SAITO, Atsushi; KON, Hiroyuki; HARYU, Shinya; MINO, Masaki; SASAKI, Tatsuya; NISHIJIMA, Michiharu
A 20-year-old woman suffered gradual progression of right pulsatile exophthalmos and slight headache. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated outward and downward displacement of the right globe and an arachnoid cyst in the right middle cranial fossa associated with thinned and anterior protrusion of a bony orbit. Microscopic cystocisternotomy was performed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside of the cyst communicated into the carotid cistern and cistern in the posterior cranial fossa. Pulsatile exophthalmos improved immediately after surgery. Arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa presenting with exophthalmos is rare. Microscopic cystocisternotomy might successfully improve CSF flow and relieve exophthalmos. PMID:24305013
Abderrahmen, K; Saadaoui, K; Bouhoula, A; Boubaker, A; Jemel, H
Subdural effusions are uncommon but known complications of arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa. They mainly occur after minor head traumas in young patients. Here, we report eight cases of arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa associated with subdural hematoma in five cases and hygroma in three cases. Major symptoms are signs of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan and MRI showed the cyst and the subdural effusion. An excellent therapeutic result was achieved with evacuation of the subdural fluid via burr holes in the five cases of subdural hematoma while in the two cases of hygroma a subduro-peritoneal shunt was necessary. In the last case, a temporal craniotomy was performed with evacuation of the hygroma and fenestration of the cyst. We suggest treating only the complicating event in the case of a subdural hematoma via burr holes evacuation. Whereas, in the case of hygroma we think that craniotomy with fenestration of the cyst or the use of a subdural shunt are more often needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J
The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible. Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized. The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/pgUrl9xvsD0.
Cullis, P A; Gilroy, J
Arachnoid cysts which develop in relation to the cerebral hemispheres are usually found in the middle cranial fossa. These cysts are usually asymptomatic but can produce symptoms if there is haemorrhage into the cyst or the development of an associated subdural hematoma. Recent publications have emphasised the association of arachnoid cysts of the middle fossa with subdural haematomas. This report describes a case of an asymptomatic arachnoid cyst which ruptured into the subdural space. This event was followed by the development of symptoms despite the lack of haemorrhage. Images PMID:6101185
Carteri, A; Gerosa, M; Gaini, S M; Villani, R
The Authors report their case material concerning some basic items of the dysraphic pathology of the Posterior Fossa: 22 cases of Dandy Walker syndromes (DWS) and "Arachnoid Cysts" (PFC). The mean clinical findings (predominant involvement of the vestibular structures of the brain stem in the DWS, frequent epileptic seizures and some cases of hypothalamic disturbances in the PFC) are discussed in the light of current embryological theories on Weed's "area membranacea". Finally the results of differential surgical treatments are examined: good or satisfactory results were obtained with shunts, while still debatable seems to be the direct surgical approach.
García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia
There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Torgersen, Johan; Helland, Christian; Flaatten, Hans; Wester, Knut
The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in a Norwegian group of patients undergoing surgery for middle fossa arachnoid cysts (AC). We also wanted to assess health related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients to see if it could be improved by decompression of the AC. Adult patients (>18 years) with unilateral middle fossa AC and no previous history of neurological disease, head injury, or a psychiatric disorder were eligible for inclusion. We used four tests from CANTAB to assess the level of neuropsychological performance: paired associate learning (PAL) and delayed matching to sample (DMS) assessed temporal lobe functions, while Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) and intra-extra dimensional (IED) shift focused on frontal lobe functions. Patients with postoperative cerebral complications were reported, but excluded from neuropsychological follow-up. In addition to the CANTAB data, pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological data were collected. HRQOL was assessed using Short Form 36 (SF-36) pre- and postoperatively. We found significant improvement in the two temporal tests assessing memory, but no improvement in the two frontal tests assessing executive function. HRQOL was significantly reduced preoperatively in two of eight SF-36 domains and improved significantly in four domains postoperatively. CANTAB facilitates detection of cognitive improvements after decompression of the cyst in patients with AC in the middle fossa. The improvements were detected on the tests sensitive to temporal lobe problems only, not on the tests more sensitive to frontal lobe affection. This establishes construct validity for CANTAB for the first time in this population.
Helland, Christian A; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Wester, Knut
The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of intracranial arachnoid cysts in a large and unselected patient population with special emphasis on sidedness and sex distribution. In total, 299 patients with 305 arachnoid cysts were studied. These patients were consecutively referred to our department during a 20-year period from a well-defined geographical area with a stable population. There was a strong predilection (198 patients [66.2%]) for intracranial arachnoid cysts in the temporal fossa. Forty-two patients had cysts overlying the frontal convexity, 36 had cysts in the posterior fossa, and 23 patients had cysts in other, different locations. Of 269 cysts with clearly unilateral distribution, 163 were located on the left side and 106 on the right side. This difference resulted from the marked preponderance of temporal fossa cysts on the left side (left-to-right ratio 2.5:1; p < 0.0001 [adjusted < 0.0005]). For cysts in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), there was preponderance on the right side (p = 0.001 [adjusted = 0.005]). Significantly more males than females had cysts in the temporal fossa (p = 0.002 [adjusted = 0.004]), whereas in the CPA a significant female preponderance was found (p = 0.016 [adjusted = 0.032]). For all other cyst locations, there was no difference between the 2 sexes. Arachnoid cysts have a strong predilection for the temporal fossa. There is a sex dependency for some intracranial locations of arachnoid cysts, with temporal cysts occurring more frequently in men, and CPA cysts found more frequently in women. Furthermore, there is a strong location-related sidedness for arachnoid cysts, independent of patient sex. These findings and reports from the literature suggest a possible genetic component in the development of some arachnoid cysts.
Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.
To study the distribution of intracranial arachnoid cysts in a large and nonbiased patient population. One hundred twenty-six patients with 132 arachnoid cysts were studied. Patients were consecutively referred to our department during a 10-year period from a well-defined geographical area with a stable population. The cysts had a strong predilection for the middle cranial fossa; 86 patients (65.2%) had cysts in this location. Of 106 cysts with clearly unilateral distribution, 64 were located on the left side and 42 on the right side. This significant difference resulted solely from the marked preponderance of middle fossa cysts for the left (left-to-right ratio, 2.1:1). There were significantly more males than females (92 males/34 females). This difference was exclusively due to male preponderance of unilateral middle fossa cysts (66 males/14 females; ratio, 4.7:1). For all other cyst locations, there was no difference between the two sexes (26 males/20 females) or the two sides (10 left, 16 right). The marked left-sidedness for middle fossa cysts was found only in males. Females had an even distribution between the two sides. Arachnoid cysts have a strong predilection for the middle cranial fossa that may be explained by a meningeal maldevelopment theory: the arachnoid coverings of the temporal and frontal lobes fail to merge when the sylvian fissure is formed in early fetal life, thereby creating a noncommunicating fluid compartment entirely surrounded by arachnoid membranes. Why males develop more middle fossa cysts on the left side remains a mystery.
Yilmaz, C; Cetinalp, E; Caner, H; Altinors, N
Arachnoid cysts are developmental anomalies usually diagnosed in childhood. The most important complications of arachnoid cysts are subdural haematomas and hygromas and intracystic haemorrhage. In our case we present a 7-year-old boy whose arachnoid cyst ruptured into the subdural space following a mild head injury and disappeared after draining the subdural haematoma by burr-holes.
Cokluk, C; Senel, A; Celik, F; Ergür, H
We report two children with asymptomatic arachnoid cysts which resolved spontaneously without any surgical intervention and history of major head and body trauma. The first child was a 10-year-old boy with an arachnoid cyst in the right sylvian fissure. The second child was a 1-year-old girl with a right cerebral convexity arachnoid cyst. Both of them were asymptomatic. Arachnoid cysts spontaneously disappeared within 2 years following initial diagnosing. There was no major head and body trauma except usual home, school and sports activity. We speculated that the cysts ruptured into cerebrospinal fluid circulation by the mechanical effects of some forced activities to the brain tissue and cyst, such as excessive breathing, coughing and sport activities. These factors may change the balance between intracystic and pericystic pressure and facilitate the rupturing of the cyst into subdural, subarachnoid and intraventricular spaces. These cases demonstrate that neurosurgical intervention of asymptomatic arachnoid cysts is not absolutely indicated in the paediatric age group. Close follow up with computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a treatment option in the patient with arachnoid cysts located in the middle cranial fossa and cerebral convexity.
Takamiya, Soichiro; Seki, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Sasamori, Toru; Houkin, Kiyohiro
Spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, and they include the arachnoid membrane, making it difficult to distinguish the walls of the cyst from the arachnoid membrane and excise the cyst as a lump. Here we report a technique for the intraoperative visualization of SACs, involving the use of pyoktanin blue. Four patients with spinal intradural arachnoid cysts underwent total excision of the cysts between October 2016 and April 2017. In 1 case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the cyst clearly, but in the other cases, the cysts were unclear. All cysts were injected with 1% pyoktanin blue (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) diluted 500 times with physiological saline before excision. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid membrane, 1% pyoktanin blue diluted 1000 times with physiological saline was injected into both the cyst and the subarachnoid space, and the spread of the stain was observed. The cysts were better visualized after pyoktanin blue injection than before injection. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid space, pyoktanin blue injection was useful for judging the cyst space. There were no perioperative complications, and the patients' symptoms improved partially or completely after treatment. Our technique of pyoktanin blue injection into SACs could make their excision easy and safe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krauer, Fabienne; Ahmadli, Uzeyir; Kollias, Spyros; Bleisch, Jörg; Wüthrich, Rudolf P.; Serra, Andreas L.; Poster, Diane
Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder that results in the growth of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Multisystemic involvement is common including affection of the central nervous system with cerebral aneurysms and arachnoid cysts. Methods This is a prospective cohort study to investigate the prevalence and growth rate of arachnoid cysts in ADPKD patients. Participants enrolled in the SUISSE ADPKD cohort were offered cranial imaging for the detection of intracranial alterations. In the case of identified arachnoid cysts, patients were suggested to undergo follow-up imaging to assess the growth rate of the cysts. Volume of arachnoid cysts at the baseline and at follow-up visits was assessed by manual segmentation on a dedicated workstation. Results A total of 109 ADPKD patients agreed to undergo cranial imaging. In 14 (12.8%) patients (9 males and 5 females), 18 singular arachnoid cysts were identified. The baseline volumes of individual cysts ranged from 1.8 to 337.6 cm3. During a mean follow-up period of 24 months, the volume changes of 12 individual arachnoid cysts of nine patients ranged from −3.1 to 3.7 cm3. Cystic lesions were mostly localized in the middle fossa. All affected patients were clinically asymptomatic. Conclusions We found a higher prevalence of arachnoid cysts in ADPKD patients with more advanced disease. There was a large variability in size and growth. These arachnoid cysts were clinically silent and their growth pattern was subtle and unpredictable, in contrast to the much more foreseeable growth of the renal cysts. PMID:26019816
da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Alves, Alexandra; Talina, Miguel; Carreiro, Susana; Guimarães, João; Xavier, Miguel
Background The aetiology of a psychotic disturbance can be due to a functional or organic condition. Organic aetiologies are diverse and encompass organ failures, infections, nutritional deficiencies and space-occupying lesions. Arachnoid cysts are rare, benign space-occupying lesions formed by an arachnoid membrane containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In most cases they are diagnosed by accident. Until recently, the coexistence of arachnoid cysts with psychiatric disturbances had not been closely covered in the literature. However, the appearance of some references that focus on a possible link between arachnoid cysts and psychotic symptoms has increased the interest in this subject and raised questions about the etiopathogeny and the therapeutic approach involved. Clinical presentation We present the clinical report of a 21-year-old man, characterised by the insidious development of psychotic symptoms of varying intensity, delusional ideas with hypochondriac content, complex auditory/verbal hallucinations in the second and third persons, and aggressive behaviour. The neuroimaging studies revealed a voluminous arachnoid cyst at the level of the left sylvian fissure, with a marked mass effect on the left temporal and frontal lobes and the left lateral ventricle, as well as evidence of hypoplasia of the left temporal lobe. Despite the symptoms and the size of the cyst, the neurosurgical department opted against surgical intervention. The patient began antipsychotic therapy and was discharged having shown improvement (behavioural component), but without a complete remission of the psychotic symptoms. Conclusion It is difficult to be absolutely certain whether the lesion had influence on the patient's psychiatric symptoms or not. However, given the anatomical and neuropsychological changes, one cannot exclude the possibility that the lesion played a significant role in this psychiatric presentation. This raises substantial problems when it comes to choosing a
Zekaj, Edvin; Saleh, Christian; Servello, Domenico
Background: A rare cause of spinal cord compression is spinal arachnoid cysts. Symptoms are caused by spinal cord compression, however, asymptomatic patients have been also reported. Treatment options depend upon symptom severity and clinical course. Case Description: We report the case of a 47-year-old patient who developed an intramedullary arachnoid cyst after removal of an intradural extramedullary cyst. Conclusion: Surgery should be considered early in a symptomatic disease course. Longstanding medullary compression may reduce the possibility of neurological recovery as well as secondary complications such as intramedullary cyst formation. PMID:27512608
Aguiar, Guilherme Brasileiro de; Santos, Rafael Gomes Dos; Paiva, Aline Lariessy Campos; Silva, João Miguel de Almeida; Silva, Rafael Carlos da; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves
Presence of an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured intracystic brain aneurysm is extremely rare. The aim of this paper was to describe a case of a patient with an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured aneurysm inside it. Clinical, surgical and radiological data were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. A patient complained of chronic headache. She was diagnosed as having a temporal arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm inside it. Surgery was performed to clip the aneurysm and fenestrate the cyst. This report raises awareness about the importance of intracranial vascular investigation in patients with arachnoid cysts and brain hemorrhage.
Takahashi, T; Kawai, S; Kaminoh, T; Hiramatsu, K; Maekawa, M; Yuasa, T; Miyamoto, N; Hattori, Y
A 4-year-old boy with suprasellar arachnoid cyst was reported. At the age of 30-month-old his aunt was aware of his squint. During the observation by ophthalmologists from the age of 1y. to 3y., enlargement of the head and impairment of the visual acuity were manifested. Cranial CT scan revealed the enlargement of the ventricular system and a round low density area located superior to the sella. Absorption coefficient of the lesion was similar to that of the cerebrospinal fluid. No abnormal contrast enhancement was seen. Examination revealed the head circumference of 53.3 cm larger than doubled standard deviation, the right external strabismus, impaired vision (R:0.03, L:0.3) and optic atrophy but no other neurological signs. Cerebral angiography showed suprasellar mass lesion. After the ventriculography with water-soluble contrast medium, V-P shunt operation was performed and then the patient was transferred to the CT room. CSF enhanced CT scan showed no communication between the ventricles and the cyst. By frontotemporal approach, microsurgical removal of the cystwall was performed and the histological diagnosis was arachnoid membrane. Several days after the operation, bilateral subdural effusion was seen on CT scan and was treated with bilateral S-P shunt and the removal of V-P shunt. Follow up CT scan disclosed the disappearance of the subdural effusion and the suprasellar cyst. The visual acuity was improved well and the endocrinological study was normal. Analysis of the 45 reported cases of suprasellar arachnoid cyst suggested that direct removal of the cyst wall is better than the V-P shunt operation and the cyst shunting is advisable for repeat recurrence of the cyst. Removal of the ventricular shunting system may be effective for the prevention of the subdural effusion as a complication after direct operation.
Candy, Nicholas; Young, Adam; Devadass, Abel; Dean, Andrew; McMillen, Jason; Trivedi, Rikin
Spinal bronchogenic cysts are rare findings, with only four cases of lumbar bronchogenic cysts reported in the literature. All of these bronchogenic cysts involved the conus medullaris. We present the first case of a lumbar bronchogenic cyst and arachnoid cyst arising from the cauda equina in a 68-year-old male. Uniquely, this bronchogenic cyst also contained components of an arachnoid cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a compressive cystic lesion at the level of the L3 vertebra splaying the cauda equina. An L3/L4 laminectomy was performed with marsupialisation of the cyst. Histological examination revealed pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium confirming the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst, as well as a pleated fibrovascular tissue lined by sparsely spaced small monomorphic arachnoidal cells, indicating an arachnoid cyst. We demonstrate that bronchogenic cysts can be successfully treated with marsupialisation.
Cress, Marshall; Kestle, John R W; Holubkov, Richard; Riva-Cambrin, Jay
As the availability of imaging modalities has increased, the finding of arachnoid cysts has become common. Accurate patient counseling regarding physical activity or risk factors for cyst rupture or hemorrhage has been hampered by the lack of definitive association studies. This case-control study evaluated factors that are associated with arachnoid cyst rupture (intracystic hemorrhage, adjacent subdural hematoma, or adjacent subdural hygroma) in pediatric patients with previously asymptomatic arachnoid cysts. Patients with arachnoid cysts and intracystic hemorrhage, adjacent subdural hygroma, or adjacent subdural hematoma treated at a single institution from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively identified. Two unruptured/nonhemorrhagic controls were matched to each case based on patient age, sex, anatomical cyst location, and side. Risk factors evaluated included arachnoid cyst size, recent history of head trauma, and altitude at residence. The proportion of imaged arachnoid cysts that presented either originally or subsequently with a rupture or hemorrhage was 6.0%. Larger cyst size, as defined by maximal cyst diameter, was significantly associated with cyst rupture/hemorrhage (P < .001). When dichotomized with a 5-cm cutoff, 9/13 larger cysts ruptured and/or hemorrhaged, whereas only 5/29 smaller cysts ruptured/hemorrhaged (odds ratio = 16.5 (confidence interval [2.5, ∞]). A recent history of head trauma was also significantly associated with the outcome (P < .001; odds ratio = 25.1 (confidence interval [4.0, ∞]). Altitude was not associated with arachnoid cyst rupture or hemorrhage. This case-control study suggests that larger arachnoid cyst size and recent head trauma are risk factors for symptomatic arachnoid cyst rupture/hemorrhage.
Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Nejat, Farideh
Split cord malformation (SCM) is a congenital disease that can be associated with other spinal anomalies. Few cases of concurrent intradural arachnoid cyst and SCM have been sporadically reported; however, sacral extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) with SCM is very rare. The report describes our experience with simultaneous surgery in patients with concurrent SEAC and SCM in an effort to document the treatment of the rare spinal concomitant anomalies. The present study is designed as a case series. This is a continuous series of patients with coexisting SCM and SEAC who were presented to our institution. The lower extremities weakness and deformity, radiological imaging, urodynamic tests, and surgical aspects of the patient population are documented. Cases with concomitant anomalies were consecutively enrolled among 73 patients who were operated on for SCM between 2008 and 2014. Clinical data and surgical findings were prospectively filed and retrospectively evaluated. There were seven patients (2 boys and 5 girls), with age ranging from 18 to 119 months (mean: 56.71±39.49). Type I SCM was detected in six cases, and type II SCM was detected in one case. Tethering of the cord was detected in all seven patients, and six patients (85.7%) had syrinx formation rostral to the level of SCM. All patients had at least one kind of urological dysfunctions manifesting as neurogenic bladder. On surgery, fistulous orifice of the meningeal cyst was found and ligated in six cases, and the other one was repaired via sealing the cyst walls as near as possible to the thecal sac. In patients with symptomatic SCM, the signs of concurrent SEAC may be masqueraded by the former condition. It would be impossible to attribute a given sign, particularly urological signs, to either SCM or SEAC. Whatever the sign and nature, both conditions are better to be managed surgically in one session under a single anesthesia to prevent duplicate complications of further anesthesia and interventions in
Takayasu, Takeshi; Harada, Kunyu; Nishimura, Shigeru; Onda, Jun; Nishi, Tohru; Takagaki, Hisashi
Arachnoid cysts are well known to induce chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after head injury. However, histological observations of the arachnoid cyst and hematoma membrane have only been rarely described. An 8-year-old boy and a 3-year-old boy presented with CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst. Surgical removal of the hematoma and biopsy of the hematoma membrane and cyst wall were performed. Clinical courses were good and without recurrence more than 1.5 years after surgery. Histological examination suggested that the cysts did not contribute to hematoma development. Pediatric hematoma membranes, similar to adult hematoma membranes, are key in the growth of CSDH. Therefore, simple hematoma evacuation is adequate as a first operation for CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst.
Zara, Gabriella; Ponza, Isabella; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo
We present a patient who showed MRI evidence of a giant temporo-sylvian arachnoidal cyst of the left hemisphere and an extreme pneumatization of the sphenoid and frontal sinuses. No sign of mass effect or cerebral atrophy was detected. This patient presented a deficit of memory and control functions, but quality of life was not affected. Surgery was not performed. Arachnoidal cyst and anatomic variants of the sinus region have not a common etiology. This is the first report that describes a giant temporo-sylvian arachnoidal cyst with anatomic variants of the paranasal sinuses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Jian-Huang; Mei, Wen-Zhong; Chen, Yao; Chen, Jian-Wu; Lin, Zhi-Xiong
To summarize the clinical characteristics of intracranial arachnoid cysts (IACs) in pediatric cases. A retrospective analysis was carried out on clinical characteristics of IACs in 488 pediatric cases who were treated at our hospital from January 2003 to September 2013. There were 342 males and 146 females (male-to-female ratio, 2.34:1), aged 5.61±3.25 years on average. 221 cases (45.29%) were diagnosed accidentally, 267 cases had clinical complaints (54.71%), among which relationships between clinical complaints and IACs were identified in 123 (46.07%). Simple IACs occurred in 364 cases (4.59%), and concurrent congenital abnormalities occurred in 124 cases (4.59%). In terms of location, 355 had IACs in middle cranial fossa (72.75%), 82 cases in posterior cranial fossa (16.80%), 20 cases in anterior cranial fossa (4.10%), 12 cases in dorsolateral surface (2.46%), 7 cases in suprasellar cistern (1.43%), 5 cases in cerebral ventricle (1.02%), 5 cases in quadrigeminal cistern (1.02%), and 2 cases in interhemispheric region (0.41%). There were 449 cases with single IAC (92.01%) and 39 cases with multiple IACs (7.99%). On MRI, the cysts produced tension in 127 cases (26.02%), but not in the remaining 361 cases (73.98%). Surgery was performed on 76 of 488 cases (15.57%), while conservative observation was accepted in 412 cases (84.43%). For the former, the symptoms and the cyst volume were improved to varying extent; for the latter, the follow-up lasting for 3-72 months (average 32.43±8.92 months) showed that the cyst volume remained stable in 407 cases (98.78%), enlarged with aggravated symptoms in 3 cases (0.73%), and shrank in 2 cases (0.49%). Clinical complaints of IACs varied in pediatric cases, and the relationships between clinical complaints and IACs were established only partially. Some pediatric cases were combined with other congenital abnormalities. The cyst volume largely remained stable during the disease course, and surgery was required for only a few
Clifton, William; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Tavanaiepour, Kourosh; Alcindor, Dunbar; Jakubek, George; Tavanaiepour, Daryoush
Arachnoid cysts are a relatively common finding in adult patients, especially with the advent of advanced imaging techniques. The overall incidence ranges from 1-2%, and the majority are clinically silent 1,2 . Arachnoid cysts are postulated to arise by congenital anomalies or trauma 1 . De novo formation of arachnoid cysts has been reported, but is exceptionally rare and mostly found in the pediatric population after head trauma 3-5 . There have only been two reported cases of symptomatic de novo arachnoid cyst formation in adult patients to date, both with histories of head trauma 6,7 . We present a case of a 71-year-old male patient with progressive vertigo who had previous brain MRI studies without abnormalities. Another MRI was performed three years from the last study that showed interval development of a large cystic lesion compressing the right cervicomedullary junction, as well as radiologic evidence of neurosarcoidosis. Intraoperative findings showed a cystic mass with clear, gelatinous fluid. The cyst was drained and the walls were resected and sent to pathology. Histopathologic testing confirmed the lesion was an arachnoid cyst. The patient's vertiginous symptoms improved after surgery. This case represents the first incidence of a pathology proven, non-traumatic de novo arachnoid cyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M A; Hoving, Eelco W
We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle. During ventriculoscopy, the cyst had all aspects of an arachnoid cyst. An endoscopic fenestration and partial removal of the cyst was performed, combined with a ventriculocisternostomy. The coincidental finding of viral meningitis and a third ventricle arachnoid cyst in a patient with acute hydrocephalus has, to our knowledge, not been described in literature before. If there is a relation between the enteroviral meningitis, the arachnoid cyst (possibly causing a pre-existing subclinical hydrocephalus) and the rapidly evolving neurological deterioration, remains speculative. Proposed mechanisms, by which the viral meningitis could accelerate the disease process, are slight brain swelling or increased CSF production. This rare combination of diagnoses could also be coincidental.
Acarturk, T O; Stofman, G M
The authors report a case of an epidermal inclusion cyst found in the deep infratemporal fossa 12 years after the patient sustained blunt trauma to that region. Posttraumatic epidermal inclusion cysts are rare and occur mainly in the fingers, palms, and soles. Introduction of the epidermal elements into the dermis during the trauma is thought to be the cause. This case is rare in presentation, with few reports in the English literature that describe an epidermal inclusion cyst in the deep infratemporal fossa. Review of the English literature disclosed no other cases of epidermal inclusion cyst after blunt trauma involving the deep infratemporal region.
