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  1. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism.

    PubMed

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-11-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.

  2. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  3. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  4. Early human settlements in the southern Qinling Mountains, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuefeng; Lu, Huayu; Wang, Shejiang; Yi, Liang; Li, Yongxiang; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Voinchet, Pierre; Hu, Xuzhi; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Wenchao; Zhuo, Haixin

    2017-05-01

    China is a key area of early human settlement in East Asia, with numerous Paleolithic localities indicating an early Pleistocene presence of hominins in northern and southern China. Considerable research has been devoted to determining possible migration routes for hominins linking the two areas. In this paper, we report the discovery of several loess-covered Paleolithic sites in the Hanzhong and Ankang Basins along the Hanjiang River in the southern piedmont of the Qinling Mountains (QLM) in central China. A chronology is developed for these sections using a combination of detailed optically stimulated luminescence dating, magnetostratigraphic analyses, and pedostratigraphic correlation with the well-dated loess-paleosol sequence of the central Chinese Loess Plateau. The results indicate that the age of the oldest lithic assemblage at the Longgangsi locality 3 Paleolithic site in Hanzhong Basin is ∼1.20 Ma, thus making this locality as one of the oldest sites in central China. Our work also indicates that hominins occupied the Hanjiang valley at several times: ∼1.2, 0.9, ∼0.6, and ∼0.1 Ma. We propose that the Hanjiang River Valley was a probable hominin routeway through the QLM because many sites corresponding to these different phases were also discovered to the north of the QLM. Future study on the Hanjiang River Valley is important for verifying the hypothesis of an early human migration route between southern and northern China.

  5. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea.

  6. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea. PMID:24765573

  7. Procedural 3d Modelling for Traditional Settlements. The Case Study of Central Zagori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2017-02-01

    Over the last decades 3D modelling has been a fast growing field in Geographic Information Science, extensively applied in various domains including reconstruction and visualization of cultural heritage, especially monuments and traditional settlements. Technological advances in computer graphics, allow for modelling of complex 3D objects achieving high precision and accuracy. Procedural modelling is an effective tool and a relatively novel method, based on algorithmic modelling concept. It is utilized for the generation of accurate 3D models and composite facade textures from sets of rules which are called Computer Generated Architecture grammars (CGA grammars), defining the objects' detailed geometry, rather than altering or editing the model manually. In this paper, procedural modelling tools have been exploited to generate the 3D model of a traditional settlement in the region of Central Zagori in Greece. The detailed geometries of 3D models derived from the application of shape grammars on selected footprints, and the process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the built environment of Central Zagori, in three levels of Detail (LoD). The final 3D scene was exported and published as 3D web-scene which can be viewed with 3D CityEngine viewer, giving a walkthrough the whole model, same as in virtual reality or game environments. This research work addresses issues regarding textures' precision, LoD for 3D objects and interactive visualization within one 3D scene, as well as the effectiveness of large scale modelling, along with the benefits and drawbacks that derive from procedural modelling techniques in the field of cultural heritage and more specifically on 3D modelling of traditional settlements.

  8. Assessment of runout path and deposition area of potential landslide in Lushan Settlement, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Ying-Hung; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Our study focused on the Lushan Settlement, located in the slate belt of Central Range in Taiwan. We adopted L-band ALOS SAR data to generate the line of sight (LOS) velocities in study area using PS-InSAR technique constrained by continuous GPS data in the period from 2007 to 2010. The result revealed a subsidence rate in LOS up to -15 mm/yr. In addition, the borehole inclinometers, installed by Central Geological Survey, recorded a slip depth more than 120 m just in the northeastern of the village. Based on the results of PS-InSAR, records of inclinometers and field geological study, we adopt 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations by using Particle Flow Code to investigate scenario-based runout paths, particle velocities and landslide-affected area, which are useful information for decision support and future landslide hazard assessment. We analyzed different scenarios based on a dipping of the potential sliding surface varying from 20 to 5 degree. In each scenario, sliding of the unstable slope with a high frictional coefficient of the subsurface implied that the sliding surface of this creeping slope has still been developing. Furthermore, with 3-dimentaion models we analyzed the runout paths of rock mass, velocities of movement, and catastrophic landslide-impact area in the scenario that once the sliding surface fully develops or shear failure happens. Generally, the total runout distance could be more than 400 m, and the largest debris thickness might reach 100 m. Because of a low dipping angle of the sliding surface, the movement could last several minutes with a maxima velocity about 2 m/s. Moreover, a landslide-dam will form and capacity of dam could be predicted. In the worst case, the settlement, which is on the slope crown, might be destroyed and buried by debris.

  9. 26 CFR 1.895-1 - Income derived by a foreign central bank of issue, or by Bank for International Settlements, from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income derived by a foreign central bank of... foreign central bank of issue, or by Bank for International Settlements, from obligations of the United States or from bank deposits. (a) In general. Income derived by a foreign central bank of issue from...

  10. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history.

  11. Subsistence and Settlement at Rathbun Reservoir Area in South Central Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    paleolithic of south central Europe. Paper presented at the 42nd annual Society for American Archaeology meetings, New Orleans, LA. 1978 Variability in the...Early Upper Paleolithic of South Central Europe. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence. Brown, Lionel A. 1965

  12. Human Settlements in the South-Central U.S., Viewed at Night from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa; Evans, Cynthia; Stefanov, William; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Willis, Kimberly; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A recent innovation of astronauts observing Earth from the International Space Station (ISS) is documenting human footprints by photographing city lights at night time. One of the earliest night-time images from the ISS was the US-Mexico border at El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. The colors, patterns and density of city lights document the differences in the cultural settlement patterns across the border region, as well as within the urban areas themselves. City lights help outline the most populated areas in settlements around the world, and can be used to explore relative population densities, changing patterns of urban/suburban development, transportation networks, spatial relationship to geographic features, and more. The data also provides insight into parameters such as surface roughness for input into local and regional climate modeling and studies of light pollution. The ground resolution of night-time astronaut photography from the ISS is typically an order of magnitude greater than current Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data, and therefore can serve as a "zoom lens" for selected urban areas. Current handheld digital cameras in use on the ISS, optimized for greater light sensitivity, provide opportunities to obtain new detailed imagery of atmospheric phenomena such as airglow, aurora, and noctilucent clouds in addition to documenting urban patterns. ISS astronauts have taken advantage of increasingly sensitive digital cameras to document the world at night in unprecedented detail. In addition, the capability to obtain time-lapse imagery from fixed cameras has been exploited to produce dynamic videos of both changing surface patterns around the world and atmospheric phenomena. We will profile some spectacular images of human settlements over the South-Central U.S., and contrast with other images from around the world. More data can be viewed at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/Videos/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/. US-Mexico border is obvious by the different

  13. Evidences of Paleoearthquakes in Palaeolithic settlements within fluvial sequences of the Tagus Basin (Madrid, Central Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pablo G.; Rodríguez Pascua, M. A.; Pérez López, R.; Giner Robles, J. L.; Roquero, E.; Tapias, F.; López Recio, M.; Rus, I.; Morin, J.

    2010-05-01

    Multiple evidences of soft-sediment to brittle deformation within the Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Tagus, Jarama, Tajuña and Manzanares river valleys have been described since the middle 20th Century. Cryoturbation, hydroplastic deformations due to underlying karstic collapses or halokinesis on the substratum of neogene gypsums, and seismic shaking have been proposed to interpret these structures. These deformations are typically concentrated in the +18-20 m terrace levels, and closely linked to well-known Palaeolithic sites, in some cases overlaying and/or affecting true prehistoric settlements (i.e. Arganda, Arriaga and Tafesa sites) within the Jarama and Manzanares valleys. The affected settlements typically display acheulian lithic industry linked to the scavenging of large Pleistocene mammals (i.e. Elephas antiquus). Commonly, deformational structures are concentrated in relatively thin horizons (10-50 cm thick) bracketed by undeformed fluvial sands and gravels. The soft-sediment deformations usually consist on medium to fine sized sands injected and protruded in overlaying flood-plain clayey silts, showing a wide variety of convolutes, injections, sand-dikes, dish and pillar structures, mud volcanoes, faults and folds, some times it is possible to undertake their 3D geometrical analysis due to the exceptional conservation of the structures (Tafesa). Recent geo-archaeological prospecting on the for the Palaeolithic Site of Arriaga (South Madrid City) conducted during the year 2009, let to find out an exceptional horizon of deformation of about 1.20 m thick. It consisted on highly disturbed and pervasively liquefacted sands, which hardly can be attributed to no-seismic processes. The acheulian lithic industry of the Madrid Region have been classically attributed the Late Middle Pleistocene (< 350 kyr BP), but recent OSL dating indicate that the basal horizons of the +18-20 m fluvial terraces hold ages younger than c.a. 120-100 kyr BP in this zone. All

  14. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  15. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  16. Settlement patterns, GIS, remote sensing, and the late prehistory of the Black Prairie in east central Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jay K.

    1991-01-01

    Data recovered as the result of a recent field project designed to test a model of the distribution of protohistoric settlement in an unusual physiographic zone in eastern Mississippi are examined using GIS based techniques to manipulate soil and stream distance information. Significant patterning is derived. The generally thin soils and uniform substratum of the Black Prairie in combination with a distinctive settlement pattern offer a promising opportunity for the search for site specific characteristics within airborne imagery. Landsat TM data provide information on modern ground cover which is used as a mask to select areas in which a multivariate search for archaeological site signatures within a TIMS image is most likely to prove fruitful.

  17. Settlement patterns, GIS, remote sensing, and the late prehistory of the Black Prairie in east central Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jay K.

    1991-01-01

    Data recovered as the result of a recent field project designed to test a model of the distribution of protohistoric settlement in an unusual physiographic zone in eastern Mississippi are examined using GIS based techniques to manipulate soil and stream distance information. Significant patterning is derived. The generally thin soils and uniform substratum of the Black Prairie in combination with a distinctive settlement pattern offer a promising opportunity for the search for site specific characteristics within airborne imagery. Landsat TM data provide information on modern ground cover which is used as a mask to select areas in which a multivariate search for archaeological site signatures within a TIMS image is most likely to prove fruitful.

  18. The Islinger Mühlbach Fen (Central Bavaria, Germany) as an archive for the reconstruction of natural and anthropogenic environmental change within a prehistoric settlement area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Alexandra; Völkel, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Situated within the prehistoric settlement area Burgweinting (City of Regensburg, Central Bavaria, Germany), the peat deposits of the Islinger Mühlbach Fen provide the possibility to obtain information about natural and anthropogenic induced environmental change. The fen lies in close proximity to the archaeological excavation site in Burgweinting, which documents an almost continuous settlement history since the Neolithic Period. Primarily, palaeoenvironmental investigations were carried out to reveal past settlement conditions and human impact on the environment. The main study object is a topogenic mire at a small creek (Islinger Mühlbach) which lies in about 500 - 1000 m distance in southward direction from the archaeological excavation site. The spatial extent and peat stratigraphy of the topogenic mire was investigated by manual drillings. The base of the 362 cm long peat profile 7038-302 from the centre of the mire was radiocarbon dated to 12150 ±78 a BP (Erl-7516, 337-338 cm sediment depth). This age proves a start of peat formation during the Late Glacial and therefore, this peat profile contains the complete settlement history since that time. Based on this information two further peat profiles were gained in the middle part of the mire with a Russian peat sampler. Another three sediment cores were drilled at the margin of the mire with percussion drilling using plastic liners. These three sediment sequences have peat/colluvial-interbeddings which prove alternating periods of peat growth on the mire and soil erosion on the adjacent hillslope. The analyses of the sequences comprise stratigraphic, geoechemical and microscopic charcoal analyses. For chronological information, radiocarbon dating was conducted on a total of ten assays. Thus, the first long-term fire record was reconstructed from the investigation area and the results were correlated, based on radiocarbon dating, with the available environmental information and settlement history in

  19. Integrating the European Securities Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaper, Torsten

    The cross-border securities settlement in Europe is still said to be highly inefficient. One main reason can be seen in technical barriers between the different domestic settlement systems. Beside efforts to implement industry-specific communication standards an integration of the different settlement systems is necessary. The CSD-link model, the hub and spokes model, and the European CSD model aim to integrate European securities settlement. They have in common that they address the problem of interlinkage of national Central Securities Depositories and differ essentially in the way of achieving integration. These models are evaluated from a macro-economic perspective considering transaction costs, risks, and the integration of the cross-border securities settlement process.

  20. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  1. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  2. Biological ancestries, kinship connections, and projected identities in four central Anatolian settlements: insights from culturally contextualized genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Ömer; Gultekin, Timur; Alakoc, Yesim Dogan; Tug, Aysim; Gulec, Erksin; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    Previous population genetics studies in Turkey failed to delineate recent historical and social factors that shaped Anatolian cultural and genetic diversity at the local level. To address this shortcoming, we conducted focused ethnohistorical fieldwork and screened biological samples collected from the Yuksekyer region for mitochondrial, Y chromosome, and autosomal markers and then analyzed the data within an ethnohistorical context. Our results revealed that, at the village level, paternal genetic diversity is structured among settlements, whereas maternal genetic diversity is distributed more homogenously, reflecting the strong patrilineal cultural traditions that transcend larger ethnic and religious structures. Local ancestries and origin myths, rather than ethnic or religious affiliations, delineate the social boundaries and projected identities among the villages. Therefore, we conclude that broad, ethnicity-based sampling is inadequate to capture the genetic signatures of recent social and historical dynamics, which have had a profound influence on contemporary genetic and cultural regional diversity.

  3. Martian settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for a manned Mars mission and the establishment of a base is divided into three areas: science, resource utilization, and strategic issues. The effects of a Mars mission on the objectives of near-term NASA programs, and the applications of these programs to a Mars mission are examined. The use of extraterrestrial resources to supply space settlements and thereby reduce transportation costs is studied; the development of systems for extraterrestrial materials processing will need to be researched. The possibility of a joint U.S./Soviet Mars mission is discussed by the symposium participants.

  4. Martian settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for a manned Mars mission and the establishment of a base is divided into three areas: science, resource utilization, and strategic issues. The effects of a Mars mission on the objectives of near-term NASA programs, and the applications of these programs to a Mars mission are examined. The use of extraterrestrial resources to supply space settlements and thereby reduce transportation costs is studied; the development of systems for extraterrestrial materials processing will need to be researched. The possibility of a joint U.S./Soviet Mars mission is discussed by the symposium participants.

  5. Analytical, nutritional and biological evaluation of various brands of fortified and non-fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Sohail; Hussain, Khalid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Latif, Abida; Islam, Muhammad; Karim, Sabiha; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Hussain, Amjad; Danish, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-05-01

    In Pakistan, a funded flour fortification program was launched for malnourished population, residing mainly in rural low income areas, but the urban population having comparatively better nutritional as well as economic status was focused wherein excessive intake of fortificants might cause complications. Therefore, the present study describes the physicochemical properties, elemental composition, nutritional components and hemoglobin/ferritin increasing potential of fortified and non-fortified flour. Domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), either sex, age one month, weight 380 ± 18.28 g, were randomly segregated into 4 groups (n=6). The group I, II and III were fed on fortified flour, whereas group IV was fed on non-fortified flour for 30 days. The birds were weighed and blood samples of each of the birds were analyzed for determination of markers of iron status, hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF). Moisture, ash and iron contents were found to be lower in non-fortified flour than that of the fortified samples. Hb and SF levels in groups fed on fortified flour were significantly higher than the one received non-fortified flour (P < 0.05). The consumption of iron-fortified flour increases iron stores in the body without any further complication but long-term usage needs to be monitored.

  6. A distinct section of the Early Bronze Age society? Stable isotope investigations of burials in settlement pits and multiple inhumations of the Únětice culture in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Knipper, Corina; Fragata, Matthias; Nicklisch, Nicole; Siebert, Angelina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Hubensack, Vera; Metzner-Nebelsick, Carola; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-03-01

    Inhumations in so-called settlement pits and multiple interments are subordinate burial practices of the Early Bronze Age Únětice culture in central Germany (2200-1700/1650 BC). The majority of the Únětice population was entombed as single inhumations in rectangular grave pits with a normative position of the body. The goal of the study was to test archaeological hypotheses that the deviant burials may represent socially distinct or nonlocal individuals. The study comprised up to two teeth and one bone each of 74 human individuals from eight sites and faunal comparative samples. The inhumations included regular, deviant burials in so-called settlement or storage pits, and multiple burials. We investigated radiogenic strontium isotope compositions of tooth enamel ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) and light stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen of bone collagen (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) aiming at the disclosure of residential changes and dietary patterns. Site-specific strontium isotope data ranges mirror different geological properties including calcareous bedrock, loess, and glacial till. Independent from burial types, they disclose low portions of nonlocal individuals of up to some 20% at the individual sites. The light stable isotope ratios of burials in settlement pits and rectangular graves overlap widely and indicate highly similar dietary habits. The analytical results let to conclude that inhumations in settlement pits and multiple burials were two of the manifold burial practices of the Early Bronze Age. The selection criteria of the individuals for the different forms of inhumation remained undisclosed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Zonal assessment of environmental driven settlement abandonment in the Trans-Tisza region (Central Europe) during the early phase of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinke, Zsolt; Ferenczi, László; F. Romhányi, Beatrix; Gyulai, Ferenc; Laszlovszky, József; Mravcsik, Zoltán; Pósa, Patricia; Gábris, Gyula

    2017-02-01

    This investigation focuses on the transformation of the settlement pattern of a lowland landscape as a social response to the hydrological challenges emerging in the late 13th century (c.) overture of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Results of the applied zonal analysis suggested a strong spatial connection between the geomorphological conditions, the agro-ecological suitability (good-excellent, medium and low) and the stability or instability of settlement patterns. The elevation means of archaeological sites in the deserted zones proved significantly lower than those in zones with permanent settlement pattern (Brunner-Munzel test p ≤ 0.01; n = 377). Additionally, the late medieval (14th-mid-16th centuries) site group was situated, on average, significantly higher than the high medieval (late 10th-13th centuries) site group within the permanent zones (Brunner-Munzel test p ≤ 0.01; n = 219). These outcomes statistically confirm that not only did low-lying inhabited areas shrink significantly, but they also displaced vertically in the first phase of the LIA. When analysing the relation of settlement pattern to soil conditions, the proportion of areas with good-excellent agro-ecological suitability proved 1.5-2 times higher in the permanent zones than in the deserted and uninhabited settlement suitability zones. Using the linear model, different regression coefficients appeared between the extension of the high and medium agro-ecological suitability zones and the number of high and late medieval settlements. The different coefficients in the studied two periods suggest that the issue of agroecological suitability in the High Middle Ages did not bear such importance as in the late Middle Ages. The findings of the paper may contribute to answering the question why the relatively dense settlement pattern of the deserted zones was abandoned almost completely by the end of the 13th c. in areas where flood proneness and weak agro-ecological suitability both meant a serious

  8. A multi-proxy record of hydroclimate, vegetation, fire, and post-settlement impacts for a subalpine plateau, Central Rocky Mountains U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Brunelle, Andrea; Thompson, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Apparent changes in vegetation distribution, fire, and other disturbance regimes throughout western North America have prompted investigations of the relative importance of human activities and climate change as potential causal mechanisms. Assessing the effects of Euro-American settlement is difficult because climate changes occur on multi-decadal to centennial time scales and require longer time perspectives than historic observations can provide. Here, we report vegetation and environmental changes over the past ~13,000 years as recorded in a sediment record from Bison Lake, a subalpine lake on a high plateau in northwestern Colorado. Results are based on multiple independent proxies, which include pollen, charcoal, and elemental geochemistry, and are compared with previously reported interpretations of hydroclimatic changes from oxygen isotope ratios. The pollen data indicate a slowly changing vegetation sequence from sagebrush steppe during the late glacial to coniferous forest through the late Holocene. The most dramatic vegetation changes of the Holocene occurred during the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (MCA) and ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) with rapid replacement of conifer forest by grassland followed by an equally rapid return to conifer forest. Late Holocene vegetation responses are mirrored by changes in fire, lake biological productivity, and watershed erosion. These combined records indicate that subsequent disturbance related to Euro-American settlement, although perhaps significant, had acted upon a landscape that was already responding to MCA-LIA hydroclimatic change. Results document both rapid and long-term subalpine grassland ecosystem dynamics driven by agents of change that can be anticipated in the future and simulated by ecosystem models.

