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Sample records for fortified settlement central

  1. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  2. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  3. Fortifying the Foundations: U.S. Support for Developing and Strengthening Democracy in East Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Mark, Ed.

    The East Central Europe Information Exchange collects and disseminates information on exchange and training programs undertaken with American private and governmental funding. This study focused on programs related to democratization and civil society. An introductory section defines the parameters, background, and research methodology; lists the…

  4. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea. PMID:24765573

  5. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea. PMID:24765573

  6. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea.

  7. Human Settlements in the South-Central U.S., Viewed at Night from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa; Evans, Cynthia; Stefanov, William; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Willis, Kimberly; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A recent innovation of astronauts observing Earth from the International Space Station (ISS) is documenting human footprints by photographing city lights at night time. One of the earliest night-time images from the ISS was the US-Mexico border at El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. The colors, patterns and density of city lights document the differences in the cultural settlement patterns across the border region, as well as within the urban areas themselves. City lights help outline the most populated areas in settlements around the world, and can be used to explore relative population densities, changing patterns of urban/suburban development, transportation networks, spatial relationship to geographic features, and more. The data also provides insight into parameters such as surface roughness for input into local and regional climate modeling and studies of light pollution. The ground resolution of night-time astronaut photography from the ISS is typically an order of magnitude greater than current Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data, and therefore can serve as a "zoom lens" for selected urban areas. Current handheld digital cameras in use on the ISS, optimized for greater light sensitivity, provide opportunities to obtain new detailed imagery of atmospheric phenomena such as airglow, aurora, and noctilucent clouds in addition to documenting urban patterns. ISS astronauts have taken advantage of increasingly sensitive digital cameras to document the world at night in unprecedented detail. In addition, the capability to obtain time-lapse imagery from fixed cameras has been exploited to produce dynamic videos of both changing surface patterns around the world and atmospheric phenomena. We will profile some spectacular images of human settlements over the South-Central U.S., and contrast with other images from around the world. More data can be viewed at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/Videos/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/. US-Mexico border is obvious by the different

  8. Evidences of Paleoearthquakes in Palaeolithic settlements within fluvial sequences of the Tagus Basin (Madrid, Central Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pablo G.; Rodríguez Pascua, M. A.; Pérez López, R.; Giner Robles, J. L.; Roquero, E.; Tapias, F.; López Recio, M.; Rus, I.; Morin, J.

    2010-05-01

    Multiple evidences of soft-sediment to brittle deformation within the Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Tagus, Jarama, Tajuña and Manzanares river valleys have been described since the middle 20th Century. Cryoturbation, hydroplastic deformations due to underlying karstic collapses or halokinesis on the substratum of neogene gypsums, and seismic shaking have been proposed to interpret these structures. These deformations are typically concentrated in the +18-20 m terrace levels, and closely linked to well-known Palaeolithic sites, in some cases overlaying and/or affecting true prehistoric settlements (i.e. Arganda, Arriaga and Tafesa sites) within the Jarama and Manzanares valleys. The affected settlements typically display acheulian lithic industry linked to the scavenging of large Pleistocene mammals (i.e. Elephas antiquus). Commonly, deformational structures are concentrated in relatively thin horizons (10-50 cm thick) bracketed by undeformed fluvial sands and gravels. The soft-sediment deformations usually consist on medium to fine sized sands injected and protruded in overlaying flood-plain clayey silts, showing a wide variety of convolutes, injections, sand-dikes, dish and pillar structures, mud volcanoes, faults and folds, some times it is possible to undertake their 3D geometrical analysis due to the exceptional conservation of the structures (Tafesa). Recent geo-archaeological prospecting on the for the Palaeolithic Site of Arriaga (South Madrid City) conducted during the year 2009, let to find out an exceptional horizon of deformation of about 1.20 m thick. It consisted on highly disturbed and pervasively liquefacted sands, which hardly can be attributed to no-seismic processes. The acheulian lithic industry of the Madrid Region have been classically attributed the Late Middle Pleistocene (< 350 kyr BP), but recent OSL dating indicate that the basal horizons of the +18-20 m fluvial terraces hold ages younger than c.a. 120-100 kyr BP in this zone. All

  9. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. PMID:17825358

  10. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  11. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Update Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions ...

  13. Settlement patterns, GIS, remote sensing, and the late prehistory of the Black Prairie in east central Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jay K.

    1991-01-01

    Data recovered as the result of a recent field project designed to test a model of the distribution of protohistoric settlement in an unusual physiographic zone in eastern Mississippi are examined using GIS based techniques to manipulate soil and stream distance information. Significant patterning is derived. The generally thin soils and uniform substratum of the Black Prairie in combination with a distinctive settlement pattern offer a promising opportunity for the search for site specific characteristics within airborne imagery. Landsat TM data provide information on modern ground cover which is used as a mask to select areas in which a multivariate search for archaeological site signatures within a TIMS image is most likely to prove fruitful.

  14. The Islinger Mühlbach Fen (Central Bavaria, Germany) as an archive for the reconstruction of natural and anthropogenic environmental change within a prehistoric settlement area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Alexandra; Völkel, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Situated within the prehistoric settlement area Burgweinting (City of Regensburg, Central Bavaria, Germany), the peat deposits of the Islinger Mühlbach Fen provide the possibility to obtain information about natural and anthropogenic induced environmental change. The fen lies in close proximity to the archaeological excavation site in Burgweinting, which documents an almost continuous settlement history since the Neolithic Period. Primarily, palaeoenvironmental investigations were carried out to reveal past settlement conditions and human impact on the environment. The main study object is a topogenic mire at a small creek (Islinger Mühlbach) which lies in about 500 - 1000 m distance in southward direction from the archaeological excavation site. The spatial extent and peat stratigraphy of the topogenic mire was investigated by manual drillings. The base of the 362 cm long peat profile 7038-302 from the centre of the mire was radiocarbon dated to 12150 ±78 a BP (Erl-7516, 337-338 cm sediment depth). This age proves a start of peat formation during the Late Glacial and therefore, this peat profile contains the complete settlement history since that time. Based on this information two further peat profiles were gained in the middle part of the mire with a Russian peat sampler. Another three sediment cores were drilled at the margin of the mire with percussion drilling using plastic liners. These three sediment sequences have peat/colluvial-interbeddings which prove alternating periods of peat growth on the mire and soil erosion on the adjacent hillslope. The analyses of the sequences comprise stratigraphic, geoechemical and microscopic charcoal analyses. For chronological information, radiocarbon dating was conducted on a total of ten assays. Thus, the first long-term fire record was reconstructed from the investigation area and the results were correlated, based on radiocarbon dating, with the available environmental information and settlement history in

  15. Biological ancestries, kinship connections, and projected identities in four central Anatolian settlements: insights from culturally contextualized genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Ömer; Gultekin, Timur; Alakoc, Yesim Dogan; Tug, Aysim; Gulec, Erksin; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    Previous population genetics studies in Turkey failed to delineate recent historical and social factors that shaped Anatolian cultural and genetic diversity at the local level. To address this shortcoming, we conducted focused ethnohistorical fieldwork and screened biological samples collected from the Yuksekyer region for mitochondrial, Y chromosome, and autosomal markers and then analyzed the data within an ethnohistorical context. Our results revealed that, at the village level, paternal genetic diversity is structured among settlements, whereas maternal genetic diversity is distributed more homogenously, reflecting the strong patrilineal cultural traditions that transcend larger ethnic and religious structures. Local ancestries and origin myths, rather than ethnic or religious affiliations, delineate the social boundaries and projected identities among the villages. Therefore, we conclude that broad, ethnicity-based sampling is inadequate to capture the genetic signatures of recent social and historical dynamics, which have had a profound influence on contemporary genetic and cultural regional diversity.

  16. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  17. Viatical settlements: ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Greipp, M E

    1999-01-01

    Viatical settlements are new within the last decade. A settlement contract is a written agreement between a viator (terminally ill person) and an independent viatical settlement company. The company purchases the viator's life insurance policy before the person expires, paying a designated percentage of the policy's worth in exchange for ownership of the policy and beneficiary rights. The viatical settlement company assumes the responsibility for paying the premiums on the policy until the death of the viator. Settlement or proceeds to the viator typically average between 50 and 80 percent of the face value of the policy. This article examines the ethical ramifications of viatical settlements.

  18. A multi-proxy record of hydroclimate, vegetation, fire, and post-settlement impacts for a subalpine plateau, Central Rocky Mountains U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Brunelle, Andrea; Thompson, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Apparent changes in vegetation distribution, fire, and other disturbance regimes throughout western North America have prompted investigations of the relative importance of human activities and climate change as potential causal mechanisms. Assessing the effects of Euro-American settlement is difficult because climate changes occur on multi-decadal to centennial time scales and require longer time perspectives than historic observations can provide. Here, we report vegetation and environmental changes over the past ~13,000 years as recorded in a sediment record from Bison Lake, a subalpine lake on a high plateau in northwestern Colorado. Results are based on multiple independent proxies, which include pollen, charcoal, and elemental geochemistry, and are compared with previously reported interpretations of hydroclimatic changes from oxygen isotope ratios. The pollen data indicate a slowly changing vegetation sequence from sagebrush steppe during the late glacial to coniferous forest through the late Holocene. The most dramatic vegetation changes of the Holocene occurred during the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (MCA) and ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) with rapid replacement of conifer forest by grassland followed by an equally rapid return to conifer forest. Late Holocene vegetation responses are mirrored by changes in fire, lake biological productivity, and watershed erosion. These combined records indicate that subsequent disturbance related to Euro-American settlement, although perhaps significant, had acted upon a landscape that was already responding to MCA-LIA hydroclimatic change. Results document both rapid and long-term subalpine grassland ecosystem dynamics driven by agents of change that can be anticipated in the future and simulated by ecosystem models.

  19. Fortified juice drink improved iron and zinc status of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R; Capanzana, Mario V

    2011-01-01

    Energy and micronutrient deficiency remain prevalent among Filipino children. Juice drinks are commonly consumed and could be a viable vehicle for fortification to supplement the nutrient gap. This study determined the effects of a newly developed non-carbonated fortified juice drink on the iron, zinc and nutritional status of schoolchildren. One hundred randomly selected anemic children were randomly allocated into two groups in a doubly-masked placebo controlled manner: Group 1 received the fortified juice, Group 2 received the non-fortified juice for 100 days, five days a week under strict supervision. The juice drink was fortified with vitamin A, zinc, iron, vitamin C and lysine. The non-fortified juice was fortified only with vitamin C. All children were dewormed prior to the intervention. Hemoglobin, plasma ferritin and plasma zinc, weight and height were assessed using standard methods before and after intervention. A two-day 24-hour food recall was also collected. The basal prevalence of anemia was significantly reduced in both the fortified group (100% to 13%) and the non-fortified group (100% to 40%) at endline. The mean plasma ferritin levels were similar in both groups at baseline and endline. At endline, mean plasma zinc in the fortified group has significantly increased by 20 μg/dL from a baseline value of 83.9 μg/dL to 103.9 μg/dL, while the non-fortified group remained at similar levels with baseline. Basal weight and height significantly increased among all children at endline. The fortified juice drink was effective in reducing the prevalence of anemia and improved the zinc status of children. PMID:22094838

  20. Stability of oryzanol fortified biscuits on storage.

    PubMed

    Prasanth Kumar, P K; Sai Manohar, R; Indiramma, A R; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2014-10-01

    Biscuit can be used as a functional food to deliver nutraceuticals to consumers. One such natural nutraceutical oryzanol is present in rice bran oil. Oryzanol possesses a variety of health benefits which include reduction of cholesterol in blood, improvement of capillary action of blood vessels, anti-aging effect and others. Biscuit is a well known cereal based processed food and the fortification of oryzanol into the biscuits will go a long way to provide antioxidant rich, highly stable and acceptable functional food to the consumers. Biscuits were prepared with commercially available fat (CF) and oryzanol fortified fat (OFF). The control biscuits (CB) and oryzanol fortified biscuits (OFB) were packed in 200 gauge polypropylene pouches, stored at 27 °C with different relative humidity (RH 11 %, 22 %, 32 %, 44 % and 56 %) and analysed for its stability during storage of 120 days. Critical moisture content of OFB (4.8 %) was slightly less than that of CB (5.3 %). The fat content of the CB (12.2 %) and OFB (12.5 %) did not change during storage while free fatty acid content (0.36 % and 0.60 %) and peroxide value (0.08 and 0.17 meq. O2/100 g biscuit) respectively for CB and OFFB was showed small but significant changes during storage. Oryzanol content (292 mg) and radical scavenging activity (81.1 %) of OFB did not change during storage. The biscuits had a shelf life of minimum 3 months at 27 °C. Oryzanol in OFB showed good stability during baking and storage of biscuits.

  1. Structural and compositional investigation of ancient ceramics from a fortified settlement in south-western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponta, O.; Vulpoi, A.; Zirra, V. V.; Simon, S.

    2016-10-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary study focused on investigation of pottery fragments collected from the foundation of the wall of protohistoric site La Cetate, Bazdana village, Romania, close to the river Danube, dated towards the end of fourth century BC. The occurrence of pottery pieces under walls of that times is related to the foundation ritual. The samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. The characterization of the samples includes chemical composition and microstructural properties imposed by processing conditions. They are slightly calcareous ceramic matrices. The identified crystalline phases are preponderantly quartz, with plagioclase, mica, wollastonite and magnetite. The results indicate that the possible firing temperature in air could be above 1100 °C, or lower - if the artisans used reducing atmosphere, that is impressive for that times.

  2. Model for mapping settlements

    DOEpatents

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  3. 48 CFR 49.108 - Settlement of subcontract settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement of subcontract settlement proposals. 49.108 Section 49.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108 Settlement of...

  4. Fortified sera and their use in environmental virology.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, J L; Margolin, A B

    2000-05-01

    Four commercially available fortified sera were compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) with regard to their ability to maintain or increase the sensitivity of the Buffalo green monkey (BGM) kidney cell line to viral infection. Nine virus strains and five wastewater samples were used. Fortified sera were comparable to FBS for the enumeration of some viruses by the plaque method and for the detection of virus in wastewater by the most-probable-number assay.

  5. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  6. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  7. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  8. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  9. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  10. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  11. Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Brian E; Mallory, J P

    2004-07-01

    Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Täklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road.

  12. Adverse reaction to lupine-fortified pasta.

    PubMed

    Hefle, S L; Lemanske, R F; Bush, R K

    1994-08-01

    A 5-year-old girl with peanut sensitivity experienced urticaria and angioedema after ingesting a spaghetti-like pasta fortified with sweet lupine seed flour. The pasta was extracted and used in immunologic studies in patients with peanut sensitivity to determine whether such individuals are at similar risk. Results of skin prick tests with the lupine pasta extract were positive in five of seven subjects; these patients also reported a history of adverse reactions to green peas. In direct RAST studies IgE binding from pooled sera from patients with peanut sensitivity to the lupine pasta extract was 7 times that of a nonallergic control serum, and individual serum samples demonstrated binding from 1 to 6 times that of the negative control. Direct RAST studies of lupine seed flour with serum samples from patients with peanut allergy demonstrated IgE binding 1 to 11 times that of the negative control. Immunoblotting studies of electrophoretically separated pasta extract and lupine seed flour proteins showed IgE-binding protein bands at approximately 21 kd and in the range of 35 to 55 kd molecular weight. We conclude that some peanut-sensitive patients may be at risk for adverse reactions to lupine.

  13. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  14. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  15. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  16. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  17. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  18. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  19. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  20. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  1. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  2. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  3. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  4. 17 CFR 39.14 - Settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... times of extreme market volatility. (c) Settlement banks. A derivatives clearing organization shall... liquidity pressures in the event that the settlement bank with the largest share of settlement activity...

  5. 17 CFR 39.14 - Settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... times of extreme market volatility. (c) Settlement banks. A derivatives clearing organization shall... liquidity pressures in the event that the settlement bank with the largest share of settlement activity...

  6. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  7. Settlement Institutions in Southern Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Loren W.

    The survey catalogs 45 Southern Appalachia settlement institutions representing 257 counties in parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. "A Settlement Institution of the Southern Appalachians is a private, non-profit, rural organization in the Southern Appalachians…

  8. 10 CFR 851.41 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 851.41 Section 851.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Enforcement Process § 851.41 Settlement. (a) DOE encourages settlement of a proceeding under this subpart at any time if the settlement is consistent with this part....

  9. 10 CFR 12.305 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 12.305 Section 12.305 Energy NUCLEAR... Considering Applications § 12.305 Settlement. The applicant and the NRC counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of...

  10. 76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments... Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at...

  11. 76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments... Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at...

  12. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  13. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  14. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  15. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  16. Review of the cost components of introducing industrially fortified rice.

    PubMed

    Roks, Eveline

    2014-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Fortification of staple foods with multiple micronutrients is a cost-effective strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. The objective of this paper is to review the cost elements of industrially fortified rice by identifying the costs related to the implementation of rice fortification programs, using the experience of the United Nations World Food Programme in its pilot countries. The actual total costs of rice fortification are not easily captured. Core cost elements include the production of fortified rice kernels, transportation to the point of blending, blending of fortified with unfortified rice, costs related to sales or distribution, quality control and assurance, and additional planning. In the introduction phase, organizations or coalitions seeking to advance rice fortification will face additional costs related to the initiation of rice fortification. In the scale-up phase, greater efficiency in the supply chain and economies of scale can be expected. Different cost elements are normally borne by different stakeholders. This makes the implementation of rice fortification programs a feasible option to reach vulnerable populations with inadequate access to affordable nutrition solutions. PMID:24961588

  17. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. PMID:24262528

  18. How appropriate are commercially available human milk fortifiers?

    PubMed

    Metcalf, R; Dilena, B; Gibson, R; Marshall, P; Simmer, K

    1994-08-01

    A preliminary investigation was made into the effectiveness of two breastmilk fortifiers on the Australian market (FM-85 [Nestlé, Vevey, Switzerland] and Enfamil Human Milk Fortifier [EHMF; Mead Johnson, Evansville, IN, USA]). Infants < 1800 g and < 34 weeks gestation at birth, who were receiving breast milk, were randomized to receive either of the fortifiers (n = 14 for FM-85, n = 10 for EHMF), until a weight of 2 kg was reached. Infants not receiving breast milk (n = 9) were fed a preterm formula (Prenan, Nestlé). The two fortifier groups were similar in most parameters examined: (i) weight gain (17.9 +/- 3.0 vs 17.4 +/- 3.5 g/kg per day); (ii) head circumference growth (1.02 +/- 0.28 vs 1.03 +/- 0.25 cm/week); (iii) arm muscle area growth (32.6 +/- 20.0 vs 33.5 +/- 13.7 mm2/week); (iv) arm fat area growth (14.0 +/- 8.7 mm2/week); (v) plasma calcium (2.52 +/- 0.08 vs 2.58 +/- 0.15 mmol/L); (vi) plasma phosphate (2.02 +/- 0.21 vs 2.13 +/- 0.32 mmol/L); (vii) plasma copper (5.28 +/- 2.83 vs 5.66 +/- 3.07 mumol/L); and (vii) plasma zinc (13.3 +/- 5.5 vs 15.8 +/- 9.2 mumol/L). The FM-85 group had a higher alkaline phosphatase level (355 +/- 110 vs 231 +/- 70 iu/L) than the EHMF group; however, no values were outside the normal range. The Prenan group had a higher rate of weight gain (23.6 +/- 3.3 g/kg per day) and higher arm fat area growth rate (25.2 +/- 7.6 mm2/week) than the fortifier groups while all other parameters were similar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Steps toward lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The costs of transporting people and material to low-earth-orbit (LEO), and thence to the lunar surface, will constrain the pace and pattern of lunar development. Beginning as a spartan ''base camp'' completely supplied from Earth, a lunar science-and-resource-development facility could grow in size, amenities, and capability to the point that passenger transport becomes a major expense. At such a stage, some employees of the facility might be given the opportunity to become permanent residents; and at that point, lunar settlement will have begun. We assume growth rates of facilities and staff contained by the annual delivery of 900 tons to LEO. During the base camp era, about 100 tons would be delivered annually to the lunar surface. Within six years, the facility could grow to a collection of 25 modules, housing a staff of about 16 with each member of the staff serving a six-month tour on a staggered schedule. At the end of this first phase, oxygen produced from lunar ilmenite and delivered to lunar orbit for use as propellant would allow annual lunar-bound cargos of about 200 tons. Production from lunar materials of heat shields for aerobraking would enable economical delivery of lunar oxygen to LEO and, therefore, could raise lunar-bound cargoes to about 450 tons. Accumulatin of production capabilities would eventually allow use of lunar construction materials, to build farms and increase per capita living and working space. Once closed-loop environmental systems are in place, transport costs are dominated by staff rotation and the facility is limited to a maximum staff size of about 300. Further expansion requires that some staff become permanent residents.

