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  1. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism.

    PubMed

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-11-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.

  2. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  3. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  4. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea. PMID:24765573

  5. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea.

  6. Procedural 3d Modelling for Traditional Settlements. The Case Study of Central Zagori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2017-02-01

    Over the last decades 3D modelling has been a fast growing field in Geographic Information Science, extensively applied in various domains including reconstruction and visualization of cultural heritage, especially monuments and traditional settlements. Technological advances in computer graphics, allow for modelling of complex 3D objects achieving high precision and accuracy. Procedural modelling is an effective tool and a relatively novel method, based on algorithmic modelling concept. It is utilized for the generation of accurate 3D models and composite facade textures from sets of rules which are called Computer Generated Architecture grammars (CGA grammars), defining the objects' detailed geometry, rather than altering or editing the model manually. In this paper, procedural modelling tools have been exploited to generate the 3D model of a traditional settlement in the region of Central Zagori in Greece. The detailed geometries of 3D models derived from the application of shape grammars on selected footprints, and the process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the built environment of Central Zagori, in three levels of Detail (LoD). The final 3D scene was exported and published as 3D web-scene which can be viewed with 3D CityEngine viewer, giving a walkthrough the whole model, same as in virtual reality or game environments. This research work addresses issues regarding textures' precision, LoD for 3D objects and interactive visualization within one 3D scene, as well as the effectiveness of large scale modelling, along with the benefits and drawbacks that derive from procedural modelling techniques in the field of cultural heritage and more specifically on 3D modelling of traditional settlements.

  7. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history.

  8. Subsistence and Settlement at Rathbun Reservoir Area in South Central Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    paleolithic of south central Europe. Paper presented at the 42nd annual Society for American Archaeology meetings, New Orleans, LA. 1978 Variability in the...Early Upper Paleolithic of South Central Europe. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence. Brown, Lionel A. 1965

  9. Human Settlements in the South-Central U.S., Viewed at Night from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa; Evans, Cynthia; Stefanov, William; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Willis, Kimberly; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A recent innovation of astronauts observing Earth from the International Space Station (ISS) is documenting human footprints by photographing city lights at night time. One of the earliest night-time images from the ISS was the US-Mexico border at El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. The colors, patterns and density of city lights document the differences in the cultural settlement patterns across the border region, as well as within the urban areas themselves. City lights help outline the most populated areas in settlements around the world, and can be used to explore relative population densities, changing patterns of urban/suburban development, transportation networks, spatial relationship to geographic features, and more. The data also provides insight into parameters such as surface roughness for input into local and regional climate modeling and studies of light pollution. The ground resolution of night-time astronaut photography from the ISS is typically an order of magnitude greater than current Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data, and therefore can serve as a "zoom lens" for selected urban areas. Current handheld digital cameras in use on the ISS, optimized for greater light sensitivity, provide opportunities to obtain new detailed imagery of atmospheric phenomena such as airglow, aurora, and noctilucent clouds in addition to documenting urban patterns. ISS astronauts have taken advantage of increasingly sensitive digital cameras to document the world at night in unprecedented detail. In addition, the capability to obtain time-lapse imagery from fixed cameras has been exploited to produce dynamic videos of both changing surface patterns around the world and atmospheric phenomena. We will profile some spectacular images of human settlements over the South-Central U.S., and contrast with other images from around the world. More data can be viewed at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/Videos/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/. US-Mexico border is obvious by the different

  10. Evidences of Paleoearthquakes in Palaeolithic settlements within fluvial sequences of the Tagus Basin (Madrid, Central Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pablo G.; Rodríguez Pascua, M. A.; Pérez López, R.; Giner Robles, J. L.; Roquero, E.; Tapias, F.; López Recio, M.; Rus, I.; Morin, J.

    2010-05-01

    Multiple evidences of soft-sediment to brittle deformation within the Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Tagus, Jarama, Tajuña and Manzanares river valleys have been described since the middle 20th Century. Cryoturbation, hydroplastic deformations due to underlying karstic collapses or halokinesis on the substratum of neogene gypsums, and seismic shaking have been proposed to interpret these structures. These deformations are typically concentrated in the +18-20 m terrace levels, and closely linked to well-known Palaeolithic sites, in some cases overlaying and/or affecting true prehistoric settlements (i.e. Arganda, Arriaga and Tafesa sites) within the Jarama and Manzanares valleys. The affected settlements typically display acheulian lithic industry linked to the scavenging of large Pleistocene mammals (i.e. Elephas antiquus). Commonly, deformational structures are concentrated in relatively thin horizons (10-50 cm thick) bracketed by undeformed fluvial sands and gravels. The soft-sediment deformations usually consist on medium to fine sized sands injected and protruded in overlaying flood-plain clayey silts, showing a wide variety of convolutes, injections, sand-dikes, dish and pillar structures, mud volcanoes, faults and folds, some times it is possible to undertake their 3D geometrical analysis due to the exceptional conservation of the structures (Tafesa). Recent geo-archaeological prospecting on the for the Palaeolithic Site of Arriaga (South Madrid City) conducted during the year 2009, let to find out an exceptional horizon of deformation of about 1.20 m thick. It consisted on highly disturbed and pervasively liquefacted sands, which hardly can be attributed to no-seismic processes. The acheulian lithic industry of the Madrid Region have been classically attributed the Late Middle Pleistocene (< 350 kyr BP), but recent OSL dating indicate that the basal horizons of the +18-20 m fluvial terraces hold ages younger than c.a. 120-100 kyr BP in this zone. All

  11. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  12. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  13. Settlement patterns, GIS, remote sensing, and the late prehistory of the Black Prairie in east central Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jay K.

    1991-01-01

    Data recovered as the result of a recent field project designed to test a model of the distribution of protohistoric settlement in an unusual physiographic zone in eastern Mississippi are examined using GIS based techniques to manipulate soil and stream distance information. Significant patterning is derived. The generally thin soils and uniform substratum of the Black Prairie in combination with a distinctive settlement pattern offer a promising opportunity for the search for site specific characteristics within airborne imagery. Landsat TM data provide information on modern ground cover which is used as a mask to select areas in which a multivariate search for archaeological site signatures within a TIMS image is most likely to prove fruitful.

  14. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  15. Biological ancestries, kinship connections, and projected identities in four central Anatolian settlements: insights from culturally contextualized genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Ömer; Gultekin, Timur; Alakoc, Yesim Dogan; Tug, Aysim; Gulec, Erksin; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    Previous population genetics studies in Turkey failed to delineate recent historical and social factors that shaped Anatolian cultural and genetic diversity at the local level. To address this shortcoming, we conducted focused ethnohistorical fieldwork and screened biological samples collected from the Yuksekyer region for mitochondrial, Y chromosome, and autosomal markers and then analyzed the data within an ethnohistorical context. Our results revealed that, at the village level, paternal genetic diversity is structured among settlements, whereas maternal genetic diversity is distributed more homogenously, reflecting the strong patrilineal cultural traditions that transcend larger ethnic and religious structures. Local ancestries and origin myths, rather than ethnic or religious affiliations, delineate the social boundaries and projected identities among the villages. Therefore, we conclude that broad, ethnicity-based sampling is inadequate to capture the genetic signatures of recent social and historical dynamics, which have had a profound influence on contemporary genetic and cultural regional diversity.

  16. Martian settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for a manned Mars mission and the establishment of a base is divided into three areas: science, resource utilization, and strategic issues. The effects of a Mars mission on the objectives of near-term NASA programs, and the applications of these programs to a Mars mission are examined. The use of extraterrestrial resources to supply space settlements and thereby reduce transportation costs is studied; the development of systems for extraterrestrial materials processing will need to be researched. The possibility of a joint U.S./Soviet Mars mission is discussed by the symposium participants.

  17. Analytical, nutritional and biological evaluation of various brands of fortified and non-fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Sohail; Hussain, Khalid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Latif, Abida; Islam, Muhammad; Karim, Sabiha; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Hussain, Amjad; Danish, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-05-01

    In Pakistan, a funded flour fortification program was launched for malnourished population, residing mainly in rural low income areas, but the urban population having comparatively better nutritional as well as economic status was focused wherein excessive intake of fortificants might cause complications. Therefore, the present study describes the physicochemical properties, elemental composition, nutritional components and hemoglobin/ferritin increasing potential of fortified and non-fortified flour. Domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), either sex, age one month, weight 380 ± 18.28 g, were randomly segregated into 4 groups (n=6). The group I, II and III were fed on fortified flour, whereas group IV was fed on non-fortified flour for 30 days. The birds were weighed and blood samples of each of the birds were analyzed for determination of markers of iron status, hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF). Moisture, ash and iron contents were found to be lower in non-fortified flour than that of the fortified samples. Hb and SF levels in groups fed on fortified flour were significantly higher than the one received non-fortified flour (P < 0.05). The consumption of iron-fortified flour increases iron stores in the body without any further complication but long-term usage needs to be monitored.

  18. Zonal assessment of environmental driven settlement abandonment in the Trans-Tisza region (Central Europe) during the early phase of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinke, Zsolt; Ferenczi, László; F. Romhányi, Beatrix; Gyulai, Ferenc; Laszlovszky, József; Mravcsik, Zoltán; Pósa, Patricia; Gábris, Gyula

    2017-02-01

    This investigation focuses on the transformation of the settlement pattern of a lowland landscape as a social response to the hydrological challenges emerging in the late 13th century (c.) overture of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Results of the applied zonal analysis suggested a strong spatial connection between the geomorphological conditions, the agro-ecological suitability (good-excellent, medium and low) and the stability or instability of settlement patterns. The elevation means of archaeological sites in the deserted zones proved significantly lower than those in zones with permanent settlement pattern (Brunner-Munzel test p ≤ 0.01; n = 377). Additionally, the late medieval (14th-mid-16th centuries) site group was situated, on average, significantly higher than the high medieval (late 10th-13th centuries) site group within the permanent zones (Brunner-Munzel test p ≤ 0.01; n = 219). These outcomes statistically confirm that not only did low-lying inhabited areas shrink significantly, but they also displaced vertically in the first phase of the LIA. When analysing the relation of settlement pattern to soil conditions, the proportion of areas with good-excellent agro-ecological suitability proved 1.5-2 times higher in the permanent zones than in the deserted and uninhabited settlement suitability zones. Using the linear model, different regression coefficients appeared between the extension of the high and medium agro-ecological suitability zones and the number of high and late medieval settlements. The different coefficients in the studied two periods suggest that the issue of agroecological suitability in the High Middle Ages did not bear such importance as in the late Middle Ages. The findings of the paper may contribute to answering the question why the relatively dense settlement pattern of the deserted zones was abandoned almost completely by the end of the 13th c. in areas where flood proneness and weak agro-ecological suitability both meant a serious

  19. A multi-proxy record of hydroclimate, vegetation, fire, and post-settlement impacts for a subalpine plateau, Central Rocky Mountains U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Brunelle, Andrea; Thompson, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Apparent changes in vegetation distribution, fire, and other disturbance regimes throughout western North America have prompted investigations of the relative importance of human activities and climate change as potential causal mechanisms. Assessing the effects of Euro-American settlement is difficult because climate changes occur on multi-decadal to centennial time scales and require longer time perspectives than historic observations can provide. Here, we report vegetation and environmental changes over the past ~13,000 years as recorded in a sediment record from Bison Lake, a subalpine lake on a high plateau in northwestern Colorado. Results are based on multiple independent proxies, which include pollen, charcoal, and elemental geochemistry, and are compared with previously reported interpretations of hydroclimatic changes from oxygen isotope ratios. The pollen data indicate a slowly changing vegetation sequence from sagebrush steppe during the late glacial to coniferous forest through the late Holocene. The most dramatic vegetation changes of the Holocene occurred during the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (MCA) and ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) with rapid replacement of conifer forest by grassland followed by an equally rapid return to conifer forest. Late Holocene vegetation responses are mirrored by changes in fire, lake biological productivity, and watershed erosion. These combined records indicate that subsequent disturbance related to Euro-American settlement, although perhaps significant, had acted upon a landscape that was already responding to MCA-LIA hydroclimatic change. Results document both rapid and long-term subalpine grassland ecosystem dynamics driven by agents of change that can be anticipated in the future and simulated by ecosystem models.

  20. 26 CFR 1.895-1 - Income derived by a foreign central bank of issue, or by Bank for International Settlements, from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income derived by a foreign central bank of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.895-1 Income derived by a... States or from bank deposits. (a) In general. Income derived by a foreign central bank of issue...

  1. The bioavailability of iron fortified in whole grain parboiled rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was to evaluate the bioavailability of iron (Fe) fortified in parboiled rice grain, expressed as Fe uptake by Caco-2 cells after in vitro digestion. The bioavailability of Fe-fortified in the rice grain was closely and positively correlated with increasing concentrations of Fe in t...

  2. Minnesota Power Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  3. Growth is similar in premature infants fed human milk fortified with a human milk or bovine milk-based fortifier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) to provide adequate nutrients for growth. A human milk fortifier (HMF) made from donor human milk has recently been introduced. However, limited data are available comparing the growth outcomes of this product with current fortifiers. We evalu...

  4. Structural and compositional investigation of ancient ceramics from a fortified settlement in south-western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponta, O.; Vulpoi, A.; Zirra, V. V.; Simon, S.

    2016-10-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary study focused on investigation of pottery fragments collected from the foundation of the wall of protohistoric site La Cetate, Bazdana village, Romania, close to the river Danube, dated towards the end of fourth century BC. The occurrence of pottery pieces under walls of that times is related to the foundation ritual. The samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. The characterization of the samples includes chemical composition and microstructural properties imposed by processing conditions. They are slightly calcareous ceramic matrices. The identified crystalline phases are preponderantly quartz, with plagioclase, mica, wollastonite and magnetite. The results indicate that the possible firing temperature in air could be above 1100 °C, or lower - if the artisans used reducing atmosphere, that is impressive for that times.

  5. Model for mapping settlements

    DOEpatents

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  6. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  7. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  8. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  9. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  10. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the... with applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter...

  11. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  12. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  13. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  14. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  15. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  16. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  17. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  18. Phytase activity from Lactobacillus spp. in calcium-fortified soymilk.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anne Lise; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Shah, Nagandra P; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

    2010-08-01

    The presence of phytate in calcium-fortified soymilk may interfere with mineral absorption. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce the enzyme phytase that degrades phytates and therefore may potentially improve mineral bioavailability and absorption. This study investigates the phytase activity and phytate degradation potential of 7 strains of LAB including: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962, ATCC33200, ATCC4356, ATCC4161, L. casei ASCC290, L. plantarum ASCC276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. Activity of these bacteria was examined both in screening media and in calcium-fortified soymilk supplemented with potassium phytate. Most strains produced phytase under both conditions with L. acidophilus ATCC4161 showing the highest activity. Phytase activity in fortified soymilk fermented with L. acidophilus ATCC4962 and L. acidophilus ATCC4161 increased by 85% and 91%, respectively, between 12 h and 24 h of fermentation. All strains expressed peak phytase activity at approximately pH 5. However, no phytate degradation could be observed.

  19. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  20. Manufacture and quality of iron-fortified yogurt.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, S; McMahon, D J

    1997-12-01

    Yogurts (nonfat and low fat) were manufactured and fortified with 10, 20, and 40 mg of iron/kg of yogurt. Growth of starter culture bacteria and nonstarter culture bacteria as well as lipid oxidation of the yogurts were monitored over 30 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Sensory characteristics of the yogurts were determined during that time by a trained panel of judges, and consumer panels were used to test acceptability of iron-fortified yogurt. Counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricas and Streptococcus thermophilus after 1 d of storage in iron-fortified skim yogurts were 7.0 x 10(8) cfu/ml, which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. Counts decreased to 2.5 x 10(8) and 1.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml for L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, after 30 d of storage. Fortifying yogurt with iron did not support the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens or Escherichia coli. No significant increases in chemical oxidation, as measured using the thiobarbituric acid assay, were detected as a consequence of iron fortification. Trained panelists scored all yogurts for oxidized, metallic, bitter, and other off-flavors in the range of "not perceptible" to "very slightly perceptible". Iron-fortified yogurts had slightly higher oxidized flavor scores than did the control yogurt. There was no increase in metallic, bitter, or other off-flavors. The consumer panel did not detect any significant differences in the appearance, mouthfeel, flavor, or overall quality between fortified and unfortified flavored yogurts. All yogurt samples were liked by the consumer panelists, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification.

  1. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  2. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  3. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  4. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  5. Organoleptic qualities and acceptability of fortified rice in two Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Khanh Van, Tran; Burja, Kurt; Thuy Nga, Tran; Kong, Kannitha; Berger, Jacques; Gardner, Michelle; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Hop, Le Thi; Tuyen, Le Danh; Wieringa, Frank T

    2014-09-01

    Fortified rice has the potential to improve the micronutrients status of vulnerable populations. However, fortified rice has to have acceptable organoleptic--the sensory properties of a particular food--qualities. Few data exist on the acceptability of fortified rice in Asia. To assess the acceptability of two types of fortified rice (cold and hot extruded) in Vietnam and Cambodia, triangle tests were conducted in Vietnam (53 women) and Cambodia (258 adults), testing fortified rice against conventional rice, with participants being asked to score the organoleptic qualities. In addition, Cambodian schoolchildren (n = 1700) were given conventional rice and two types of fortified rice for two week periods as part of a World Food Program school meal program, with intake monitored. Fortified rice differed significantly in organoleptic qualities from conventional rice, with most subjects correctly identifying fortified rice (P < 0.001). However, fortified rice was found to be highly acceptable in both countries. In Cambodia, schoolchildren consuming fortified rice had higher intakes than when consuming conventional rice (176 g/child/day and 168 g/child/day, respectively; P < 0.05). This study shows that fortified rice is acceptable in two countries in Southeast Asia. However, specific information is needed to explain the organoleptic qualities of fortified rice as perceived by end-users.

  6. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  7. The Stability of Vitamin Fortified Cocoa Beverage Powder. Part II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cocoa beverage powder fortified with thiamine, ascorbic acid, and improved forms of vitamin A palmitate has been reevaluated after storage. Samples...six and twelve months. No significant change took place during storage in the vitamin content of cocoa beverage powder. During reconstitution of the

  8. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  9. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the...

  10. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the...

  11. 17 CFR 39.14 - Settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employ settlement arrangements that eliminate or strictly limit its exposure to settlement bank risks, including the credit and liquidity risks arising from the use of such bank(s) to effect settlements with its... clearing members' settlement bank(s) and assess its own and its clearing members' potential losses...

  12. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... offer of settlement, a respondent making the offer waives, subject to acceptance of the offer: (A) All..., propose an offer of settlement. The amount accepted in settlement may be less than the civil penalty that...) Procedure—(1) Prior to issuance of Penalty Notice. Any offer of settlement made by a respondent prior to...

  13. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlements. (a) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to the Presiding Officer. (b) Form. Offers of settlement shall be filed in camera and the form of a consent... any other party. Each offer of settlement shall be accompanied by a motion to transmit the...

  14. Motiva Enterprises LLC Refinery Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Settlement summary for nine refineries owned by Motiva, Equilon, and the Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (Shell Deer Park) to assure compliance with major provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA).

  15. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  16. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  17. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-01

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  18. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  19. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  20. Review of the cost components of introducing industrially fortified rice.

    PubMed

    Roks, Eveline

    2014-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Fortification of staple foods with multiple micronutrients is a cost-effective strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. The objective of this paper is to review the cost elements of industrially fortified rice by identifying the costs related to the implementation of rice fortification programs, using the experience of the United Nations World Food Programme in its pilot countries. The actual total costs of rice fortification are not easily captured. Core cost elements include the production of fortified rice kernels, transportation to the point of blending, blending of fortified with unfortified rice, costs related to sales or distribution, quality control and assurance, and additional planning. In the introduction phase, organizations or coalitions seeking to advance rice fortification will face additional costs related to the initiation of rice fortification. In the scale-up phase, greater efficiency in the supply chain and economies of scale can be expected. Different cost elements are normally borne by different stakeholders. This makes the implementation of rice fortification programs a feasible option to reach vulnerable populations with inadequate access to affordable nutrition solutions.

  1. Use of Highly Fortified Products among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila; French, Steven

    2015-01-01

    It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005. In 2011, 33% of adults reported using HFP; use was significantly higher among males, African Americans, Hispanics, and more highly educated individuals (e.g. some college or more) and those <45 yr compared to non-users. Multiple product use was common. Of users, 46% consumed sports drinks, 37% fortified foods/beverages, 32% protein bars, 27% energy drinks, 24% energy bars, and 12% energy shots. For those HFP products as a group, prevalence of use was 36% (n=2039) in 2005, 35% in 2009 (n=2010), and 30% in 2011 (n=2355). Although use was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2005 especially among females, non-Hispanics, and those with high school education or less (P≤0.05). HFP, particularly energy and sports drinks, continue to be widely used by many U.S. adults. PMID:26823624

  2. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature.