  9. Minnesota Power Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  10. Antioxidant fortified margarine increases the antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    van het Hof, K H; Tijburg, L B; de Boer, H S; Wiseman, S A; Weststrate, J A

    1998-04-01

    To assess the effect of supplementation with an antioxidant fortified margarine on the body's antioxidant status and on parameters of oxidative damage to lipids. Single blind, placebo controlled trial, two treatment groups balanced for sex, age and Quetelet Index. Unilever Research Laboratorium, The Netherlands. Thirty-one healthy adult volunteers accomplished the study. Volunteers were recruited among inhabitants of the surrounding area of the research laboratory. Volunteers consumed during the four weeks either 15 g/d of an antioxidant fortified margarine (providing 121 mg vitamin C, 31 mg vitamin E, 2.7 mg alpha-carotene and 5.3 mg beta-carotene) or an ordinary margarine. Fasting blood samples were taken before and at the end of the study. Consumption of the antioxidant fortified margarine significantly increased the levels of the supplied antioxidants in plasma and LDL as compared to the changes found after consumption of the control margarine, with the largest increases found in LDL levels of alpha-carotene (15.5-fold increase, 95% CI: 8.4-27.8-fold) and beta-carotene (4.3-fold increase, 95% CI: 2.2-7.9-fold). This increased antioxidant status in the antioxidant fortified margarine group resulted in a significantly increased total antioxidant activity of LDL and resistance of LDL to oxidation (lag time and rate of oxidation) as compared to baseline but not in comparison to the changes found in the control group. Consumption of moderate doses of vitamin E, vitamin C, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, supplied in a full-fat margarine and consumed as part of a normal diet, effectively increases the blood levels of these antioxidants.

  11. 48 CFR 49.108 - Settlement of subcontract settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement of subcontract settlement proposals. 49.108 Section 49.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108 Settlement of subcontract...

  12. Model for mapping settlements

    DOEpatents

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  13. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  14. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  15. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  16. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  17. The bioavailability of iron fortified in whole grain parboiled rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was to evaluate the bioavailability of iron (Fe) fortified in parboiled rice grain, expressed as Fe uptake by Caco-2 cells after in vitro digestion. The bioavailability of Fe-fortified in the rice grain was closely and positively correlated with increasing concentrations of Fe in t...

  18. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  19. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  20. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  1. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  2. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  3. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  4. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  5. Growth is similar in premature infants fed human milk fortified with a human milk or bovine milk-based fortifier

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) to provide adequate nutrients for growth. A human milk fortifier (HMF) made from donor human milk has recently been introduced. However, limited data are available comparing the growth outcomes of this product with current fortifiers. We evalu...

  6. Structural and compositional investigation of ancient ceramics from a fortified settlement in south-western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponta, O.; Vulpoi, A.; Zirra, V. V.; Simon, S.

    2016-10-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary study focused on investigation of pottery fragments collected from the foundation of the wall of protohistoric site La Cetate, Bazdana village, Romania, close to the river Danube, dated towards the end of fourth century BC. The occurrence of pottery pieces under walls of that times is related to the foundation ritual. The samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. The characterization of the samples includes chemical composition and microstructural properties imposed by processing conditions. They are slightly calcareous ceramic matrices. The identified crystalline phases are preponderantly quartz, with plagioclase, mica, wollastonite and magnetite. The results indicate that the possible firing temperature in air could be above 1100 °C, or lower - if the artisans used reducing atmosphere, that is impressive for that times.

  7. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  8. Effects of Storage on Vitamin-Fortified Cheddar Cheese Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    PERIOD COVERED EFFECTS OF STORAGE ON VITAMIN -FORTIFIED Final Technical Report CHEDDAR CHEESE SPREAD 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(a) S...block nmber) *NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FORTIFICATION STORAGE STUDIES CHEDDAR CHEESE VITAMIN RETENTION PROCESSED CHEESE SPREAD *RETORT POUCH CHEESE...SPREAD 2 SrhACr (mftm mi re"’m ad N A ~ byeek an""w Astudy on vitamin fortified, cheddar Chees spread was conducted at Natick Research and Development

  9. 78 FR 59684 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... the proposed settlement agreement. Nothing in the proposed settlement agreement limits or modifies EPA... a new docket for those issues that were not resolved. Nothing in the proposed settlement agreement...

  10. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets.

  11. 75 FR 36654 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... engines using selective catalytic technologies. Under the terms of the proposed settlement agreement... engines using selective catalytic technologies. Under the terms of the proposed settlement agreement...

  12. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  13. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  14. [Influence of selected factors on fortified food intake by children].

    PubMed

    Rolf, Katarzyna; Januszko, Olga; Bylinowska, Justyna; Sicińska, Ewa; Pietruszka, Barbara; Kałuza, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The range of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals in Poland is growing rapidly in the last years. Also the consumption of such food and dietary supplements is increasing. Therefore there is a risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants of intake of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals among children aged 6-12. Data was collected by a questionnaire specially developed and a FFQ method including vitamins and/or minerals in fortified food products. There were collected data from parents of 743 children (374 boys, 369 girls) attending primary schools, placed in four different districts of Poland. More than 70% of children consumed food products fortified with vitamins and/or minerals, among them 76% - every day. As a main reason of intake of fortified food by children, parents mentioned the beneficial effects on health (86.2% parents) and taste preferences (61.2%). However, the main reason of no consuming this kind of products, were proper nutrition of the children (57.4%), no influence on health (30.3%) and prohibitive price (24,1%). There were statistically significant relationships between intake of food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals and children's age (75.8% of age 6-9 years vs. 58.1% of age 10-12 years), health condition (71.6% of children with good and very good health status -assessed by parents - vs. 55.6% with average and poor health status), the number of meals eaten during the day (75.6% eating 4 meals/day vs. 67.8% - 5 and more meals vs. 52.3% - 3 meals), regular breakfast eating (71.8% eating vs. 50.0% non consumption), brunch eating (73.3% vs. 54.0% respectively), afternoon snack eating (75.7% vs. 59.4%) and using of dietary supplements (84.6% among children who use supplements vs. 61.4% among non users). It was established that about 22% of parents were unaware that their children consumed food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals. Food fortified with

  15. 17 CFR 39.14 - Settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employ settlement arrangements that eliminate or strictly limit its exposure to settlement bank risks, including the credit and liquidity risks arising from the use of such bank(s) to effect settlements with its... clearing members' settlement bank(s) and assess its own and its clearing members' potential losses...

  16. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the ALJ...

  17. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the ALJ...

  18. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the ALJ...

  19. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the ALJ...

  20. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the ALJ...

  1. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... offer of settlement, a respondent making the offer waives, subject to acceptance of the offer: (A) All..., propose an offer of settlement. The amount accepted in settlement may be less than the civil penalty that...) Procedure—(1) Prior to issuance of Penalty Notice. Any offer of settlement made by a respondent prior to...

  2. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlements. (a) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to the Presiding Officer. (b) Form. Offers of settlement shall be filed in camera and the form of a consent... any other party. Each offer of settlement shall be accompanied by a motion to transmit the...

  3. Phytase activity from Lactobacillus spp. in calcium-fortified soymilk.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anne Lise; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Shah, Nagandra P; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

    2010-08-01

    The presence of phytate in calcium-fortified soymilk may interfere with mineral absorption. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce the enzyme phytase that degrades phytates and therefore may potentially improve mineral bioavailability and absorption. This study investigates the phytase activity and phytate degradation potential of 7 strains of LAB including: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962, ATCC33200, ATCC4356, ATCC4161, L. casei ASCC290, L. plantarum ASCC276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. Activity of these bacteria was examined both in screening media and in calcium-fortified soymilk supplemented with potassium phytate. Most strains produced phytase under both conditions with L. acidophilus ATCC4161 showing the highest activity. Phytase activity in fortified soymilk fermented with L. acidophilus ATCC4962 and L. acidophilus ATCC4161 increased by 85% and 91%, respectively, between 12 h and 24 h of fermentation. All strains expressed peak phytase activity at approximately pH 5. However, no phytate degradation could be observed.

  4. Manufacture and quality of iron-fortified yogurt.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, S; McMahon, D J

    1997-12-01

    Yogurts (nonfat and low fat) were manufactured and fortified with 10, 20, and 40 mg of iron/kg of yogurt. Growth of starter culture bacteria and nonstarter culture bacteria as well as lipid oxidation of the yogurts were monitored over 30 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Sensory characteristics of the yogurts were determined during that time by a trained panel of judges, and consumer panels were used to test acceptability of iron-fortified yogurt. Counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricas and Streptococcus thermophilus after 1 d of storage in iron-fortified skim yogurts were 7.0 x 10(8) cfu/ml, which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. Counts decreased to 2.5 x 10(8) and 1.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml for L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, after 30 d of storage. Fortifying yogurt with iron did not support the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens or Escherichia coli. No significant increases in chemical oxidation, as measured using the thiobarbituric acid assay, were detected as a consequence of iron fortification. Trained panelists scored all yogurts for oxidized, metallic, bitter, and other off-flavors in the range of "not perceptible" to "very slightly perceptible". Iron-fortified yogurts had slightly higher oxidized flavor scores than did the control yogurt. There was no increase in metallic, bitter, or other off-flavors. The consumer panel did not detect any significant differences in the appearance, mouthfeel, flavor, or overall quality between fortified and unfortified flavored yogurts. All yogurt samples were liked by the consumer panelists, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification.

  5. Motiva Enterprises LLC Refinery Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Settlement summary for nine refineries owned by Motiva, Equilon, and the Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (Shell Deer Park) to assure compliance with major provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA).

  6. Organoleptic qualities and acceptability of fortified rice in two Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Khanh Van, Tran; Burja, Kurt; Thuy Nga, Tran; Kong, Kannitha; Berger, Jacques; Gardner, Michelle; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Hop, Le Thi; Tuyen, Le Danh; Wieringa, Frank T

    2014-09-01

    Fortified rice has the potential to improve the micronutrients status of vulnerable populations. However, fortified rice has to have acceptable organoleptic--the sensory properties of a particular food--qualities. Few data exist on the acceptability of fortified rice in Asia. To assess the acceptability of two types of fortified rice (cold and hot extruded) in Vietnam and Cambodia, triangle tests were conducted in Vietnam (53 women) and Cambodia (258 adults), testing fortified rice against conventional rice, with participants being asked to score the organoleptic qualities. In addition, Cambodian schoolchildren (n = 1700) were given conventional rice and two types of fortified rice for two week periods as part of a World Food Program school meal program, with intake monitored. Fortified rice differed significantly in organoleptic qualities from conventional rice, with most subjects correctly identifying fortified rice (P < 0.001). However, fortified rice was found to be highly acceptable in both countries. In Cambodia, schoolchildren consuming fortified rice had higher intakes than when consuming conventional rice (176 g/child/day and 168 g/child/day, respectively; P < 0.05). This study shows that fortified rice is acceptable in two countries in Southeast Asia. However, specific information is needed to explain the organoleptic qualities of fortified rice as perceived by end-users.

  7. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  8. Steps toward lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The costs of transporting people and material to low-earth-orbit (LEO), and thence to the lunar surface, will constrain the pace and pattern of lunar development. Beginning as a spartan ''base camp'' completely supplied from Earth, a lunar science-and-resource-development facility could grow in size, amenities, and capability to the point that passenger transport becomes a major expense. At such a stage, some employees of the facility might be given the opportunity to become permanent residents; and at that point, lunar settlement will have begun. We assume growth rates of facilities and staff contained by the annual delivery of 900 tons to LEO. During the base camp era, about 100 tons would be delivered annually to the lunar surface. Within six years, the facility could grow to a collection of 25 modules, housing a staff of about 16 with each member of the staff serving a six-month tour on a staggered schedule. At the end of this first phase, oxygen produced from lunar ilmenite and delivered to lunar orbit for use as propellant would allow annual lunar-bound cargos of about 200 tons. Production from lunar materials of heat shields for aerobraking would enable economical delivery of lunar oxygen to LEO and, therefore, could raise lunar-bound cargoes to about 450 tons. Accumulatin of production capabilities would eventually allow use of lunar construction materials, to build farms and increase per capita living and working space. Once closed-loop environmental systems are in place, transport costs are dominated by staff rotation and the facility is limited to a maximum staff size of about 300. Further expansion requires that some staff become permanent residents.

  9. Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns and Accessibility across Africa in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions. PMID:22363717

  10. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  11. The Stability of Vitamin Fortified Cocoa Beverage Powder. Part II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cocoa beverage powder fortified with thiamine, ascorbic acid, and improved forms of vitamin A palmitate has been reevaluated after storage. Samples...six and twelve months. No significant change took place during storage in the vitamin content of cocoa beverage powder. During reconstitution of the

  12. Iron and folate in fortified cereals.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P; Tufaro, P R; Rader, J I

    2001-06-01

    Fortification of cereal-grain products was introduced in 1941 when iron and three vitamins were added to flour and bread. Ready-to-eat cereals were fortified at about the same time. These fortifications have contributed to increased dietary iron intake and reductions in iron deficiency anemia in the US. In 1996, FDA finalized rules for fortification of specific enriched cereal-grain products with folic acid. This measure was instituted to increase the folate intakes of women of child-bearing age and thereby reduce the risk of having a pregnancy affected with a neural tube birth defect. However, with recent increases in fortification, public health officials in the US are concemed that excess intake of specific nutrients such as iron and folic acid may result in toxic manifestations. Our objective was to measure iron and total folate content in breakfast cereals and compare assay to label values for % Daily Value. We also determined by weight the amount of a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal adults would eat and compared this to the labeled serving size, for which the reference amount for this cereal per eating occasion was 1 cup or 30 g. Twenty-nine breakfast cereals were analyzed for iron content using the bathophenanthroline reaction. Twenty-eight cereals were analyzed for total folate, utilizing a microbiological assay with tri-enzyme digestion. Serving size quantities were estimated in seventy-two adults who regularly ate breakfast cereal and were asked to fill a 16 or 22 cm round bowl with the amount of cereal that they would consume for breakfast. When the labeled value was compared to the assayed value for iron content 21 of the 29 breakfast cereals were 120% or more of the label value and 8 cereals were 150% or more of the label value. Overall, analyzed values for iron ranged from 80% to 190% of label values. Analyzed values for folate ranged from 98% to 320% of label values. For 14 of 28 cereals, analyzed values exceeded label declarations by more than 150

  13. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  14. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  15. The settlement of Somali nomads.

    PubMed

    Tsui, A O; Ragsdale, T A; Shirwa, A I

    1991-01-01

    During the April 1973-June 1975 drought in Somalia, the government settled 100,000 nomads over 5 years in 3 agricultural (Dujuma, Sablaale, and Kurtunwary) and 3 fishing settlements (Brava, Adale, and Eil). They had earlier sought relief from the drought at some 20 relief camps. In 1982, the Ministry of National Planning and the Settlement Development Agency conducted a household survey in 4 of the 6 settlements (2059 households). Considerable problems occurred during the survey thus the data must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless this survey provided 1 of the few sources on nomadic settlement conditions. 47.5% of the population in the settlement areas were children 15 years old. Fewer middle aged men than women lived in the settlement areas (9% vs. 22%). Males tended to be more literate and/or in school than females (74% vs. 50% and 64% vs. 43% respectively). Despite the disparity, the researchers found these proportions considerable and encouraging. Women headed many households (47.25%), especially in Adale (61%). Presumedly many of the husbands returned to their pastoral ways. Other adult relatives and older children often lived in women headed households and provided support for farming, fishing, and other economic activities. Most respondents were satisfied with settled life and felt it would be permanent. Further 70-90% of respondents wanted their sons and daughters to be civil servants while 0-8% wanted them to be herders. 78-87% of respondents lost all livestock during the drought while only 2-10% acquired livestock after the drought. Since livestock provided considerable wealth in relation to incomes from agriculture and fishing and since nomads tended to be inexperienced in these new occupants, they underwent an extreme adjustment to settled life. In conclusion, the resettlement program had mixed successes.

  16. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... CCC and CCC shall have no obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey...

  17. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... CCC and CCC shall have no obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey...

  18. 37 CFR 42.74 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Decision, and Settlement § 42.74 Settlement. (a) Board role. The parties may agree to settle any issue in a...: (1) To a Government agency on written request to the Board; or (2) To any other person upon written...

  19. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations. The...

  20. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations. The...

  1. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations. The...

  2. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations. The...

  3. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations. The...

  4. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations under...

  5. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  6. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  7. 48 CFR 1449.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 1449.107 Section 1449.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. Requests for audits...

  8. 48 CFR 1449.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 1449.107 Section 1449.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. Requests for audits...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements for...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements for...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements for...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements for...

  13. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 10.108 Section 10.108 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Appeals to the Commission; Settlements § 10.108 Settlements. (a) When offers may be made. Parties may at any time during the course of the...

  14. 39 CFR 3001.29 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement conferences. 3001.29 Section 3001.29... Applicability § 3001.29 Settlement conferences. Any participant in a proceeding may submit offers of settlement or proposals of adjustment at any time and may request a conference between the participants...

  15. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving settlement. In discrimination proceedings, a party shall file a motion to approve settlement that includes...

  16. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving settlement. In discrimination proceedings, a party shall file a motion to approve settlement that includes...

  17. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving settlement. In discrimination proceedings, a party shall file a motion to approve settlement that includes...

  18. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the...

  19. Processing of population census results, by settlements.

    PubMed

    Anderle, A

    1983-01-01

    In Czechoslovakia, the census bureau began compiling population statistics by settlements, a term equivalent to localities, in 1970 and 1980. The 1980 census further elaborated data by settlement unit, or ward. During data processing, each individual settlement received a code. Settlement statistics available for 1980 include population structure, housing, service facilities, environment, and agricultural and forest land stock. Compiling statistics by settlement works much better than the old method of compiling statistics by commune, with its problems of instability. Settlements, which are not territorial or administrative units, cover very small as well as large and medium-sized towns. As of 1980, Czechoslovakia contains 21,199 settlements, 15,291 in the Czech Socialist Republic and 5908 in the Slovak Socilaist Republic, a relatively dense network of settlements. 20,204 settlements, however, contain fewer than 2000 permanent residents, 825 have 2000-10,000 inhabitants, and 172 have more than 10,000 residents. This dense pattern of small towns was already established in the Middle Ages. Now, however, even residents of very small towns often work in larger settlements and commute to their jobs. The standard of living in the very small settlements is often higher than that of larger settlements. These differences are not changing but have remained the same over time.