  20. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  1. 37 CFR 351.7 - Settlement conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.7 Settlement conference. A post-discovery settlement conference will be held among the participants, within 21 days after the close of discovery, outside of...

  2. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... CCC and CCC shall have no obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey...

  3. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respondent may withdraw his offer of settlement at any time before final acceptance by the disciplinary... offers. (a) The rules of an exchange may permit a respondent to submit a written offer of settlement to... committee may accept the offer of settlement, but may not alter its terms unless the respondent agrees....

  4. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans...

  5. 7 CFR 1951.213 - Debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.213 Section 1951.213 Agriculture... and Grants § 1951.213 Debt settlement. Subpart C of part 1956 of this chapter prescribes policies and procedures for debt settlement actions for loans covered under this subpart when it is determined that a...

  6. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans...

  7. 7 CFR 1951.213 - Debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debt settlement. 1951.213 Section 1951.213... Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.213 Debt settlement. Subpart C of part 1956 of this chapter prescribes policies and procedures for debt settlement actions for loans covered under this subpart when it...

  8. [Fortified food products as a potential source of folic acid in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Ewa; Pelc, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analysis the number and variety offoodproducts fortified with folic acid available on the Warsaw market and to assess consumers' knowledge about these products. Information about food products was based on label declaration, in summer 2009. In addition knowledge about fortified food was studied in the group of 94 market customers. There were 166 foodstuffs fortified with folic acid from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, wheat flour, fruit juices and drinks, sweets, margarine, instant cocoa and tea instant as well as milk products. Breakfast cereals and juices, nectars and fruit drinks were the largest groups. Less than half of market customers correctly defined term 'fortified product", less than 40% of respondents answered properly on question concerning folic acid. There is possibility to increase the folates intake by consuming various products fortified with folic acid. The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition.

  9. Influence of organic acids on rheological and bread-making characteristics of fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheetal; Shimray, Crassina A; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2012-06-01

    Flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous fumarate and folic acid. Organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid, which are promoters of iron bioavailability, were added at three levels and their influence on rheological and bread-making characteristics was studied. Farinograph water absorption increased with fortificants, but with addition of organic acids there was a decrease. Maximum pressure was 77 mm in control, which increased to 78-88 mm with the addition of different acids to the fortified flour. Addition of organic acids to fortified flour brought about a decrease in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback values. The L, a and b values of fortified breads were similar to that of control. Sensory analysis revealed marginal differences in the overall quality of breads prepared with fortified flour with the addition of organic acids.

  10. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    PubMed Central

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions. PMID:26904633

  12. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  13. Colorimetric determination of inorganic iodine in fortified culinary products.

    PubMed

    Perring, I; Basic-Dvorzak, M; Andrey, D

    2001-07-01

    The presented colorimetric procedure only requires simple laboratory equipment and is suitable as a routine procedure for checking concentrations of iodine in fortified culinary products. The Moxon and Dixon colorimetric procedure for iodine determination has been optimised for the determination of iodide and iodate in fortified culinary products, always containing high salt levels. The high sensitivity of the method permits a high dilution of the product solutions, thus reducing interferences from the inherent colour of the products. The calibration is linear in the range from 0 to 12 microg L(-1) of iodine with R2 > 0.99. A series of commercial culinary products were used to validate the method. Recoveries of iodine, added as iodide and/or iodate, were generally in the range 100+/-10%. High concentrations of chloride are essential to obtain a complete recovery of iodate. Limit of quantification was estimated to be 2 mg kg(-1) of product, based on 2-3 g of product. Concentrations of iodine determined with this method were similar to those obtained by an ICP-MS procedure.

  14. Effect of fortification with human milk fortifier (HMF) and other fortifying agents on the osmolality of preterm breast milk.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ramesh; Singal, Ashwani; Aggarwal, Rajiv; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of fortification with human milk fortifier (HMF), low birth weight (LBW) formula and coconut oil, initially and upon subsequent storage, on the osmolality of preterm breast milk. Milk samples (n = 48) were collected from mothers (n = 25) delivered at 34 pounds weeks and fortified with HMF (Lactodex-HMF), LBW formula (Lactodex-LBW) and edible coconut oil. Osmolality was measured before and after fortification and after 6 hours,.The gestation and birth weight (median) was 31 (range 29-32) weeks and 1198 (range 716-1478) grams. The median (range) postnatal age at testing was 15 days (range 3-60 days). There was a significant increase in osmolality of breast milk (302.3 +/- l.82) after addition of HMF (392.9 +/- 3.01) and LBW formula (390.5 +/- 2.4). There was no change in osmolality with addition of coconut oil (304 +/- 1.6). There was no further change in the osmolality after 6 hours of storage at 4 degrees C. PMID:14767087

  15. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  16. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  17. [Food fortified with vitamins: the history and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The recommended daily intakes of vitamins in different countries have been compared. The data on consumption of vitamins and vitamin status are submitted. It is noted that since 2008 the values of recommended daily intakes of vitamin-antioxidants C and E and folate in Russia as in other countries has been significantly increased. The recommended vitamin D consumption in Russia has been increased 2-3-fold as in most European countries and USA, while vitamin A recommended intake, on the contrary, has been reduced by 10%. Monitoring of vitamin status of various groups of adult population (by vitamin serum blood level evaluation) during the period since 2003 to 2011 has shown that that since 2003 deficiency of B group vitamins takes place in 10-47% of surveyed, vitamin D insufficiency was detected in 20.7% of adults. Thus the deficiency of these micronutrients has been determined much more often than the deficit of vitamins E and C (2.8-11%). The key causes of vitamin deficiency among the population in current conditions have been discussed. The main ways of increasing of diet vitamin value by means of fortified foods usage or/and vitamin and mineral complexes intake have been considered. The effective and safe levels of food enrichment have been examined. Harmonized with the EU documents and Codex Alimentarius acting sanitary rules and regulations which govern the enrichment of food products of mass consumption with vitamins and minerals have been commented upon. The history of food enrichment (fortification) with vitamins and salt iodization in our country and abroad has been described. Basing on the experience of several countries in which the mandatory enrichment of regularly consumed food products (flour, breakfast cereals) had compensated inadequate intake of vitamin D, group B, iodine and iron to a large extent, the conclusion on the feasibility and health benefits of fortified foods intake has been done.

  18. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  19. A multimicronutrient-fortified seasoning powder enhances the hemoglobin, zinc, and iodine status of primary school children in North East Thailand: a randomized controlled trial of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Winichagoon, Pattanee; McKenzie, Joanne E; Chavasit, Visith; Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Manger, Mari S; Bailey, Karl B; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2006-06-01

    Anemia and co-existing deficiencies of zinc, iron, iodine, and vitamin A occur among children in many developing countries including NE Thailand, probably contributing to impairments in growth, immune competence, and cognition. Sustainable strategies are urgently required to combat these deficiencies. We assessed the efficacy of a micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder served with a school lunch on reducing anemia and improving the micronutrient status of rural NE Thai children. Children (n = 569) aged 5.5-13.4y from 10 schools were randomly assigned to receive a seasoning powder either unfortified or fortified with zinc (5 mg), iron (5 mg), vitamin A (270 microg), and iodine (50 microg) (per serving) and incorporated into a school lunch prepared centrally and delivered 5 d/wk for 31 wk. Teachers monitored school lunch consumption. Baseline and final micronutrient status, hemoglobinopathies, and infection or inflammation were assessed from blood and urine samples. For the primary outcome, anemia (based on hemoglobin), no intervention effect was apparent (odds ratio: 1.02 95% CI: 0.69, 1.51) after adjustment for design strata. The odds of zinc (based on serum zinc) and urinary iodine deficiency in the fortified group were 0.63 (0.42, 0.94) and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) times those in the unfortified group, respectively. Fortification had no effect on serum retinol (0.61: 0.25,1.51), ferritin (1.12: 0.43, 2.96), or mean red cell volume (1.16: 0.82, 1.64). Therefore, a micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder is a promising vehicle for improving zinc, iodine, and hemoglobin status, and its potential for incorporation into lunch programs in day care centers and schools in NE Thailand warrants investigation. PMID:16702330

  20. 'No Finer School Than a Settlement': The Development of the Educational Settlement Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes the establishment of British educational settlements, how they differed from better known social settlements, and how emphasis on education and non-residence set them apart from older institutions. Discusses the relationship of educational settlements among existing adult education facilities and Quaker colleges. (KDR)

  1. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in content of milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P < 0.01). These results imply that conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein. PMID:27386352

  2. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with

  3. 48 CFR 49.109 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement agreements. 49.109 Section 49.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109 Settlement agreements....

  4. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section 1.956 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences....

  5. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements....

  6. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  7. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement agreements. 536.63 Section 536.63 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.63 Settlement agreements. (a)...

  8. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  9. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  10. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  11. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  12. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement § 280.219 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be... action will be required by the administrative law judge. (b) Cases may also be settled after service of...

  13. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has...

  14. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has...

  15. 7 CFR 1786.32 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS Prepayment of RUS Guaranteed Federal Financing Bank Loans Pursuant to Section 306(A) of the RE Act § 1786.32 Settlement procedure. (a) General. Settlements in connection with prepaying FFB loans pursuant to...

  16. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.25 Settlement. Trustees may settle claims for natural resource... the injured natural resources and services. Sums recovered in settlement of such claims, other...

  17. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  18. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 719.19... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve...

  19. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  20. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  1. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any...

  2. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any...

  3. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any...

  4. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement. 511.26 Section 511.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Prehearing Procedures; Motions; Interlocutory Appeals; Summary Judgment; Settlement §...

  5. 39 CFR 3030.40 - Policy on settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... settlement. It shall be the general policy and practice of the Commission to encourage alternative dispute resolution and settlement of complaints by informal procedures, such as correspondence, conferences...

  6. 39 CFR 3030.40 - Policy on settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... settlement. It shall be the general policy and practice of the Commission to encourage alternative dispute resolution and settlement of complaints by informal procedures, such as correspondence, conferences...

  7. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  8. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  9. Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, A.L.O.; Campari, J.S.

    1996-02-01

    Presents and analyzes the largest and most complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. This landmark study presents the largest and most analytically complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. The authors examine the changing character of the Amazon frontier based on field surveys conducted during twenty years of settlement experience. By observing the economic behavior of small farmers from colonization during the 1970s until the chaotic aftermath of the early 1990s, the authors are able to pinpoint a central paradox: unsuccessful farmers tend to be unstable, moving on to new frontiers where they will again destroy forests. Successful farmers tend to increase deforestation in the places where they remain. The findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land cleared by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. Small farmers should be rewarded for staying where they are and for pursuing sustainable farming. Good farming methods must be promoted, and deforestation must be penalized. The authors recommend the implementation of innovative economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies, including the World Bank, at both local and international levels. The aim of these policies should be to raise agricultural incomes and reduce environmental aggression.

  10. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  11. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  12. Biochemical and haematologic effects of intake of Macrotermes nigeriensis fortified functional diet.

    PubMed

    Igwe, C U; Ojiako, A O; Okwara, J E; Emejulu, A A; Nwaoguikpe, R N

    2014-01-15

    Twenty-four male albino rats, 4 weeks old were randomly distributed into 4 groups (A-D) and fed growers' mash as the control diet and 25, 50 and 75% oven-dried, ground Macrotermes nigeriensis fortified diets respectively for a total period of 28 days. The effects of the diets on hepatic, renal and haematologic function indices of albino rats were studied. The animals fed the fortified diets had non-significantly (p > 0.05) lesser body weight gains than the control animals. The fortified diets elicited dose-dependent increases in the levels of blood total protein, albumin, packed cell volume, hemoglobin and red blood cell counts as well as on the calculated red cell indices. The fortified diets did not significantly (p > 0.05) alter the activities of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases as well as the concentrations of total bilirubin, urea and creatinine. The results indicate that the fortified diets do not have detrimental hepatic, renal or haematologic effects but rather may be recommended for fortification of human and animal food, especially in weaning diets of growing children and nursing mothers to combat food insecurity and malnutrition. PMID:24783815

  13. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  14. Migration and mobility in the early medieval settlement in Thunau/Kamp using 87Sr/86Sr Isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangl, Sophie; Irrgeher, Johanna; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The use of Sr isotope ratios has been applied systematically for clarifying questions about migration patterns of humans and animals. In consequence of geologically induced differences in the isotopic composition, 87Sr/86Sr ratios are characteristic for a specific region. Humans and animals take up strontium primarily via drinking water and diet. Since strontium has similar chemical properties to calcium, it is mainly stored in teeth and bones. Tooth enamel is formed in the early childhood and is not subject to significant changes in later life. Therefore, the enclosed strontium has the same isotopic composition as the environment in which the individual was living during his early years, provided that the food came from the close proximity. Issue of this study was the early medieval (9th to 10th century AD) settlement in Thunau/Kamp. In order to assess the biogenic Sr isotopic signature of the Thunau settlement area, environmental samples including soil, rocks, water and plants were taken at the excavation site and in the immediate vicinity. They represent the local strontium signal to which the isotopic compositions of historic human tooth samples (enamel and dentine) were compared. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in tooth enamel and dentine give insight about residential characteristics of the settlement of Thunau/Kamp in comparison to the fortified hilltop settlement located in close proximity.

  15. Development of flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ganorkar, P M; Jain, R K

    2015-08-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15-25 %), moisture content of feed (12-16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120-140 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) score of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Increased RFF level decreased the ER and OAA score significantly while increased BS and BD of extrudates (p < 0.01). Moisture content of extruder feed was positively related to ER (p < 0.01) and OAA (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). Extruder barrel temperature was found to be negatively related to ER and OAA (p < 0.05) and positively related to BD (p < 0.1). Quadratic effect of screw speed was significantly positively related to ER (p < 0.01), BS (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). 15 % RFF fortification with rice flour, 16 % moisture content (wb) of extruder feed, 120 °C extruder barrel temperature and 330 RPM of screw speed gave an optimized product of high desirability with corresponding responses as 3.08 ER, 0.53 kgf BS, 0.106 g.cm(-3) BD and 7.86 OAA. PMID:26243928

  16. Development of flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ganorkar, P M; Jain, R K

    2015-08-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15-25 %), moisture content of feed (12-16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120-140 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) score of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Increased RFF level decreased the ER and OAA score significantly while increased BS and BD of extrudates (p < 0.01). Moisture content of extruder feed was positively related to ER (p < 0.01) and OAA (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). Extruder barrel temperature was found to be negatively related to ER and OAA (p < 0.05) and positively related to BD (p < 0.1). Quadratic effect of screw speed was significantly positively related to ER (p < 0.01), BS (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). 15 % RFF fortification with rice flour, 16 % moisture content (wb) of extruder feed, 120 °C extruder barrel temperature and 330 RPM of screw speed gave an optimized product of high desirability with corresponding responses as 3.08 ER, 0.53 kgf BS, 0.106 g.cm(-3) BD and 7.86 OAA.

  17. 7 CFR 1956.112 - Debts ineligible for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debts ineligible for settlement. 1956.112 Section 1956... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.112 Debts ineligible for settlement. Debts will not be settled: (a) If referral to the Office...

  18. 7 CFR 1956.112 - Debts ineligible for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debts ineligible for settlement. 1956.112 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.112 Debts ineligible for settlement. Debts will not be settled: (a) If referral to...

  19. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements... Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements. (a) Informal and formal settlements. Post complaint settlements may be either informal or formal. (1)...

  20. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements... Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements. (a) Informal and formal settlements. Post complaint settlements may be either informal or formal. (1)...

  1. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements... Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements. (a) Informal and formal settlements. Post complaint settlements may be either informal or formal. (1)...

  2. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  3. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  4. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  5. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  6. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respondent so requests. Any offer of settlement not presented to the Commission shall be null and void with... in the proceeding; and the offer will be null and void with respect to any acknowledgment,...

  7. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requests. Any offer of settlement not presented to the Commission shall be null and void with respect to... proceeding; and the offer will be null and void with respect to any acknowledgment, admission,...

  8. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respondent so requests. Any offer of settlement not presented to the Commission shall be null and void with... in the proceeding; and the offer will be null and void with respect to any acknowledgment,...

  9. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  10. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  11. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  12. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  13. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  14. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  15. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  16. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.710 Settlement. (a) Availability. Either the Director or any... hearings pursuant to section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 16); (B) The filing...

  17. Multinutrient-fortified juices improve vitamin D and vitamin E status in children: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient and palatable method to maintain and increase blood fat soluble vitamins. We sought to determine if children consuming orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and combinations of vitamins D, E and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  18. Complementary feeding with fortified spread and incidence of severe stunting in 6- to 18-month-old rural Malawians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare growth and incidence of malnutrition in infants receiving long-term dietary supplementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (likuni phala [LP]). A total of 182 6-month-old infants in rural Malawi were rando...

  19. [Impact of fortified milk on the iron and zinc levels in Mexican preschool children].

    PubMed

    Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Chavarria, Elsa Yolanda; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Nieblas, Amparo; Ponce, José Antonio; Robles-Sardin, Alma E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a national program of consumption of fortified milk "Liconsa" on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in pre-school children (3-5 y). The study was conducted in 77 healthy children of both genders. 54 of them consumed Liconsa fortified milk (GCLFL) and 23 consumed no fortified milk (GR). Iron status was determined by measuring hemoglobin and ferritin and zinc status by serum zinc. The consumption of milk was on free demand and it was estimated at baseline and 6 mo after. Through 24-h recall of measured consumption of iron and zinc in the total diet. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test for independent samples and chi-square test for differences in proportions. Children who consumed fortified milk showed an increase of hemoglobin and ferritin levels [1.13 g/dL (p < 0.05) and 5.83 μg/L (p < 0.05) respectively]. Additionally, a decrease was found of the prevalence of low iron stores from 20.4 to 4.1% (p < 0.05). The serum zinc level showed an increase of 45.2 μg/dL (p < 0.05). At the end of the study no child showed a micronutrient deficiency. Children who did not consume fortified milk Liconsa showed no significant change in their serum iron and zinc values. The average consumption of milk powder Liconsa was 22.7 ± 14.5 g, providing 2.5 mg of daily iron and zinc. Supplied diet 9.2 ± 3.4 mg of iron and 6.9 ± 3 mg of zinc. The consumption of fortified milk had a beneficial effect on the serum levels of iron and zinc in children's social welfare program Liconsa.