  3. Use of Highly Fortified Products among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila; French, Steven

    2015-01-01

    It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005. In 2011, 33% of adults reported using HFP; use was significantly higher among males, African Americans, Hispanics, and more highly educated individuals (e.g. some college or more) and those <45 yr compared to non-users. Multiple product use was common. Of users, 46% consumed sports drinks, 37% fortified foods/beverages, 32% protein bars, 27% energy drinks, 24% energy bars, and 12% energy shots. For those HFP products as a group, prevalence of use was 36% (n=2039) in 2005, 35% in 2009 (n=2010), and 30% in 2011 (n=2355). Although use was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2005 especially among females, non-Hispanics, and those with high school education or less (P≤0.05). HFP, particularly energy and sports drinks, continue to be widely used by many U.S. adults.

  4. Unfulfilled potential: using diethylcarbamazine-fortified salt to eliminate lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Lammie, Patrick; Milner, Trevor; Houston, Robin

    2007-07-01

    Fortifying salt with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is a safe, low-cost and effective strategy to eliminate transmission of lymphatic filariasis. DEC-fortified salt has been used successfully in pilot projects in several countries and has been used operationally by China to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. The successful use of iodized salt to eliminate iodine-deficiency disorders is encouraging; similarly, fortified salt could be used as a vehicle to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Despite the potential programmatic advantages of fortifying salt with DEC instead of undertaking mass administration of tablets, DEC-fortified salt remains an underutilized intervention. We discuss the reasons for this and suggest settings in which the use of DEC-fortified salt should be considered.

  5. Steps toward lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The costs of transporting people and material to low-earth-orbit (LEO), and thence to the lunar surface, will constrain the pace and pattern of lunar development. Beginning as a spartan ''base camp'' completely supplied from Earth, a lunar science-and-resource-development facility could grow in size, amenities, and capability to the point that passenger transport becomes a major expense. At such a stage, some employees of the facility might be given the opportunity to become permanent residents; and at that point, lunar settlement will have begun. We assume growth rates of facilities and staff contained by the annual delivery of 900 tons to LEO. During the base camp era, about 100 tons would be delivered annually to the lunar surface. Within six years, the facility could grow to a collection of 25 modules, housing a staff of about 16 with each member of the staff serving a six-month tour on a staggered schedule. At the end of this first phase, oxygen produced from lunar ilmenite and delivered to lunar orbit for use as propellant would allow annual lunar-bound cargos of about 200 tons. Production from lunar materials of heat shields for aerobraking would enable economical delivery of lunar oxygen to LEO and, therefore, could raise lunar-bound cargoes to about 450 tons. Accumulatin of production capabilities would eventually allow use of lunar construction materials, to build farms and increase per capita living and working space. Once closed-loop environmental systems are in place, transport costs are dominated by staff rotation and the facility is limited to a maximum staff size of about 300. Further expansion requires that some staff become permanent residents.

  6. Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns and Accessibility across Africa in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions. PMID:22363717

  7. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  8. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  9. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... CCC and CCC shall have no obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey...

  10. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... CCC and CCC shall have no obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey...

  11. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations....

  12. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  13. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  14. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations....

  15. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving settlement. In discrimination proceedings, a party shall file a motion to approve settlement that includes...

  16. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving settlement. In discrimination proceedings, a party shall file a motion to approve settlement that includes...

  17. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. In all..., 30 U.S.C. 815(c), a settlement motion must be accompanied by a proposed order approving settlement. In discrimination proceedings, a party shall file a motion to approve settlement that includes...

  18. Processing of population census results, by settlements.

    PubMed

    Anderle, A

    1983-01-01

    In Czechoslovakia, the census bureau began compiling population statistics by settlements, a term equivalent to localities, in 1970 and 1980. The 1980 census further elaborated data by settlement unit, or ward. During data processing, each individual settlement received a code. Settlement statistics available for 1980 include population structure, housing, service facilities, environment, and agricultural and forest land stock. Compiling statistics by settlement works much better than the old method of compiling statistics by commune, with its problems of instability. Settlements, which are not territorial or administrative units, cover very small as well as large and medium-sized towns. As of 1980, Czechoslovakia contains 21,199 settlements, 15,291 in the Czech Socialist Republic and 5908 in the Slovak Socilaist Republic, a relatively dense network of settlements. 20,204 settlements, however, contain fewer than 2000 permanent residents, 825 have 2000-10,000 inhabitants, and 172 have more than 10,000 residents. This dense pattern of small towns was already established in the Middle Ages. Now, however, even residents of very small towns often work in larger settlements and commute to their jobs. The standard of living in the very small settlements is often higher than that of larger settlements. These differences are not changing but have remained the same over time.

  19. 39 CFR 3001.29 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement conferences. 3001.29 Section 3001.29... Applicability § 3001.29 Settlement conferences. Any participant in a proceeding may submit offers of settlement or proposals of adjustment at any time and may request a conference between the participants...

  20. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement, the person making the offer waives, subject to acceptance of the offer: (i) All hearings pursuant... discussions concerning the rejected offer of settlement. (7) Final acceptance of any offer of settlement will... party to a proceeding already instituted, may, at any time, propose in writing an offer of...

  1. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 10.108 Section 10.108 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Appeals to the Commission; Settlements § 10.108 Settlements. (a) When offers may be made. Parties may at any time during the course of the...

  2. Guidance: Interim Municipal Settlement Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Interim guidance and fact sheets regarding settlements involving municipalities or municipal waste under Section 122 CERCLA as amended by SARA. Interim policy sets forth the criteria by which EPA generally determines whether to exercise enforcement discretion to pursue MSW generators and transporters as PRPs.

  3. 78 FR 23786 - Settlement Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... noticing a recent order convening a settlement conference between GameFly, Inc. and the Postal Service.... Introduction II. Background III. GameFly Motion, Postal Service Reply, and GameFly Response IV. Analysis V... Court's mandate, on March 7, 2013, GameFly, Inc. (GameFly) filed a motion requesting the Commission...

  4. Release and bioaccessibility of ß-carotene from fortified almond butter preparations during in vitro digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of ß-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: ß-carotene oil (non-encapsulated) and alginate-chitosan capsules containing ß-carotene oil (encapsulat...

  5. LONG-TERM STUDY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND RECOVERY FROM AMPULATED, DRY, FORTIFIED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the stability and extractability of volatile organic compound (VOCs) when fortified on dry soils and stored in sealed ampules. Two desiccator-dried soils were fortified with eight neat VOCs, benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,o-xylene,1,1,1-trichloroethane...

  6. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  7. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  8. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  9. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  10. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  11. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Gluten-free Bread Fortified with Flaxseed Meal.

    PubMed

    Shim, Youn Young; Olivia, Clara M; Liu, Jun; Boonen, Rineke; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-12-21

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) and the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (1). Gluten-free (GF) doughs and baked goods were produced with added flaxseed meal (20%, w/w) then 1, and CGs were determined in fortified flour, dough, and bread with storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (-18, 4, and 22-23 °C). 1 was present in flour, dough, and GF bread after baking. 1 was stable with extensive storage (up to 4 weeks) and was not affected by storage temperature. CGs in flaxseed meal and fortified GF samples were analyzed by (1)H NMR of the cyanohydrins. Linamarin and/or linustatin were the primary CGs in both flaxseed meal and fortified flour. CGs decreased with storage in dough fortified with flaxseed meal or GF bread after baking. GF bakery food products fortified with flaxseed meal had reduced CGs but remained a good source of dietary 1.

  12. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  13. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    PubMed Central

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions. PMID:26904633

  14. [In vitro analysis of the iron availability in fortified rice].

    PubMed

    Romera, G F; Zuleta, A; Sarchi, M I; Sambucetti, M E

    2000-09-01

    Cereals are rich in fiber but also in phytate which is considered the principal inhibitor of mineral availability. On this basis, iron availability of fortified rice, and the inhibitory effect of bran phytate was studied in: white rice fortified with electrolytic iron (ABF) from commercial origin; and mixtures of ABF plus 4.76% and 9.09% of rice bran (ABF2 and ABF3 respectively) to simulate brown rice. Samples were analysed before and after phytic acid hydrolysis with phytase: Dietary fiber and phytic acid were assessed according AOAC; iron availability, expressed as dialisable iron by the in vitro method of Kapsokefalou and Miller modified by Valencia et al.; iron content was assessed by AAS. Results showed that added bran depressed iron availability, 9.65%; 4.04% and 1.82% as expected (ABF, ABF2 and ABF3 respectively). After phytic acid hydrolysis iron availability reached 28.20%; 27.95% and 25.30% for the same samples. These values were not different. After phytic acid hydrolysis, fiber content of ABF2 and ABF3 were lower than before. However multiple regression analysis of the data showed that fiber had not influence on iron availability and that phytic acid would be the principal responsible of it. These results indicate that brown rice should have a higher level of iron fortification than in white rice or be combined with other foods that improve iron availability as meats, vegetables or fruits.

  15. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  16. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  17. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Settlement Rosters for the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA''), the Dominican Republic-Central America.... These agreements include the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic-Central... (202) 395-7305 (for the U.S.-Chile FTA and U.S.-Peru TPA), Leigh Bacon, Associate General Counsel,...

  18. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium and phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stefanie P; Hicks, Penni D; Hamzo, Maria; Veit, Lauren E; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM).

  19. Penetration of living cell membranes with fortified carbon nanotube tips.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Brown, Scott C; Higashitani, Ko; Moudgil, Brij M

    2007-10-23

    We have fabricated robust nanosurgical needles suitable for single cell operations by modifying multiwalled carbon nanotube (MCNT)-terminated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips. Extra-long MCNT AFM tips were prepared and fortified with molecular layers of carbon to overcome mechanical instabilities and then coated with an outer shell of gold to promote chemical versatility. The terminal diameters of the final fabricated tips were approximately 30-40 nm, and the MCNT probes were several micrometers in length. We illustrate the capability of these modified MCNT tips to carry nanoparticulate payloads and to penetrate the plasma membrane of living pleural mesothelial cells at the smallest indentation depths (100-200 nm) and lowest penetration forces (100-200 pN) currently reported for these procedures.

  20. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). The daily total Zn intake was not significantly different among the three groups. There were no significant differences in fractional Zn absorption (FZA) (P = 0.3895), dysprosium recovery (P = 0.7498) and Zn absorption (P = 0.5940) among the three groups. Therefore, NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  1. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  2. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-02

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  3. [Food fortified with vitamins: the history and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The recommended daily intakes of vitamins in different countries have been compared. The data on consumption of vitamins and vitamin status are submitted. It is noted that since 2008 the values of recommended daily intakes of vitamin-antioxidants C and E and folate in Russia as in other countries has been significantly increased. The recommended vitamin D consumption in Russia has been increased 2-3-fold as in most European countries and USA, while vitamin A recommended intake, on the contrary, has been reduced by 10%. Monitoring of vitamin status of various groups of adult population (by vitamin serum blood level evaluation) during the period since 2003 to 2011 has shown that that since 2003 deficiency of B group vitamins takes place in 10-47% of surveyed, vitamin D insufficiency was detected in 20.7% of adults. Thus the deficiency of these micronutrients has been determined much more often than the deficit of vitamins E and C (2.8-11%). The key causes of vitamin deficiency among the population in current conditions have been discussed. The main ways of increasing of diet vitamin value by means of fortified foods usage or/and vitamin and mineral complexes intake have been considered. The effective and safe levels of food enrichment have been examined. Harmonized with the EU documents and Codex Alimentarius acting sanitary rules and regulations which govern the enrichment of food products of mass consumption with vitamins and minerals have been commented upon. The history of food enrichment (fortification) with vitamins and salt iodization in our country and abroad has been described. Basing on the experience of several countries in which the mandatory enrichment of regularly consumed food products (flour, breakfast cereals) had compensated inadequate intake of vitamin D, group B, iodine and iron to a large extent, the conclusion on the feasibility and health benefits of fortified foods intake has been done.

  4. The Use of Multinutrient Human Milk Fortifiers in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review of Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Francis B; Nathan, Natalie; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence that multinutrient fortification of human milk increases in-hospital growth of preterm infants, but fortification has not been shown to improve long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to ascertain whether randomized controlled trials have determined the effect of early versus late introduction of fortifiers on growth and/or other outcomes, and have compared the efficacy/adverse effects of human milk-based versus cow milk-based fortifiers. We conclude that there is little evidence that early introduction of human milk fortification affects important outcomes, and limited evidence that a bovine fortifier places the infant at a higher risk of NEC.

  5. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  6. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  7. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  8. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  9. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall not be appointed when— (i) A party objects to referral of the matter to a settlement judge; (ii... as the Black Lung Benefits Act. (3) Selection of settlement judge. (i) The selection of a...

  10. Settlement Documents: Anadarko Fraudulent Conveyance Litigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Settlement agreement to resolve adversary proceedings related to the fraudulent conveyance litigation with Kerr-McGee and Anadarko Petroleum Corporation associated with the Tronox bankruptcy proceedings

  11. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry...

  12. Release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Burri, Betty J; Singh, R Paul

    2012-09-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: β-carotene oil (oil) and whey protein isolate (WPI)-alginate-chitosan capsules containing β-carotene oil (capsule). Shaking water bath and Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) digestion models assessed the impact of gastric peristalsis on the release of β-carotene. Bioaccessibility of β-carotene was measured as percent recovered from the micelle fraction. There was greater release of β-carotene from oil fortified almond butter in the HGS model (87.1%) due to peristalsis than the shaking water bath model (51.0%). More β-carotene was released from capsule fortified almond butter during intestinal digestion. However, more β-carotene was recovered from the micelle fraction of oil fortified almond butter. These results suggest that a WPI-alginate-chitosan capsule coating may inhibit the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter.

  13. Lack of bioequivalence of gatifloxacin when coadministered with calcium-fortified orange juice in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Allison W; Victory, Jennifer M; Amsden, Guy W

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that the chelation interaction seen with ciprofloxacin when it is coadministered with antacids also happens when it is coadministered with calcium-fortified foods. This study was conducted to study whether this was a drug-specific finding or whether the interaction occurs with other members of the fluoroquinolone class of drugs. Sixteen healthy volunteers received single 400-mg oral doses of gatifloxacin with 12 ounces each of water, nonfortified orange juice, and calcium-fortified orange juice and had plasma samples drawn for assay over the subsequent 48 hours. Results demonstrated significant increases in total oral clearance (15%) and volume of distribution (13%) along with a matching significant decrease (12%) in exposure (AUC) when gatifloxacin was taken with the fortified juice. Although not statistically significant, peak concentrations decreased by 15% and were reached (tmax) approximately 38% later when gatifloxacin was coadministered with the calcium-fortified juice. Bioavailability testing indicated that although the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratio of the geometric means of the calcium-fortified juice and water arms' AUC stayed within the range of 80% to 125%, those for Cmax did not. This study demonstrated a chelation or adsorption interaction between the fortified juice and gatifloxacin that reached regulatory significance. As a result, clinicians may wish to instruct patients to take gatifloxacin either with nonfortified foods or on an empty stomach.

  14. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  15. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  16. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with

  17. Spatial variation in larval concentrations as a cause of spatial variation in settlement for the barnacle, Balanus glandula.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Steven; Brown, Stephen; Roughgarden, Jonathan

    1985-09-01

    Settlement rates of the high intertidal barnacle, Balanus glandula, were monitored at three sites in the rocky intertidal zone in Central California simultaneously with measurements of larval concentrations in the adjacent water column. In both 1983 and 1984, settlement rates onto vacant substrate differed among the sites by nearly two orders of magnitude. For all sampling dates, this spatial variation in settlement mirrored the spatial distribution of Balanus glandula cyprid concentration in the water column. A perfect rank correlation was found between cyprid concentrations near a site and subsequent settlement. A noteworthy observation was that the sites switched rank in their settlement rates from 1983 to 1984. This change in settlement rankings matched a switch in rankings for cyprid concentrations.Settlement itself appears to be an important cause of the spatial pattern of cyprid concentrations. Comparing the rates of settlement to estimates of the number of cyprids available at a site suggests that settlement causes a large drain on the cyprid population as a water mass passes over successive sites. No consistent spatial patterns were found in the distribution of other major plankton groups (calanoid copepods) that are similar in size to Balanus cyprids but do not settle.The large differences in settlement rates among these sites were previously shown to be a leading cause of large differences in the structure of benthic barnacle populations. The close correspondence shown here between these large differences in settlement and differences in larval concentrations suggests that nearshore oceanic processes affecting larval arrival contribute to the control of benthic community structure.

  18. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has...

  19. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has...

  20. 37 CFR 351.7 - Settlement conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 351.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.7 Settlement conference. A post-discovery settlement conference will be held among the participants, within 21 days after the close of discovery, outside of...

  1. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues...

  2. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues...

  3. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  4. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  5. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  6. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  7. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedure, such procedure shall not be imposed. (2) Length of voluntary settlement procedures. The settlement procedures under this section shall be for a period not to exceed 45 days. (b) Mandatory... aggregate amount of the penalties sought by the Secretary is $100,000 or greater. (2) Proceedings under...

  8. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  9. 42 CFR 417.574 - Interim settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim settlement. 417.574 Section 417.574 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.574 Interim settlement. (a) Determination. Within 30 days following the receipt of the HMO's or CMP's final interim cost and enrollment reports, CMS will make...

  10. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981,...

  11. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981,...

  12. The Hindman Settlement School and Its Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Virginia

    1973-01-01

    The first rural settlement school in the United States was the Hindman Settlement School, established in 1902 in the county seat of Knott County, Kentucky. It set the pattern upon which many other schools chartered their development and helped the continuation of the music culture of the mountain people. (Author/RK)

  13. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section 1.956... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences. Parties... their attorneys to appear before it for a conference. (a) The purposes of such conferences are: (1)...

  14. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., recommend acceptance or rejection of such offers. Any party or participant may object to a proposed consent... with subpart G of this part. (b) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to the Presiding Officer. (c) Form. Offers of settlement shall be in the form of...

  15. 77 FR 27055 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... proposed settlement agreement between EPA and the industry petitioners in Portland Cement Ass'n v. EPA, No... reconsideration issues and on issues raised by the court's remand in Portland Cement Ass'n v. EPA by June 15, 2012... Cement Ass'n v. EPA, 665 F. 3d 177. DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  16. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  17. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements....

  18. 7 CFR 1.345 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement. 1.345 Section 1.345 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Procedures Related to Administrative Hearings Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.345 Settlement. (a) A respondent may make...

  19. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  20. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  1. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  2. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  3. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  4. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  5. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  6. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  7. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  8. 32 CFR 723.10 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... error or injustice occurred. Earnings received from civilian employment, self employment or any income... by the total settlement and shall be advised further that acceptance of such settlement...

  9. Organoleptic testing of fish meatball fortified with various colored vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minantyo, Hari; Hariohoedojo, Alexander; Winarno, Prasetyon Sepsi

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, many people tried to create and invent new varieties of food. They all tried to enrich the life of many people and increasing their quality of life using their food. The food that they create must be nutritious, safe and healthy. This can be achieved by combining various meat and vegetable products available on the market today. Previously, the research team found that fish meat had relatively high nutrition value. The research team believed that further increase in nutrition value can be achieved by combining fish meat and rich colored vegetables. This research came up with the creation of improved fish meatball fortified with various colored vegetables. With the initiation of ASEAN Free Trade Agreement, many culinary practitioners must pay more attention to the health and safety aspects of their food offerings. Indonesian government should also support this movement by providing education to those people who are not aware of the importance of healthy and safe food or snacks, especially meatballs. Meatballs are one of the most consumed snacks in Indonesia, because they are delicious and affordable. This new fish meatball creation will provide better alternatives to the commonly unhealthy meatballs available on Indonesian market today.

  10. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  11. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  12. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  13. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  14. Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, A.L.O.; Campari, J.S.

    1996-02-01

    Presents and analyzes the largest and most complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. This landmark study presents the largest and most analytically complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. The authors examine the changing character of the Amazon frontier based on field surveys conducted during twenty years of settlement experience. By observing the economic behavior of small farmers from colonization during the 1970s until the chaotic aftermath of the early 1990s, the authors are able to pinpoint a central paradox: unsuccessful farmers tend to be unstable, moving on to new frontiers where they will again destroy forests. Successful farmers tend to increase deforestation in the places where they remain. The findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land cleared by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. Small farmers should be rewarded for staying where they are and for pursuing sustainable farming. Good farming methods must be promoted, and deforestation must be penalized. The authors recommend the implementation of innovative economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies, including the World Bank, at both local and international levels. The aim of these policies should be to raise agricultural incomes and reduce environmental aggression.