  20. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement, the person making the offer waives, subject to acceptance of the offer: (i) All hearings pursuant... discussions concerning the rejected offer of settlement. (7) Final acceptance of any offer of settlement will... party to a proceeding already instituted, may, at any time, propose in writing an offer of...

  1. Guidance: Interim Municipal Settlement Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Interim guidance and fact sheets regarding settlements involving municipalities or municipal waste under Section 122 CERCLA as amended by SARA. Interim policy sets forth the criteria by which EPA generally determines whether to exercise enforcement discretion to pursue MSW generators and transporters as PRPs.

  2. 78 FR 23786 - Settlement Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ..., Inc., April 23, 2009, at 1 (Complaint). GameFly, which is in the business of renting video game DVDs... noticing a recent order convening a settlement conference between GameFly, Inc. and the Postal Service.... Introduction II. Background III. GameFly Motion, Postal Service Reply, and GameFly Response IV. Analysis...

  3. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  4. Preventing blindness: vitamin-A fortified "Ultra Rice".

    PubMed

    Shore, K

    1996-01-24

    Field trials conducted in the fall of 1995 by the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) and the Micronutrient Initiative in Indonesia introduced Ultra Rice in areas plagued by vitamin A deficiency. Rice is a staple food for most of the populations in 23 developing countries where deaths and blindness follow a lack of vitamin A. Ultra Rice is a blend that combines vitamin A fortified and reconstituted rice with natural rices. PATH is using a concrete mixer to produce the fortified rice blends, which must be available at nearly the same cost as unfortified rice to be accessible to the families that are most in need. The fortification of foods is rare in developing countries, but PATH and the Micronutrient Initiative hope to change that situation by offering patent-free technology transfers to any interested developing country.

  5. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  6. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-01

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  7. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  8. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  9. Use of Highly Fortified Products among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila; French, Steven

    2015-01-01

    It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005. In 2011, 33% of adults reported using HFP; use was significantly higher among males, African Americans, Hispanics, and more highly educated individuals (e.g. some college or more) and those <45 yr compared to non-users. Multiple product use was common. Of users, 46% consumed sports drinks, 37% fortified foods/beverages, 32% protein bars, 27% energy drinks, 24% energy bars, and 12% energy shots. For those HFP products as a group, prevalence of use was 36% (n=2039) in 2005, 35% in 2009 (n=2010), and 30% in 2011 (n=2355). Although use was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2005 especially among females, non-Hispanics, and those with high school education or less (P≤0.05). HFP, particularly energy and sports drinks, continue to be widely used by many U.S. adults.

  10. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature.

  11. Quality attributes of bread fortified with staghorn sumac extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-15

    Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is rich in polyphenols and may be used as an innovative ingredient in maintaining and enhancing food quality. In this report, aqueous extracts of sumac fruit powder were added up to 10% in wheat bread formulation. The extract concentration-dependently delayed the mold growth (up to 5 log reduction in 7-day storage) and the staling of bread. Adding sumac extracts dose-dependently increased the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of the breads. Minimal changes were observed in loaf volume, water activity, moisture content, texture (cohesiveness, springiness, and adhesive), and aroma of breads containing extracts of less than 4%. Overall, sumac addition altered several quality attributes of bread, including hardness, color, and sensory acceptance in appearance, flavor, and texture. Sumac holds potential as a natural preservative and an antistaling agent in bread formulation. The rising healthy food market demands bakery products fortified with novel functional ingredients. Staghorn sumac is an emerging healthy food ingredient that has attracted much research attention recently. This study provides a scientific basis to develop bread fortified with sumac-derived functional ingredients. The results pointed out the feasibility of making sumac-fortified breads with enhanced phenolic content, increased shelf life, and acceptable sensory profile. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Use of iron-fortified rice reduces anemia in infants.

    PubMed

    Nogueira Arcanjo, Francisco Plácido; Santos, Paulo Roberto; Arcanjo, Caio Plácido Costa; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio; Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini

    2012-12-01

    Food fortification is advocated to tackle iron deficiency in anemic populations. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of iron-fortified rice (Ultrarice(®)) weekly on hemoglobin and anemia levels compared with standard rice (control). This cluster-randomized study deals with infants (10-23 months) from two public child day care centers in Brazil, n = 216, in an 18 week intervention. The intervention group received individual portions of fortified rice (50 g) provided 56.4 mg elemental/Fe. For intervention center: baseline mean hemoglobin was 11.44 ± 1.07 g/dl, and after intervention 11.67 ± 0.96 g/dl, p < 0.029; for control: baseline mean hemoglobin value was 11.35 ± 4.01 g/dl, and after intervention 11.36 ± 2.10 g/dl, p = 0.986. Anemia prevalence for intervention center was 31.25% at baseline, and 18.75% at end of study, p = 0.045; for control 43.50% were anemic at baseline, and 37.1% at the end of study, p = 0.22. Number Needed to Treat was 7. Iron-fortified rice was effective in increasing hemoglobin levels and reducing anemia in infants.

  13. Use of Highly Fortified Products among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila; French, Steven

    2015-01-01

    It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005. In 2011, 33% of adults reported using HFP; use was significantly higher among males, African Americans, Hispanics, and more highly educated individuals (e.g. some college or more) and those <45 yr compared to non-users. Multiple product use was common. Of users, 46% consumed sports drinks, 37% fortified foods/beverages, 32% protein bars, 27% energy drinks, 24% energy bars, and 12% energy shots. For those HFP products as a group, prevalence of use was 36% (n=2039) in 2005, 35% in 2009 (n=2010), and 30% in 2011 (n=2355). Although use was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2005 especially among females, non-Hispanics, and those with high school education or less (P≤0.05). HFP, particularly energy and sports drinks, continue to be widely used by many U.S. adults. PMID:26823624

  14. Review of the cost components of introducing industrially fortified rice.

    PubMed

    Roks, Eveline

    2014-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Fortification of staple foods with multiple micronutrients is a cost-effective strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. The objective of this paper is to review the cost elements of industrially fortified rice by identifying the costs related to the implementation of rice fortification programs, using the experience of the United Nations World Food Programme in its pilot countries. The actual total costs of rice fortification are not easily captured. Core cost elements include the production of fortified rice kernels, transportation to the point of blending, blending of fortified with unfortified rice, costs related to sales or distribution, quality control and assurance, and additional planning. In the introduction phase, organizations or coalitions seeking to advance rice fortification will face additional costs related to the initiation of rice fortification. In the scale-up phase, greater efficiency in the supply chain and economies of scale can be expected. Different cost elements are normally borne by different stakeholders. This makes the implementation of rice fortification programs a feasible option to reach vulnerable populations with inadequate access to affordable nutrition solutions.

  15. Unfulfilled potential: using diethylcarbamazine-fortified salt to eliminate lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Lammie, Patrick; Milner, Trevor; Houston, Robin

    2007-07-01

    Fortifying salt with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is a safe, low-cost and effective strategy to eliminate transmission of lymphatic filariasis. DEC-fortified salt has been used successfully in pilot projects in several countries and has been used operationally by China to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. The successful use of iodized salt to eliminate iodine-deficiency disorders is encouraging; similarly, fortified salt could be used as a vehicle to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Despite the potential programmatic advantages of fortifying salt with DEC instead of undertaking mass administration of tablets, DEC-fortified salt remains an underutilized intervention. We discuss the reasons for this and suggest settings in which the use of DEC-fortified salt should be considered.

  16. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  17. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Settlement Rosters for the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA''), the Dominican Republic-Central America.... These agreements include the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic-Central... (202) 395-7305 (for the U.S.-Chile FTA and U.S.-Peru TPA), Leigh Bacon, Associate General Counsel,...

  18. Can protein-fortified pasta serve as a meat substitute?

    PubMed

    Bingham, C J; Tsay, R; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L

    1982-01-01

    A seventeen-day metabolic balance study was conducted with 13 healthy adult subjects to test the protein utilization of a meat-based diet and a protein-fortified pasta diet in an isonitrogenous, isocaloric inpatient study (averaging 112 gm of protein, and 2,500 cal). Intakes of calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as ratios of meat protein or protein-fortified pasta protein (PEP), were controlled throughout the diets. The study was comprised of three experimental periods: a seven-day meat-protein control period, representing the typical american diet (TAD), averaging 18% protein, 40% fat, and 42% carbohydrate, a seven-day protein-enriched pasta control period (PEP), averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates, and a three-day PEP period composed of varied recipes, averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates. The subjects who consumed both the TAD and PEP diets achieved nitrogen balance (2.5 gN +/- 0.7 on the TAD, 2 gN +/- 0 on PEP with the PEP diet resulting in a decrease in plasma cholesterol (32 mg/dl, P less than .005), and a decrease in systolic (5.25 mm/Hg P less than .025) and diastolic blood pressure (5 mm/Hg, P less than .05), which was associated with an increase in urinary sodium excretion (19 +/- 17 mEq/day, P less than .025). In this study, it was determined that protein-fortified pasta may serve as a meat alternative. The PEP diet, which includes a beneficial change in fat/carbohydrate ratio, can alter lipid profiles, blood pressure, and sodium excretion, thus leading to improved health status and a decrease in cardiac risk factors.

  19. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  20. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  1. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  2. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  3. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  4. Settlement Documents: Anadarko Fraudulent Conveyance Litigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Settlement agreement to resolve adversary proceedings related to the fraudulent conveyance litigation with Kerr-McGee and Anadarko Petroleum Corporation associated with the Tronox bankruptcy proceedings

  5. Release and bioaccessibility of ß-carotene from fortified almond butter preparations during in vitro digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of ß-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: ß-carotene oil (non-encapsulated) and alginate-chitosan capsules containing ß-carotene oil (encapsulat...

  6. LONG-TERM STUDY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND RECOVERY FROM AMPULATED, DRY, FORTIFIED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the stability and extractability of volatile organic compound (VOCs) when fortified on dry soils and stored in sealed ampules. Two desiccator-dried soils were fortified with eight neat VOCs, benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,o-xylene,1,1,1-trichloroethane...

  7. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  8. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  9. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  10. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  11. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge to appoint a settlement judge. (3) A motion under paragraph (c)(1) of this section may... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations under this section. (c) Requests for appointment of settlement judges. (1) Any participant may file a motion...

  12. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge to appoint a settlement judge. (3) A motion under paragraph (c)(1) of this section may... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations under this section. (c) Requests for appointment of settlement judges. (1) Any participant may file a motion...

  13. Effects of delayed settlement on post-settlement growth and survival of scleractinian coral larvae.

    PubMed

    Graham, Erin M; Baird, Andrew H; Willis, Bette L; Connolly, Sean R

    2013-10-01

    Demographic connectivity requires both the dispersal of individuals between sub-populations, and their subsequent contribution to population dynamics. For planktonic, non-feeding marine larvae, the capacity to delay settlement enables greater dispersal distances, but the energetic cost of delayed settlement has been shown to adversely impact post-settlement fitness in several taxa. Here, we assess whether delayed settlement influences mortality rates or growth rates for the first 6 weeks following settlement of the scleractinian coral, Acropora tenuis. Coral larvae that were settled at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after spawning, and then deployed in the field, showed negligible effects of delayed settlement on post-settlement survival and time to initial budding for colony formation. Between-cohort differences in budding rate appeared to be explained by temporal variation in the post-settlement acquisition of zooxanthellae. The potential for coral larvae to remain in the pelagic zone for increased periods of time with little to no effect on post-settlement survival and growth suggests that the capacity for delayed settlement is likely to have meaningful demographic consequences for broadcast-spawning reef-building corals, and that the predicted trade-off between delayed settlement and post-settlement fitness is less applicable to reef-building scleractinian corals than other taxa with non-feeding larvae.

  14. [Fortified food products as a potential source of folic acid in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Ewa; Pelc, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analysis the number and variety offoodproducts fortified with folic acid available on the Warsaw market and to assess consumers' knowledge about these products. Information about food products was based on label declaration, in summer 2009. In addition knowledge about fortified food was studied in the group of 94 market customers. There were 166 foodstuffs fortified with folic acid from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, wheat flour, fruit juices and drinks, sweets, margarine, instant cocoa and tea instant as well as milk products. Breakfast cereals and juices, nectars and fruit drinks were the largest groups. Less than half of market customers correctly defined term 'fortified product", less than 40% of respondents answered properly on question concerning folic acid. There is possibility to increase the folates intake by consuming various products fortified with folic acid. The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition.

  15. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Gluten-free Bread Fortified with Flaxseed Meal.

    PubMed

    Shim, Youn Young; Olivia, Clara M; Liu, Jun; Boonen, Rineke; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-12-21

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) and the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (1). Gluten-free (GF) doughs and baked goods were produced with added flaxseed meal (20%, w/w) then 1, and CGs were determined in fortified flour, dough, and bread with storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (-18, 4, and 22-23 °C). 1 was present in flour, dough, and GF bread after baking. 1 was stable with extensive storage (up to 4 weeks) and was not affected by storage temperature. CGs in flaxseed meal and fortified GF samples were analyzed by (1)H NMR of the cyanohydrins. Linamarin and/or linustatin were the primary CGs in both flaxseed meal and fortified flour. CGs decreased with storage in dough fortified with flaxseed meal or GF bread after baking. GF bakery food products fortified with flaxseed meal had reduced CGs but remained a good source of dietary 1.

  16. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  17. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    PubMed Central

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions. PMID:26904633

  19. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  20. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-04-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  1. [In vitro analysis of the iron availability in fortified rice].

    PubMed

    Romera, G F; Zuleta, A; Sarchi, M I; Sambucetti, M E

    2000-09-01

    Cereals are rich in fiber but also in phytate which is considered the principal inhibitor of mineral availability. On this basis, iron availability of fortified rice, and the inhibitory effect of bran phytate was studied in: white rice fortified with electrolytic iron (ABF) from commercial origin; and mixtures of ABF plus 4.76% and 9.09% of rice bran (ABF2 and ABF3 respectively) to simulate brown rice. Samples were analysed before and after phytic acid hydrolysis with phytase: Dietary fiber and phytic acid were assessed according AOAC; iron availability, expressed as dialisable iron by the in vitro method of Kapsokefalou and Miller modified by Valencia et al.; iron content was assessed by AAS. Results showed that added bran depressed iron availability, 9.65%; 4.04% and 1.82% as expected (ABF, ABF2 and ABF3 respectively). After phytic acid hydrolysis iron availability reached 28.20%; 27.95% and 25.30% for the same samples. These values were not different. After phytic acid hydrolysis, fiber content of ABF2 and ABF3 were lower than before. However multiple regression analysis of the data showed that fiber had not influence on iron availability and that phytic acid would be the principal responsible of it. These results indicate that brown rice should have a higher level of iron fortification than in white rice or be combined with other foods that improve iron availability as meats, vegetables or fruits.

  2. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  3. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  4. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  5. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  6. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  7. Spatial variation in larval concentrations as a cause of spatial variation in settlement for the barnacle, Balanus glandula.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Steven; Brown, Stephen; Roughgarden, Jonathan

    1985-09-01

    Settlement rates of the high intertidal barnacle, Balanus glandula, were monitored at three sites in the rocky intertidal zone in Central California simultaneously with measurements of larval concentrations in the adjacent water column. In both 1983 and 1984, settlement rates onto vacant substrate differed among the sites by nearly two orders of magnitude. For all sampling dates, this spatial variation in settlement mirrored the spatial distribution of Balanus glandula cyprid concentration in the water column. A perfect rank correlation was found between cyprid concentrations near a site and subsequent settlement. A noteworthy observation was that the sites switched rank in their settlement rates from 1983 to 1984. This change in settlement rankings matched a switch in rankings for cyprid concentrations.Settlement itself appears to be an important cause of the spatial pattern of cyprid concentrations. Comparing the rates of settlement to estimates of the number of cyprids available at a site suggests that settlement causes a large drain on the cyprid population as a water mass passes over successive sites. No consistent spatial patterns were found in the distribution of other major plankton groups (calanoid copepods) that are similar in size to Balanus cyprids but do not settle.The large differences in settlement rates among these sites were previously shown to be a leading cause of large differences in the structure of benthic barnacle populations. The close correspondence shown here between these large differences in settlement and differences in larval concentrations suggests that nearshore oceanic processes affecting larval arrival contribute to the control of benthic community structure.

  8. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These...

  9. 77 FR 27055 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... proposed settlement agreement between EPA and the industry petitioners in Portland Cement Ass'n v. EPA, No... reconsideration issues and on issues raised by the court's remand in Portland Cement Ass'n v. EPA by June 15, 2012... Cement Ass'n v. EPA, 665 F. 3d 177. DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  10. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may conduct...

  11. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement...

  12. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement...

  13. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement...

  14. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement...

  15. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement...

  16. On seismically induced pore pressure and settlement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Albert T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches are used to estimate pore pressures and settlement in a 50-ft (15.2-m) sand deposit subjected to a variety of earthquake loadings. Although the two approaches seem consistent in predicting the occurrence of liquefaction, the results show that they are quite divergent in estimating pore-pressure build-ups and magnitude of ground settlement.

  17. 29 CFR 2200.100 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... parties include any particular language in a settlement agreement, but does require that the agreement... have raised an objection to the reasonableness of any abatement time. Unless the settlement agreement... file a final consent order for adoption by the Judge. If the time has not expired under these rules for...

  18. 29 CFR 2200.100 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... parties include any particular language in a settlement agreement, but does require that the agreement... have raised an objection to the reasonableness of any abatement time. Unless the settlement agreement... file a final consent order for adoption by the Judge. If the time has not expired under these rules for...

  19. 29 CFR 2200.100 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... parties include any particular language in a settlement agreement, but does require that the agreement... have raised an objection to the reasonableness of any abatement time. Unless the settlement agreement... file a final consent order for adoption by the Judge. If the time has not expired under these rules for...

  20. The Hindman Settlement School and Its Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Virginia

    1973-01-01

    The first rural settlement school in the United States was the Hindman Settlement School, established in 1902 in the county seat of Knott County, Kentucky. It set the pattern upon which many other schools chartered their development and helped the continuation of the music culture of the mountain people. (Author/RK)

  1. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section 1.956... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences. Parties... their attorneys to appear before it for a conference. (a) The purposes of such conferences are: (1)...

  2. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues in...

  3. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues in...

  4. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues in...

  5. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues in...

  6. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues in...

  7. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  8. 37 CFR 351.7 - Settlement conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 351.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.7 Settlement conference. A post-discovery settlement conference will be held among the participants, within 21 days after the close of discovery, outside of...

  9. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  10. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  11. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  12. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  13. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  14. 7 CFR 1.345 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement. 1.345 Section 1.345 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Procedures Related to Administrative Hearings Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.345 Settlement. (a) A respondent may make...

  15. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  16. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These...

  17. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These...

  18. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These...

  19. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has...

  20. 42 CFR 417.574 - Interim settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim settlement. 417.574 Section 417.574 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.574 Interim settlement. (a) Determination. Within 30 days following the receipt of the HMO's or CMP's final interim cost and enrollment reports, CMS will make...

  1. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is in litigation or foreclosure, with a collection agency or designated Federal debt collection... (OGC) advice on compliance with State or Federal statutes that may affect the debt settlement action... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture...