  20. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Chamnan, Chhoun; de Boer, Michiel R.; Parker, Megan E.; Burja, Kurt; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Berger, Jacques; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation. Objective To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. Methods A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506). Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330), fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation. Results Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%), and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of

  1. New Agricultural Settlement, Meheba River, Zambia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infra-red view of a new settlement along the Meheba River, Zambia, Africa (12.5S, 26.0E) resembles the resettlement clusters in the Amazon basin of Brazil. However, this settlement is on savanna land not a tropical forest region, so relatively little land clearing was required. The familiar pattern of small single family plots, no large commercial fields, along the branches of a herringbone road network is evident.

  2. Molecular Nanotechnology and Space Settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomically precise manipulation of matter is becoming increasingly common in laboratories around the world. As this control moves into aerospace systems, huge improvements in computers, high-strength materials, and other systems are expected. For example, studies suggest that it may be possible to build: 10(exp 18) MIPS computers, 10(exp 15) bytes/sq cm write once memory, $153-412/kg-of-cargo single- stage-to-orbit launch vehicles and active materials which sense their environment and react intelligently. All of NASA's enterprises should benefit significantly from molecular nanotechnology. Although the time may be measured in decades and the precise path to molecular nanotechnology is unclear, all paths (diamondoid, fullerene, self-assembly, biomolecular, etc.) will require very substantial computation. This talk will discuss fullerene nanotechnology and early work on hypothetical active materials consisting of large numbers of identical machines. The speaker will also discuss aerospace applications, particularly missions leading to widespread space settlement (e.g., small near-Earth - object retrieval). It is interesting to note that control of the tiny - individual atoms and molecules - may lead to colonization of the huge -first the solar system, then the galaxy.

  3. The impact of migration on the spatial structure of rural settlement.

    PubMed

    Shirgazin, O R

    1983-11-01

    "Changes in the system of settlement in Staraya Russa Rayon, Novgorod Oblast [USSR], are traced. Migration from peripheral areas of the rayon to the suburban zone of Staraya Russa and to larger inhabited places along highways has transformed the historical pattern of settlement focused on river valleys into a new pattern focused on the central city of Staraya Russa, i.e., from the traditional dendritic configuration into a monocentric pattern. The impact of the migration process on land use is discussed, and it is suggested that abandoned peripheral villages be converted to recreation uses."

  4. Ion and neuropharmacological studies of barnacle settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittschof, Dan; Maki, James; Mitchell, Ralph; Costlow, John D.

    Experiments tested effects of altering ion concentrations and the effects of additions of biologically active substances in the media surrounding settling stage barnacle larvae. Alteration of ionic concentrations did not result in induction of metamorphosis. Excess potassium ion, magnesium ion and calcium ion inhibited settlement. Potassium ion affected young cyprids while other cations had more pronounced effects on older cyprids. Replacement of one cation by another reduced the inhibitory effects of all but calcium. Excess magnesium was routinely inhibitory while lowered magnesium had little effect. Calcium ion could be increased 50% by lowering magnesium concentrations without affecting settlement. However, low calcium ion concentrations inhibited settlement. Of the biologically active substances tested, only soluble barnacle settlement factor and dibuteryl cAMP induced metamorphosis. SITS, a calcium channel blocker, inhibited settlement and negated the effects SF +. Most of the other compounds inhibited settlement at millimolar concentrations and had no effect when tested at lower concentrations. Picrotoxin, a compound that interferes with chloride ion movement (and membrane depolarization) strongly inhibited metamorphosis with an EC 50 of 10 -6 mol.

  5. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L; Nielsen, Shaun J; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24-28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should

  6. Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24–28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies

  7. Pelagic larval duration and settlement size of a reef fish are spatially consistent, but post-settlement growth varies at the reef scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Susannah M.; Russ, Garry R.; Abesamis, Rene A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that, despite a pelagic larval stage, many coral reef fishes disperse over relatively small distances, leading to well-connected populations on scales of 0-30 km. Although variation in key biological characteristics has been explored on the scale of 100-1000 s of km, it has rarely been explored at the scale relevant to actual larval dispersal and population connectivity on ecological timescales. In this study, we surveyed the habitat and collected specimens ( n = 447) of juvenile butterflyfish, Chaetodon vagabundus, at nine sites along an 80-km stretch of coastline in the central Philippines to identify variation in key life history parameters at a spatial scale relevant to population connectivity. Mean pelagic larval duration (PLD) was 24.03 d (SE = 0.16 d), and settlement size was estimated to be 20.54 mm total length (TL; SE = 0.61 mm). Both traits were spatially consistent, although this PLD is considerably shorter than that reported elsewhere. In contrast, post-settlement daily growth rates, calculated from otolith increment widths from 1 to 50 d post-settlement, varied strongly across the study region. Elevated growth rates were associated with rocky habitats that this species is known to recruit to, but were strongly negatively correlated with macroalgal cover and exhibited negative density dependence with conspecific juveniles. Larger animals had lower early (first 50 d post-settlement) growth rates than smaller animals, even after accounting for seasonal variation in growth rates. Both VBGF and Gompertz models provided good fits to post-settlement size-at-age data ( n = 447 fish), but the VBGF's estimate of asymptotic length ( L ∞ = 168 mm) was more consistent with field observations of maximum fish length. Our findings indicate that larval characteristics are consistent at the spatial scale at which populations are likely well connected, but that site-level biological differences develop post-settlement, most likely as a

  8. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Darren J.; Brooker, Rohan M.; Morgan, Michael A.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families. PMID:27635360

  9. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement.

    PubMed

    Parris, Darren J; Brooker, Rohan M; Morgan, Michael A; Dixson, Danielle L; Stewart, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families. PMID:27635360

  10. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Darren J.; Brooker, Rohan M.; Morgan, Michael A.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families.

  11. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement.

    PubMed

    Parris, Darren J; Brooker, Rohan M; Morgan, Michael A; Dixson, Danielle L; Stewart, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families.

  12. 48 CFR 49.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 49.107 Section 49.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles...

  13. 48 CFR 49.109-6 - Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals. 49.109-6 Section 49.109-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-6...

  14. 48 CFR 1449.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 1449.107 Section 1449.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles...

  15. Effect of iron-fortified formula on SIgA of gastrointestinal tract in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Koutras, A K; Vigorita, V J; Quiroz, E

    1986-01-01

    There is no information available about the effect of iron in formula on the development of gastrointestinal humoral immune response in early human infancy. We compared standard Enfamil to iron-fortified formula during the first 8 weeks of human life on the development of local gastrointestinal humoral immune response by measuring fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Thirty children were studied and classified according to feeding in two groups: plain Enfamil (n = 15) and Enfamil with iron (n = 15). Fecal specimens were analyzed at birth, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of age. Fecal SIgA was assayed by RID (radial-immune diffusion) during these four infantile periods in the two groups. Marked SIgA changes were detected in the group with iron-fortified formula versus non-iron-fortified formula. These changes appeared to have statistical significance in all the three infantile periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks). There were no observed clinical side effects with the use of iron-fortified formula as detected by appropriate questionnaire. The possible role of iron in earlier and enhanced development of immunologic competence and host defense is discussed. These data may suggest a beneficial effect of low-dose iron in formula during early infantile human life by the protective role of the earlier and enhanced production of SIgA in the gut.

  16. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize.

  17. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  18. Bioavailability of zinc in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Sant'Ana, Helena Maria Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification.

  19. Fortifying Chapathis, an Asian Whole Wheat Unleavened Bread, using Corn Distillers Dried Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chapathi, an unleavened whole wheat flat bread, is widely consumed in Southern Asia. To improve the nutritional qualities of this product, we have investigated fortifying chapathi with different levels of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Food grade DDGS is an alternative sour...

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Water Soluble Vitamins in Dietary Supplements and Fortified Foods by LC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work in our laboratory has focused on development of LC methods with diode array and/or mass spectrometry (ms) detection for the simultaneous determination in supplement tablets and fortified foods of several water-soluble vitamins (WSV) including: thiamin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic ac...

  1. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometric analysis of vitamin D in retail fortified orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of vitamin D fortified orange juice obtained from retail food stores were analyzed for vitamin D3 content using a method developed by combining the best features of two AOAC officially approved methods. The ether/petroleum ether extraction from AOAC 992.26 was combined with the high perform...

  2. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  3. Influence of Inflammatory Disorders and Infection on Iron Absorption and Efficacy of Iron- Fortified Foods

    PubMed Central

    Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The provision of iron- fortified foods is a common strategy to prevent iron deficiency; however, ensuring adequate iron absorption is a challenge. Iron bioavailability depends on the choice of iron compound, the presence enhancers and inhibitors of absorption in the food matrix, and the physiological state of the consumer, including iron status, other nutritional deficiencies and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation associated with infections and inflammatory disorders would be expected to decrease iron absorption and reduce the efficacy of iron- fortified foods. The decreased absorption is due to an increase in circulating hepcidin in response to inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin degrades ferroportin and blocks the passage of iron from the intestinal cell to the plasma. This is the innate immune response to infections and aims to restrict pathogen growth by restricting iron supply. Stable isotope studies have reported women and children with chronic malaria parasitemia or febrile malaria to have increased inflammatory cytokines, increased hepcidin and much decreased iron absorption. No studies have specifically investigated the efficacy of iron- fortified foods in the absence and presence of infections. In contrast, inflammation and increased hepcidin associated with adiposity in overweight have been linked to both lower iron absorption and the decreased efficacy of iron- fortified foods. PMID:25762975

  4. Fortified Extract of Red Berry, Ginkgo biloba, and White Willow Bark in Experimental Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control) rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats. PMID:23762874

  5. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    El Menchawy, Imane; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Kari, Khalid; Saeid, Naima; Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Benajiba, Nada; El Harchaoui, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N = 195), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p = 0.037). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  6. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  7. Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Maciero, Eugenia; Krasnoff, Gustavo; Cócaro, Nicolas; Gaitan, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers’ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old) participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers’ requirements of this micronutrient. PMID:26529007

  8. Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, E; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Walter, T; Cayazzo, M; Heresi, G; Llaguno, S; Chadud, P; Stekel, A

    1990-11-01

    We tested in the field an extruded rice flour, fortified with a bovine haemoglobin concentrate (Fe:14 mg/100 g of powder). This cereal has a high iron bioavailability, good protein quality and amino acid score. Healthy, term breast-fed infants were prospectively studied. One group (n = 92) received the fortified cereal (from 4 to 12 months of age). As control, 96 infants received regular solid foods (cooked vegetables and meat) from age 4 months. At the end of the field trial, a subsample of infants in both groups was supplemented with 45 mg Fe during 90 d. Iron nutrition status was determined at 9, 12 and 15 months. At 12 months, iron deficiency anaemia was present in 17 per cent of controls, in 10 per cent of fortified infants as a whole, but only in 6 per cent of the babies who consumed over 30 g of cereal/d. In addition, this latter group did not show any significant changes in iron nutrition status after the supplementation trial. Results demonstrate that the consumption of a haemoglobin fortified cereal is effective in markedly reducing the incidence of iron deficiency in breast-fed infants. PMID:2086208

  9. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  10. Stability of lutein in wholegrain bakery products naturally high in lutein or fortified with free lutein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J Christopher; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona

    2010-09-22

    Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. In the present study, selected high-lutein wheat and corn were milled into wholegrain flours by two mills to improve flour uniformity. The high-lutein and lutein-fortified wholegrain flours were processed into breads, cookies, and muffins to study lutein stability during baking and subsequent storage. Lutein and its isomers were separated, identified, and quantified by LC-UV/vis and LC-MS following extraction with water-saturated 1-butanol. Baking resulted in a significant reduction in all-trans-lutein and the formation of cis-lutein and cis-zeaxanthin isomers. Subsequent storage at ambient temperature had a slight impact on the content of all-trans-lutein. Effects of processing were more pronounced in lutein-fortified products, and the degradation rate of lutein was influenced by concentration and baking recipe. Fortified cookies and muffins showed greater lutein reduction compared with bread. Despite the significant reduction in lutein, the fortified bakery products still possessed reasonable amounts per serving that would enhance daily intake and consumption of wholegrain foods.

  11. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    El Menchawy, Imane; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Kari, Khalid; Saeid, Naima; Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Benajiba, Nada; El Harchaoui, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N = 195), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p = 0.037). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410. PMID:26355324

  12. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  13. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  14. AQUAPLEX An Environmentally Aware Model Lunar Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, Darel

    2003-01-01

    The construction and operation of a replica Lunar settlement (CELSS), can provide many lessons in in-situ resource utilization, telerobotic operation and reducing the hygiene water demanded by existing models of Lunar operation - a larger settlement may be operated with the same amount of precious water. Hypes and Hall and all other CELSS models found in the literature propose quantities of hygiene water far in excess of what would be needed in actual operation using simple, environmentally aware technologies. By using modern zero water toilets, low water showers, CO2 dry cleaning machines, energy efficient washing machines and other hardware, water use can be slashed. The Space Solar Power Workshop sees great opportunity to advance the prospects for Lunar settlement through involving the environmental community in this fun design exercise.

  15. [The use of flavolignans of "Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn." to create a new fat product--fortified butter].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, A M; Popov, A D; Kurkin, V A; Berezin, I I; Zinina, M L

    2005-01-01

    The results of study on substantiating the possibilities of the use of flavolignans of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. with a purpose to create a new fat product--butter fortified by an "Liguid extract Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn." are being discussed. Slowdown of peroxidation process is revealed in fortified butter in comparison with ordinary butter. With the help of spectrometry method higher content of flavolignans was deteeted in fortified butter (converting to silibin--the main component of "Liguid Exstract Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn"), what allows to speak about increase of its potential therapeutic effect.

  16. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  17. 47 CFR 3.50 - Retention of settlement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....50 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.50 Retention of settlement records. Accounting authorities must maintain, for the purpose of compliance...

  18. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years) compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011), reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl). Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies) and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies). Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain) and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to reduce anemia of

  19. 49 CFR 511.63 - Criteria for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Average Fuel Economy Standards § 511.63 Criteria for settlement. Settlement of a case of violation of an average fuel economy standard is discretionary with the Administrator. The Administrator will... seeking settlement, or (b) That the violation of the average fuel economy standard resulted, as shown...

  20. 49 CFR 377.217 - Interline settlement of revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interline settlement of revenues. 377.217 Section... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.217 Interline settlement of revenues. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as affecting the interline settlement of revenues from traffic which is transported over...

  1. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  2. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  3. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  4. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any...

  5. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any...

  6. 7 CFR 3550.252 - Debt settlement policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debt settlement policies. 3550.252 Section 3550.252... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Post-Servicing Actions § 3550.252 Debt settlement policies. (a) Applicability. Debt settlement procedures may be initiated to collect any amounts due to...

  7. 7 CFR 3550.252 - Debt settlement policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt settlement policies. 3550.252 Section 3550.252... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Post-Servicing Actions § 3550.252 Debt settlement policies. (a) Applicability. Debt settlement procedures may be initiated to collect any amounts due to...

  8. 32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454... Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements in lieu of performance of actual restoration work... restoration. In view of the limitations of the Government's restoration obligations to amounts not in...

  9. 32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454... Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements in lieu of performance of actual restoration work... restoration. In view of the limitations of the Government's restoration obligations to amounts not in...

  10. Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…

  11. 48 CFR 49.103 - Methods of settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of settlement. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.103 Methods of settlement. Settlement of terminated... subpart 49.3), or (d) a combination of these methods. When possible, the TCO should negotiate a fair...

  12. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  13. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Settlement and Escrow Accounts § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  14. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  15. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  16. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  17. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  18. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  19. Growth and change in blood haemoglobin concentration among underweight Malawian infants receiving fortified spreads for 12 weeks: a preliminary trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified spreads (FSs) have proven effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We examined acceptability, growth and change in blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among moderately underweight ambulatory infants given FS. This was a randomised, controlled, parallel-group, inv...

  20. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application. PMID:26022498

  1. 48 CFR 49.206 - Settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement proposals. 49.206 Section 49.206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Fixed-Price Contracts Terminated...

  2. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO... rules do not preclude the disposition of any matter by agreement between the parties at any stage of...

  3. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO... rules do not preclude the disposition of any matter by agreement between the parties at any stage of...

  4. 24 CFR 1720.180 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 1720.180 Section 1720.180 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND...

  5. 75 FR 82390 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...,'' published at 73 FR 35838 (June 24, 2008). The proposed settlement agreement establishes deadlines for EPA's.... and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be... of Performance for Petroleum Refineries, Final Rule,'' published at 73 FR 35838 (June 24,...

  6. 78 FR 59684 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word or ASCII file... Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed settlement agreement if the comments... inconsistent with the requirements of the Act. Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that...

  7. Chicano Settlements in Chicago: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Louise A.

    1975-01-01

    Shows how Chicanos in Chicago adapted to and participated in the further evolution of the three major neighborhoods in which they settled and shows how distinctive neighborhood patterns partially determined the variable development of Chicano identity within the three settlements. (Author/AM)

  8. 24 CFR 3800.60 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlements. 3800.60 Section 3800.60 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND......

  9. 42 CFR 417.810 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.810 Final settlement. (a) General requirement. CMS and an HCPP... receiving health care services on a fee-for-service or other basis; and (iii) Information on enrollment...

  10. 42 CFR 417.576 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final settlement. 417.576 Section 417.576 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE...

  11. 42 CFR 417.810 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.810 Final settlement. (a) General requirement. CMS and an HCPP... receiving health care services on a fee-for-service or other basis; and (iii) Information on enrollment...

  12. 76 FR 67728 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP), 75 FR 51570 (August 20, 2010... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE... settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by the Engine Manufacturers Association, in the United...

  13. 77 FR 37397 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP). Under the terms of the proposed settlement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP), 75... of remote existing non-emergency spark-ignition 4-stroke engines above 500 horsepower located at...

  14. 32 CFR 536.55 - Structured settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Structured settlements. 536.55 Section 536.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS... majority should be considered. If rejected, a blocked bank account may be used. (c) It is the policy of...

  15. 7 CFR 1951.894 - Debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards (4 CFR parts 101-105). ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.894 Section 1951.894 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.894 Debt...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.894 - Debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards (4 CFR parts 101-105). ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debt settlement. 1951.894 Section 1951.894...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.894...

  17. 75 FR 21987 - Penalty Settlement Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... 1977, or Mine Act. Hearings are held before the Commission's Administrative Law Judges, and appellate... Senate. The Commission is adopting an interim rule to streamline the process for settling civil penalties... to simplify how it processes civil penalty settlements. Under section 110(k) of the Mine Act, 30...

  18. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review...

  19. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the signature was unauthorized. See 29 CFR 2700.6. (ii) Status of documents. A motion and proposed... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving...