  15. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  16. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, D.; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Toshinori

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste material exhibits heterogeneous engineering properties that vary over locations and time within a landfill. These factors, combined with the fact that a landfill is not fully saturated, render a traditional soil mechanics approach less attractive for settlement prediction. An empirical approach of expressing settlement rate using logarithmic and power relationships is commonly used in conjunction with an observational procedure. In this paper, validity of these functions is reexamined based on published settlement results from three landfill sites. A hyperbolic function is proposed as an improved tool to simulate the settlement-time relationships, as well as to detect final settlement. The relationships between the parameters of these empirical functions and water content are examined.

  17. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  18. Beyond Survival: Tracing Individual Empowerment Processes in a Poor Chilean Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turro, Claudia; Krause, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    Based on the life histories of residents from La Victoria, a poor settlement in Santiago, Chile, this study reconstructed the central biographic elements in individual empowerment processes, linking them with the sociocultural context in which they occurred. Results show the following main characteristics related to individual empowerment:…

  19. Bioavailability of Microencapsulated Iron from Fortified Bread Assessed Using Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A.; Laghi, Luca; Zannoni, Augusta; Gianotti, Andrea; Barone, Francesca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle L.; Bacci, Maria L.; Ventrella, Domenico; Forni, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral iron supplementation, in the form of fortified breads, on the growth performance, health, iron status parameters, and fecal metabolome of anemic piglets. A study was conducted on 24 hybrid (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) piglets. From day 44, the post-natal 12 piglets were supplemented with 100 g of one of two experimental breads, each fortified with 21 mg of ferrous sulphate, either encapsulated or not. After one week of oral supplementation, hematological parameters (hematocrit value, hemoglobin, and red blood cells) showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Piglets fed with the fortified breads had higher iron concentrations in the heart, liver, and intestinal mucosa compared to anemic piglets fed with control bread. Gene expression of hepcidin, iron exporter ferroportin (IREG1), and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), together with concentrations of plasma ferritin, showed no significant statistical differences between groups. Both fortified breads could be used as sources of bioavailable iron. The seven-day intervention trial showed microencapsulation to have only a mild effect on the effectiveness of iron supplementation in the form of fortified bread. PMID:28335378

  20. Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of yogurt fortified with date fiber.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Afifi, H S

    2009-11-01

    Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating dietary fiber will make it even healthier. Date fiber (DF), a by-product of date syrup production, is a good source of dietary fiber. The effect of fortification with DF on fresh yogurt quality was investigated. Acidity, pH, color [L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values], texture profile, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance were studied. Control yogurt (without fiber), yogurt fortified with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% DF, and yogurt with 1.5% wheat bran (WB) were prepared. Fortification with DF did not cause significant changes in yogurt acidity, although pH was increased. Yogurts fortified with DF had firmer texture (higher hardness values) and darker color (lower L* and higher a*) compared with control or WB yogurts. Consumer test results indicated that the appearance, color, and flavor ratings were significantly affected by fiber fortification. Yogurt fortified with up to 3% DF had similar sourness, sweetness, firmness, smoothness, and overall acceptance ratings as the control yogurt. Sensory ratings and acceptability of yogurt decreased significantly when increasing DF to 4.5% or using 1.5% WB. Flavoring yogurt fortified with 4.5% DF with vanilla did not improve flavor or overall acceptance ratings. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 3% DF produced acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.

  1. Effect of soil fortified by polyurethane foam on septic tank effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Nie, J Y; Zhu, N W; Lin, K M; Song, F Y

    2011-01-01

    Fortified soil was made up of a mixture at a mass ratio 4/1000-6/1000 of sponge and natural soil according to the results of column experiment. The fortified soil had bigger porosity and higher hydraulic conductivity than the natural soil. The columns packed with 900 mm of the fortified soil endured a flow rate equivalent to 100 L/m(2)/d of septic tank effluent and the average chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal rates were around 92%, 75% and 96%, respectively. After 100 weeks of operation, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fortified soil kept higher than 0.2 m/d. The bigger porosity of sponge improved the effective porosity, and the bigger specific surface area of sponge acted as an ideal support for biomat growth and ensured the sewage treatment performance of the fortified soil. The comparable performance was due to a similar and sufficient degree of soil clogging genesis coupled with bioprocesses that effectively purified the septic tank effluent given the adequate retention times.

  2. Migration and mobility in the early medieval settlement in Thunau/Kamp using 87Sr/86Sr Isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangl, Sophie; Irrgeher, Johanna; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The use of Sr isotope ratios has been applied systematically for clarifying questions about migration patterns of humans and animals. In consequence of geologically induced differences in the isotopic composition, 87Sr/86Sr ratios are characteristic for a specific region. Humans and animals take up strontium primarily via drinking water and diet. Since strontium has similar chemical properties to calcium, it is mainly stored in teeth and bones. Tooth enamel is formed in the early childhood and is not subject to significant changes in later life. Therefore, the enclosed strontium has the same isotopic composition as the environment in which the individual was living during his early years, provided that the food came from the close proximity. Issue of this study was the early medieval (9th to 10th century AD) settlement in Thunau/Kamp. In order to assess the biogenic Sr isotopic signature of the Thunau settlement area, environmental samples including soil, rocks, water and plants were taken at the excavation site and in the immediate vicinity. They represent the local strontium signal to which the isotopic compositions of historic human tooth samples (enamel and dentine) were compared. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in tooth enamel and dentine give insight about residential characteristics of the settlement of Thunau/Kamp in comparison to the fortified hilltop settlement located in close proximity.

  3. 77 FR 282 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Horowitz, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Additional Information About the Proposed Settlement Agreement This proposed... electrical blackout, such as unusually low frequency, equipment overload, capacity or energy deficiency,...

  4. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  5. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  6. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  7. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  8. Sustainable Policy Solutions for Space Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, J.

    2017-02-01

    I describe two sustainable policy models for the shared use of space. I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these ideas in light of existing international agreements and provide a direction for further research on space settlement policy.

  9. DOJ News Release: Hayward Baker Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States reached a settlement with Hayward Baker, Inc., (“Hayward Baker”) in a civil case involving the Buy American provision of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (“ARRA”).

  10. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... settlement conference constitutes a waiver by the party making the request of any right to claim bias or... the offer; and (B) Any right to claim bias or prejudgment by the Director based on the...

  11. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... settlement conference constitutes a waiver by the party making the request of any right to claim bias or... the offer; and (B) Any right to claim bias or prejudgment by the Director based on the...

  12. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  13. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  14. Molecular Nanotechnology and Space Settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomically precise manipulation of matter is becoming increasingly common in laboratories around the world. As this control moves into aerospace systems, huge improvements in computers, high-strength materials, and other systems are expected. For example, studies suggest that it may be possible to build: 10(exp 18) MIPS computers, 10(exp 15) bytes/sq cm write once memory, $153-412/kg-of-cargo single- stage-to-orbit launch vehicles and active materials which sense their environment and react intelligently. All of NASA's enterprises should benefit significantly from molecular nanotechnology. Although the time may be measured in decades and the precise path to molecular nanotechnology is unclear, all paths (diamondoid, fullerene, self-assembly, biomolecular, etc.) will require very substantial computation. This talk will discuss fullerene nanotechnology and early work on hypothetical active materials consisting of large numbers of identical machines. The speaker will also discuss aerospace applications, particularly missions leading to widespread space settlement (e.g., small near-Earth - object retrieval). It is interesting to note that control of the tiny - individual atoms and molecules - may lead to colonization of the huge -first the solar system, then the galaxy.

  15. Yogurt drink fortified with menaquinone-7 improves vitamin K status in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Braam, Lavienja A J L M; Teunissen, Kirsten J; Zwijsen, Renate M L; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Population-based studies have shown an inverse association between dietary menaquinones (MK-n, vitamin K2) intake, coronary calcification and CHD risk, suggesting a potential role of vitamin K in vascular health. To date, the effects of increased menaquinone intake on (markers of) vascular health have been investigated using predominantly food supplements. Dairy products contain many essential nutrients and can serve as a good matrix for food fortification in order to support health. We were therefore interested to study the effects of a menaquinone-fortified yogurt drink (menaquinone as menaquinone-7 (MK-7); 28 µg MK-7/yogurt drink) on vitamin K status and markers of vascular health. The yogurt drink was also fortified with n-3 PUFA, vitamin D, vitamin C, Ca and Mg to support vascular and/or general health. Healthy men (n 32) and postmenopausal women (n 28) with a mean age of 56 (sd 5) years received either basic or fortified yogurt drink twice per d for 12 weeks. MK-7 was efficiently absorbed from the fortified yogurt drink. Levels of circulating MK-7 were significantly increased from 0·28 to 1·94 ng/ml. In accordance, intake of the fortified yogurt drink improved vitamin K status, as measured by significant decreases in uncarboxylated osteocalcin and desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein. No effects were, however, seen on markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid metabolism. In summary, consumption of a yogurt drink fortified with low doses of among others MK-7 for 3 months significantly improved vitamin K status in a healthy population.

  16. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Chamnan, Chhoun; de Boer, Michiel R.; Parker, Megan E.; Burja, Kurt; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Berger, Jacques; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation. Objective To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. Methods A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506). Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330), fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation. Results Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%), and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of

  17. [Impact of fortified milk on the iron and zinc levels in Mexican preschool children].

    PubMed

    Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Chavarria, Elsa Yolanda; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Nieblas, Amparo; Ponce, José Antonio; Robles-Sardin, Alma E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a national program of consumption of fortified milk "Liconsa" on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in pre-school children (3-5 y). The study was conducted in 77 healthy children of both genders. 54 of them consumed Liconsa fortified milk (GCLFL) and 23 consumed no fortified milk (GR). Iron status was determined by measuring hemoglobin and ferritin and zinc status by serum zinc. The consumption of milk was on free demand and it was estimated at baseline and 6 mo after. Through 24-h recall of measured consumption of iron and zinc in the total diet. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test for independent samples and chi-square test for differences in proportions. Children who consumed fortified milk showed an increase of hemoglobin and ferritin levels [1.13 g/dL (p < 0.05) and 5.83 μg/L (p < 0.05) respectively]. Additionally, a decrease was found of the prevalence of low iron stores from 20.4 to 4.1% (p < 0.05). The serum zinc level showed an increase of 45.2 μg/dL (p < 0.05). At the end of the study no child showed a micronutrient deficiency. Children who did not consume fortified milk Liconsa showed no significant change in their serum iron and zinc values. The average consumption of milk powder Liconsa was 22.7 ± 14.5 g, providing 2.5 mg of daily iron and zinc. Supplied diet 9.2 ± 3.4 mg of iron and 6.9 ± 3 mg of zinc. The consumption of fortified milk had a beneficial effect on the serum levels of iron and zinc in children's social welfare program Liconsa.

  18. Complementary feeding with fortified spread and incidence of severe stunting in 6- to 18-month-old rural Malawians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare growth and incidence of malnutrition in infants receiving long-term dietary supplementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (likuni phala [LP]). A total of 182 6-month-old infants in rural Malawi were rando...

  19. Multinutrient-fortified juices improve vitamin D and vitamin E status in children: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient and palatable method to maintain and increase blood fat soluble vitamins. We sought to determine if children consuming orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and combinations of vitamins D, E and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  20. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L; Nielsen, Shaun J; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24-28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should

  1. Pelagic larval duration and settlement size of a reef fish are spatially consistent, but post-settlement growth varies at the reef scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Susannah M.; Russ, Garry R.; Abesamis, Rene A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that, despite a pelagic larval stage, many coral reef fishes disperse over relatively small distances, leading to well-connected populations on scales of 0-30 km. Although variation in key biological characteristics has been explored on the scale of 100-1000 s of km, it has rarely been explored at the scale relevant to actual larval dispersal and population connectivity on ecological timescales. In this study, we surveyed the habitat and collected specimens ( n = 447) of juvenile butterflyfish, Chaetodon vagabundus, at nine sites along an 80-km stretch of coastline in the central Philippines to identify variation in key life history parameters at a spatial scale relevant to population connectivity. Mean pelagic larval duration (PLD) was 24.03 d (SE = 0.16 d), and settlement size was estimated to be 20.54 mm total length (TL; SE = 0.61 mm). Both traits were spatially consistent, although this PLD is considerably shorter than that reported elsewhere. In contrast, post-settlement daily growth rates, calculated from otolith increment widths from 1 to 50 d post-settlement, varied strongly across the study region. Elevated growth rates were associated with rocky habitats that this species is known to recruit to, but were strongly negatively correlated with macroalgal cover and exhibited negative density dependence with conspecific juveniles. Larger animals had lower early (first 50 d post-settlement) growth rates than smaller animals, even after accounting for seasonal variation in growth rates. Both VBGF and Gompertz models provided good fits to post-settlement size-at-age data ( n = 447 fish), but the VBGF's estimate of asymptotic length ( L ∞ = 168 mm) was more consistent with field observations of maximum fish length. Our findings indicate that larval characteristics are consistent at the spatial scale at which populations are likely well connected, but that site-level biological differences develop post-settlement, most likely as a

  2. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.

  3. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement.

    PubMed

    Parris, Darren J; Brooker, Rohan M; Morgan, Michael A; Dixson, Danielle L; Stewart, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families.

  4. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Darren J.; Brooker, Rohan M.; Morgan, Michael A.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families. PMID:27635360

  5. Seascape attributes, at different spatial scales, determine settlement and post-settlement of juvenile fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadros, Amalia; Moranta, Joan; Cardona, Luis; Thiriet, Pierre; Pastor, Jérémy; Arroyo, Nina Larissa; Cheminée, Adrien

    2017-02-01

    Concern has increased in recent decades regarding processes influencing fish juvenile density distributions; indeed, juveniles determine the replenishment of populations and their habitats are often found in shallow coastal areas, where human impacts are concentrated. We aimed to measure the relative importance of seascape attributes at various spatial scales (from seascape to microhabitat) in fish settlement and post-settlement processes. Along the coast of Minorca Island (NW Mediterranean), Diplodus sargus settlement variability was higher among the southern coast compared to the variability in the northern one. Independently of coast location, sheltered nurseries presented lower settlement intensity and recruitment levels compared to exposed ones. Such patterns suggested differential larval supply according to exposure level. Furthermore, subsequent density-dependent post-settlement mortality reduced the cove-specific variability of initial settlement. In addition, inside each cove, juveniles displayed ontogenetic changes of microhabitat use: smaller juveniles were more abundant in the most heterogeneous microhabitat. Consequently, juvenile density distributions responded to seascape attributes at different spatial scales; this suggests that both lager scale attributes and microhabitat influence both settlement and post-settlement processes, and may be limiting for recruitment. Our study demonstrated the importance of a diversified seascape to promote fish population replenishment.

  6. Nature and perception of barnacle settlement pheromones.

    PubMed

    Clare, A S; Matsumura, K

    2000-01-01

    It is now almost 50 years since the gregarious settlement of barnacles and its chemical basis was first described. Although originally noted for Elminius modestus, mechanistic studies of gregariousness have focused on two species, Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus amphitrite. By virtue of its ease of study and its economic importance as a fouling organism, the latter species has assumed increasing importance in recent years. This paper will provide an overview of studies on settlement pheromones and their perception. An adult glycoprotein, arthropodin (now known as settlement-inducing protein complex or SIPC), was once thought to be the sole pheromone involved in the induction of cypris larval settlement. At least two other pheromones are now known to be involved, a waterborne cue originating from the adult and the cypris temporary adhesive. The latter is related, immunologically, to SIPC. In keeping with many other examples of chemical communication, the available evidence suggests that barnacle settlement induction involves receptor-ligand interactions and a signal transduction pathway(s) that translates into attachment and metamorphosis. Similar findings have been reported for some, but not all, marine invertebrate larvae examined thus far and the implications for antifoulant development are discussed.

  7. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  8. Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Maciero, Eugenia; Krasnoff, Gustavo; Cócaro, Nicolas; Gaitan, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers’ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old) participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers’ requirements of this micronutrient. PMID:26529007

  9. Effect of Storage on the Flavor of Chocolate Fortified with Nutritional Yeast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    To provide operational rations with potentially important vitamin factors, chocolate was individually supplemented with three brands of primary...and 100F. The acceptability of the control and fortified chocolate was measured at four-month intervals for one year. After storage, unsupplemented... chocolate was slightly preferred to the supplemented chocolate . No significant difference was observed between primary and debittered yeast

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Water Soluble Vitamins in Dietary Supplements and Fortified Foods by LC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work in our laboratory has focused on development of LC methods with diode array and/or mass spectrometry (ms) detection for the simultaneous determination in supplement tablets and fortified foods of several water-soluble vitamins (WSV) including: thiamin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic ac...

  11. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium, and phosphorous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification, and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre...

  12. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  13. Study of the formation mechanisms of some volatile compounds during the aging of sweet fortified wines.

    PubMed

    Cutzach, I; Chatonnet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    1999-07-01

    Sweet fortified wines, traditionally aged under strong oxidation conditions, have a characteristic aroma. An experimental laboratory study investigated the aging of red and white sweet fortified wines under various conditions. The formation of various molecules, previously identified as characteristic of the aroma of this type of wine, was monitored by analysis. The development of these compounds during accelerated aging was affected by oxidation and the color of the wine. Among the molecules studied, sotolon [3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone] was one of the few molecules present in concentrations above the perception threshold, in both red and white wines. Buildup was strongly affected by the presence of oxygen in white wine subjected to accelerated aging. (Ethoxymethyl)furfural, formed from 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and furfural, derived from sugars, are also involved in the aroma of sweet fortified white wines aged in oxygen-free conditions. The substances most characteristic of accelerated aging of sweet fortified red wines were 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, acetylformoin, and hydroxymaltol, the formation of which is affected by oxidation, and dihydromaltol, formed in the absence of oxidation.

  14. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize.

  15. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  16. Calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities from a commercial human milk fortifier: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, P; Wallingford, J C; Miller, D D; Glahn, R P

    2004-11-01

    Adding human milk fortifiers (HMF) to human milk (HM) is one way of overcoming the nutrient deficits found in the latter. In this study, the bioavailabilities of calcium, zinc, and iron in S-26/SMA HMF added to HM were compared with those in HM fortified with various bovine milk proteins: alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, caseinate, casein phosphopeptides, and whey protein concentrate. The bioavailability of each mineral was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Calcium and zinc uptake by the cells was traced with radioisotopes; iron uptake was assessed via cell ferritin levels. Samples were prepared on an equal protein content basis and with added calcium, but no zinc or iron was added. Results revealed that calcium uptake from HM + S-26/SMA was not different from any of the HM fortified with the bovine milk proteins, except for unfortified HM and HM + colostrum in which calcium uptake was significantly lower (-89 and -38%, respectively). Uptake of zinc and iron were significantly higher for HM + S-26/SMA than for the other HM + fortifiers.

  17. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    El Menchawy, Imane; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Kari, Khalid; Saeid, Naima; Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Benajiba, Nada; El Harchaoui, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N = 195), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p = 0.037). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410. PMID:26355324

  18. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometric analysis of vitamin D in retail fortified orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of vitamin D fortified orange juice obtained from retail food stores were analyzed for vitamin D3 content using a method developed by combining the best features of two AOAC officially approved methods. The ether/petroleum ether extraction from AOAC 992.26 was combined with the high perform...

  19. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  20. Fortifying food in the field to boost nutrition: case studies from Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia.

    PubMed

    van den Briel, Tina; Cheung, Edith; Zewari, Jamshid; Khan, Rose

    2007-09-01

    Deficiencies in micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and iodine affect billions of people worldwide, causing death, disease, and disability. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) has long been recognised for its ability to deliver food to some of the most remote locations, under the toughest conditions: refugees in border camps, populations cut off by conflict, extremely poor and marginalised people like ethnic minorities, orphans, and widows. Relatively little, however, is known about its efforts to ensure that the food it delivers not only provides enough calories for immediate survival but also provides the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy growth and development. Much of the food delivered by WFP is fortified with iron, vitamin A, and other micronutrients before being shipped. But there are several reasons to mill and fortify food as close to the beneficiaries as possible. For instance, milling and fortifying food locally helps to overcome the problems of the short shelf-life of whole fortified maizemeal. It also enhances the nutritional value of locally procured cereals. And it can foster demand for fortified foods among local consumers beyond WFP beneficiaries, thus nurturing an industry with potentially significant benefits for the health of entire communities. This paper outlines three approaches by WFP to fortifying cereals in Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia. It examines the challenges faced and the outcomes achieved in an effort to share this knowledge with others dedicated to improving the nutritional status of poor and food-insecure people. In Afghanistan, attempts to mill and fortify wheat flour using small-scale chakki mills were successful but much larger-scale efforts would be needed to promote demand and reach the level of consumption required to address serious iron deficiencies across the country. In Angola, maize has been fortified to combat the persistent occurrence of pellagra, a micronutrient deficiency disease found among people whose

  1. AQUAPLEX An Environmentally Aware Model Lunar Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, Darel

    2003-01-01

    The construction and operation of a replica Lunar settlement (CELSS), can provide many lessons in in-situ resource utilization, telerobotic operation and reducing the hygiene water demanded by existing models of Lunar operation - a larger settlement may be operated with the same amount of precious water. Hypes and Hall and all other CELSS models found in the literature propose quantities of hygiene water far in excess of what would be needed in actual operation using simple, environmentally aware technologies. By using modern zero water toilets, low water showers, CO2 dry cleaning machines, energy efficient washing machines and other hardware, water use can be slashed. The Space Solar Power Workshop sees great opportunity to advance the prospects for Lunar settlement through involving the environmental community in this fun design exercise.

