungen

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pabel, Ulrike

      2003-10-01

      Aromatische Amine und Amide (aAA) sind aufgrund ihrer starken Verbreitung in der menschlichen Umwelt und ihres kanzerogenen Potenzials von groer toxikologischer Bedeutung. Die Kanzerogenität der aAA wird durch die Mutagenität hochreaktiver Stoffwechselprodukte vermittelt, die in zwei sequenziellen katalytischen Reaktionen entstehen. Die erste ist meistens eine N-Hydroxylierung, die oft durch Cytochrom P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) katalysiert wird. Daran schliet sich eine O-Konjugation durch Sulfotransferasen (SULT) oder N-Acetyltransferasen (NAT) an. Die Bioaktivierung ist ein kritischer Parameter für die Übertragbarkeit von Ergebnissen aus Tiermodellen auf den Menschen. Rekombinante in vitro Systeme, die fremdstoffmetabolisierende Enzyme verschiedener Spezies exprimieren, ermöglichen die vergleichende Untersuchung der Bioaktivierung im Menschen und in Versuchstieren. Ziel des Projektes war die Aufklärung der Bioaktivierung der aAA durch humane Enzyme. Im Vordergrund stand die Untersuchung der Rolle humaner SULT in diesem Prozess. Es wurden rekombinante in vitro Systeme, konstruiert, die CYP1A2 und SULT des Menschen koexprimieren. SULT-cDNAs wurden in den Säugerzell Expressionsvektor pMPSV kloniert und in Standardindikatorzellen für Mutagenitätsuntersuchungen (V79 Zellen aus dem Chinesischen Hamster) transfiziert. Das Expressionsniveau von CYP1A2 und SULT wurde mittels Immunblotanalyse und radiometrischen Aktivitätsmessungen charakterisiert. In den rekombinanten Zellen wurden vier aAA als Modellsubstanzen (2-Acetylaminofluoren, 2-Aminoanthracen, 3′-Methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzol, 2,4-Diaminotoluol) auf ihre Mutagenität am hprt-Locus hin untersucht.Die aAA waren in Zellen, die keine rekombinanten Enzyme oder lediglich CYP1A2 exprimierten, nicht mutagen. In Zellen, die CYP1A2 und SULT der Subfamilie 1A koexprimierten, erzeugten sie bereits in geringen Konzentrationen klare mutagene Effekte (0,3 µM für 2-Acetylaminofluoren und 3′-Methyl-4

    6. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Thomas, Paul

      2010-02-01

      November 2009 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. The other three have been very helpful in 'minority fields'. We have excluded our Board members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their Special Issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Tomonori Takizuka, JAEA-Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Rudolf Neu, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Sibylle Guenter, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States David R. Mikkelsen, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States Peter C. de Vries, EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, United Kingdom Yasuhiro Suzuki, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jerzy Wolowski, Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Poland Tetsuo Tanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Yasuyuki Yagi, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan Congratulations and many, many thanks! The Guest Editors of special editions deserve a special mention for the excellent help that they have given us. They are: Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States, Special Issue on H-Mode Physics and Transport Barriers Yaroslav Kolesnichenko, Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine, Special Issue on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Kimitaka Itoh, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan and Howard R. Wilson, University of York, UK, Special Issue on Plasma Instabilities Bernhard Unterberg, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Special Issue on Stochastic Fusion Plasma In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2009. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2009 Nuclear Fusion

    7. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operation and data processing of X-SAR.