  20. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the signature was unauthorized. See 29 CFR 2700.6. (ii) Status of documents. A motion and proposed... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving...

  1. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the signature was unauthorized. See 29 CFR 2700.6. (ii) Status of documents. A motion and proposed... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving...

  2. Designing a New Human Settlement Pattern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, E. W.

    ASCILOS, an acronym for a symbiotic community in the land of the Sioux, is a new land settlement pattern designed by the Center for Community Organization and Area Development (CENCOAD), sponsored by Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. ASCILOS covers a 60-mile radius around Sioux Falls. ASCILOS, based on symbiosis in nature, assumes that…

  3. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable...

  4. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable...

  5. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable...

  6. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable...

  7. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable...

  8. 76 FR 56194 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by Allied Energy Company, Gladieux Trading and Marketing... (``Petitioners''), in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit: Allied...

  9. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Equal Access to Justice Act and 29 CFR Part 2204. (ii) Upon motion of any party after the docketing of..., the Chief Administrative Law Judge may assign a case to a Settlement Judge for proceedings under this... of these rules, upon the docketing of the notice of contest the Chief Administrative Law Judge...

  10. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., except for discrimination proceedings arising under section 105(c) of the Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. 815(c), or... the proposed order approving settlement. (2) Appearance by CLR. If a motion has been filed by a... the Secretary in accordance with the notice of either limited or unlimited appearance previously...

  11. 75 FR 73955 - Penalty Settlement Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 2700 Penalty Settlement Procedure AGENCY: Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Mine Safety and Health...

  12. Black Frontier Settlements in Spanish Colonial Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the much neglected area of Black frontier experience in the Spanish colonies. Concentrates on the role played by Black settlers and one Black township in defending the Spanish frontier in colonial Florida against the threat of growing English settlements to the north. Provides an introduction to the 18th century Southeastern Spanish…

  13. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...

  14. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...

  15. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...

  16. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...

  17. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...

  18. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any complaint... adjustment, except where time, the nature of the proceeding, and the public interest do not permit....

  19. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  20. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  1. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... (ECFS) or by hand delivery. See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121..., 63 FR 24121 (1998). Paper Filers: Parties who choose to file by paper must file an original and one... settlement rate adopted for that country in IB Docket No. 96-261, Report and Order, 12 FCC Rcd 19,806, 62...

  2. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... jointly may move to defer the hearing for a reasonable time to permit negotiation of a settlement or an... shall have the same force and effect as an order made after full hearing; (2) That the entire record...

  3. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... jointly may move to defer the hearing for a reasonable time to permit negotiation of a settlement or an... shall have the same force and effect as an order made after full hearing; (2) That the entire record...

  4. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... jointly may move to defer the hearing for a reasonable time to permit negotiation of a settlement or an... shall have the same force and effect as an order made after full hearing; (2) That the entire record...

  5. Scleractinian settlement patterns to natural cleared reef substrata and artificial settlement panels on an Indonesian coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Costales-Carrera, Alba; Zeljkovic, Stephen; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2011-05-01

    Recruitment is a key factor driving the population dynamics of scleractinian corals, but despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of recruitment processes in the Coral triangle region, which contains the most biodiverse marine ecosystems in the world. This study aimed to compare settlement rates to artificial settlement panels with cleared areas of natural reef in order to assess whether panels are a suitable indicator of natural coral settlement rates. We recorded coral settlement rates to panels made of two different materials (concrete and terracotta), attached to the reef at two different orientations (vertical and horizontal), and compared these settlement rates to those on cleared areas of natural reef positioned on vertical reef walls, over a 12 month period. We examined settlement rates at four sites in the Wakatobi National Marine Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia; two reefs were light-limited, highly sedimented sites with low coral cover (<10%) and two had moderate coral cover (approx. 40%) and lower sedimentation rates. Panels were directly attached to the reef at 6-7 m depth. The number of coral spat per tile ranged from 0 to 34 and no significant differences were reported between the settlement rates to cleared natural reef areas and settlement panels. Significantly higher numbers of spat settled on the cryptic (back) side of the panels, while no significant difference was found between settlement rates to the different panel materials, or between the different orientations or any combination of these two factors. There is, however, a significant difference in the settlement rates between sites, for both settlement panels and permanent cleared areas, with higher settlement rates at the sites with higher live coral cover. We conclude that both concrete and terracotta panels yield similar settlement rates, and orientation makes no difference to settlement rates when panels are directly attached to the reef. Our results demonstrate

  6. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  7. Acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from zinc-fortified cereal flours among young children and adults in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Aaron, G J; Lo, N Ba; Hess, S Y; Guiro, A T; Wade, S; Ndiaye, N F; Guinard, J-X; Brown, K H

    2011-01-01

    We completed a series of studies to assess the acceptability of zinc-fortified, cereal-based complementary foods and zinc-fortified wheat breads. Young children and their caregivers completed acceptability tests with complementary foods fortified with iron only (60 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram cereal flour), or the same level of iron and zinc (240 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram cereal flour), and the caregivers completed triangle taste tests to compare the same products. A separate group of adult participants completed acceptability tests with wheat breads fortified with iron and folic acid (15 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram flour and 1.5 mg folic acid per kilogram flour) or the same levels of iron-folic acid and 2 levels of zinc (63 mg zinc or 126 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour). Finally, a threshold test was administered to another group of adult participants to compare nonfortified wheat bread to breads fortified with zinc in 80 mg increments ranging from 80 to 400 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour. All products were acceptable when compared to non-zinc-fortified equivalents, and were well liked by the respective participants. For the triangle tests, caregivers were not able to detect significant differences between products. For threshold tests, adult participants detected differences in breads prepared from fortified wheat flour at 80 mg, 160 mg, and 320 mg zinc per kilogram flour, but not at 240 mg and 400 mg zinc per kilogram flour, respectively, when compared to nonfortified bread equivalents. Zinc fortification of cereal flours in the ranges of fortification that were tested does not adversely affect the acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from these flours. Practical Application: Fortification of staple food products is a low-cost approach to deliver additional micronutrients (including zinc) to large segments of a population. Determining the acceptability of products fortified with zinc is

  8. Rapid measurement of phytosterols in fortified food using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Duong, Samantha; Strobel, Norbert; Buddhadasa, Saman; Stockham, Katherine; Auldist, Martin; Wales, Bill; Orbell, John; Cran, Marlene

    2016-11-15

    A novel method for the measurement of total phytosterols in fortified food was developed and tested using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Unlike existing methods, this technique is capable of simultaneously extracting sterols during saponification thus significantly reducing extraction time and cost. The rapid method is suitable for sterol determination in a range of complex fortified foods including milk, cheese, fat spreads, oils and meat. The main enhancements of this new method include accuracy and precision, robustness, cost effectiveness and labour/time efficiencies. To achieve these advantages, quantification and the critical aspects of saponification were investigated and optimised. The final method demonstrated spiked recoveries in multiple matrices at 85-110% with a relative standard deviation of 1.9% and measurement uncertainty value of 10%.

  9. Pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC quantification of folic acid in fortified wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Michel Mozeika; Marchioni, Eric; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Zhao, Minjie; Zimmermann, Pierre; El-Khoury, Etienne; Bergaentzle, Martine

    2012-08-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method using phosphate buffer as solvent was applied for folic acid (FA) extraction from fortified wheat flours and was compared to a standard solid-liquid extraction (SLE) method. Extracted FA was quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) hyphenated with a phenyl column and an absorption photometric detector (λ = 280 nm). Detection and quantification limits were 0.12 and 0.4 ng, respectively, corresponding to 0.06 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of analyzed wheat flour. Equivalent FA contents were found by both extraction methods, but a single PLE allowed a total recovery of FA content, whereas at least three successive SLEs were needed to achieve a total recovery of FA. The obtained results indicated that PLE is a rapid and efficient technique for FA extraction from fortified wheat flour.

  10. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports.

  11. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status.

  12. Rapid measurement of phytosterols in fortified food using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Duong, Samantha; Strobel, Norbert; Buddhadasa, Saman; Stockham, Katherine; Auldist, Martin; Wales, Bill; Orbell, John; Cran, Marlene

    2016-11-15

    A novel method for the measurement of total phytosterols in fortified food was developed and tested using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Unlike existing methods, this technique is capable of simultaneously extracting sterols during saponification thus significantly reducing extraction time and cost. The rapid method is suitable for sterol determination in a range of complex fortified foods including milk, cheese, fat spreads, oils and meat. The main enhancements of this new method include accuracy and precision, robustness, cost effectiveness and labour/time efficiencies. To achieve these advantages, quantification and the critical aspects of saponification were investigated and optimised. The final method demonstrated spiked recoveries in multiple matrices at 85-110% with a relative standard deviation of 1.9% and measurement uncertainty value of 10%. PMID:27283669

  13. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  14. Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable.

  15. Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable. PMID:23989519

  16. Zinc-fortified oral rehydration solution improved intestinal permeability and small intestinal mucosal recovery.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cuong D; Hawkes, Joanna; Graham, Robin D; Kitchen, Julie L; Symonds, Erin L; Davidson, Geoffrey P; Butler, Ross N

    2015-06-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in children admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis (≥3 loose stools per day). All were treated for 5 days following admission with either zinc (Zn, 3 mg) or without Zn-fortified rice-based oral rehydration solution (ORS). (13)C-sucrose breath test (SBT) and intestinal permeability (lactulose/rhamnose or L/R ratio) were performed concurrently prior to commencement of ORS with or without Zn and at day 5 post-admission. There was a significant improvement in the SBT results in both the Zn-fortified group, median (5th-95th percentile) 2.1% (0.4% to 8.3%) versus 4.4% (0.4% to 10.4%), P < .05, and control group, 1.4% (0.1% to 5.4%) versus 4.3% (0.4% to 11.4%), P < .05, between the day of admission and day 5 post-admission. In the Zn-fortified group, there was also a significant improvement in L/R ratio between the day of admission and day 5 post-admission, 53.0 (19.5-90.6) versus 17.7 (13.4-83.2), P < .05. Low levels of Zn improved intestinal permeability but did not enhance short-term recovery following diarrheal illness.

  17. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X. Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, Mª José

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance. PMID:27384527

  18. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, M José

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance. PMID:27384527

  19. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, M José

    2016-07-07

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance.

  20. 75 FR 40821 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County; Notice of Settlement...-2149-131. c. Date Filed: May 27, 2010. d. Applicant: Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County..., Douglas, and Okanogan Counties in central Washington. The project occupies 15.15 acres of Federal...

  1. Indonesian immigrant settlements in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azizah Kassim

    2000-04-01

    For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration. PMID:12349650

  2. Indonesian immigrant settlements in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azizah Kassim

    2000-04-01

    For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration.

  3. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  4. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of mozzarella cheese fortified using protein-chelated iron or ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Rice, W H; McMahon, D J

    1998-02-01

    Mozzarella cheese containing 25 and 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had been fortified with casein-chelated iron, whey protein-chelated iron, or FeCl3. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics were compared with those of a control cheese. Physical properties were assessed by testing melting, apparent viscosity, and browning of heated cheese. Cheeses were evaluated by trained panelists for the presence of metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and other undesirable flavors. Addition of 25 mg iron/kg of cheese had no effects on the physical properties of Mozzarella cheese. Apparent viscosity of cheese fortified with 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese tended to be slightly higher than the control cheese, although this difference was not statistically significant at all storage times. Cook color was not affected by iron fortification. No increase in chemical oxidation (measured using thiobarbituric acid assay) was observed between the control and iron-fortified cheeses. Slight but statistically significant increases in metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors in the iron-fortified cheese were observed by the trained sensory panel, but the flavor defects were of very low intensity. For metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors, the control cheese scored 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3, respectively; the iron-fortified cheese scored 2.1, 2.0, and 1.6 based on a nine-point scale (where 1 = not perceptible to 3 = slightly perceptible). Sensory scores for iron-fortified cheese made using casein-chelated iron or whey protein-chelated iron was not significantly different from those of cheese made using ferric chloride. When used on pizza, consumer panels rated the iron-fortified cheeses as comparable with the control cheese.

  5. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore

  6. Coral Settlement on a Highly Disturbed Equatorial Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Andrew G.; Guest, James R.; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A.; Steinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world’s most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m-2 yr-1) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March–May and September–November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March–April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December–February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure (‘others’; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of

  7. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore

  8. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    to host community members was higher than that for refugees. There was no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations across refugee settlements. Across all settlements reporting to the UNHCR database, the percent of the refugee population that was less than five years of age is 16% on average. Conclusions The availability of a centralized database of health information across UNHCR-supported refugee settlements is a rich resource. The SPHERE standard for emergencies of 1-4 visits per person per year appears to be relevant for Asia in the post-emergency phase, but not for Africa. In Africa, a post-emergency standard of 1-2 visits per person per year should be considered. Although it is often assumed that the size of the female population in refugee settlements is higher than males, we found no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations in refugee settlements overall. Another assumption---that the under-fives make up 20% of the settlement population during the emergency phase---does not appear to hold for the post-emergency phase; under-fives made up about 16% of refugee settlement populations. PMID:21936911

  9. Searching for hidden houses: optical satellite imagery in archaeological prospection of the early Neolithic settlements in the Kujawy region, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz; Rucinski, Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Archaeologists have been applying remote sensing methods for over hundred years. New technological opportunities still appear and they may offer new data on remains from the Past. Effectiveness of remote sensing methods differs at scales. Aerial photographs play very important role at the regional scale of prospection. The question appears on usefulness of optical satellite imagery in the field dominated by aerial photography until now. Survey based on aerial recording of early farming settlements in Central Europe proofs the value and effectiveness of the method in this field. On the other hand whilst analyzing aerial photographs one might doubt about a spatial structure of the settlement, whether the whole space of the settlement has been recorded or not. Most of traces of houses can be recognized as cropmarks, however it applies only to specific geomorphological structures. It raises the question: did people in the past select those specific geomorphological structures for settling or whether existing soil and geomorphological conditions mask archaeological traces? An attempt to recognize the impact of local soils and geomorphological conditions on a possibility of identification of archaeological features is one of the tasks in the project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. In the vicinity of Kaczkowo village in Kujawy Region (Poland) a cluster of traces of the early Neolithic farmers is located. This area has been a subject of aerial survey for several years. Yet the question on a completeness of recognition of the settlement pattern is still open. In the project we attempt to assess to what extent optical satellite imagery and a wide range of processing techniques (vegetation indices, color composites, spectral transformations, edge detection etc.) might allow an identification of the remains of settlements, especially in the neighborhood of already known clusters of Neolithic houses. It might help in defining the range of

  10. Effect of processing on folic acid fortified Baladi bread and its possible effect on the prevention of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Omar, Rasha M; Ismail, Hanaa M; El-Lateef, Bothyna M Abd; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Sheta, Manal

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the possible effect of folic acid in fortified Baladi bread on the prevention of colon cancer development in rats. Wheat flour samples (82% extraction rate) and soy bean flour were analyzed to determine their folic acid contents using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Unfortified and folic acid fortified Baladi breads were prepared. Samples from each step of bread preparation were analyzed for folic acid concentration. Protein, fat, ash, fibers and carbohydrates percentages were also determined. Rats were divided into five groups, four of them were injected subcutaneously with dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 15 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for pathological examination. Results showed that the folic acid content in wheat flour (82% extraction rate) was found to be highly significantly lower than that in soybean flour. After baking, folic acid content in all breads was found to decrease significantly. The highest protein and fat contents were found in soybean flour fortified Baladi bread. The colons of rats of groups 3 (fed 5% soy flour fortified Baladi bread) and 5 (fed Baladi bread fortified with 5% soy flour+8 mg folic acid/kg wheat flour) were the mostly affected by DMH injection as premalignant changes were observed.

  11. Chemical properties of ω-3 fortified gels made of protein isolate recovered with isoelectric solubilisation/precipitation from whole fish.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2013-08-15

    Protein isolate was recovered from whole gutted fish using isoelectric solubilisation/precipitation (ISP). The objective was to determine chemical properties of heat-set gels made of the ISP protein isolate fortified with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)-rich oils (flaxseed, fish, algae, krill, and blend). The extent of the PUFAs increase, ω-6/ω-3 FAs and unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios, and the indices of thrombogenicity and atherogenicity depended on specific ω-3 PUFAs-rich oil used to fortify protein isolate gels. Lipid oxidation in ω-3 PUFAs fortified gels was minimal, although greater (P<0.05) than control gels (without ω-3 PUFAs fortification). However, all gels were in the slightly rancid, but acceptable range. The commonly used thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) assay to determine lipid oxidation in seafood may be inaccurate for samples containing krill oil due to its red pigment, astaxanthin. Protein degradation (total-volatile-basic-nitrogen) was greater (P<0.05) in ω-3 PUFAs fortified gels than control gels. However, all gels were considerably below the acceptability threshold for protein degradation. The shear stress of ω-3 PUFAs fortified gels was generally greater than the control gels and the shear strain was generally unchanged. This study demonstrates that ω-3 PUFAs fortification of protein isolates recovered with ISP from fish processing by-products or whole fish has potential application in the development of functional foods. PMID:23561173

  12. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. PMID:25200788

  13. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance. PMID:27144766

  14. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  15. A rapid assessment of drinking water quality in informal settlements after a cholera outbreak in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Natalie; O'Reilly, Ciara; Muhonja, Everline; Karoki, Solomon; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Omolo, Jared; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph; Hoekstra, Robert; Ayers, Tracy; De Cock, Kevin; Breiman, Robert; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Populations living in informal settlements with inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure are at risk of epidemic disease. In 2010, we conducted 398 household surveys in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya with isolated cholera cases. We tested source and household water for free chlorine residual (FCR) and Escherichia coli in approximately 200 households. International guidelines are ≥0.5 mg/L FCR at source, ≥0.2 mg/L at household, and <1 E. coli/100 mL. In these two settlements, 82% and 38% of water sources met FCR guidelines; and 7% and 8% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. In household stored water, 82% and 35% met FCR guidelines and 11% and 32% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. Source water FCR≥0.5 mg/L (p=0.003) and reported purchase of a household water treatment product (p=0.002) were associated with increases in likelihood that household stored water had ≥0.2 mg/L FCR, which was associated with a lower likelihood of E. coli contamination (p<0.001). These results challenge the assumption that water quality in informal settlements is universally poor and the route of disease transmission, and highlight that providing centralized water with ≥0.5 mg/L FCR or (if not feasible) household water treatment technologies reduces the risk of waterborne cholera transmission in informal settlements.

  16. Findings from an online behavioural weight management programme provided with or without a fortified diet beverage.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C; Lagrotte, Caitlin; Klotz, Alicia A; Oliver, Tracy L; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D; Jebb, Susan A; Moore, Carmel; Roberts, Susan A; Reeves, Rebecca S; Bolton, Mary Pat; Foreyt, John P

    2014-01-28

    The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact.

  17. Stability and retention of micronutrients in fortified rice prepared using different cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Laillou, Arnaud; Guyondet, Christophe; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high.