Lee, Chang-Hyun; Han, In Seok; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Kim, Young-Eun; Wang, Kyu-Chang
Although arachnoid cysts (ACs) are observed in various locations, only sylvian ACs are mainly regarded to be associated with bleeding. The reason for this selective association of sylvian ACs with bleeding is not understood well. This study is to investigate the effect of the location and shape of ACs on the risk of bleeding. A developed finite element model of the head/brain was modified for models of sylvian, suprasellar, and posterior fossa ACs. A spherical AC was placed at each location to compare the effect of AC location. Bowl-shaped and oval-shaped AC models were developed to compare the effect by shape. The shear force on the spot-weld elements (SFSW) was measured between the dura and the outer wall of the ACs or the comparable arachnoid membrane in the normal model. All AC models revealed higher SFSW than comparable normal models. By location, sylvian AC displayed the highest SFSW for frontal and lateral impacts. By shape, small outer wall AC models showed higher SFSW than large wall models in sylvian area and lower SFSW than large ones in posterior fossa. In regression analysis, the presence of AC was the only independent risk of bleeding. The bleeding mechanism of ACs is very complex, and the risk quantification failed to show a significant role of location and shape of ACs. The presence of AC increases shear force on impact condition and may be a risk factor of bleeding, and sylvian location of AC may not have additive risks of AC bleeding.
Wang, Yongqian; Wang, Fei; Yu, Mingkun; Wang, Weiping
We retrospectively analyzed 63 patients (31 males and 32 females) with arachnoid cysts managed over a 15 year period at our institution. Surgical indications and modalities for the treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts are controversial, although endoscopic fenestration is often recommended as a standard procedure. In our cohort, clinical postoperative results and radiological assessments based on the presenting symptoms, cyst location, cyst volume and surgical modalities were recorded. The most common symptoms included headaches (66.7%), dizziness (46%) and seizures (36.5%). Cyst wall excision with microsurgical craniotomy was carried out in 28 patients (44.4%), cyst fenestration in 16 (25.4%), cystoperitoneal or ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 15 (23.8%) and endoscopic fenestration in four patients (6.3%). A satisfactory clinical outcome was achieved in 51 patients (80.9%) and cyst reduction was achieved in 49 (77.8%), at the last follow-up. Clinical improvement correlated significantly with volume reduction in patients with suprasellar and infratentorial cysts (r=0.495; p=0.022) while a similar result was not found after surgery in patients with frontal and temporal cysts. Surgical complications were not correlated with surgical modalities, occurring in only seven patients (11.1%). The various surgical modalities did not influence outcomes. Patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache may obtain favourable outcomes from surgical treatment with no severe complications, although, intracranial hypertension and neurological deficits are more definite surgical indications for arachnoid cysts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brewington, Danielle; Petrov, Dmitriy; Whitmore, Robert; Liu, Grant; Wolf, Ronald; Zager, Eric L
Intraneural arachnoid cyst is an extremely rare etiology of isolated cranial nerve palsy. Although seldom encountered in clinical practice, this pathology is amenable to surgical intervention. Correct identification and treatment of the cyst are required to prevent permanent nerve damage and potentially reverse the deficits. We describe a rare case of isolated third nerve palsy caused by an intraneural arachnoid cyst. A 49-year-old woman with a recent history of headaches experienced acute onset of painless left-sided third nerve palsy. According to hospital records ptosis, mydriasis, absence of adduction, elevation, and intorsion were noted in the left eye. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies showed an extra-axial, 1-cm lesion along the left paraclinoid region, causing mild indentation on the uncus. There was dense fluid layering dependently concerning for hemorrhage, but no evidence of aneurysms. A pterional craniotomy was performed, revealing a completely intraneural arachnoid cyst in the third nerve. The cyst was successfully fenestrated. At 7-month follow-up, the left eye had recovered intact intorsion and some adduction, but the left pupil remained dilated and nonreactive. There was still no elevation and no afferent pupillary defect. Double vision persisted with partial improvement in the ptosis, opening up to more than 75% early in the day. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intraneural arachnoid cyst causing isolated third nerve palsy. This rare pathology proves to be both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bradley, W. G.; Kalbag, R. M.; Ramani, P. S.; Tomlinson, B. E.
A 20 year old girl presented with a history of neck and occipital pain for six weeks, which was found to be due to a unicameral bone cyst of the left occipital condylar region. The differential diagnosis of bone cysts in the skull is discussed. Six months after the operation, the patient again presented with backache due to adhesive arachnoiditis. The latter was believed to have arisen as a result of a combination of spinal infective meningitis and intrathecal ethyl iodophenyl undecylate (iophendylate, Myodil, Pantopaque). The nature of meningeal reactions to iophendylate and the part played by intrathecal corticosteroids in relieving the arachnoiditis in the present case are discussed. Images
Shaw, P J; Allcutt, D A; Bates, D; Crawford, P J
A case of cauda equina syndrome with multiple lumbar arachnoid cysts complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is described. The value of computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive means of establishing the diagnosis is emphasised. In contrast to previously reported cases the patient showed neurological improvement following surgical therapy. Surgery may be indicated in some patients, particularly when there is nerve root compression by the arachnoid cysts and when the patient is seen early before irreversible damage to the cauda equina has occurred. Images PMID:2292702
Hiroual, A; Elbouihi, M; Fawzi, S; Lahmiti, S; Aimmadeddine, S; Mansouri-Hattab, N
Hydatid cyst or disease is an anthropozoonosis due to the development of the larval form of the taenia Echinococcus granulosus in humans. It is endemic in Morocco. The location of a hydatid cyst in the infratemporal fossa (ITF) is extremely rare. The authors report a pediatric case. An 11 year old child was admitted to hospital with a history of left latero-facial swelling gradually increasing in volume for 2 months, CT scan of the face revealed a cystic formation of 7 cm diameter sitting at the left ITF, hydatid serology was negative. A transzygomatic approach allowed the excision of the cyst. The histopathological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. The location at the infratemporal fossa of an expansive process such as hydatid cyst in children may have a particular impact on adjacent structures and a more meaningful clinical expression. The rate of growth of hydatid cysts is highly variable and ranges from 1 to 5 cm a year. Hydatid serology is often negative. CT examination is the gold-standard radiological examination. Surgical removal of the hydatid cyst is the most effective treatment. The transzygomatic approach allowed a sufficient access to the cyst and a good quality of excision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are rare causes of radiculopathy or myelopathy. Treatment options include resection, fenestration, or cyst drainage. To classify intradural spinal arachnoid cysts and present results of their treatment. Among 1519 patients with spinal space occupying lesions, 130 patients demonstrated intradural arachnoid cysts. Neuroradiological and surgical features were reviewed and clinical data analyzed. Twenty-one patients presented arachnoid cysts as a result of an inflammatory leptomeningeal reaction related to meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intrathecal injections, intradural surgery, or trauma, ie, secondary cysts. For the remaining 109 patients, no such history could be elucidated, ie, primary cysts. Forty-six percent of primary and 86% of secondary cysts were associated with syringomyelia. Patients presented after an average history of 53 ± 88 months. There were 122 thoracic and 7 lumbar cysts plus 1 cervical cyst. Fifty-nine patients with primary and 15 patients with secondary cysts underwent laminotomies with complete or partial cyst resection and duraplasty. Mean follow-up was 57 ± 52 months. In the first postoperative year, profound improvements for primary cysts were noted, in contrast to marginal changes for secondary cysts. Progression-free survival for 10 years following surgery was determined as 83% for primary compared to 15% for secondary cysts. Despite differences in clinical presentation, progression-free survival was almost identical for patients with or without syringomyelia. Complete or partial resection leads to favorable short- and long-term results for primary arachnoid cysts. For secondary cysts, surgery can only provide clinical stabilization for a limited time due to the often extensive arachnoiditis. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Elkheshin, Sherif; Soliman, Ahmed
To investigate the impact of endoscope-assisted microsurgical fenestration on temporal arachnoid cysts, and to determine the advantages and limitations of the technique. Twenty-five children with symptomatic temporal arachnoid cysts were operated via eyebrow supraorbital keyhole microsurgical fenestration targeting the medial cyst wall. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was done for all patients. Preoperative clinical presentation of the patients included headache (80%), nausea & vomiting (64%), drug resistant epilepsy (52%), macrocephaly (12%) papilledema (28%), motor weakness in the form of right-sided hemiparesis (12%) and cranial nerve palsy. Postoperative complete subsidence of headache was noted in 50%, while 20% remained unchanged. Drug resistant epilepsy improved in 69% of the patients. Postoperative MRI showed initial decrease in cyst volume as early as 3 months, only in a range of 5-12% volume reduction, and the late follow-up done at 6 and 18 months continued to show further reduction reported to be significant (p < 0.001). Transient subgaleal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection was the most common complication (20%). Only 1 patient experienced CSF leak mandating cysto-peritoneal shunting. Conclusıon: Eyebrow supraorbital keyhole microsurgical fenestration for temporal arachnoid cysts can be performed with a fairly low risk of complications and yields a favorable improvement in clinical and neuroimaging outcomes.
Sonnet, M-H; Joud, A; Marchal, J-C; Klein, O
Brain arachnoid cysts (AC) are congenital or acquired malformations. Their prevalence in children ranges between 0.2 and 2.3% of the studied populations. Few reported studies exist where AC appears after a subdural haemorrhage. We present one case of a symptomatic suprasellar AC after post-traumatic subdural haemorrhage in an infant. After endoscopic ventriculocystostomy, the child quickly improved and the cyst reduced in size. The child was monitored for 22 months and his neurocognitive development remained normal. Our case led us to the hypothesis that the inflammatory process due to subdural haemorrhage may locally result in arachnoiditis, and thus to the creation of a neomembrane, and eventually to cyst formation. This is also the case with the development of post-traumatic spinal AC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Germanò, Antonino; Caruso, Gerardo; Caffo, Mariella; Baldari, Sergio; Calisto, Amedeo; Meli, Francesco; Tomasello, Francesco
This retrospective case series examines 7 infants with large supratentorial arachnoid cysts who underwent cyst-peritoneal shunting and insertion of a Hakim programmable valve. Comparing pre- and postoperative clinical data, neuroradiological and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings we evaluated the efficacy of the surgical procedure. Infants, ranging in age from 1 to 55 days (mean age 29.5 days), were assessed pre- and postoperatively by neurological examination, developmental profile and neuroimaging. Post procedure, all patients showed a significant reduction in the cyst/brain ratio on neuroimaging (p<0.001), 6 had a normal developmental profile (p<0.001) and 5 cases showed a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and neurological signs. Two patients underwent preoperative SPECT scans, which showed hypoperfusion in the area surrounding the cyst; this decreased rCBF also improved post shunting. Large supratentorial arachnoid cysts in infants can be successfully treated with cyst-peritoneal shunting and insertion of a Hakim programmable valve. This is the first study specifically aimed at evaluating the long-term results of these conditions.
Turner, Michael S; Nguyen, Ha Son; Payner, Troy D; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A
Posterior fossa cysts are usually divided into Dandy-Walker malformations, arachnoid cysts, and isolated and/or trapped fourth ventricles. Shunt placement is a mainstay treatment for decompression of these fluid collections when their expansion becomes symptomatic. Although several techniques to drain symptomatic posterior fossa cysts have been described, each method carries its own advantages and disadvantages. This article describes an alternative technique. In 10 patients, the authors used an alternative technique involving stereotactic and endoscopic methods to place a catheter in symptomatic posterior fossa cysts across the tentorium. Discussion of these cases is included, along with a review of various approaches to shunt placement in this region and recommendations regarding the proposed technique. No patient suffered intracranial hemorrhage related to the procedure and catheter implantation. All 3 patients who underwent placement of a new transtentorial cystoperitoneal shunt and a new ventriculoperitoneal shunt did not suffer any postoperative complication; a decrease in the size of their posterior fossa cysts was evident on CT scans obtained during the 1st postoperative day. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated either stable findings or further interval decrease in the size of their cysts. In 1 patient, the postoperative head CT demonstrated that the transtentorial catheter terminated posterior to the right parietal occipital region without entering the retrocerebellar cyst. This patient underwent a repeat operation for proximal shunt revision, resulting in an acceptable catheter implantation. The patient in Case 8 suffered from a shunt infection and subsequently underwent hardware removal and aqueductoplasty with stent placement. The patient in Case 9 demonstrated a slight increase in fourth ventricle size and was returned to the operating room. Exploration revealed a kink in the tubing connecting the distal limb of the Y connector to the valve. The Y
Singh, Suyash; Sardhara, Jayesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Mehrotra, Anant; Sahu, Rabi N; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay
This study aims to focus on a rare presentation of spinal hydatid cyst as cauda equine syndrome and misdiagnosed as intradural extramedullary (IDEM) benign lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we report a case of spinal hydatid cyst masquerading as IDEM tumor, and intraoperatively, we accidently find clumped granuloma with severe arachnoiditis and hydatid cyst in lumber region, which was present as bilateral S1 radiculopathy with cauda equina syndrome. An 11-year-old boy who presented with symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome and planned for surgical excision. His radiological impression was IDEM possibly neurofibroma. To our surprise, we found multiple intradural cystic lesions with arachnoiditis. Dissecting in plane cyst was flushed out, and surgical cavity was irrigated with 3% saline. Postoperatively histopathology and serum tests confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is rare cause of cauda equine syndrome which can be miss diagnosed on radiological investigations. A high index of suspicion should be kept especially in a young patient from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27891041
Obil-Chavarría, Claudia Alejandra; García-Ramos, Carla Lisette; Castro-Quiñonez, Sergio Alberto; Huato-Reyes, Raúl; Santillán-Chapa, Concepción Guadalupe; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro Antonio
Arachnoid cysts are dural diverticula with liquid content similar to cerebrospinal fluid, with 1% occurring in the spinal cord. They locate mainly in the dorsal region of the thoracic spine, and are unusual causes of spinal cord compression. The case is presented of a previously healthy 15-year-old boy, with a 20-month history of spastic paraparesis that started apparently after epidural block for ankle osteosynthesis. There was decreased sensitivity and strength of the pelvic limbs and gradually presented with anaesthesia from T12 to L4 dermatomes, L5 and S1 bilateral hypoaesthesia and 4+/5 bilateral strength, in the L2 root and 2+/5 in L3, L4, L5, S1, hyperreflexia, Babinski and clonus, but with no alteration in the sacral reflexes. In the magnetic resonance it was diagnosed as an extradural arachnoid cyst from T6 to T9. The patient underwent a T6 to T10 laminotomy, cyst resection, dural defect suture, and laminoplasty. One year after surgery, the patient had recovered sensitivity, improvement of muscle strength up to 4+/5 in L2 to S1, and normal reflexes. After the anaesthetic procedure, increased pressure and volume changes within the cyst could cause compression of the spinal cord, leading to symptoms. Despite being a long-term compression, the patient showed noticeable improvement. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Hayashi, Kazunori; Nagano, Junji; Hattori, Satoshi
The authors present the case of a 64-year-old woman who was referred for severe sacral pain. She reported that her pain had been longstanding, and had greatly increased after percutaneous fibrin glue placement therapy for a sacral meningeal cyst 2 months earlier at a different hospital. An MRI scan obtained immediately after fibrin glue placement at that hospital suggested that fibrin glue had migrated superiorly into the subarachnoid space from the sacral cyst to the level of L-4. On admission to the authors' institution, physical examination demonstrated no abnormal findings except for perianal hypesthesia. An MRI study obtained at admission demonstrated a cystic lesion in the peridural space from the level of S-2 to S-4. Inhomogeneous intensity was identified in this region on T2-weighted images. Because the cauda equina and nerve roots appeared to be compressed by the lesion, total cyst excision was performed. The cyst cavity was filled with fluid that resembled CSF, plus gelatinous material. Histopathological examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of hyaline connective tissue with some calcification. No nervous tissue or ganglion cells were found in the tissue. The gelatinous material was acellular, and appeared to be degenerated fibrin glue. Sacral pain persisted to some extent after surgery. The authors presumed that migrated fibrin glue caused the development of adhesive arachnoiditis. The risk of adhesive arachnoiditis should be considered when this therapy is planned. Communication between a cyst and the subarachnoid space should be confirmed to be sufficiently narrow to prevent the migration of injected fibrin glue.
Bucuk, Mira; Gasparovic, Iva; Sonnenschein, Ivan; Perkovic, Olivio
Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by weakening of voluntary muscles during the day and a marked restitution of function during the night and after rest. The symptoms may worsen over days or weeks, sometimes even in a few hours, and are usually well controlled by appropriate therapy. Arachnoid cysts are congenital or acquired deformities of the arachnoid membrane and are usually too small to cause distinct clinical symptomatology. We describe a case of a 76-year-old myasthenia gravis patient with an arachnoid cyst. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of these two comorbidities together.
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Ali, Mohsin; Bennardo, Michael; Almenawer, Saleh A; Zagzoog, Nirmeen; Smith, Alston A; Dao, Dyda; Ajani, Olufemi; Farrokhyar, Forough; Singh, Sheila K
Although intracranial arachnoid cysts are a common incidental finding on pediatric brain imaging, only a subset of patients require surgery for them. For the minority who undergo surgery, the comparative effectiveness of various surgical approaches is debated. The authors explored predictors of surgery and compared operative techniques for pediatric patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst seen at a tertiary care center. The authors reviewed records of pediatric patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst. For each patient, data on baseline characteristics, the method of intervention, and surgical outcomes for the initial surgery were extracted, and cyst size at diagnosis was calculated (anteroposterior × craniocaudal × mediolateral). Baseline variables were analyzed as predictors of surgery by using logistic regression modeling, excluding patients whose surgery was not related to cyst size (i.e., those with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to the cyst compressing a narrow CSF flow pathway or cyst rupture/hemorrhage). Data collected regarding surgical outcomes were analyzed descriptively. Among 83 pediatric patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst seen over a 25-year period (1989-2013), 27 (33%) underwent surgery; all had at least 1 cyst-attributed symptom/finding. In the multivariate model, age at presentation and cyst size at diagnosis were independent predictors of surgery. Cyst size had greater predictive value; specifically, the area under the curve for the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.97), with an ideal cutoff point of ≥ 68 cm(3). This cutoff point had 100% sensitivity (95% CI 79%-100%), 75% specificity (95% CI 61%-85%), a 53% positive predictive value (95% CI 36%-70%), and a 100% negative predictive value (95% CI 91%-100%); the positive likelihood ratio was 4.0 (95% CI 2.5-6.3), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0 (95% CI 0-0.3). Although the multivariate model excluded 7 patients who underwent surgery
McCormick, Paul C
Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web is a rare but often overlooked cause of progressive myelopathy. Syringomyelia, either above or below the compressive arachnoid band, may also be present. Dorsal arachnoid cyst and ventral spinal cord herniation may be mistaken for this condition. This video demonstrates the microsurgical identification and techniques of resection of a dorsal arachnoid band producing a progressive myelopathy in a 63-year-old man. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/KDNTqiyW6yo.
Ogura, Yoji; Yabuki, Shoji; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Okada, Eijiro; Iwanami, Akio; Watanabe, Kota; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken; Ikegawa, Shiro
Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEDAC) is a cystic lesion that protrudes into the epidural space from a small dural defect. Early diagnosis of SEDAC is important because its expansion causes neurological damage. Two types of SEDAC, syndromic and sporadic, are present. Syndromic SEDAC is inherited as a part of lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome caused by mutations in the FOXC2 gene; however, it is often mistaken as sporadic because of low penetrance. It is not reasonable to conduct a genetic testing for all SEDAC patients and their family members. The aim of this study is to establish an effective screening method to distinguish syndromic SEDAC from sporadic SEDAC. We performed a retrospective review of medical records and imaging studies of 29 subjects who were diagnosed with SEDAC. Clinical features, family history and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were analyzed. Mutations in FOXC2 were examined by Sanger-sequencing of the entire coding region of the genes. SEDAC having a mutation in FOXC2 gene was defined with syndromic SEDAC. Eleven subjects had a heterozygous mutation in FOXC2. They were all familial and hence syndromic SEDAC. Only one proband had known family history of SEDAC at diagnosis. MRI findings and physical examinations, especially eye and leg examinations, were quite useful to screen syndromic SEDAC. Physical examination often showed accompanying lymphedema and distichiasis in syndromic SEDAC. Syndromic SEDAC tended to have multiple cysts out of the thoracolumbar area. We established an effective screening method based on physical examinations and MRI findings. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lloyd, Simon K W; Di Cuffa, Riccardo A; Seymour, Felicity K; Savy, Lloyd E; Grant, Henry R
Cystic lesions of the nasopharynx are rare. Two cases of mucous retention cysts originating from the fossa of Rosenmüller are described, together with their characteristic radiologic appearance, which allows differentiation from other types of lesions in this region. The differential diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Prather, Colin T; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Bonfield, Christopher M
OBJECTIVE Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital lesions bordered by an arachnoid membrane. Researchers have postulated that individuals with an AC demonstrate a higher rate of structural brain injury after trauma. Given the potential neurological consequences of a structural brain injury requiring neurosurgical intervention, the authors sought to perform a systematic review of sport-related structural-brain injury associated with ACs with a corresponding quantitative analysis. METHODS Titles and abstracts were searched systematically across the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed case reports, case series, or observational studies that reported a structural brain injury due to a sport or recreational activity (hereafter referred to as sport-related) with an associated AC were included. Patients were excluded if they did not have an AC, suffered a concussion without structural brain injury, or sustained the injury during a non-sport-related activity (e.g., fall, motor vehicle collision). Descriptive statistical analysis and time to presentation data were summarized. Univariate logistic regression models to assess predictors of neurological deficit, open craniotomy, and cystoperitoneal shunt were completed. RESULTS After an initial search of 994 original articles, 52 studies were found that reported 65 cases of sport-related structural brain injury associated with an AC. The median age at presentation was 16 years (range 4-75 years). Headache was the most common presenting symptom (98%), followed by nausea and vomiting in 49%. Thirteen patients (21%) presented with a neurological deficit, most commonly hemiparesis. Open craniotomy was the most common form of treatment (49%). Bur holes and cyst fenestration were performed in 29 (45%) and 31 (48%) patients, respectively. Seven patients (11%) received
Abdelfattah, Hesham Mostafa; Ahmed, Mohammed Elrabie; Ahmed, Mona El-Rabie; Ahmed, Mohamed Abd El-Kader; Moussa, Abd-Elmateen
Pyriform sinus malformations represent rare third and fourth branchial anomalies. Fistulae at the latter site were initially described and make up less than 1 % of all brachial anomalies. They may be discovered incidentally, or may present as a neck mass with recurrent infection, dysphagia, or airway compromise, and can be an unusual cause of dysphonia in infant and children. Here, we present a case of third branchial cyst located in pharyngeal wall of the left pyriform sinus which presented with dysphonia since birth in a 6-year-old girl. Transoral CO2 laser excision was carried out successfully with no communicating tract. The patient's dysphonia showed progressive regression at 1-year follow-up. Third branchial cyst in the left pyriform sinus (Bailey's type IV) is an unusual cause of dysphonia in pediatric. Our present case report is the first brachial cyst to be reported in the pyriform fossa and the second branchial anomalies to be excised transorally with CO2 laser.
Bond, Aaron E; Zada, Gabriel; Bowen, Ira; McComb, J Gordon; Krieger, Mark D
The goal of this study was to review all cases of pediatric spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) surgically treated at the authors' institution between 1992 and 2008 and to compare these cases to the published literature for the general population. The charts of all pediatric patients with SACs were reviewed for demographics, medical history, presenting symptoms, imaging findings, operative procedure(s), complications, and outcomes. Following a complete literature review, the pediatric data were compared with data from the general population and unique findings associated with pediatric patients were identified. Thirty-one pediatric patients (median age 6.9 years) underwent operative intervention for SACs between 1992 and 2008 (median duration of follow-up 4.2 years). There were 17 female patients (55%) and 14 male patients (45%). Twenty-one patients (68%) presented with symptoms of radiculopathy or myelopathy. The most common presenting symptoms were pain (42%), lower-extremity weakness (39%), gait instability (32%), spasticity (19%), sensory loss (10%), and bladder dysfunction (7%). In 3 patients (10%) SACs were incidental findings. Intradural SACs were more common (18 patients, 58%) than extradural SACs (11 patients, 36%). One patient (3%) had extradural and intradural components. One patient (3%) had a purely intramedullary cyst, and 1 patient (3%) had both an intradural and intramedullary component. Of the 18 intradural SACs, 9 (50%) were located ventral to the spinal cord and 9 (50%) were dorsally situated. One dorsal intradural SAC had an intramedullary component. All extradural SACs were located dorsal to the spinal cord. Intradural SACs were primarily concentrated in the cervical and thoracic regions (67%), whereas extradural cysts were more evenly distributed between the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions. Of the 18 patients with intradural SACs, 13 (72%) had significant previous CNS abnormalities, compared with 3 (27%) of 11 patients with extradural SACs
Mavroidis, P; Vlachopoulou, A; Kostopoulos, S
Purpose: The purpose of this study is first to show the extent by which BLADE sequences can reduce all the image artifacts and second to verify that the usefulness of this technique in certain pathological conditions is significant. Methods: In this study, fourteen consecutive patients (5 females, 9 males), who routinely underwent MRI brain examination, between 2010–2014, were selected. The applied routine protocols for brain MR examination included the following sequences: 1) T2-W FLAIR axial; 2) T2-W TSE axial; 3) T2*-W axial, 4) T1-W TSE sagittal; 5) DWI-W axial; 6) T1-W TSE axial; 7) T1-W TSE axial+contrast. In cases ofmore » cystic tumors, the T2-W FLAIR BLADE sequence was added to the protocol. All the images were evaluated independently at two separate settings with 3 weeks interval by two radiologists. The radiologists also evaluated the presence of image artifacts (motion, flow, chemical shift, Gibbs ringing). To evaluate the size of the cyst, the two radiologists compared the two techniques (conventional and BLADE) by assessing the extent of the divergence in the measurements of the cysts. Results: Regarding the extent of the cyst size, BLADE measurements were found to be more reliable than the conventional ones with the differences being statistically significant (p<0.01). The qualitative measurements indicated that the T2 FLAIR BLADE sequences were superior to the conventional T2 FLAIR with statistically significant differences (p<0.001) in the following characteristics: 1) overall image quality, 2) CSF nulling; 3) contrast at the pathology and its surrounding; 4) limits of the pathology; 5) motion artifacts; 6) flow artifacts; 7) chemical shift artifacts and 8) Gibbs ringing artifacts. Conclusion: BLADE sequence was found to decrease both flow artifacts in the temporal lobes and motion artifacts from the orbits and it is proposed for clinical use.« less
Hnenny, Luke; Roundy, Neil; Zherebitskiy, Victor; Grafe, Marjorie; Mansoor, Atiya; Dogan, Aclan
Background and Purpose Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) rarely involve the cranium and have seldom been reported in pregnancy. Clinical Presentation We describe a case of a 28-year-old woman who presented at 37 weeks of gestation with 3 months of gradually worsening vision, 10 months of proptosis, and restricted ocular motility on the left. Brain imaging revealed a multicystic enhancing mass measuring 5.9 × 5.3 × 3.7 cm, centered on the cribriform plate on the left, extending into the anterior cranial fossa superiorly as well as the left nasal cavity, maxillary, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses. Her clinical course is described in detail; 3-month postoperative imaging demonstrated no residual mass. Conclusion A literature review revealed five previous cases of ABCs associated with pregnancy. We report a rare case of a giant ABC of fibrous dysplasia involving the paranasal sinuses and anterior cranial fossa. We postulate on the possible influence of pregnancy on the clinical course. PMID:26623230
Lee, Hee Chang; Choi, Jung Won; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Wang, Kyu-Chang
Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is a congenital brain anomaly characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis and the presence of a posterior fossa cyst. The association of syringomyelia with DWM is extremely rare. A 10-year-old patient who was diagnosed with DWM in infancy presented with progressive scoliosis and fecal incontinence. He had been treated with cystoventriculoperitoneal shunting with a Y-connection during infancy, which was followed by a revision 6 years later. During the revision surgery, intraventricular bleeding occurred and was managed conservatively. Imaging studies for the current visit revealed syringomyelia along the cervicothoracic spinal cord and a membranous structure around the cervicomedullary junction. Phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow across the membrane. We excised the arachnoid web that was tethering the brainstem and blocking CSF flow. Postoperatively, the patient experienced symptom relief, and the follow-up imaging study demonstrated a dramatic decrease in the size of the syringomyelia. We suggest that syrinx formation in this patient was possibly caused by disturbed CSF flow and tethering of the brainstem. We experienced an unusual case of DWM with syringomyelia which was caused by an arachnoid web blocking CSF flow and tethering the brainstem. The arachnoid web seems to be formed by previous bleeding which occurred at the time of shunt revision. After excision of the arachnoid web, the patient showed good outcome.