    8. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      -greenish areas are young jack pine trees, 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet) in height and 11 to 16 years old. The green areas are due to the relative high intensity of the HV channel which is strongly correlated with the amount of biomass. L-band HV channel shows the biomass variations over the entire region. Most of the green areas, when compared to the forest cover maps are identified as black spruce trees. The dark blue and dark purple colors show recently harvested or regrowth areas respectively. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    9. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      also one of the primary calibration sites for SIR-C/X-SAR. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner reflectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the shuttle passes overhead. Thirty triangular-shaped reflectors (they look like aluminum pyramids) have been deployed by the calibration team from JPL over a 40- by 40-kilometer (25- by 25-mile) area in and around Death Valley. The calibration team will also deploy transponders (electronic reflectors) and receivers to measure the radar signals from SIR-C/X-SAR on the ground. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    10. SPace Radar Image of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      the next 10 to 15 years. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    11. Roter Kamm Impact Crater in Namibia

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1995-01-01

      the surface of the Earth help geologists understand the role of the impact process in the Earth's evolution, including effects on the atmosphere and on biological evolution.

      Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    12. To Boldly Go: America's Next Era in Space. The Plasma Universe

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2004-01-01

      Dr. France Cordova, NASA's Chief Scientist, chaired this, the eighth seminar in the Administrator's Seminar Series. She introduced the NASA Administrator, Daniel S. Goldin, who, in turn, introduced the subject of plasma. Plasma, an ionized gas, is a function of temperature and density. We ve learned that, at Jupiter, the radiation is dense. But, Goldin asked, what else do we know? Dr. Cordova then introduced Dr. James Van Allen, for whom the Van Allen radiation belt was named. Dr. Van Allen, a member of the University of Iowa faculty, discussed the growing interest in practical applications of space physics, including radiation fields and particles, plasmas and ionospheres. He listed a hierarchy of magnetic fields, beginning at the top, as pulsars, the Sun, planets, interplanetary medium, and interstellar medium. He pointed out that we have investigated eight of the nine known planets,. He listed three basic energy sources as 1) kinetic energy from flowing plasma such as constitutional solar wind or interstellar wind; 2) rotational energy of the planet, and 3) orbital energy of satellites. He believes there are seven sources of energetic particles and five potential places where particles may go. The next speaker, Dr. Ian Axford of New Zealand, has been associated with the Max Planck Institut fuer Aeronomie and plasma physics. He has studied solar and galactic winds and clusters of galaxies of which there are several thousand. He believes that the solar wind temperature is in the millions of degrees. The final speaker was Dr. Roger Blanford of the California Institute of Technology. He classified extreme plasmas as lab plasmas and cosmic plasmas. Cosmic plasmas are from supernovae remnants. These have supplied us with heavy elements and may come via a shock front of 10(sup 15) electron volts. To understand the physics of plasma, one must learn about x-rays, the maximum energy of acceleration by supernova remnants, particle acceleration and composition of cosmic

    13. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    14. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Takizuka, Tomonori

      2008-07-01

      (University of Tsukuba, Japan) K Itoh (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) S-I Itoh (Kyushu University, Japan) F Jenko (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) D Kalupin (Institut für Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany) Y Kamada (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) N Kasuya (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) I Katanuma (University of Tsukuba, Japan) M Kimura (Kyushu University, Japan) A Kirk (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) S Kitajima (Tohoku University, Japan) S Kobayashi (Kyoto University, Japan) T Kobuchi (Tohoku University, Japan) J Kohagura (University of Tsukuba, Japan) P T Lang (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) S V Lebedev (Ioffe Institute, Russia) A W Leonard (General Atomics, USA) J Q Li (Kyoto University, Japan) A Malaquias (International Atomic Energy Agency) Y R Martin (Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Switzerland) C J McDevitt (University of California, San Diego, USA) D C McDonald (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) H Meyer (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) C A Michael (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) K Miki (Kyushu University, Japan) R Minami (University of Tsukuba, Japan) T Minami (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) Y Miyata (University of Tsukuba, Japan) N Miyato (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) Y Motegi (University of Tsukuba, Japan) V Mukhovatov (ITER Organization) S Murakami (Kyoto University, Japan) Y Nagashima (Kyushu University, Japan) Y Nakashima (University of Tsukuba, Japan) T Numakura (University of Tsukuba, Japan) S Ohshima (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) T Oishi (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) T Onjun (Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thailand) T H Osborne (GENERAL Atomics, USA) N Oyama (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) T Ozeki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) V Parail (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) A Polevoi (ITER Organization, France) J E Rice (MIT Plasma Science