  2. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  3. Effects of algal turfs and sediment on coral settlement.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Chico L; McCook, Laurence J; Willis, Bette L

    2005-01-01

    Successful settlement and recruitment of corals is critical to the resilience of coral reefs. Given that many degraded reefs are dominated by benthic algae, recovery of coral populations after bleaching and other disturbances requires successful settlement amidst benthic algae. Algal turfs often accumulate sediments, sediments are known to inhibit coral settlement, and reefs with high inputs of terrestrial sediments are often dominated by turfs. We investigated the impacts of two algal turf assemblages, and of sediment deposits, on settlement of the coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg). Adding sediment reduced coral settlement, but the effects of different algal turfs varied. In one case, algal turfs inhibited coral settlement, whereas the other turf only inhibited settlement when combined with sediments. These results provide the first direct, experimental evidence of effects of filamentous algal turfs on coral settlement, the variability in those effects, and the potential combined effects of algal turfs and trapped sediments.

  4. Optimising settlement assays of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Carl, C; Poole, A J; Vucko, M J; Williams, M R; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

    2011-09-01

    The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a common aquaculture species, and also a major fouling organism that has negative economic impacts. There are no standard assay conditions for this important species and therefore, this study quantified the effect of key factors on the settlement of pediveligers and plantigrades. Density dependent settlement did not occur for either pediveligers or plantigrades. Settlement increased in drop assays in a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, while bottom shade had no effect of any magnitude. In addition, settlement was significantly enhanced by storing pediveligers for between 4 and 24 days at 4 °C. Overall, these data provide the template to optimise and standardise static laboratory settlement assays for mussels in order to develop materials that either enhance settlement for the aquaculture industry, or deter settlement for antifouling applications. Furthermore, simple mechanisms such as storage at 4 °C can enhance settlement beyond current methods used in aquaculture hatcheries.

  5. Implications for Tobacco Control of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Daynard, Richard A.; Parmet, Wendy; Kelder, Graham; Davidson, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 master settlement agreement between major tobacco manufacturers and the US states will have a profound effect on many tobacco industry practices and will significantly influence future settlements with the tobacco industry. This article analyzes the settlement's key provisions pertaining to youth sales, advertising, marketing, and lobbying. It also examines the ways in which the settlement restricts industry practices as well as the many industry practices that remain unregulated. PMID:11726376

  6. 26 CFR 1.468B - Designated settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designated settlement funds. 1.468B Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B Designated settlement funds. A designated settlement fund, as defined in section 468B(d)(2), is taxed in the manner described in §...

  7. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation...

  8. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation...

  9. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  10. Estimation of the components of municipal solid waste settlement.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar Babu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the municipal solid waste settlements and the contribution of each of the components are essential in the estimation of the volume of the waste that can be accommodated in a landfill and increase the post-usage of the landfill. This article describes an experimental methodology for estimating and separating primary settlement, settlement owing to creep and biodegradation-induced settlement. The primary settlement and secondary settlement have been estimated and separated based on 100% pore pressure dissipation time and the coefficient of consolidation. Mechanical creep and biodegradation settlements were estimated and separated based on the observed time required for landfill gas production. The results of a series of laboratory triaxial tests, creep tests and anaerobic reactor cell setups were conducted to describe the components of settlement. All the tests were conducted on municipal solid waste (compost reject) samples. It was observed that biodegradation accounted to more than 40% of the total settlement, whereas mechanical creep contributed more than 20% towards the total settlement. The essential model parameters, such as the compression ratio (Cc'), rate of mechanical creep (c), coefficient of mechanical creep (b), rate of biodegradation (d) and the total strain owing to biodegradation (EDG ), are useful parameters in the estimation of total settlements as well as components of settlement in landfill.

  11. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  12. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  13. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  14. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  15. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  16. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Settlement and Escrow Accounts § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  17. 7 CFR 1786.32 - Settlement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement procedure. 1786.32 Section 1786.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE...

  18. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP... authority to settle any issue or any case, without the consent of the administrative law judge at any...

  19. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contested before the Commission may be settled only with the approval of the Commission upon motion. A motion to approve a penalty settlement shall include for each violation the amount of the penalty... penalty agreed to by the parties. (b) Motion accompanied by proposed order. In all penalty...

  20. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review...

  1. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review...

  2. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review...

  3. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review...

  4. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning letter or referral to the MAP Lender Review Board. Once a matter has been referred to the MAP Lender Review...

  5. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  6. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  7. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and... impracticable to obtain the signature of the debtor. If the debtor refused to sign the application, the reason(s... able to do so; or (B) Is able to pay part or all of the debt but refuses to do so, and OGC provides...

  8. Schooling and Settlement: Refugee Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Schools are a stabilising feature in the unsettled lives of refugee students. They provide safe spaces for new encounters, interactions and learning opportunities. They also deliver literacy, the key to educational success, post-school options, life choices, social participation and settlement. Currently Australian schools are poorly funded and…

  9. 78 FR 59684 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word or ASCII file... Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed settlement agreement if the comments... inconsistent with the requirements of the Act. Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that...

  10. 75 FR 21987 - Penalty Settlement Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... proceedings, except for discrimination proceedings arising under section 105(c) of the Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. 815... unlimited appearance previously filed with the Commission. The content of orders approving settlement will....fmshrc.gov ). In all penalty proceedings, except discrimination and section 110(c) proceedings,...

  11. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  12. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  13. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  14. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  15. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  16. 42 CFR 402.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 402.17 Section 402.17 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CIVIL... exclusive authority to settle any issues or case, without the consent of the ALJ or the Secretary, at...

  17. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER...

  18. Determinants of Successful Divorce Settlement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Allan M.; Kressel, Kenneth

    Despite the rapidly rising divorce rate and the importance of the divorce settlement agreement for the spouses' financial and emotional well-being, factors influencing the effectiveness of divorce negotiations have received very little attention. To assess the major determinants of successful divorce negotiations between divorcing spouses and…

  19. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan settlement. 1421.111 Section 1421.111... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan settlement. 1421.111 Section 1421.111... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan settlement. 1421.111 Section 1421.111... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance...

  2. 29 CFR 1601.20 - Negotiated settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Negotiated settlement. 1601.20 Section 1601.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS..., the Director of Field Management Programs, or their designees, shall have the authority to sign...

  3. 29 CFR 1601.20 - Negotiated settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negotiated settlement. 1601.20 Section 1601.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS..., the Director of Field Management Programs, or their designees, shall have the authority to sign...

  4. 29 CFR 1601.20 - Negotiated settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Negotiated settlement. 1601.20 Section 1601.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS..., the Director of Field Management Programs, or their designees, shall have the authority to sign...

  5. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  6. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... has express authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  7. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  8. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  9. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... authority, under statute, SBA regulation or SBA standard operating procedures, to review the contents of a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING...

  10. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years) compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011), reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl). Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies) and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies). Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain) and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to reduce anemia of

  11. Scleractinian settlement patterns to natural cleared reef substrata and artificial settlement panels on an Indonesian coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Costales-Carrera, Alba; Zeljkovic, Stephen; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2011-05-01

    Recruitment is a key factor driving the population dynamics of scleractinian corals, but despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of recruitment processes in the Coral triangle region, which contains the most biodiverse marine ecosystems in the world. This study aimed to compare settlement rates to artificial settlement panels with cleared areas of natural reef in order to assess whether panels are a suitable indicator of natural coral settlement rates. We recorded coral settlement rates to panels made of two different materials (concrete and terracotta), attached to the reef at two different orientations (vertical and horizontal), and compared these settlement rates to those on cleared areas of natural reef positioned on vertical reef walls, over a 12 month period. We examined settlement rates at four sites in the Wakatobi National Marine Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia; two reefs were light-limited, highly sedimented sites with low coral cover (<10%) and two had moderate coral cover (approx. 40%) and lower sedimentation rates. Panels were directly attached to the reef at 6-7 m depth. The number of coral spat per tile ranged from 0 to 34 and no significant differences were reported between the settlement rates to cleared natural reef areas and settlement panels. Significantly higher numbers of spat settled on the cryptic (back) side of the panels, while no significant difference was found between settlement rates to the different panel materials, or between the different orientations or any combination of these two factors. There is, however, a significant difference in the settlement rates between sites, for both settlement panels and permanent cleared areas, with higher settlement rates at the sites with higher live coral cover. We conclude that both concrete and terracotta panels yield similar settlement rates, and orientation makes no difference to settlement rates when panels are directly attached to the reef. Our results demonstrate

  12. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  13. Growth and change in blood haemoglobin concentration among underweight Malawian infants receiving fortified spreads for 12 weeks: a preliminary trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified spreads (FSs) have proven effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We examined acceptability, growth and change in blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among moderately underweight ambulatory infants given FS. This was a randomised, controlled, parallel-group, inv...

  14. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y

    2017-03-01

    The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years.

  15. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports.

  16. Rapid measurement of phytosterols in fortified food using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Duong, Samantha; Strobel, Norbert; Buddhadasa, Saman; Stockham, Katherine; Auldist, Martin; Wales, Bill; Orbell, John; Cran, Marlene

    2016-11-15

    A novel method for the measurement of total phytosterols in fortified food was developed and tested using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Unlike existing methods, this technique is capable of simultaneously extracting sterols during saponification thus significantly reducing extraction time and cost. The rapid method is suitable for sterol determination in a range of complex fortified foods including milk, cheese, fat spreads, oils and meat. The main enhancements of this new method include accuracy and precision, robustness, cost effectiveness and labour/time efficiencies. To achieve these advantages, quantification and the critical aspects of saponification were investigated and optimised. The final method demonstrated spiked recoveries in multiple matrices at 85-110% with a relative standard deviation of 1.9% and measurement uncertainty value of 10%.

  17. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  18. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status.

  19. Review of fortified food and beverage products for pregnant and lactating women and their impact on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2011-10-01

    Fortified beverages and supplementary foods, when given during pregnancy, have been shown to have positive effects on preventing maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. Studies show that use of micronutrient fortified supplementary foods, especially those containing milk and/or essential fatty acids during pregnancy, increase mean birthweight by around 60-73 g. A few studies have also shown that fortified supplementary foods have impacts on increasing birth length and reducing preterm delivery. Fortification levels have ranged generally from 50% to 100% of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Iron, zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, C, B1, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, niacin and pantothenic acid are important nutrients that have been included in fortified beverages and supplemental foods for pregnant and lactating women. While calcium has been shown to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and maternal mortality, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and manganese can have negative impacts on organoleptic properties, so many products tested have not included these nutrients or have done so in a limited way. Fortified food supplements containing milk and essential fatty acids offer benefits to improving maternal status and pregnancy outcome. Fortified beverages containing only multiple micronutrients have been shown to reduce micronutrient deficiencies such as anaemia and iron deficiency.

  20. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  1. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults--A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-02-15

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller.

  2. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X. Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, Mª José

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance. PMID:27384527

  3. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X. Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, Mª José

    2016-07-01

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance.

  4. Nutritionally Fortified Fruitcake (Thermoprocessed, Flexibly Packaged) Developed for Shuttle Flight Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    water intake. Several other soy fortified cakes, including cherry nut and chocolate nut, were furnished to NASA for evaluation and comment. NASA...CMÖt0 COCO ^CMCOin^Ä^ V ü o SS88S ödood Ö d d o d CO *- CM 4 3 3 obooo 00 ^ q rt o ^ r^ r» «O r- CM öSSSS d; d o o o « -H -H -H -H

  5. Iron nutritional status in preterm infants fed formulas fortified with iron

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, I.; Cooke, R.; Reid, M.; McCormick, K.; Smith, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To prospectively evaluate the iron nutritional status of preterm infants fed either a term (0.5 mg/dl iron) or preterm (0.9mg/dl) formulas fortified with iron after hospital discharge.
METHODS—Healthy low birthweight preterm infants were randomly assigned into three groups at the time of hospital discharge. Group A were fed an iron fortified preterm formula (0.9 mg/dl iron) until 6 months corrected age; group B, a fortified term formula (0.5 mg/l iron) until 6 months corrected age group C, the preterm formula between hospital discharge and term, then the term formula until 6 months corrected age.
RESULTS—Seventy eight infants were followed up to 6 months corrected age. Iron intake from formula differed significantly between the groups (A, 1.17 mg/kg/day (SD 0.32) > C, 0.86 mg/kg/day (SD 0.40) = B, 0.81 mg/kg/day (SD 0.23); p < 0.0001). Haemoglobin concentrations were similar to those of iron sufficient preterm infants of the same postnatal age, and term infants of the same postmenstrual age (after 3 months of age). There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.391), plasma ferritin (A vs B, p = 0.322), or in the incidence of iron deficiency (A vs B, p = 0.534).
CONCLUSIONS—Iron fortified formulas containing between 0.5 and 0.9 mg/dl iron seem to meet the iron nutritional needs of preterm infants after hospital discharge.

 PMID:10375362

  6. Effects of Storage Time and Temperature on Nutritional Content of Fortified Fruitcake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    MARY V. KLICKA DORIS E. SHERMAN MARGARET T. BRANAGAN IVY FOSSUM FINAL REPORT JULY 1987 FOR THE PERIOD 1982-1984 EDTIC rLECTE FB 2 3 19883 H APPROVED...Temperature on Nutritional Content of Fortified Fruitcake. 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Morrill, Ann; Klicka, Mary V.; Sherman, Doris E.; Branagan, Margaret T.; and...Miriam Thomas and Mrs. Bonita Atwood for preparation of the vitamin and mineral premixes; Mr. Leon Klarman for his data analysis support; and, Ms

  7. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  8. Iodine stability in salt double-fortified with iron and iodine.

    PubMed

    Diosady, L L; Alberti, J O; Ramcharan, K; Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2002-06-01

    Deficiencies in small quantities of micronutrients, especially iodine and iron, severely affect more than a third of the world's population, resulting in serious public health consequences, especially for women and young children. Salt is an ideal carrier of micronutrients. The double fortification of salt with both iodine and iron is an attractive approach to the reduction of both anemia and iodine-deficiency disorders. Because iodine is unstable under the storage conditions found during the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of salt in most developing countries, the effects of packaging materials and environmental conditions on the stability of salt double-fortified with iron and iodine were investigated. Salt was double-fortified with potassium iodide or potassium iodate and with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The effects of stabilizers on the stability of iodine and iron were followed by storing the salt under three conditions that represent the extremes of normal distribution and sale for salt in developing countries: room temperature (25 degrees C) with 50%-70% relative humidity, 40 degrees C with 60% relative humidity, and 40 degrees C with 100% relative humidity. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, and dextrose were investigated. None of the combinations of iron and iodine compounds was stable at elevated temperatures. Essentially all of the iodine was lost over a period of six months. SHMP effectively slowed down the iodine loss, whereas magnesium chloride, a typical hygroscopic impurity, greatly accelerated this process. Calcium carbonate did not have a sparing effect on iodine, despite contrary indications in the literature. Ferrous sulfate-fortified salts generally turned yellow and developed an unpleasant rusty flavor. Salt fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium, iodide was reasonably stable and maintained its organoleptic properties, making it more likely to be

  9. Growth and Tolerance of Preterm Infants Fed a New Extensively Hydrolyzed Liquid Human Milk Fortifier

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae H.; Chan, Gary; Schanler, Richard; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Bloom, Barry; Dimmit, Reed; Williams, Larry; Baggs, Geraldine; Barrett-Reis, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: This study was a comparison of growth and tolerance in premature infants fed either standard powdered human milk fortifier (HMF) or a newly formulated concentrated liquid that contained extensively hydrolyzed protein. Methods: This was an unblinded randomized controlled multicenter noninferiority study on preterm infants receiving human milk (HM) supplemented with 2 randomly assigned HMFs, either concentrated liquid HMF containing extensively hydrolyzed protein (LE-HMF) or a powdered intact protein HMF (PI-HMF) as the control. The study population consisted of preterm infants ≤33 weeks who were enterally fed HM. Infants were studied from the first day of HM fortification until day 29 or hospital discharge, whichever came first. Results: A total of 147 preterm infants were enrolled. Noninferiority was observed in weight gain reported in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was 18.2 and 17.5 g · kg−1 · day−1 for the LE-HMF and PI-HMF groups, respectively. In an a priori defined subgroup of strict protocol followers (n = 75), the infants fed LE-HMF achieved greater weight over time than those fed PI-HMF (P = 0.036). The LE-HMF group achieved greater linear growth over time compared to the PI-HMF (P = 0.029). The protein intake from fortified HM was significantly higher in the LE-HMF group compared with the PI-HMF group (3.9 vs 3.3 g · kg−1 · day−1, P < 0.0001). Both fortifiers were well tolerated with no significant differences in overall morbidity. Conclusions: Both fortifiers showed excellent weight gain (grams per kilograms per day), tolerance, and low incidence of morbidity outcomes with the infants who were strict protocol followers fed LE-HMF having improved growth during the study. These data point to the safety and suitability of this new concentrated liquid HMF (LE-HMF) in preterm infants. Growth with this fortifier closely matches the recent recommendations for a weight gain of >18 g · kg−1 · day−1. PMID

  10. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  11. Evaluation of the Arkansas Tobacco Settlement Program

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Dana; Tharp-Gilliam, Shannah; Dubowitz, Tamara; Yu, Hao; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Phillips, Andrea; Engberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Tobacco Settlement Proceeds Act, a referendum passed by Arkansans in the November 2000 election, invests Arkansas' share of the tobacco Master Settlement Agreement funds in seven health-related programs. RAND was contracted to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the progress of the seven programs in fulfilling their missions, as well as the effects of the programs on smoking and other health-related outcomes. This article discusses the Arkansas Tobacco Settlement Commission's activities and its responses to recommendations by RAND in the earlier evaluation reports and documents continued activity and progress by the seven funded programs for 2008 and 2009. The article evaluates the progress of each of the funded programs, including assessing progress in achieving programmatic goals and tracking the programs' activities and indicators. It also updates trends in outcome measures developed to monitor the effects of the funded programs on smoking and other health-related outcomes. Finally, it provides both program-specific and statewide recommendations for future program activities and funding, including ongoing strategic planning, developing evaluation measures, collaboration with other programs, and sustaining funding and growth. PMID:28083260

  12. Coral Settlement on a Highly Disturbed Equatorial Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Andrew G.; Guest, James R.; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A.; Steinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world’s most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m-2 yr-1) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March–May and September–November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March–April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December–February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure (‘others’; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of

  13. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore

  14. Folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in fortified milk are bioaccessible as determined in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Verwei, Miriam; Arkbåge, Karin; Havenaar, Robert; van den Berg, Henk; Witthöft, Cornelia; Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2003-07-01

    Dairy products are a potential matrix for folate fortification to enhance folate consumption in the Western world. Milk folate-binding proteins (FBP) are especially interesting because they seem to be involved in folate bioavailability. In this study, folate bioaccessibility was investigated using a dynamic computer-controlled gastrointestinal model [TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM)]. We used both ultrahigh temperature (UHT)-processed milk and pasteurized milk, differing in endogenous FBP concentrations and fortified with folic acid or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)folate). To study FBP stability during gastrointestinal passage and the effect of additional FBP on folate bioaccessibility, FBP-fortified UHT and pasteurized milk products were also tested. Folate bioaccessibility and FBP stability were measured by taking samples along the compartments of the gastrointestinal model and measuring their folate and FBP concentrations. Folate bioaccessibility from folic acid-fortified milk products without additional FBP was 58-61%. This was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate-fortified milk products (71%). Addition of FBP reduced (P < 0.05) folate bioaccessibility from folic acid-fortified milk (44-51%) but not from 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate-fortified milk products (72%). The residual FBP levels in the folic acid- and 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate-fortified milk products after gastrointestinal passage were 13-16% and 0-1%, respectively, of the starting amounts subjected to TIM. In conclusion, milk seems to be a suitable carrier for folate, because both folic acid and 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate are easily released from the matrix and available for absorption. However, our results suggest that folic acid remains partly bound to FBP during passage through the small intestine, which reduces the bioaccessibility of folic acid from milk in this model.