  2. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... is in litigation or foreclosure, with a collection agency or designated Federal debt collection... (OGC) advice on compliance with State or Federal statutes that may affect the debt settlement action... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture...

  3. 48 CFR 49.109 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement agreements. 49.109 Section 49.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109 Settlement agreements. ...

  4. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... division. (c) Consideration of offers of settlement. (1) Offers of settlement shall be considered by the interested division when time, the nature of the proceedings, and the public interest permit. (2) Where a hearing officer is assigned to a proceeding, the interested division and the party submitting the offer...

  5. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respect to the matters set forth in the Complaint; (3) Include a waiver of: (i) A hearing, (ii) All post..., and (ii) The imposition of sanctions. (c) Submission of offer of settlement. Offers of settlement made by a respondent shall be submitted in writing to the Division of Enforcement, which shall present...

  6. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  7. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  8. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  9. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  10. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  11. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., recommend acceptance or rejection of such offers. Any party or participant may object to a proposed consent... with subpart G of this part. (b) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to the Presiding Officer. (c) Form. Offers of settlement shall be in the form of...

  12. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  13. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  14. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  15. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  16. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  17. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  18. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  19. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium and phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stefanie P; Hicks, Penni D; Hamzo, Maria; Veit, Lauren E; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM).

  20. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2016-08-08

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  1. Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stefanie P.; Hicks, Penni D.; Hamzo, Maria; Veit, Lauren E.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM). PMID:22254018

  2. 76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling parties: Pick-Your-Part Auto Wrecking; Hayward Associates, LLC; and PNM Properties, LLC. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling parties pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  3. 77 FR 123 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling party: Waste Management Recycling & Disposal Services of California, Inc., dba Bradley Landfill & Recycling Center. The settlement requires the settling party to pay a total of $185,734 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling party pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  4. 76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling parties: Pick-Your-Part Auto Wrecking; Hayward Associates, LLC; and PNM Properties, LLC. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling parties pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  5. Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, A.L.O.; Campari, J.S.

    1996-02-01

    Presents and analyzes the largest and most complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. This landmark study presents the largest and most analytically complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. The authors examine the changing character of the Amazon frontier based on field surveys conducted during twenty years of settlement experience. By observing the economic behavior of small farmers from colonization during the 1970s until the chaotic aftermath of the early 1990s, the authors are able to pinpoint a central paradox: unsuccessful farmers tend to be unstable, moving on to new frontiers where they will again destroy forests. Successful farmers tend to increase deforestation in the places where they remain. The findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land cleared by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. Small farmers should be rewarded for staying where they are and for pursuing sustainable farming. Good farming methods must be promoted, and deforestation must be penalized. The authors recommend the implementation of innovative economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies, including the World Bank, at both local and international levels. The aim of these policies should be to raise agricultural incomes and reduce environmental aggression.

  6. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). The daily total Zn intake was not significantly different among the three groups. There were no significant differences in fractional Zn absorption (FZA) (P = 0.3895), dysprosium recovery (P = 0.7498) and Zn absorption (P = 0.5940) among the three groups. Therefore, NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  7. Penetration of living cell membranes with fortified carbon nanotube tips.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Brown, Scott C; Higashitani, Ko; Moudgil, Brij M

    2007-10-23

    We have fabricated robust nanosurgical needles suitable for single cell operations by modifying multiwalled carbon nanotube (MCNT)-terminated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips. Extra-long MCNT AFM tips were prepared and fortified with molecular layers of carbon to overcome mechanical instabilities and then coated with an outer shell of gold to promote chemical versatility. The terminal diameters of the final fabricated tips were approximately 30-40 nm, and the MCNT probes were several micrometers in length. We illustrate the capability of these modified MCNT tips to carry nanoparticulate payloads and to penetrate the plasma membrane of living pleural mesothelial cells at the smallest indentation depths (100-200 nm) and lowest penetration forces (100-200 pN) currently reported for these procedures.

  8. The Use of Multinutrient Human Milk Fortifiers in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review of Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Francis B; Nathan, Natalie; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence that multinutrient fortification of human milk increases in-hospital growth of preterm infants, but fortification has not been shown to improve long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to ascertain whether randomized controlled trials have determined the effect of early versus late introduction of fortifiers on growth and/or other outcomes, and have compared the efficacy/adverse effects of human milk-based versus cow milk-based fortifiers. We conclude that there is little evidence that early introduction of human milk fortification affects important outcomes, and limited evidence that a bovine fortifier places the infant at a higher risk of NEC.

  9. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-02

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  10. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  11. [Food fortified with vitamins: the history and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The recommended daily intakes of vitamins in different countries have been compared. The data on consumption of vitamins and vitamin status are submitted. It is noted that since 2008 the values of recommended daily intakes of vitamin-antioxidants C and E and folate in Russia as in other countries has been significantly increased. The recommended vitamin D consumption in Russia has been increased 2-3-fold as in most European countries and USA, while vitamin A recommended intake, on the contrary, has been reduced by 10%. Monitoring of vitamin status of various groups of adult population (by vitamin serum blood level evaluation) during the period since 2003 to 2011 has shown that that since 2003 deficiency of B group vitamins takes place in 10-47% of surveyed, vitamin D insufficiency was detected in 20.7% of adults. Thus the deficiency of these micronutrients has been determined much more often than the deficit of vitamins E and C (2.8-11%). The key causes of vitamin deficiency among the population in current conditions have been discussed. The main ways of increasing of diet vitamin value by means of fortified foods usage or/and vitamin and mineral complexes intake have been considered. The effective and safe levels of food enrichment have been examined. Harmonized with the EU documents and Codex Alimentarius acting sanitary rules and regulations which govern the enrichment of food products of mass consumption with vitamins and minerals have been commented upon. The history of food enrichment (fortification) with vitamins and salt iodization in our country and abroad has been described. Basing on the experience of several countries in which the mandatory enrichment of regularly consumed food products (flour, breakfast cereals) had compensated inadequate intake of vitamin D, group B, iodine and iron to a large extent, the conclusion on the feasibility and health benefits of fortified foods intake has been done.

  12. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, D.; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Toshinori

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste material exhibits heterogeneous engineering properties that vary over locations and time within a landfill. These factors, combined with the fact that a landfill is not fully saturated, render a traditional soil mechanics approach less attractive for settlement prediction. An empirical approach of expressing settlement rate using logarithmic and power relationships is commonly used in conjunction with an observational procedure. In this paper, validity of these functions is reexamined based on published settlement results from three landfill sites. A hyperbolic function is proposed as an improved tool to simulate the settlement-time relationships, as well as to detect final settlement. The relationships between the parameters of these empirical functions and water content are examined.

  13. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  14. Beyond Survival: Tracing Individual Empowerment Processes in a Poor Chilean Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turro, Claudia; Krause, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    Based on the life histories of residents from La Victoria, a poor settlement in Santiago, Chile, this study reconstructed the central biographic elements in individual empowerment processes, linking them with the sociocultural context in which they occurred. Results show the following main characteristics related to individual empowerment:…

  15. Beyond Survival: Tracing Individual Empowerment Processes in a Poor Chilean Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turro, Claudia; Krause, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    Based on the life histories of residents from La Victoria, a poor settlement in Santiago, Chile, this study reconstructed the central biographic elements in individual empowerment processes, linking them with the sociocultural context in which they occurred. Results show the following main characteristics related to individual empowerment:…

  16. 40 CFR 209.19 - Informal settlement and consent agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agreement. 209.19 Section 209.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Informal settlement and consent agreement. (a) Settlement policy. The Agency encourages settlement of the... Environmental Appeals Board whenever settlement or compromise is proposed. A copy shall be served on all other...

  17. Randomized efficacy trial of a micronutrient-fortified beverage in primary school children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ash, Deborah M; Tatala, Simon R; Frongillo, Edward A; Ndossi, Godwin D; Latham, Michael C

    2003-04-01

    Dietary supplements providing physiologic amounts of several micronutrients simultaneously have not been thoroughly tested for combating micronutrient deficiencies. We determined whether a beverage fortified with 10 micronutrients at physiologic doses influenced the iron and vitamin A status and growth of rural children (aged 6-11 y) attending primary schools. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial, children were assigned to receive the fortified beverage or an unfortified beverage at school for 6 mo. There were nonsignificant differences at baseline between children in the fortified and nonfortified groups in iron status, serum retinol, and anthropometry. At the 6-mo follow-up, among children with anemia (hemoglobin < 110 g/L), there was a significantly larger increase in hemoglobin concentration in the fortified group than in the nonfortified group (9.2 and 0.2 g/L, respectively). Of those who were anemic at baseline, 69.4% in the nonfortified group and 55.1% in the fortified group remained anemic at follow-up (RR: 0.79), a cure rate of 21%. The prevalence of children with low serum retinol concentrations (< 200 microg/L) dropped significantly from 21.4% to 11.3% in the fortified group compared with a nonsignificant change (20.6% to 19.7%) in the nonfortified group. At follow-up, mean incremental changes in weight (1.79 compared with 1.24 kg), height (3.2 compared with 2.6 cm), and BMI (0.88 compared with 0.53) were significantly higher in the fortified group than in the nonfortified group. The fortified beverage significantly improved hematologic and anthropometric measurements and significantly lowered the overall prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency.

  18. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... settlement conference constitutes a waiver by the party making the request of any right to claim bias or... the offer; and (B) Any right to claim bias or prejudgment by the Director based on the...

  19. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... settlement conference constitutes a waiver by the party making the request of any right to claim bias or... the offer; and (B) Any right to claim bias or prejudgment by the Director based on the...

  20. DOJ News Release: Hayward Baker Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States reached a settlement with Hayward Baker, Inc., (“Hayward Baker”) in a civil case involving the Buy American provision of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (“ARRA”).

  1. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  2. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  3. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  4. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  5. Sustainable Policy Solutions for Space Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, J.

    2017-02-01

    I describe two sustainable policy models for the shared use of space. I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these ideas in light of existing international agreements and provide a direction for further research on space settlement policy.

  6. Mariano Lake Mine: Legal Documents and Settlements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mariano Lake Mine Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with Statement of Work (SOW) and Mariano Lake Mine Site Settlement Agreement for Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis and Statement of Work (SOW) for the Mariano Lake Mine Site.

  7. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... settlement agreement represents a meeting of the minds. Any changes to the agreement must be agreed upon by... signed individually by each claimant. A limited power of attorney signed by the claimant specifically...

  8. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... settlement agreement represents a meeting of the minds. Any changes to the agreement must be agreed upon by... signed individually by each claimant. A limited power of attorney signed by the claimant specifically...

  9. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... settlement agreement represents a meeting of the minds. Any changes to the agreement must be agreed upon by... signed individually by each claimant. A limited power of attorney signed by the claimant specifically...

  10. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... settlement agreement represents a meeting of the minds. Any changes to the agreement must be agreed upon by... signed individually by each claimant. A limited power of attorney signed by the claimant specifically...

  11. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... settlement agreement represents a meeting of the minds. Any changes to the agreement must be agreed upon by... signed individually by each claimant. A limited power of attorney signed by the claimant specifically...

  12. MTU America Inc. Clean Air Act Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The settlement resolves an enforcement action by EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice against MTU for Clean Air Act (CAA) violations involving MTU’s failure to comply with certain testing, certification and reporting.

  13. Migration and mobility in the early medieval settlement in Thunau/Kamp using 87Sr/86Sr Isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangl, Sophie; Irrgeher, Johanna; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The use of Sr isotope ratios has been applied systematically for clarifying questions about migration patterns of humans and animals. In consequence of geologically induced differences in the isotopic composition, 87Sr/86Sr ratios are characteristic for a specific region. Humans and animals take up strontium primarily via drinking water and diet. Since strontium has similar chemical properties to calcium, it is mainly stored in teeth and bones. Tooth enamel is formed in the early childhood and is not subject to significant changes in later life. Therefore, the enclosed strontium has the same isotopic composition as the environment in which the individual was living during his early years, provided that the food came from the close proximity. Issue of this study was the early medieval (9th to 10th century AD) settlement in Thunau/Kamp. In order to assess the biogenic Sr isotopic signature of the Thunau settlement area, environmental samples including soil, rocks, water and plants were taken at the excavation site and in the immediate vicinity. They represent the local strontium signal to which the isotopic compositions of historic human tooth samples (enamel and dentine) were compared. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in tooth enamel and dentine give insight about residential characteristics of the settlement of Thunau/Kamp in comparison to the fortified hilltop settlement located in close proximity.

  14. Lack of bioequivalence of gatifloxacin when coadministered with calcium-fortified orange juice in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Allison W; Victory, Jennifer M; Amsden, Guy W

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that the chelation interaction seen with ciprofloxacin when it is coadministered with antacids also happens when it is coadministered with calcium-fortified foods. This study was conducted to study whether this was a drug-specific finding or whether the interaction occurs with other members of the fluoroquinolone class of drugs. Sixteen healthy volunteers received single 400-mg oral doses of gatifloxacin with 12 ounces each of water, nonfortified orange juice, and calcium-fortified orange juice and had plasma samples drawn for assay over the subsequent 48 hours. Results demonstrated significant increases in total oral clearance (15%) and volume of distribution (13%) along with a matching significant decrease (12%) in exposure (AUC) when gatifloxacin was taken with the fortified juice. Although not statistically significant, peak concentrations decreased by 15% and were reached (tmax) approximately 38% later when gatifloxacin was coadministered with the calcium-fortified juice. Bioavailability testing indicated that although the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratio of the geometric means of the calcium-fortified juice and water arms' AUC stayed within the range of 80% to 125%, those for Cmax did not. This study demonstrated a chelation or adsorption interaction between the fortified juice and gatifloxacin that reached regulatory significance. As a result, clinicians may wish to instruct patients to take gatifloxacin either with nonfortified foods or on an empty stomach.

  15. Release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Burri, Betty J; Singh, R Paul

    2012-09-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: β-carotene oil (oil) and whey protein isolate (WPI)-alginate-chitosan capsules containing β-carotene oil (capsule). Shaking water bath and Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) digestion models assessed the impact of gastric peristalsis on the release of β-carotene. Bioaccessibility of β-carotene was measured as percent recovered from the micelle fraction. There was greater release of β-carotene from oil fortified almond butter in the HGS model (87.1%) due to peristalsis than the shaking water bath model (51.0%). More β-carotene was released from capsule fortified almond butter during intestinal digestion. However, more β-carotene was recovered from the micelle fraction of oil fortified almond butter. These results suggest that a WPI-alginate-chitosan capsule coating may inhibit the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter.

  16. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  17. Molecular Nanotechnology and Space Settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomically precise manipulation of matter is becoming increasingly common in laboratories around the world. As this control moves into aerospace systems, huge improvements in computers, high-strength materials, and other systems are expected. For example, studies suggest that it may be possible to build: 10(exp 18) MIPS computers, 10(exp 15) bytes/sq cm write once memory, $153-412/kg-of-cargo single- stage-to-orbit launch vehicles and active materials which sense their environment and react intelligently. All of NASA's enterprises should benefit significantly from molecular nanotechnology. Although the time may be measured in decades and the precise path to molecular nanotechnology is unclear, all paths (diamondoid, fullerene, self-assembly, biomolecular, etc.) will require very substantial computation. This talk will discuss fullerene nanotechnology and early work on hypothetical active materials consisting of large numbers of identical machines. The speaker will also discuss aerospace applications, particularly missions leading to widespread space settlement (e.g., small near-Earth - object retrieval). It is interesting to note that control of the tiny - individual atoms and molecules - may lead to colonization of the huge -first the solar system, then the galaxy.

  18. Molecular Nanotechnology and Space Settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomically precise manipulation of matter is becoming increasingly common in laboratories around the world. As this control moves into aerospace systems, huge improvements in computers, high-strength materials, and other systems are expected. For example, studies suggest that it may be possible to build: 10(exp 18) MIPS computers, 10(exp 15) bytes/sq cm write once memory, $153-412/kg-of-cargo single- stage-to-orbit launch vehicles and active materials which sense their environment and react intelligently. All of NASA's enterprises should benefit significantly from molecular nanotechnology. Although the time may be measured in decades and the precise path to molecular nanotechnology is unclear, all paths (diamondoid, fullerene, self-assembly, biomolecular, etc.) will require very substantial computation. This talk will discuss fullerene nanotechnology and early work on hypothetical active materials consisting of large numbers of identical machines. The speaker will also discuss aerospace applications, particularly missions leading to widespread space settlement (e.g., small near-Earth - object retrieval). It is interesting to note that control of the tiny - individual atoms and molecules - may lead to colonization of the huge -first the solar system, then the galaxy.

  19. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with

  20. Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24–28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies

  1. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L; Nielsen, Shaun J; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24-28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should

  2. Pelagic larval duration and settlement size of a reef fish are spatially consistent, but post-settlement growth varies at the reef scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Susannah M.; Russ, Garry R.; Abesamis, Rene A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that, despite a pelagic larval stage, many coral reef fishes disperse over relatively small distances, leading to well-connected populations on scales of 0-30 km. Although variation in key biological characteristics has been explored on the scale of 100-1000 s of km, it has rarely been explored at the scale relevant to actual larval dispersal and population connectivity on ecological timescales. In this study, we surveyed the habitat and collected specimens ( n = 447) of juvenile butterflyfish, Chaetodon vagabundus, at nine sites along an 80-km stretch of coastline in the central Philippines to identify variation in key life history parameters at a spatial scale relevant to population connectivity. Mean pelagic larval duration (PLD) was 24.03 d (SE = 0.16 d), and settlement size was estimated to be 20.54 mm total length (TL; SE = 0.61 mm). Both traits were spatially consistent, although this PLD is considerably shorter than that reported elsewhere. In contrast, post-settlement daily growth rates, calculated from otolith increment widths from 1 to 50 d post-settlement, varied strongly across the study region. Elevated growth rates were associated with rocky habitats that this species is known to recruit to, but were strongly negatively correlated with macroalgal cover and exhibited negative density dependence with conspecific juveniles. Larger animals had lower early (first 50 d post-settlement) growth rates than smaller animals, even after accounting for seasonal variation in growth rates. Both VBGF and Gompertz models provided good fits to post-settlement size-at-age data ( n = 447 fish), but the VBGF's estimate of asymptotic length ( L ∞ = 168 mm) was more consistent with field observations of maximum fish length. Our findings indicate that larval characteristics are consistent at the spatial scale at which populations are likely well connected, but that site-level biological differences develop post-settlement, most likely as a

  3. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Darren J.; Brooker, Rohan M.; Morgan, Michael A.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families. PMID:27635360

  4. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement.

    PubMed

    Parris, Darren J; Brooker, Rohan M; Morgan, Michael A; Dixson, Danielle L; Stewart, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families.

  5. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  6. Evaluation of Cooking Quality of Chromium Fortified - Parboiled Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianto, W. A.; Suryani, C. L.; Ulfah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the influence of paddy soaking time and chromium fortification on cooking quality of chromium fortified - parboiled rice (Cr -PR). The paddy was soaked for 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 hours with chromium fortification at 0, 1.08, 3.42, 5.40 and 7.47 mg/L. The paddy soaked in different time and chromium fortification level did not affect the alkali spreading value and cooking time of CR-PR. The elongation of Cr-PR was from 1.39 to 1.48. Water uptake ratio increased due to addition of chromium, but the more addition of chromium (> 1.08 mg/L) the less water uptake ratio increase. The rice solid loss declined and it was influenced by the length of soaking time. The longer the soaking time and the higher the chromium addition, the harder the rice texture generated.