    15. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Akchurin, Nural

      2012-12-01

      Livan, Pavia Univ. & INFN Pasquale Lubrano, INFN Perugia Steve Magill, ANL Amelia Maio, LIPP Lisbon Horst Oberlack, MPI Munich Adam Para, FNAL Klaus Pretzl, Univ. of Bern Yifang Wang, IHEP Beijing Richard Wigmans, TTU Ren-Yuan Zhu, Caltech Local Organizing Committee: Nural Akchurin, TTU Debra Boyce, TTU (Secretary) Xiadong Jiang, LANL Jon Kapustinsky, LANL Sung-Won Lee, TTU Sally Seidel, UNM Igor Volobouev, TTU Session Conveners: LHC I-III: David Barney (CERN) Ana Henriques (CERN) Sally Seidel (UNM) Calorimetry Techniques I-II: Francesca Tedaldi (ETH-Zurich) Tao Hu (IHEP-Beijing) Calorimetry Techniques III-IV: Craig Woody (BNL) Tohru Takeshita (Shinshu) Astrophysics and Neutrinos: Don Groom (LBNL) Steve Magill (ANL) Operating Calorimeters: Jordan Damgov (TTU) Gabriella Gaudio (INFN-Pavia) Frank Chlebana (FNAL) Algorithms and Simulations: Artur Apresyan (Caltech) Igor Volobouev (TTU) Front-end and Trigger: Chris Tully (Princeton) Kejun Zhu (IHEP-Beijing) Future Calorimetry: Michele Livan (Pavia Univ.) Frank Simon (MPI) Vishnu Zutshi (NICADD) List of Participants: ABOUZEID, Hass University of Toronto AKCHURIN, Nural Texas Tech University ANDEEN, Timothy Columbia University ANDERSON, Jake Fermilab APRESYAN, Artur California Institute of Technology AUFFRAY, Etiennette CERN BARILLARI, Teresa Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik BARNEY, David CERN BESSON, Dave University of Kansas BOYCE, Debra Texas Tech University BRUEL, Philippe LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3 BUCHANAN, Norm Colorado State University CARLOGANU, Cristina LPC Clermont Ferrand / IN2P3 / CNRS CHEFDEVILLE, Maximilien CNRS/IN2P3/LAPP CHLEBANA, Frank Fermilab CLARK, Jonathan Texas Tech University CONDE MUINO, Patricia LIP-Lisboa COWDEN, Christopher Texas Tech University DA SILVA, Cesar Luiz Los Alamos National Lab DAMGOV, Jordan Texas Tech University DAVYGORA, Yuriy University of Heidelberg DEMERS, Sarah Yale University EIGEN, Gerald University of Bergen EUSEBI, Ricardo Texas A&M University FERRI, Federico CEA

    16. Discovery of a Satellite around a Near-Earth Asteroid

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      1997-07-01

      Institut fuer Planetenerkundung and Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) . [2] See ESO Press Release 09/94 of 18 May 1994. [3] Asteroids are small solid planetary bodies revolving around the Sun in orbits that are mostly located in the so-called Main Asteroid Belt, confined between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Most of them are thought to be fragments derived from catastrophic, past collisions between larger asteroids. By mid-1997, the orbits of about 8000 asteroids in the solar system were sufficiently well known to allow them to be officially numbered by the rules of the International Astronomical Union. (3671) Dionysus was discovered in 1984 at the Palomar Observatory (California, USA) and is named after the Greek god of wine. [4] The gravitational influence of the giant planet Jupiter can modify the orbits of asteroids located in particular regions of the Main Belt (the effect is refered to as `orbital perturbations'). As a result, the orbit of an asteroid may `cross' that of a major planet, and eventually it may become a NEO , i.e. a near-Earth object. The orbits of NEO's are highly unstable over times comparable to the age of the solar system. This instability can result in a collision with one of the terrestrial (inner) planets, or with the Sun, or in the ejection of the asteroid out of the solar system. The present orbit of (3671) Dionysus is such that this object is not likely to collide with the Earth in the foreseeable future. [5] The method of analyzing the lightcurve of Dionysus consists of `removing' (subtracting) the normal short-period brightness variations due to rotation of the asteroid and plotting the residuals against time, cf. Press Photo 20/97. The residual lightcurve shows a clear resemblance with typical lightcurves of eclipsing binary stellar systems (in which two stars move around each other, producing mutual eclipses) and leads to a model of two bodies revolving around a common gravitational centre, in an orbital