Kouadria, R; Derkaoui, M
Dermoid cysts of central nervous system are very rare. The usual clinical presentation is dominated by intracranial hypertension, epilepsy and cranial palsy. The revelation mode could be recurrent aseptic meningitis. The aim of this case report is to consider the dermoid cyst as regards the differential diagnosis in children treated for recurrent aseptic meningitis to avoid misdiagnosis and ice qui a orienté le diagnostic à une méningitnadequate treatment. Two children were admitted in the pediatric department for recurrent aseptic meningitis. The MRI confirmed the presence of a posterior fossa dermoid cyst. Loss of meningitis after microsurgical resection. The diagnosis of dermoid cyst is performed and reconsidered at an early stage in aseptic meningitis in order to establish an adequate therapy, which is surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ebner, F H; Roser, F; Thaher, F; Schittenhelm, J; Tatagiba, M
We report about endoscope-assisted surgery of epidermoid cysts in the posterior fossa focusing on the application of neuro-endoscopy and the clinical outcome in cases of recurrent epidermoid cysts. 25 consecutively operated patients with an epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa were retrospectively analysed. Surgeries were performed both with an operating microscope (OPMI Pentero or NC 4, Zeiss Company, Oberkochen, Germany) and endoscopic equipment (4 mm rigid endoscopes with 30° and 70° optics; Karl Storz Company, Tuttlingen, Germany) under continuous intraoperative monitoring. Surgical reports and DVD-recordings were evaluated for identification of adhesion areas and surgical details. 7 (28%) of the 25 patients were recurrences of previously operated epidermoid cysts. Mean time to recurrence was 17 years (8-22 years). In 5 cases the endoscope was used as an adjunctive tool for inspection/endoscope-assisted removal of remnants. The effective time of use of the endoscope was limited to the end stage of the procedure, but was very effective. In a modern operative setting and with the necessary surgical experience recurrent epidermoid cysts may be removed with excellent clinical results. The combined use of microscope and endoscope offers relevant advantages in demanding anatomic situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
[Left temporal arachnoid cyst and specific learning disorders associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorders - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS): contributions of an integrative neuropsychomotor, neuropsychological, psychopathological and neurosurgical approach about a case report in a child (François)].
Vaivre-Douret, L; Boschi, A; Cuny, M L; Clouard, C; Mosser, A; Golse, B; Philippe, A; Bourgeois, M; Boddaert, N; Puget, S
Left temporal arachnoid cyst and specific learning disorders associated with pervasive developmental disorders - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): contributions of an integrative neuro-psychomotor, neuropsychological, psychopathological and neurosurgical approach about a case report in a child (François). With DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR, the terminology of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) covers two main categories of infantile disorders: disorders of "strictly" autistic nature and pervasive developmental disorders - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Under the terminology of multiple complex developmental disorder (MCDD), it is proposed to classify children presenting symptoms approaching the psychotic disharmonies and usually diagnosed as PDD-NOS. Such a category of developmental disorders is now included without nosographic distinction in the autistic spectrum in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-V). We are reporting a case report of a 6-year-old boy which shows a PDD-NoS/MCDD complex symptomatology type. This child presents multiple disorders: minor neurological signs (soft signs), neuro-psychomotor disorders, developmental coordination disorder (DCD), communication, thought, and regulation of emotions disorders, attention deficit disorders (ADD); in the presence of a high verbal intellectual potential, which makes it difficult to establish a clear diagnosis. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out due to the presence of minor neurological signs (soft signs) and of neurodevelopmental multiple disorders. The MRI revealed a voluminous arachnoid temporo-polar left cyst with a marked mass effect on the left temporal lobe. A neurosurgical intervention allowed to observe the gradual disappearance of the specific symptomatology (in particular soft signs, neuro-psychomotor functions and autistic symptoms) secondary to the interference of the cyst's pressure with intracranial areas involving neurological and
Khan, Rabia; Oakes, Peter; Tubbs, R Shane; Oakes, W Jerry
Chiari I malformation can be due to a multitude of etiologies such as craniosynostosis or hydrocephalus. A posterior fossa extra-axial cyst (PFEAC) appears to be an extremely rare cause of this form of hindbrain herniation. Herein, we report a case of PFEAC that presented with no Chiari I malformation and then presented months later with a significant Chiari I malformation. Following shunt placement of a PFEAC, striking reversal of the Chiari malformation as well as reconstitution of the cerebellum was noted. Patients with PFEAC might develop a Chiari I malformation and this might be treated with shunting of the PFEAC alone.
Atallah, Elias; Dang, Sophia; Rahm, Sage; Feghali, James; Nohra, Chalouhi; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Zarzour, Hekmat; Herial, Nabeel; Gooch, Michael Reid; Jabbour, Pascal
Spinal arachnoiditis (SA) is an extremely rare and delayed complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Little is known about its underlying pathogenesis and subsequent clinical course. A middle-aged patient presented with the worst headache of her life and a grade 3 SAH of the basal-cisterns and posterior fossa was identified on Computed Tomography scans (CT). Angiography revealed a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the left vertebral artery (VA-V4), as well as an unruptured left Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA-A1) aneurysm. The VA aneurysm was treated with flow diversion. The patient re-ruptured the stented aneurysm, another telescoping pipeline was placed. The patient developed polymicrobial ventriculitis, and returned several months later complaining of paraparesis and left sided weakness. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse thecal dural thickening from the cervicomedullary junction to the sacrum. Loculations, diffuse edema and cord compression were noticed along the inferior surface of the cerebellum, and the cervico-thoracic spine with a T4-T6 syrinx. The patient underwent a posterior (T4-T8) spinal fusion and (T5-T7) decompression with arachnoid-cyst fenestration and placement of a subarachnoid-pleural shunt. On latest follow-up, the patient is weaning off the thoraco-lumbosacral orthosis and ambulating with a cane. SA is often a complicated two-staged disease in which a "free interval phase" separates the initial inflammatory reaction (IIR) from the late adhesive phase. Posterior fossa bleeding, warranting prolonged surveillance, additional bleeding and ventriculitis might augment the risk and the severity of arachnoiditis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is a widely used technique for determination of possible communication of arachnoid cysts (ACs). Three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) technique is a relatively new method for 3D isotropic scanning of the entire cranium within a short time. In this research, the usage of the 3D-SPACE technique in differentiation of communicating or noncommunicating type ACs was evaluated. Thirty-five ACs in 34 patients were retrospectively examined. The 3D-SPACE, PC-MRI, and contrast material-enhanced cisternography (if present) images of the patients were analyzed. Each cyst was described according to cyst size/location, third ventricle diameter, Evans index, and presence of hydrocephalus. Communication was defined as absent (score 0), suspected (score 1), or present (score 2) on each sequence. Results of PC-MRI or cisternography (if available) examinations were used as criterion standard techniques to categorize all cysts as communicating or noncommunicating type. The results of 3D-SPACE were compared with criterion standard techniques. The comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests. For demonstration of communication status of the cysts, criterion standard test results and 3D-SPACE findings were almost in perfect harmony (κ[95% confidence interval: 0.94]; P < 0.001). When evaluating the communicative properties, 3D-SPACE findings correlated with other final results at a rate of 97%. There is a positive correlation with third ventricular diameters and Evans index for all patients (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). For other analyzed variables, there is no significant difference or correlation between the groups. The 3D-SPACE technique is an easy, useful, and noninvasive alternative for the evaluation of morphology, topographical relationships, and communication status of ACs.
Kostama, V.-P.; Tormanen, T.
The Venusian volcano-tectonic structures have been subject to many classification and characterisation schemes. Several structure-types have been identified (e.g. coronae, novae, arachnoids, calderas, and corona-novae). Of these groups, the relationship of arachnoids and coronae has been complicated, and is a subject to much debate. Some previous works and studies have fused these two categories together, and even promoted the view of non-existence of arachnoids at times. However, based on the recognisable differences in morphology and other characteristics (e.g. size, topography, volcanism), they should be treated as a separate class of structures. In our first global study of the volcano-tectonic features, we found 96 arachnoids [1, 2]. During the reanalysis of the features as a by-product of another study, the arachnoid population was re-evalueted, and more importantly, the identification criteria was rechecked. The revised population increases the arachnoid number to 130 features. The work also produced many examples of features that can be considered as transitional forms between different morphological groups.  Kostama, V.-P., M. Aittola, LPSC XXXII, Abstract#1185, 2001a.  Kostama, V.-P., M. Aittola, The Catalogue of Venusian Arachnoids, Coronae and Novae, http://cc.oulu.fi/tati/JR/Venus/volcanotectonics/catalogue.html, 2001b.
... and location. Sometimes, a cyst looks like a skin cancer and may need to be removed to be ... and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016: ...
The fractures in this image are part of a large system of fractures called Cerberus Fossae. Athabasca Valles is visible in the lower right corner of the image as seen by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft.
The steep sided depressions in this image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft are fault bounded tectonic features called graben. These depressions are part of a large region of graben called Sacra Fossae. Sacra Fossae is located on the western margin of Lunae Planum. Orbit Number: 60829 Latitude: 18.2961 Longitude: 287.711 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-08-31 10:01 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20094
This image from NASA Mars Odyssey shows a region of Mars northern hemisphere called Ismenia Fossae. Most of the landforms are the degraded remains of impact crater rim and ejecta from an unnamed crater 75 km diameter just north of this scene.
Off the western flank of Elysium are the Hephaestus Fossae, seen in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey, with linear arrangements of small, round pits. These features are commonly called pit chains and most likely represent the collapse of lava tubes.
The north-south trending fractures and graben block down-dropped between two fractures in this region are called Ceraunius Fossae and are likely related to Alba Mons to the north shown in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft.
The linear depression in today's VIS image is part of Nili Fossae. Orbit Number: 60318 Latitude: 24.7944 Longitude: 80.7404 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-07-20 08:53 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19763
The linear wall at the bottom of this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is a fault. The linear depression caused by faulting is part of a long depression called Mangala Fossae. Orbit Number: 58979 Latitude: -17.9823 Longitude: 210.806 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-04-01 00:54 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19468
The intersecting linear depressions in this VIS image are part of Hephaestus Fossae. Orbit Number: 60373 Latitude: 21.9161 Longitude: 122.075 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-07-24 20:50 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19765
Nili Fossae is a large band of parallel graben located to the northeast of Syrtis Major. The graben in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft were formed by tectonic activity, with faulting that creates the linear depression. Orbit Number: 64105 Latitude: 23.3115 Longitude: 78.6126 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-05-27 05:24 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20785
Located on the western margin of Lunae Planum, Sacra Fossae is a group of linear depressions. The right angle turns and uniform width seen in this VIS image indicate that these channels were formed by faulting rather than liquid flow. Two bounding faults with a down-dropped interior are called graben. Orbit Number: 71244 Latitude: 17.7623 Longitude: 288.309 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2018-01-05 09:06 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22373
The linear depressions in this VIS image are some of the numerous graben that make up Claritas Fossae. Graben form when two faults cause a block of material to be dropped to a lower elevation. Orbit Number: 65197 Latitude: -35.7709 Longitude: 251.553 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-08-25 03:51 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21004
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 31 July 2002) This image crosses the equator at about 155 W longitude and shows a sample of the middle member of the Medusae Fossae formation. The layers exposed in the southeast-facing scarp suggest that there is a fairly competent unit underlying the mesa in the center of the image. Dust-avalanches are apparent in the crater depression near the middle of the image. The mesa of Medusae Fossae material has the geomorphic signatures that are typical of the formation elsewhere on Mars, but the surface is probably heavily mantled with fine dust, masking the small-scale character of the unit. The close proximity of the Medusae Fossae unit to the Tharsis region may suggest that it is an ignimbrite or volcanic airfall deposit, but it's eroded character hasn't preserved the primary depositional features that would give away the secrets of formation. One of the most interesting feature in the image is the high-standing knob at the base of the scarp in the lower portion of the image. This knob or butte is high standing because it is composed of material that is not as easily eroded as the rest of the unit. There are a number of possible explanations for this feature, including volcano, inverted crater, or some localized process that caused once friable material to become cemented. Another interesting set of features are the long troughs on the slope in the lower portion of the image. The fact that the features keep the same width for the entire length suggests that these are not simple landslides.
(Released 20 June 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Claritas Fossae is very degraded. This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story Not every crater on Mars has a name. The one in this image doesn't. What would you name it if you could? That's what planetary scientists ask themselves when they come across such features. If they think of a good name, they can submit it for approval to a group of world astronomers who are members of the International Astronomical Union. There are special rules, though, so not any name can be selected. The selection committee especially wants to make sure that all world cultures are represented. While this crater may not have a name, the region it lies in does. It is called Claritas Fossae. 'Claritas' is the Latin word for 'bright.' 'Fossae' are long, narrow, shallow depressions that mark the region. You can see these best in the context image to the right. You can tell just by looking at this crater that it is very ancient. Its rim is very degraded from erosion and bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. Compare its roughened rim to the smoother outline of the small crater on the rim's edge (upper right). The smoother rim of the small one means that it is considerably younger than its older, choppier neighbor. You know it was certainly created after the large crater because it lies on top of the rim. Other than the old and young generations of craters, the surface looks pretty uniform in hue and perhaps even
(Released 29 May 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS release captures Mangala Fossa. Mangala Fossa is a graben, which in geologic terminology translates into a long parallel to semi-parallel fracture or trough. Grabens are dropped or downthrown areas relative to the rocks on either side and these features are generally longer than they are wider. There are numerous dust devil trails seen in this image. In the lower portion of this image several dust devil tracks can be seen cutting across the upper surface then down the short stubby channel and finally back up and over to the adjacent upper surface. Some dust avalanche streaks on slopes are also visible. The rough material in the upper third of the image contains a portion of the rim of a 90 km diameter crater located in Daedalia Planum. The smooth crater floor has a graben (up to 7 km wide) and channel (2 km wide) incised into its surface. In the middle third and right of this image one can see ripples (possibly fossil dunes) on the crater floor material just above the graben. The floor of Mangala Fossa and the southern crater floor surface also have smaller linear ridges trending from the upper left to lower right. These linear ridges could be either erosional (yardangs) or depositional (dunes) landforms. The lower third of the scene contains a short stubby channel (near the right margin) and lava flow front (lower left). The floor of this channel is fairly smooth with some linear crevasses located along its course. One gets the impression that the channel floor is mantled with some type of indurated material that permits cracks to form in its surface. The Story In the Daedalia Plains on Mars, the rim of an old eroded crater rises up, a wreck of its former self (see context image at right). From the rough, choppy crater rim (top of the larger THEMIS image), the terrain descends to the almost smooth crater floor, gouged deeply by a trough, a channel, and the occasional dents of small, scattered craters. The deep
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 3 July 2002) Off the western flank of Elysium are the Hephaestus Fossae, including linear arrangements of small, round pits. These features are commonly called 'pit chains' and most likely represent the collapse of lava tubes. Lava tubes allow molten rock to move long distances underground. When the lava drains out it leaves unsupported tunnels, which can collapse and form pits. These particular pit chains are unusual because they change direction abruptly. In the lower portion of the image, pits have collapsed at the bends and allow us to observe the sharp, nearly right angle corners. These direction changes are most likely due to some sort of structural control during the emplacement of the lava tubes. There is an extraordinarily high concentration of small, degraded craters on the plains surface. The size range of these craters is fairly consistent and they all appear to be of similar age. It is unlikely that these were caused by primary impacts (impacts of meteors onto the surface) because both the size and timing distributions of primary impactors vary tremendously. However, the craters in the image could have been created from secondary impacts. Secondaries are impacts of material that is excavated during a large cratering event nearby or from the disintegration of a primary meteor in the atmosphere into many smaller parts that rain onto the surface. In contrast to these older, small craters, there is a relatively young crater in the center of the image. A hummocky ejecta blanket is visible around the crater and has covered some of the smaller craters on the plain around it. The edges of the crater are sharp, formed by rocky material in the crater rim. This material is visible as the layer of rough, grooved material at the top of the inside walls. Small dust avalanches have left dark streaks down the inside walls of the crater.
Su, Yukai; Ishii, Yudo; Lin, Chien-Min; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio
Background and Importance. Sellar arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts are benign lesions that produce similar symptoms, including optochiasmatic compression, pituitary dysfunction, and headache. Studies have reported the use of various surgical treatment methods for treating these symptoms, preventing recurrence, and minimizing operative complications. However, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and recurrence rate remain significant. Clinical Presentation. In this paper, we present 8 consecutive cases involving arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts, which were managed by using drainage and cisternostomy, the intentional fenestration of the cyst into the subarachnoid space, and then meticulously closing sellar floor using dural sutures. The postoperative images, CSF fistula rate, and the recurrence rate were favorable. Conclusion. We report this technique and discuss the benefit of this minimally invasive approach. PMID:25685785
Bagley, Jacob H; Owens, T Ryan; Grunch, Betsy H; Moreno, Jessica R; Bagley, Carlos A
Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare disorder characterized by the development of calcifications of the arachnoid membrane of the thoracic and lumbar spines. It is an extremely rare cause of spinal canal stenosis and consequent neurological compromise, and its origins and optimal management remain unclear. We review of the literature that illustrates the challenges of diagnosis and treatment of arachnoiditis ossificans. A patient with arachnoiditis ossificans is discussed to illustrate the presentation, treatment, and prognosis of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
(Released 25 June 2002) The Science Tantalus Fossae is a set of long valleys on the eastern side of Alba Patera. These valleys are referred to as grabens and are formed by extension of the crust and faulting. When large amounts of pressure or tension are applied to rocks on timescales that are fast enough that the rock cannot respond by deforming, the rock breaks along faults. In the case of a graben, two parallel faults are formed by extension of the crust and the rock in between the faults drops downward into the space created by the extension. Numerous sets of grabens are visible in this THEMIS image, trending from north-northeast to south-southwest. Because the faults defining the graben are formed parallel to the direction of the applied stress, we know that extensional forces were pulling the crust apart in the west-northwest/east-southeast direction. The large number of grabens around Alba Patera is generally believed to be the result of extensional forces associated with the uplift of Alba Patera. Also visible in this image are a series of linearly aligned pits, called a pit chain. The pits are not the result of impact cratering, but are similar to sinkholes on Earth. Sinkholes are typically formed by the removal of rock (commonly limestone) underground by groundwater -- when enough rock is removed, the overlying rock becomes too heavy to be supported, and it collapses, forming a pit. Unlike sinkholes, however, the pit chains near Alba Patera were likely formed when empty underground lava tubes collapsed, accounting for the presence and alignment of many pits. Numerous channel features are also observed in the image, and follow the local topographic slope, which is downhill to the east-southeast. One of these, a long channel in the center of the image, nicely demonstrates the complex relations possible between geologic features. The geologist's rule of superposition says that a feature on top of (superposing) another feature, or cutting across another
Dawson, C. B.; Crumpler, L. S.
Current high resolution Magellan data enables more detailed geological study of arachnoids, first identified by Barsukov et al. as features characterized by a combination of radar-bright, concentric rings and radiating lineations, named 'arachnoids' on the basis of their spider and web-like appearance. Identification of arachnoids in Magellan data has been based on SAR images, in keeping with the original definition. However, there is some overlap by other workers in identification of arachnoids, corona (predominantly bright rings), and novae (predominantly radiating lineations), as all of these features share some common characteristics. Features used in this survey were chosen based on their classification as arachnoids in Head et al.'s catalog and on SAR characteristics matching Barsukov et al.'s original definition. The 259 arachnoids have been currently identified on Venus, all of which were considered in this study. Fifteen arachnoids from different regions, chosen for their 'type' characteristics and lack of deformation by other regional processes, were studied in depth, using SAR and altimetric data to map and profile these arachnoids in an attempt to better determine their geologic and altimetric characteristics and possible formation sequences.
... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... Diversity Resources Jobs at NINDS Director, Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels ...
This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a different part of Olympica Fossae. In this region lava channels dominate. The complex interaction of volcanic and tectonic processes is illustrated by the central feature in this image.
The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Nili Fossae.
Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J
Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case.
... Most tumors of the posterior fossa are primary brain cancers. They start in the brain, rather than spreading from somewhere else in the ... nausea, vomiting, or vision changes. Alternative Names ... JF, Hollander AB, Alonso-Basanta M, et al. Cancer of the central nervous system. In: Niederhuber JE, ...
Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This southern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.0 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.Figure caption from Science Magazine
Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This northern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.4 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.Figure caption from Science Magazine
Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdol, Cagatay; Gurcan, Oktay; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Tun, Kagan; Cemil, Berker
A 60-year-old man presented with an occipital mass under the scalp and complained of headache, nausea, and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined mass in the occipital scalp extending from the scalp through the cranium and several centimetres into the posterior fossa. There were well-defined margins in the deep portion and the mass was totally removed. Histological examination showed that the cystic structure was lined by squamous epithelium containing laminated keratin material. The pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged free of symptoms.
... mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. Many women have ovarian ... cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ...
Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This northern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.4 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west. Science Magazine, Volume 279, Number 5357, 13 March 1998, M. C. Malin, et. al., "Early Views of the Martian Surface from the Mars Orbiter Camera of Mars Global Surveyor", pp. 1681-1685 (Fig. 1A) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00800
Goh, Young Bum; Han, Chi-Sung
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is defined as CSF otorrhea where there are no identifiable causes including previous trauma, surgery, infection, neoplasm or congenital anomaly. The condition is rare. The origin of CSF leak is commonly a defect in the tegmen of the middle cranial fossa. The pathophysiology of spontaneous CSF otorrhea is unclear. Two theories of the etiology of bony defects of the temporal bone are the congenital bony defect theory and arachnoid granulation theory. The authors experienced a case of a 49-year-old female patient admitted with the complaint of persistent right ear fullness. Computed tomography revealed a large defect of the middle fossa and suspicious CSF otorrhea through the defect of tegmen tympani. Repair was successful with multiple bone chips using the transmastoid approach. The postoperative course was good and there has been no recurrence of the CSF leakage. PMID:24653924
Franko, Lynze R; Pandian, Balaji; Gupta, Avneesh; Savastano, Luis E; Chen, Kevin S; Riddell, James; Orringer, Daniel A
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infectious helminthic disease often presenting in patients who have immigration or travel history from areas where NCC is endemic. Fourth ventricle cysts from NCC pose a unique treatment challenge, as there is little consensus on the best treatment. This case study describes the treatment of a patient with fourth ventricle neurocysticercosis (FVNCC), examines the therapeutic decision-making, and provides a video of a posterior fossa craniotomy (PFC) resection of a degenerative cyst. The patient presented with headache, dizziness, nausea, and memory difficulties. A fourth ventricle cyst consistent with NCC was found on magnetic resonance imaging, and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the diagnosis. The cyst was removed utilizing an open PFC followed by antihelminthic therapy and corticosteroids. There was resolution of symptoms at 9 mo postoperatively. Several treatment modalities have been proposed for isolated cysts in the fourth ventricle, including medication, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, endoscopic removal, and PFC. The treatment decision is complex, and there is little guidance on the best treatment choices. In this article, we describe treatment via PFC for an adherent FVNCC cyst.
(Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust
(Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today
Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Agrawal, Tanu; Jain, Manoj
Background Aneurysmal bone cysts are relatively uncommon in the facial skeleton. These usually affect the mandible but origin from the coronoid process is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a coronoid process aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as temporal fossa swelling. Case presentation A 17 year old boy presented with a progressively increasing swelling in the left temporal region developed over the previous 8 months. An expansile lytic cystic lesion originating from the coronoid process of the left mandible and extending into the infratemporal and temporal fossa regions was found on CT scan. It was removed by a superior approach to the infratemporal fossa. Conclusion Aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process can attain enormous dimensions until the temporal region is also involved. A superior approach to the infratemporal fossa is a reasonable approach for such cases, providing wide exposure and access to all parts of the lesion and ensuring better control and complete excision. PMID:16533409
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) orbits the red planet twelve times each day. The number of pictures that MOC can take varies from orbit to orbit, depending upon whether the data are being stored in MGS's onboard tape recorder for playback at a later time, or whether the data are being sent directly back to Earth via a real-time radio link. More data can be acquired during orbits with real-time downlink.During real-time orbits, the MOC team often will take a few random or semi-random pictures in between the carefully-selected, hand-targeted images. On rare occasions, one of these random pictures will surprise the MOC team. The picture shown here is an excellent example, because the high resolution view (top) is centered so nicely on a trough and an adjacent, shallow crater that it is as if someone very carefully selected the target for MOC. The high-resolution view covers an area only 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide by 2.3 km (1.4 mi) long. Hitting a target such as this with such a small image is very difficult to do, on purpose, because there are small uncertainties in the predicted orbit, the maps used to select targets, and the minor adjustments of spacecraft pointing at any given moment. Nevertheless, a very impressive image was received.The high resolution view crosses one of the troughs of the Sirenum Fossae near 31.2oS, 152.3oW. The context image (above) was acquired at the same time as the high resolution view on July 23, 2000. The small white box shows the location of the high resolution picture. The lines running diagonally across the context image from upper right toward lower left are the Sirenum Fossae troughs, formed by faults that are radial to the volcanic region of Tharsis. Both pictures are illuminated from the upper left. The scene shows part of the martian southern hemisphere nearly autumn.
... inside the renal cysts. Your doctor may use ultrasound imaging to monitor renal cysts for any changes over ... Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body Ultrasound - Pelvis Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...
Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... Baker cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid ...
... Ganglion Cysts Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Ganglion Cysts Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - Ganglion ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...
... essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. A mass or bulge of the vaginal wall may be ... to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is ...
An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. In the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shown on the right, the crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.The MOC image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The context image (left; the best Viking view of the area; VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.
2006-01-01This image of the Nili Fossae region of Mars was compiled from separate images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), two instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken at 0730 UTC (2:30 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 4, 2006, near 20.4 degrees north latitude, 78.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. HiRISE's image was taken in three colors, but its much higher resolution shows features as small as 30 centimeters (1 foot) across. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, discovered that some of the most ancient regions of Mars are rich in clay minerals, formed when water altered the planet's volcanic rocks. From the OMEGA data it was unclear whether the clays formed at the surface during Mars' earliest history of if they formed at depth and were later exposed by impact craters or erosion of the overlying rocks. Clays are an indicator of wet, benign environments possibly suitable for biological processes, making Nili Fossae and comparable regions important targets for both CRISM and HiRISE. In this visualization of the combined data from the two instruments, the CRISM data were used to calculate the strengths of spectral absorption bands due to minerals present in the scene. The two major minerals detected by the instrument are olivine, a mineral characteristic of primitive igneous rocks, and clay. Areas rich in olivine are shown in red, and minerals rich in clay are shown in green. The derived colors were then overlayed on the HiRISE image. The area where the CRISM and HiRISE data overlap is shown at the upper left, and is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) across. The three boxes outlined in blue are enlarged to show how the different minerals in the scene match up with different landforms. In the image
Located north of Olympus Mons and west of Alba Patera, Acheron Fossae provides a record of early tectonic activity in the Tharsis region. Acheron Fossae is a relatively high standing region characterized by multiple subparallel graben. As seen in the image, the graben trend generally to the northwest. The entire area predates the Alba Patera flows (which embay the eastern most Acheron grabens) and the Olympus Mons volcano (one of the youngest Tharsis features). The subdued nature of the highstanding hills, the erosion the graben walls, the eroded rims of all the visible craters, and the wind etching of the flat surfaces all help indicate the great age of Acheron Fossae. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04034
Eldesouky, Mohammed A; Elbakary, Molham A; Sabik, Saly; Shareef, Mohamed M
Purpose The incidence and clinical and imaging criteria of different pathological forms of lacrimal fossa lesions in the Delta region of Egypt were studied. Methods A retrospective study of patients with lacrimal fossa lesions for the past 10 years was conducted. A total of 146 cases were identified. Their medical records were reviewed for clinical and imaging data (computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging scan, or both). A definitive diagnosis based on pathological examination of biopsies was also reviewed. Results Among the patients reviewed, 43.15% had inflammatory lacrimal gland lesions, 26.71% had lymphoproliferative lesions, and 21.92% had epithelial lesions; 8.22% had rare lesions (5.48% were dacryops and 2.74% had hemangioma). The study included 71.92% benign lesions and 28.08% malignant lesions, which were distributed between 19.18% malignant lymphoma and 8.9% malignant epithelial tumors. According to the pathological origin of the lesions, they may be classified into 78.08% nonepithelial lesions and 21.92% epithelial lesions (16.44% epithelial tumors, and 5.48% dermoid cysts). Conclusion Lacrimal fossa lesions show a wide pathological range. Inflammatory lesions are most frequent, followed by lymphoproliferative and epithelial lesions. Analysis of clinical and radiological criteria is helpful in the differential diagnosis of lacrimal gland lesions. PMID:25210428
Arai, Atsushi; Sasayama, Takashi; Koyama, Junji; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji
A 27-year-old woman presented with headache and occasional numbness over her right face. Computed tomography revealed a hypodense mass in the middle cranial fossa and another adjacent hyperdense mass in the posterior fossa with erosion of the right petrous apex. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the lesion in the middle cranial fossa as iso- to hypointense on T(1)-weighted and hyperintense on T(2)-weighted imaging, with peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration, and the adjacent lesion in the posterior fossa as hyperintense on T(1)-weighted and hypointense on T(2)-weighted imaging. During surgery, these lesions mimicking two adjacent distinct tumors were revealed to connect through Meckel's cave. The hypodense lesion in the middle cranial fossa consisted of pearly-like solid contents, and the hyperdense lesion in the posterior cranial fossa consisted of viscid dark-green materials. The tumors were gross totally resected with endoscopic assistance. Histological examination confirmed that the tumor was an epidermoid cyst. The present case cyst indicates that although the diffusion-weighted imaging sequence is useful for detection of intracranial epidermoid cysts, epidermoid cysts including viscous materials with unusual radiological findings could complicate the preoperative diagnosis.
Flis, Daniel W; Wein, Richard O
Nasopharyngeal branchial cysts (NBCs) have been discussed in the literature in only a limited number of publications. Differing from Tornwaldt cysts, NBCs present laterally and arise from the fossa of Rosenmuller and may track superiorly within the bony confines of the Eustachian tube. Initially patients are asymptomatic but may present with aural fullness, unilateral conductive hearing loss, and serous otitis media as the cyst mass grows. Two of our three patients had the lesion incidentally identified at the time of assessment for another diagnosis. In this case series, imaging characteristics and response to treatment are reviewed. A literature search was performed to summarize the management options for this entity.
Zhang, Xi-An; Qi, Song-Tao; Fan, Jun; Huang, Guang-Long; Peng, Jun-Xiang
The aim of this study was to describe the similarity of configuration between the arachnoid complex in the posterior half of the incisural space and the Liliequist membrane. Microsurgical dissection and anatomical observation were performed in 20 formalin-fixed adult cadaver heads. The origin, distribution, and configuration of the arachnoid membranes and their relationships with the vascular structures in the posterior half of the incisural space were examined. The posterior perimesencephalic membrane and the cerebellar precentral membrane have a common origin at the tentorial edge and form an arachnoid complex strikingly resembling an inverted Liliequist membrane. Asymmetry between sides is not uncommon. If the cerebellar precentral membrane is hypoplastic on one side or both, the well-developed quadrigeminal membrane plays a prominent part in partitioning the subarachnoid space in the posterior half of the incisural space. The arachnoid complex in the posterior half of the incisural space can be regarded as an inverted Liliequist membrane. This concept can help neurosurgeons to gain better understanding of the surgical anatomy at the level of the tentorial incisura.
... with aspiration and injection therapy, there are nevertheless cases in which the ganglion cyst returns. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find an ACFAS Physician: Search by Mail Address ...
... trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing. Alternative Names Physiologic ovarian ...
Darwish, Houssein A; Oldfield, Edward H
This report describes the circumstances of a patient with a cauda equina syndrome due to the development of a lumbar subdural CSF collection with ventral displacement of the cauda equina shortly following posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I). This unusual, but clinically significant, complication was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage of the extraarachnoid CSF collection. Although there are a few cases of intracranial subdural hygroma developing after surgery for CM-I, often attributed to a pinhole opening in the arachnoid, as far as the authors can determine, a spinal subdural hygroma associated with surgery for CM-I has not been recognized.
Hofer, Jennifer E; Scavone, Barbara M
In this article, we provide a literature review of cranial nerve (CN) VI injury after dural-arachnoid puncture. CN VI injury is rare and ranges in severity from diplopia to complete lateral rectus palsy with deviated gaze. The proposed mechanism of injury is cerebrospinal fluid leakage causing intracranial hypotension and downward displacement of the brainstem. This results in traction on CN VI leading to stretch and neural demyelination. Symptoms may present 1 day to 3 weeks after dural-arachnoid puncture and typically are associated with a postdural puncture (spinal) headache. Resolution of symptoms may take weeks to months. Use of small-gauge, noncutting spinal needles may decrease the risk of intracranial hypotension and subsequent CN VI injury. When ocular symptoms are present, early administration of an epidural blood patch may decrease morbidity or prevent progression of ocular symptoms.
Reina, Miguel Angel; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Gatt, Stephen P; De Andrés, José; Prats-Galino, Alberto; van Zundert, André
It has been customary to attribute postdural puncture headache (PDPH) incidence and severity to size and nature of the dural hole produced during major neuraxial blockade or diagnostic dural puncture. Needle orientation in relation to the direction of dural fibers was thought to be of importance because of the propensity for horizontal bevel placement to cause cutting rather than splitting of the dural fibers. In vitro punctures of stringently quality-controlled human dural sac specimens were obtained with 27-gauge (27G) Whitacre needle (n = 33), with 29G Quincke used parallel to the spinal axis (n = 30), and with 29G Quincke in perpendicular approach (n = 40). The samples were studied with a scanning electron microscope, and the perimeter, appearance, and area (%) of the lesion were calculated. When using small 27G to 29G needles, neither needle tip characteristics nor needle orientation had a substantial bearing on the damage to dural fibers in the dural lesion. Of ultimate importance was the characteristic and size of the hole in the arachnoid. Arachnoid layer lesions produced by different types of spinal needles were not markedly different. Accepted theories of the etiology of PDPH need to be revised. This article marks the first time that arachnoid layer damage has been quantified. Dural fibers tend to have sufficient "memory" to close back the hole created by a spinal needle, whereas arachnoid has diminished capacity to do so. The pathogenesis of PDPH and its resolution algorithm are a far more complex process that involves many more "stages" of development than hitherto imagined.
... Rarely, a Baker's cyst bursts and synovial fluid leaks into the calf region, causing: Sharp pain in your knee Swelling in the calf Sometimes, redness of your calf or a feeling of water running down your calf These signs and symptoms ...
Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard
The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090
Sharon, Low Y Y; Wai Hoe, N G
Burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematomas are routine operative procedures done by neurosurgical residents. Common postoperative complications include acute epidural and/or subdural bleeding, tension pneumocephalus, intracranial hematomas and ischemic cerebral infarction. We report an interesting post-operative complication of a 'subarachnoid cyst' after burr-hole evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma. The authors hypothesize that the 'cyst' is likely secondary to the splitting of the adjacent neomembrane within its arachnoid-brain interface by iatrogenic irrigation of the subdural space. Over time, this 'cyst' develops into an area of gliosis which eventually causes long-term scar epilepsy in the patient. As far as we are aware, this is the first complication of such a 'subarachnoid cyst' post burr-hole drainage reported in the literature.
The autapomorphic status of the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was recently confirmed. This was a result of a detailed analysis of the internal bone composition in the area of the suprainiac depression on Neanderthal and Homo sapiens specimens. However, while anatomical differences between Neanderthal suprainiac fossa and the depression in the inion region of the occipital bone of fossil and recent Homo sapiens have been discussed in detail, the etiology of these structures has not been resolved. In this article, the hypothesis that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa both formed to maintain the optimal shape of the occipital plane (to minimize strain on the posterior cranial vault) is tested. First, the variation in the expression of the fossa above inion in the crania of recent Homo sapiens from European, African, and Australian samples was examined, and the degree of structural similarity between these depressions and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was assessed. Next, the relationship between the shape of the occipital squama in the midsagittal plane and two particular features (the degree of the occipital torus development and the occurrence of a depression in the inion region that is not the supranuchal fossa) were analyzed. Based on the results, it is suggested that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa are convergent traits. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Markle, L. M.
The Nili Fossae region presents multiple resource and science ROIs for establishing a permanent colony on Mars. Water ice appears to cover a large are and multiple geological formations provide opportunity for science missions.
This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows Nili Fossae region of Mars, one of the largest exposures of clay minerals, and a prime candidate landing site for Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity.
... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...
Ringel, Steven P.; Bailey, Orville T.
A 29 year old female with a chiasmal syndrome secondary to a Rathke's cleft cyst is described. The histology and pathogenesis of these rare cysts are discussed, contrasting them with other hypophysial cysts. Images PMID:4538890
Pilonidal abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... An infected pilonidal cyst or abscess requires surgical drainage. It will not heal with antibiotic medicines. If you continue to have infections, the pilonidal cyst can be ...
Lin, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Lee, Jin-Chin
Branchial anomalies present with a wide range of pathologic characteristics, including cysts, fistulas, and sinuses of the head and neck region. Branchial cysts are most commonly diagnosed during the second through fourth decades of life, while branchial sinuses and fistulas are diagnosed almost exclusively in children with infection episodes. Only rarely has an internal sinus of a third or fourth branchial anomaly manifested in adults as a noninfectious swelling in the neck during swallowing. In this report, we describe our experience treating a 21-year-old man with a left-sided swallowing-induced neck protrusion of 10 years' duration. Findings of physical examination, videolaryngoscopy, and a pharyngoesophagogram confirmed the diagnosis of internal sinus of the pyriform fossa, with uncertain origin of a third or fourth branchial anomaly. The patient underwent regular follow-up as an outpatient and experienced no further infectious episodes.
Bilodeau, Elizabeth Ann; Collins, Bobby M
This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cebi, Işıl Taylan; Karataş, Abdullah; Yüce, Turgut; Şalvız, Mehti; Koçak, Ayhan; Selçuk, Tuba
The etiology, clinical features, and treatment of an extremely rare case of a bilateral nasolabial cyst have been evaluated in this report. A 60-year-old female presented to our clinic with a pain-free swelling above the upper lip for a year and obstruction of the left nasal cavity for two months. On undergoing a physical ENT examination, she showed bulging of both nasal fossae and effacement of the bilateral nasolabial groove with a fluctuating smooth mass. A paranasal sinus CT scan showed a smooth, ovoid mass of 20×13 mm at the right side and 26×22 mm at the left side occupying the floor of the nasal fossa and restricted to the soft parts of the premaxillary region, without any bony destruction. The patient underwent surgical excision under general anesthesia via sublabial approach. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial cyst. The patient was asymptomatic during 18-month of postoperative follow-up. Bilateral nasolabial cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the nasal vestibule and deformities of the premaxillary region. Although endonasal endoscopic cyst marsupialization is a relatively new treatment, surgical resection with the sublabial approach is the treatment of choice. PMID:29392022
.... A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the temporomandibular joint to augment a glenoid fossa or to provide an articulation surface for the head of a mandibular...
.... A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the temporomandibular joint to augment a glenoid fossa or to provide an articulation surface for the head of a mandibular...
Hansen, Eric A; Romanova, Liudmila; Janson, Christopher; Lam, Cornelius H
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), large amounts of red blood cells and hemolytic products are deposited intracranially creating debris in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This debris, which includes heme and bilirubin, is cleared via the arachnoid granulations and lymphatic systems. However, the mechanisms by which erythrocytes and their breakdown products interfere with normal CSF dynamics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to model in vitro how blood breakdown products affect arachnoid cells at the CSF-blood barrier, and the extent to which the resorption of CSF into the venous drainage system is mechanically impaired following TBI. Arachnoid cells were grown to confluency on permeable membranes. Rates of growth and apoptosis were measured in the presence of blood and lysed blood, changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured in the presence of blood and hemoglobin, and small molecule permeability was determined in the presence of blood, lysed blood, bilirubin, and biliverdin. These results were directly compared with an established rat brain endothelial cell line (RBEC4) co-cultured with rat brain astrocytes. We found that arachnoid cells grown in the presence of whole or lysed erythrocytes had significantly slower growth rates than controls. Bilirubin and biliverdin, despite their low solubilities, altered the paracellular transport of arachnoid cells more than the acute blood breakdown components of whole and lysed blood. Mannitol permeability was up to four times higher in biliverdin treatments than controls, and arachnoid membranes demonstrated significantly decreased small molecule permeabilities in the presence of whole and lysed blood. We conclude that short-term (<24 h) arachnoid cell transport and long-term (>5 days) arachnoid cell viability are affected by blood and blood breakdown products, with important consequences for CSF flow and blood clearance after TBI.
Heiser, Marc A; Waldron, James S; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T; Cheung, Steven W
Review clinical experience with temporal fossa hemangiopericytomas (HPCs). Retrospective case series review. Tertiary referral center. Intracranial HPCs within the temporal fossa. Craniotomy for either subtotal or gross total tumor excision. Determination of clinical outcome (alive with no evidence of disease, alive with disease, and died of disease). Five cases of HPC involving the temporal fossa were treated at our tertiary referral center for the period from 1995 to 2008. All but 1 patient were men. The age of presentation ranged from 31 to 62 years, and duration of follow-up ranged from 8 to 153 months. Clinical presentation was protean; headache was the most common symptom. Gross total tumor excision was achieved in 2 patients, whereas subtotal tumor excision was achieved in 3 patients. Reasons for subtotal resection included excessive intraoperative blood loss and inextricable tumor. Histologically, all tumors were composed of tightly packed, randomly oriented (jumbled-up) tumor cells with little intervening collagen. CD34 staining mostly highlighted the vascular background. One patient died of disease, 2 patients were alive with disease, and 2 patients had no evidence of disease. Management of temporal fossa HPC is challenging because clinical presentation is often late, and extent of tumor excision is constrained by vital structures in the cranial base and intracranial contents. A multidisciplinary approach with neurosurgery and neurotology undertaken to achieve the most complete tumor resection possible, whereas minimizing morbidity are likely to confer a longer period of symptom-free survival and improves curability of these difficult lesions.
Shikano, S; Yamashita, Y
Latin anatomical names of Fossae and Foveae in the skeleton were analyzed and compared with Japanese anatomical names for better understanding of the structures of the human body and for possible revision in the future. The conclusions were as follows: 1. In general, round excavations were called Foveae (singular : Fovea), and nonround excavations were called Fossae (singular : Fossa). Some shallow excavations for articulation and some shallow excavations with the names which indicate their contents were called Foveae even though they were not round. 2. Each name of Fossae contained the word which indicates form, location or content of Fossa, the bone (or osseous structure) which articulates with Fossa, or the muscle which is attached to Fossa. 3. Each name of Foveae contained the word which indicates location, content or articulation of Fovea, the bone (or osseous structure) which articulates with Fovea, or the muscle (or muscular trochlea) which is attached to Fovea. 4. The Japanese name which corresponds to Fossa canina should be changed from Kenshi (canine tooth) = ka (fossa) to Kenshikin (canine muscle) = ka or Koukakukyokin (levator anguli oris muscle) = ka. 5. The Japanese name which corresponds to Fossa pterygopalatina should be changed from Yoku (wing) = kougai (palate) = ka (fossa) to Yokutotsu (pterygoid process) = kougaikotsu (palatine bone) = ka.
Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi
The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.
Sivasankar, Vaishnavi; Ranganathan, Kannan; Praveen, B
Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up. PMID:24808713
Wang, Qinying; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shenqing
Objectives: To determine the outcomes of coblation assisted transnasal endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal cyst. Method: Retrospective chart review outcomes in 12 patients who underwent endoscopic resect cysts of the nasopharynx at our department between 2001 and 2010. Twelve patient, aged 28 to 71 years, with cysts of the nasopharynx. The outcome variables of complications and the rate of recurrence were analyzed, respectively. Results: In 12 cases, retention cysts in 2 cases, branchial cyst in 1 case, adenoid middle fossa cyst infection in 6 cases, Tornwaldt’s cyst in 3 cases. The use of the coblation device was associated with a significant decrease in blood loss. There were no postoperative complications, and the overall follow-up period was 2-7 years and shows no signs of recurrence. Conclusions: We describe transnasal endoscopic procedures to resect cysts of the nasopharynx. We found that radiofrequency coblation is a useful and safe tool associated with minimal blood loss in the resection of these cysts. In our experience, it has been a highly successful, safe, and effective procedure. PMID:26131108
Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V
Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763
Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V
Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth.
Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M
The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.
Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, Ikchan; Kim, Sang Woo
Capillary hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors on skin and soft tissues, but developing as an intradural and extramedullary (IDEM) tumor in spine is extremely rare. In this report, we present IDEM tumor compressing thoracic cord in T2–3 level with extensive arachnoiditis below the tumor level in a 60-year-old man. The lesion was removed and histological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. Prompt diagnosis and resection are important to avoid neurological deterioration from acute hemorrhagic condition. Simultaneous arachnoiditis may be originated from old subarachnoid hemorrhage associated tumor before diagnosis, and we suggest it as a helpful diagnostic feature to suspect vascular tumors such as capillary hemangioma. PMID:28704911
Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, Ikchan; Kim, Sang Woo
Capillary hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors on skin and soft tissues, but developing as an intradural and extramedullary (IDEM) tumor in spine is extremely rare. In this report, we present IDEM tumor compressing thoracic cord in T2-3 level with extensive arachnoiditis below the tumor level in a 60-year-old man. The lesion was removed and histological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. Prompt diagnosis and resection are important to avoid neurological deterioration from acute hemorrhagic condition. Simultaneous arachnoiditis may be originated from old subarachnoid hemorrhage associated tumor before diagnosis, and we suggest it as a helpful diagnostic feature to suspect vascular tumors such as capillary hemangioma.
Angelov, D N
The ultrastructural features of the encephalic dura mater-arachnoid borderline (interface) layer (zone) of rats, rabbits, cats and humans were studied. The rat's interface zone included the electron-lucent epithelium-like arranged fibroblasts of the inner dural layer, the rich in filaments cells of the dural neurothelium, a 20 nm wide intercellular cleft filled with electron-dense material and the dark mitochondria-rich cells of the outer arachnoidal layer; in rabbits and cats, this laminar distinction was less prominent, while in man, it was almost absent.
Kurokawa, Y; Tsuchita, H; Sohma, T; Kitami, K; Takeda, T; Hattori, S
A case of holoprosencephaly associated with Dandy-Walker cyst is reported. The patient was a male baby whose mother had normal serum titers for toxoplasma, syphilis, rubella and hepatitis B. She had no history of diabetes mellitus, administration of drugs or irradiation during the pregnancy. At the 8th month of gestation, fetal hydrocephalus was diagnosed by ultrasonic imaging. He was delivered by caesarean section at 34 weeks and 4 days, weighing 2,644 g. His head circumference was 42 cm; the anterior fontanel was not distended and its tension was normal. The chromosomal karyotype was a normal 46 XY. X-ray CT showed a large dorsal sac cyst in the supratentorial space and a hypoplastic cerebellum with a large cyst in the posterior fossa. He received a cyst-peritoneal shunt 24 days after birth. After this procedure, his head enlargement was arrested. We discuss the etiology of this rare coexistence of two major malformations.
Papadakis, Marios; Manios, Andreas; Trompoukis, Constantinos
A popliteal cyst, also known as Baker cyst, is a benign fluctuant swelling of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa in the popliteal fossa at the back of the knee. The cyst is named after William Morrant Baker, who is considered to have first described this fluid collection with new sac formation outside of the knee-joint in 1877. We herein present a short description contained in the Galenic Corpus that appears to match to what we now call the Baker cyst. Α thorough survey of Kühn's Galenic Corpus was performed. The 14th book of Kühn's edition contains a brief review of all the anatomical structures and pathologies. In the 17th chapter of this treatise, devoted to skin lesions, the author states that steatomas appear in the popliteal fossa. However, it is no more believed to reflect the Galenic teaching and is ascribed to Pseudo-Galen. With regard to the descriptions survived and the anatomy knowledge in the post-Galenic era time, the brief report of the ancient text of unknown origin, appears to match what we now describe as popliteal cyst.
Cho, Jae Hee
Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. PMID:25674524
Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz
Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed.