  18. Findings from an online behavioural weight management programme provided with or without a fortified diet beverage.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C; Lagrotte, Caitlin; Klotz, Alicia A; Oliver, Tracy L; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D; Jebb, Susan A; Moore, Carmel; Roberts, Susan A; Reeves, Rebecca S; Bolton, Mary Pat; Foreyt, John P

    2014-01-28

    The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact. PMID:23920353

  19. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory qualities of wine grape pomace fortified baked goods.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca; Tseng, Angela; Cavender, George; Ross, Andrew; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-09-01

    Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF) was used to fortify baked goods, including breads, muffins, and brownies. Pinot Noir WGP (RWGP) and Pinot Grigio WGP (WWGP) substituted wheat flour at concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15% for bread, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% RWGP for brownies, and 5%, 10%, and 15% RWGP or 10%, 15%, and 20% WWGP for muffins. The finished products were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and total DF, as well as physicochemical and sensory properties. WGP flour blends were also tested for solvent retention capacity (SRC). The highest TPC and RSA values for bread and muffins were achieved in 15% RWGP fortified samples with TPC and RSA values of 68.32 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/serving and 80.70 AAE mg/serving, respectively for bread, and 2164 mg GAE/serving and 1526 mg AAE/serving, respectively for muffins. Brownies fortified with 10% RWGP had the highest RSA value (115.52 mg AAE/serving) while the control had the highest TPC value (1152 mg GAE/serving). Breads and muffins with 15% RWGP and brownies with 25% RWGP had the highest amount of DF (6.33, 12.32, and 7.73 g/serving, respectively). Sensory evaluation concluded that there is no difference in overall liking of 5% and 10% RWGP breads and muffins or 15% and 20% WGP brownies compared to the controls. This study demonstrated that WGP is a viable functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase TPC, RSA, and DF in consumer's diets.

  20. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, B. S.; Nandhini, T.; Vasanth, Vani; Sriram, Rashmi; Navale, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients’ case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Results: Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Conclusion: Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride. PMID:25657911

  1. Micronutrient and protein-fortified whole grain puffed rice made by supercritical fluid extrusion.

    PubMed

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Wagner, Michael E; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2012-11-01

    Supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) was used to produce shelf-stable puffed rice fortified with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. Product ingredients and process parameters were evaluated for end-product nutritional and textural qualities. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) served as a viscosity-lowering plasticizer and blowing agent during the process, which has been shown to produce expanded products with good textural qualities at lower temperatures (~100 °C) than conventional steam-based extrusion (130-180 °C). The fortified puffed rice contained 8% dietary fiber, 21.5% protein, and iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C at their recommended daily values in 100 g of product. The SCFX process allowed for the complete retention of all added minerals, 55-58% retention of vitamin A, and 64-76% retention of vitamin C. All essential amino acids including lysine were retained at exceptionally high levels (98.6%), and no losses were observed due to Maillard reaction or oxidation. All of the essential amino acid contents were equal to the reference protein recommended by FAO/WHO. Soy protein fortification improved the total amount of protein in the final rice products and provided a complementary amino acid profile to that of rice; the lysine content improved from 35 to 60 mg/protein, making the end product an excellent source of complete protein. Thus, SC-CO(2)-assisted extrusion is an effective process-based approach to produce cereal grain-based, low-moisture (5-8%) expanded products fortified with protein and any cocktail of micronutrients, without compromising the end-product sensory or nutritional qualities. These products are ideally suited for consumption as breakfast cereals, snack foods, and as part of nutrition bars for school lunch programs. The balanced nutritional profile and use of staple crop byproducts such as broken rice makes these expanded crisps unique to the marketplace. PMID:23066826

  2. 48 CFR 49.108-3 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108-3 Settlement procedure. (a) Contractors shall settle with subcontractors in general conformity with the policies and principles relating to...

  3. 48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-7 Settlement by determination. (a... determination of the amount due consistent with the termination clause, including any cost...

  4. 48 CFR 49.206-1 - Submission of settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Fixed-Price Contracts Terminated for... settlement proposals if they are determined under generally recognized accounting principles...

  5. Population and Settlement Changes in Two Ozark Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Milton D.

    1973-01-01

    Population shifts and settlement changes in 2 townships, Buck Prairie Township and Linn Township (near Springfield, Missouri), which are of different agricultural potential and accessibility are examined. (NQ)

  6. Volatility of ten priority pollutants from fortified avian toxicity test diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCrady, J.K.; Johnson, D.E.; Turner, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    With a few important exceptions, most pesticides have low volatility. However, a significant number of the industrial chemicals under the jurisdiction of TSCA have sufficient volatility to affect availability in fortified test diets and consequently the test results. Although extremely volatile chemicals might evaportate from test diets, there is insufficient data to indicate what levels of volatility are of concern. Volatility may be only one of a variety of factors influencing the fate of organic chemicals in test diets. Other mechanisms such as hydrolysis, adsorption, and photolysis should also be considered, but for many chemicals having significant vapor pressures, volatility is likely to be the major source of loss.

  7. Emerging roles for anionic non-bilayer phospholipids in fortifying the outer membrane permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Russell E

    2014-09-01

    Lately, researchers have been actively investigating Escherichia coli lptD mutants, which exhibit reduced transport of lipopolysaccharide to the cell surface. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Sutterlin et al. (H. A. Sutterlin, S. Zhang, and T. J. Silhavy, J. Bacteriol. 196:3214-3220, 2014) now reveal an important functional role for phosphatidic acid in fortifying the outer membrane permeability barrier in certain lptD mutant backgrounds. These findings come on the heels of the first reports of two LptD crystal structures, which now provide a structural framework for interpreting lptD genetics.

  8. Emerging Roles for Anionic Non-Bilayer Phospholipids in Fortifying the Outer Membrane Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lately, researchers have been actively investigating Escherichia coli lptD mutants, which exhibit reduced transport of lipopolysaccharide to the cell surface. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Sutterlin et al. (H. A. Sutterlin, S. Zhang, and T. J. Silhavy, J. Bacteriol. 196:3214–3220, 2014) now reveal an important functional role for phosphatidic acid in fortifying the outer membrane permeability barrier in certain lptD mutant backgrounds. These findings come on the heels of the first reports of two LptD crystal structures, which now provide a structural framework for interpreting lptD genetics. PMID:25022852

  9. Effect of a fish oil and arginine-fortified diet in thermally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Mitchell, Melanie A; Newel, Ingrid M; Faucher, Lee D; Amelon, Margery J; Ruffin, Timothy O; Lewis, Robert D; Latenser, Barbara A; Kealey, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Burn injury induces a hypercatabolic inflammatory state, predisposing burn patients to malnutrition, poor wound healing, and infectious complications. We conducted this study to determine what effect a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD) would have on wound healing in a thermally injured population. Twenty-three thermally injured patients were enrolled in this randomized double blind enteral feeding study from July 2002 to August 2004. All study patients received isonitrogenous enteral intragastric feeding within 48 hours of admission. Patients were randomized to our standard diet (STD, ProBalance with Promix, Probalance from Nestlé, Glendale, CA; ProMix R.D., Navaco Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ) or a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD, Crucial, Nestlé Nutrition Glendale, CA) Diets were advanced as tolerated to meet 100% of estimated needs. The primary endpoint of the study was time to heal the first donor site. There were no statistical differences between the study groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Both diets were well tolerated, and there were no differences in the daily total kilocalories or protein intake per kilogram between the two diet groups throughout the study. Although nonsignificant, the patients in the FAD group showed a slightly faster healing time than those in the STD group (10.8 +/- 2.7 days vs 12.3 +/- 5.2 days, respectively). This trend was further accelerated when those with body surface area burns less than 30% were examined (patients with body surface area burns <30% in the FAD healed in 9.0 +/- 1.7 vs corresponding patients in the standard group who healed in 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = .63). Patients in the FAD group trended to more infections and more adverse complications. The adverse complications were predominantly associated with inhalation injuries. The role of fortified enteral diets in the outcomes of thermally injured patients deserves further study. Such a future study should be conducted in a

  10. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) < -2, but > or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; ...

  11. The Tissue Distribution of Lutein in Laying Hens Fed Lutein Fortified Chlorella and Production of Chicken Eggs Enriched with Lutein

    PubMed Central

    An, Byoung-Ki; Jeon, Jin-Young; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the dietary effects of conventional or lutein fortified chlorella on lutein absorptions, the tissue distributions and the changes in lutein content of eggs in laying hens. In Exp 1, a total of one hundred and fifty, 70 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were divided into three groups with five replicates and fed with each experiment diet (control diet, diet with 1% conventional chlorella or lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production in groups fed diets containing both chlorella powders were higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). With chlorella supplementations, the yolk color significantly increased, although there were no significant differences in the eggshell qualities. The lutein contents of serum, liver and growing oocytes were greatly increased by feeding conventional or lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of ninety 60 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were assigned into three groups with three replicates per group (10 birds per replicate). The birds were fed with one of three experimental diets (0, 0.1 or 0.2% lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production was not affected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in the group fed with diet containing 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). As the dietary chlorella levels increased, the daily egg mass linearly increased, although not significantly. The yolk colors in groups fed diets containing lutein fortified chlorella were dramatically increased as compared to the control (p<0.001). The lutein in chicken eggs significantly increased when fed with 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). These results suggested that the dietary lutein derived from chlorella was readily absorbed into the serum and absorbed by the liver with growing oocyte for commercial laying hens. Particularly, the lutein fortified chlorella was a valuable natural source for the

  12. 78 FR 25082 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... settlement with The Doe Run Resources Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri, for recovery of past response costs... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement...

  13. 77 FR 22785 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Estate of Benjamin C. Schilberg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement...

  14. 78 FR 24227 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement... information: Title of Proposal: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Disclosures. OMB Control Number... 24 CFR part 3500, require real estate settlement service providers to give homebuyers...

  15. 77 FR 38802 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation AGENCY... a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Trinity... hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning...

  16. Absorption of calcium and magnesium from fortified human milk by very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y M; Neal, P; Ernst, J; Weaver, C; Rickard, K; Smith, D L; Lemons, J

    1989-05-01

    Absorption of calcium and magnesium endogenous to human milk, as well as calcium and magnesium added as an exogenous supplement to human milk, was determined in 9 very low birth wt infants. Human milk, intrinsically labeled with stable isotopic tracers of calcium and magnesium, was prepared by administering isotopic tracers intravenously to a lactating woman. Different isotopic tracers, which were representative of calcium and magnesium in the supplement (Enfamil Human Milk Fortifier, Mead Johnson Nutritional Div.), were added to the intrinsically labeled milk. The fortified milk, which was labeled with two calcium tracers and two magnesium tracers, was given orally to the test subjects in a single feeding. True absorption of calcium and magnesium was determined from differences between the doses of tracer ingested and the quantities of tracer excreted in the feces. Stable isotopic tracers were quantified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. These results demonstrate that the fractional absorptions of calcium in the human milk and the added mineral supplement are 80 and 82%, respectively. A total of 89% magnesium endogenous to human milk and 86% of magnesium derived from the mineral supplement was absorbed by the VLBW infants.

  17. Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Cheddar-type cheese fortified with Inula britannica extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Jeewanthi, R K C; Park, E-H; Paik, H-D

    2016-01-01

    Cheddar-type cheese was fortified with the antioxidant Inula britannica flower extract (IBE). Cheddar-type cheeses manufactured with varying concentrations of IBE (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% wt/vol) were analyzed during storage at 4°C, 0, 1, 2, and 3 wk after production. Higher IBE concentrations resulted in higher protein and ash contents, with a concomitant decrease in pH, total solid, and fat content relative to the unfortified control cheese. The total phenolic content also increased with IBE concentration, but decreased over longer storage periods. The antioxidant activities of the cheeses, determined as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity and ferric thiocyanate assay results, increased proportionally to the total phenolic content. The highest antioxidant effect was observed in the 1% IBE-fortified cheese, showing 79 and 86% antioxidant effects in the DPPH and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively. At the 1-wk time point, the 5 cheese preparations underwent sensory evaluation for odor, taste, texture, color, and overall quality, determined using a descriptive analysis by a trained panel (n=20). The addition of IBE resulted in some increases in extract odor and taste. Overall, IBE showed good potential as an antioxidant supplement for dairy products.

  18. Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Cheddar-type cheese fortified with Inula britannica extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Jeewanthi, R K C; Park, E-H; Paik, H-D

    2016-01-01

    Cheddar-type cheese was fortified with the antioxidant Inula britannica flower extract (IBE). Cheddar-type cheeses manufactured with varying concentrations of IBE (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% wt/vol) were analyzed during storage at 4°C, 0, 1, 2, and 3 wk after production. Higher IBE concentrations resulted in higher protein and ash contents, with a concomitant decrease in pH, total solid, and fat content relative to the unfortified control cheese. The total phenolic content also increased with IBE concentration, but decreased over longer storage periods. The antioxidant activities of the cheeses, determined as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity and ferric thiocyanate assay results, increased proportionally to the total phenolic content. The highest antioxidant effect was observed in the 1% IBE-fortified cheese, showing 79 and 86% antioxidant effects in the DPPH and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively. At the 1-wk time point, the 5 cheese preparations underwent sensory evaluation for odor, taste, texture, color, and overall quality, determined using a descriptive analysis by a trained panel (n=20). The addition of IBE resulted in some increases in extract odor and taste. Overall, IBE showed good potential as an antioxidant supplement for dairy products. PMID:26519976

  19. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  20. Selenium interactions with essential and toxic elements in egg yolk from commercial and fortified eggs.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Marchesi, Isabella; Rizzi, Laura; Cauteruccio, Laura; Masironi, Roberto; Simioli, Marco; Borella, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between selenium concentration in both commercial and Se-enriched eggs and other essential/toxic elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cd), taking into account a possible synergic action of iodine. Commercial eggs were purchased from several sale points or directly from the producers (farmyard eggs). Fortified eggs were obtained by supplementing chickenfeed for 6 weeks with Se as sodium selenite (1.0 microg/g Se) or Se plus iodine (1.0 microg/g Se+3.7 microg/g I). Se in experimental egg yolks significantly increased over the basic value by 39% in the Se group and 61% in the Se+I group, suggesting that I addition may enhance Se absorption. Levels of Se in commercial yolks were identical in free-range, barn or battery eggs, but significantly lower in farmyard and higher in organic eggs where the Se content approximated that found in Se fortified eggs. A significant reduction in Cd was observed in Se+I treated yolks compared to both control and Se alone diet, thus suggesting a high sensitivity of Cd to the detoxifying effect of Se combined with I. Furthermore, Se+I supplementation was associated with a significant Zn reduction, a finding which needs clarification to avoid attempts to maximize one component affecting the levels of other essential elements.

  1. Tolerance Testing for Cooked Porridge made from a Sorghum Based Fortified Blended Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Chambers, Edgar Iv; Alavi, Sajid

    2016-05-01

    Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor.

  2. Physicochemical and nutritional qualities of grape pomace powder-fortified semi-hard cheeses.

    PubMed

    Marchiani, Roberta; Bertolino, Marta; Ghirardello, Daniela; McSweeney, Paul L H; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Powders obtained from three grape pomaces (Barbera, Chardonnay before distillation, Chardonnay after distillation) were added at two concentration levels (0.8 and 1.6 % w/w) into semi-hard and hard cheeses (Italian Toma-like and Cheddar, respectively) to increase their polyphenol content. Effects on physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), proteolysis, organic acids content, starter and non-starter bacteria were evaluated during ripening. The amount and the type of powder used did not significantly affect the physicochemical parameters of cheese with the exception of pH their values. Italian Toma-like and Cheddar cheeses fortified with Chardonnay after distillation powder showed at the end of ripening (30 days and 120 days respectively) the highest TPC and RSA values. Proteolysis and microbial counts did not show statistically significant differences between fortified and control cheeses. This study demonstrated that grape pomace powder can be a functional ingredient to increase TPC and RSA in consumers' diets and the addition of this by-product to cheese is an environmentally friendly way to manage winemaking wastes. PMID:27570284

  3. Analysis of the impact of fortified food consumption on overall dietary quality in Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Triona; Hannon, Evelyn M; Kiely, Mairead; Flynn, Albert

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of fortified food (FF) consumption on overall dietary quality in Irish adults. Data for this analysis was based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey w7/15/2008hich used a 7 d food diary to collect food and beverage intake data in a representative sample of 1379 Irish adults (662 men and 717 women) aged 18-64 years. Foods contained in the database that are fortified were identified from the presence of vitamins and/or minerals in the ingredient list on the label. The results showed that an increased level of FF consumption was associated with lower intakes (percentage food energy) of total fat and saturated fat (women only) and higher intakes of total carbohydrate, total sugars (but not added sugars) and starch. Increased consumption was associated with a more micronutrient-dense diet and a reduced prevalence of dietary inadequacies of Ca, Fe, riboflavin and folate, particularly in women. Higher FF consumption was associated with higher intakes of fruit, lower intakes of alcohol and a lower likelihood of smoking in men and women. Thus it appears that FF consumption is a marker of both better dietary quality and healthy lifestyle behaviours.

  4. 48 CFR 449.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 449.111 Section 449.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 449.111 Review of proposed settlements....

  5. 48 CFR 49.115 - Settlement of terminated incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement of terminated incentive contracts. 49.115 Section 49.115 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.115 Settlement of...

  6. 48 CFR 49.109-4 - No-cost settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No-cost settlement. 49.109-4 Section 49.109-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-4 No-cost settlement. The TCO shall execute...

  7. 48 CFR 49.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 49.111 Section 49.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.111 Review of proposed settlements....

  8. 48 CFR 849.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 849.111 Section 849.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.111 Review of proposed settlements....

  9. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial settlements. 49.109-5 Section 49.109-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should...

  10. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation memorandum. 49.110 Section 49.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation...

  11. 38 CFR 8.19 - Beneficiary and optional settlement changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beneficiary and optional settlement changes. 8.19 Section 8.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiaries § 8.19 Beneficiary and optional settlement changes....

  12. The Bronson Settlement Review: Year Four, 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; Nieman, Ronald W.

    School year 1987-88 marked the mid-point of the seven-year desegregation settlement for the Cincinnati (Ohio) Public Schools. This report presents data from a review of progress that was provided for in the Bronson Settlement Agreement, answers plaintiff questions, and addresses district concerns. The following subjects are discussed: (1) progress…

  13. 25 CFR 214.16 - Settlement of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement of damages. 214.16 Section 214.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.16 Settlement of damages. Any person, other than...

  14. 25 CFR 214.16 - Settlement of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement of damages. 214.16 Section 214.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.16 Settlement of damages. Any person, other than...

  15. 25 CFR 214.16 - Settlement of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Settlement of damages. 214.16 Section 214.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.16 Settlement of damages. Any person, other than...

  16. 25 CFR 214.16 - Settlement of damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Settlement of damages. 214.16 Section 214.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.16 Settlement of damages. Any person, other than...

  17. Identification of Ethnic Settlement Regions: Amish-Mennonites in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Robert B.; Neugebauer, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines four methods of identifying Amish-Mennonite settlement: local population data on religious affiliation; location of Amish church districts and Mennonite churches; topographic maps; and surnames and cadastral maps. Topographic maps proved unsuitable. Other methods produced reasonable approximations of Amish and Mennonite settlement. (TES)

  18. 29 CFR 1603.108 - Settlement and alternative dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. 1603.108... Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. (a) The parties are at all times free to settle all or part of... a neutral mediator or to any other alternative dispute resolution process authorized by...

  19. 33 CFR 25.129 - Acceptance of offer of settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of offer of settlement. 25.129 Section 25.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS General § 25.129 Acceptance of offer of settlement. Claimant's acceptance of an offer...