  15. Unsettling drug patent settlements: a framework for presumptive illegality.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    A tidal wave of high drug prices has recently crashed across the U.S. economy. One of the primary culprits has been the increase in agreements by which brand-name drug manufacturers and generic firms have settled patent litigation. The framework for such agreements has been the Hatch-Waxman Act, which Congress enacted in 1984. One of the Act's goals was to provide incentives for generics to challenge brand-name patents. But brand firms have recently paid generics millions of dollars to drop their lawsuits and refrain from entering the market. These reverse-payment settlements threaten significant harm. Courts nonetheless have recently blessed them, explaining that the agreements reduce costs, increase innovation, and are reasonable based on the presumption of validity accorded to patents. Although scholars and the Federal Trade Commission have voiced strong arguments against courts' leniency, these have fallen on judicial deaf ears. In this Article, I apply the framework that the Supreme Court articulated in Verizon Communications v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP, which underscored the importance in antitrust analysis of a regulatory regime addressing the challenged activity. In particular, the Hatch-Waxman Act provides Congress's views on innovation and competition in the drug industry, freeing courts from the thorny task of reconciling the patent and antitrust laws. Unfortunately, mechanisms that Congress employed to encourage patent challenges--such as an exclusivity period for the first generic to challenge validity--have been twisted into barriers preventing competition. Antitrust can play a central role in resuscitating the drafters' intentions and promoting competition. Given the Act's clear purpose to promote patent challenges, as well as the parties' aligned incentives and the severe anticompetitive potential of reverse payments, courts should treat such settlements as presumptively illegal. If the parties can demonstrate that the payments represent

  16. A rapid assessment of drinking water quality in informal settlements after a cholera outbreak in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Natalie; O'Reilly, Ciara; Muhonja, Everline; Karoki, Solomon; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Omolo, Jared; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph; Hoekstra, Robert; Ayers, Tracy; De Cock, Kevin; Breiman, Robert; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Populations living in informal settlements with inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure are at risk of epidemic disease. In 2010, we conducted 398 household surveys in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya with isolated cholera cases. We tested source and household water for free chlorine residual (FCR) and Escherichia coli in approximately 200 households. International guidelines are ≥0.5 mg/L FCR at source, ≥0.2 mg/L at household, and <1 E. coli/100 mL. In these two settlements, 82% and 38% of water sources met FCR guidelines; and 7% and 8% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. In household stored water, 82% and 35% met FCR guidelines and 11% and 32% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. Source water FCR≥0.5 mg/L (p=0.003) and reported purchase of a household water treatment product (p=0.002) were associated with increases in likelihood that household stored water had ≥0.2 mg/L FCR, which was associated with a lower likelihood of E. coli contamination (p<0.001). These results challenge the assumption that water quality in informal settlements is universally poor and the route of disease transmission, and highlight that providing centralized water with ≥0.5 mg/L FCR or (if not feasible) household water treatment technologies reduces the risk of waterborne cholera transmission in informal settlements.

  17. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  18. Comparison of different maximum safe levels in fortified foods and supplements using a probabilistic risk assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Ariane; Wetzler, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lioret, Sandrine; Gioda, Jennifer; Lafay, Lionel; Dubuisson, Carine; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Kalonji, Esther; Margaritis, Irène; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-01

    Different European institutions have developed mathematical models to propose maximum safe levels either for fortified foods or for dietary supplements. The objective of the present study was to compare and check the safety of these different maximum safe levels (MSL) by using a probabilistic risk assessment approach. The potential maximum nutritional intakes were estimated by taking into account all sources of intakes (base diet, fortified foods and dietary supplements) and compared with the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and minerals. This approach simulated the consequences of both food fortification and supplementation in terms of food safety. Different scenarios were tested. They are the result of the combination of several MSL obtained using the previous models. The study was based on the second French Individual and National Study on Food Consumption performed in 2006-7, matched with the French food nutritional composition database. The analyses were based on a sample of 1918 adults aged 18-79 years. Some MSL in fortified foods and dietary supplements obtained independently were protective enough, although some others could lead to nutritional intakes above the tolerable upper intake levels. The simulation showed that it is crucial to consider the inter-individual variability of fortified food intakes when setting MSL for foods and supplements. The risk assessment approach developed here by integrating the MSL for fortified foods and dietary supplements is useful for ensuring consumer protection. It may be subsequently used to test any other MSL for vitamins and minerals proposed in the future.

  19. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  20. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  1. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  2. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  3. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to... applicable ITU Regulations, Article 66 and International Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne,...

  4. Magnolia officinalis L. Fortified Gum Improves Resistance of Oral Epithelial Cells Against Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Walker, Joel Michael; Maitra, Amarnath; Haririan, Hady; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Dodds, Michael; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers. Ex vivo stimulation of oral epithelial cells with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis for 6[Formula: see text]h increased the mRNA expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-[Formula: see text], IL-8, MIP-1[Formula: see text], and TNF[Formula: see text]. Chewing MBE-fortified gum for 10[Formula: see text]min reduced the ex vivo LPS-induced increase of IL-8 release by 43.8 [Formula: see text] 17.1% at the beginning of the intervention. In addition, after the two-week intervention with MBE-fortified chewing gum, LPS-stimulated TNF[Formula: see text] release was attenuated by 73.4 [Formula: see text] 12.0% compared to chewing regular control gum. This increased resistance against LPS-induced inflammation suggests that MBE possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo when added to chewing gum. In contrast, the conditions used to stimulate an immune response of oral epithelial cells failed to induce oxidative stress, measured by catalase activity, or oxidative DNA damage.

  5. Micronutrient and protein-fortified whole grain puffed rice made by supercritical fluid extrusion.

    PubMed

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Wagner, Michael E; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2012-11-07

    Supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) was used to produce shelf-stable puffed rice fortified with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. Product ingredients and process parameters were evaluated for end-product nutritional and textural qualities. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) served as a viscosity-lowering plasticizer and blowing agent during the process, which has been shown to produce expanded products with good textural qualities at lower temperatures (~100 °C) than conventional steam-based extrusion (130-180 °C). The fortified puffed rice contained 8% dietary fiber, 21.5% protein, and iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C at their recommended daily values in 100 g of product. The SCFX process allowed for the complete retention of all added minerals, 55-58% retention of vitamin A, and 64-76% retention of vitamin C. All essential amino acids including lysine were retained at exceptionally high levels (98.6%), and no losses were observed due to Maillard reaction or oxidation. All of the essential amino acid contents were equal to the reference protein recommended by FAO/WHO. Soy protein fortification improved the total amount of protein in the final rice products and provided a complementary amino acid profile to that of rice; the lysine content improved from 35 to 60 mg/protein, making the end product an excellent source of complete protein. Thus, SC-CO(2)-assisted extrusion is an effective process-based approach to produce cereal grain-based, low-moisture (5-8%) expanded products fortified with protein and any cocktail of micronutrients, without compromising the end-product sensory or nutritional qualities. These products are ideally suited for consumption as breakfast cereals, snack foods, and as part of nutrition bars for school lunch programs. The balanced nutritional profile and use of staple crop byproducts such as broken rice makes these expanded crisps unique to the marketplace.

  6. Stability and retention of micronutrients in fortified rice prepared using different cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Laillou, Arnaud; Guyondet, Christophe; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high.

  7. Findings from an online behavioural weight management programme provided with or without a fortified diet beverage.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C; Lagrotte, Caitlin; Klotz, Alicia A; Oliver, Tracy L; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D; Jebb, Susan A; Moore, Carmel; Roberts, Susan A; Reeves, Rebecca S; Bolton, Mary Pat; Foreyt, John P

    2014-01-28

    The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact.

  8. Volatility of ten priority pollutants from fortified avian toxicity test diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCrady, J.K.; Johnson, D.E.; Turner, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    With a few important exceptions, most pesticides have low volatility. However, a significant number of the industrial chemicals under the jurisdiction of TSCA have sufficient volatility to affect availability in fortified test diets and consequently the test results. Although extremely volatile chemicals might evaportate from test diets, there is insufficient data to indicate what levels of volatility are of concern. Volatility may be only one of a variety of factors influencing the fate of organic chemicals in test diets. Other mechanisms such as hydrolysis, adsorption, and photolysis should also be considered, but for many chemicals having significant vapor pressures, volatility is likely to be the major source of loss.

  9. Effect of a fish oil and arginine-fortified diet in thermally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Mitchell, Melanie A; Newel, Ingrid M; Faucher, Lee D; Amelon, Margery J; Ruffin, Timothy O; Lewis, Robert D; Latenser, Barbara A; Kealey, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Burn injury induces a hypercatabolic inflammatory state, predisposing burn patients to malnutrition, poor wound healing, and infectious complications. We conducted this study to determine what effect a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD) would have on wound healing in a thermally injured population. Twenty-three thermally injured patients were enrolled in this randomized double blind enteral feeding study from July 2002 to August 2004. All study patients received isonitrogenous enteral intragastric feeding within 48 hours of admission. Patients were randomized to our standard diet (STD, ProBalance with Promix, Probalance from Nestlé, Glendale, CA; ProMix R.D., Navaco Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ) or a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD, Crucial, Nestlé Nutrition Glendale, CA) Diets were advanced as tolerated to meet 100% of estimated needs. The primary endpoint of the study was time to heal the first donor site. There were no statistical differences between the study groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Both diets were well tolerated, and there were no differences in the daily total kilocalories or protein intake per kilogram between the two diet groups throughout the study. Although nonsignificant, the patients in the FAD group showed a slightly faster healing time than those in the STD group (10.8 +/- 2.7 days vs 12.3 +/- 5.2 days, respectively). This trend was further accelerated when those with body surface area burns less than 30% were examined (patients with body surface area burns <30% in the FAD healed in 9.0 +/- 1.7 vs corresponding patients in the standard group who healed in 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = .63). Patients in the FAD group trended to more infections and more adverse complications. The adverse complications were predominantly associated with inhalation injuries. The role of fortified enteral diets in the outcomes of thermally injured patients deserves further study. Such a future study should be conducted in a

  10. Emerging Roles for Anionic Non-Bilayer Phospholipids in Fortifying the Outer Membrane Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lately, researchers have been actively investigating Escherichia coli lptD mutants, which exhibit reduced transport of lipopolysaccharide to the cell surface. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Sutterlin et al. (H. A. Sutterlin, S. Zhang, and T. J. Silhavy, J. Bacteriol. 196:3214–3220, 2014) now reveal an important functional role for phosphatidic acid in fortifying the outer membrane permeability barrier in certain lptD mutant backgrounds. These findings come on the heels of the first reports of two LptD crystal structures, which now provide a structural framework for interpreting lptD genetics. PMID:25022852

  11. 48 CFR 49.109-6 - Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contract, (3) apportion the total amount of the settlement among the several contracts on some reasonable... ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-6 Joint... different contracts, even though the contracts are with different contracting offices or agencies. In...

  12. 77 FR 38802 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation AGENCY... a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Trinity... hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning...

  13. 78 FR 24227 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement... information: Title of Proposal: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Disclosures. OMB Control Number... 24 CFR part 3500, require real estate settlement service providers to give homebuyers...

  14. 77 FR 44593 - Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement... accepted Settlement Agreement with Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, containing a civil... Factory Warehouse Corporation CPSC Docket No. 12-C0008 Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with...

  15. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) < -2, but > or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; ...

  16. Low bioaccessibility of vitamin D2 from yeast-fortified bread compared to crystalline D2 bread and D3 from fluid milks.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-11-09

    The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D2 fortified bread (p < 0.05). Intact yeast cells were observed in the digesta of yeast fortified bread. These results indicate that the low bioavailability of yeast D2 in comparison to other vitamin D2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D2 and D3.

  17. Settlement for Peru women's rights case.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    On March 6, 2000, the Peruvian government accepted international responsibility for the rape of a poor indigenous woman by a doctor in the country's public health care system. This rare concession--and the settlement--represent a striking victory for the victim and for abused and oppressed women in Latin America who rarely receive acknowledgement of their rights. The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP), along with the Latin America and Caribbean Committee for the Defense of Women's Rights and the Center for Justice and International Law, reached a settlement after bringing this first-of-its-kind women's human rights case before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. The government agreed to provide the victim, Marina Machaca, with psychological care for as long as she needs, as well as land and materials to build a house and property in a public marketplace to sell her wares. In addition, the doctor who raped her was dismissed. Peruvian officials also agree to study the creation of centers for sexual abuse victims, and to review and implement proposals to revamp the health service and judiciary systems in regard to women throughout their country. Luisa Cabal is the CRLP staff attorney who represented Machaca in this international arena.

  18. The Impact of the Master Settlement Agreement on Cigarette Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Trogdon, Justin G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, 46 states and the four major tobacco companies signed the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which stipulated that the tobacco companies pay states $206 billion over 25 years and take steps to reduce youth smoking. The remaining states settled separately. We sought to determine the effect of the settlements on demand for cigarettes. Using…

  19. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  20. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  1. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  2. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  3. 48 CFR 49.206-2 - Bases for settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bases for settlement proposals. 49.206-2 Section 49.206-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Convenience 49.206-2 Bases for settlement proposals. (a) Inventory basis. (1) Use of the inventory basis...

  4. Settlement Unit. Using Primary Sources in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Dept. of Archives and History, Montgomery.

    This teaching unit, "Settlement Unit,"which focuses on the settlement of Alabama's land, is the second in a series of 10 units about Alabama state history, part of a project designed to help teachers integrate the use of primary source materials into their classrooms. Although the units are designed to augment the study of Alabama, they…

  5. 32 CFR 536.58 - Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement negotiations with unrepresented... Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants. All aspects of the applicable law and procedure, except... chronology and details of negotiations should be memorialized with a written record furnished to the...

  6. 32 CFR 536.58 - Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Settlement negotiations with unrepresented... Settlement negotiations with unrepresented claimants. All aspects of the applicable law and procedure, except... chronology and details of negotiations should be memorialized with a written record furnished to the...

  7. 42 CFR 422.762 - Settlement of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement of penalties. 422.762 Section 422.762 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Settlement of penalties. For civil money penalties imposed by CMS, CMS may settle civil money penalty...

  8. 42 CFR 423.762 - Settlement of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement of penalties. 423.762 Section 423.762 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 423.762 Settlement of penalties. For civil money penalties imposed by CMS, CMS may settle civil...

  9. Working with Newcomers: A Guide for Immigration and Settlement Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Immigration Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This guide is a national reference document that gives immigration and settlement workers access to concepts and printed materials than can help them do their jobs. Its purpose is to help immigration and settlement workers respond appropriately to newcomers' problems and questions as they concern Canada's customs, institutions and public behavior.…

  10. 31 CFR 535.441 - Settlement Agreement regarding small claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, approving and giving effect to the Settlement Agreement in Claims...”), constitutes a determination by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal of all claims encompassed therein within... Stat. 437, applicable to en bloc settlements of claims of U.S. nationals against Iran. (b) Pursuant...

  11. 31 CFR 535.441 - Settlement Agreement regarding small claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, approving and giving effect to the Settlement Agreement in Claims...”), constitutes a determination by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal of all claims encompassed therein within... Stat. 437, applicable to en bloc settlements of claims of U.S. nationals against Iran. (b) Pursuant...

  12. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  13. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  14. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  15. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 808.18 - Settlement by agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement by agreement. 808.18 Section 808.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.18 Settlement by agreement. (a)...

  17. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amendment related to settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related...

  18. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  19. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance approval of settlements. 50.82 Section 50.82 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of...

  20. 33 CFR 25.129 - Acceptance of offer of settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of offer of settlement. 25.129 Section 25.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS General § 25.129 Acceptance of offer of settlement. Claimant's acceptance of an offer...

  1. 33 CFR 25.123 - Settlement and notice to claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... settlement. (2) Obtains from the claimant written acceptance and release for payment of the claim in the reduced amount. (3) Advises the claimant, in the event claimant does not desire to accept the offer, to... accepting a proposed settlement within 45 days, treats the non-acceptance as a rejection. Rejection by...

  2. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  3. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  4. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  5. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  6. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  7. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1024 Real Estate Settlement... RIN 3170-AA06 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) rulemaking authority for the Real Estate...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  9. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  10. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  11. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  12. 7 CFR 1032.70 - Producer-settlement fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer-settlement fund. 1032.70 Section 1032.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Payments for Milk § 1032.70 Producer-settlement fund. See § 1000.70....

  13. Measuring Quality of Life in Informal Settlements in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Robin; O'Leary, Brian; Mutsonziwa, Kingstone

    2007-01-01

    South African cities attract thousands of new residents every year in search of work and a better life. The housing backlog coupled with a shortage of housing subsidies means that for many South Africans there is no alternative but to live in informal housing and shack settlements. Informal settlements are therefore here to stay for the next…

  14. 42 CFR 93.409 - Settlement of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.409 Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. (a) HHS may settle...

  15. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  16. The Bronson Settlement Review: Year Four, 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; Nieman, Ronald W.

    School year 1987-88 marked the mid-point of the seven-year desegregation settlement for the Cincinnati (Ohio) Public Schools. This report presents data from a review of progress that was provided for in the Bronson Settlement Agreement, answers plaintiff questions, and addresses district concerns. The following subjects are discussed: (1) progress…

  17. 48 CFR 849.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 849.111 Section 849.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.111 Review of proposed settlements....

  18. 48 CFR 949.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 949.111 Section 949.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 949.111 Review of proposed settlements. (a) The...

  19. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible changes—HUD-1. The...) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology, sequence, and numbering of line items as...

  20. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible changes—HUD-1. The...) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology, sequence, and numbering of line items as...

  1. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) In general. A qualified settlement fund is a fund, account, or trust that satisfies the requirements..., it is classified as a qualified settlement fund for all purposes of the Code. (c) Requirements. A fund, account, or trust satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (c) if— (1) It is...

  2. 38 CFR 42.46 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compromise and settlement. 42.46 Section 42.46 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.46 Compromise and settlement. (a)...

  3. 38 CFR 42.46 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compromise and settlement. 42.46 Section 42.46 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.46 Compromise and settlement. (a)...

  4. 29 CFR 2570.65 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.65 Section 2570.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence upon which to...

  5. 29 CFR 2570.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.6 Section 2570.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... whether he shall sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence...

  6. 29 CFR 2570.65 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.65 Section 2570.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence upon which to...

  7. 29 CFR 2570.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.6 Section 2570.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... whether he shall sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence...

  8. 29 CFR 2570.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.6 Section 2570.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... whether he shall sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence...

  9. 29 CFR 2571.6 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2571.6 Section 2571.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... objections whether to sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial...

  10. 29 CFR 2570.65 - Consent order or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consent order or settlement. 2570.65 Section 2570.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... sign or reject the proposed settlement. Where the record lacks substantial evidence upon which to...

  11. 12 CFR 269b.113 - Withdrawal or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SYSTEM CHARGES OF UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES Charges of Violations of § 269.6 (of the Policy) § 269b.113... prepare and sign a settlement agreement which shall record that the settlement is mutually satisfactory, shall stipulate any occurrences which constituted unfair labor practices and shall set forth the...

  12. Physicochemical and nutritional qualities of grape pomace powder-fortified semi-hard cheeses.

    PubMed

    Marchiani, Roberta; Bertolino, Marta; Ghirardello, Daniela; McSweeney, Paul L H; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Powders obtained from three grape pomaces (Barbera, Chardonnay before distillation, Chardonnay after distillation) were added at two concentration levels (0.8 and 1.6 % w/w) into semi-hard and hard cheeses (Italian Toma-like and Cheddar, respectively) to increase their polyphenol content. Effects on physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), proteolysis, organic acids content, starter and non-starter bacteria were evaluated during ripening. The amount and the type of powder used did not significantly affect the physicochemical parameters of cheese with the exception of pH their values. Italian Toma-like and Cheddar cheeses fortified with Chardonnay after distillation powder showed at the end of ripening (30 days and 120 days respectively) the highest TPC and RSA values. Proteolysis and microbial counts did not show statistically significant differences between fortified and control cheeses. This study demonstrated that grape pomace powder can be a functional ingredient to increase TPC and RSA in consumers' diets and the addition of this by-product to cheese is an environmentally friendly way to manage winemaking wastes.

  13. Immunoassay for folic acid detection in vitamin-fortified milk based on electrochemical magneto sensors.

    PubMed

    Lermo, A; Fabiano, S; Hernández, S; Galve, R; Marco, M-P; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2009-03-15

    An immunoassay-based strategy for folic acid in vitamin-fortified milk with electrochemical detection using magneto sensors is described for the first time. Among direct and indirect competitive formats, best performance was achieved with an indirect competitive immunoassay. The immunological reaction for folic acid (FA) detection was performed, for the first time on the magnetic bead as solid support by the covalent immobilization of a protein conjugate BSA-FA on tosyl-activated magnetic bead. Further competition for the specific antibody between FA in the food sample and FA immobilized on the magnetic bead was achieved, followed by the reaction with a secondary antibody conjugated with HRP (AntiIgG-HRP). Then, the modified magnetic beads were easily captured by a magneto sensor made of graphite-epoxy composite (m-GEC) which was also used as the transducer for the electrochemical detection. The performance of the immunoassay-based strategy with electrochemical detection using magneto sensors was successfully evaluated using spiked-milk samples and compared with a novel magneto-ELISA based on optical detection. The detection limit was found to be of the order of microgl(-1) (13.1 nmoll(-1), 5.8 microgl(-1)) for skimmed milk. Commercial vitamin-fortified milk samples were also evaluated obtaining good accuracy in the results. This novel strategy offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective and on-site analysis of biological and food samples.