Fonoff, E T; Gentil, A F; Padilha, P M; Teixeira, M J
Current advances in frame modeling and computer software allow stereotactic procedures to be performed with great accuracy and minimal risk of neural tissue or vascular injury. In this report we associate a previously described minimally invasive stereotactic technique with state-of-the-art 3D computer guidance technology to successfully treat a 55-year-old patient with an arachnoidal cyst obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius. We provide detailed technical information and discuss how this technique deals with previous limitations for stereotactic manipulation of the aqueductal region. We further discuss current advances in neuroendoscopy for treating obstructive hydrocephalus and make comparisons with our proposed technique. We advocate that this technique is not only capable of treating this pathology but it also has the advantages to enable reestablishment of physiological CSF flow thus preventing future brainstem compression by cyst enlargement. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
This beautifully contrasted infrared-color image shows an area approximately 600 by 900 meters. This is a close-up from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft of the western Medusa Fossae formation where we can see dust-covered rocky, bedrock surfaces beige and a bluish-tinted sand sheet that transitions into several dunes. The bluish sand is thought to originate from the bedrock that lies beneath the dust. If true, this has implications for the composition of the formation, which has been highly debated over the years. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19939
Składzieriń, J; Olés, K; Zagólski, O; Moskała, M; Sztuka, M; Strek, P; Wierzchowski, W; Tomik, J
An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a rare, benign fibro-osseous lesion, considered a vascular phenomenon secondary to fibrous dysplasia or a giant-cell tumour, and occurs mainly in long bones and vertebrae. In this case report a 16-year-old male presented with massive epistaxis. He was admitted with a 3-year history of chronic rhinitis, headaches, right ocular pain and recurrent epistaxis. CT scans showed a predominantly cystic, expansive mass obstructing both nasal cavities, extending to all paranasal sinuses and both orbits, with evidence of anterior cranial fossa skull base destruction. The patient underwent a craniofacial resection of the tumour performed with an external approach and an immediate reconstruction of the dural defect. Histology confirmed the lesion was an ABC associated with fibrous dysplasia. The patient's recovery was complete. A large facial aneurysmal bone cyst can damage the facial skeleton and skull base, and requires excision by a combined external approach.
Nabeel, Alnaghmoosh; Lach, Boleslaw; Al-Shail, Essam; Patay, Zoltan
We describe the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of concurrent, congenital leptomeningeal arteriovenous malformation with hemangioma diagnosed in a newborn by prenatal and immediately postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. Vascular abnormalities were accompanied by massive arachnoidal cell hyperplasia reminiscent of meningioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of such a lesion reported in the literature.
Shono, Naoyuki; Kin, Taichi; Nomura, Seiji; Miyawaki, Satoru; Saito, Toki; Imai, Hideaki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito
A virtual reality simulator for aneurysmal clipping surgery is an attractive research target for neurosurgeons. Brain deformation is one of the most important functionalities necessary for an accurate clipping simulator and is vastly affected by the status of the supporting tissue, such as the arachnoid membrane. However, no virtual reality simulator implementing the supporting tissue of the brain has yet been developed. To develop a virtual reality clipping simulator possessing interactive brain deforming capability closely dependent on arachnoid dissection and apply it to clinical cases. Three-dimensional computer graphics models of cerebral tissue and surrounding structures were extracted from medical images. We developed a new method for modifiable cerebral tissue complex deformation by incorporating a nonmedical image-derived virtual arachnoid/trabecula in a process called multitissue integrated interactive deformation (MTIID). MTIID made it possible for cerebral tissue complexes to selectively deform at the site of dissection. Simulations for 8 cases of actual clipping surgery were performed before surgery and evaluated for their usefulness in surgical approach planning. Preoperatively, each operative field was precisely reproduced and visualized with the virtual brain retraction defined by users. The clear visualization of the optimal approach to treating the aneurysm via an appropriate arachnoid incision was possible with MTIID. A virtual clipping simulator mainly focusing on supporting tissues and less on physical properties seemed to be useful in the surgical simulation of cerebral aneurysm clipping. To our knowledge, this article is the first to report brain deformation based on supporting tissues.
Bassett, L.W.; Mirra, J.M.; Forrester, D.M.
Three cases of intra-articular osteochondral bodies with the olecranon fossa are reported. All patients had had severe trauma to the elbow, and in each case an osteochondral fragment, nourished by the synovial fluid, became enlarged and finally lodged within the fossa. The radiological and pathological features and presumed pathogenesis are described.
Many important structures are located in the confined space within the posterior cranial fossa. This article describes the main aspects of the anatomy. As a uniform classification of malformations of the posterior cranial fossa does not exist the main syndromes, such as Chiari malformations, zerebellar hypoplasia and dysplasia are discussed separately.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glenoid fossa prosthesis. 872.3950 Section 872.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification...
... develop normally. The birth defect may appear as open spaces called cleft sinuses, which may develop on one or both sides of the neck. A branchial cleft cyst may form from fluid drained from a sinus. The cyst or sinus can become infected.
Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Jianu, Adelina Maria; Păduraru, Dumitru
The anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa keeps a traditional level and is viewed as constant, even though a series of structures neighboring the fossa are known to present individual variations. We aimed to evaluate on 3D volume renderizations the anatomical variables of the pterygopalatine fossa, as related to the variable pneumatization patterns of the bones surrounding the fossa. The study was performed retrospectively on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 100 patients. The pterygopalatine fossa was divided into an upper (orbital) and a lower (pterygomaxillary) floor; the medial compartment of the orbital floor lodges the pterygopalatine ganglion. The pneumatization patterns of the pterygopalatine fossa orbital floor walls were variable: (a) the posterior wall pneumatization pattern was determined in 89.5 % by recesses of the sphenoidal sinus related to the maxillary nerve and pterygoid canals; (b) the upper continuation of the pterygopalatine fossa with the orbital apex was narrowed in 79.5 % by ethmoid air cells and/or a maxillary recess of the sphenoidal sinus; (c) according to its pneumatization pattern, the anterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa was a maxillary (40.5 %), maxillo-ethmoidal (46.5 %), or maxillo-sphenoidal (13 %) wall. The logistic regression models showed that the maxillo-ethmoidal type of pterygopalatine fossa anterior wall was significantly associated with a sphenoidal sinus only expanded above the pterygoid canal and a spheno-ethmoidal upper wall. The pterygopalatine fossa viewed as an intersinus space is related to variable pneumatization patterns which can be accurately identified by CBCT and 3DVR studies, for anatomic and preoperatory purposes.
Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Marabathina, Nageswara R
Acquired Chiari malformation and associated syringomyelia have been previously described following lumbar puncture/drainage, lumboperitoneal shunts, and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage. In addition to these etiologies, space-occupying lesions such as meningiomas, epidermoid cysts, medulloblastomas, and arachnoid cysts are rare causes of acquired Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. We report a rare case of colloid cyst with hydrocephalus causing secondary Chiari malformation with syringomyelia. A 58-year-old lady presented with neck pain and difficulty in walking and numbness of all 4 limbs of 1-year duration. Diagnostics with magnetic resonance imaging of the head and the cervical spine were done in the referring hospital. The patients was then referred with the diagnosis of colloid cyst with hydrocephalus and Chiari malformation 1 with cervicodorsal syringomyelia. She underwent colloid cyst excision through the transcallosal approach. Postoperatively the patient showed improvement in her symptomatology. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine at 6 months' follow-up showed resolved Chiari malformation and resolving syrinx. Colloid cyst with hydrocephalus is a rare cause of secondary Chiari malformation with syringomyelia. Surgical management of the underlying lesion improves acquired Chiari malformation and associated syringomyelia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Di Rocco, Federico; Jucá, Carlos Eduardo; Zerah, Michel; Sainte-Rose, Christian
The management of hydrocephalus associated with a posterior fossa tumor is debated. Some authors emphasize the advantages of an immediate tumor removal that may normalize the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. However, in clinical practice, the mere excision of the lesion has been demonstrated to be accompanied by a persisting hydrocephalus in about one third of the cases. Preoperative endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) offers several advantages. It may control the intracranial pressure (ICP), avoid the necessity of an emergency procedure, allow appropriate scheduling of the operation for tumor removal, and eliminate the risks related to the presence of an external drainage. The procedure also reduces the incidence of postoperative hydrocephalus. A final advantage, more difficult to weight, but obvious to the neurosurgeon, is the possibility to remove the lesion with a relaxed brain and normal ICP. In the postoperative phase, ETV can be used in case of persisting hydrocephalus, both in patients who underwent only the excision of the tumor and in those whose preoperative ETV failed as a consequence of intraventricular bleeding with secondary closure of the stoma (redoETV). The main advantage of postoperative ETV is that the procedure is carried out only in case of persisting hydrocephalus; its use is consequently more selective than preoperative ETV. The disadvantage consists in the common use of an external CSF drainage in the first few postoperative days, which is necessary to control the pressure and for ruling out those cases that reach a spontaneous cure of the hydrocephalus. The authors review the criteria for patient selection and the results of ETV performed in case of hydrocephalus secondary to a posterior fossa tumor. Preoperative ETV constitutes an effective procedure for controlling the hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa tumors. It might lower the rate of persistent postoperative hydrocephalus and result in a short hospital stay. Low
Lee, Sean Wy; Foo, Aaron; Tan, Char Loo; Tan, Thomas; Lwin, Sein; Yeo, Tseng Tsai; Nga, Vincent Dw
Spinal extradural cyst (SEDC) accounts for less than 1% of spinal epidural lesions. It is commonly asymptomatic but can give rise to back pain and compressive neurological symptoms. We report the case of a 51-year-old male who presented with gait difficulties over five months associated with occasional urge incontinence. Clinical examination revealed signs suggestive of thoracic myelopathy with bilateral lower limbs spasticity, decreased proprioception and pin prick sensation. MRI showed a Thoracic (T) 7-T9 extradural cystic lesion with an area of flow void on the right side between T8 and T9. A right hemilaminotomy was initially performed, dural defect identified and repaired primarily. Unfortunately, there was a recurrence of the SEDC 2 weeks post-operation and a T7-T9 laminoplasty with complete excision was performed. Computer-tomography (CT) myelography or MRI flow study best visualises the communication between the epidural cyst and sub-arachnoid space. The ideal surgical management for SEDC remains controversial. Our case suggests that there may be higher recurrence associated with fenestration of the SEDC and closure of the dural defect, but perhaps higher complications associated with complete excision. We present a case report and literature review of the terminology, presentation, recommended investigations, management and outcomes of patients with SEDC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guo, Zhilin; Ouyang, Huoniu; Cheng, Zhihua
We retrospectively reviewed the management of 49 patients with parapontine epidermoid cyst presenting with trigeminal neuralgia, emphasizing the importance of fully removing the tumor to relieve the trigeminal neuralgia. Clinical symptoms, MRI, the operative approach, and post-operative results were examined. Trigeminal neuralgia was noted in all patients. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to surgery was 18 months. Total removal was achieved in 23 patients, near-total removal in 21, and subtotal removal in five patients. However, all tumor capsule that adhered to the trigeminal nerve was completely removed. After the operation, 33 patients developed facial hypoesthesia, three complained of double vision, and two developed acute hydrocephalus. At six months of follow-up, all patients had recovered and returned to their normal lives. At 2 years of follow-up, one patient experienced pain recurrence and underwent another operation. Parapontine epidermoid cysts either encase cranial nerve (CN) V but with intact arachnoid between the capsule and the nerve, or compress and distort the nerve with tumor capsule adherent or attached to the nerve surface. Resecting the tumor capsule's attachment to CN V is critical in relieving pain, even though this method may damage the nerve. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lobprise, H B; Wiggs, R B
An infrequently occurring tumor-like lesion arising from the cellular components of the developing dental follicle is the dentigerous cyst. These odontogenic cysts have classic clinical and radiographic findings. The cysts are locally invasive and aggressive and require prompt surgical management. This case describes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a dentigerous cyst in the mandible of a dog.
Bourhaleb, Z; Chekrine, T; Bouamama, I; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A
Giant cell tumors of bone (GCT) are usually benign and relatively rare. They have an aggressive behavior and an unpredictable prognosis. They occur mainly in the young adult, with a preferential localization in long bones. We report a giant cell infratemporal fossa tumor. A 55-year-old female patient consulted for swelling in the right cheek. Surgical excision was incomplete because of the subtemporal tumor localization. Histological assessment proved a GCT. Forty-five grays postoperative external radiotherapy was applied to the surgical site. The patient had local control at the 12-month follow-up. GCTs are seldom observed in the facial skeleton (2%). The recommended treatment is surgery. Radiotherapy can be indicated in case of incomplete or impossible surgical excision, or when surgery would be responsible for a major functional deficit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Aldemir, Cengiz; Önder, Merve; Doğan, Ali; Duygun, Fatih; Oğuz, Nurettin
This study aims to investigate the depth, transverse and sagittal diameters of lunate fossa which is a significant structure of the wrist in terms of reducing the risk for volar plate screws, which are administered in distal radius fractures, from penetrating into the joint. Depth, transverse and sagittal diameters of lunate fossa in 50 right and 50 left adult dried radius bones without distal tip damage were measured by using MicroscribeG2X from the MicroScribe G series. Mean lunate fossa depth: left 2.419886±0.51 mm/right 2.543052±0.78 mm, mean lunate fossa sagittal diameter: left 19.656±1.57 mm/right 18.796±1.53 mm, mean lunate fossa transverse diameter: left 11.382±0.65 mm/right 11.106±0.91 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between right and left depth values of lunate fossa (p=0.320), whereas there was statistically significant difference between right and left transverse and sagittal diameters (p=0.006, p=0.048). Measurements involving depth of lunate fossa may guide the development of new anatomic plates and decrease complications like the penetration of screw into joint whilst volar plate administrations.
Liu, Chang; Kaneko, Sawa; Soma, Kunimichi
To evaluate the morphological and histological responses of the glenoid fossa to mandibular lateral shift in growing rats. A resin plate was placed on the upper incisors of 4-week-old rats in the experimental groups to displace the mandible to the left during closure. The rats were killed after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The morphometric measurements were performed on dry skulls, and tissue blocks were processed for periodic acid and Schiff's reagent (PAS) staining to examine the new bone formation. Gross measurements showed asymmetry in both the position and size of the fossae between the two sides after 4 weeks of lateral shift. The glenoid fossa on the ipsilateral side was repositioned relatively backward, outward and upward compared with the contralateral side and control group, whereas the fossa on the contralateral side was relocated relatively forward and downward compared with the control group. The length of the fossa was smaller on the ipsilateral side than on contralateral side and control group. At 2 weeks, the amount of newly formed bone in the posterior region of the fossa was higher in the experimental group than the control group. It is suggested that the mandibular lateral shift causes asymmetry in the position and size of the glenoid fossa and that this phenomenon can be related to different bilateral directional new bone formation in the posterior region.
Phillips, Nicholas S.; Laningham, Fred H.; Patay, Zoltan; Gajjar, Amar; Wallace, Dana; Boop, Frederick; Sanford, Robert; Ness, Kirsten K.; Ogg, Robert J.
Posterior fossa syndrome is characterized by cerebellar dysfunction, oromotor/oculomotor apraxia, emotional lability and mutism in patients after infratentorial injury. The underlying neuroanatomical substrates of posterior fossa syndrome are unknown, but dentatothalamocortical tracts have been implicated. We used pre- and postoperative neuroimaging to investigate proximal dentatothalamocortical tract involvement in childhood embryonal brain tumour patients who developed posterior fossa syndrome following tumour resection. Diagnostic imaging from a cohort of 26 paediatric patients previously operated on for an embryonal brain tumour (13 patients prospectively diagnosed with posterior fossa syndrome, and 13 non-affected patients) were evaluated. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was used to define relevant tumour features, including two potentially predictive measures. Postoperative magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging were used to characterize operative injury and tract-based differences in anisotropy of water diffusion. In patients who developed posterior fossa syndrome, initial tumour resided higher in the 4th ventricle (P = 0.035). Postoperative magnetic resonance signal abnormalities within the superior cerebellar peduncles and midbrain were observed more often in patients with posterior fossa syndrome (P = 0.030 and 0.003, respectively). The fractional anisotropy of water was lower in the bilateral superior cerebellar peduncles, in the bilateral fornices, white matter region proximate to the right angular gyrus (Tailerach coordinates 35, –71, 19) and white matter region proximate to the left superior frontal gyrus (Tailerach coordinates –24, 57, 20). Our findings suggest that multiple bilateral injuries to the proximal dentatothalamocortical pathways may predispose the development of posterior fossa syndrome, that functional disruption of the white matter bundles containing efferent axons within the superior cerebellar peduncles is a
Kang, Dongwan; Park, Jinhwan; Na, Jaehoon; Lee, Hwa; Baek, Sehyun
To evaluate the clinical usefulness of measuring the lacrimal sac fossa length using orbital computed tomography in normal Koreans. The authors retrospectively evaluated 140 patients (70 males and 70 females) who underwent orbital computed tomography at Guro Hospital and who had no history of orbital disease or orbital trauma. Computed tomography scans of the right orbit, including the proportion of the lacrimal bone and maxillary bone that comprise the lacrimal sac fossa, were evaluated at 3 different axial planes (lower, middle, and upper levels). Additionally, the mid-point thickness and maximum thickness of the maxillary bone were measured. Finally, the authors also evaluated the relationship between nasal bone height and maxillary bone thickness in the lacrimal sac fossa. Maxillary bone thickness in the lacrimal sac fossa was thicker in males than in females at mid-point thickness and maximum thickness (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the size of the lacrimal sac fossa and the proportion of the maxillary bone between males and females.In comparisons between maxillary cross-sections, bone thickness was greater toward the upper level of the lacrimal sac fossa (P = 0.008), and the proportion of the maxillary bone was also greater (P = 0.006).Aging had a significant positive correlation with maxillary bone thickness at all 3 axial planes (P < 0.05), but there was no relationship between age and maxillary bone proportion. Nasal bone height and maxillary bone thickness were also not significantly related. In comprising the lacrimal sac fossa, the maxillary bone accounted for a bigger proportion than the lacrimal bone. Male maxillary bone thickness was greater than female thickness. The authors also observed that maxillary bone thickness increased toward the upper areas of the lacrimal sac fossa and with increasing subject age. Understanding the form and variation of a normal lacrimal sac fossa is helpful for preparing for a
Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. PMID:27904209
Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.
Josephson, A; Greitz, D; Klason, T; Olson, L; Spenger, C
Spinal cord cysts are a devastating condition that occur secondary to obstructions of the spinal canal, which may be caused by congenital malformations, trauma, spinal canal stenosis, tumors, meningitis, or arachnoiditis. A hypothesis that could explain how spinal cord cysts form in these situations has been presented recently. Therefore, a novel spinal thecal sac constriction model was implemented to test various aspects of this hypothesis. Thecal sac constriction was achieved by subjecting rats to an extradural silk ligature at the T8 spinal cord level. Rats with complete spinal cord transection served as a second model for comparison. The animals underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis. Thecal sac constriction caused edema cranial and caudal to the ligation within 3 weeks, and cysts developed after 8 to 13 weeks. In contrast, cysts in rats with spinal cord transection were located predominantly in the cranial spinal cord. Histological sections of spinal cords confirmed the magnetic resonance imaging results. Magnetic resonance imaging provided the specific advantage of enabling characterization of events as they occurred repeatedly over time in the spinal cords of individual living animals. The spinal thecal sac constriction model proved useful for investigation of features of the cerebrospinal fluid pulse pressure theory. Edema and cyst distributions were in accordance with this theory. We conclude that induced intramedullary pressure gradients originating from the cerebrospinal fluid pulse pressure may underlie cyst formation in the vicinity of spinal canal obstructions and that cysts are preceded by edema.
Nayyer, Namita V; Macluskey, Michaelina; Keys, William
This article aims to discuss the clinical features, radiological assessment, histopathology and management of a variety of odontogenic cysts. It also highlights the reclassification of odontogenic keratocysts to keratocystic odontogenic tumours.
This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a set of landforms that appears to form a nested chevron pattern on a slope in Coloe Fossae. Interestingly, nearby surfaces on the same slope are all parallel.
Lane, S; Ironside, J W
Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is rarely found arising in the head and neck region. An unusual case arising in the nasal fossa in a young child is reported and the differential diagnosis, pathology and treatment discussed.
Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie
Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.
Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S
Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.
HS, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A.; Astekar, Madhusudan S.
Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458
Reina, M; Lopez, A; Badorrey, V; De Andres, J A; Martin, S
Aims: The dural and arachnoid hole caused by lumbar puncture needles is a determining factor in triggering headaches. The aim of this study is to assess the dimensions and morphological features of the dura mater and arachnoids when they are punctured by a 22 gauge Quincke needle having its bevel either in the parallel or in the transverse position. Methods: Fifty punctures were made with 22 gauge Quincke needles in the dural sac of four fresh cadavers using an "in vitro" model especially designed for this purpose. The punctures were performed by needles with bevels parallel or perpendicular to the spinal axis and studied under scanning electron microscopy. Results: Thirty five of the 50 punctures done by Quincke needles (19 in the external surface and 16 in the internal) were used for evaluation. When the needle was inserted with its bevel parallel to the axis of the dural sac (17 of 35), the size of the dura-arachnoid lesion was 0.032 mm2 in the epidural surface and 0.037 mm2 in the subarachnoid surface of the dural sac. When the needle's bevel was perpendicular to the axis (18 of 35) the measurement of the lesion size was 0.042 mm2 for the external surface and 0.033 mm2 for the internal. There were no statistical significant differences between these results. Conclusions: It is believed that the reported lower frequency of postdural puncture headache when the needle is inserted parallel to the cord axis should be explained by some other factors besides the size of the dura-arachnoid injury. PMID:15146008
Reina, M A; López, A; Badorrey, V; De Andrés, J A; Martín, S
The dural and arachnoid hole caused by lumbar puncture needles is a determining factor in triggering headaches. The aim of this study is to assess the dimensions and morphological features of the dura mater and arachnoids when they are punctured by a 22 gauge Quincke needle having its bevel either in the parallel or in the transverse position. Fifty punctures were made with 22 gauge Quincke needles in the dural sac of four fresh cadavers using an "in vitro" model especially designed for this purpose. The punctures were performed by needles with bevels parallel or perpendicular to the spinal axis and studied under scanning electron microscopy. Thirty five of the 50 punctures done by Quincke needles (19 in the external surface and 16 in the internal) were used for evaluation. When the needle was inserted with its bevel parallel to the axis of the dural sac (17 of 35), the size of the dura-arachnoid lesion was 0.032 mm(2) in the epidural surface and 0.037 mm(2) in the subarachnoid surface of the dural sac. When the needle's bevel was perpendicular to the axis (18 of 35) the measurement of the lesion size was 0.042 mm(2) for the external surface and 0.033 mm(2) for the internal. There were no statistical significant differences between these results. It is believed that the reported lower frequency of postdural puncture headache when the needle is inserted parallel to the cord axis should be explained by some other factors besides the size of the dura-arachnoid injury.
Zielinski, Rafal; Zakrzewska, Anna
Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.
Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided. PMID:28352681
2008-01-01Spectra collected by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) indicate the presence of three distinct minerals. The graphed information comes from an observation of terrain in the Nili Fossae area of northern Mars. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Iron-magnesium smectite clay is formed through alteration of rocks by liquid water and is characterized by distinctive absorptions at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.3 micrometers due to water (H2O) and OH in the atomic structure of the mineral. Olivine is an iron magnesium silicate and primary igneous mineral, and water is not in its structure. Its spectrum is characterized by a strong and broad absorption at 1.0 micrometer due to ferrous iron (Fe2+). Carbonate is an alteration mineral identified by the distinctive paired absorptions at 2.3 and 2.5 micrometers. The precise band positions at 2.31 and 2.51 micrometers identify the carbonate at this location as magnesium carbonate. The broad 1.0 micrometer band indicates some small amount of ferrous iron is also present and the feature at 1.9 micrometers indicates the presence of water. CRISM researchers believe the magnesium carbonate found in the Nili Fossae region formed from alteration of olivine by water. The data come from a CRISM image catalogued as FRT00003E12. The spectra shown here are five-pixel-by-five-pixel averages of CRISM L-detector spectra taken from three different areas within the image that have then been ratioed to a five-pixel-by-five-pixel common denominator spectrum taken from a spectrally unremarkable area with no distinctive mineralogic signatures. This technique highlights the spectral contrasts between regions due to their unique mineralogy. The spectral wavelengths near 2.0 micrometers are affected by atmospheric absorptions and have been removed for clarity. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars
Tohma, Y; Yamashima, T; Yamashita, J
Cadherins are a family of intercellular glycoproteins responsible for calcium-dependent cell adhesion and are currently divided into four types: epithelial (E), neuronal (N), placental (P), and vascular (V). Since cadherins are known to be indispensable for not only morphogenesis in the embryo but also maintenance of tumor cell nest, we examined the expression of E-cadherin in 31 meningiomas (11 syncytial, 12 transitional, 8 fibroblastic) and 3 arachnoid villi by immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses. In the immunoblot analysis, E-cadherin was detected at the main band of Mr 124,000 in all of the arachnoid villi, as well as syncytial and transitional types of meningiomas, but not in the fibroblastic type. The immunohistochemical examination showed that E-cadherin was expressed at the cell borders of syncytial and transitional types, but the expression was absent in the fibroblastic type. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that E-cadherin was localized at the intermediate junctions in arachnoid villi, while it was detected diffusely at the cell surface in meningiomas. It is suggested from these data that the expression of E-cadherin might be closely related to the differentiation and organogenesis of meningioma cells.
Uluc, Kutluay; Cikla, Ulas; Morkan, Deniz B; Sirin, Alperen; Ahmed, Azam S; Swanson, Kyle; Baskaya, Mustafa K
In contemporary microneurosurgery reducing retraction-induced injury to the brain is essential. Self-retaining retractor systems are commonly used to improve visualization and decrease the repetitive microtrauma, but sometimes self-retaining retractor systems can be cumbersome and the force applied can cause focal ischemia or contusions. This may increase the morbidity and mortality. Here, we describe a technique of retraction using 10-0 sutures in the arachnoid. To evaluate the imaging and clinical results in patients where 10-0 suture retraction was used to aid the surgical procedure. Adjacent cortex was retracted by placing 10-0 nylon suture in the arachnoid of the bank or banks of the sulcus. The suture was secured to the adjacent dural edge by using aneurysm clips, allowing for easy adjustability of the amount of retraction. We retrospectively analyzed the neurological outcome, signal changes in postoperative imaging, and ease of performing surgery in 31 patients with various intracranial lesions including intracranial aneurysms, intra- and extra-axial tumors, and cerebral ischemia requiring arterial bypass. Clinically, there were no injuries, vascular events, or neurological deficits referable to the relevant cortex. Postoperative imaging did not show changes consistent with ischemia or contusion due to the retraction. This technique improved the visualization and illumination of the surgical field in all cases. Retraction of the arachnoid can be used safely in cases where trans-sulcal dissection is required. This technique may improve initial visualization and decrease the need for dynamic or static retraction.