    17. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Thomas, Paul

      2012-01-01

      Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA Cadarache, France Russell Doerner, University of California - San Diego, USA Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany Akihide Fujisawa, Kyushi University, Japan Gerardo Giruzzi, CEA Cadarache, France Grigory Kagan, LANL, USA Morten Lennholm, CCFE, UK Akinobu Matsuyama, NIFS, Japan Peter Stangeby, University of Toronto, Canada Leonid Zakharov, PPPL, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2011. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2011 Nuclear Fusion Award is H. Urano, for the paper 'Dimensionless parameter dependence of H-mode pedestal width using hydrogen and deuterium plasmas in JT-60U' (Nucl. Fusion 48 045008). The award was presented at the Plasma Conference 2011 (Joint meeting of 28th JSPF Annual Meeting, The 29th Symposium on Plasma Processing, and Division of Plasma Physics, 2011 Autumn Meeting of The Physical Society of Japan). This is the sixth year that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has awarded an annual prize to honour exceptional work published in Nuclear Fusion. IOP Publishing has generously made a contribution of $2500 to the award. The Nuclear Fusion Electronic Archive The journal's electronic archive has been online since the beginning of the year. The archive has been a roaring success and has contributed to the nearly 300 000 downloads of journal papers in 2011. The archive can be accessed via http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Archive. It has direct links to 16 landmark papers, from authors such as Artsimovich and Mercier. The Nuclear Fusion office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also

    18. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italian

    19. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA)

    20. Message from the Editor

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Stambaugh, Ronald D.

      2013-01-01

      reviewed five manuscripts in the period November 2011 to December 2012 and provided excellent advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in recent years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA-Cadarache, France Jiaqui Dong, Southwestern Institute of Physics, China Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Ambrogio Fasoli, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland Eric Fredrickson, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Manuel Garcia-Munoz, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany William Heidbrink, California University, USA Katsumi Ida, National Inst. For Fusion Science, Japan Peter Stangeby, Toronto University, Canada James Strachan, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Victor Yavorskij, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2012. Our thanks to them!

    1. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1994-01-01

      German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fr Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR) which is major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

    2. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      , Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Ag

    3. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1999-01-01

      , Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

    4. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      1995-12-01

      (UT4). Mirrors and Instruments As earlier announced, ESO officially received the first 8.2-metre VLT mirror from REOSC in Paris [3] on November 21. The polishing of the second mirror has already started and, based on the experience gained with the first, it is expected that this work will be accomplished in less time. The third blank is already at REOSC and the fourth will soon be ready at Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). Following extended studies, and as yet another move towards new technology within the VLT project, it has now been decided to make the 1.2-metre secondary VLT mirrors of beryllium, a very light, exotic metal. The contracting firm is Dornier of the DASA group (Germany). This saves much weight and allows these relatively large mirrors to be efficiently used in the `chopping and tilting' mode needed for observations in the infrared wavelength region as well as for the critical, image-sharpening adaptive optics system. Significant progress has also been achieved on the first astronomical instruments which will be installed at the VLT. The integration of the first two of these, ISAAC and CONICA which will be installed on UT1 in the course of 1997, has already started in the ESO laboratories at the Headquarters in Garching. Important advances have also taken place within the FORS (managed by a consortium of Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Universitaets-Sternwarte Goettingen and Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik der Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen) and FUEGOS (Paris Observatory, Meudon Observatory, Toulouse Observatory, Geneva Observatory and Bologna Observatory) projects. More details about these and other VLT instruments will be given in later communications. Notes: [1] The Council of ESO consists of two representatives from each of the eight member states. It is the highest legislative authority of the organisation and normally meets twice a year. This time, Council was invited to Milan by the Director of the Osservatorio di Brera (Milan