  20. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  1. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  2. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  3. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  4. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  5. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of settlement or judgment. 341.6 Section 341.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 949.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 949.111 Section 949.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 949.111 Review of proposed settlements. (a) The...

  7. 48 CFR 949.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 949.111 Section 949.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 949.111 Review of proposed settlements. (a) The...

  8. 48 CFR 949.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 949.111 Section 949.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 949.111 Review of proposed settlements. (a) The...

  9. 12 CFR 210.9 - Settlement and payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., certified check, or other bank draft or obligation. (e) Handling of payment. A Reserve Bank may handle a... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement and payment. 210.9 Section 210.9...) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.9 Settlement and payment. (a)...

  10. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  11. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amendment related to settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related...

  12. 32 CFR 750.34 - Settlement and payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.34 Settlement and payment. (a) Settlement agreement—(1) When required. A... conduct gave rise to the claim, by reason of the same subject matter. 28 CFR 14.10(b). In cases where... and Designated Authority Federal Tort Claims Act Judge Advocate General—$200,000.00 Deputy...

  13. 32 CFR 750.34 - Settlement and payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.34 Settlement and payment. (a) Settlement agreement—(1) When required. A... conduct gave rise to the claim, by reason of the same subject matter. 28 CFR 14.10(b). In cases where... and Designated Authority Federal Tort Claims Act Judge Advocate General—$200,000.00 Deputy...

  14. 32 CFR 750.34 - Settlement and payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.34 Settlement and payment. (a) Settlement agreement—(1) When required. A... conduct gave rise to the claim, by reason of the same subject matter. 28 CFR 14.10(b). In cases where... and Designated Authority Federal Tort Claims Act Judge Advocate General—$200,000.00 Deputy...

  15. 33 CFR 25.515 - Settlement and notice to claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... also release the tort-feasor or the person who occasioned the damage, injury, or death. ... GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.515 Settlement and notice to claimant. If a claim is determined to be meritorious in any amount, a written acceptance and release or a claim settlement agreement shall be signed...

  16. 33 CFR 25.515 - Settlement and notice to claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... also release the tort-feasor or the person who occasioned the damage, injury, or death. ... GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.515 Settlement and notice to claimant. If a claim is determined to be meritorious in any amount, a written acceptance and release or a claim settlement agreement shall be signed...

  17. 33 CFR 25.515 - Settlement and notice to claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also release the tort-feasor or the person who occasioned the damage, injury, or death. ... GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.515 Settlement and notice to claimant. If a claim is determined to be meritorious in any amount, a written acceptance and release or a claim settlement agreement shall be signed...

  18. 31 CFR 549.702 - Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. 549.702 Section 549.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 549.702 Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement....

  19. 31 CFR 546.702 - Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. 546.702 Section 546.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 546.702 Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. (a)...

  20. 32 CFR 536.72 - Finality of settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Finality of settlement. 536.72 Section 536.72 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.72 Finality of settlement....

  1. 32 CFR 536.59 - Settlement or approval authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement or approval authority. 536.59 Section 536.59 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.59 Settlement or...

  2. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amendment related to settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related...

  3. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  4. 7 CFR 760.111 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.111 Section 760.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.111 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any...

  5. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  6. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.457 - Negotiated debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiated debt settlement. 3560.457 Section 3560.457... Other Actions § 3560.457 Negotiated debt settlement. (a) Borrower proposals to settle debt. A borrower who cannot pay the full amount of loan payments may propose an offer to settle an outstanding debt...

  8. 7 CFR 760.1108 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.1108 Section 760.1108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Program § 760.1108 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.9 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 1416.9 Section 1416.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Programs § 1416.9 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  10. 7 CFR 760.1108 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.1108 Section 760.1108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Program § 760.1108 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will...

  11. 7 CFR 760.820 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.820....820 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... payments found at part 1404 of this title. (c) A debt or claim may be settled according to part 792 of...

  12. 7 CFR 760.820 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.820....820 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... payments found at part 1404 of this title. (c) A debt or claim may be settled according to part 792 of...

  13. 7 CFR 760.111 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.111 Section 760.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.111 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.457 - Negotiated debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Negotiated debt settlement. 3560.457 Section 3560.457... Other Actions § 3560.457 Negotiated debt settlement. (a) Borrower proposals to settle debt. A borrower who cannot pay the full amount of loan payments may propose an offer to settle an outstanding debt...

  15. The Impact of the Master Settlement Agreement on Cigarette Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Trogdon, Justin G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, 46 states and the four major tobacco companies signed the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which stipulated that the tobacco companies pay states $206 billion over 25 years and take steps to reduce youth smoking. The remaining states settled separately. We sought to determine the effect of the settlements on demand for cigarettes. Using…

  16. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  17. 48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement by determination. 49.109-7 Section 49.109-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-7 Settlement by determination....

  18. 47 CFR 1.244 - Designation of a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Proceedings Presiding Officer § 1.244 Designation of a settlement judge. (a) In broadcast comparative cases... Administrative Law Judge for action. (c) If, in the discretion of the Chief Administrative Law Judge, it appears... Commission's Administrative Law Judges are eligible to act as settlement judges, except that...

  19. 47 CFR 1.244 - Designation of a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Proceedings Presiding Officer § 1.244 Designation of a settlement judge. (a) In broadcast comparative cases... Administrative Law Judge for action. (c) If, in the discretion of the Chief Administrative Law Judge, it appears... Commission's Administrative Law Judges are eligible to act as settlement judges, except that...

  20. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement of claims. 326.6 Section 326.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining...

  1. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement of claims. 326.6 Section 326.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining...

  2. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement of claims. 326.6 Section 326.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining...

  3. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement of claims. 326.6 Section 326.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining...

  4. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement of claims. 326.6 Section 326.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining...

  5. 29 CFR 102.51 - Settlement or adjustment of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement or adjustment of issues. 102.51 Section 102.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8... Before the Board § 102.51 Settlement or adjustment of issues. At any stage of a proceeding prior...

  6. Measuring Quality of Life in Informal Settlements in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Robin; O'Leary, Brian; Mutsonziwa, Kingstone

    2007-01-01

    South African cities attract thousands of new residents every year in search of work and a better life. The housing backlog coupled with a shortage of housing subsidies means that for many South Africans there is no alternative but to live in informal housing and shack settlements. Informal settlements are therefore here to stay for the next…

  7. 12 CFR 308.545 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 308.545 Section 308.545 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.545 Compromise or settlement....

  8. 12 CFR 308.545 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 308.545 Section 308.545 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.545 Compromise or settlement....

  9. 12 CFR 308.545 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 308.545 Section 308.545 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.545 Compromise or settlement....

  10. 12 CFR 308.545 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 308.545 Section 308.545 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.545 Compromise or settlement....

  11. 12 CFR 308.545 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 308.545 Section 308.545 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.545 Compromise or settlement....

  12. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1275 - Settlement Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governmental power,” the panel shall consider whether the release would seriously injure legitimate interests... no longer apply. This change is reflected in 36 CFR 1275.64. Settlement Agreement This Settlement...”) identified by the Archives as relating to “abuses of governmental power,” as defined by 36 C.F.R. Part...

  13. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  14. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  15. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  17. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  18. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible changes—HUD-1. The...) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology, sequence, and numbering of line items as...

  19. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible changes—HUD-1. The...) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology, sequence, and numbering of line items as...

  20. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  1. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  2. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amendment related to settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related...

  3. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amendment related to settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related...

  4. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment related to settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related...

  5. The influence of substrate material on ascidian larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Chase, Anna L; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Harris, Larry G

    2016-05-15

    Submerged man-made structures present novel habitat for marine organisms and often host communities that differ from those on natural substrates. Although many factors are known to contribute to these differences, few studies have directly examined the influence of substrate material on organism settlement. We quantified larval substrate preferences of two species of ascidians, Ciona intestinalis (cryptogenic, formerly C. intestinalis type B) and Botrylloides violaceus (non-native), on commonly occurring natural (granite) and man-made (concrete, high-density polyethylene, PVC) marine materials in laboratory trials. Larvae exhibited species-specific settlement preferences, but generally settled more often than expected by chance on concrete and HDPE. Variation in settlement between materials may reflect preferences for rougher substrates, or may result from the influence of leached chemicals on ascidian settlement. These findings indicate that an experimental plate material can influence larval behavior and may help us understand how substrate features may contribute to differences in settlement in the field. PMID:27039957

  6. The influence of substrate material on ascidian larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Chase, Anna L; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Harris, Larry G

    2016-05-15

    Submerged man-made structures present novel habitat for marine organisms and often host communities that differ from those on natural substrates. Although many factors are known to contribute to these differences, few studies have directly examined the influence of substrate material on organism settlement. We quantified larval substrate preferences of two species of ascidians, Ciona intestinalis (cryptogenic, formerly C. intestinalis type B) and Botrylloides violaceus (non-native), on commonly occurring natural (granite) and man-made (concrete, high-density polyethylene, PVC) marine materials in laboratory trials. Larvae exhibited species-specific settlement preferences, but generally settled more often than expected by chance on concrete and HDPE. Variation in settlement between materials may reflect preferences for rougher substrates, or may result from the influence of leached chemicals on ascidian settlement. These findings indicate that an experimental plate material can influence larval behavior and may help us understand how substrate features may contribute to differences in settlement in the field.

  7. Predicting the settlement of coarse granular materials under vertical loading

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Saussine, Gilles; Breul, Pierre; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-01-01

    Granular materials are widely used in industrial processes despite their complex and poorly understood mechanical behaviour both in static and dynamic regimes. A prototypical example is the settlement and compaction of a granular bed under vibrational loading. The elementary mechanisms of this process are still unclear and there is presently no established theory or methodology to predict the settlement and its statistical variability. By means of a parametric study, carried out on a full-scale track, and a critical analysis of density relaxation laws, we introduce a novel settlement model in coarse granular materials under cyclic loading. Our extensive experimental data indicate that the settlement process is governed by three independent parameters strongly correlated with the vibration intensity and initial packing fraction. We show that the mean settlement is well predicted by the model with its parameter values extracted from experimental data. PMID:25028053

  8. 76 FR 72921 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Bona Fide Prospective Purchaser Settlement; The City of Dowagiac...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past and projected future response costs concerning the... comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is...

  9. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the River Forest Dry... considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The...

  10. 76 FR 2112 - Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site, Augusta, Richmond County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response... the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that...

  11. 78 FR 23563 - LWD, Inc. Superfund Site; Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Agencies addressing past costs concerning the LWD, Inc., Superfund Site located in Calvert City, Marshall... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement...

  12. 76 FR 26291 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative “Cost Recovery” Settlement; the Doe Run Resources Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Big River Mine Tailings Superfund Site, St... facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or...

  13. 77 FR 4559 - Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, NC; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Protection Agency has amended a settlement for resolution of past response and future costs concerning the... disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper,...

  14. 76 FR 11779 - Puckett Smelter Superfund Site; Mountainboro, Etowah County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the... facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or...

  15. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  16. Settlement specifics: Effective induction of abalone settlement and metamorphosis corresponds to biomolecular composition of natural cues.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Cummins, Scott; Degnan, Sandie M

    2009-07-01

    Chemical signaling plays a major role in shaping life history processes that drive ecology and evolution in marine systems, notably including habitat selection by marine invertebrate larvae that must settle out of the plankton onto the benthos.1 For larvae, the identification of appropriate habitats in which to settle and undergo metamorphosis to the adult form relies heavily on the recognition of cues indicative of a favorable environment. By documenting settlement responses of larvae of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, to a range of coralline algae species, we recently highlighted the species-specific nature of this interaction.2 Here, we demonstrate that this specificity is likely driven by chemical, rather than physical, properties of the algae. Our initial characterization of the surface cell biomarkers from three different algal species shows that inductive cue biomolecular composition correlates with variations in larval settlement response.

  17. Zinc nutritional status of young middle-income children and effects of consuming zinc-fortified breakfast cereals.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K M; Chavez, M N; Brown, R M; Walravens, P A

    1979-12-01

    The effects of consuming zinc-fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals were determined in a double-blind controlled study. The 96 healthy young children who participated (mean age 58 months) consumed either zinc-fortified cereal, providing 25% United States Recommended Dietary Allowance per 1 ounce serving (test children) or nonzinc-fortified cereals (controls) for a 9-month period. The test children were calculated on average to receive an additional 2.57 mg of zinc per day from this fortification program. This increment increased their mean daily zinc intake to a level that approached the Recommended Dietary Allowance (10 mg) of the National Academy of Sciences for children less than 10 years of age. By the end of the period, the test children (combined sexes) had a mean increment of plasma zinc that was 6.5 micrograms/dl greater than that of the control children (P less than 0.02). The test girls had a greater increment (28.5 micrograms/g) in hair zinc content than controls girls (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences in other biochemical parameters including plasma copper and serum cholesterol. No significant differences in food intake or growth velocity were associated with the consumption of the zinc-fortified cereal. Multiple sex and time related differences occurred in plasma, hair, urine, and parotid saliva zinc concentrations that were unrelated to the type of cereal consumed.

  18. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  19. 76 FR 42154 - BioMETRX, Inc., Biopure Corp. (n/k/a PBBPC, Inc.), Distributed Energy Systems Corp., Fortified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BioMETRX, Inc., Biopure Corp. (n/k/a PBBPC, Inc.), Distributed Energy Systems Corp., Fortified... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of BioMETRX, Inc. because it has...

  20. Os trigonum syndrome in ancient Anatolian settlements.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hakan; Baykara, Ismail

    2008-06-01

    An os trigonum is a small, round bone situated just behind the ankle joint. Clinical research shows that the os trigonum is present in about 5-15 % of normal feet. It occurs when one part of the bone does not fuse with the rest of the talus during growth. The present study is made on the skeletons, which were found in the Karagündiiz, Dilkaya and Van Kalesi-Eski Van Sehri settlements, Van province, Anatolia, dated in the Middle Ages. In this study 228 skeletons were examined, 120 males and 108 females. 376 tall were studied: 227 from Karagiindtiz, 93 from Dilkaya, and 56 from Van Kalesi-Eski Van Sehri. The percentage of the os trigonum syndrome was recorded as 6.6 %.

  1. Influence of phytase, EDTA, and polyphenols on zinc absorption in adults from porridges fortified with zinc sulfate or zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Marica; Wegmüller, Rita; Zeder, Christophe; Senti, Gabriela; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-09-01

    Fortification of cereal staples with zinc is recommended to combat zinc deficiency. To optimize zinc absorption, strategies are needed to overcome the inhibitory effect of phytic acid (PA) and perhaps polyphenols. Five zinc absorption studies were conducted in young adults consuming maize or sorghum porridges fortified with 2 mg zinc as zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) or zinc oxide (ZnO) and containing combinations of PA or polyphenols as potential inhibitors and EDTA and phytase as potential enhancers. Fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured by using the double isotopic tracer ratio method. Adding phytase to the maize porridge immediately before consumption or using phytase for dephytinization during meal preparation both increased FAZ by >80% (both P < 0.001). Adding Na2EDTA at an EDTA:zinc molar ratio of 1:1 increased FAZ from maize porridge fortified with ZnSO4 by 30% (P = 0.01) but had no influence at higher EDTA ratios or on absorption from ZnO. FAZ was slightly higher from ZnSO4 than from ZnO (P = 0.02). Sorghum polyphenols had no effect on FAZ from dephytinized sorghum porridges but decreased FAZ by 20% from PA-rich sorghum porridges (P < 0.02). The combined inhibitory effect of polyphenols and PA was overcome by EDTA. In conclusion, ZnSO4 was better absorbed than ZnO, phytase used to degrade PA during digestion or during food preparation substantially increased zinc absorption from zinc-fortified cereals, EDTA at a 1:1 molar ratio modestly enhanced zinc absorption from ZnSO4-fortified cereals but not ZnO-fortified cereals, and sorghum polyphenols inhibited zinc absorption in the presence, but not absence, of PA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01210794.

  2. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized. PMID:7797315

  3. Technical note: Vitamin D-fortified Cheddar type cheese produced from concentrated milk.

    PubMed

    Boivin-Piché, Jonathan; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; St-Gelais, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The technological challenge related to cheese fortification with vitamin D is the loss of a large proportion of vitamin D during the wheying-off step. The use of ultrafiltration (UF) to concentrate the milk before vitamin D enrichment and cheese manufacturing could be a way to reduce the volume of whey and consequently the vitamin D losses in cheese whey. Control (1.0×) and concentrated milks (1.4× and 1.8×) were fortified with vitamin D at a concentration of 450 IU per gram of milk. The 1.8× cheese milk concentration reduced slightly the vitamin D loss during the draining step (19.8%) compared with the control cheese (25.5%) and vitamin D remained stable during Cheddar cheese processing and ripening. PMID:27060834

  4. Tackling pollution by organic farming is capable of increasing fortified foods.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Aviñó, J P; Navarro, J J Fernández; Castro, V Vargas; Ripoll, I Ilzarbe; Sahuquillo, M J Márquez

    2016-01-01

    The global pollution stage is poisoning the biosphere and causing global temperatures to rise, necessitating a drastic change in the way man is dealing with nature. One change that may produce many beneficial effects on the biosphere and human health is the use of specific organic farming to produce food in a more integrated way in nature and to increase the capacity of man's own response. Despite many experts' opinion another way to deal with environmental contamination is possible: organic farming, which can increase man's ability to fortify foods. After more than 20 years working under this discipline, Bodegas Dagon is able to achieve the highest stilbenes concentrations (as resveratrol). Versus 14.3 mg/l, "Bodegas Dagón" wines contain resveratrol (HPLC and UV-spectroscopy) up to 1611.73 ± 72.66 mg/l, standing as world's potentially healthiest wine reported to date.

  5. Effect of a plant fortifier (Boundary) on pests and predators of greenhouse vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Luigi; Piro, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Boundary, a plant fortifier composed of extracts of Sophora flavescens Aiton and brown algae, was tested for control of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) on tomato (three trials) and of the red spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch on eggplant (one trial) and for side effects on the whitefly predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Kambur) (two trials) on tomato and on the thrips predators Orius laevigatus (Fieber) and Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (two trials) on pepper, all in cold greenhouses in South Italy. Control rates for T. absoluta were moderate (40-70%) in the autumn crop but very high and comparable to those for emamectin benzoate in the spring crops (96-100%). Boundary compared well with abamectin against T. urticae, with near complete control. M. pygmaeus was moderately injured in late autumn, but not in early autumn. At the tested application rate and predator population density Boundary was safe for O. laevigatus and A. swirskii. PMID:25631629

  6. Contents of minerals in green leafy vegetables cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N S; Bhatt, G

    2001-01-01

    Content of selected minerals in spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and ambat chuka (Rumex vesicarius) cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers was determined in a pot experiment. Addition of NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) fertilizer along with micronutrients, iron and zinc, enhanced the concentration of zinc, iron and magnesium in selected green leafy vegetables markedly (p < 0.05), while the concentration of copper was not altered significantly (p > 0.05). Potassium content in the green leafy vegetables was not affected (p > 0.05) by the addition of chemical fertilizers to soil. Spinach and ambat chuka differed remarkably in their mineral contents. Contents of potassium, zinc and copper were significantly high in spinach, while the contents of magnesium and iron were markedly high in ambat chuka (p < 0.05).