  7. Development of fortified dried broken rice as a complementary food.

    PubMed

    Chitpan, Monthana; Chavasit, Visith; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2005-12-01

    Commercially produced dried broken rice is widely used to prepare complementary foods for Thai infants, and it is both convenient and acceptable to persons from all socioeconomic classes. However, inadequate levels of calcium, iron, thiamine, and folate are common in complementary foods for breastfed infants. We developed dried broken rice fortified with these nutrients at levels recommended by the 2001 guidelines of the World Health Organization. The fortification process involved predrying broken rice at 90 degrees C for 1 hour, soaking in a nutrient solution (2:1 ratio of rice to solution), and drying at 70 degrees C for 1 hour and 50 minutes. Calcium lactate or calcium lactate gluconate was the calcium source, and ferrous sulfate, ferrous lactate, or ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) was the iron source. The vitamin sources were thiamine hydrochloride and folic acid. The product contained 40 mg of calcium, 5.3 mg of iron, 0.08 mg of thiamine, and 11 microg of folate per 20-g serving. Approximately 5% and 10% of calcium and iron, respectively, were lost during processing, with a thiamine loss of approximately 13%, and a folate loss ranging from 17% to 23%. The thiamine loss during accelerated storage (42 degrees C for three months) was not significant (p > .05). NaFeEDTA was the most appropriate iron fortificant because it provided prolonged product stability and high in vitro dialyzability.

  8. Organoleptic testing of fish meatball fortified with various colored vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minantyo, Hari; Hariohoedojo, Alexander; Winarno, Prasetyon Sepsi

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, many people tried to create and invent new varieties of food. They all tried to enrich the life of many people and increasing their quality of life using their food. The food that they create must be nutritious, safe and healthy. This can be achieved by combining various meat and vegetable products available on the market today. Previously, the research team found that fish meat had relatively high nutrition value. The research team believed that further increase in nutrition value can be achieved by combining fish meat and rich colored vegetables. This research came up with the creation of improved fish meatball fortified with various colored vegetables. With the initiation of ASEAN Free Trade Agreement, many culinary practitioners must pay more attention to the health and safety aspects of their food offerings. Indonesian government should also support this movement by providing education to those people who are not aware of the importance of healthy and safe food or snacks, especially meatballs. Meatballs are one of the most consumed snacks in Indonesia, because they are delicious and affordable. This new fish meatball creation will provide better alternatives to the commonly unhealthy meatballs available on Indonesian market today.

  9. Seascape attributes, at different spatial scales, determine settlement and post-settlement of juvenile fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadros, Amalia; Moranta, Joan; Cardona, Luis; Thiriet, Pierre; Pastor, Jérémy; Arroyo, Nina Larissa; Cheminée, Adrien

    2017-02-01

    Concern has increased in recent decades regarding processes influencing fish juvenile density distributions; indeed, juveniles determine the replenishment of populations and their habitats are often found in shallow coastal areas, where human impacts are concentrated. We aimed to measure the relative importance of seascape attributes at various spatial scales (from seascape to microhabitat) in fish settlement and post-settlement processes. Along the coast of Minorca Island (NW Mediterranean), Diplodus sargus settlement variability was higher among the southern coast compared to the variability in the northern one. Independently of coast location, sheltered nurseries presented lower settlement intensity and recruitment levels compared to exposed ones. Such patterns suggested differential larval supply according to exposure level. Furthermore, subsequent density-dependent post-settlement mortality reduced the cove-specific variability of initial settlement. In addition, inside each cove, juveniles displayed ontogenetic changes of microhabitat use: smaller juveniles were more abundant in the most heterogeneous microhabitat. Consequently, juvenile density distributions responded to seascape attributes at different spatial scales; this suggests that both lager scale attributes and microhabitat influence both settlement and post-settlement processes, and may be limiting for recruitment. Our study demonstrated the importance of a diversified seascape to promote fish population replenishment.

  10. 48 CFR 49.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issuing a unilateral determination. Government personnel handling audit reports must be careful not to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit of prime contract....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. (a) The TCO shall refer...

  11. 48 CFR 49.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issuing a unilateral determination. Government personnel handling audit reports must be careful not to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of prime contract....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. (a) The TCO shall refer...

  12. 48 CFR 49.109-6 - Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals. 49.109-6 Section 49.109-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-6 Joint...

  13. The storage effects of calcium-fortified orange juice concentrate in different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Kenawi, M A; Shekib, L A; el-Shimi, N M

    1994-04-01

    Orange juice concentrate has been fortified with calcium in order to fulfil part of the recommended daily allowance of calcium and to overcome the problem of the shortage of milk and dairy products in Egypt. The loss of quality of calcium-fortified and unfortified orange juice concentrate was evaluated in three different packaging materials and when stored for ten weeks at room temperature. The results showed that vitamin C content decreased during storage for both the fortified and the unfortified samples. The trend of ascorbic acid breakdown was similar in all packaging treatments. The total titratable acidity declined during storage period; however, the decline was higher in the unfortified sample than in the fortified one. Also, the pH values increased along with the storage period. The results illustrated that the color values of both the fortified and unfortified diluted orange juice concentrate changed little at the end of the storage period. However, the samples packaged in low density polyethylene bags had the higher orange in the color values R and Y. The changes in the iron content for both samples was negligible during the storage period. However, a very slight change in the calcium content (4.5% and 4%) was observed after ten weeks of storage for both the unfortified and the fortified samples respectively. The acceptability of fortified orange juice rated higher than the unfortified one. The panelists' evaluation values were affected by the packaging treatment and storage time. The samples packaged in low density polyethylene bags had a higher level of decline of the panelists' evaluations than the ones packaged in laminated pouches or cans, while the latter had a lower level of decline.

  14. [Mineral bioaccessibility in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St) infusions and mixtures with iron fortified milk].

    PubMed

    Binaghi, Maria J; Pellegrino, Nestor R; Valencia, Mirta E

    2011-03-01

    The bioaccesibility of various minerals in infusions of yerba male (mate cocido) and preparations with Fe-fortified milk was assessed to determine the influence of the infusions on the potential bioavailability of intrinsic minerals and fortified Fe. The dialyzability (D) of iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc was evaluated, as indicator of bioaccesibility in milk samples fortified with ferrous sulfate (FS), ferric bisglicinate GF) and EDTANaFe. Dialyzability was also evaluated in mixtures of milk with mate cocido and in infusions cooked with Fe-fortified milk. In each case the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in a ratio Fe: AA 1:4 was studied. In the mate cocido FeD was zero and increased to 15% with the addition of AA. The FeD in milk with SF, BGF and EDTANaFe (1.2, 1.0 and 27.4 respectively), increased with the addition of AA to 2.9, 3.5 and 24.8. The FeD in the mixture milk: mate cocido was 4.7%, 5.7% and 31.2% for SF, BGF and EDTANaFe respectively. With the addition of AA was 13.5%, 13.7% and 25.7%. In infusions cooked with SF fortified milk, the values were lower than those of the mixture. The CaD did not show significant changes in Fe fortified milk and its preparations with yerba mate, while the MgD and ZnD only showed a significant reduction in infusion cooked with Fe-fortified milk. The use of infusions of yerba mate does not provide significant amounts of minerals. However, its use in mixtures with milk will not adversely affect the availability of Fe in that matrix.

  15. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  16. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  17. Nature and perception of barnacle settlement pheromones.

    PubMed

    Clare, A S; Matsumura, K

    2000-01-01

    It is now almost 50 years since the gregarious settlement of barnacles and its chemical basis was first described. Although originally noted for Elminius modestus, mechanistic studies of gregariousness have focused on two species, Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus amphitrite. By virtue of its ease of study and its economic importance as a fouling organism, the latter species has assumed increasing importance in recent years. This paper will provide an overview of studies on settlement pheromones and their perception. An adult glycoprotein, arthropodin (now known as settlement-inducing protein complex or SIPC), was once thought to be the sole pheromone involved in the induction of cypris larval settlement. At least two other pheromones are now known to be involved, a waterborne cue originating from the adult and the cypris temporary adhesive. The latter is related, immunologically, to SIPC. In keeping with many other examples of chemical communication, the available evidence suggests that barnacle settlement induction involves receptor-ligand interactions and a signal transduction pathway(s) that translates into attachment and metamorphosis. Similar findings have been reported for some, but not all, marine invertebrate larvae examined thus far and the implications for antifoulant development are discussed.

  18. Community Interventional Trial (CITFOMIST) of Vitamin D Fortified Versus Non-fortified Milk on Serum Levels of 25(OH) D in the Students of Tehran.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Abbas Ali; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Khashayar, Patricia; Abdollahi, Zahra; Pouraram, Hamed; Salehi, Forouzan; Mohammadi, Zahra; Khosrokhavar, Roya; Larijani, Bagher

    2015-05-01

    As prevention of osteoporosis becomes more imperative with the global ageing of the population, establishing different measures to fight vitamin D deficiency will also become increasingly important. The aim of this study is to help assess the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified milk on circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D (as the primary outcome), a widely accepted indicator of vitamin D status, in Tehran students. Another objective of the protocol is to help assess the compliance with fortified dairy in students of different socioeconomic classes. The cluster-randomized trial (CITFOMIST) is conducted on 15- to19-year olds guidance and high school students of both genders from different districts of Tehran, in wintertime. The schools enrolled in this study are randomly assigned to receive one of the three groups of milk (whole milk, milk that contained 600 IU Vit D/1000cc, or milk that contained 1000 IU Vit D /1000cc) for a 30-day period. In order to study the effect of vitamin D-fortified milk on the circulating concentrations of 25(OH) D, a serum vitamin D levels are checked in a subgroup before and after the intervention. There are few data on the efficacy of incremental doses of vitamin D from fortified foods among adolescents. This is while developing an optimal model to fight vitamin D deficiency needs further research on bone health outcomes and the safety of vitamin D-fortified products. The modified version of this protocol could be applied in different parts of the country to assess the efficacy of a vitamin-D product.

  19. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  20. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water: a randomized controlled trial in rural Beninese children.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, Comlan Evariste S; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel point-of-use water ultrafiltration device configured with glass zinc plates to produce zinc-fortified, potable water. The objective was to determine zinc bioavailability from filtered water and the efficacy of zinc-fortified water in improving zinc status. In a crossover balanced study, we measured fractional zinc absorption (FAZ) from the zinc-fortified water in 18 healthy Swiss adults using zinc stable isotopes and compared it with zinc-fortified maize porridge. We conducted a 20-wk double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 277 Beninese school children from rural settings who were randomly assigned to receive a daily portion of zinc-fortified filtered water delivering 2.8 mg Zn (Zn+filter), nonfortified filtered water (Filter), or nonfortified nonfiltered water (Pump) from the local improved supply, acting as the control group. The main outcome was plasma zinc concentration (PZn), and the 3 groups were compared by using mixed-effects models. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of zinc deficiency, diarrhea prevalence, and growth. Geometric mean (-SD, +SD) FAZ was 7-fold higher from fortified water (65.9%; 42.2, 102.4) than from fortified maize (9.1%; 6.0, 13.7; P < 0.001). In the RCT, a significant time-by-treatment effect on PZn (P = 0.026) and on zinc deficiency (P = 0.032) was found; PZn in the Zn+filter group was significantly higher than in the Filter (P = 0.006) and Pump (P = 0.025) groups. We detected no effect on diarrhea or growth, but our study did not have the duration and power to detect such effects. Consumption of filtered water fortified with a low dose of highly bioavailable zinc is an effective intervention in children from rural African settings. Large community-based trials are needed to assess the

  1. AQUAPLEX An Environmentally Aware Model Lunar Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, Darel

    2003-01-01

    The construction and operation of a replica Lunar settlement (CELSS), can provide many lessons in in-situ resource utilization, telerobotic operation and reducing the hygiene water demanded by existing models of Lunar operation - a larger settlement may be operated with the same amount of precious water. Hypes and Hall and all other CELSS models found in the literature propose quantities of hygiene water far in excess of what would be needed in actual operation using simple, environmentally aware technologies. By using modern zero water toilets, low water showers, CO2 dry cleaning machines, energy efficient washing machines and other hardware, water use can be slashed. The Space Solar Power Workshop sees great opportunity to advance the prospects for Lunar settlement through involving the environmental community in this fun design exercise.

  2. Bioavailability of Microencapsulated Iron from Fortified Bread Assessed Using Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A.; Laghi, Luca; Zannoni, Augusta; Gianotti, Andrea; Barone, Francesca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle L.; Bacci, Maria L.; Ventrella, Domenico; Forni, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral iron supplementation, in the form of fortified breads, on the growth performance, health, iron status parameters, and fecal metabolome of anemic piglets. A study was conducted on 24 hybrid (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) piglets. From day 44, the post-natal 12 piglets were supplemented with 100 g of one of two experimental breads, each fortified with 21 mg of ferrous sulphate, either encapsulated or not. After one week of oral supplementation, hematological parameters (hematocrit value, hemoglobin, and red blood cells) showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Piglets fed with the fortified breads had higher iron concentrations in the heart, liver, and intestinal mucosa compared to anemic piglets fed with control bread. Gene expression of hepcidin, iron exporter ferroportin (IREG1), and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), together with concentrations of plasma ferritin, showed no significant statistical differences between groups. Both fortified breads could be used as sources of bioavailable iron. The seven-day intervention trial showed microencapsulation to have only a mild effect on the effectiveness of iron supplementation in the form of fortified bread. PMID:28335378

  3. Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of yogurt fortified with date fiber.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Afifi, H S

    2009-11-01

    Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating dietary fiber will make it even healthier. Date fiber (DF), a by-product of date syrup production, is a good source of dietary fiber. The effect of fortification with DF on fresh yogurt quality was investigated. Acidity, pH, color [L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values], texture profile, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance were studied. Control yogurt (without fiber), yogurt fortified with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% DF, and yogurt with 1.5% wheat bran (WB) were prepared. Fortification with DF did not cause significant changes in yogurt acidity, although pH was increased. Yogurts fortified with DF had firmer texture (higher hardness values) and darker color (lower L* and higher a*) compared with control or WB yogurts. Consumer test results indicated that the appearance, color, and flavor ratings were significantly affected by fiber fortification. Yogurt fortified with up to 3% DF had similar sourness, sweetness, firmness, smoothness, and overall acceptance ratings as the control yogurt. Sensory ratings and acceptability of yogurt decreased significantly when increasing DF to 4.5% or using 1.5% WB. Flavoring yogurt fortified with 4.5% DF with vanilla did not improve flavor or overall acceptance ratings. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 3% DF produced acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.

  4. Fortifying baladi bread in Egypt: reaching more than 50 million people through the subsidy program.

    PubMed

    Elhakim, Nadine; Laillou, Arnaud; El Nakeeb, Anwar; Yacoub, Rukia; Shehata, Magdy

    2012-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, are a public health problem in Egypt, where anemia rates almost doubled in the years from 2000 to 2005. In 2008, the Government of Egypt began implementation of a 5-year national program to fortify with iron and folic acid the wheat flour used in baking subsidized baladi bread, the staple food consumed by a majority of low- income groups. To project the achievements of this national Wheat Flour Fortification Program. This paper describes the program, estimates the production of fortified flour and consumption of fortified bread, and identifies program challenges and sustainability issues. Through the national Wheat Flour Fortification Program, ferrous sulfate and folic acid are now added to all wheat flour produced under the national Food Subsidy Program. Up to 50 million Egyptians nationwide are now consuming quality-assured fortified baladi bread on a daily basis. In 2011, 6.5 million MT of fortified wheat flour was produced by 143 participating public- and private-sector mills. Political changes in Egypt in 2011 did not seem to affect the program; the new leadership in the Ministry of Supply and Internal Trade remains committed to fortification of wheat flour. The daily intake of approximately 12 mg of iron and 600 microg of folic acid through the consumption of baladi bread suggests that the impact of the program on the prevention and reduction of iron and folate deficiencies among the Egyptian population could be significant; the results of an end-line survey are pending.

  5. Properties of ice-cream fortified with zinc and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.

  6. Preparation of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches with altered pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro

    2014-09-15

    Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium.

  7. Effect of soil fortified by polyurethane foam on septic tank effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Nie, J Y; Zhu, N W; Lin, K M; Song, F Y

    2011-01-01

    Fortified soil was made up of a mixture at a mass ratio 4/1000-6/1000 of sponge and natural soil according to the results of column experiment. The fortified soil had bigger porosity and higher hydraulic conductivity than the natural soil. The columns packed with 900 mm of the fortified soil endured a flow rate equivalent to 100 L/m(2)/d of septic tank effluent and the average chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal rates were around 92%, 75% and 96%, respectively. After 100 weeks of operation, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fortified soil kept higher than 0.2 m/d. The bigger porosity of sponge improved the effective porosity, and the bigger specific surface area of sponge acted as an ideal support for biomat growth and ensured the sewage treatment performance of the fortified soil. The comparable performance was due to a similar and sufficient degree of soil clogging genesis coupled with bioprocesses that effectively purified the septic tank effluent given the adequate retention times.

  8. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  9. Optimising settlement assays of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Carl, C; Poole, A J; Vucko, M J; Williams, M R; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

    2011-09-01

    The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a common aquaculture species, and also a major fouling organism that has negative economic impacts. There are no standard assay conditions for this important species and therefore, this study quantified the effect of key factors on the settlement of pediveligers and plantigrades. Density dependent settlement did not occur for either pediveligers or plantigrades. Settlement increased in drop assays in a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, while bottom shade had no effect of any magnitude. In addition, settlement was significantly enhanced by storing pediveligers for between 4 and 24 days at 4 °C. Overall, these data provide the template to optimise and standardise static laboratory settlement assays for mussels in order to develop materials that either enhance settlement for the aquaculture industry, or deter settlement for antifouling applications. Furthermore, simple mechanisms such as storage at 4 °C can enhance settlement beyond current methods used in aquaculture hatcheries.

  10. 49 CFR 511.64 - Petitions for settlement; timing, contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section proposing conditions for settlement. Conditions for settlement can be specific acts designed to lead to the reduction of automotive fuel consumption, which the petitioner is not otherwise required to...

  11. Effects of algal turfs and sediment on coral settlement.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Chico L; McCook, Laurence J; Willis, Bette L

    2005-01-01

    Successful settlement and recruitment of corals is critical to the resilience of coral reefs. Given that many degraded reefs are dominated by benthic algae, recovery of coral populations after bleaching and other disturbances requires successful settlement amidst benthic algae. Algal turfs often accumulate sediments, sediments are known to inhibit coral settlement, and reefs with high inputs of terrestrial sediments are often dominated by turfs. We investigated the impacts of two algal turf assemblages, and of sediment deposits, on settlement of the coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg). Adding sediment reduced coral settlement, but the effects of different algal turfs varied. In one case, algal turfs inhibited coral settlement, whereas the other turf only inhibited settlement when combined with sediments. These results provide the first direct, experimental evidence of effects of filamentous algal turfs on coral settlement, the variability in those effects, and the potential combined effects of algal turfs and trapped sediments.

  12. 48 CFR 49.108-3 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108-3 Settlement procedure. (a) Contractors shall settle with subcontractors in general conformity with the policies and principles relating to settlement...