Kohn, Jocelyne C; Rootman, Daniel B; Xu, Dongdong; Goldberg, Robert A
To describe the radiographic findings in chronic maxillary atelectasis and analyse the volume changes of the affected maxillary sinus, orbit, nasal vault and infratemporal fossa. Case series of all patients with diagnosis of chronic maxillary atelectasis presenting between January 2000 and August 2012 who underwent full oculoplastic and orbital evaluation including standardised photography and CT or MRI. Two-dimensional imaging features and volumetric changes were assessed. Affected and unaffected sides were compared. Demographic data, clinical presentation, Hertel measurements, photographic and radiological findings were analysed. 22 patients (64% men) met the inclusion criteria. Mean relative enophthalmos was 2.1 mm and mean hypoglobus was 1.8 mm. The most common radiographic findings were sinus opacification (91%), uncinate process retraction/middle meatus increase (91%), orbit enlargement (100%), ipsilateral septum deviation (64%) and infratemporal fossa fat enlargement (100%). Infratemporal fossa fat area and volume were significantly larger in the affected side (p<0.01). Additionally, ipsilateral orbit (p<0.01) and nasal vault volume (p<0.01) were similarly increased. Maxillary sinus volume correlated significantly only with infratemporal fossa fat enlargement (p<0.05). There is a significant increase in the infratemporal fossa fat, nasal and orbital volume corresponding to a decrease in maxillary sinus size in chronic maxillary atelectasis. Chronic maxillary atelectasis is associated with redistribution of volume between the maxillary sinus and the surrounding infratemporal fossa, orbit and nasal cavity.
Miyazaki, Masaya; Kiuchi, Shizuka; Fujioka, Yasunori
We report an extremely rare case of branchial cleft-like cysts in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The patient was a 77-year-old man with a growing mass in the anterior neck. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a cystic lesion with septum in the left thyroid and multiple small cystic lesions in the right thyroid. Lymph node swelling of the cervical region, supraclavicular fossa and submandibular region was also observed. Left thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection were performed. Histologically, cysts were lined by stratified squamous epithelium and dense lymphoid tissue having conspicuous follicle formation surrounded the epithelial lining. Solid cell nest (SCN)-like aggregations were seen in the thyroid parenchyma adjacent to the cyst walls and a small number of thyroid follicles were observed in the fibrous wall. Immunohistochemically, it is suggested that both the cyst lining and SCN-like aggregations are originally from thyroid follicles. Although, the exact histogenesis of branchial cleft-like cysts remains unclear, there are probably two different processes for its development, one is of branchial cleft origin and the other is mere squamous metaplasia, while in our case the latter is suggested. Herein, we report our new case and update information about branchial cleft-like cysts that appears in the literature. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Phan, Jennifer; Raman Muthusamy, V
The goal of this review is to critically analyze the current literature regarding the management of incidental pancreatic cysts. Given their increased rates of detection due to the frequent use of cross-sectional imaging, correctly identifying the subset of high risk lesions that are appropriate for surgical resection is critical. However, the existing consensus and societal guidelines discussed in this review lack high quality data to create evidence-based recommendations, making achieving this important aim challenging. Several recent studies have focused on the natural history of pancreatic cysts and defining the role of endoscopic ultrasound, which remains unclear. EUS-guided diagnostic tools include molecular analysis of obtained fluid; EUS-guided FNA, FNB, and intracystic forceps biopsy of the cyst wall; and confocal endomicroscopy. While their precise role in diagnosing pancreatic cystic neoplasms remains to be defined, they represent promising innovations that may play a future role in cyst assessment and management. Large, long-term, prospective studies of incidentally identified pancreatic cysts are essential to fully understand their natural history and potential for neoplastic progression. Given the absence of such data at present, an individualized patient approach is recommended.
Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L
Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.
An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.
Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K
Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kerber, L.; Head, J. W.
Introduction The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a complicated and discontinuous formation located in the southern parts of Elysium Planitia and Amazonis Planitia (130°-230°E and 12°S-12°N), covering an area of approximately 2.1 x 106 km2 and having an estimated volume of 1.4 x 106 km3 . It is thought to have been deposited during the Amazonian period [2,3]. However, much of the cratering record may have been erased as friable units were eroded and long-buried terrains exhumed [4-6]. The formation is characterized by large accumulations of fine-grained, friable deposits and evidence of large amounts of erosion. There are many theories regarding the emplacement of this formation; recently the literature has focused on three possibilities: ignimbrites, ash fall, and aeolian dust. Some modified and inverted fluvial channels have been found within the deposit [7,8], (Fig. 1), indicating that there was some fluvial activity during or after the emplacement of the MFF. If the MFF is among the youngest surficial deposits on Mars , it is implied that meandering, channelized flow must have extended into the Amazonian, a significant constraint when considering the atmospheric evolution of the planet through time. Because of the wide implications that these findings have for the evolution of Mars and the Martian atmosphere, it is instructive to re-examine the evidence for the Amazonian age of the MFF. The initial conclusion comes from two main arguments: the relatively few superposed craters on the unit, and the superposition of the MFF on young lowland lava deposits [1, 9]. Using new high resolution data, we reexamine the relationships both within the MFF and with respect to adjacent units. Cratering Record The cratering record of the MFF and other easily eroded units has often been deemed unreliable [4, 10, 12], but it continues to be cited as evidence for the formation's young age. Throughout the MFF, pedestal craters, inverted craters, and remnant knobs can be
Barak, A; Hirsh, A; Rosner, M; Rosen, N
An orbital cyst is a rare complication of orbital trauma and exenteration. Infections of such cysts have not been described, and are potentially dangerous unless treated immediately. The authors describe a case of delayed treatment of such an infected cyst, which resolved following surgical drainage. The potentially hazardous outcome makes knowledge of such cases important.
Marvin, Eric; Akhter, Asad S.; Coppens, Jeroen R.
Background: Hemangioblastomas (HGBs) are the most common primary intra-axial posterior fossa tumor in adults. Although spontaneous hemorrhage of these tumors is exceedingly rare, despite their vascular nature, we describe a case of recurrent hemorrhage with associated tonsillar herniation, and demonstrate that a surgical approach can provide a suitable outcome. Case Description: A 54-year-old female with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome presented with acute loss of consciousness and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 4. Computed tomographic (CT) images demonstrated large volume subarachnoid hemorrhage of the posterior fossa with intraventricular extension and intraparenchymal hemorrhage involving the right cerebellar tonsil. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) displayed three lesions in the posterior fossa, two near the hemorrhage site. Patient underwent suboccipital craniectomy with a decent recovery followed by radiosurgery as she refused resection. A second hemorrhage occurred ultimately prompting surgical resection of the three posterior fossa lesions, with a reasonable postoperative course. Conclusion: Hemorrhage of HGBs of the posterior fossa can present in conjunction of tonsillar herniation. Re-hemorrhage appears to be likely if prior acute hemorrhage has occurred. A stepwise approach of surgical decompression and resection may provide the best outcome. PMID:28713626
Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod
Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case.
Aswath, Nalini; Mastan, Kader; Manikandan, Tirupathi; Samuel, Gigi
The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested.
Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P
Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.
Campanacci, M; Capanna, R; Picci, P
One hundred and seventy-eight cases of unicameral bone cysts (UBC) treated with curettage and bone grafting were compared to 141 cases treated with cortisone injections. The end results were comparable in the two groups. Local recurrence risk factors in the surgical group were active cyst and previous operations. In the other group they were multilocation of the cyst, active cyst, and size of cyst. A new radiographic classification of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is proposed in a report of 198 cases of ABC. The treatment of choice in ABC is surgical and the type (curettage, curettage plus phenole or cryosurgery, resection or hemiresection) is selected on the basis of the radiographic aspect and the rate of growth of the cyst. Radiotherapy is only indicated in inoperable ABC cases.
Burks, Joshua D.; Glenn, Chad A.; Conner, Andrew K.; Bonney, Phillip A.; Sanclement, Jose A.; Sughrue, Michael E.
Fractures of the anterior skull base may occur in gunshot victims and can result in traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Less commonly, CSF leaks occur days or even weeks after the trauma occurred. Here, we present the case of a 21-year-old man with a delayed-onset, traumatic CSF leak secondary to a missile injury that left a bullet fragment in the Rosenmuller fossa. The patient was treated successfully with endoscopic, endonasal extraction of the bullet, and repair with a nasal septal flap. Foreign bodies lodged in Rosenmuller fossa can be successfully treated with endoscopic skull base surgery. PMID:27330924
Lei, Ting; Feng, Jie-Ling; Xie, Ying-Jun; Xie, Hong-Ning; Zheng, Ju; Lin, Mei-Fang
To explore the genetic aetiology of fetal posterior fossa abnormalities (PFAs). This study involved cases of PFAs that were identified by prenatal ultrasonographic screening and confirmed postnatally between January 2012 and January 2016. Conventional cytogenetic analyses and chromosomal microarray analysis were performed, and chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were identified. Among 74 cases included in this study, 8 were of Blake's pouch cyst; 7, Dandy-Walker malformation; 11, vermian hypoplasia; 32, enlarged cisterna magna; and 16, cerebellar hypoplasia. The rates of nonbenign chromosomal aberrations (including chromosomal aneuploidies, pathogenic CNVs, and variants of unknown significance) were 2/8 (25.0%), 2/7 (28.5%), 8/11 (72.7%), 7/32 (21.9%), and 6/16 (37.5%), respectively. Cases were also classified as isolated PFAs (30/74), PFAs with other central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities (13/74), or PFAs with extra-CNS structural abnormalities (31/74). No fetuses with isolated PFAs or PFAs accompanied by other CNS abnormalities exhibited chromosomal aneuploidies or pathogenic CNVs. The rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations in the remaining fetuses was 17/31 (22.9%). The combined use of chromosomal microarray analysis and karyotype analysis might assist the prenatal diagnosis and management of PFAs, with extra-CNS structural abnormalities being detected by ultrasonography. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Paradowska-Opałka, Beata; Kawczyński, Maciej; Jaworowska, Ewa
Paranasal sinus mucocele is the cystic formation lined by inflammatory changed mucoperiosteum. This is slow-growing pathology with a tendency to bone erosion. The symptoms are dependent on the direction of the penetration, and are as follows: increasing headaches, deformations of frontal or orbital region, ophthalmic manifestations such as lacrimation, decreased visual acuity, exophthalmos, ocular movement limitation, diplopia. The most common location of the mucocele is fronto-ethmoid region. The most useful diagnostic tests are a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a computed tomography (CT) which show the progress of the disease and bone destructions. Surgery is the only method of treatment (external approach or FESS). This paper reports the case of a 74-year-old woman with ethmoid mucocele penetrating into the orbit, frontal sinus and anterior cranial fossa with compression of frontal lobe of the brain. The patient underwent CT and MRI and was treated with endoscopic intranasal marsupialization of the cyst. There are no clinical signs of disease recurrence 7 months after surgery. The endoscopic surgical management in treatment of sinus mucocele is a good alternative to the operation from external approach because of its low invasiveness, low complication risk, rapid healing and good therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2012 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.
2006-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version The image in figure 1 shows lineated valley fill in one of a series of enclosed, intersecting troughs known as Coloe (Choloe) Fossae. Lineated valley fill consists of rows of material in valley centers that are parallel to the valley walls. It is probably made of ice-rich material and boulders that are left behind when the ice-rich material sublimates. Very distinct rows can be seen near the south (bottom) wall of the valley. Lineated valley fill is thought to result from mass wasting (downslope movement) of ice-rich material from valley walls towards their centers. It is commonly found in valleys near the crustal dichotomy that separates the two hemispheres of Mars. The valley shown here joins four other valleys with lineated fill near the top left corner of this image. Their juncture is a topographic low, suggesting that the lineated valley fill from the different valleys may be flowing or creeping towards the low area (movement towards the upper left of the image). The valley walls appear smooth at first glance but are seen to be speckled with small craters several meters in diameter at HiRISE resolution (see contrast-enhanced subimage). This indicates that at least some of the wall material has been stable to mass wasting for some period of time. Also seen on the valley wall are elongated features shaped like teardrops. These are most likely slightly older craters that have been degraded due to potentially recent downhill creep. It is unknown whether the valley walls are shedding material today. The subimage is approximately 140 x 400 m (450 x 1280 ft). Image PSP_001372_2160 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 11, 2006. The complete image is centered at 35.5 degrees latitude, 56.8 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 290.3 km (181
Plzák, Jan; Kratochvil, Vít; Kešner, Adam; Šurda, Pavol; Vlasák, Aleš; Zvěřina, Eduard
OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas) and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma) that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa. PMID:29069259
Acharya, Aanand N; Rajan, Gunesh P
To describe the use of a piezosurgery medical device to perform a craniotomy and produce a split calvarial graft for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral hospital. Ten consecutive patients undergoing middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of meningoencephaloceles. Therapeutic. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, success rate as defined by the ability to fashion a split calvarial graft that achieves complete closure of the tegmen defect. As a secondary outcome measure, evidence of integration of the split calvarial bone graft with the adjacent skull base was assessed. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. An appropriately sized calvarial bone graft was produced, and complete closure of the tegmen defect was achieved in all 10 cases. Computed tomography demonstrated evidence of integration of the bone graft in eight cases between 4 and 9 months after surgery. The piezosurgery medical device provides a safe and effective means by which the middle fossa craniotomy and split calvarial bone graft can be produced to repair defects of the middle fossa tegmen, with integration of the bone graft in the majority of cases.
Weinman, J; Servaes, S; Anupindi, S A
Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hydatid cyst disease most commonly affects liver and lungs, but it can affect all viscera and soft tissues of the body. Simultaneous mammary and femoral hydatid cysts, without any other visceral involvement, are extremely rare. This is a case report of 25-years-old female, presenting with lump in left breast mimicking fibroadenoma and lump in right thigh mimicking fibroma. Both turned out to be hydatid cysts.
Takahashi, Aya; Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Kijima, Akiko; Kitaba, Shun; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Katayama, Ichiro
Eczema in the cubital fossa, which is susceptible to sweat, is frequently observed in atopic dermatitis (AD). However, there has been no direct evidence that sweating causes eczema in the cubital fossa. To investigate this issue, axon reflex-mediated sweating volume (AXR) and skin barrier function in the cubital fossa were measured in subjects with AD and in healthy volunteers, and were applied to clinical feature of the cubital fossa. AXR in the cubital fossa decreased in AD subjects; it positively correlated only with water-holding capacity in healthy subjects but not in patients with in AD. Furthermore, AD subjects with lichenoid eczema and either prurigo or papules over the cubital fossa showed extremely decreased AXR. These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.
Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Rohr, Joseph; Liu, Hongbing; He, Fenglei; Yu, Jian; Sun, Cheng; Li, Lu; Gu, Shuping; Chen, YiPing
The mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ) develops from two distinct mesenchymal condensations that grow towards each other and ossify through different mechanisms, with the glenoid fossa undergoing intramembranous ossification while the condyle being endochondral in origin. In this study, we used various genetically modified mouse models to investigate tissue interaction between the condyle and glenoid fossa during TMJ formation in mice. We report that either absence or dislocation of the condyle results in an arrested glenoid fossa development. In both cases, glenoid fossa development was initiated, but failed to sustain, and became regressed subsequently. However, condyle development appears to be independent upon the presence of the forming glenoid fossa. In addition, we show that substitution of condyle by Meckel’s cartilage is able to sustain glenoid fossa development. These observations suggest that proper signals from the developing condyle or Meckel’s cartilage are required to sustain the glenoid fossa development. PMID:21953591
D'Antonio, F; Khalil, A; Garel, C; Pilu, G; Rizzo, G; Lerman-Sagie, T; Bhide, A; Thilaganathan, B; Manzoli, L; Papageorghiou, A T
Diagnosis of isolated posterior fossa anomalies in children is biased by the fact that only those that are symptomatic are brought to the attention of the appropriate clinical personnel, and the reported rate is often affected by the adoption of different nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, outcome measures, duration of follow-up and neurodevelopmental tools. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the neurodevelopmental outcome of fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of isolated posterior fossa anomalies. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched electronically, utilizing combinations of the relevant medical subject heading terms for 'posterior fossa' and 'outcome'. Studies assessing the neurodevelopmental outcome in children with a prenatal diagnosis of isolated posterior fossa malformations were considered eligible. The posterior fossa anomalies analyzed included Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), mega cisterna magna (MCM), Blake's pouch cyst (BPC) and vermian hypoplasia (VH). Two authors reviewed all abstracts independently. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. Meta-analyses of proportions were used to combine data, and between-study heterogeneity was explored using the I(2) statistic. A total of 1640 articles were identified; 95 were assessed for eligibility and a total of 16 studies were included in the systematic review. The overall rate of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome in children with a prenatal diagnosis of DWM was 58.2% (95% CI, 21.8-90.0%) and varied from 0-100%. In those with a prenatal diagnosis of MCM, the rate of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome was 13.8% (95% CI, 7.3-21.9%), with a range of 0-50%. There was no significant association between BPC and the occurrence of abnormal neurodevelopmental delay, with a rate of 4.7% (95% CI, 0.7-12.1%) and range of 0-5%. Although affected by the very small number of studies, there was a non-significant occurrence of abnormal
Lawrence, David A; Trotta, Brian; Shen, Francis H; Druzgal, Jason T; Fox, Michael G
Determine the MRI characteristics of large post-traumatic cervical spine extra-arachnoid collections managed conservatively in clinically stable patients and whether evidence of clinical or imaging deterioration materialized. Following IRB approval, we conducted a retrospective search for all patients (>16 years old) over a 17-months period who had an extra-arachnoid fluid collection reported on a post-traumatic cervical spine MRI. Patients were excluded if they had surgery for an unstable fracture (n = 21), emergent decompression (n = 1) or lacked a follow-up MRI within 15 days (n = 1). Two MSK radiologists recorded the size, morphology and MRI signal characteristics of the collections. Eight patients (5 male, 3 female) met the inclusion criteria (mean age 40 years; range 19-78 years). Seven of the eight patients had fluid collections that demonstrated thin, tapered margins, extended >7 vertebral bodies and involved >180 degrees of the spinal canal. The signal characteristics of these collections varied: hyper-T1/iso-T2 (n = 1), iso-T1/T2 (n = 3), hyper-T1/hypo-T2 (n = 3) and mixed-T1/T2 (n = 1). Six of seven collections were ventral. Follow-up MRI demonstrated resolution/significant decrease in size (n = 4 between 1 and 12 days) or no change/slight decrease in size (n = 3; between 2 and 11 days). None of the seven fluid collections enlarged, no patient had abnormal cord signal, and no patient's neurologic symptoms worsened. One of eight patients had a dorsal "mass-like" collection that was slightly smaller 9 days later. In stable patients with large, tapered post-traumatic cervical spine extra-arachnoid collections managed non-surgically, none developed (1) clinical worsening, (2) abnormal cord signal or (3) collection enlargement, regardless of the collection's signal characteristics.
Karaaslan, Burak; Ülkü, Göktuğ; Ucar, Murat; Demirdağ, Tuğba Bedir; İnan, Arda; Börcek, Alp Özgün
Dermoid cysts are benign lesions which contain epidermal and dermal elements. Dermoid cysts usually contain a dermal sinus tract but this is not mandatory. Dermoid cysts can manifest by spinal cord infection without a dermal sinus tract. An infected spinal dermoid cyst associated with a holocord spinal abscess poses diagnostic and surgical challenges. Although radical surgical drainage is considered as the main treatment modality for spinal abscess, less extensive surgery for microbiological sampling and appropriate antibiotic treatment can be another alternative modality. A 1-year-old boy patient was admitted to our hospital with progressive paraplegia, bladder dysfunction, and neck rigidity. Medical history of the patient included recurrent urinary tract infection and cephalosporin treatments several times. Initial neurological examination revealed confusion, fever, neck rigidity, paraplegia (also, the motor power of the right upper extremity was three fifths that of the upper extremities). He had urinary and gastrointestinal retention. Conservative surgery was performed to take pathological and microbiological samples. With appropriate antibiotic regimen, the nuchal rigidity and fever improved dramatically. Infectious parameters in blood biochemistry significantly decreased after the antibiotic regimen. Holocord spinal abscesses are a rare entity. The source of the disease can be hemopoietic spread or contagious spread. The dermal sinus tract is major risk factor for contagious spread. The major hemopoietic sources are urogenital infection, endocarditis, and infective lung diseases. The hemopoietic spread is a more common source for pediatric patients. The thoracolumbar region is the most common site of involvement. Spinal infection has a tendency to extend longitudinally throughout spinal fibers. The pathogenesis of the holocord edema or syrinx is uncertain. The underlying etiology may be inflammation, infection, and associated venous congestion within the
Arti, Hamidreza; Darani, Hossein Yousofi
Hydatid disease is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus. Genus Echinococcus has different species including Echinococcus vogeli, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilucularis. Echinococcus granulosus is the most common cause of hydatid disease in humans. This disease occurs either through direct ingestion of parasite eggs from contact with infected dogs or indirectly from the ingestion of contaminated water or food. Infestation of hydatid disease in humans most commonly occurs in the liver (55-70%), followed by the lungs (18-35%). Bone hydatidosis however is very rare (3%). We present herein a case of hydatid cyst of the fibula, which is an uncommon site for the occurrence of this disease. PMID:21139754
Blakemore, W F
Areas of primary demyelination which did not subsequently remyelinate spontaneously were prepared in the cat spinal cord by injecting small volumes of ethidium bromide into tissue which had previously been exposed to 40 Grays of X-irradiation. Autologous peripheral nerve tissue was placed in the sub-arachnoid space over such lesions, either at the time of injecting ethidium bromide, or at 14 days or 28 days after injecting ethidium bromide. The extent of Schwann cell remyelination was assessed 28 days after transplantation. In no case were all the demyelinated axons remyelinated; rather, remyelination was limited to axons near to blood vessels. It was concluded that Schwann cells migrated from the transplanted tissue into the lesion via the perivascular space and that they failed to remyelinate the bulk of demyelinated axons because of an absence within the CNS of suitable extracellular matrix.
Acharya, S P; Marhatta, M N; Amatya, R
Sub arachnoid block (SAB) is often perceived safe by many anesthesiologists and other faculties but is also not completely safe choice especially in pregnant females, as the incidence of complications and local anaesthetic agent toxicity is high in these groups of patients. Here we present four such cases out of the seventeen patients over a period of six months, who developed apnea and transient loss of consciousness after spinal anesthesia for lower segment caesarean section. Typically all these patients after spinal anesthesia developed difficulty in breathing, became apnoea and had loss of consciousness for about a minute or two. The apnea was relieved with bag and mask ventilation following which the patient regained consciousness and start breathing normally. The rest of the procedure was uneventful. We presented these cases with aim of sharing similar experiences, and to aware about the possibility of such events as these events do occur frequently but case reports and literatures are unavailable.
Mauler, D A; De Decker, S; De Risio, L; Volk, H A; Dennis, R; Gielen, I; Van der Vekens, E; Goethals, K; Van Ham, L
Little is reported about the role of medical management in the treatment of spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) in dogs. To describe the outcome of 96 dogs treated medically or surgically for SAD. Ninety-six dogs with SAD. Retrospective case series. Medical records were searched for spinal arachnoid diverticula and all dogs with information on treatment were included. Outcome was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Fifty dogs were managed medically and 46 dogs were treated surgically. Dogs that underwent surgery were significantly younger than dogs that received medical management. No other variables, related to clinical presentation, were significantly different between both groups of dogs. The median follow-up time was 16 months (1-90 months) in the medically treated and 23 months (1-94 months) in the surgically treated group. Of the 38 dogs treated surgically with available long-term follow-up, 82% (n = 31) improved, 3% (n = 1) remained stable and 16% (n = 6) deteriorated after surgery. Of the 37 dogs treated medically with available long-term follow-up, 30% (n = 11) improved, 30% (n = 11) remained stable, and 40% (n = 15) deteriorated. Surgical treatment was more often associated with clinical improvement compared to medical management (P = .0002). The results of this study suggest that surgical treatment might be superior to medical treatment in the management of SAD in dogs. Further studies with standardized patient care are warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Schultz, Randall; Steven, Andrew; Wessell, Aaron; Fischbein, Nancy; Sansur, Charles A; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Ibrahimi, David; Raghavan, Prashant
OBJECTIVE Dorsal arachnoid webs (DAWs) and spinal cord herniation (SCH) are uncommon abnormalities affecting the thoracic spinal cord that can result in syringomyelia and significant neurological morbidity if left untreated. Differentiating these 2 entities on the basis of clinical presentation and radiological findings remains challenging but is of vital importance in planning a surgical approach. The authors examined the differences between DAWs and idiopathic SCH on MRI and CT myelography to improve diagnostic confidence prior to surgery. METHODS Review of the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) database between 2005 and 2015 identified 6 patients with DAW and 5 with SCH. Clinical data including demographic information, presenting symptoms and neurological signs, and surgical reports were collected from the electronic medical records. Ten of the 11 patients underwent MRI. CT myelography was performed in 3 patients with DAW and in 1 patient with SCH. Imaging studies were analyzed by 2 board-certified neuroradiologists for the following features: 1) location of the deformity; 2) presence or absence of cord signal abnormality or syringomyelia; 3) visible arachnoid web; 4) presence of a dural defect; 5) nature of dorsal cord indentation (abrupt "scalpel sign" vs "C"-shaped); 6) focal ventral cord kink; 7) presence of the nuclear trail sign (endplate irregularity, sclerosis, and/or disc-space calcification that could suggest a migratory path of a herniated disc); and 8) visualization of a complete plane of CSF ventral to the deformity. RESULTS The scalpel sign was positive in all patients with DAW. The dorsal indentation was C-shaped in 5 of 6 patients with SCH. The ventral subarachnoid space was preserved in all patients with DAW and interrupted in cases of SCH. In no patient was a web or a dural defect identified. CONCLUSIONS DAW and SCH can be reliably distinguished on imaging by scrutinizing the nature of the dorsal indentation and the integrity of
Bouaoud, J; Joly, A; Picard, A; Thierry, B; Arnaud, E; James, S; Hennessy, I; McGarvey, B; Cairet, P; Vecchione, A; Vergnaud, E; Duracher, C; Khonsari, R H
Massive swelling of the tongue can occur after posterior fossa and craniofacial surgery. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of such severe postoperative macroglossia, but this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Severe postoperative macroglossia can be a life-threatening condition due to upper airway obstruction. Three cases of severe postoperative macroglossia that occurred after cervical spine, craniofacial, and posterior fossa surgical procedures are reported here. These cases required specialized maxillofacial management and a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit. Causal factors involved in this condition are reported, in order to highlight appropriate prevention and treatment options adapted to the management of paediatric patients. An overview of the current literature on severe postoperative macroglossia in paediatric populations is also provided. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plescia, J. B.