  7. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  8. Stability of Vitamin D3 in fortified yoghurt and yoghurt drink (Doogh)

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Tina; Askari, Gholamreza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Faghihimani, Elham; Fallah, Aziz A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are recognized as a worldwide problem with serious consequences. Fortification of foods with Vitamin D is a certain approach to improve serum Vitamin D status if the stability of vitamin in the foodstuffs was controlled. The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of Vitamin D3 added to low-fat yogurt and yogurt drink “Doogh” during the products shelf-life. Materials and Methods: Two kinds of Vitamin D3, water- and oil-dispersible forms, suitable for food fortification, were compared to find out whether they show different stability in the products. The products were packed in opaque or translucent containers. The content of Vitamin D3 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography method. Results: Vitamin D was not affected by the heat treatment (pasteurization) and other processes (homogenization and fermentation). Both water- and oil-dispersible forms were stable during the shelf-life of yogurt samples packed in opaque containers. The Vitamin D3 content of yogurt fortified with water-dispersible form and packed in translucent containers was not stable during the shelf-life and significantly reduced after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of storage compared to the day 0. The Vitamin D3 content of samples fortified with the oil-dispersible form packed in the same container was only stable after 1-week and significantly reduced after 2 and 3 weeks of storage. The Vitamin D3 content of Doogh packed in the opaque containers remained stable during the shelf-life while it was not stable in the samples packed in translucent containers. Conclusion: The results suggested that both forms of Vitamin D are suitable for fortification, and opaque container is a better choice for packaging of the product. PMID:27110549

  9. Determination of vitamins, minerals, and microbial loads of fortified nonalcoholic beverage (kunun zaki) produced from millet.

    PubMed

    Olaoye, Olusegun A; Ubbor, Stella C; Uduma, Ebere A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fortifying kunun zaki with tigernut milk extract due to nutritional deficiency of the former. Kunun zaki and tigernut milk extract (TME) were produced using traditional methods, with little modification. They were mixed in respective percentages of 90:10 (KN10), 80:20 (KN20), and 70:30 (KN30) while whole kunun zaki without addition of tigernut milk extract (KN00) served as control. The resulting kunun zaki samples were analyzed for proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, microbial loads, and sensory evaluation. Results showed improvement in thiamine and riboflavin contents of the fortified samples over the unfortified counterparts, with the KN30 sample having highest values of 1.05 and 0.56 mg/kg thiamine and riboflavin, respectively. Minerals were higher in the samples containing TME than their KN00 counterparts; the KN30 sample had highest values of 23.5, 8.8, 148.9, 63.7, 6.7, and 18.6 mg/100 mL for respective Na, Ca, K, Mg, P, and Fe while lowest values were recorded for the KN00 sample. Microbial analysis indicated that total viable bacteria and yeast and molds were in the range 2.2-2.6 and 2.1-2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, while there was no detection of coliforms and Staphylococcus in the samples. The sensory evaluation of the kunun zaki samples indicated that higher mean scores were recorded for samples containing TME than those without it in most of the attributes tested. The KN30 sample was most preferred, having highest mean scores of 7.2, 7.8, 6.9, and 7.4 in the attributes of appearance, flavor, taste, and acceptability, respectively. The study concluded that inclusion of tigernut extract in kunun zaki resulted in improved nutritional and sensory qualities. PMID:26788315

  10. Palama Settlement: 100 years of serving a neighborhood's needs.

    PubMed

    Rath, P

    1995-11-01

    The founding of Palama Settlement brought to those who might not be able to afford it public health nurses for maternal care and nutrition, well-baby clinics, tuberculosis clinics, medical and dental clinics, and eventually major support of medical needs during and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Palama Settlement celebrates its centennial year with many of its early functions assumed by state and private organizations, but it is prepared to enter the next 100 years of service to the community. Palama was founded by James Arthur Rath with the purpose of serving the community; many people today remember their childhood and Palama Settlement.

  11. All-Terrain Vehicle Settlement. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    A hearing was held to examine the Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) settlement of its imminent hazard enforcement case against the major manufacturers of all-terrain vehicles (ATV), a product causing, as of January, 1988, a total of 330,000 serious injuries and over 900 deaths, nearly half of these to children. Central to the Committee's…

  12. 7 CFR 1717.1204 - Policies and conditions applicable to settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt § 1717.1204 Policies and conditions applicable to settlements. (a) General. Settlement of debts and claims shall be subject to the policies, requirements, and conditions set forth in this section and in § 1717.1202. (b) Need for debt settlement. (1) The...

  13. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... administrative settlement for recovery of past and projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and... past response costs, as well as future response costs under the settlement. The settlement includes a... considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The...

  14. Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Maleschlijski, Stojan; Bauer, Stella; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Barnacle cyprids exhibit a complex swimming and exploratory behaviour on surfaces and settlement is a consequence of extensive surface probing and selection of suitable settlement sites. In this work, the behaviour of cyprids in their pre-settlement phase was studied by three-dimensional video stereoscopy. With this technique, three-dimensional trajectories were obtained that were quantitatively analysed. The velocity during vertical sinking of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite was used with a modified form of Stokes' law to calculate their mean body density. Furthermore, a classification of the swimming patterns allowed the extension of existing models describing cyprid locomotion and swimming behaviour. The patterns were characterized with respect to their occurrence, transition between patterns and their velocity distribution, and motions were identified that led to surface contacts. This analysis provides a classification framework, which can assist future attempts to identify behavioural responses of cyprids to specific settlement cues. PMID:25551141

  15. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... necessary to abandon security through the debt settlement process. For example, a community may be rendered... minor children and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, dower and curtesy rights, and...

  16. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... necessary to abandon security through the debt settlement process. For example, a community may be rendered... minor children and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, dower and curtesy rights, and...

  17. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... necessary to abandon security through the debt settlement process. For example, a community may be rendered... minor children and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, dower and curtesy rights, and...

  18. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary to abandon security through the debt settlement process. For example, a community may be rendered... minor children and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, dower and curtesy rights, and...

  19. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... necessary to abandon security through the debt settlement process. For example, a community may be rendered... minor children and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, dower and curtesy rights, and...

  20. 48 CFR 227.7008 - Settlement of indemnified claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interests of the Government and is coordinated with the Department of Justice with a view to preserving any... the contractors are obtained, the settlement need not be coordinated with the Department of Justice....

  1. 48 CFR 227.7008 - Settlement of indemnified claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interests of the Government and is coordinated with the Department of Justice with a view to preserving any... the contractors are obtained, the settlement need not be coordinated with the Department of Justice....

  2. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  3. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  4. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  5. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  6. AX Tank farm closure settlement estimates and soil testing

    SciTech Connect

    BECKER, D.L.

    1999-03-25

    This study provides a conservative three-dimensional settlement study of the AX Tank Farm closure with fill materials and a surface barrier. The finite element settlement model constructed included the interaction of four tanks and the surface barrier with the site soil and bedrock. Also addressed are current soil testing techniques suitable for the site soil with recommendations applicable to the AX Tank Farm and the planned cone penetration testing.

  7. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on arctic tundra lowlands, but their present-day dynamic states are seldom investigated. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area analyzed exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs analyzed exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on arctic coastal lowlands.

  8. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1988-07-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  9. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  10. Conserved MIP receptor–ligand pair regulates Platynereis larval settlement

    PubMed Central

    Conzelmann, Markus; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Tunaru, Sorin; Randel, Nadine; Shahidi, Réza; Asadulina, Albina; Berger, Jürgen; Offermanns, Stefan; Jékely, Gáspár

    2013-01-01

    Life-cycle transitions connecting larval and juvenile stages in metazoans are orchestrated by neuroendocrine signals including neuropeptides and hormones. In marine invertebrate life cycles, which often consist of planktonic larval and benthic adult stages, settlement of the free-swimming larva to the sea floor in response to environmental cues is a key life cycle transition. Settlement is regulated by a specialized sensory–neurosecretory system, the larval apical organ. The neuroendocrine mechanisms through which the apical organ transduces environmental cues into behavioral responses during settlement are not yet understood. Here we show that myoinhibitory peptide (MIP)/allatostatin-B, a pleiotropic neuropeptide widespread among protostomes, regulates larval settlement in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. MIP is expressed in chemosensory–neurosecretory cells in the annelid larval apical organ and signals to its receptor, an orthologue of the Drosophila sex peptide receptor, expressed in neighboring apical organ cells. We demonstrate by morpholino-mediated knockdown that MIP signals via this receptor to trigger settlement. These results reveal a role for a conserved MIP receptor–ligand pair in regulating marine annelid settlement. PMID:23569279

  11. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  12. Settlement of marine periphytic algae in a tropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, S.; Goh, B. P. L.; Chou, L. M.

    2005-08-01

    This note describes settlement studies of marine periphytic algae on glass substrata in a tropical estuary in Singapore. The rates of production in terms of 14C radiotracer uptake, biomass in terms of chlorophyll a, community structure and cell abundance were measured from the settled periphytic algae at various depths in the water column and compared with the prevailing hydrographical conditions. Relatively higher periphytic algal settlement was observed at 1 m depth, even though it was not statistically different from other depths. Diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira rotula dominated the assemblage, together with the marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. The three settlement parameters viz., periphytic algal production, chlorophyll a and cell counts showed significant differences between the days of settlement, with no significant differences observed for different depths. The periphytic algal community in this study comprised 30 microalgal species, dominated by diatoms (78%), followed by cyanobacteria (19% - primarily Synechococcus sp.), green flagellates (1%), dinoflagellates (1%) and other forms accounting for the remaining 1% of the total cell counts. Correlation studies and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed significant influence of silicate concentrations in the water column with the settlement of periphytic algae in this estuary. Though photoinhibited at the surface, photosynthetically available radiation did not seem to influence the overall settlement of periphytic algae. Diatoms and Synechococcus in the periphytic algal community were influenced by water temperature, PAR, pH and dissolved oxygen as seen in the PCA plots.

  13. Pipeline integrity design for differential settlement in discontinuous permafrost areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.J.; Boivin, R.P.; Glover, A.G.; Kormann, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    The NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL) gas pipeline system is expanding northwards as the producers search for and find new gas reserves. This growth has taken the system into the discontinuous permafrost zone, and also into new design problems. One such problem is the structural integrity of a pipeline subjected to the settlement differentials that occur between frozen and unfrozen soils. Adequate integrity design for differential settlement is required by design codes, such as CSA Z662, but the procedures and criteria must be established by the pipeline designers. This paper presents the methodology of pipeline integrity design for differential settlements used on a number of pipeline projects in Northwest Alberta. Outlined in the paper are the procedures, rationales and models used to: (a) locate discontinuous permafrost; (b) quantify the potential differential settlement; (c) predict pipeline stresses and strains; (d) establish strain limits; and (e) determine the pipe wall thickness to withstand those potential differential settlements. Several design options are available and are briefly discussed. For the projects mentioned, the heavy wall pipe option was identified as a cost effective design for medium to large differential settlements.

  14. Biomass Change of the Landless Peasants' Settlements in Lower Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Ishimaru, K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in Legal Amazon due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. Around the same time, movements which poor peoples or landless peasants settle into abandoned land have been very active in Brazil. In many cases, these people lack agricultural experiences to yield sufficient production for livelihoods. Thus, it leads to abandon the land and repeat forest clearance. In recent year, education by NGOs to these people encourage spreading of agroforestry which is a land use management system in which trees are grown around or among crops or pasture land. In this study, we specifically aimed at clarifying changes in LULC and these biomass using ground observation data, remotely-sensed LANDSAT data and GIS techniques. We focus on four different settlements: old-established settlement (around 30 years), established settlement (around 20 years), productive settlement (7 year) and unproductive settlement (7 years). These four settelements were located at Santa Barbará province, about 40 km northeast from the center of Belém, the Pará state capital, in the northern part of Brazil. We clarify that the biomass change varied according to whether the settlement are productive or not.

  15. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, J.; Motti, C. A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D. M.; Negri, A. P.; Schupp, P. J.; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P. D.; Harder, T.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds – glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides – as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples. PMID:26042834

  16. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1988-07-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal. PMID:11542834

  17. Effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified fruit powder beverage on the nutrition status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Solon, Florentino S; Sarol, Jesus N; Bernardo, Allan B I; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Mehansho, Haile; Sanchez-Fermin, Liza E; Wambangco, Lorena S; Juhlin, Kenton D

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage on the micronutrient status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of schoolchildren assigned to receive either the fortified or nonfortified beverage with or without anthelmintic therapy. Data on hemoglobin level, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level, physical fitness, and cognitive performance were collected at baseline and at 16 weeks post-intervention. The fortified beverage significantly improved iron status among the subjects that had hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dl at baseline. The proportion of children who remained moderately to severely anemic was significantly lower among those given the fortified beverage. In the groups that received the fortified product, the median UIE level increased, whereas among those who received the placebo beverage, the median UIE level was reduced significantly. Iron- and/or iodine-deficient subjects who received the fortified beverage showed significant improvements in fitness (post-exercise reduction of heart rate) and cognitive performance (nonverbal mental ability score). The study showed that consumption of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage for 16 weeks had significant effects on iron status, iodine status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance among iron- and/or iodine-deficient Filipino schoolchildren. Anthelmintic therapy improved iron status of anemic children and iodine status of the iron-adequate children at baseline but it had no effect on physical fitness and cognitive performance. The results from the clinical study showed that a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage could play an important role in preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:17016955

  18. Palaeoenvironment and fluvial history of river Danube between the Neolithic settlement sites of Vinca and Starcevo, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penezic, Kristina; Kadereit, Annette; Thiemeyer, Heinrich

    2013-04-01

    The Neolithic site of Vinca - Belo brdo (ca. 5600 - 4200 BC) is located on the right bank of the Danube River, some 14 km downstream of the city of Belgrade in Serbia. The significance of the Vinca settlement is in its long occupational history, which produced more than 9 meters of settlement layers that provided archaeologists with an understanding of the chronological sequencing and development from the Middle to Late Neolithic in central Serbia. Vinca - Belo brdo was designated as the locus typicus for the Vinca Culture and is considered by many archaeologists as one of the most important sites of the European Neolithic. On the opposite, left side of the river Danube, the early Neolithic site of Starcevo is situated. It spans through the early Neolithic period dated to the seventh and the sixth millennium BC and it is the locus typicus for the Starcevo culture that on the territory of modern-day Serbia precedes the Vinca culture. The vicinity of the Danube influenced the development of these settlements and the relationship between them. Serving as a landmark, border, source of food, but also endangering the sites by a shifting stream course, the Danube is essential. Therefore it is important to define the position of the river during the occupational span of the Neolithic settlements and later. In our study, the early to mid-Holocene environmental changes of the fluvial landscape between the two Neolithic settlement sites are explored. We present preliminary results of recent geomorphological, sedimentological and archaeological investigations, as well as OSL dating, which were combined with relevant information from historical maps and satellite imagery in order to reconstruct the fluvial palaeolandscape.

  19. Feasibility of using dialysis for determining calcium ion concentration and pH in calcium-fortified soymilk at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Pathomrungsiyounggul, P; Grandison, A S; Lewis, M

    2012-01-01

    Dialysis was performed to examine some of the properties of the soluble phase of calcium (Ca) fortified soymilk at high temperatures. Dialysates were obtained while heating soymilk at temperatures of 80 and 100 °C for 1 h and 121 °C for 15 min. It was found that the pH, total Ca, and ionic Ca of dialysates obtained at high temperature were all lower than in their corresponding nonheated Ca-fortified soymilk. Increasing temperature from 80 to 100 °C hardly affected Ca ion concentration ([Ca²⁺]) of dialysate obtained from Ca chloride-fortified soymilk, but it increased [Ca²⁺] in dialysates of Ca gluconate-fortified soymilk and Ca lactate-fortified soymilk fortified with 5 to 6 mM Ca. Dialysates obtained at 100 °C had lower pH than dialysate prepared at 80 °C. Higher Ca additions to soymilk caused a significant (P≤ 0.05) reduction in pH and an increase in [Ca²⁺] of these dialysates. When soymilk was dialyzed at 121 °C, pH, total Ca, and ionic Ca were further reduced. Freezing point depression (FPD) of dialysates increased as temperature increased but were lower than corresponding soymilk samples. This approach provides a means of estimating pH and ionic Ca in soymilks at high temperatures, in order to better understand their combined role on soymilk coagulation. PMID:22260105

  20. 20 CFR 10.713 - How is a structured settlement (that is, a settlement providing for receipt of funds over a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a structured settlement (that is, a settlement providing for receipt of funds over a specified period of time) treated for purposes of reporting... (that is, a settlement providing for receipt of funds over a specified period of time) treated...

  1. Multiresidue supercritical fluid extraction method for the recovery at low ppb levels of three sulfonamides from fortified chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, R J; Lightfield, A R

    1998-09-18

    A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method is proposed for the recovery of three sulfonamides from chicken liver. Samples were extracted at 680 bar and 40 degrees C using unmodified carbon dioxide and were collected free of co-extracted artifactual material on an in-line neutral alumina sorbent bed. High recoveries of sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) were obtained from chicken liver samples fortified at levels from 1000 to 50 ppm. PMID:9792530

  2. Effect of antioxidants on stabilization of meat products fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Faustman, C; Djordjevic, D; Faraji, H; Decker, E A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an n-3 oil emulsion, with and without added antioxidants, on lipid oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-fortified meat products were studied. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs was prepared (25% algal oil, 2.5% whey protein isolates, 10mM sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium sorbate, 500ppm of 70% mixed tocopherols, 100μM EDTA, pH 3, pasteurized at 75°C for 30min) and incorporated into fresh ground turkey, and fresh pork sausage (20% fat) to achieve a concentration of 500mg n-3 PUFA/110g meat. An antioxidant combination containing rosemary (0.2% w/w; radical quencher), citrate (0.5% w/w; sequestrant) and erythorbate (1g/kg product; reductant) was prepared and incorporated into ground turkey patties (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick) or fresh pork sausages (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick). Meat products were stored at 4°C or -18°C and analyzed for color (L*, a*, b* values), lipid oxidation (TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides) and n-3 PUFA profile. a* Values of refrigerated ground turkey patties decreased with storage, and an antioxidant combination effect was observed after 4 days (P<0.05). For fresh pork sausages at 4°C, control+antioxidant (CON+ANTI), and n-3+antioxidant (n-3+ANTI) groups showed greater a* values than controls (CON) indicating that the antioxidant combination stabilized meat color. TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides of both n-3 PUFA-enhanced meat products increased with storage (P<0.05); there were no significant changes in TBARS or lipid hydroperoxides for treatments containing the antioxidant combination (P<0.05). The actual level of n-3 PUFA incorporation in both meat products was greater than 87%; n-3 PUFA concentrations did not change within any treatment during storage (P>0.05). These results provide support for including antioxidant protection in n-3 PUFA fortified meat products.