  13. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  14. Implications for Tobacco Control of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Daynard, Richard A.; Parmet, Wendy; Kelder, Graham; Davidson, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 master settlement agreement between major tobacco manufacturers and the US states will have a profound effect on many tobacco industry practices and will significantly influence future settlements with the tobacco industry. This article analyzes the settlement's key provisions pertaining to youth sales, advertising, marketing, and lobbying. It also examines the ways in which the settlement restricts industry practices as well as the many industry practices that remain unregulated. PMID:11726376

  15. Multinutrient-fortified juices improve vitamin D and vitamin E status in children: A randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient and palatable method to maintain and increase blood fat soluble vitamins. We sought to determine if children consuming orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and combinations of vitamins D, E and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  16. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  17. Complementary feeding with fortified spread and incidence of severe stunting in 6- to 18-month-old rural Malawians

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare growth and incidence of malnutrition in infants receiving long-term dietary supplementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (likuni phala [LP]). A total of 182 6-month-old infants in rural Malawi were rando...

  18. [Impact of fortified milk on the iron and zinc levels in Mexican preschool children].

    PubMed

    Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Chavarria, Elsa Yolanda; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Nieblas, Amparo; Ponce, José Antonio; Robles-Sardin, Alma E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a national program of consumption of fortified milk "Liconsa" on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in pre-school children (3-5 y). The study was conducted in 77 healthy children of both genders. 54 of them consumed Liconsa fortified milk (GCLFL) and 23 consumed no fortified milk (GR). Iron status was determined by measuring hemoglobin and ferritin and zinc status by serum zinc. The consumption of milk was on free demand and it was estimated at baseline and 6 mo after. Through 24-h recall of measured consumption of iron and zinc in the total diet. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test for independent samples and chi-square test for differences in proportions. Children who consumed fortified milk showed an increase of hemoglobin and ferritin levels [1.13 g/dL (p < 0.05) and 5.83 μg/L (p < 0.05) respectively]. Additionally, a decrease was found of the prevalence of low iron stores from 20.4 to 4.1% (p < 0.05). The serum zinc level showed an increase of 45.2 μg/dL (p < 0.05). At the end of the study no child showed a micronutrient deficiency. Children who did not consume fortified milk Liconsa showed no significant change in their serum iron and zinc values. The average consumption of milk powder Liconsa was 22.7 ± 14.5 g, providing 2.5 mg of daily iron and zinc. Supplied diet 9.2 ± 3.4 mg of iron and 6.9 ± 3 mg of zinc. The consumption of fortified milk had a beneficial effect on the serum levels of iron and zinc in children's social welfare program Liconsa. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium bioavailability of calcium carbonate fortified soymilk is equivalent to cow's milk in young women.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongdong; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M

    2005-10-01

    Calcium (Ca)-fortified soymilk has gained popularity in the United States. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-fortified soymilk was shown to have a lower Ca bioavailability than cow's milk in men. However, the most popular soymilk in the U.S. is fortified with Ca carbonate (CC) and has not been evaluated. Ca bioavailability from CC-fortified soymilk (CCSM) and TCP-fortified soymilk (TCPSM) was compared with cow's milk in young healthy women using the dual stable isotope technique. In a 3-way crossover design, 20 volunteers (23 +/- 2 y old) consumed 250 mg Ca in cow's milk, CCSM, or TCPSM along with 10 mg 44Ca after an overnight fast. Cow's milk was extrinsically labeled, whereas each fortified soymilk was intrinsically labeled with each chemical salt of 44Ca at the manufacturing facility. Another stable isotope, 43Ca, was injected i.v. 1 h after the complete consumption of cow's milk or soymilk. Fractional Ca absorption was determined from the ratios of 43Ca:42Ca and 44Ca:42Ca by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS in the 24-h urine samples. A mixed linear model (SAS proc mixed) was used to compare the fractional Ca absorption among groups. Fractional Ca absorption in CCSM (0.211 +/- 0.057) did not differ from that of cow's milk (0.217 +/- 0.040), but both were higher (P < 0.05) than that of TCPSM (0.181 +/- 0.039). Our result suggests that calcium absorption is equivalent for CCSM and cow's milk at similar calcium loads.

  20. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Chamnan, Chhoun; de Boer, Michiel R.; Parker, Megan E.; Burja, Kurt; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Berger, Jacques; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation. Objective To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. Methods A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506). Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330), fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation. Results Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%), and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of

  1. Yogurt drink fortified with menaquinone-7 improves vitamin K status in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Braam, Lavienja A J L M; Teunissen, Kirsten J; Zwijsen, Renate M L; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Population-based studies have shown an inverse association between dietary menaquinones (MK-n, vitamin K2) intake, coronary calcification and CHD risk, suggesting a potential role of vitamin K in vascular health. To date, the effects of increased menaquinone intake on (markers of) vascular health have been investigated using predominantly food supplements. Dairy products contain many essential nutrients and can serve as a good matrix for food fortification in order to support health. We were therefore interested to study the effects of a menaquinone-fortified yogurt drink (menaquinone as menaquinone-7 (MK-7); 28 µg MK-7/yogurt drink) on vitamin K status and markers of vascular health. The yogurt drink was also fortified with n-3 PUFA, vitamin D, vitamin C, Ca and Mg to support vascular and/or general health. Healthy men (n 32) and postmenopausal women (n 28) with a mean age of 56 (sd 5) years received either basic or fortified yogurt drink twice per d for 12 weeks. MK-7 was efficiently absorbed from the fortified yogurt drink. Levels of circulating MK-7 were significantly increased from 0·28 to 1·94 ng/ml. In accordance, intake of the fortified yogurt drink improved vitamin K status, as measured by significant decreases in uncarboxylated osteocalcin and desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein. No effects were, however, seen on markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid metabolism. In summary, consumption of a yogurt drink fortified with low doses of among others MK-7 for 3 months significantly improved vitamin K status in a healthy population.

  2. Calcium-vitamin D-fortified milk is as effective on circulating bone biomarkers as fortified juice and supplement but has less acceptance: a randomised controlled school-based trial.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, T R; Hajifaraji, M; Omidvar, N; Nikooyeh, B; Eshraghian, M R; Shariatzadeh, N; Kalayi, A; Khalaji, N; Zahedirad, M; Abtahi, M; Asadzadeh, S

    2014-12-01

    Hypovitaminosis D, especially during cold seasons, is quite prevalent among primary school children in Tehran. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of calcium-vitamin D-fortified-milk, -orange juice and supplement in primary school children. Children aged 9-12 years from both sexes were randomly assigned to one of six groups to receive plain milk, fortified milk, plain orange juice, fortified orange juice, supplement or placebo. Both fortified-milk and -juice contained 100 IU of vitamin D and 500 mg of calcium per 200 mL package, whereas supplement contained 200 IU of vitamin D and 500 mg of calcium. The duration of intervention was 12 weeks, from November 2008 to March 2009. A total of 410 children completed the study. Regression analysis with adjustment for both sex and initial values of 25(OH)D revealed that consumption of either supplement, fortified orange juice or fortified milk resulted in a 20.8 nm [confidence interval (CI) = 17.4-23.9], 9.9 nm (CI = 7.4-12.3) or 6.9 nm (CI = 3.3-10.5) increase in circulating 25(OH)D compared to the related control groups. However, changes in serum osteocalcin and intact parathyroid hormone in the supplement group did not differ from those of fortified milk or plain milk. The increment of osteocalcin in both plain milk and fortified milk was more than in fortified orange juice, although the difference was statistically insignificant. Despite having double amount of vitamin D and being more effective in raising serum 25(OH)D, supplementation did not confer additional benefit in terms of osteocalcin and intact parathyroid hormone compared to either fortified or plain milk. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. 46 CFR 502.91 - Opportunity for informal settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 502.91 Section 502... PROCEDURE Settlement; Prehearing Procedure § 502.91 Opportunity for informal settlement. (a) Parties are... interested parties shall have the opportunity for the submission and consideration of facts, argument, offers...

  4. Estimation of the components of municipal solid waste settlement.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar Babu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the municipal solid waste settlements and the contribution of each of the components are essential in the estimation of the volume of the waste that can be accommodated in a landfill and increase the post-usage of the landfill. This article describes an experimental methodology for estimating and separating primary settlement, settlement owing to creep and biodegradation-induced settlement. The primary settlement and secondary settlement have been estimated and separated based on 100% pore pressure dissipation time and the coefficient of consolidation. Mechanical creep and biodegradation settlements were estimated and separated based on the observed time required for landfill gas production. The results of a series of laboratory triaxial tests, creep tests and anaerobic reactor cell setups were conducted to describe the components of settlement. All the tests were conducted on municipal solid waste (compost reject) samples. It was observed that biodegradation accounted to more than 40% of the total settlement, whereas mechanical creep contributed more than 20% towards the total settlement. The essential model parameters, such as the compression ratio (Cc'), rate of mechanical creep (c), coefficient of mechanical creep (b), rate of biodegradation (d) and the total strain owing to biodegradation (EDG ), are useful parameters in the estimation of total settlements as well as components of settlement in landfill.

  5. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  6. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  7. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  8. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  9. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  10. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Settlement and Escrow Accounts § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  11. 12 CFR 269b.113 - Withdrawal or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal or settlement. 269b.113 Section 269b.113 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... shall prepare and sign a settlement agreement which shall record that the settlement is mutually...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  13. Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…

  14. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  15. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  16. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  17. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  18. 39 CFR 3030.40 - Policy on settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy on settlement. 3030.40 Section 3030.40 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Settlement § 3030.40 Policy on settlement. It shall be the general policy and practice of the Commission to encourage alternative dispute...

  19. 26 CFR 1.468B - Designated settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designated settlement funds. 1.468B Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B Designated settlement funds. A designated settlement fund, as defined in section 468B(d)(2), is taxed in the manner described in §...

  20. 38 CFR 8.19 - Beneficiary and optional settlement changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... settlement changes. 8.19 Section 8.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiaries § 8.19 Beneficiary and optional settlement changes. The... the beneficiary to cancel or change a beneficiary and/or optional settlement designation. A change of...

  1. 38 CFR 8.19 - Beneficiary and optional settlement changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... settlement changes. 8.19 Section 8.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiaries § 8.19 Beneficiary and optional settlement changes. The... the beneficiary to cancel or change a beneficiary and/or optional settlement designation. A change of...

  2. 48 CFR 49.103 - Methods of settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of settlement. 49.103 Section 49.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.103 Methods of settlement. Settlement of terminated...

  3. 49 CFR 1016.306 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1016.306 Section 1016.306 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1016.306...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan settlement. 1421.111 Section 1421.111... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan settlement. 1421.111 Section 1421.111... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan settlement. 1421.111 Section 1421.111... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance...

  7. 49 CFR 826.35 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement. 826.35 Section 826.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Procedures for Considering Applications § 826.35...

  8. Designing a New Human Settlement Pattern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, E. W.

    ASCILOS, an acronym for a symbiotic community in the land of the Sioux, is a new land settlement pattern designed by the Center for Community Organization and Area Development (CENCOAD), sponsored by Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. ASCILOS covers a 60-mile radius around Sioux Falls. ASCILOS, based on symbiosis in nature, assumes that…

  9. Determinants of Successful Divorce Settlement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Allan M.; Kressel, Kenneth

    Despite the rapidly rising divorce rate and the importance of the divorce settlement agreement for the spouses' financial and emotional well-being, factors influencing the effectiveness of divorce negotiations have received very little attention. To assess the major determinants of successful divorce negotiations between divorcing spouses and…

  10. 75 FR 82390 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to... Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the District of Columbia, and the City of New York (collectively ``State... rule promulgated under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') section 111, 42 U.S.C. 7411, entitled, ``Standards...

  11. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  12. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  13. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  14. 77 FR 282 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Horowitz, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Additional Information About the Proposed Settlement Agreement This proposed... electrical blackout, such as unusually low frequency, equipment overload, capacity or energy deficiency, or...

  15. 77 FR 37397 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP). Under the terms of the proposed settlement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP), 75... of remote existing non-emergency spark-ignition 4-stroke engines above 500 horsepower located at...

  16. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  17. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  18. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  19. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  20. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  1. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP... before or after the administrative law judge's decision. ...

  2. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP... authority to settle any issue or any case, without the consent of the administrative law judge at any...

  3. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  4. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  5. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  6. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  7. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  8. 42 CFR 402.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 402.17 Section 402.17 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CIVIL... exclusive authority to settle any issues or case, without the consent of the ALJ or the Secretary, at...

  9. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. A motion to approve a penalty settlement shall include for each violation the amount of the penalty... penalty agreed to by the parties. (b) Motion accompanied by proposed order. In all penalty...

  10. Schooling and Settlement: Refugee Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Schools are a stabilising feature in the unsettled lives of refugee students. They provide safe spaces for new encounters, interactions and learning opportunities. They also deliver literacy, the key to educational success, post-school options, life choices, social participation and settlement. Currently Australian schools are poorly funded and…

  11. 75 FR 21987 - Penalty Settlement Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... available on the filer's e-mail program. This receipt is automatically generated when the e-mail is delivered to the Commission's e-mail server. Parties may also use the option of a read receipt, which is... proposed order to an e-mail to the Commission. The e-mail address to which settlement motions must be sent...

  12. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Prehearing Procedures; Motions; Interlocutory Appeals... may be signed by any other party. Each offer of settlement shall be accompanied by a motion to..., recommend acceptance or rejection of such offers. Any party or participant may object to a proposed consent...

  13. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Prehearing Procedures; Motions; Interlocutory Appeals... may be signed by any other party. Each offer of settlement shall be accompanied by a motion to..., recommend acceptance or rejection of such offers. Any party or participant may object to a proposed consent...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1525 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1.1525 Section 1.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) in Agency Proceedings Procedures for Considering Applications § 1.1525...

  15. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO... rules do not preclude the disposition of any matter by agreement between the parties at any stage of the...

  16. 48 CFR 49.206 - Settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement proposals. 49.206 Section 49.206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Fixed-Price Contracts Terminated for...

  17. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  18. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... has express authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  19. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  20. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  1. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  2. 29 CFR 1601.20 - Negotiated settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Negotiated settlement. 1601.20 Section 1601.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS..., the Director of Field Management Programs, or their designees, shall have the authority to sign...

  3. 29 CFR 1601.20 - Negotiated settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negotiated settlement. 1601.20 Section 1601.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS..., the Director of Field Management Programs, or their designees, shall have the authority to sign...

  4. 29 CFR 1601.20 - Negotiated settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Negotiated settlement. 1601.20 Section 1601.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS..., the Director of Field Management Programs, or their designees, shall have the authority to sign...

  5. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review Board...

  6. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review Board...

  7. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review Board...

  8. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review Board...

  9. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review Board...

  10. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 719.19 Section 719.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 719.19...

  11. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.

  12. Scleractinian settlement patterns to natural cleared reef substrata and artificial settlement panels on an Indonesian coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Costales-Carrera, Alba; Zeljkovic, Stephen; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2011-05-01

    Recruitment is a key factor driving the population dynamics of scleractinian corals, but despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of recruitment processes in the Coral triangle region, which contains the most biodiverse marine ecosystems in the world. This study aimed to compare settlement rates to artificial settlement panels with cleared areas of natural reef in order to assess whether panels are a suitable indicator of natural coral settlement rates. We recorded coral settlement rates to panels made of two different materials (concrete and terracotta), attached to the reef at two different orientations (vertical and horizontal), and compared these settlement rates to those on cleared areas of natural reef positioned on vertical reef walls, over a 12 month period. We examined settlement rates at four sites in the Wakatobi National Marine Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia; two reefs were light-limited, highly sedimented sites with low coral cover (<10%) and two had moderate coral cover (approx. 40%) and lower sedimentation rates. Panels were directly attached to the reef at 6-7 m depth. The number of coral spat per tile ranged from 0 to 34 and no significant differences were reported between the settlement rates to cleared natural reef areas and settlement panels. Significantly higher numbers of spat settled on the cryptic (back) side of the panels, while no significant difference was found between settlement rates to the different panel materials, or between the different orientations or any combination of these two factors. There is, however, a significant difference in the settlement rates between sites, for both settlement panels and permanent cleared areas, with higher settlement rates at the sites with higher live coral cover. We conclude that both concrete and terracotta panels yield similar settlement rates, and orientation makes no difference to settlement rates when panels are directly attached to the reef. Our results demonstrate

  13. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X. Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, Mª José

    2016-07-01

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance.

  14. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X. Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, Mª José

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance. PMID:27384527

  15. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Water Soluble Vitamins in Dietary Supplements and Fortified Foods by LC-MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent work in our laboratory has focused on development of LC methods with diode array and/or mass spectrometry (ms) detection for the simultaneous determination in supplement tablets and fortified foods of several water-soluble vitamins (WSV) including: thiamin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic ac...

  17. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  18. Study of the formation mechanisms of some volatile compounds during the aging of sweet fortified wines.

    PubMed

    Cutzach, I; Chatonnet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    1999-07-01

    Sweet fortified wines, traditionally aged under strong oxidation conditions, have a characteristic aroma. An experimental laboratory study investigated the aging of red and white sweet fortified wines under various conditions. The formation of various molecules, previously identified as characteristic of the aroma of this type of wine, was monitored by analysis. The development of these compounds during accelerated aging was affected by oxidation and the color of the wine. Among the molecules studied, sotolon [3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone] was one of the few molecules present in concentrations above the perception threshold, in both red and white wines. Buildup was strongly affected by the presence of oxygen in white wine subjected to accelerated aging. (Ethoxymethyl)furfural, formed from 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and furfural, derived from sugars, are also involved in the aroma of sweet fortified white wines aged in oxygen-free conditions. The substances most characteristic of accelerated aging of sweet fortified red wines were 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, acetylformoin, and hydroxymaltol, the formation of which is affected by oxidation, and dihydromaltol, formed in the absence of oxidation.

  19. Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Maciero, Eugenia; Krasnoff, Gustavo; Cócaro, Nicolas; Gaitan, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers’ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old) participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers’ requirements of this micronutrient. PMID:26529007

  20. Long-Term Oral Feeding of Lutein-Fortified Milk Increases Voluntary Running Distance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running. PMID:24699440

  1. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  2. Fortification of Ogi with Whey Increases Essential Amino Acids Content of Fortified Product

    PubMed Central

    Omole, J. O.; Durosinolorun, O.

    2017-01-01

    The inability of humans to synthesize essential amino acids (EAA) necessitates the need to increase the levels of these nutrient molecules in certain foods in which they are deficient. Maize ogi is a typical food product for both infants and adults in Africa, but with poor EAA content. This study therefore sought to assess the possibility of increasing the EAA content in maize ogi by processing it with cheese whey instead of water. Maize ogi and whey-fortified ogi were prepared by the usual procedure of grain soaking, milling, and drying. Samples from both treatments were subjected to proximate composition and amino acid profile analyses using Waters 616/626 LC (HPLC) instrument. L-lysine, L-trytophan, and L-methionine contents in maize ogi remarkably increased from 0.52, 0.15, and 0.90 mg/100 gm sample, respectively, to 0.90, 240, and 1.320 mg/100 gm sample in whey-fortified ogi. There were also significant increases in other EAA contents of whey-fortified ogi relative to its counterpart (normal maize ogi). The sum increase in EAA contents (9,405 mg) correlates with the increase in protein (1 gm) per gram sample. This study demonstrates that cheese whey increases EAA content in maize ogi and suggests that whey-fortified maize ogi may be a preferred alternative to water processed maize ogi. PMID:28848803

  3. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometric analysis of vitamin D in retail fortified orange juice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Samples of vitamin D fortified orange juice obtained from retail food stores were analyzed for vitamin D3 content using a method developed by combining the best features of two AOAC officially approved methods. The ether/petroleum ether extraction from AOAC 992.26 was combined with the high perform...