Cerberus Fossae, a long fracture system in the southeastern part of Elysium, has acted as a conduit for the release of both lava and water onto the surface. The southeastern portion of the fracture system localized volcanic vents having varying morphology. In addition, low shields occur elsewhere on the Cerberus plains. Three locations where the release of water has occurred have been identified along the northwest (Athabasca and Grjota' Vallis) and southeast (Rahway Vallis) portions of the fossae. Water was released both catastrophically and noncatastrophically from these locations. A fluvial system that extends more than 2500 km has formed beginning at the lower flank of the Elysium rise across the Cerberus plains and out through Marte Vallis into Amazonis Planitia. The timing of the events is Late Amazonian.
Robinson, Ashley James; Ederies, M Ashraf
Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the two imaging modalities used in the assessment of the fetus. Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality, whereas magnetic resonance is used in cases of diagnostic uncertainty. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages and therefore they are complementary. Standard axial ultrasound views of the posterior fossa are used for routine scanning for fetal anomalies, with additional orthogonal views directly and indirectly obtainable using three-dimensional ultrasound techniques. Magnetic resonance imaging allows not only direct orthogonal imaging planes, but also tissue characterization, for example to search for blood breakdown products. We review the nomenclature of several posterior fossa anomalies using standardized criteria, and we review cerebellar abnormalities based on an etiologic classification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohan, Avinash L; Slim, Michel; Benzil, Deborah L
Knife wounds to the posterior fossa are a rare occurrence, especially in children. We report an 8-year-old girl who sustained a penetrating knife injury through the occipital bone into the posterior fossa. On presentation, the large knife blade was firmly embedded in her head. Radiographic evaluation was limited to plain X-rays because of the large size and sharpness of the embedded blade. Innovative positioning was used during intubation and then the patient was positioned semi-prone on the operating room table. The blade was surgically removed and the dura was closed. Atypical penetrating cranial injuries in children may require the treatment team to take a creative approach to the evaluation and repair of the lesion in order to maximize patient safety and minimize the risk of neurological injury.
Del Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan D; Navarro-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Nakhla, Jonathan; Kim, Eliana; Härtl, Roger
Tarlov cysts (TC) are focal dilations of arachnoid and dura mater of the spinal posterior nerve root sheath that appear as cystic lesions of the nerve roots typically in the lower spine, especially in the sacrum, which can cause radicular symptoms when they increase in size and compress the nerve roots. Different open procedures have been described to treat TCs, but no minimally invasive procedures have been described to effectively address this pathology. A 29-year-old woman presented with right lower extremity pain and weakness. A magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a lumbosacral TC that protruded through the right L5-S1 foramina. Through a small laminotomy, cyst drainage followed by neck ligation using a Scanlan modified technique through tubular retractors was performed. The patient recovered full motor function within the first days postoperatively and showed no signs of relapse at 6-month follow-up. Minimally invasive spine surgery through tubular retractors can be safely performed for successful excision and ligation of TC using a Scanlan modified technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sheehan, Jason P; Starke, Robert M; Kano, Hideyuki; Barnett, Gene H; Mathieu, David; Chiang, Veronica; Yu, James B; Hess, Judith; McBride, Heyoung L; Honea, Norissa; Nakaji, Peter; Lee, John Y K; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Evanoff, Wendi A; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lunsford, L Dade
Posterior fossa meningiomas represent a common yet challenging clinical entity. They are often associated with neurovascular structures and adjacent to the brainstem. Resection can be undertaken for posterior fossa meningiomas, but residual or recurrent tumor is frequent. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used to treat meningiomas, and this study evaluates the outcome of this approach for those located in the posterior fossa. At 7 medical centers participating in the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 675 patients undergoing SRS for a posterior fossa meningioma were identified, and clinical and radiological data were obtained for these cases. Females outnumbered males at a ratio of 3.8 to 1, and the median patient age was 57.6 years (range 12-89 years). Prior resection was performed in 43.3% of the patient sample. The mean tumor volume was 6.5 cm(3), and a median margin dose of 13.6 Gy (range 8-40 Gy) was delivered to the tumor. At a mean follow-up of 60.1 months, tumor control was achieved in 91.2% of cases. Actuarial tumor control was 95%, 92%, and 81% at 3, 5, and 10 years after radiosurgery. Factors predictive of tumor progression included age greater than 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36, 95% CI 1.30-4.29, p = 0.005), prior history of radiotherapy (HR 5.19, 95% CI 1.69-15.94, p = 0.004), and increasing tumor volume (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, p = 0.005). Clinical stability or improvement was achieved in 92.3% of patients. Increasing tumor volume (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.10, p = 0.009) and clival, petrous, or cerebellopontine angle location as compared with petroclival, tentorial, and foramen magnum location (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.05-3.65, p = 0.036) were predictive of neurological decline after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, resection, and radiation therapy were performed in 1.6%, 3.6%, and 1.5%, respectively. Stereotactic radiosurgery affords a high rate of tumor control and neurological preservation
Zimbelman, J. R.
A preliminary geologic map of the the Bellona Fossae (V15) quadrangle on Venus was produced as part of the NASA-funded planetary mapping program. Geologic interpretations are based primarily on the basis of morphology, texture, radar reflectance, and relative stratigraphy derived from Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, based on FMAP mosaics showing SAR data at 75 m/pixel resolution, and compiled on a digital base map at 1:5M scale produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. This quadrangle covers approximately 5 million square kilometers of the northern lowlands of Venus, and it includes the Bellona Fossae and Fee Fossae fracture systems of western Kawelu Planitia and northern Ulfrun Regio, along with an arcuate chain of volcano-tectonic centers called coronae (e.g., Ki and Tituba Coronae). Exposed materials are dominated by relatively featureless regional plains and several centers of lobate plains (e.g., Uzume Fluctus) interpreted to be lava flow fields emplaced by effusion from separate vents. Based on stratigraphic relationships at unit contacts, the oldest exposed material units are isolated patches of complex-faulted tessera terrain, restricted to the eastern and southwestern margins of the quadrangle. Relatively small exposures of lineated plains, mountain belt, ridged plains, and dark plains materials are scattered throughout the quadrangle, with only a few impact craters and their associated ejecta and impact-induced flows (e.g., Mumtaz-Mahal crater) representing the latest materials. The tectonism associated with the coronae appears to predate the regional plains for the most part, but individual coronae are the source for lobate plains volcanism which implies that activity at these structural features encompasses much of the time span portrayed in the regional stratigraphy. Northeast-southwest-oriented lineaments exposed in Bellona Fossae not only are generally coincident with the coronae structures, but also cut patches of the stratigraphically
Rapp, Timothy B; Ward, James P; Alaia, Michael J
Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare skeletal tumors that most commonly occur in the first two decades of life. They primarily develop about the knee but may arise in any portion of the axial or appendicular skeleton. Pathogenesis of these tumors remains controversial and may be vascular, traumatic, or genetic. Radiographic features include a dilated, radiolucent lesion typically located within the metaphyseal portion of the bone, with fluid-fluid levels visible on MRI. Histologic features include blood-filled lakes interposed between fibrous stromata. Differential diagnosis includes conditions such as telangiectatic osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The mainstay of treatment is curettage and bone graft, with or without adjuvant treatment. Other management options include cryotherapy, sclerotherapy, radionuclide ablation, and en bloc resection. The recurrence rate is low after appropriate treatment; however, more than one procedure may be required to completely eradicate the lesion.
Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Lalam, Radhesh K; Tins, Bernhard J; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; McCall, Iain W
The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints.
Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E
SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.
Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel
We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225
Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad
In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p < 0.001). Assessment of staining intensity and staining pattern showed more strong intensity and focally pattern in odontogenic keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Findings showed higher expression of cyclin D1 in parabasal layer of odontogenic keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.
Chotai, Silky; Kshettry, Varun R; Petrak, Alex; Ammirati, Mario
Various approaches to lesions involving the middle fossa and cavernous sinus (CS), with and without posterior fossa extension have been described. In the present study, we describe the surgical technique for the extradural lateral tranzygomatic middle fossa approach and its extensions, highlight relevant 3D anatomy. Simulations of the lateral transzygomatic middle fossa approach and its extensions were performed in four silicon-injected formalin fixed cadaveric heads. The step-by-step description and relevant anatomy was documented with 3D photographs. The lateral transzygomatic middle fossa approach is particularly useful for lesions involving the middle fossa with and without CS invasion, extending to the posterior fossa and involving the clinoidal region. This approach incorporates direct lateral positioning of patient, frontotemporal craniotomy with zygomatic arch osteotomy, extradural elevation of the temporal lobe, and delamination of the outer layer of the lateral CS wall. Extradural drilling of the sphenoid wing and anterior clinoid process allows entry into the CS through the superior wall and exposure of the clinoidal segment of the ICA. Posteriorly, drilling the petrous apex allows exposure of the ventral brainstem from trigeminal to facial nerve and can be extended to the interpeduncular fossa by division of the superior petrosal sinus. The present study illustrates 3D anatomical relationships of the lateral transzygomatic middle fossa approach with its extensions. This approach allows wide access to different topographic areas (clinoidal region and clinoidal ICA, the entire CS, and the posterior fossa from the interpeduncular fossa to the facial nerve) via a lateral trajectory. Precise knowledge of technique and anatomy is necessary to properly execute this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mutum, Samarendra Singh; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi
Cysts of the oesophagus are unusual findings and they are classified according to the embryological site of origin. It may represent inclusion cysts, retention cysts and developmental cysts. We present a case of keratinous inclusion cyst of the lower oesophagus in a 71-year-old Malay woman who presented with dyspepsia and severe epigastric pain. An oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated a sliding hiatus hernia with whitish ulcer-like lesion at the lower oesophagus. Biopsy from the lesion revealed a keratinous inclusion cyst. The patient was given pantoprazole and put on regular follow-up for monitoring any other development. PMID:23878290
Leonetti, John P; Benscoter, Brent J; Marzo, Sam J; Borrowdale, Richard W; Pontikis, George C
The aims of this study were to demonstrate the surgical technique involved in the preauricular infratemporal fossa (ITF) approach, outline the clinical indications for use of this technique, and present the results in using this approach in 159 patients with malignant parotid tumors. At the conclusion of this article, the reader should be able to understand the utility of the preauricular infratemporal fossa approach in the management of patients with advanced malignant parotid tumors. This was a retrospective chart review of 159 patients treated at a tertiary care academic medical center following institutional review board approval. A comprehensive medical records review was performed for all patients with malignant parotid tumors who underwent a preauricular ITF approach between July 1988 and July 2010. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and trismus, whereas the presence of a parotid mass and facial paralysis were the most common clinical signs. Mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinoma accounted for 63% of the tumors, and perineural invasion was found in nearly 71% of the patients. Despite negative surgical margins in 92% of the patients, local or regional tumor recurrence was found in 17% of the cases. The mean follow-up time was 12.8 years. The preauricular ITF approach should be used in the surgical extirpation of advanced malignant parotid neoplasms. This technique provides proximal facial nerve identification, internal carotid artery protection, and negative tumor margins at the skull base. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Botti, Gerardo; Mozzillo, Nicola
Traditionally metastatic melanoma of the distal leg and the foot metastasize to the lymph nodes of the groin. Sometimes the first site of nodal disease can be the popliteal fossa. This is an infrequent event, with rare reports in literature and when it occurs, radical popliteal node dissection must be performed. We report a case of a 36-year old man presented with diagnosis of 2 mm thick, Clark's level II-III, non ulcerated melanoma of the left heel, which developed during the course of the disease popliteal node metastases, after a superficial and deep groin dissection for inguinal node involvement. Five months after popliteal lymph node dissection he developed systemic disease, therefore he received nine cycles of dacarbazine plus fotemustine. To date (56 months after prior surgery and 11 months after chemotherapy) he is alive with no evidence of disease. In case of groin metastases from melanoma of distal lower extremities, clinical and ultrasound examination of ipsilateral popliteal fossa is essential. When metastatic disease is found, radical popliteal dissection is the standard of care. Therefore knowledge of anatomy and surgical technique about popliteal lymphadenectomy are required to make preservation of structures that if injured, can produce a permanent, considerable disability.
Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Botti, Gerardo; Mozzillo, Nicola
Background Traditionally metastatic melanoma of the distal leg and the foot metastasize to the lymph nodes of the groin. Sometimes the first site of nodal disease can be the popliteal fossa. This is an infrequent event, with rare reports in literature and when it occurs, radical popliteal node dissection must be performed. Case presentation We report a case of a 36-year old man presented with diagnosis of 2 mm thick, Clark's level II-III, non ulcerated melanoma of the left heel, which developed during the course of the disease popliteal node metastases, after a superficial and deep groin dissection for inguinal node involvement. Five months after popliteal lymph node dissection he developed systemic disease, therefore he received nine cycles of dacarbazine plus fotemustine. To date (56 months after prior surgery and 11 months after chemotherapy) he is alive with no evidence of disease. Conclusion In case of groin metastases from melanoma of distal lower extremities, clinical and ultrasound examination of ipsilateral popliteal fossa is essential. When metastatic disease is found, radical popliteal dissection is the standard of care. Therefore knowledge of anatomy and surgical technique about popliteal lymphadenectomy are required to make preservation of structures that if injured, can produce a permanent, considerable disability. PMID:17239242
Chen, Chun-Ting; Lai, Hung-Yi; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lee, Shih-Tseng
Neurenteric cysts are rare central nervous system lesions derived from an endodermal origin. There is no consensus concerning pathogenesis because of the paucity of occurrences. We report an immunohistochemical study of 10 cases with neurenteric cysts and postulate its pathogenesis. Ten patients underwent surgical treatment for neurenteric cysts from 1995 to 2015. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiologic, operative, and pathologic findings for these patients. Immunohistochemical stains were completed in all cases to distinguish cell type and origin. Three cell types were identified: pseudostratified-ciliated, goblet-columnar, and simple cuboidal cells. All cases were positive for cytokeratin 7, and negative for cytokeratin 20, caudal-type homeobox 2, mucin 2, thyroid transcription factor 1, human chorionic gonadotropin, placental alkaline phosphatase, and cluster of differentiation 31. Four of them had positive staining for mucin 5AC, with expression only in goblet-columnar cells. According to the immunohistochemical results, the cells resembled the respiratory tract (pseudostratified-ciliated), stomach (goblet-columnar), and respiratory bronchioles (simple cuboidal). Seventy-five percent of cases with recurrence had a goblet-columnar component, emphasizing the importance of total resection of the cyst and complete pathologic examination. We postulate that the cystic tumor was derived from multipotent endodermal cells that migrated and traveled along the neuroectoderm, with incomplete differentiation into various cell types as a result of an unsuitable microenvironment. Because the neurenteric canal was only the channel of migration rather than a component of the cysts, the term neuroendodermal cysts is more precise in presenting the embryopathogenesis. Copyright Â© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Başgül, A; Kavak, Z N; Gökaslan, H; Küllü, S
BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a common zoonosis that affects a large number of humans and animals, especially in poorly developed countries. The infesting parasite has four forms named Echinococcus granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus (very rare in humans). The most frequently involved organs are liver followed by the lung. The involvement of the genital tract is rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the uterus. CASE: A 70-year-old female with a history of hydatid cysts of the liver, was admitted to hospital after complaining of low abdominal pains. On physical and gynecological examinations, no pathological finding was detected. However, the uterus was significantly large for a postmenopausal patient. Transvaginal sonography (TS) revealed a cystic mass in the uterus with a size of 7 x 6 cm. After further examinations a subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed scolices of Echinococcus granulosis. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts in the genital tract are rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. Differentiation between hydatid cyst and malignant disease of the related organ is difficult. To avoid misdiagnosis, a careful examination of pelvic masses should be carried out in endemic areas for detection of hydatid cysts. PMID:12530482
Horvath, Dóra; Redl, Pál; Hegedűs, Csaba
Branchiogen anomalies represent a heterogeneous group of developmental abnormalities, they arise from incomplete obliteration of branchial clefts and pouches during embriogenesis. Clinically they can present as a cyst, fistula or sinus. Second cleft lesions account for 95% of the branchial anomalies. Second branchial cleft cysts are usually located in the neck, along the anterior border of the stenocleidomastoid muscle, but they can be anywhere along the course of the second branchial fistula from the tonsillar fossa to the supraclavicular region. Their presence in the nasopharynx is extremely rare. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for diagnosis. Definitive treatment is surgical excision, these lesions do not regress spontaneously and often result recurrent infections. A 7 month old infant applied to a pediatrician with gastrointestinal viral infection. During examination a cystic mass was discovered in the right lateral nasopharyngeal wall, the lesion extended to the oropharynx. Marsupialisation was performed via transoral approach. In case of cystic lesion in the lateral epipharynx, branchial cleft cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Ruprecht, A; Batniji, S; el-Neweihi, E
The mucous retention cyst is not a rare phenomenon. The incidence of dental patients was determined. Of 1685 patient radiographs reviewed, 44 (2.6%) had one or more mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinuses.
Sritharan, Kaji; Ghani, Yaser; Thompson, Hilary
Epidermoid cysts are extremely common and can occur in any hair-containing area. We present the case of a 20-year-old man with an epidermoid cyst in the perianal region. Epidermal cysts have been described in this area previously after haemorrhoidectomy, but cysts of the size seen in this case are rare in the absence of previous anal trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. PMID:24825558
Yuce, Yucel; Uzun, Sennur; Aypar, Ulku
A 56-year-old man presented himself for an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme excision. After being routinely monitored, he was preoxygenated. We induced anesthesia and paralysis with 200 mg propofol, 50 μg fentanyl and 9 mg vecuronium. Direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh 3 blade revealed a 2x2 cm cyst, pedunculated, arising from the right side of the vallecula preventing the endotracheal intubation. While the patient remained anesthetized, we urgently consulted an otolaryngologist and aspirated the cyst with a 22-gauge needle and syringe under direct laryngoscopy. We aspirated 10 cc of liquid content. This was followed by an uneventful tracheal intubation with a 9.0 enforced spiral cuffed tube. An alternative to fiberoptic intubation may be careful cyst aspiration to facilitate the intubation.
Lee, YeonWoo; Kim, GeunHyo; Wang, SooGeun; Jang, JeonYeob; Cha, Wonjae; Choi, HongSik; Kim, HyangHee
The purpose of this study was to analyze the acoustic characteristics associated with alternation deformation of the vocal tract due to large epiglottic cyst, and to confirm the relation between the anatomical change and resonant function of the vocal tract. Eight men with epiglottic cyst were enrolled in this study. The jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and first two formants were analyzed in vowels /a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, and /u:/. These values were analyzed before and after laryngeal microsurgery. The F1 value of /a:/ was significantly raised after surgery. Significant differences of formant frequencies in other vowels, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio were not presented. The results of this study could be used to analyze changes in the resonance of vocal tracts due to the epiglottic cysts. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martino, A; Rampone, B; Schiavone, B; Viviano, C; Cuomo, O; Iovine, L; Sacco, M; Maharajan, G; Confuorto, G
Hydatid disease is endemic in some areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. The cysts rupture is possible after a trauma, or spontaneously by the increase of intracystic pressure. Rupture of the hydatid cyst requires urgent surgical intervention. We report our experience in treatment of traumatic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst.
Armas Alvarez, A L; Taboada Santomil, P; Pradillos Serna, J M; Rivera Chavez, L L; Méndez Gallart, R; Estévez Martínez, E; Rodríguez Barca, P; Bautista Casasnovas, A; Varela Cives, R
Actually, the perinatal ovarian cysts are increasingly being diagnosed by prenatal and neonatal ultrasound. We reported our experience in the surgical management of perinatal ovarian cysts. Patients and methods. We have reviewed the clinical charts of 10 female newborns diagnosed of ovarian cysts who underwent surgical management in our hospital from 1989 to 2009. The ovarian cysts were diagnosed antenatally in 8 cases and period neonatal in 2 cases. The clinical presentation was asymptomatic abdominal mass in 7 cases. Ultrasound confirmed the ovarian mass in 8 patients. CT scan and MRI were necessary for confirm suspected diagnosis in two patients. Ultrasonography showed 7 complex cysts and 3 simple cysts. Surgery of the complicated cysts revealed ovarian torsion in 5 cases and 1 hemorragic cyst. At surgery, 5 patients underwent salpingooophorectomy, 2 patients needed oophorectomy and in 3 cases only cystectomy were necessary. The ovarian torsion is the most common complication and the cause of loss of the ovary. The neonatal ovarian cysts greater than 5 centimetres, symptomatic cysts, complex cysts and cysts persisting for more than 6 months need surgical intervention.
Courtney, S P; Wightman, J A
Aspiration and tetracycline (Achromycin) instillation has been used to sclerose 'scrotal cysts'. Thirteen hydroceles and epididymal cysts were treated. Of the cysts treated, four failed to sclerose, and moderate to severe pain occurred in eight patients. In three patients the pain was severe, necessitating admission to the hospital. We would not recommend this treatment either in terms of efficacy or for patient comfort.
Nash, J R
A prospective study was carried out on the efficacy of sclerotherapy for the treatment of hydrocoeles and epididymal cysts. Thirty-six hydrocoeles and 13 epididymal cysts were treated and followed up for between 1 and 2 years. Thirty-four hydrocoeles were cured, 1 failed to respond to treatment and 1 recurred after treatment. All 13 epididymal cysts were cured.
Mathon, Bertrand; Bienvenot, Peggy; Leclercq, Delphine
We report the first extraforaminal location of a lumbar discal cyst. The patient was treated by hemilaminectomy, arthrectomy, cyst resection, and unilateral arthrodesis, achieving complete release of the nerve root. Extraforaminal lumbar discal cyst may represent an unexpected cause of sciatic pain with favorable outcome after surgical resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberti, F; Sekhar, L N; Kalavakonda, C; Wright, D C
We report the clinical, radiological, and surgical findings of patients with posterior fossa meningiomas surgically treated at our institution over the last 6 years. We reviewed 161 consecutive cases of posterior fossa meningiomas operated on between April 1993 and April 1999 at The George Washington University Medical Center. There were 128 female and 33 male patients (mean age 47 years, range of 10-81 years). Meningiomas were classified as petroclival (110 cases), foramen magnum (21 cases), cerebellar hemispheric, lateral tentorial (14 cases), cerebellopontine angle (9 cases), and jugular foramen (7 cases). Mean tumor equivalent diameter (TED) = (D1xD2xDE)(1/3) was 3.1 cm (range of 0.53-8.95). Head pain (50% of cases) and disturbance of gait (44%) were the most common presenting symptoms, and cranial neuropathies the most common neurological signs on admission. Mean preoperative performance status (Karnofsky scale) was 80.2 (range 40-100). Surgical approaches to these tumors included partial labyrinthectomy petrous apicectomy, fronto-temporal/fronto-temporal orbitozygomatic osteotomy, retrosigmoidal, extreme lateral, transpetrosal, and combined. In 38 cases a staged procedure was performed. Gross-total resection was achieved in 57% of patients, and subtotal/partial in 43%. Surgical mortality was 2.5% and complications were encountered in 41% of patients. Postoperative CSF leak occurred in 22 cases (13.6%). The mean follow-up was 19 months, ranging from 0.2 to 63.6, and the mean performance status of patients with a follow-up of at least 12 months was 77 (range of 40-100). Recurrence or progression of disease was found in 13.7% of cases (follow-up 2 years or more). Our experience suggests that although posterior fossa meningiomas represent a continuing challenge for contemporary neurosurgeons, such tumors may be completely or subtotally removed with low rate of mortality and acceptable morbidity, allowing most of these patients to achieve a good outcome in a long
Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C
Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Afnan, Jalil; Snuderl, Matija; Small, Juan
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, blood-filled, osteolytic lesions with internal septations that may be intraosseous or extraosseous. The cysts may cause local mass effect, and changes in the regional vascular supply necessitating intervention. A case of an intracranial, intradural ABC in a young male patient with progressively severe headaches is presented. This is only the third recorded intradural case, the majority of these rare lesions being extracranial and only a minute fraction intracranial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anatomic Dissection of Arachnoid Membranes Encircling the Pituitary Stalk on Fresh, Non-Formalin-Fixed Specimens: Anatomoradiologic Correlations and Clinical Applications in Craniopharyngioma Surgery.