  3. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  4. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague–Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:23510587

  5. Folic acid intake by pregnant women from Vale do Jequitinhonha, Brazil, and the contribution of fortified foods.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Humberto Gabriel; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    The folate deficiency can result in irreversible health damage, such as the neural tube defects. The aim of this article is to determine the folate intake of pregnant women in Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the poorest regions in the world. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in 2013 with 492 pregnant women attending the basic health units run by the public health service (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS) in 15 municipalities. A standard questionnaire was used to gather the data, which included socioeconomic indicators and a food frequency questionnaire. The data were analyzed and compared statistically based on prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of inadequate folate intake was associated with some socioeconomic factors: it was higher amongst the low income and less educated women, in younger women and those who had fewer meals per day. The prevalence of inadequate folate intake in the diet was 94.7% when the contribution of food fortification was not considered, 49.2% taking into account fortified foods, and 17.1% considering food folate, fortified foods, and supplementation with folic acid. We conclude that fortifying foods with folic acid at the current levels reduces the inadequacy of folate intake in the diet, but not enough to assure safe levels and to meet the nutritional requirements of pregnant women in Brazil.

  6. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  8. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread.

    PubMed

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control. PMID:25328228

  9. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine; Mølgaard, Christian; Friis, Henrik; Sangild, Per T; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2008-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS. Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding milk could improve weight gain, linear growth, and recovery from malnutrition, but this needs to be confirmed. Bioactive factors in whey might have beneficial effects on the immune system and muscle synthesis, but evidence from vulnerable groups is lacking. Milk proteins will improve flavor, which is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects of adding milk protein and lack of evidence in vulnerable groups call for randomized intervention studies.

  10. Formulation of Gammaoryzanol-Loaded Nanoparticles for Potential Application in Fortifying Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Serveh; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Mohammadhassani, Zahra; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The field of nanoparticle delivery systems for nutrients and nutraceuticals with poor water solubility has attracted a great attention during the last decades. Methods: Ethyl cellulose (EC) based GO-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The effects of formulation parameters on nanoparticle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading efficiency (LE%) were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the crystalline behavior of GO and EC after the preparation of nanoparticles. Stability of the prepared nanoparticle was investigated during five weeks of storage. Results: Particle sizes of all formulation were in the range of 70-100 nm with narrow size distribution. Increase in the time of sonication from 1 to 5 minutes decreased the particle size. However, the mean particle size was increased when the sonication time increased from 5 to 7 minutes. The results showed that in the same concentration of PVA, increasing the ratio of EC:GO led to an increase in the GO encapsulation efficiency and decrease in loading efficiency. During five weeks, the mean diameter and size distribution indexes (SPAN values) of nanoparticles did not show significant changes. DSC and XRD studies indicated that crystallinity of GO was decreased in nanoparticles. Conclusion: EC based nanoparticles are promising carriers for addition of GO as a water insoluble antioxidant to fortify liquid food products without any change in quality of products. PMID:25671188

  11. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  12. Development of novel fortified beef patties with added functional protein ingredients for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P; Botineştean, C; Allen, Paul; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-12-01

    The effects of clean label functional protein ingredients; pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP) and lentil flour (LF), at 3% and 7% inclusion levels on technological and shelf life parameters of beef patties were evaluated over 12days. Protein content in the RP7 treatment was higher (P<0.05) than controls, but did not differ significantly from PPI7 and RP3. No effects on moisture, fat or ash content were detected. LF addition reduced product hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness compared with controls. RP-enriched and control patties were associated with lower lipid oxidation over storage than PPI- and LF-enriched patties. RP had a differential effect on (L*), (a*) and (b*) when compared with controls. Microbiological characteristics for all treatments were acceptable after 12days. Protein fortified beef patties with a softer texture and acceptable technological properties targeted for ease of consumption by older adults were produced in an attempt to reach dietary targeted protein requirements for this segment. PMID:27474789

  13. Fortifying plants with the essential amino acids lysine and methionine to improve nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Galili, Gad; Amir, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Humans, as well as farm animals, cannot synthesize a number of essential amino acids, which are critical for their survival. Hence, these organisms must obtain these essential amino acids from their diets. Cereal and legume crops, which represent the major food and feed sources for humans and livestock worldwide, possess limiting levels of some of these essential amino acids, particularly Lys and Met. Extensive efforts were made to fortify crop plants with these essential amino acids using traditional breeding and mutagenesis. However, aside from some results obtained with maize, none of these approaches was successful. Therefore, additional efforts using genetic engineering approaches concentrated on increasing the synthesis and reducing the catabolism of these essential amino acids and also on the expression of recombinant proteins enriched in them. In the present review, we discuss the basic biological aspects associated with the synthesis and accumulation of these amino acids in plants and also describe recent developments associated with the fortification of crop plants with essential amino acids by genetic engineering approaches.

  14. Bioavailability of zinc in fiber-enriched bread fortified with zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mona M

    2002-12-01

    The present study aimed to reduce the caloric value of bread by substituting a part of wheat flour with artichoke bracts at levels of 5%, 10% and 15% without sacrificing taste, texture or acceptability. Moreover, considerable trials had been made to reduce zinc deficiency in wheat bread and fiber-enriched bread and also to study the effect of fiber on zinc bioavailability. Therefore, zinc sulphate was added to bread at levels of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 mg/100 g edible portion. The results from this study show that: (i) The addition of artichoke bracts to wheat flour increased the water absorption, arrival time, development time, and weakening of the dough as the level of artichoke bracts increased, while dough stability decreased. (ii) Mixing wheat flour with increasing amount of artichoke bracts increased the content of protein, fiber and total essential amino acids, also all essential amino acids increased in wheat bread and fiber-enriched bread after fortification with zinc sulphate at a level of 100 mg/100 g edible portion except methionine, threonine and tyrosine. (iii) The best level of zinc sulphate to give the best bioavailability for zinc is 100 mg/100 g edible portion. (iv) Evaluation of fortified wheat bread and fiber-enriched bread with zinc sulphate showed no significant difference by test panel.

  15. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN. PMID:25763649

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  17. Is the Inclusion of Animal Source Foods in Fortified Blended Foods Justified?

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Kristen E.; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBF) are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF) in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC), especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1) epidemiological; (2) ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3) ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4) ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed. PMID:25192029

  18. Geospatial and Remote Sensing-based Indicators of Settlement Type---Differentiating Informal and Formal Settlements in Guatemala City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Karen K.

    This research addresses the need for reliable, repeatable, quantitative measures to differentiate informal (slum) from formal (planned) settlements using commercial very high resolution imagery and elevation data. Measuring the physical, spatial and spectral qualities of informal settlements is an important precursor for evaluating success toward improving the lives of 100 million slum dwellers worldwide, as pledged by the United Nations Millennium Development Goal Target 7D. A variety of measures were tested based on surface material spectral properties, texture, built-up structure, road network accessibility, and geomorphology from twelve communities in Guatemala City to reveal statistically significant differences between informal and formal settlements that could be applied to other parts of the world without the need for costly or dangerous field surveys. When information from satellite imagery is constrained to roads and residential boundaries, a more precise understanding of human habitation is produced. A classification and regression tree (CART) approach and linear discriminant function analysis enabled a variable dimensionality reduction from the original 23 to 6 variables that are sufficient to differentiate a settlement as informal or formal. The results demonstrate that the entropy texture of roads, the degree of asphalt road surface, the vegetation patch compactness and patch size, the percent of bare soil land cover, the geomorphic profile convexity of the terrain, and the road density distinguish informal from formal settlements with 87--92% accuracy when results are cross-validated. The variables with highest contribution to model outcome that are common to both approaches are entropy texture of roads, vegetation patch size, and vegetation compactness suggesting that road texture, surface materials and vegetation provide the necessary characteristics to distinguish the level of informality of a settlement. The results will assist urban planners and

  19. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  20. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet. PMID:27341618

  1. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  2. Probabilistic Modeling of Settlement Risk at Land Disposal Facilities - 12304

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin C.; Soong, Te-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass (caused by inconsistent compaction, void space distribution, debris-soil mix ratio, waste material stiffness, time-dependent primary compression of the fine-grained soil matrix, long-term creep settlement of the soil matrix and the debris, etc.) at most land disposal facilities. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties which control differential settlement. An alternative, probabilistic solution is to use random fields to model the waste and sub-grade properties. The modeling effort informs the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of land disposal facilities. A probabilistic method to establish design criteria for waste placement and compaction is introduced using the model. Random fields are ideally suited to problems of differential settlement modeling of highly heterogeneous foundations, such as waste. Random fields model the seemingly random spatial distribution of a design parameter, such as compressibility. When used for design, the use of these models prompts the need for probabilistic design criteria. It also allows for a statistical approach to waste placement acceptance criteria. An example design evaluation was performed, illustrating the use of the probabilistic differential settlement simulation methodology to assemble a design guidance chart. The purpose of this design evaluation is to enable the designer to select optimal initial combinations of design slopes and quality control acceptance criteria that yield an acceptable proportion of post-settlement slopes meeting some design minimum. For this specific

  3. Global Human Settlement Analysis for Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, M.; Ehrlich, D.; Ferri, S.; Florczyk, A.; Freire, S.; Haag, F.; Halkia, M.; Julea, A. M.; Kemper, T.; Soille, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) is supported by the European Commission, Joint Research Center (JRC) in the frame of his institutional research activities. Scope of GHSL is developing, testing and applying the technologies and analysis methods integrated in the JRC Global Human Settlement analysis platform for applications in support to global disaster risk reduction initiatives (DRR) and regional analysis in the frame of the European Cohesion policy. GHSL analysis platform uses geo-spatial data, primarily remotely sensed and population. GHSL also cooperates with the Group on Earth Observation on SB-04-Global Urban Observation and Information, and various international partners andWorld Bank and United Nations agencies. Some preliminary results integrating global human settlement information extracted from Landsat data records of the last 40 years and population data are presented.

  4. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Han; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Di; Liu, Lingjia

    2016-06-01

    Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  5. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  6. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2014-05-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 766 - Guidance on Charging and Penalty Determinations in Settlement of Administrative Enforcement Cases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Determinations in Settlement of Administrative Enforcement Cases Involving Antiboycott Matters No. Supplement No... Penalty Determinations in Settlement of Administrative Enforcement Cases Involving Antiboycott Matters (a... enforcement program. BIS carefully considers each settlement offer in light of the facts and circumstances...

  8. 76 FR 20372 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage Claims... St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. The NRD Settlement Agreement resolves claims for natural resource damages and... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  9. 45 CFR 672.11 - Informal settlement; consent agreement and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... order. (a) Settlement policy. The Agency encourages settlement of a proceeding at any time if the... Conservation Act. An assessment of the monetary value of any action in mitigation shall be made before...

  10. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency...

  11. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States...

  12. 76 FR 39401 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(h). The Settlement Agreement provides for Respondent's payment of certain past costs... considerations that indicate that the proposed settlement is inappropriate, improper or inadequate....

  13. 76 FR 53898 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent; In Re: Ely Copper Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement for recovery of past and projected future response costs... withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which...

  14. 75 FR 146 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; David Benvenuti and Howe Cleaners, Howe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past costs concerning the Howe Cleaners... withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which...

  15. 75 FR 36388 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... administrative settlement with Doe Run Resources Corporation (Doe Run), for recovery of past response costs... consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that...

  16. 76 FR 77997 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cashout Settlement; The Atlantic Richfield Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... of past response costs concerning the Ophir Mills and Smelter Site in Tooele County, Utah with the... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement...

  17. 77 FR 23278 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    .... Grace & Co., Case No. 01-01139 (JFK). The proposed Settlement Agreement would resolve the United States... (JFK), and D.J. Ref. No. 90-11-2-07106/5. During the public comment period, the settlement...

  18. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Pursuant to § 719.5(b) of the CWCR (15 CFR parts 710 through 722), the Department of Commerce may notify a...) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA—(1) Approval of settlement. When the Department of Commerce...

  19. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Pursuant to § 719.5(b) of the CWCR (15 CFR parts 710 through 722), the Department of Commerce may notify a...) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA—(1) Approval of settlement. When the Department of Commerce...

  20. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Pursuant to § 719.5(b) of the CWCR (15 CFR parts 710 through 722), the Department of Commerce may notify a...) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA—(1) Approval of settlement. When the Department of Commerce...

  1. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Pursuant to § 719.5(b) of the CWCR (15 CFR parts 710 through 722), the Department of Commerce may notify a...) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA—(1) Approval of settlement. When the Department of Commerce...

  2. 31 CFR 356.25 - How does the settlement process work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.25 How does the settlement process work? Securities bought...

  3. 31 CFR 356.25 - How does the settlement process work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.25 How does the settlement process work? Securities bought...

  4. 31 CFR 356.25 - How does the settlement process work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.25 How does the settlement process work? Securities bought...

  5. 31 CFR 356.25 - How does the settlement process work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.25 How does the settlement process work? Securities bought...

  6. 77 FR 38629 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola, Mississippi County, Arkansas. The settlement... proposed administrative settlement concerning the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in.... Comments should reference the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola,...

  7. 77 FR 38628 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola, Mississippi County, Arkansas. The settlement... proposed administrative settlement concerning the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in.... Comments should reference the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola,...

  8. 75 FR 62624 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Final Antidumping Measures on Stainless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Final Antidumping... Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement''), the Dispute Settlement Body of the World Trade Organization (``WTO'') has referred a matter concerning the dispute United States--Final Antidumping Measures...

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of methyltestosterone, nortestosterone and testosterone at low ppb levels from fortified bovine urine.

    PubMed

    Stolker, A A; van Ginkel, L A; Stephany, R W; Maxwell, R J; Parks, O W; Lightfield, A R

    1999-04-16

    A multi-residue supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method is proposed for the isolation of nortestosterone, testosterone and methyltestosterone from bovine urine. Prior to SFE, bovine urine was hydrolyzed and then fortified with the three steroids at 100 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml each for HPLC analysis and 25 ng/ml and 12.5 ng/ml each for GC-MS analysis. The samples then were mixed with an adsorbent material, placed in an SFE extraction vessel prepacked with a 3-ml SPE column containing neutral alumina and the testosterones were extracted from the urine matrix using unmodified supercritical CO2 at 27.2 MPa and 40 degrees C. The steroids were retained in-line on the neutral alumina sorbent in the SPE column while co-extracted artifactial material was trapped off-line after CO2 decompression. After SFE, the SPE column was removed from the extraction vessel, and the trapped steroids were eluted from the neutral alumina sorbent with 3 ml of a methanol-water mixture. Eluates were used directly without post-SFE clean-up either for HPLC analysis (detection limit 50 ng/ml) or for GC-MS analysis (detection limit 5 ng/ml after steroid derivatization). The multi-residue SFE recoveries (n=6) for nortestosterone, testosterone and methyltestosterone from hydrolyzed bovine urine by GC-MS analysis were 90.8+/-6%, 93.9+/-3% and 92.5+/-5%, respectively for each steroid at the 12.5 ng fortification level.

  10. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  11. Vegetable oil fortified feeds in the nutrition of very low birthweight babies.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, U V; Hegde, V M; Bhave, S A; Pandit, A N

    1992-12-01

    Two kinds of oils (i) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) rich Safflower oil, and (ii) Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) rich Coconut oil were added to the feeds of 46 very low birthweight (VLBW) babies to see if such a supplementation is capable of enhancing their weight gain. Twenty two well matched babies who received no fortification served as controls. The oil fortification raised the energy density of the feeds from approximately 67 kcal/dl to 79 kcal/dl. Feed volumes were restricted to a maximum of 200 ml/kg/day. The mean weight gain was highest and significantly higher than the controls in the Coconut oil group (19.47 +/- 8.67 g/day or 13.91 g/day). Increase in the triceps skinfold thickness and serum triglycerides were also correspondingly higher in this group. The lead in the weight gain in this group continued in the follow up period (corrected age 3 months). As against this, higher weight gain in Safflower oil group (13.26 +/- 6.58 g/day) as compared to the controls (11.59 +/- 5.33 g/day), failed to reach statistically significant proportions, probably because of increased statistically significant proportions, probably because of increased steatorrhea (stool fat 4+ in 50% of the samples tested). The differences in the two oil groups are presumably because of better absorption of MCT rich coconut oil. However, individual variations in weight gain amongst the babies were wide so that some control babies had higher growth rates than oil fortified ones. The technique of oil fortification is fraught with dangers of intolerance, contamination and aspiration. Long term effects of such supplementation are largely unknown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Development, Quantification, Method Validation, and Stability Study of a Novel Fucoxanthin-Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Mok, Il-Kyoon; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Sang Min

    2016-08-10

    To extend the scope of application of fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid, whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM) were fortified with fucoxanthin isolated from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum to a final 8 μg/mL milk solution concentration. Using these liquid systems, a fucoxanthin analysis method implementing extraction and HPLC-DAD was developed and validated by accuracy, precision, system suitability, and robustness tests. The current method demonstrated good linearity over the range of 0.125-100 μg/mL fucoxanthin with R(2) = 1.0000, and all validation data supported its adequacy for use in fucoxanthin analysis from milk solution. To investigate fucoxanthin stability during milk production and distribution, fucoxanthin content was examined during storage, pasteurization, and drying processes under various conditions. Fucoxanthin in milk solutions showed better stabilizing effect in 1 month of storage period. Degradation rate constant (k) on fucoxanthin during this storage period suggested that fucoxanthin stability might be negatively correlated with decrease of temperature and increase of protein content such as casein and whey protein in milk matrix. In a comparison between SM and WM, fucoxantin in SM always showed better stability than that in WM during storage and three kinds of drying processes. This effect was also deduced to relate with protein content. In the pasteurization step, >91% of fucoxanthin was retained after three pasteurization processes even though the above trend was not found. This study demonstrated for the first time that milk products can be used as a basic food matrix for fucoxanthin application and that protein content in milk is an important factor for fucoxanthin stability. PMID:27455130

  13. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    PubMed

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  14. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...

  15. 29 CFR 24.111 - Withdrawal of complaints, objections, and petitions for review; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... settlement under the Energy Reorganization Act, the Clean Air Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, or the Toxic... withdrawn because of settlement under the Energy Reorganization Act, the Clean Air Act, the Safe Drinking... three parties. (2) Adjudicatory settlements under the Energy Reorganization Act, the Clean Air Act,...

  16. 75 FR 8701 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Colorado Bumper Exchange Site, Pueblo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Colorado Bumper Exchange Site, Pueblo... United States has at this Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the Settlement...,000.00 to EPA in settlement of its liability for Past Response Costs incurred at the Site. In...

  17. 75 FR 10481 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement: Sherwood Motors, Inc.; West Site/Hows...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed administrative settlement of past response costs concerning the West Site/Hows Corner Superfund... agrees to reimburse the Agency $5,000 in past costs. This settlement amount is based on the ability to... comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is...

  18. 48 CFR 49.108-4 - Authorization for subcontract settlements without approval or ratification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subparagraph (4) below, the TCO shall accept, as part of the prime contractor's settlement proposal... subcontract settlements without approval or ratification. 49.108-4 Section 49.108-4 Federal Acquisition... Principles 49.108-4 Authorization for subcontract settlements without approval or ratification. (a)(1)...

  19. 26 CFR 157.5891-1 - Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....), as it appeared in the April 1, 2003, edition of 26 CFR part 157. ... settlement factoring transactions. 157.5891-1 Section 157.5891-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SETTLEMENT FACTORING TRANSACTIONS Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions § 157.5891-1...

  20. 75 FR 79393 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on December 14, 2010, a proposed Harvey & Knott Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement (``Harvey & Knott Settlement Agreement'') in the bankruptcy matter, Motors Liquidation... Harvey & Knott Settlement Agreement are debtors Motors Liquidation Corporation, formerly known as...