  14. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  15. Predicting the settlement of coarse granular materials under vertical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Saussine, Gilles; Breul, Pierre; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-07-01

    Granular materials are widely used in industrial processes despite their complex and poorly understood mechanical behaviour both in static and dynamic regimes. A prototypical example is the settlement and compaction of a granular bed under vibrational loading. The elementary mechanisms of this process are still unclear and there is presently no established theory or methodology to predict the settlement and its statistical variability. By means of a parametric study, carried out on a full-scale track, and a critical analysis of density relaxation laws, we introduce a novel settlement model in coarse granular materials under cyclic loading. Our extensive experimental data indicate that the settlement process is governed by three independent parameters strongly correlated with the vibration intensity and initial packing fraction. We show that the mean settlement is well predicted by the model with its parameter values extracted from experimental data.

  16. Predicting the settlement of coarse granular materials under vertical loading.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Saussine, Gilles; Breul, Pierre; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-07-16

    Granular materials are widely used in industrial processes despite their complex and poorly understood mechanical behaviour both in static and dynamic regimes. A prototypical example is the settlement and compaction of a granular bed under vibrational loading. The elementary mechanisms of this process are still unclear and there is presently no established theory or methodology to predict the settlement and its statistical variability. By means of a parametric study, carried out on a full-scale track, and a critical analysis of density relaxation laws, we introduce a novel settlement model in coarse granular materials under cyclic loading. Our extensive experimental data indicate that the settlement process is governed by three independent parameters strongly correlated with the vibration intensity and initial packing fraction. We show that the mean settlement is well predicted by the model with its parameter values extracted from experimental data.

  17. Determinants of states' allocations of the master settlement agreement payments.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Frank A; Carlisle, Emily Streyer; Rattliff, John R; Trogdon, Justin

    2005-08-01

    To determine which factors influence states' allocation decisions for the tobacco Master Settlement Agreement and the four individual settlements' annual payments, including the decision to securitize, we analyzed the effects of voter characteristics, political parties, interest groups, prior spending on public tobacco control programs, and state fiscal health on per capita settlement funds allocated to tobacco-control, health, and other programs. Tobacco-producing states and those with high proportions of conservative Democrats or elderly, black, Hispanic, or wealthy people tended to spend less on tobacco control. Education and medical lobbies had strong positive influences on per capita allocations for tobacco-control and health-related programs. State fiscal crises affected amounts spent by states from settlement funds as well as the probability of securitizing future cash flows from the settlements.

  18. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  19. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km(2)) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km(2)). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km(2)) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  20. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km2) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km2). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km2) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  1. Bayesian Modeling and Chronological Precision for Polynesian Settlement of Tonga

    PubMed Central

    Weisler, Marshall; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2015-01-01

    First settlement of Polynesia, and population expansion throughout the ancestral Polynesian homeland are foundation events for global history. A precise chronology is paramount to informed archaeological interpretation of these events and their consequences. Recently applied chronometric hygiene protocols excluding radiocarbon dates on wood charcoal without species identification all but eliminates this chronology as it has been built for the Kingdom of Tonga, the initial islands to be settled in Polynesia. In this paper we re-examine and redevelop this chronology through application of Bayesian models to the questioned suite of radiocarbon dates, but also incorporating short-lived wood charcoal dates from archived samples and high precision U/Th dates on coral artifacts. These models provide generation level precision allowing us to track population migration from first Lapita occupation on the island of Tongatapu through Tonga’s central and northern island groups. They further illustrate an exceptionally short duration for the initial colonizing Lapita phase and a somewhat abrupt transition to ancestral Polynesian society as it is currently defined. PMID:25799460

  2. Settlement formation. Part I: a dynamic theory.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, W; Munz, M

    1990-01-01

    "The dynamic process of settlement formation is a fundamental issue in regional science. Our proposed model integrates the economic and migratory sectors in terms of endogenous variables in order to describe the evolution of continuous population distributions as a self-organising process.... The purpose...is to show that under strongly idealised conditions, a population consisting of different subpopulations with different economic activities will evolve into a differentiated population pattern. Each member of the subpopulations has the possibility to migrate between locations stimulated by rational economic reasons. This idea, which seems almost self-evident on the level of qualitative argumentation, [will] be cast into a mathematically self-contained quantitative dynamic model."

  3. Physical properties of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  4. Multiple micronutrient-fortified rice affects physical performance and plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations of Indian school children.

    PubMed

    Thankachan, Prashanth; Rah, Jee Hyun; Thomas, Tinku; Selvam, Sumithra; Amalrajan, Vani; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Steiger, Georg; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-05-01

    Fortifying rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy for combat micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. We determined the efficacy of extruded rice grains fortified with multiple micronutrients on the prevalence of anemia, micronutrient status, and physical and cognitive performance in 6- to 12-y-old, low-income school children in Bangalore, India. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 258 children were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups to receive rice-based lunch meals fortified with multiple micronutrients with either low-iron (6.25 mg) or high-iron (12.5 mg) concentrations or identical meals with unfortified rice. The meals were provided 6 d/wk for 6 mo. Anthropometric, biochemical, physical performance, and cognitive assessments were taken at baseline and endpoint. At baseline, study groups were comparable, with 61% of the children being anemic. However, only <10% were deficient in iron, vitamin A, and zinc. After 6 mo, plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations (both P < 0.001) as well as physical performance (P < 0.05) significantly improved in the intervention arms. No between-group differences were observed in hemoglobin concentration, anemia, and deficiencies of other micronutrients or cognitive function after 6 mo, but paired analyses revealed a small reduction in anemia prevalence in children in the low-iron group. The fortified rice was efficacious in improving vitamin B-12 status and physical performance in Indian school children.

  5. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  6. Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence. In the January issue of this journal, Johnston (1) includes our group’s recent analysis of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  7. 76 FR 42154 - BioMETRX, Inc., Biopure Corp. (n/k/a PBBPC, Inc.), Distributed Energy Systems Corp., Fortified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... accurate information concerning the securities of Distributed Energy Systems Corp. because it has not filed... COMMISSION BioMETRX, Inc., Biopure Corp. (n/k/a PBBPC, Inc.), Distributed Energy Systems Corp., Fortified... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of BioMETRX, Inc. because it has...

  8. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur.

  9. Palama Settlement: 100 years of serving a neighborhood's needs.

    PubMed

    Rath, P

    1995-11-01

    The founding of Palama Settlement brought to those who might not be able to afford it public health nurses for maternal care and nutrition, well-baby clinics, tuberculosis clinics, medical and dental clinics, and eventually major support of medical needs during and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Palama Settlement celebrates its centennial year with many of its early functions assumed by state and private organizations, but it is prepared to enter the next 100 years of service to the community. Palama was founded by James Arthur Rath with the purpose of serving the community; many people today remember their childhood and Palama Settlement.

  10. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  11. Sensory properties changes of fortified nixtamalized corn flour with lysine and tryptophan during storage.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Estrada, Yokiushirdhilgilmara; Pardio, Violeta

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine sensory changes of fortified nixtamalized corn flour with lysine and tryptophan up to 83, 100, and 150% of suggested FAO pattern after 2 months storage at room temperature (30 degrees C). Totally, 16 trained panelists participated in sensory study of tortilla made of enriched and normal corn flours where six attributes and a total of 19 descriptors were taken into consideration. A reflectance colorimeter was also used in determination of changes in tortilla color parameters. No significant differences were found in the analysis of 19 descriptors of tortilla made of enriched and normal nixtamalized corn flour after 2 months storage. Also, no color parameter changes were found between normal and enriched tortillas.

  12. Stability of iodine during cooking: investigation on biofortified and not fortified vegetables.

    PubMed

    Comandini, Patrizia; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Cichelli, Angelo; Chiavaro, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Biofortification of food crops through fertilization and salt iodization are key strategies for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorder. However, considerable losses of iodine can occur during processing. In this study, the stability of iodine in biofortified potatoes, carrots and tomatoes was evaluated during different domestic cooking procedures, as this matter was poorly discussed in literature. The stability of iodized salt during baking and boiling of carrots and potatoes not fortified was also investigated. All the adopted cooking procedures have proven to be suitable to preserve the iodine content in biofortified vegetables. During boiling test with iodized salt, neither potatoes nor carrots were able to absorb iodine added with salt, probably owing to the losses occurred during cooking. On the contrary, baking test on potatoes has not caused a significant degradation of iodized salt, and no significant differences in iodine concentration were detected before and after cooking.

  13. Tackling pollution by organic farming is capable of increasing fortified foods.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Aviñó, J P; Navarro, J J Fernández; Castro, V Vargas; Ripoll, I Ilzarbe; Sahuquillo, M J Márquez

    2016-01-01

    The global pollution stage is poisoning the biosphere and causing global temperatures to rise, necessitating a drastic change in the way man is dealing with nature. One change that may produce many beneficial effects on the biosphere and human health is the use of specific organic farming to produce food in a more integrated way in nature and to increase the capacity of man's own response. Despite many experts' opinion another way to deal with environmental contamination is possible: organic farming, which can increase man's ability to fortify foods. After more than 20 years working under this discipline, Bodegas Dagon is able to achieve the highest stilbenes concentrations (as resveratrol). Versus 14.3 mg/l, "Bodegas Dagón" wines contain resveratrol (HPLC and UV-spectroscopy) up to 1611.73 ± 72.66 mg/l, standing as world's potentially healthiest wine reported to date.

  14. Light wavelength effects on a lutein-fortified model colloidal beverage.

    PubMed

    Kline, Mark Alan; Duncan, Susan Ellen; Bianchi, Laurie Marie; Eigel, William Nicholas; O'Keefe, Sean Francis

    2011-07-13

    The effect of light on a model colloidal beverage system containing whey protein, lutein, and limonene was investigated. Changes in volatile chemistry were evaluated under accelerated conditions (12 h, 25 °C) at selected wavelengths regions (395, 463, 516, 567, and 610 nm absorbance maxima) using a photochemical reactor. The most damaging wavelengths to lutein stability were UV (200-400 nm) and 463 nm wavelengths. Hexanal formation was highest in the control beverage when exposed to full spectrum light and UV (200-400 nm) wavelengths. Hexanal also was formed in the lutein-fortified beverage under full spectrum light and UV (200-400 nm) wavelengths but to a significantly lesser degree. Limonene degraded significantly under all treatment conditions, with most degradation occurring during full spectrum light exposure. Lutein fortification did not completely protect limonene from degradation.

  15. [Territory and health: Antônio Pimentel's study on the Central Plateau].

    PubMed

    Vergara, Moema de Rezende

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a report by Antônio Pimentel, physician with the 1892 Central Plateau Exploratory Commission, and analyzes its closing section, entitled "Pathology," which addresses the relations between health and the settlement of the Brazilian territory.

  16. Corn-Soy-Blend Fortified with Phosphorus to Prevent Refeeding Hypophosphatemia in Undernourished Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Lykke, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Sangild, Per Torp; Briend, André; Hansen, Christian Fink; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Thymann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). Methods Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age and undernutrition was induced with a nutritionally inadequate pure maize diet for 7 weeks, after which they were refed for 3 weeks with either CSB+ (n = 10), CSB++ (n = 10) or CSB+/wp (n = 10). For reference, a fourth group continued on the maize diet (REF, n = 10). Results Following induction of undernutrition, body weight and length were 29±5% and 67±4% (means±SD) of values in age-matched pigs fed a nutritionally adequate diet, and the mean serum P level was 1.77±0.34 mmol/l. During the first week of refeeding, P levels in the CSB+ pigs decreased to 55% of values before refeeding (P < 0.05) while values in the CSB++ and CSB+/wp pigs were able to maintain their plasma phosphate at a similar level as before refeeding. Conclusion We conclude that fortification of CSB with only monocalcium-phosphate does not prevent hypophosphatemia. Dairy products like skim milk powder or whey permeate may represent relevant sources of phosphorus during refeeding. The content and form of phosphorus in such diets need to be carefully evaluated, and the undernourished piglet may be used to test the efficacy of such diets. PMID:28081252

  17. Stability and anti-glycation properties of intermediate moisture apple products fortified with green tea.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2011-07-15

    Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (a(w)) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30°C. Products were evaluated for colour (L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) Hunter's parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid>flavan 3-ols>dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers' nutritional needs.

  18. Stability of Vitamin D3 in fortified yoghurt and yoghurt drink (Doogh)

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Tina; Askari, Gholamreza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Faghihimani, Elham; Fallah, Aziz A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are recognized as a worldwide problem with serious consequences. Fortification of foods with Vitamin D is a certain approach to improve serum Vitamin D status if the stability of vitamin in the foodstuffs was controlled. The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of Vitamin D3 added to low-fat yogurt and yogurt drink “Doogh” during the products shelf-life. Materials and Methods: Two kinds of Vitamin D3, water- and oil-dispersible forms, suitable for food fortification, were compared to find out whether they show different stability in the products. The products were packed in opaque or translucent containers. The content of Vitamin D3 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography method. Results: Vitamin D was not affected by the heat treatment (pasteurization) and other processes (homogenization and fermentation). Both water- and oil-dispersible forms were stable during the shelf-life of yogurt samples packed in opaque containers. The Vitamin D3 content of yogurt fortified with water-dispersible form and packed in translucent containers was not stable during the shelf-life and significantly reduced after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of storage compared to the day 0. The Vitamin D3 content of samples fortified with the oil-dispersible form packed in the same container was only stable after 1-week and significantly reduced after 2 and 3 weeks of storage. The Vitamin D3 content of Doogh packed in the opaque containers remained stable during the shelf-life while it was not stable in the samples packed in translucent containers. Conclusion: The results suggested that both forms of Vitamin D are suitable for fortification, and opaque container is a better choice for packaging of the product. PMID:27110549

  19. Growth and Tolerance Assessment of a Lutein-fortified Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Igor Ya.; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V.; Safronova, Adilya I.; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate safety, gastrointestinal tolerance, and growth of a new experimental starter formula (NESF) fortified with lutein, prebiotics, probiotics, nucleotides and beta-carotene, fed to infants within the first months of life. Methods This was a non-randomized, open, uncontrolled study conducted from December 2010 to May 2011. Twenty-three healthy infants aged 10 days to 2 months old were enrolled. Outcomes included gastrointestinal tolerance, physical growth and safety. Prior to the initiation of the trial, the Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences confirmed that the NESF met all safety and nutritional parameters. Results NESF was well tolerated. The majority of infants fed this formula passed semi-liquid, yellow or yellow-brown. The mean stool frequency/day was 2.5±0.4 on study-day 14 and 1.8±0.5 on study-day 28. The mean daily weight gain was 30.9±3.8 grams and the mean length gain during the 28 days of follow up was 3.1±0.8 cm, corresponding to the average physical growth normally seen in the first months of life in Russian infants. Six children left the study: one refused to drink the formula, one left the study as parents changed residence; and one child's parents have recalled their informed consent due to adverse event unrelated to the product. Three infants presented adverse events possibly related to the product (rash; colic and abdominal pain; constipation). Seventeen infants completed the trial. Conclusion This study demonstrated that lutein-fortified formula is safe, well-tolerated and supported physical growth of evaluated infants. PMID:25061586

  20. Norse Greenland settlement: reflections on climate change, trade, and the contrasting fates of human settlements in the North Atlantic Islands.

    PubMed

    Dugmore, Andrew J; Keller, Christian; McGovern, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    Changing economies and patterns of trade, rather than climatic deterioration, could have critically marginalized the Norse Greenland settlements and effectively sealed their fate. Counter-intuitively, the end of Norse Greenland might not be symptomatic of a failure to adapt to environmental change, but a consequence of successful wider economic developments of Norse communities across North Atlantic. Data from Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and medieval Iceland is used to explore the interplay of Norse society with climate, environment, settlement, and other circumstances. Long term increases in vulnerability caused by economic change and cumulative climate changes sparked a cascading collapse of integrated interdependent settlement systems, bringing the end of Norse Greenland.

  1. Settlement Ensures Better Protection for Community of Cranston, Rhode Island

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The community around a Cranston, R.I. freight service center that stores damaged containers of products that may contain hazardous chemicals will be safer as the result of a settlement between the company and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  2. EPA Settlement Ensures Groundwater Cleanup of Concord, Mass. Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A recent settlement agreement between EPA and Whittaker Corp., Textron Inc., U.S Army, and U.S Department of Energy addresses the cleanup of contaminated groundwater at the Nuclear Metals, Inc. Superfund Site in Concord, Mass.

  3. Larval development and settlement of a whale barnacle.

    PubMed

    Nogata, Yasuyuki; Matsumura, Kiyotaka

    2006-03-22

    Larval development and settlement of whale barnacles have not previously been described, unlike intertidal barnacles. Indeed, the mechanisms of the association between barnacles and whales have not been studied. Here we describe the larval development and settlement of the whale barnacle, Coronula diadema, and possible involvement of a cue from the host in inducing larval settlement. Eight-cell stage embryos were collected from C. diadema on a stranded humpback whale, incubated in filtered seawater for 7 days, and nauplius larvae hatched out. When fed with Chaetoceros gracilis, the nauplii developed to stage VI, and finally metamorphosed to the cypris stage. The larval development looked similar to that of intertidal barnacles with planktotrophic larval stages. The cyprids did not settle in normal seawater, but did settle in polystyrene Petri dishes when incubated in seawater with a small piece of skin tissue from the host whale. This strongly suggests the involvement of a chemical cue from the host whale tissue to induce larval settlement.

  4. Settlement Requires Milford, Mass. Glass Manufacturer to Improve Stormwater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wastewater discharged by a glass manufacturing company in Milford, Mass. into wetlands adjacent to the Charles River will be cleaner as a result of a recent settlement between the manufacturer and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Maleschlijski, Stojan; Bauer, Stella; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Barnacle cyprids exhibit a complex swimming and exploratory behaviour on surfaces and settlement is a consequence of extensive surface probing and selection of suitable settlement sites. In this work, the behaviour of cyprids in their pre-settlement phase was studied by three-dimensional video stereoscopy. With this technique, three-dimensional trajectories were obtained that were quantitatively analysed. The velocity during vertical sinking of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite was used with a modified form of Stokes' law to calculate their mean body density. Furthermore, a classification of the swimming patterns allowed the extension of existing models describing cyprid locomotion and swimming behaviour. The patterns were characterized with respect to their occurrence, transition between patterns and their velocity distribution, and motions were identified that led to surface contacts. This analysis provides a classification framework, which can assist future attempts to identify behavioural responses of cyprids to specific settlement cues. PMID:25551141

  6. 31 CFR 235.3 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respect to a check drawn on designated depositaries of the United States, in dollars or in foreign currency, shall cause to be issued a settlement check in the appropriate currency to the payee or...

  7. 22 CFR 511.10 - Settlement of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... settlement of the claim and will sign SF-1145, Voucher for Payment Under Federal Tort Claims Act, and forward... compromises out of the appropriation provided by section (c), Pub. L. 89-506 (28 U.S.C. 2672)....

  8. 22 CFR 511.10 - Settlement of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... settlement of the claim and will sign SF-1145, Voucher for Payment Under Federal Tort Claims Act, and forward... compromises out of the appropriation provided by section (c), Pub. L. 89-506 (28 U.S.C. 2672)....

  9. 22 CFR 511.10 - Settlement of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... settlement of the claim and will sign SF-1145, Voucher for Payment Under Federal Tort Claims Act, and forward... compromises out of the appropriation provided by section (c), Pub. L. 89-506 (28 U.S.C. 2672)....

  10. Lone Star Industries, Inc. (Buzzi), Clean Air Act Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Buzzi agreed to invest approximately $1 million in pollution control technology that will protect public health and resolve violations of the CAA. The settlement requires that Buzzi spend approximately $1.7 million on an environmental mitigation project

  11. 48 CFR 1252.216-74 - Settlement of letter contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clause: Settlement of Letter Contract (OCT 1994) (a) This contract constitutes the definitive contract... any inconsistencies, governs. (b) The cost(s) and fee(s), or price(s), established in this...

  12. Settlement Ensures Compliance from Beverly, Mass. Pesticide Company

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A recent settlement ensures that a Beverly, Mass. company that imports and sells pet care products will comply with federal pesticide regulations designed to protect the health of the public, pets and the environment.

  13. AX Tank farm closure settlement estimates and soil testing

    SciTech Connect

    BECKER, D.L.

    1999-03-25

    This study provides a conservative three-dimensional settlement study of the AX Tank Farm closure with fill materials and a surface barrier. The finite element settlement model constructed included the interaction of four tanks and the surface barrier with the site soil and bedrock. Also addressed are current soil testing techniques suitable for the site soil with recommendations applicable to the AX Tank Farm and the planned cone penetration testing.

  14. [Environment, health and urban poverty. A perspective for the study of human settlements].