  5. Iron-fortified rice is as efficacious as supplemental iron drops in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Beinner, Mark A; Velasquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Pessoa, Milene C; Greiner, Ted

    2010-01-01

    How to improve iron status among infants and young children is of continued concern in low- to middle-income countries, including Brazil. In a double blind, 5-mo, home-based, randomized trial in Brazil, we gave one group of mildly anemic 6- to 24-mo-old children (n = 175) rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate using the Ultra Rice technology and a placebo solution (URG) and another group identical nonfortified rice and iron drops. We instructed parents on the correct dosage of iron drops and to feed their children rice as they normally would. We measured serum ferritin (SF) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at baseline and at 5 mo. At baseline, the prevalences of iron deficiency and anemia in the total sample were 73.1 and 100%, respectively. At 5 mo, SF and Hb increased in both groups, although the change in the URG was larger (P < 0.01). Adult participants were unable to distinguish cooked fortified rice from unfortified rice in terms of smell, color, or taste. As rice is normally consumed at home, MPF-fortified rice increased iron stores and reduced anemia in a group of mildly anemic children 6-24 mo old. In populations where young children are routinely fed approximately 100 g of cooked rice daily, fortifying it with iron may improve iron status at least as well as providing free iron drops.

  6. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium, and phosphorous

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification, and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre...

  7. Calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities from a commercial human milk fortifier: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, P; Wallingford, J C; Miller, D D; Glahn, R P

    2004-11-01

    Adding human milk fortifiers (HMF) to human milk (HM) is one way of overcoming the nutrient deficits found in the latter. In this study, the bioavailabilities of calcium, zinc, and iron in S-26/SMA HMF added to HM were compared with those in HM fortified with various bovine milk proteins: alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, caseinate, casein phosphopeptides, and whey protein concentrate. The bioavailability of each mineral was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Calcium and zinc uptake by the cells was traced with radioisotopes; iron uptake was assessed via cell ferritin levels. Samples were prepared on an equal protein content basis and with added calcium, but no zinc or iron was added. Results revealed that calcium uptake from HM + S-26/SMA was not different from any of the HM fortified with the bovine milk proteins, except for unfortified HM and HM + colostrum in which calcium uptake was significantly lower (-89 and -38%, respectively). Uptake of zinc and iron were significantly higher for HM + S-26/SMA than for the other HM + fortifiers.

  8. Effect of Storage on the Flavor of Chocolate Fortified with Nutritional Yeast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    To provide operational rations with potentially important vitamin factors, chocolate was individually supplemented with three brands of primary...and 100F. The acceptability of the control and fortified chocolate was measured at four-month intervals for one year. After storage, unsupplemented... chocolate was slightly preferred to the supplemented chocolate . No significant difference was observed between primary and debittered yeast

  9. Fortification of Ogi with Whey Increases Essential Amino Acids Content of Fortified Product.

    PubMed

    Omole, J O; Ighodaro, O M; Durosinolorun, O

    2017-01-01

    The inability of humans to synthesize essential amino acids (EAA) necessitates the need to increase the levels of these nutrient molecules in certain foods in which they are deficient. Maize ogi is a typical food product for both infants and adults in Africa, but with poor EAA content. This study therefore sought to assess the possibility of increasing the EAA content in maize ogi by processing it with cheese whey instead of water. Maize ogi and whey-fortified ogi were prepared by the usual procedure of grain soaking, milling, and drying. Samples from both treatments were subjected to proximate composition and amino acid profile analyses using Waters 616/626 LC (HPLC) instrument. L-lysine, L-trytophan, and L-methionine contents in maize ogi remarkably increased from 0.52, 0.15, and 0.90 mg/100 gm sample, respectively, to 0.90, 240, and 1.320 mg/100 gm sample in whey-fortified ogi. There were also significant increases in other EAA contents of whey-fortified ogi relative to its counterpart (normal maize ogi). The sum increase in EAA contents (9,405 mg) correlates with the increase in protein (1 gm) per gram sample. This study demonstrates that cheese whey increases EAA content in maize ogi and suggests that whey-fortified maize ogi may be a preferred alternative to water processed maize ogi.

  10. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk...

  11. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk...

  12. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk...

  13. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk...

  14. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. 139.117 Section 139.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  15. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    El Menchawy, Imane; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Kari, Khalid; Saeid, Naima; Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Benajiba, Nada; El Harchaoui, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N = 195), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p = 0.037). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410. PMID:26355324

  16. Fortifying food in the field to boost nutrition: case studies from Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia.

    PubMed

    van den Briel, Tina; Cheung, Edith; Zewari, Jamshid; Khan, Rose

    2007-09-01

    Deficiencies in micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and iodine affect billions of people worldwide, causing death, disease, and disability. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) has long been recognised for its ability to deliver food to some of the most remote locations, under the toughest conditions: refugees in border camps, populations cut off by conflict, extremely poor and marginalised people like ethnic minorities, orphans, and widows. Relatively little, however, is known about its efforts to ensure that the food it delivers not only provides enough calories for immediate survival but also provides the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy growth and development. Much of the food delivered by WFP is fortified with iron, vitamin A, and other micronutrients before being shipped. But there are several reasons to mill and fortify food as close to the beneficiaries as possible. For instance, milling and fortifying food locally helps to overcome the problems of the short shelf-life of whole fortified maizemeal. It also enhances the nutritional value of locally procured cereals. And it can foster demand for fortified foods among local consumers beyond WFP beneficiaries, thus nurturing an industry with potentially significant benefits for the health of entire communities. This paper outlines three approaches by WFP to fortifying cereals in Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia. It examines the challenges faced and the outcomes achieved in an effort to share this knowledge with others dedicated to improving the nutritional status of poor and food-insecure people. In Afghanistan, attempts to mill and fortify wheat flour using small-scale chakki mills were successful but much larger-scale efforts would be needed to promote demand and reach the level of consumption required to address serious iron deficiencies across the country. In Angola, maize has been fortified to combat the persistent occurrence of pellagra, a micronutrient deficiency disease found among people whose

  17. Parental influences on dairy intake in children, and their role in child calcium-fortified food use.

    PubMed

    Olson, Beth H; Chung, Kimberly R; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. A convenience sample of Asian (n = 56), Hispanic (n = 61), and white (n = 74) parents of children 10-13 years old, including boys (n = 86) and girls (n = 105). VARIABLES MEASURED AND ANALYSIS: Cluster analysis to identify groups with similar coded parental influences and chi-square analysis to determine associations between these groups and calcium-fortified food use. Two dominant patterns of parental influences: Cluster 1 (n = 128), with positive parental influences related to availability of dairy, milk, and cheese; positive health beliefs for dairy, and child preferences for dairy and cheese, included parents whose children were more likely to use calcium-fortified food. Cluster 2 (n = 63), with positive influences for availability of dairy and milk, included parents whose children were equally likely to be either users or nonusers of calcium-fortified food (P < .05). Strategies to improve parental influence on children's dairy intake might also encourage calcium-fortified food intake and improve calcium nutriture.

  18. Vitamin-Fortified Snack Food May Lead Consumers to Make Poor Dietary Decisions.

    PubMed

    Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. US adults aged 18 years and older were randomly selected from Research Now's e-panel online household panel. Data were collected during fall 2014 (N=5,076). Participants were randomly assigned to one of 24 conditions: two products (vegetable chip/potato chip), two nutrition profiles (healthier/less healthy), two fortification scenarios (not fortified/fortified), and three nutrient claim conditions (two no claim/one with claim). The design was not balanced; claims were not shown on products that were not vitamin fortified. Outcome measures were information-seeking (viewed the Nutrition Facts label), purchase decisions, perception of product healthfulness, and correct selection of product with the healthier nutrient profile. Logistic regression was used to test all models. Analyses was adjusted for general label use, consumes product, health status, age, sex, level of education, presence of children in the household, and race/ethnicity. When the snack food carried a nutrient claim for vitamin fortification, participants were 1) less likely to look for nutrition information on the Nutrition Facts label, 2) more likely to select the product for purchase, 3) more likely to perceive the product as healthier, and 4) less likely to correctly choose the healthier product. Snack foods that have been vitamin-fortified

  19. A survey of foodstuffs fortified with vitamins available on the market in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Ewa; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Masalska, Katarzyna; Wronowski, Sylwester

    2013-01-01

    Foodstuffs fortified with vitamins and/or minerals are nowadays continually being developed, leading to an increasing diversity of these products being available on the market. This contributes to increased consumption of added nutrients, which can be an effective tool for improving public health. To identify and characterise products fortified with vitamins, available on the Warsaw foodstuff market, which can thereby be used as a source of information for the assessment of dietary micronutrient intake. Data were gathered using the information provided on labels from foodstuff products found in 14 Warsaw supermarkets during March to October 2012. There were 588 products found to be fortified with vitamins. The number of vitamins added ranged from one in 193 products to twelve in 14 products. The group of vitamins used for enrichment consisted of: A, D, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin. Juices, non-alcoholic beverages (29.4%) and cereal products (18.9%) constituted the largest product groups. In addition, fortified vitamins were also significantly present in sweets (15.8%), instant beverages and desserts (13.6%), milk products, fat spreads and soy products. The most frequently added vitamins were: vitamin C (58% products), vitamin B6 (46%) and B12 (45%), whilst the least frequently added was biotin (16%). The highest content of vitamins A and D were seen in fat spreads, whereas the highest levels of B vitamins, vitamin C and E were observed in certain sweets. The wide range of fortified products available can serve to increase vitamin intake in many population groups, especially in children and teenagers. In order that consumers can make informed choices in buying these product types, appropriate education is necessary to raise public awareness of the health issues involved.

  20. Bioavailability of vitamins A and E from whole and vitamin-fortified milks in control subjects.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Barbudo, Carmen; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada

    2006-10-01

    Dairy products fortified with vitamins and minerals represent a growing market that is of interest to those sectors of the population with unbalanced diets and increased needs. However, there is little information on the bioavailability of micronutrients in milk products at dietary intake levels. To evaluate the bioavailability of vitamins A and E in whole milk and fortified whole and skimmed milk in control subjects. A single-dose bioavailability study was performed using three commercially available milks (unfortified whole milk and whole and skimmed milk fortified with vitamins A and E). Nineteen volunteers (10 women and 9 men) ingested 430 ml of each milk on different days. The contents of retinol and alpha-tocopherol provided in the milks and the retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRL) from plasma collected for 6.5 h postprandially were assayed using a quality-controlled HPLC method. The relative absorption of vitamins A and E from milks was calculated on the basis of area under the curve (AUC) versus time curve estimations, adjusted for plasma volume and expressed as percentage of the amount of nutrient provided. The total amounts of retinol and alpha-tocopherol provided ranged between 0.48 and 4.15 micromol and 0.41 and 32.49 micromol, respectively. The AUC value of retinyl palmitate in TRL was higher for fortified whole milk than for the other two milks (unfortified whole and fortified skimmed milk). The percent relative absorption of vitamin A did not differ among the three types of milk. The AUC for alpha-tocopherol was no different after the ingestion of any of these milks. The mean percentage of retinol absorption was apparently similar for the three types of milk, regardless of the amount of fat ingested with each type of milk and the vitamin A provided.

  1. Simplified estimation of seismically induced settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincens, E.; Labbé, P.; Cambou, B.

    2003-07-01

    This paper proposes a predictive expression of settlements for a dry sand deposit overlying a bedrock and subjected to a seismic motion. The proposed formula combines geometrical and mechanical properties of the soil profile with classical characteristics of the input motion. One of the main concepts developed herein consists in regarding the input motion and the dynamical response as samples of random processes; another key concept consists in the common densification curve from Sawicki. The model introduces a parameter k identified by means of an extensive set of accelerograms. The main advantage of the proposed method consists in allowing fast comparisons of earthquake induced settlements for different soil and motion characteristics and therefore quantifying the damage power of a time-history input motion.

  2. Historic Settlement in the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-28

    I REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4 TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Historic Settlement in...THE 1880s 139 XIV. THE RIVER IN THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE UPPER TOMBIGBEE VALLEY: 1890-1940 149 XV. STEAMBOAT TYPES AND OPERATIONS ON THE TOMBIGBEE...and type in the support structures associated with plantations, farms, and tenancies? The number, type , and size of specific outbuildings may be

  3. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  4. Evaluation of the Arkansas Tobacco Settlement Program

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Dana; Tharp-Gilliam, Shannah; Dubowitz, Tamara; Yu, Hao; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Phillips, Andrea; Engberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Tobacco Settlement Proceeds Act, a referendum passed by Arkansans in the November 2000 election, invests Arkansas' share of the tobacco Master Settlement Agreement funds in seven health-related programs. RAND was contracted to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the progress of the seven programs in fulfilling their missions, as well as the effects of the programs on smoking and other health-related outcomes. This article discusses the Arkansas Tobacco Settlement Commission's activities and its responses to recommendations by RAND in the earlier evaluation reports and documents continued activity and progress by the seven funded programs for 2008 and 2009. The article evaluates the progress of each of the funded programs, including assessing progress in achieving programmatic goals and tracking the programs' activities and indicators. It also updates trends in outcome measures developed to monitor the effects of the funded programs on smoking and other health-related outcomes. Finally, it provides both program-specific and statewide recommendations for future program activities and funding, including ongoing strategic planning, developing evaluation measures, collaboration with other programs, and sustaining funding and growth. PMID:28083260

  5. Coral Settlement on a Highly Disturbed Equatorial Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Andrew G.; Guest, James R.; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A.; Steinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world’s most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m-2 yr-1) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March–May and September–November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March–April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December–February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure (‘others’; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of

  6. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore

  7. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    to host community members was higher than that for refugees. There was no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations across refugee settlements. Across all settlements reporting to the UNHCR database, the percent of the refugee population that was less than five years of age is 16% on average. Conclusions The availability of a centralized database of health information across UNHCR-supported refugee settlements is a rich resource. The SPHERE standard for emergencies of 1-4 visits per person per year appears to be relevant for Asia in the post-emergency phase, but not for Africa. In Africa, a post-emergency standard of 1-2 visits per person per year should be considered. Although it is often assumed that the size of the female population in refugee settlements is higher than males, we found no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations in refugee settlements overall. Another assumption---that the under-fives make up 20% of the settlement population during the emergency phase---does not appear to hold for the post-emergency phase; under-fives made up about 16% of refugee settlement populations. PMID:21936911

  8. Unsettling drug patent settlements: a framework for presumptive illegality.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    A tidal wave of high drug prices has recently crashed across the U.S. economy. One of the primary culprits has been the increase in agreements by which brand-name drug manufacturers and generic firms have settled patent litigation. The framework for such agreements has been the Hatch-Waxman Act, which Congress enacted in 1984. One of the Act's goals was to provide incentives for generics to challenge brand-name patents. But brand firms have recently paid generics millions of dollars to drop their lawsuits and refrain from entering the market. These reverse-payment settlements threaten significant harm. Courts nonetheless have recently blessed them, explaining that the agreements reduce costs, increase innovation, and are reasonable based on the presumption of validity accorded to patents. Although scholars and the Federal Trade Commission have voiced strong arguments against courts' leniency, these have fallen on judicial deaf ears. In this Article, I apply the framework that the Supreme Court articulated in Verizon Communications v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP, which underscored the importance in antitrust analysis of a regulatory regime addressing the challenged activity. In particular, the Hatch-Waxman Act provides Congress's views on innovation and competition in the drug industry, freeing courts from the thorny task of reconciling the patent and antitrust laws. Unfortunately, mechanisms that Congress employed to encourage patent challenges--such as an exclusivity period for the first generic to challenge validity--have been twisted into barriers preventing competition. Antitrust can play a central role in resuscitating the drafters' intentions and promoting competition. Given the Act's clear purpose to promote patent challenges, as well as the parties' aligned incentives and the severe anticompetitive potential of reverse payments, courts should treat such settlements as presumptively illegal. If the parties can demonstrate that the payments represent

  9. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  10. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  11. Examination for Predicting Consolidation Settlement by Measurement Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Motohei; Yamashita, Hiroki; Higashi, Takahiro; Ohtsubo, Masami

    The earthfill structure such as embankments, which are constructed for the preservation of the agricultural land, has shown large settlement in the middle of the construction and after construction in the lowland area on the coast of the Ariake Sea, and then the long term settlement of those buildings is measured. The hyperbolic method is one of the most famous methods that predicting the settlement by using measurement records and is used extensively both domestically and internationally. In this paper the neural network model for predicting settlement by using measurement records in early stage is examined. Using the learning pattern that focused on the convergence of settlement rate, the prediction values are good agreement with the measured values. As a result, having the model learn the data that has a suitable regularity, the proposed method can provide the early prediction of settlement with high accuracy.

  12. Survival of salmonellae in pasteurized, refrigerated calcium-fortified orange juice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P; Chen, J

    2001-09-01

    Studies were done to determine the survival of salmonellae in orange juice as affected by fortification with calcium. Four brands of commercially pasteurized orange juice fortified with calcium (350 mg/240-ml serving) and nonfortified juice were inoculated separately with three types of inocula: strains of Salmonella Muenchen (inoculum 1), serotypes of human and animal origin (inoculum 2), and isolates from raw produce- and juice-associated outbreaks (inoculum 3). Juice inoculated with populations of 6.6 to 7.0 log10 CFU of Salmonella per ml was held at 4 degrees C for up to 32 days. The number of cells of inoculum 1 that survived in juice fortified with calcium lactate/tricalcium phosphate (CaL/TCP) was significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) (2.80 log10 CFU/ml) than in nonfortified juice (3.50 log10 CFU/ml) after 32 days' storage. Death of salmonellae in inocula 1 and 2 was less in juice fortified with TCP (3.21 and 3.33 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) than in the nonfortified juice (3.75 and 4.15 log10 CFU/ml, respectively). During the 32-day storage period, populations in inocula 1 and 3 showed significantly less inactivation (2.62 and 3.12 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) in juice fortified with calcium citrate (CC) than in nonfortified juice (3.14 and 3.60 log10 CFU/ml, respectively). There were no significant differences in the survival of Salmonella in juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM) and nonfortified juice. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing of randomly selected Salmonella colonies revealed that Salmonella Heidelberg in inoculum 2 and Salmonella Baildon and Salmonella Poona in inoculum 3 were the most prevalent at the end of the 32-day storage period at 4 degrees C, suggesting that serotypes selected for use in inocula differed in tolerance to acidic environments. This study reveals that the form of calcium used to fortify orange juice may affect the survival of Salmonella.