    5. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Manson, Joseph R.

      2010-08-01

      bicycle rides taken with these colleagues and many others through the streets of Göttingen and the surrounding countryside of Niedersachsen. The long series of visits to Göttingen were interrupted by three summers beginning in 1988 at the Institut für Grenzflachenforschung and Vakuumphysik at the Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany working with George Comsa and his group. I had met Comsa in the late 1970s at a scientific meeting in France and we had continued our scientific correspondence ever since, which eventually led to the invitation to visit his lab for an extended stay. Among the very large range of surface-related experiments being carried out in the Comsa group were machines, operated by Bene Poelsema and Rudolf David and the then graduate students Klaus Kern and Peter Zeppenfeld, devoted to He atom scattering from metal and adsorbate-covered surfaces. Once again, it was a great privilege to carry out scientific research in such a stimulating environment. In 1998, with a three-month summer visit, I began a collaboration with Professor Karl-Heinz Rieder at the Institut für Experimentalphysik of the Freie Universität Berlin in Germany. Rieder was a pioneer in the field of surface scattering experiments using helium and other rare gas atomic beams as projectiles and after he moved to the Freie Universität from the IBM Zürich laboratories he continued this work as well as becoming a world leader in the field of single molecule manipulation on surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This collaboration resulted in visits to Berlin every summer through 2006 during which we collaborated on several projects involving both atom-surface scattering and STM. The work during this period included interesting collaborative work with many members of the Rieder group including Ludwig Bartels, Daniel Farías, Gerhard Meyer and Saw Hla. It was a great experience to be able to pursue science in such favorable surroundings, and to have, in addition, all the

    6. Preface

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gorse, D.; Boutard, J.-L.

      2002-09-01

      1997, only predictions of spallation residues production were available. This motivated the GEDEON workshop on “Nuclear Data for materials studies in the frame of hybrid systems" held in 1999 in Vichy (France). The paper presented by C. Villagrasa et al. highlights the progress achieved during the past five years, promoted by GDR GEDEON. The reverse kinematics experiments performed during that period allowed to obtaining reliable values for production cross sections of residual nuclei produced by spallation reactions. The authors also mention improvements on the computation codes. The case of the target window, thin target simply made of iron from the nuclear physics point of view, is thoroughly investigated. The authors also treat the production of residues in heavy metals, like lead. The experimental data reported below results from the cooperation of CEA, CNRS and Forschungszentrum Jülich within the program SPIRE of the 5th European Framework Program. From the metallurgists point of view, O. Danylova et al. reported an interesting attempt to simulate by doping production of three spallation residues, namely phosphorus, sulfur and titanium, certainly detrimental regarding the mechanical properties (fracture toughness...) of the 9% Cr martensitic steels pre-selected for the target window and container. The authors describe the inherent difficulties encountered for obtaining the microstructure and modified steel composition expected under irradiation. In all cases, production of hydrogen and helium is expected very high, ~90 000 appm/year for hydrogen and ~5000 appm/year for helium, corresponding to a damage level of ~100 dpa/year in the target window. These estimated values are just mentioned to show the importance of the metallurgical problem to be faced. These data motivated studies of helium implantation effects by J. Henry et al. in two 9Cr-1Mo (EM10) and modified 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb (T91) pre-selected martensitic steels. Homogeneous implantation of 5000 appm He in T