    PubMed

    Schteingart, M; Saenz, O

    1991-01-01

    Urbanization in Mexico has given rise to creation of unauthorized squatter settlements on the peripheries of large cities. Such settlements are estimated to house about 1/2 of the urban population of Mexico. These settlers share a low standard of housing resulting from lack of employment and low income. Very often large households are crowded into poor quality structures with no running water or sewage disposal. Health consequences are serious. Although precise data are lacking in Mexico, residents of squatter settlements generally fall below the rest of the urban population in health indicators. Settlers in these makeshift communities all tend to be disadvantaged, but there are significant differences in the health and living conditions of different low income zones on the urban periphery. The relationship between the physical and social environments of squatter settlements and the health of the residents should be analyzed by urban administrators and public health officials as well as by demographers and social scientists, in order that solutions be found to existing problems. An integrated focus on the problem will be necessary. A working hypothesis to guide research is that habitat is a principal factor influencing the health o the population, and it affects health through a series of processes that can be analytically decomposed. In this multicausal approach, health status is the final result of a complex process in which many different factors intervene. A fundamental determinant is that of factors in the general social context, including public policy regarding low income housing, basic services, and health. A 2nd level of determinants is that of underlying factors in the physical and social environment. In squatter settlements, housing and services are central elements of the physical environment in which the life of the inhabitants unfolds. The current cholera epidemic in Latin American demonstrates the importance of housing and related variables for

  15. Biomass Change of the Landless Peasants' Settlements in Lower Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Ishimaru, K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in Legal Amazon due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. Around the same time, movements which poor peoples or landless peasants settle into abandoned land have been very active in Brazil. In many cases, these people lack agricultural experiences to yield sufficient production for livelihoods. Thus, it leads to abandon the land and repeat forest clearance. In recent year, education by NGOs to these people encourage spreading of agroforestry which is a land use management system in which trees are grown around or among crops or pasture land. In this study, we specifically aimed at clarifying changes in LULC and these biomass using ground observation data, remotely-sensed LANDSAT data and GIS techniques. We focus on four different settlements: old-established settlement (around 30 years), established settlement (around 20 years), productive settlement (7 year) and unproductive settlement (7 years). These four settelements were located at Santa Barbará province, about 40 km northeast from the center of Belém, the Pará state capital, in the northern part of Brazil. We clarify that the biomass change varied according to whether the settlement are productive or not.

  16. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1988-07-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  17. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, J.; Motti, C. A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D. M.; Negri, A. P.; Schupp, P. J.; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P. D.; Harder, T.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds – glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides – as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples. PMID:26042834

  18. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Tebben, J; Motti, C A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D M; Negri, A P; Schupp, P J; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P D; Harder, T

    2015-06-04

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds--glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides--as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples.

  19. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  20. Induction of Invertebrate Larval Settlement; Different Bacteria, Different Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Freckelton, Marnie L.; Nedved, Brian T.; Hadfield, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Recruitment via settlement of pelagic larvae is critical for the persistence of benthic marine populations. For many benthic invertebrates, larval settlement occurs in response to surface microbial films. Larvae of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans can be induced to settle by single bacterial species. Until now, only Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea had been subjected to detailed genetic and mechanistic studies. To determine if the complex structures, termed tailocins, derived from phage-tail gene assemblies and hypothesized to be the settlement cue in P. luteoviolacea were present in all inductive bacteria, genomic comparisons with inductive strains of Cellulophaga lytica, Bacillus aquimaris and Staphylococcus warneri were undertaken. They revealed that the gene assemblies for tailocins are lacking in these other bacteria. Negatively stained TEM images confirmed the absence of tailocins and revealed instead large numbers of extracellular vesicles in settlement-inductive fractions from all three bacteria. TEM imaging confirmed for C. lytica that the vesicles are budded from cell surfaces in a manner consistent with the production of outer membrane vesicles. Finding multiple bacteria settlement cues highlights the importance of further studies into the role of bacterial extracellular vesicles in eliciting settlement and metamorphosis of benthic marine larvae. PMID:28195220

  1. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  2. Effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified fruit powder beverage on the nutrition status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Solon, Florentino S; Sarol, Jesus N; Bernardo, Allan B I; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Mehansho, Haile; Sanchez-Fermin, Liza E; Wambangco, Lorena S; Juhlin, Kenton D

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage on the micronutrient status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of schoolchildren assigned to receive either the fortified or nonfortified beverage with or without anthelmintic therapy. Data on hemoglobin level, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level, physical fitness, and cognitive performance were collected at baseline and at 16 weeks post-intervention. The fortified beverage significantly improved iron status among the subjects that had hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dl at baseline. The proportion of children who remained moderately to severely anemic was significantly lower among those given the fortified beverage. In the groups that received the fortified product, the median UIE level increased, whereas among those who received the placebo beverage, the median UIE level was reduced significantly. Iron- and/or iodine-deficient subjects who received the fortified beverage showed significant improvements in fitness (post-exercise reduction of heart rate) and cognitive performance (nonverbal mental ability score). The study showed that consumption of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage for 16 weeks had significant effects on iron status, iodine status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance among iron- and/or iodine-deficient Filipino schoolchildren. Anthelmintic therapy improved iron status of anemic children and iodine status of the iron-adequate children at baseline but it had no effect on physical fitness and cognitive performance. The results from the clinical study showed that a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage could play an important role in preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies.

  3. Distribution of vitamin E intake among Japanese dietary supplement and fortified food users: a secondary analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nozue, Miho; Umegaki, Keizo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to: (1) assess the prevalence of dietary supplement and fortified food use, (2) examine the differences in vitamin E intake with and without dietary supplementation and/or fortified food use, and (3) determine whether some individuals consume vitamin E above the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age, ≥1 y; 47.4% males) who completed a 1-d household dietary assessment that was part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in Japan, 2003-2009. The survey also obtained information on the brand or generic name of each dietary supplement or fortified food reported, including their ingredients, through dietary assessment. The prevalence of a potential risk of excess was estimated by the proportion of persons above the age-/sex-specific ULs provided by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Supplement use was reported by 5.8% of men and 7.7% of women, whereas fortified food consumption was reported by only 2.9% of men and 3.6% of women. Use of dietary supplements was most common among older women, whereas use of fortified foods was most common among younger women. Both dietary supplement and fortified food use accounted for maximum vitamin E intake; however, the use of dietary supplements and fortified foods had little effect on the median and 95th percentile intake values. None of the subjects consumed nutrients above the UL. The collected data confirm that the use of both dietary supplements and fortified foods contributes a small amount to nutrient intake in Japanese subjects.

  4. 'Fortified' wines volatile composition: Effect of different postharvest dehydration conditions of wine grapes cv. Malvasia moscata (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Urcan, Delia Elena; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Río Segade, Susana; Raimondi, Stefano; Bertolino, Marta; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Pop, Nastasia; Rolle, Luca

    2017-03-15

    The impact of postharvest dehydration on the volatile composition of Malvasia moscata grapes and fortified wines produced from them was assessed. The ripeness effect of fresh grapes on volatile compounds of dehydrated grapes was evaluated for the first time in this study. Fresh grape berries were densimetrically sorted, and more represented density classes were selected. Dehydration of riper berries (20.5 °Brix) led to volatile profiles richer in terpenes, particularly linalool and geraniol. The effect of dehydration rate on the volatile composition of dehydrated grapes and fortified wines was also evaluated. Fast dehydration grapes were richer in total free terpenes, and the resulting wines contained greater amounts of volatile compounds. The predominant compounds were free esters, but linalool, rose oxide, citronellol and geraniol can also contribute to wine aroma, particularly for fast dehydration. β-Damascenone can be an active odorant, although its contribution was greater in wines made from slow dehydrated grapes.

  5. Effect of water yam (Dioscoreaalata) flour fortified with distiller's spent grain on nutritional, chemical, and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Awoyale, Wasiu; Maziya-Dixon, Busie; Sanni, Lateef Oladimeji; Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi

    2016-01-01

    It was envisaged that the inclusion of treated distiller's spent grain (DSG) to yam flour might increase its nutritional value, with the aim of reducing nutritional diseases in communities consuming yam as a staple. Hence, yam flour was fortified with DSG at 5-35%. The effects of this fortification on the nutritional, chemical, and functional properties of yam flour were investigated. The result showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001) in fat, ash, protein, total amino acids, total dietary fiber, and insoluble dietary fiber contents of the blends as DSG increased except for starch and soluble dietary fiber contents, which decreased. The functional properties showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction with DSG inclusion. The inclusion of DSG increased both the tryptophan and methionine contents of the blends. Therefore, the DSG fortified yam flour could contribute to quality protein intake in populations consuming yam as a staple, due to its indispensible amino acid content.

  6. A micronutrient-fortified food enhances iron and selenium status of Zambian infants but has limited efficacy on zinc.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Kafwembe, Emmanuel; Mwanza, Sydney; Gosset, Laura; Bailey, Karl B; Mullen, Anne; Baisley, Kathy; Filteau, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Micronutrient-fortified, cereal-based infant foods are recommended for reducing multiple micronutrient deficiencies in low-income countries, but their nutritional quality is not always optimal. In a double-blind randomized trial, we compared the efficacy of a locally produced porridge based on maize, beans, bambaranuts, and groundnuts fortified with 19 (rich) or 9 (basal) micronutrients. Infants aged 6 mo from Lusaka, Zambia were randomized to receive the richly fortified (n = 373) or basal (n = 370) porridge daily for 12 mo along with routine vitamin A supplements. Baseline and final micronutrient status and inflammation (based on α-1-glycoprotein) were assessed using nonfasting blood samples. Baseline prevalence of anemia (39%) and zinc deficiency (51%) were a public health concern. There were overall treatment effects on hemoglobin (Hb) (P = 0.001), serum transferrin receptor (P < 0.001), serum ferritin (P < 0.001), and serum selenium (P = 0.009); biomarker responses for iron and zinc were modified by baseline concentrations, and for Hb and iron by socioeconomic status. At 18 mo, the adjusted odds of anemia, iron deficiency anemia (Hb <105 g/L and transferrin receptor > 11.0 mg/L), and iron deficiency were 0.37 (95% CI = 0.25, 0.55), 0.18 (0.09, 0.35), and 0.30 (0.18, 0.50) times those in the basal group, respectively. The rich level of fortification had no overall treatment effect on serum zinc (1.09; 0.66, 1.80) but improved serum zinc in children with lower Hb concentrations at baseline (P = 0.024). A locally produced cereal- and legume-based infant food richly fortified with micronutrients reduced anemia and improved iron and selenium status but may require reformulation to improve the biochemical zinc status of urban Zambian infants.

  7. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-05-14

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  8. A micronutrient-fortified beverage prevents iron deficiency, reduces anemia and improves the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant Tanzanian women.

    PubMed

    Makola, Diklar; Ash, Deborah M; Tatala, Simon R; Latham, Michael C; Ndossi, Godwin; Mehansho, Haile

    2003-05-01

    Maternal malnutrition continues to be a major contributor to adverse reproductive outcomes in developing countries, despite longstanding efforts to fortify foods or to distribute medicinal supplements to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to test the effect of a micronutrient-fortified beverage containing 11 micronutrients (iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6 and vitamin E) on the hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of pregnant women in Tanzania. A group of 259 pregnant women with gestational ages of 8 to 34 wk were enrolled in a randomized double-blind controlled trial in which study women received 8 wk of supplementation. Hemoglobin, ferritin and dried blood spot retinol were measured at baseline and at the end of the supplementation period. The supplement resulted in a 4.16 g/L increase in hemoglobin concentration and a 3 micro g/L increase in ferritin and reduced the risk of anemia and iron deficiency anemia by 51 and 56%, respectively. The risk of iron deficiency was reduced by 70% among those who had iron deficiency at baseline and by 92% among those who had adequate stores. The micronutrient-fortified beverage may be a useful and convenient preventative measure, one that could help improve the nutritional status of women both before and during pregnancy and thereby help avoid some of the potential maternal and fetal consequences of micronutrient deficiencies.

  9. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  10. Micronutrient-Fortified Milk and Academic Performance among Chinese Middle School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Hui, Zhaozhao; Dai, Xiaoling; Terry, Paul D.; Zhang, Yue; Ma, Mei; Wang, Mingxu; Deng, Fu; Gu, Wei; Lei, Shuangyan; Li, Ling; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Many children suffer from nutritional deficiencies that may negatively affect their academic performance. This cluster-randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effects of micronutrient-fortified milk in Chinese students. Participants received either micronutrient-fortified (n = 177) or unfortified (n = 183) milk for six months. Academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies were estimated by end-of-term tests and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for micronutrients. In total, 296 students (82.2%) completed this study. Compared with the control group, students in the intervention group reported higher scores in several academic subjects (p < 0.05), including languages, mathematics, ethics, and physical performance at the end of follow-up. Students in the intervention group showed greater self-efficacy and use of cognitive strategies in learning, and reported less test anxiety (p < 0.001). Moreover, vitamin B2 deficiency (odds ratio (OR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11~0.30) and iron deficiency (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14~0.81) were less likely in the students of the intervention group, whereas vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium deficiencies were not significantly different. “Cognitive strategy” had a partial mediating effect on the test scores of English (95% CI: 1.26~3.79) and Chinese (95% CI: 0.53~2.21). Our findings suggest that micronutrient-fortified milk may improve students’ academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies. PMID:28257107

  11. Relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of Trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by Phytophthora nicotianae

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Margarita; Raut, Iulia; Santisima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae. The results showed changes in the bacterial rhizosphere community not attributed to the Trichoderma strain, but to the pathogen infection, while, fungi were not affected by pathogen infection and depended on the type of substrate. The Trichoderma asperellum fortified compost was the most effective combination against the pathogen. This could indicate that the effect of fortified composts is greater than compost itself and the biocontrol effect should be attributed to the Trichoderma strains rather than the compost microbiota, although some microorganisms could help with the biocontrol effect. PMID:28346470

  12. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin'e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-03-06

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  13. Relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of Trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by Phytophthora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Ros, Margarita; Raut, Iulia; Santisima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae. The results showed changes in the bacterial rhizosphere community not attributed to the Trichoderma strain, but to the pathogen infection, while, fungi were not affected by pathogen infection and depended on the type of substrate. The Trichoderma asperellum fortified compost was the most effective combination against the pathogen. This could indicate that the effect of fortified composts is greater than compost itself and the biocontrol effect should be attributed to the Trichoderma strains rather than the compost microbiota, although some microorganisms could help with the biocontrol effect.

  14. Geospatial and Remote Sensing-based Indicators of Settlement Type---Differentiating Informal and Formal Settlements in Guatemala City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Karen K.

    This research addresses the need for reliable, repeatable, quantitative measures to differentiate informal (slum) from formal (planned) settlements using commercial very high resolution imagery and elevation data. Measuring the physical, spatial and spectral qualities of informal settlements is an important precursor for evaluating success toward improving the lives of 100 million slum dwellers worldwide, as pledged by the United Nations Millennium Development Goal Target 7D. A variety of measures were tested based on surface material spectral properties, texture, built-up structure, road network accessibility, and geomorphology from twelve communities in Guatemala City to reveal statistically significant differences between informal and formal settlements that could be applied to other parts of the world without the need for costly or dangerous field surveys. When information from satellite imagery is constrained to roads and residential boundaries, a more precise understanding of human habitation is produced. A classification and regression tree (CART) approach and linear discriminant function analysis enabled a variable dimensionality reduction from the original 23 to 6 variables that are sufficient to differentiate a settlement as informal or formal. The results demonstrate that the entropy texture of roads, the degree of asphalt road surface, the vegetation patch compactness and patch size, the percent of bare soil land cover, the geomorphic profile convexity of the terrain, and the road density distinguish informal from formal settlements with 87--92% accuracy when results are cross-validated. The variables with highest contribution to model outcome that are common to both approaches are entropy texture of roads, vegetation patch size, and vegetation compactness suggesting that road texture, surface materials and vegetation provide the necessary characteristics to distinguish the level of informality of a settlement. The results will assist urban planners and

  15. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  16. Is the inclusion of animal source foods in fortified blended foods justified?

    PubMed

    Noriega, Kristen E; Lindshield, Brian L

    2014-09-04

    Fortified blended foods (FBF) are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF) in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC), especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1) epidemiological; (2) ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3) ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4) ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed.

  17. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread.

    PubMed

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control.

  18. Development of fatty acid calcium stone ileus after initiation of human milk fortifier.

    PubMed

    Murase, Masahiko; Miyazawa, Tokuo; Taki, Motohiro; Sakurai, Motoichiro; Miura, Fumihiro; Mizuno, Katsumi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Toki, Akira

    2013-02-01

    We report a case who was born with extremely low birth weight infant and had experienced abdominal operation for necrotizing enterocolitis, eventually developed ileus due to fatty acid calcium stones after giving human milk fortifier. He had developed necrotizing enterocolitis on day 30 of his age, such that we performed enterectomy and ileostomy. He could not tolerate enteral feeding fully, because intestinal fistula infection was repeated. Although we administered hindmilk, he grew up slowly and he suffered cholestasis as well. We performed end-to-end anastomosis to prevent fistula infections on day 87. After this operation, breast milk feeding volume was increased easily. However, we started to add HMF of half-strength on day 124, because his body weight gain remained very poor. And we confirmed to intensify the ratio of HMF full-strength on day 128. After that his abdomen had distended on day 131. As there is no effect of conservative therapy to occlusive ileus, we did emergency laparotomy on day 139. Intestinal calculi were impacted at anastomic portion. Although all stones were removed, he died on 144 days due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and renal failure. Calculi analysis revealed that all of them were fatty acid calcium stones. There is no report about like our case. We speculate that the construction of fatty acid calcium result from either high concentration of calcium/phosphorus or rapid increase in the fortification. We could have prevented this case happened by slower increment of fortification.

  19. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine; Mølgaard, Christian; Friis, Henrik; Sangild, Per T; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2008-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS. Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding milk could improve weight gain, linear growth, and recovery from malnutrition, but this needs to be confirmed. Bioactive factors in whey might have beneficial effects on the immune system and muscle synthesis, but evidence from vulnerable groups is lacking. Milk proteins will improve flavor, which is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects of adding milk protein and lack of evidence in vulnerable groups call for randomized intervention studies.

  20. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  3. Extraction methods for recovery of volatile organic compounds from fortified dry soils

    SciTech Connect

    Minnich, M.M.; Zimmerman, J.H.; Schumacher, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on 2 desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low- and high-level purge-and-trap extractions (SW-846 Method 5030A): treatment 1, unmodified low-level procedure; treatment 2, 18 h water presoak followed by low-level procedure; treatment 3, 24 h methanol extract at room temperature followed by high-level procedure; and treatment 4, 24 h methanol extract at 65{degrees}C followed by high-level procedure. VOC recoveries from replicate soil samples increased in the treatment order 1 through 4. With Charleston soil (8% clay and 3.8% organic carbon), highly significant differences (p {le} 0.001) in recoveries among treatments were observed for trichloroethene (TCE), tetrachloroethene (PCE), toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene, with 2- to 3-fold increased recoveries between treatments 1 and 3. With Hayesville soil (32% clay and 0.2% organic carbon), significant improvements (p{le}0.05) in recoveries of toluene, ethylbenzene, o-oxylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, TCE, and PCE were observed for heated methanol (treatment 4) rather than water extraction (treatment 1), but the increases were less than 2-fold. 19 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Influence of fermented faba bean flour on the nutritional, technological and sensory quality of fortified pasta.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Koivula, Hanna; Montemurro, Marco; Seppa, Laila; Kemell, Marianna; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-02-22

    Faba bean has gained increasing attention from the food industry and the consumers mainly due to the quality of its protein fraction. Fermentation has been recently recognized as the most efficient tool for improving its nutritional and organoleptic properties. In this study, faba bean flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMAB24W was used to fortify semolina pasta. Pasta samples including different percentages of fermented faba bean flour were produced at the pilot-plant level and characterized using an integrated approach for chemical, nutritional, technological, and sensory features. At a substitution level of 30%, pasta had a more homogeneous texture and lower cooking loss compared to 50% addition. The impact of faba bean flour addition on pasta technological functionality, particularly of the protein fraction, was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and textural profile analysis. Compared to traditional (semolina) pasta and pasta containing unfermented faba bean flour, the nutritional profile (in vitro protein digestibility and nutritional indexes - chemical score (CS), sequence of limiting essential amino acids, Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI), Biological Value (BV), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), and Nutritional Index (NI)) and the resistant starch content of pasta containing 30% fermented faba bean flour markedly improved, while the starch hydrolysis rate decreased, without negatively affecting technological and sensory features. The use of fermentation technology appears to be a promising tool to enhance the quality of pasta and to promote the use of faba bean flour.

  5. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN. PMID:25763649

  6. Fortified anonymous communication protocol for location privacy in WSN: a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-03-10

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN.