  13. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Klaus; Wieser, Simon; Rüthemann, Isabelle; Brügger, Urs

    2012-07-06

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years) compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011), reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5'468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl). Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies) and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies). Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain) and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to reduce anemia of children up to three years of age in developing

  14. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years) compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011), reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl). Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies) and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies). Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain) and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to reduce anemia of

  15. A rapid assessment of drinking water quality in informal settlements after a cholera outbreak in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Natalie; O'Reilly, Ciara; Muhonja, Everline; Karoki, Solomon; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Omolo, Jared; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph; Hoekstra, Robert; Ayers, Tracy; De Cock, Kevin; Breiman, Robert; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Populations living in informal settlements with inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure are at risk of epidemic disease. In 2010, we conducted 398 household surveys in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya with isolated cholera cases. We tested source and household water for free chlorine residual (FCR) and Escherichia coli in approximately 200 households. International guidelines are ≥0.5 mg/L FCR at source, ≥0.2 mg/L at household, and <1 E. coli/100 mL. In these two settlements, 82% and 38% of water sources met FCR guidelines; and 7% and 8% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. In household stored water, 82% and 35% met FCR guidelines and 11% and 32% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. Source water FCR≥0.5 mg/L (p=0.003) and reported purchase of a household water treatment product (p=0.002) were associated with increases in likelihood that household stored water had ≥0.2 mg/L FCR, which was associated with a lower likelihood of E. coli contamination (p<0.001). These results challenge the assumption that water quality in informal settlements is universally poor and the route of disease transmission, and highlight that providing centralized water with ≥0.5 mg/L FCR or (if not feasible) household water treatment technologies reduces the risk of waterborne cholera transmission in informal settlements.

  16. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y

    2017-03-01

    The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years.

  17. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  18. Growth and change in blood haemoglobin concentration among underweight Malawian infants receiving fortified spreads for 12 weeks: a preliminary trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fortified spreads (FSs) have proven effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We examined acceptability, growth and change in blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among moderately underweight ambulatory infants given FS. This was a randomised, controlled, parallel-group, inv...

  19. 40 CFR 305.25 - Informal settlement; voluntary agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE... objectives of the Act and applicable regulations. Settlement conferences shall not affect the Claims Official...

  20. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  1. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  2. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  3. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  4. 48 CFR 49.206-1 - Submission of settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Fixed-Price Contracts Terminated for... settlement proposals if they are determined under generally recognized accounting principles consistently...

  5. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  6. The selection and prevalence of natural and fortified calcium food sources in the diets of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of calcium-fortified foods and dairy foods on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants 149 adolescent girls from a Midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology from 1997 to 2008. Intervention Subjects randomly assigned to a high calcium (HC) diet supplying 1500 mg calcium/day, or their usual diet (UC). Main Outcome Measures Dietary intake was assessed from 3-day food records and calcium intakes categorized by food source. Food group composites, representing calcium-fortified and dairy food categories, were examined for their relative nutrient contributions. Students t tests were used to evaluate differences in selected nutrient intakes between the two study groups. Results Dairy foods contributed 68% of the total mean 1494 mg calcium/d in the HC group, and calcium-fortified foods contributed 304 mg calcium. In the UC group dairy foods contributed 69% of the total mean 765 mg calcium/d and calcium-fortified foods contributed 50 mg Ca. Nutrient profiles of the dairy composites differed significantly from the calcium-fortified composites (p< 0.05). Conclusions and Implications Dairy foods were the primary source of calcium selected by these adolescent girls; calcium-fortified foods augmented calcium intakes. PMID:21392712

  7. Review of fortified food and beverage products for pregnant and lactating women and their impact on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2011-10-01

    Fortified beverages and supplementary foods, when given during pregnancy, have been shown to have positive effects on preventing maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. Studies show that use of micronutrient fortified supplementary foods, especially those containing milk and/or essential fatty acids during pregnancy, increase mean birthweight by around 60-73 g. A few studies have also shown that fortified supplementary foods have impacts on increasing birth length and reducing preterm delivery. Fortification levels have ranged generally from 50% to 100% of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Iron, zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, C, B1, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, niacin and pantothenic acid are important nutrients that have been included in fortified beverages and supplemental foods for pregnant and lactating women. While calcium has been shown to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and maternal mortality, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and manganese can have negative impacts on organoleptic properties, so many products tested have not included these nutrients or have done so in a limited way. Fortified food supplements containing milk and essential fatty acids offer benefits to improving maternal status and pregnancy outcome. Fortified beverages containing only multiple micronutrients have been shown to reduce micronutrient deficiencies such as anaemia and iron deficiency.

  8. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults--A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-02-15

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller.

  9. 48 CFR 49.109-6 - Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contract, (3) apportion the total amount of the settlement among the several contracts on some reasonable... ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-6 Joint... different contracts, even though the contracts are with different contracting offices or agencies. In...

  10. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status.

  11. Pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC quantification of folic acid in fortified wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Michel Mozeika; Marchioni, Eric; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Zhao, Minjie; Zimmermann, Pierre; El-Khoury, Etienne; Bergaentzle, Martine

    2012-08-08

    A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method using phosphate buffer as solvent was applied for folic acid (FA) extraction from fortified wheat flours and was compared to a standard solid-liquid extraction (SLE) method. Extracted FA was quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) hyphenated with a phenyl column and an absorption photometric detector (λ = 280 nm). Detection and quantification limits were 0.12 and 0.4 ng, respectively, corresponding to 0.06 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of analyzed wheat flour. Equivalent FA contents were found by both extraction methods, but a single PLE allowed a total recovery of FA content, whereas at least three successive SLEs were needed to achieve a total recovery of FA. The obtained results indicated that PLE is a rapid and efficient technique for FA extraction from fortified wheat flour.

  12. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports.

  13. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  14. Rapid measurement of phytosterols in fortified food using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Duong, Samantha; Strobel, Norbert; Buddhadasa, Saman; Stockham, Katherine; Auldist, Martin; Wales, Bill; Orbell, John; Cran, Marlene

    2016-11-15

    A novel method for the measurement of total phytosterols in fortified food was developed and tested using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Unlike existing methods, this technique is capable of simultaneously extracting sterols during saponification thus significantly reducing extraction time and cost. The rapid method is suitable for sterol determination in a range of complex fortified foods including milk, cheese, fat spreads, oils and meat. The main enhancements of this new method include accuracy and precision, robustness, cost effectiveness and labour/time efficiencies. To achieve these advantages, quantification and the critical aspects of saponification were investigated and optimised. The final method demonstrated spiked recoveries in multiple matrices at 85-110% with a relative standard deviation of 1.9% and measurement uncertainty value of 10%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lunar settlements - A socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Factors in the design and development of a lunar settlement (LS) which affect the performance of the crew members are discussed. Topics examined include LS-program time constraints imposed by decisions made in developing and operating the Space Station; changes to make allowance for the long-term requirements of LSs; the design of the physical, technical, and organic LS environment; and the vital role of group dynamics in assuring LS success. It is suggested that many short-term cost-minimization strategies employed in spacecraft development may be inappropriate for LS programs.

  16. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    PubMed Central

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Subjects/setting Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Statistical analysis Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Results Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%±8%, 28%±5%, and 31%±9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Conclusions Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium. PMID:19394469

  17. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    PubMed

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  18. Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM).

    PubMed

    Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A

    1996-06-01

    Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p < 0.003) in women who consumed CCM-AJ (42 +/- 2%) than those who consumed CCM-OJ (36 +/- 1%). Ca retention in dogs was 15 +/- 1% for CCM-OJ and 29 +/- 2% for CCM-AJ (p < 0.001). Ca retention was significantly different (p < 0.05) in rats administered milk (42 +/- 2%), CCM-OJ (52 +/- 2%), or CCM-AJ (61 +/- 2%). By manipulating the carbohydrate and organic acid concentrations of test solutions to mimic the composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.

  19. Chemical properties and sensory quality of ice cream fortified with fish protein.

    PubMed

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, Jose E.; Marchini, J. Sergio; Lamounier, Joel; Almeida, Carlos A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. PMID:21826263

  1. [Physical and chemical stability of fortified ophtalmic ready-to-use solutions: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Sourdeau, P; Evrard, J-M; Remy, G; Hecq, J-D

    2012-03-01

    Ophtalmic infections and inflammations are often encountered during hospitalization. They require the preparation of "fortified" ophtalmic solutions, i.e. pharmaceutical ophtalmic solutions which are hyperconcentrated in active substance. The data of physicochemical stabilities are modified and it is therefore essential to gather the results of the various publications devoted to this subject. In 2006, an initial literature review was undertaken to identify the molecules mostly used in the preparation of fortified ophtalmic solutions in hospital. A second review of the literature in 2010 has enriched the knowledge about it. Two new drugs have entered the summary table: amikacin and ticarcillin disodium. Date on 12 molecules already known in 2006 were updated to improve clinical practices. A review of the literature was undertaken in order to collect the results of the molecules mostly used for the preparation of the fortified ophtalmic solutions in hospitals. A summary table, indicating the active substance, its concentration, the assay method, the storage temperature and physicochemical modifications, presents all the results. This review of literature makes it possible to match stability and validity period to these preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 38802 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation AGENCY... a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Trinity... hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning...

  3. Settlement for Peru women's rights case.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    On March 6, 2000, the Peruvian government accepted international responsibility for the rape of a poor indigenous woman by a doctor in the country's public health care system. This rare concession--and the settlement--represent a striking victory for the victim and for abused and oppressed women in Latin America who rarely receive acknowledgement of their rights. The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP), along with the Latin America and Caribbean Committee for the Defense of Women's Rights and the Center for Justice and International Law, reached a settlement after bringing this first-of-its-kind women's human rights case before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. The government agreed to provide the victim, Marina Machaca, with psychological care for as long as she needs, as well as land and materials to build a house and property in a public marketplace to sell her wares. In addition, the doctor who raped her was dismissed. Peruvian officials also agree to study the creation of centers for sexual abuse victims, and to review and implement proposals to revamp the health service and judiciary systems in regard to women throughout their country. Luisa Cabal is the CRLP staff attorney who represented Machaca in this international arena.

  4. The Bronson Settlement Review: Year Four, 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; Nieman, Ronald W.

    School year 1987-88 marked the mid-point of the seven-year desegregation settlement for the Cincinnati (Ohio) Public Schools. This report presents data from a review of progress that was provided for in the Bronson Settlement Agreement, answers plaintiff questions, and addresses district concerns. The following subjects are discussed: (1) progress…

  5. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a) An...

  6. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a) An...

  7. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a) An...

  8. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a) An...

  9. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a) An...

  10. 48 CFR 2449.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... settlements. 2449.111 Section 2449.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 2449.111 Review of proposed... independent review of proposed termination settlements in excess of $100,000. ...

  11. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible changes—HUD-1. The...) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology, sequence, and numbering of line items as...

  12. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible changes—HUD-1. The...) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology, sequence, and numbering of line items as...

  13. The Impact of the Master Settlement Agreement on Cigarette Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Trogdon, Justin G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, 46 states and the four major tobacco companies signed the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which stipulated that the tobacco companies pay states $206 billion over 25 years and take steps to reduce youth smoking. The remaining states settled separately. We sought to determine the effect of the settlements on demand for cigarettes. Using…

  14. 29 CFR 101.33 - Initiation of formal action; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of formal action; settlement. 101.33 Section 101.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Jurisdictional Dispute Cases Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 101.33 Initiation of formal action; settlement. If...

  15. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be made...

  16. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be made...

  17. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be made...

  18. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be made...

  19. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be made...

  20. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  1. 32 CFR 536.58 - Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Settlement negotiations with unrepresented... Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants. All aspects of the applicable law and procedure, except... chronology and details of negotiations should be memorialized with a written record furnished to the claimant...

  2. 32 CFR 536.58 - Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement negotiations with unrepresented... Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants. All aspects of the applicable law and procedure, except... chronology and details of negotiations should be memorialized with a written record furnished to the claimant...

  3. 32 CFR 536.58 - Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Settlement negotiations with unrepresented... Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants. All aspects of the applicable law and procedure, except... chronology and details of negotiations should be memorialized with a written record furnished to the claimant...

  4. 32 CFR 536.58 - Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Settlement negotiations with unrepresented... Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants. All aspects of the applicable law and procedure, except... chronology and details of negotiations should be memorialized with a written record furnished to the claimant...

  5. 32 CFR 536.58 - Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlement negotiations with unrepresented... Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants. All aspects of the applicable law and procedure, except... chronology and details of negotiations should be memorialized with a written record furnished to the claimant...

  6. 48 CFR 849.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 849.111 Section 849.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.111 Review of proposed settlements....

  7. 48 CFR 949.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 949.111 Section 949.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 949.111 Review of proposed settlements. (a) The...

  8. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining from MARAD the availability of funds, the Agent is authorized to settle individual claims of a P&I insurance... of such P&I insurance claims, and shall settle such claims only when the settlement is adequately...

  9. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining from MARAD the availability of funds, the Agent is authorized to settle individual claims of a P&I insurance... of such P&I insurance claims, and shall settle such claims only when the settlement is adequately...

  10. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining from MARAD the availability of funds, the Agent is authorized to settle individual claims of a P&I insurance... of such P&I insurance claims, and shall settle such claims only when the settlement is adequately...

  11. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining from MARAD the availability of funds, the Agent is authorized to settle individual claims of a P&I insurance... of such P&I insurance claims, and shall settle such claims only when the settlement is adequately...

  12. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining from MARAD the availability of funds, the Agent is authorized to settle individual claims of a P&I insurance... of such P&I insurance claims, and shall settle such claims only when the settlement is adequately...

  13. 15 CFR 25.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Government is not with the Office of General Counsel, the representative shall forward all settlement offers... as directed by the reviewing official. (c) The authority head has exclusive authority to compromise... recommend settlement terms to the reviewing official, the authority head, or the Attorney General, as...

  14. The Bronson Settlement Review: Year Four, 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; Nieman, Ronald W.

    School year 1987-88 marked the mid-point of the seven-year desegregation settlement for the Cincinnati (Ohio) Public Schools. This report presents data from a review of progress that was provided for in the Bronson Settlement Agreement, answers plaintiff questions, and addresses district concerns. The following subjects are discussed: (1) progress…

  15. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime...

  16. 32 CFR 537.18 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 537.18 Section 537.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.18 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  17. 42 CFR 422.762 - Settlement of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement of penalties. 422.762 Section 422.762 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Settlement of penalties. For civil money penalties imposed by CMS, CMS may settle civil money penalty...

  18. 42 CFR 423.762 - Settlement of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement of penalties. 423.762 Section 423.762 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 423.762 Settlement of penalties. For civil money penalties imposed by CMS, CMS may settle civil...

  19. Working with Newcomers: A Guide for Immigration and Settlement Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Immigration Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This guide is a national reference document that gives immigration and settlement workers access to concepts and printed materials than can help them do their jobs. Its purpose is to help immigration and settlement workers respond appropriately to newcomers' problems and questions as they concern Canada's customs, institutions and public behavior.…

  20. 31 CFR 16.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compromise or settlement. 16.46 Section 16.46 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may make...

  1. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  2. 42 CFR 93.409 - Settlement of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.409 Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. (a) HHS may settle...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  4. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  5. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  6. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  7. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  8. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amendment related to settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related...

  9. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  10. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  11. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1024 Real Estate Settlement... RIN 3170-AA06 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) rulemaking authority for the Real Estate...

  12. 31 CFR 535.441 - Settlement Agreement regarding small claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, approving and giving effect to the Settlement Agreement in Claims...”), constitutes a determination by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal of all claims encompassed therein within... Stat. 437, applicable to en bloc settlements of claims of U.S. nationals against Iran. (b) Pursuant to...

  13. 31 CFR 535.441 - Settlement Agreement regarding small claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, approving and giving effect to the Settlement Agreement in Claims...”), constitutes a determination by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal of all claims encompassed therein within... Stat. 437, applicable to en bloc settlements of claims of U.S. nationals against Iran. (b) Pursuant to...

  14. Measuring Quality of Life in Informal Settlements in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Robin; O'Leary, Brian; Mutsonziwa, Kingstone

    2007-01-01

    South African cities attract thousands of new residents every year in search of work and a better life. The housing backlog coupled with a shortage of housing subsidies means that for many South Africans there is no alternative but to live in informal housing and shack settlements. Informal settlements are therefore here to stay for the next…

  15. Settlement Unit. Using Primary Sources in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Dept. of Archives and History, Montgomery.

    This teaching unit, "Settlement Unit,"which focuses on the settlement of Alabama's land, is the second in a series of 10 units about Alabama state history, part of a project designed to help teachers integrate the use of primary source materials into their classrooms. Although the units are designed to augment the study of Alabama, they…

  16. The Impact of the Master Settlement Agreement on Cigarette Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Trogdon, Justin G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, 46 states and the four major tobacco companies signed the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which stipulated that the tobacco companies pay states $206 billion over 25 years and take steps to reduce youth smoking. The remaining states settled separately. We sought to determine the effect of the settlements on demand for cigarettes. Using…

  17. Measuring Quality of Life in Informal Settlements in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Robin; O'Leary, Brian; Mutsonziwa, Kingstone

    2007-01-01

    South African cities attract thousands of new residents every year in search of work and a better life. The housing backlog coupled with a shortage of housing subsidies means that for many South Africans there is no alternative but to live in informal housing and shack settlements. Informal settlements are therefore here to stay for the next…

  18. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  19. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  20. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  1. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  2. 43 CFR 29.9 - Claims, settlement and adjudication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims, settlement and adjudication. 29.9 Section 29.9 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE LIABILITY FUND § 29.9 Claims, settlement and adjudication. (a)(1) Claims in accordance with this section may...

  3. 43 CFR 29.9 - Claims, settlement and adjudication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims, settlement and adjudication. 29.9 Section 29.9 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE LIABILITY FUND § 29.9 Claims, settlement and adjudication. (a)(1) Claims in accordance with this section may...

  4. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial settlements. 49.109-5 Section 49.109-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should attempt...

  5. 48 CFR 449.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 449.111 Section 449.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 449.111 Review of proposed settlements. Proposed...

  6. 48 CFR 49.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 49.111 Section 49.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.111 Review of proposed settlements. Each...

  7. 48 CFR 1449.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 1449.111 Section 1449.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 1449.111 Review of proposed settlements...

  8. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation memorandum. 49.110 Section 49.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum...

  9. 48 CFR 49.109-4 - No-cost settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No-cost settlement. 49.109-4 Section 49.109-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-4 No-cost settlement. The TCO shall execute a...

  10. 48 CFR 949.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 949.111 Section 949.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 949.111 Review of proposed settlements. (a) The Heads...

  11. 48 CFR 849.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 849.111 Section 849.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.111 Review of proposed settlements. ...

  12. 29 CFR 1614.603 - Voluntary settlement attempts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary settlement attempts. 1614.603 Section 1614.603 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Matters of General Applicability § 1614.603 Voluntary settlement attempts...

  13. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) In general. A qualified settlement fund is a fund, account, or trust that satisfies the requirements..., it is classified as a qualified settlement fund for all purposes of the Code. (c) Requirements. A fund, account, or trust satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (c) if— (1) It is...

  14. 29 CFR 2570.65 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.65 Section 2570.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence upon which to...

  15. 29 CFR 2570.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.6 Section 2570.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... whether he shall sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence...

  16. 29 CFR 2570.65 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.65 Section 2570.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence upon which to...

  17. 29 CFR 2570.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.6 Section 2570.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... whether he shall sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.6 Section 2570.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... whether he shall sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence...

  19. 29 CFR 2571.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2571.6 Section 2571.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... objections whether to sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.65 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.65 Section 2570.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence upon which to...