  7. U.S., Maryland Settle with 16 Companies for Cleanup of Central Chemical Superfund Site in Hagerstown, Md.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Aug. 17, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a settlement involving 16 companies that have agreed to stabilize and cap waste and contaminated soils at the Central Chemical Superfund site in Hagerstown, Md. fo

  8. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration Clinical

  9. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  10. Natural antifouling compounds: Effectiveness in preventing invertebrate settlement and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana R; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling represents a major economic issue regarding maritime industries and also raise important environmental concern. International legislation is restricting the use of biocidal-based antifouling (AF) coatings, and increasing efforts have been applied in the search for environmentally friendly AF agents. A wide diversity of natural AF compounds has been described for their ability to inhibit the settlement of macrofouling species. However poor information on the specific AF targets was available before the application of different molecular approaches both on invertebrate settlement strategies and bioadhesive characterization and also on the mechanistic effects of natural AF compounds. This review focuses on the relevant information about the main invertebrate macrofouler species settlement and bioadhesive mechanisms, which might help in the understanding of the reported effects, attributed to effective and non-toxic natural AF compounds towards this macrofouling species. It also aims to contribute to the elucidation of promising biotechnological strategies in the development of natural effective environmentally friendly AF paints.

  11. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Han; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Di; Liu, Lingjia

    2016-06-01

    Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  12. Global Human Settlement Analysis for Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, M.; Ehrlich, D.; Ferri, S.; Florczyk, A.; Freire, S.; Haag, F.; Halkia, M.; Julea, A. M.; Kemper, T.; Soille, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) is supported by the European Commission, Joint Research Center (JRC) in the frame of his institutional research activities. Scope of GHSL is developing, testing and applying the technologies and analysis methods integrated in the JRC Global Human Settlement analysis platform for applications in support to global disaster risk reduction initiatives (DRR) and regional analysis in the frame of the European Cohesion policy. GHSL analysis platform uses geo-spatial data, primarily remotely sensed and population. GHSL also cooperates with the Group on Earth Observation on SB-04-Global Urban Observation and Information, and various international partners andWorld Bank and United Nations agencies. Some preliminary results integrating global human settlement information extracted from Landsat data records of the last 40 years and population data are presented.

  13. Probabilistic Modeling of Settlement Risk at Land Disposal Facilities - 12304

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin C.; Soong, Te-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass (caused by inconsistent compaction, void space distribution, debris-soil mix ratio, waste material stiffness, time-dependent primary compression of the fine-grained soil matrix, long-term creep settlement of the soil matrix and the debris, etc.) at most land disposal facilities. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties which control differential settlement. An alternative, probabilistic solution is to use random fields to model the waste and sub-grade properties. The modeling effort informs the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of land disposal facilities. A probabilistic method to establish design criteria for waste placement and compaction is introduced using the model. Random fields are ideally suited to problems of differential settlement modeling of highly heterogeneous foundations, such as waste. Random fields model the seemingly random spatial distribution of a design parameter, such as compressibility. When used for design, the use of these models prompts the need for probabilistic design criteria. It also allows for a statistical approach to waste placement acceptance criteria. An example design evaluation was performed, illustrating the use of the probabilistic differential settlement simulation methodology to assemble a design guidance chart. The purpose of this design evaluation is to enable the designer to select optimal initial combinations of design slopes and quality control acceptance criteria that yield an acceptable proportion of post-settlement slopes meeting some design minimum. For this specific

  14. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  15. 46 CFR 201.103 - Opportunity for agreement of parties and settlement of case.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... objection of any party in any hearing on the matter. When any settlement does not dispose of the whole... Agreements (Rule 10) § 201.103 Opportunity for agreement of parties and settlement of case. Where time,...

  16. 75 FR 21292 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; AVX Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; AVX Corporation AGENCY... administrative settlement for recovery of projected future response oversight costs and performance of...

  17. 77 FR 44238 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... amended (CERCLA), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement with The Doe Run... Mine Tailings Superfund Site in St. Francois County, Missouri. The settlement requires The Doe...

  18. 78 FR 62630 - Vantran Electric Corporation Site, Louisville, Jefferson County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Vantran Electric Corporation Site, Louisville, Jefferson County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under 122(h) of the...

  19. Guidance: Strategies to Achieve Timely Settlement and Implementation of RD/RA at Superfund Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum recommends strategies to encourage PRPs to enter into a settlement using the model RD/RA Consent Decree; discusses the current model UAO; and suggests practical alternatives to expedite Superfund settlements and the cleanup process.

  20. 76 FR 14968 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Eugenio Painting Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Eugenio Painting Company AGENCY... following settling party: Eugenio Painting Company. The settlement requires the settling party to pay...

  1. 77 FR 38629 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola, Mississippi County, Arkansas. The settlement... proposed administrative settlement concerning the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in.... Comments should reference the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola,...

  2. 77 FR 38628 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola, Mississippi County, Arkansas. The settlement... proposed administrative settlement concerning the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in.... Comments should reference the Arkansas Waste to Energy Superfund Site, located in Osceola,...

  3. 78 FR 44119 - Circle Environmental #1 Superfund Site; Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Circle Environmental 1 Superfund Site; Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia; Notice of Settlement... Environmental 1 Superfund Site located in Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia. The settlement addresses...

  4. 76 FR 13616 - Picayune Wood Treating Site Picayune, Pearl River County, MS; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Picayune Wood Treating Site Picayune, Pearl River County, MS; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of...

  5. 76 FR 20372 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage Claims... St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. The NRD Settlement Agreement resolves claims for natural resource damages and... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  6. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  7. Sensory optimization of broken-rice based snacks fortified with protein and fiber.

    PubMed

    Sriwattana, S; Laokuldilok, N; Prinyawiwatkul, W

    2008-08-01

    A 3-component mixture experiment was used to optimize the formulation of broken-rice based snack fortified with protein and fiber based on consumer sensory acceptability. Soy protein isolate and guar gum were used as a good source of protein and fiber, respectively, according to DRV (daily reference value) based on a 2000-calorie diet. A consumer panel evaluated sensory acceptability of color, crispness, and flavor, and overall liking of 12 experimental broken-rice based snack formulations. Predicted models derived from the restricted nonintercept regression analysis were used to plot mixture response surfaces (MRS) of each sensory attribute. Areas within the MRS plots having predicted acceptability scores of at least 6.5 (on a 9-point hedonic scale) for color, crispness, flavor, and overall liking were selected to derive a predicted optimum formulation range. Flavor acceptability was a limiting factor in attaining the optimum formulation range, which consisted of 40% to 48% broken-rice flour, 8% to 16% guar gum, and 20% to 33% soy protein isolate. To verify the obtained predicted models, the formulation containing 48% broken-rice flour, 8% guar gum, and 20% soy protein isolate, which was located in the optimum area, was chosen to support our effort to utilize and add value to broken rice. Selected physicochemical measurements of the chosen optimized formulation were determined. One serving size (30 g) of the chosen optimized snack product provided 6.58 g protein and 3.80 g dietary fiber, which met the US FDA definition of a good source of protein and dietary fiber.

  8. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    PubMed

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  9. Historical and contemporary DNA indicate fisher decline and isolation occurred prior to the European settlement of California.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jody M; Schwartz, Michael K; Truex, Richard L; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Allendorf, Fred W

    2012-01-01

    Establishing if species contractions were the result of natural phenomena or human induced landscape changes is essential for managing natural populations. Fishers (Martes pennanti) in California occur in two geographically and genetically isolated populations in the northwestern mountains and southern Sierra Nevada. Their isolation is hypothesized to have resulted from a decline in abundance and distribution associated with European settlement in the 1800s. However, there is little evidence to establish that fisher occupied the area between the two extant populations at that time. We analyzed 10 microsatellite loci from 275 contemporary and 21 historical fisher samples (1880-1920) to evaluate the demographic history of fisher in California. We did not find any evidence of a recent (post-European) bottleneck in the northwestern population. In the southern Sierra Nevada, genetic subdivision within the population strongly influenced bottleneck tests. After accounting for genetic subdivision, we found a bottleneck signal only in the northern and central portions of the southern Sierra Nevada, indicating that the southernmost tip of these mountains may have acted as a refugium for fisher during the anthropogenic changes of the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries. Using a coalescent-based Bayesian analysis, we detected a 90% decline in effective population size and dated the time of decline to over a thousand years ago. We hypothesize that fisher distribution in California contracted to the two current population areas pre-European settlement, and that portions of the southern Sierra Nevada subsequently experienced another more recent bottleneck post-European settlement.

  10. Nutritional properties of green gram germinated in mineral fortified soak water: II. Effect of cooking on total and bioaccessible nutrients and bioactive components.

    PubMed

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressure and microwave cooking on total and bioaccessible nutrients and bioactive components in whole and dehulled green gram (GG) germinated in mineral fortified soak water was studied. Whole GG was soaked in water fortified with iron (100 or 200 mg/100 ml) or zinc (50 or 100 mg/100 ml), germinated, cooked by two methods and analyzed. Results showed that method of cooking did not affect the nutrient composition of whole or dehulled grains, however, phytic acid and dietary fiber were higher in microwave cooked samples. Minor differences were noted in total and percent available nutrients in differently cooked samples, significance being observed only for starch, protein and zinc in few samples. Significant differences were observed among variations, wherein the mineral fortified samples had a higher level of bioaccessibility compared to non-fortified samples. Cooking reduced the content of bioactive components in germinated GG, though bioaccessibility was higher. Comparison between raw and cooked grains showed that starch digestibility increased on cooking, though protein digestibility was not affected significantly. Bioactive components were also lower in cooked samples in comparison to the raw counterparts. In conclusion, the cooking methods did not affect the nutrient composition of green gram germinated in mineral fortified soak water, though available nutrients were higher in cooked legumes.

  11. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final agency decision after settlement negotiations. 103.9 Section 103.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS... settlement negotiations. (a) Settlements based on letter of intent to charge—(1) Approval of...

  12. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final agency decision after settlement negotiations. 103.9 Section 103.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS... settlement negotiations. (a) Settlements based on letter of intent to charge—(1) Approval of...

  13. 77 FR 26789 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Agreement (the ``Lower Ley Creek Non-Owned Site Settlement Agreement'') in the bankruptcy matter, In re.... The Parties to the Lower Ley Creek Non-Owned Site Settlement Agreement are the Motors Liquidation.... The Lower Ley Creek Non- Owned Site Settlement Agreement resolves claims and causes of action of...

  14. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  15. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...

  16. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... having filed application for final settlement. 11.128 Section 11.128 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  17. 29 CFR 24.111 - Withdrawal of complaints, objections, and petitions for review; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... settlement under the Energy Reorganization Act, the Clean Air Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, or the Toxic... withdrawn because of settlement under the Energy Reorganization Act, the Clean Air Act, the Safe Drinking... three parties. (2) Adjudicatory settlements under the Energy Reorganization Act, the Clean Air Act,...

  18. 77 FR 54843 - Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation X) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA19 Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement... certain disclosure requirements of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement... disclosure requirements of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures...

  19. 75 FR 79393 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on December 14, 2010, a proposed Harvey & Knott Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement (``Harvey & Knott Settlement Agreement'') in the bankruptcy matter, Motors Liquidation... Harvey & Knott Settlement Agreement are debtors Motors Liquidation Corporation, formerly known as...

  20. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  1. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  2. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  3. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  4. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  5. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...

  6. 33 CFR 136.115 - Settlement and notice to claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement and notice to claimant. 136.115 Section 136.115 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  7. Settlement Reached at Callahan Mine Superfund Site in Brooksville, Maine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A settlement has been reached that will facilitate the cleanup of the Callahan Mine Superfund Site in Brooksville, ME. The agreement is between the USEPA, US DOJ, the State of Maine, and site property owner Smith Cove Preservation Trust (Smith Cove).

  8. 41 CFR 105-70.046 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compromise or settlement. 105-70.046 Section 105-70.046 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  9. 12 CFR 12.9 - Settlement of securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... an exempted security as defined in 15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(12), government security, municipal security... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement of securities transactions. 12.9 Section 12.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RECORDKEEPING...

  10. 12 CFR 12.9 - Settlement of securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an exempted security as defined in 15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(12), government security, municipal security... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement of securities transactions. 12.9 Section 12.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RECORDKEEPING...

  11. 12 CFR 1102.35 - Opportunity for informal settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 1102.35 Section 1102.35 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION... § 1102.33(c) or by the submission of the case to the ASC on a stipulation of facts....

  12. Silver Nanoparticles Impact Biofilm Communities and Mussel Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Long; Li, Yi-Feng; Liang, Xiao; Guo, Xing-Pan; Ding, De-Wen; Zhang, Demin; Zhou, Shuxue; Bao, Wei-Yang; Bellou, Nikoleta; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) demonstrating good antimicrobial activity are widely used in many fields. However, the impact of AgNPs on the community structures of marine biofilms that drive biogeochemical cycling processes and the recruitment of marine invertebrate larvae remains unknown. Here, we employed MiSeq sequencing technology to evaluate the bacterial communities of 28-day-old marine biofilms formed on glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and PDMS filled with AgNPs and subsequently tested the influence of these marine biofilms on plantigrade settlement by the mussel Mytilus coruscus. AgNP-filled PDMS significantly reduced the dry weight and bacterial density of biofilms compared with the glass and PDMS controls. AgNP incorporation impacted bacterial communities by reducing the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae (phylum: Bacteroidetes) and increasing the relative abundance of Vibrionaceae (phylum: Proteobacteria) in 28-day-old biofilms compared to PDMS. The settlement rate of M. coruscus on 28-day-old biofilms developed on AgNPs was lower by >30% compared to settlement on control biofilms. Thus, the incorporation of AgNPs influences biofilm bacterial communities in the marine environment and subsequently inhibits mussel settlement. PMID:27869180

  13. Critical Reflections: Interpretation and Analysis of Japanese Women's Settlement Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss how I came to call into question the way in which I interpreted interview data in my dissertation, which investigated the migration and settlement experience of Japanese women who are married to Australian men and reside in Australia. Through critical reflections, I realized the way in which the positionality of…

  14. Settlement scaling and increasing returns in an ancient society.

    PubMed

    Ortman, Scott G; Cabaniss, Andrew H F; Sturm, Jennie O; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-02-01

    A key property of modern cities is increasing returns to scale-the finding that many socioeconomic outputs increase more rapidly than their population size. Recent theoretical work proposes that this phenomenon is the result of general network effects typical of human social networks embedded in space and, thus, is not necessarily limited to modern settlements. We examine the extent to which increasing returns are apparent in archaeological settlement data from the pre-Hispanic Basin of Mexico. We review previous work on the quantitative relationship between population size and average settled area in this society and then present a general analysis of their patterns of monument construction and house sizes. Estimated scaling parameter values and residual statistics support the hypothesis that increasing returns to scale characterized various forms of socioeconomic production available in the archaeological record and are found to be consistent with key expectations from settlement scaling theory. As a consequence, these results provide evidence that the essential processes that lead to increasing returns in contemporary cities may have characterized human settlements throughout history, and demonstrate that increasing returns do not require modern forms of political or economic organization.

  15. 16 CFR 3.25 - Consent agreement settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) A proposal to settle a matter in adjudication by consent shall be submitted by way of a motion to withdraw the matter from adjudication for the purpose of considering a proposed settlement. Such motion... by this paragraph shall so state and shall specify the portions of the matter that the proposal...

  16. 16 CFR 3.25 - Consent agreement settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) A proposal to settle a matter in adjudication by consent shall be submitted by way of a motion to withdraw the matter from adjudication for the purpose of considering a proposed settlement. Such motion... by this paragraph shall so state and shall specify the portions of the matter that the proposal...

  17. 29 CFR 4043.68 - Bankruptcy or similar settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bankruptcy or similar settlement. 4043.68 Section 4043.68 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Advance Notice of Reportable Events §...

  18. Canada: A Source Book for Orientation, Language and Settlement Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Immigration Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An information guide for people who help newcomers to Canada, this book helps second language teachers plan the content of their courses, and makes it easier for settlement agency workers to respond to newcomers' needs. The method it advocates is question and answer, with the newcomer asking the questions. The ultimate goal of the book is to…

  19. Dispute Settlement in the Public Sector. Research Series I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Thomas P., Ed.

    This report is comprised of a series of articles that discuss two areas of dispute settlement -- negotiation impasses and representation and unit determination problems. Arvid Anderson concentrates on the growing utilization of compulsory binding arbitration and reviews its present use. Harold Davey discusses the principles of effective conflict…

  20. Settlement scaling and increasing returns in an ancient society

    PubMed Central

    Ortman, Scott G.; Cabaniss, Andrew H. F.; Sturm, Jennie O.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A key property of modern cities is increasing returns to scale—the finding that many socioeconomic outputs increase more rapidly than their population size. Recent theoretical work proposes that this phenomenon is the result of general network effects typical of human social networks embedded in space and, thus, is not necessarily limited to modern settlements. We examine the extent to which increasing returns are apparent in archaeological settlement data from the pre-Hispanic Basin of Mexico. We review previous work on the quantitative relationship between population size and average settled area in this society and then present a general analysis of their patterns of monument construction and house sizes. Estimated scaling parameter values and residual statistics support the hypothesis that increasing returns to scale characterized various forms of socioeconomic production available in the archaeological record and are found to be consistent with key expectations from settlement scaling theory. As a consequence, these results provide evidence that the essential processes that lead to increasing returns in contemporary cities may have characterized human settlements throughout history, and demonstrate that increasing returns do not require modern forms of political or economic organization. PMID:26601129

  1. 31 CFR 543.702 - Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. 543.702 Section 543.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 537.702 - Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. 537.702 Section 537.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. The Settlement Process Among Mexican Migrants to the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Douglas S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the process of integration and settlement among Mexican migrants. The following social and economic developments increase the likelihood that migrants will settle in the United States: (1) bringing family members; (2) making new friends; 3) establishing institutional connections; and (4) obtaining stable, better-paying jobs.(Author/PS)

  4. 31 CFR 542.702 - Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. 542.702 Section 542.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties §...

  5. Volatile Investments and Unruly Youth in a West Bank Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hadas

    2010-01-01

    Building on fieldwork conducted in the West Bank settlement Beit-El, this article analyses the generational divide between first- and second-generation settlers in terms of their values and practices, against the backdrop of the new realities created by economic restructuring in Israel. It argues that the investments that settler parents made in…

  6. 33 CFR 136.115 - Settlement and notice to claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claimant. (a) Payment in full, or acceptance by the claimant of an offer of settlement by the Fund, is.... In addition, acceptance of any compensation from the Fund precludes the claimant from filing any... claim. Acceptance of any compensation also constitutes an agreement by the claimant to assign to...

  7. 32 CFR 750.10 - Claims: Settlement and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount than that claimed, the claimant must indicate in writing a willingness to accept the offered... made until a signed settlement agreement has been received. (b) Release. (1) Acceptance by the claimant... designees, is final upon acceptance by the claimant. Acceptance is a complete release by claimant of...

  8. 49 CFR 107.327 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compromise and settlement. 107.327 Section 107.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... consent agreement to the Chief Counsel. If the Chief Counsel accepts the agreement, he issues an order...

  9. 49 CFR 107.327 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise and settlement. 107.327 Section 107.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... consent agreement to the Chief Counsel. If the Chief Counsel accepts the agreement, he issues an order...

  10. 49 CFR 107.327 - Compromise and settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compromise and settlement. 107.327 Section 107.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... consent agreement to the Chief Counsel. If the Chief Counsel accepts the agreement, he issues an order...

  11. 31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related to... requirements established by the Secretary under § 50.82 (as in effect on the date of issuance of that section in final form) shall apply to any cause of action described in section 107(a)(1) of the Act....

  12. 42 CFR 93.409 - Settlement of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. 93.409 Section 93.409 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  13. 42 CFR 93.409 - Settlement of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. 93.409 Section 93.409 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  14. 42 CFR 93.409 - Settlement of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. 93.409 Section 93.409 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  15. 42 CFR 93.409 - Settlement of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement of research misconduct proceedings. 93.409 Section 93.409 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  16. 44 CFR 11.77 - Settlement of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement of claims. 11.77 Section 11.77 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF..., the reasons therefor. (e) In the event a claim submitted against a carrier under § 11.75 has not...

  17. Gambling on a Settlement: The Baltimore City Schools Adequacy Litigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipollone, Diane W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1983, Maryland's highest court rejected a constitutional challenge to the state's education finance system. In 1994, the American Civil Liberties Union and Baltimore City instituted new adequacy suits against the state. An eve-of-trial settlement provided a moderate school funding increase in return for changes in school governance structure.…

  18. 48 CFR 749.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of proposed settlements. 749.111 Section 749.111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 749.111 Review of...

  19. 48 CFR 749.111-70 - Termination settlement review boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination settlement review boards. 749.111-70 Section 749.111-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 749.111-70...

  20. 7 CFR 3550.252 - Debt settlement policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt settlement policies. 3550.252 Section 3550.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Post-Servicing Actions § 3550.252 Debt...