Ciappetta, Pasqualino; Pescatori, Lorenzo
The anatomy of the arachnoid membranes and cisternal spaces around the pituitary stalk has not been yet exhaustively described and understood. In this study, we performed a detailed anatomic study on fresh, non-formalin-fixed cadavers of the arachnoid membranes encircling the pituitary stalk and correlate our anatomic findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten fresh, non-formalin-fixed, non-silicon-injected adult cadaveric heads were analyzed in this study. The membrane and cisterns that were studied for our study were as follows: 1) the diaphragma sellae and its dural components; 2) the basal arachnoid membrane; 3) the Liliequist membrane with its diencephalic and mesencephalic portion; 4) the medial carotid membrane; 5) the chiasmatic cistern; and 6) the pituitary stalk. MRI examinations of the sellar region were performed in 15 healthy volunteers (9 men, mean age 40 years; and 6 women mean age, 37 years) to visualize the arachnoid membrane encircling the pituitary stalk. MRI examinations were performed with a 3-T unit. A 3-dimensional constructive interference in steady state pulse magnetic resonance sequence was used. All the membranes examined were visualized clearly in all the dissections performed. Their 3-dimensional organization around the pituitary stalk was clarified and confirmed by MRI. Our study gives a detailed description of the pituitary stalk arachnoid sheets on fresh, non-formalin-fixed cadavers. This technique allowed us to clearly identify a funnel-shaped arachnoid collar encircling the pituitary stalk and delimiting a distinct cisternal space belonging to the stalk itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Hydrocephalus following spontaneous aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often associated with unfavorable outcome. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal SAH patients but without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight aneurysmal SAH patients were evaluated. Using functional scores, those without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital were compared to those already with hydrocephalus on admission, those who developed it during hospitalization, and those who did not develop it throughout their hospital stay. The Glasgow Coma Score, modified Fisher SAH grade, and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade were determined at the emergency room. Therapeutic outcomes immediately after discharge and 18 months after were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Results Hydrocephalus accounted for 61.9% (104/168) of all episodes, including 82 with initial hydrocephalus on admission and 22 with subsequent hydrocephalus. Both the presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage on admission and post-operative intra-cerebral hemorrhage were independently associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without hydrocephalus on admission. After a minimum 1.5 years of follow-up, the mean Glasgow outcome score was 3.33 ± 1.40 for patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and 4.21 ± 1.19 for those without. Conclusions The presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, and higher mean scores of the modified Fisher SAH and World Federation of Neurosurgical grading on admission imply risk of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without initial hydrocephalus. These patients have worse short- and long-term outcomes and longer hospitalization. PMID:22765765
Nomura, Fuminori; Kishimoto, Seiji
Synovial sarcoma in the head and neck region is rare, and is difficult to resect with adequate safety margins because of its anatomical complexity. We herein report our experiences with synovial sarcoma in this region, and review the literature regarding the management of such cases. We retrospectively examined four cases of synovial sarcoma arising from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area and infratemporal fossa. Only one patient remains alive without disease, while the other three patients have died. The local control of these tumors has improved because of the progress in the surgical operation methods, while it is expected that there is still a high rate of deaths due to distant metastasis increase. The development of strong chemotherapy is needed for the use after the initial treatment and surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gunther, Jillian R; Liauw, Stanley L; Choi, Seungtaek; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Thaker, Nikhil G; Fuller, Clifton D; Stepaniak, Christopher J; Das, Prajnan; Golden, Daniel W
Radiation oncology trainees frequently learn to contour through clinical experience and lectures. A hands-on contouring module was developed to teach delineation of the postoperative prostate clinical target volume (CTV) and improve contouring accuracy. Medical students independently contoured a prostate fossa CTV before and after receiving educational materials and live instruction detailing the RTOG approach to contouring this CTV. Metrics for volume overlap and surface distance (Dice similarity coefficient, Hausdorff distance (HD), and mean distance) determined discordance between student and consensus contours. An evaluation assessed perception of session efficacy (1 = "not at all" to 5 = "extremely"; reported as median[interquartile range]). Non-parametric statistical tests were used. Twenty-four students at two institutions completed the module, and 21 completed the evaluation (88% response). The content was rated as "quite" important (4[3.5-5]). The module improved comfort contouring a prostate fossa (pre 1[1-2] vs. post 4[3-4], p<.01), ability to find references (pre 2[1-3] vs. post 4[3.5-4], p<0.01), knowledge of CT prostate/pelvis anatomy (pre 2[1.5-3] vs. post 3[3-4], p<.01), and ability to use contouring software tools (pre 2[2-3.5] vs. post 3[3-4], p=.01). After intervention, mean DSC increased (0.29 to 0.68, p<0.01) and HD and mean distance both decreased, respectively (42.8 to 30.0, p<.01; 11.5 to 1.9, p<.01). A hands-on module to teach CTV delineation to medical students was developed and implemented. Student and expert contours exhibited near "excellent agreement" (as defined in the literature) after intervention. Additional modules to teach target delineation to all educational levels can be developed using this model. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Long, Kristin L.; Spears, Carol; Kenady, Daniel E.
Branchial cleft anomalies are a common cause of lateral neck masses and may present with infection, cyst enlargement or fistulas. They may affect any of the nearby neck structures, causing compressive symptoms or vessel thrombosis. We present a case of a branchial cleft cyst in a 10-year-old boy who had been present for 1year. At the time of operation, the cyst was found to completely envelop the hypoglossal nerve. While reports of hypoglossal nerve palsies due to external compression from cysts are known, we believe this to be the first report of direct nerve involvement by a branchial cleft cyst. PMID:24963902
Wu, Y Z; Li, D T; Luo, J G
CT signs of nineteen cases of hemorrhagic renal cysts that surgically and pathologically proved were analyzed. 8 of the 19 cases revealed as high density hemorrhagic lesion. CT signs in those 8 patients include low density rim sign, cyst immerging sign, and perirenal fascia thickening. The other 11 of 19 cases revealed as low density lesion. CT signs include thickened cyst wall and inhomogeneous density of the cystic content. The hounsfield unit of the lesion is correlated with the duration of disease. It is suggested that CT is valuable in diagnosis of high density hemorrhagic renal cysts, and it gives a clue to the diagnosis of low density hemorrhagic renal cysts.
Patay, Z; Enterkin, J; Harreld, J H; Yuan, Y; Löbel, U; Rumboldt, Z; Khan, R; Boop, F
Posterior fossa syndrome is a severe postoperative complication occurring in up to 29% of children undergoing posterior fossa tumor resection; it is most likely caused by bilateral damage to the proximal efferent cerebellar pathways, whose fibers contribute to the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. When the triangle is disrupted, hypertrophic olivary degeneration develops. We hypothesized that MR imaging patterns of inferior olivary nucleus changes reflect patterns of damage to the proximal efferent cerebellar pathways and show association with clinical findings, in particular the presence or absence of posterior fossa syndrome. We performed blinded, randomized longitudinal MR imaging analyses of the inferior olivary nuclei of 12 children with and 12 without posterior fossa syndrome after surgery for midline intraventricular tumor in the posterior fossa. The Fisher exact test was performed to investigate the association between posterior fossa syndrome and hypertrophic olivary degeneration on MR imaging. The sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging findings of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration for posterior fossa syndrome were measured. Of the 12 patients with posterior fossa syndrome, 9 had bilateral inferior olivary nucleus abnormalities. The 12 patients without posterior fossa syndrome had either unilateral or no inferior olivary nucleus abnormalities. The association of posterior fossa syndrome and hypertrophic olivary degeneration was statistically significant (P < .0001). Hypertrophic olivary degeneration may be a surrogate imaging indicator for damage to the contralateral proximal efferent cerebellar pathway. In the appropriate clinical setting, bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration may be a sensitive and specific indicator of posterior fossa syndrome.
Frampas, E; Moussaly, F; Léauté, F; Heloury, Y; Le Neel, J C; Dupas, B
To assess the value of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of choledochal cysts. Five patients (aged between 6 days and 28 years) were investigated by MRCP, referred for ultrasonographic detection of a bile duct dilatation or a cystic structure, of antenatal diagnosis (1 case), for jaundice or abdominal pain (3 cases) or in late follow-up of a choledochal cyst surgery. Two endoscopic-ultrasonographic studies were performed. The five patients underwent surgery without preoperative biliary cholangiography. MRCP was performed using a HASTE sequence in frontal, oblique, axial planes (1,5 Tesla MR unit). MRCP allowed to confirm choledochal cyst, helps to specify the anatomical type (2 type I, 3 type II), detects choledocholithiasis (3 cases). Anatomic correlation was perfect. MRCP allowed to exclude gastrointestinal duplication. Anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct was found in one case. MRCP diagnoses choledochal cysts, specifies type, helps surgery and can avoid endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or endoscopic sonographic examinations especially for children. It may find an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct.
Gaspari, A L; Di Lorenzo, N; Sica, G; De Ascentis, G; Rossi, M; Ferranti, F
Laparoscopic treatment of simple hepatic cysts is reported. Recent indications to conservative surgical treatment for this benign disease are considered and different therapeutic options are analyzed. Surgical technique adopted in two cases observed is illustrated. In conclusion, the Authors consider laparoscopic treatment as an effective method for a mini-invasive surgical approach.
Skomra, Andrzej; Kędzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof; Bogacz, Wiesław
Available literature analysis demonstrated smallness of studies of cranial base. The goal of the study was to analyse the medial fossa of the human cranium in the foetal period against other fossae. Survey material consisted of 110 human foetuses at a morphological age of 16-28 weeks of foetal life, CRL 98-220 mm. Anthropological, preparation method, reverse method and statistical analysis were utilized. The survey incorporated the following computer programmes: Renishaw, TraceSurf, AutoCAD, CATIA. The reverse method seems especially interesting (impression with polysiloxane (silicone elastomer of high adhesive power used in dentistry) with 18 D 4823 activator. Elicited impression accurately reflected complex shape of cranium base. On assessing the relative rate of cranium medial fossa, the rate was found to be stable (linear model) for the whole of the analysed period and is 0.19%/week, which stands for the gradual and steady growth of the middle fossa in relation to the whole of the cranium base. At the same time, from the 16th till 28th week of foetal life, relative volume of the cranium middle fossa increases more intensively than cranium anterior fossa, whereas the cranium middle fossa volume as compared with the cranium posterior fossa is definitely slower. In the analysed period, the growth rate of the cranium base middle fossa was bigger in the 4th and 5th weeks than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. The investigations revealed cranium base asymmetry of the left side. Furthermore, the anterior fossae volume on the left side is significantly bigger than the one of the fossae on the right side. Volume growth rate is more intensive in the 4th and 5th than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. In the examined period, the relative growth rate of cranium base middle fossa is 0.19%/week and it is stable - linear model. The study revealed correlations in the form of mathematical models, which enabled foetuses age assessment.
Adam, David P.; Mahood, Albert D.
Many Chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. We have used an ecologic and biogeographic approach to study the distribution of cyst forms in sediments and have established that many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples we have studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Numerous taxonomic problems have yet to be resolved. We believe that chrysophyte cysts have the potential to become a useful tool for both modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits.
Chuo, Chin-Yi; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chien, Song-Hsiung; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Wang, Gwo-Jaw
The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of treatment is to prevent pathologic fracture, to promote cyst healing, and to avoid cyst recurrence and re-fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 cases of unicameral bone cysts (12 in the humerus, 3 in the femur, 2 in the fibula) managed by conservative observation, curettage and bone grafting with open reduction and internal fixation, or continuous decompression and drainage with a cannulated screw. We suggest percutaneous cannulated screw insertion to promote cyst healing and prevent pathologic fracture. We devised a protocol for the management of unicameral bone cysts.
Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi
Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.
Baker, D. M.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.
Flow patterns are mapped within lobate debris aprons and lineated valley fill north of Ismeniae Fossae, Mars. Flowlines are sourced in plateau alcoves and form large, well-integrated systems, consistent with a debris-covered glacier interpretation.
2007-01-01The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of the Nili Fossae region at 0643 UTC (2:43 a.m. EDT) on June 21, 2007, near 21.15 degrees north latitude, 74.24 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several dozen that CRISM has taken to map the minerals at candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2010. The Nili Fossae region is critical to understanding the history of water on Mars and whether water ever formed environments suitable for life, because the region is underlain by a layer of phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. This type of mineralogy formed where water was in contact with Mars' crustal rocks for very long periods, altering the silicates in volcanic rocks. In addition, phyllosilicates can encapsulate and preserve organic chemicals associated with life (if life was present). Its rocky record of an ancient wet environment makes Nili Fossae a top contender among the 30-plus landing sites being considered for MSL, whose objectives include measuring the chemistry preserved in an ancient wet environment. This series of four different versions of the same 544-color image illustrates the mineral-mapping capability that comes from moving beyond the wavelength range of the human eye, and into infrared wavelengths where minerals leave distinct 'fingerprints' in reflected sunlight. At upper left, more than three dozen of the distinct wavelengths measured by CRISM were combined to mimic how the human eye would see the image. The subtle shading comes from the Sun's position high in Mars' sky when the image was taken, creating few shadows. The bland, butterscotch color comes from the dust coating nearly all of the Martian surface to some degree. At upper right
Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida
An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region-left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions.
Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida
Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757
Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk
Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst
Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan
Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN
Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Ruisoto, Pablo; Paniagua, Juan C; Prats, Alberto
The objective of this paper is to present a morphometric study of the middle cranial fossa from the study of 87 patients using cutting edge multislice computed tomography scans (32 detectors) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The study presents a detailed anatomical-radiological and morphometric analysis of the middle cranial fossa as well as its neurovascular elements in normal conditions. The implications of this investigation in training and clinical contexts are discussed.
Somé, O R; Ndoye, J M; Yohann, R; Nolan, G; Roccia, H; Dakoure, W P; Chaffanjon, P
To improve the knowledge of the morphometry and the surrounding anatomical structures of the intersigmoid fossa and to determine possible surgical applications. Forty eight adult cadavers (29 female and 19 male; mean age 83 years) underwent dissection in the Laboratoire d'Anatomie des Alpes Francaises. Two injections in the right carotid resulted in a total body concentration of formalin of 1.3 %. The study parameters were the dimensions of the intersigmoid fossa orifice and the fossa's relationship to surrounding structures. Data were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel (MS Cerp). A Pearson coefficient r was used to examine the correlation between the length of colon and the ISF volume. The intersigmoid fossa was present in 75 % of cases (n = 36). The average dimensions for the transverse diameter, longitudinal diameter, and the depth were, respectively, 20.5 ± 0.2, 20.3 ± 0.13, and 26.8 ± 0.2 mm. The primary and secondary roots bordering this fossa measured on average 59.1 ± 0.1 and 48.3 ± 0.13 mm. In 13.9 % of cases (n = 5), the maximum depth was >40 mm and in 16.7 % of cases (n = 6), one of the diameters of the orifice entry of the fossa was >40 mm. The ureter and external iliac artery were the most frequently encountered structures during the dissection of the fundus of the intersigmoid fossa. The intersigmoid fossa remains present in most of the reported dissections of cadavers. It constitutes an essential landmark in the surgery of the sigmoid colon due to its deep structural relationship with the left ureter and external iliac artery.
Rueckriegel, Stefan M., E-mail: email@example.com; Driever, Pablo Hernaiz; Bruhn, Harald
Purpose: Therapy and tumor-related effects such as hypoperfusion, internal hydrocephalus, chemotherapy, and irradiation lead to significant motor and cognitive sequelae in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. A distinct proportion of those factors related to the resulting late effects is hitherto poorly understood. This study aimed at separating the effects of neurotoxic factors on central nervous system metabolism by using H-1 MR spectroscopy to quantify cerebral metabolite concentrations in these patients in comparison to those in age-matched healthy peers. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with World Health Organization (WHO) I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated by resection only, 24 patients with WHOmore » IV medulloblastoma (MB), who additionally received chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, and 43 healthy peers were investigated using single-volume H-1 MR spectroscopy of parietal white matter and gray matter. Results: Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly decreased in white matter (p < 0.0001) and gray matter (p < 0.0001) of MB patients and in gray matter (p = 0.005) of PA patients, compared to healthy peers. Decreased creatine concentrations in parietal gray matter correlated significantly with older age at diagnosis in both patient groups (MB patients, p = 0.009, r = 0.52; PA patients, p = 0.006, r = 0.7). Longer time periods since diagnosis were associated with lower NAA levels in white matter of PA patients (p = 0.008, r = 0.66). Conclusions: Differently decreased NAA concentrations were observed in both PA and MB groups of posterior fossa tumor patients. We conclude that this reflects a disturbance of the neurometabolic steady state of normal-appearing brain tissue due to the tumor itself and to the impact of surgery in both patient groups. Further incremental decreases of metabolite concentrations in MB patients may point to additional harm caused by irradiation and chemotherapy. The stronger decrease of NAA in
Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin; Ahmetgjekaj, Ilir; Gashi, Sanije; Fazliu, Ilir; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Shala, Nexhmedin
Intracranial tumors are characterized by a variety imaging aspects and their detection is always a challenge. Clinical application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computerized Tomography has provided an earlier detection and treatment of many CNS pathologies. The aim of this study is to estimate the role of CT and MRI in the determination of posterior fossa tumors. During period 2000-2005 in UCCK-Prishtina, 368 patients were diagnosed with intracranial tumors. Fifty-nine of them were found to have tumor localized in fossa crani posterior (FCP) without any significant difference between genders (50.8% female vs. 49.2% male, chi2 test=0.02 p=0.896). The average age of patients with FCP tumors was 33.1 (SD +/- 22.5, rank 1-70). The most of these patients were registered in 2003 (20.3%) whereas the least in 2000 (11.9%). The most affected age-group was 0-9 (25.4%) and 50-59 (23.7%) whereas the incidences was between 30-39 years of age (3.4%). Tumor types that more often were found in young's individuals were: Astrocytomas with a peak incidence in teenagers (average age was 12-year-old SD +/- 7.5, rank 3-23), next was Medulloblastomas (average age was 11-years-old, SD +/- 2.9, rank 6-16 years) and ependymomas (average age was 6.8-years-old, SD +/- 4.6, rank 1-12). Patients with osseous tumors are characterized by older age than median (61.0, SD +/- 4.2, rank 58-64), then metastases (53.0, SD +/- 5.3, rank 45-60) and meningiomas (50.8, SD +/- 7.7, rank 38-63). The overall average mortality was 0.41 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with variations through years from 0.30-0.50/100,000 inhabitants. Comparing with other countries, for some types of FCP tumors, lower morbidity is shown in Kosova, with mean incidence 0.41/100,000. The most frequent tumors in children were medulloblastomas, brainstem gliomas, astrocytomas and ependymomas whereas meningiomas and metastasis were most often found in adults. For FCP tumors detection, MRI had 100% sensitivity, specificity and
de Divitiis, Enrico; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi M; de Divitiis, Oreste; Esposito, Isabella
The extended transnasal approach, a recent surgical advancements for the ventral skull base, allows excellent midline access to and visibility of the anterior cranial fossa, which was previously thought to be approachable only via a transcranial route. The extended transnasal approach allows early decompression of the optic canals, obviates the need for brain retraction, and reduces neurovascular manipulation. Between 2004 and 2007, 11 consecutive patients underwent transnasal resection of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas--4 olfactory groove (OGM) and 7 tuberculum sellae (TSM) meningiomas. Age at surgery, sex, symptoms, and imaging studies were reviewed. Tumor size and tumor extension were estimated, and the anteroposterior, vertical, and horizontal diameters were measred on MR images. Medical records, surgical complications, and outcomes of the patients were collected. A gross-total removal of the lesion was achieved in 10 patients (91%), and in 1 patient with a TSM only a near-total (> 90%) resection was possible. Four patients with preoperative visual function defect had a complete recovery, whereas 3 patients experienced a transient worsening of vision, fully recovered within few days. In 3 patients (2 with TSMs and 1 with an OGM), a postoperative CSF leak occurred, requiring a endoscopic surgery for skull base defect repair. Another patient (a case involving a TSM) developed transient diabetes insipidus. The operative time ranged from 6 to 10 hours in the OGM group and from 4.5 to 9 hours in the TSM group. The mean duration of the hospital stay was 13.5 and 10 days in the OGM and TSM groups, respectively. Six patients (3 with OGMs and 3 with TSMs) required a blood transfusion. Surgery-related death occurred in 1 patient with TSM, in whom the tumor was successfully removed. The technique offers a minimally invasive route to the midline anterior skull base, allowing the surgeon to avoid using brain retraction and reducing manipulation of the large vessels and
Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Sumi, Takuro; Shirakura, Satoshi; Kishimoto, Seiji; Akita, Keiichi
We report a nameless bony eminence over the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and its possible clinical significance. Forty-two half heads of 21 UK Caucasian cadavers (61-95 years old, mean 84.3 +/- 8.2 years, male:female = 11:10) were used to investigate the surface of the middle cranial fossa (MCF) over the TMJ. The thickness of the bony roof of the glenoid fossa was also measured. A bony eminence over the glenoid fossa was observed in half of the specimens. Some showed a complete oval bulge, which completely reflected the contour of the glenoid fossa. The others showed a bony bulge, which partially reflected that contour. The mean (+/-SD) thickness of the bone in the roof of glenoid fossa was 1.5 +/- 1.2 mm. The mean bony thickness of specimens showing the eminence was 0.8 +/- 0.5 mm, whereas it was 2.3 +/- 1.2 mm in specimens without an eminence. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The osteological features we describe may be relevant to certain clinical problems. Traumatic dislocation of mandibular condyle, for example, might relate to a weakness of the glenoid fossa. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Zarezadeh, Abolghasem; Nourbakhsh, Mohsen; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Etemadifar, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochian, Farhad
Intraosseous ganglia are benign cysts that usually can be seen in lower extremity; especially around ankle. These cysts have fewer incidences in upper extremity, mainly around the wrist. They are extremely rare in olecranon. These lesions are often asymptomatic. Patient was a 75-year-old man who had trauma many years ago. When he came to our clinic, he complained of severe pain around his elbow that he could not do ordinary activity. He had local tenderness in elbow and 30 degree limitation in extension. In radiography, lytic, multiloculated lesion existed in region of olecranon. After excisional biopsy was done, cavity was cleaned completely with curette and was filled with autogenous bone. At 10-year follow-up, the patient was completely asymptomatic. Control radiograph showed cavity filled completely by bone; there was no evidence of relapse. PMID:22973489
López-Arroquia, T E; Avendaño-Cantos, E M; Mesa-Varona, D; Gálvez-Martínez, J; López-Romero, S; Nuñez-Plascencia, R; González del Valle, F
A 5 year-old child diagnosed with moderate anisometropic amblyopia secondary to primary cyst of iris pigment epithelium. He was evaluated with ultrasound biomicroscopy (BMU) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of anterior segment. The OCT, although with some limitations, is a useful tool to study the anterior segment. It is probably more recommendable than BMU in the childhood. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa
Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022
Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.
Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors
Kyrmizakis, Dionysios E; Lachanas, Vassilios A; Benakis, Antonios A; Velegrakis, George A; Aslanides, Ioannis M
Nasolabial cysts are rare, nonodontogenic, soft-tissue, developmental cysts occurring inferior to the nasal alar region. They are thought to arise from remnants of the nasolacrimal ducts and they are frequently asymptomatic. We report a rare case of bilateral nasolabial cysts accompanied by bilateral chronic dacryocystitis. A 48-year-old woman suffering from bilateral chronic dacryocystitis was referred to our department for endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. She had undergone external dacryocystorhinostomy on the left side a few years earlier. Physical examination and computed tomography scan revealed nasolabial cysts bilaterally inferior to the nasal alar region. The cysts were removed via a sublabial approach and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was performed on the right side. Ten months after surgery, the patient was asymptomatic. There may be a correlation, due to embryological reasons, between the presence of nasolabial cysts and the presence of chronic dacryocystitis. Both can be corrected surgically, under the same anaesthesia, without visible scar formation.
Pirttiniemi, P; Kantomaa, T; Tuominen, M
Attempts to increase mandibular growth by the stimulation of condylar proliferative activity, either experimentally or with functional appliances in humans, have led to controversial results. The aim of this study was to measure changes in proliferative activity in the mandibular condyle after steady experimental posterior relocation of the glenoid fossa in the rabbit without actively interfering with normal masticatory action. The method differed from most previous experimental procedures, which force the mandible anteriorly to stimulate functional appliance therapy. Twelve 5-day-old rabbits underwent gluing of the interparietal, temporoparietal, and lambdoidal sutures. Three experimental and three control rabbits were injected with tritiated thymidine at 10, 15, 20, and 30 days and were killed after 2 h for histological and autoradiographic examination. The total number of labeled cells in the prechondroblastic layer was higher in the experimental group, the difference being greatest in the 20-day-old rabbits. The highest proliferative activity in the experimental group was found in the area immediately posterior to the articular contact surface. There was a tendency for the cartilage layers to be thicker in the experimental group, especially in the extreme anterior segments of the condyle.
Fisher, Karen M; Lai, H Ming; Baker, Mark R; Baker, Stuart N
To investigate the efficacy of magnetic stimulation over the posterior fossa (PF) as a non-invasive assessment of cerebellar function in man. We replicated a previously reported conditioning-test paradigm in 11 healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at varying intensities was applied to the PF and motor cortex with a 3, 5 or 7 ms interstimulus interval (ISI), chosen randomly for each trial. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activity was recorded from two intrinsic hand muscles and two forearm muscles. Responses were averaged and rectified, and MEP amplitudes were compared to assess whether suppression of the motor output occurred as a result of the PF conditioning pulse. Cortical MEPs were suppressed following conditioning-test ISIs of 5 or 7 ms. No suppression occurred with an ISI of 3 ms. PF stimuli alone also produced EMG responses, suggesting direct activation of the corticospinal tract (CST). CST collaterals are known to contact cortical inhibitory interneurones; antidromic CST activation could therefore contribute to the observed suppression of cortical MEPs. PF stimulation probably activates multiple pathways; even at low intensities it should not be regarded as a selective assessment of cerebellar function unless stringent controls can confirm the absence of confounding activity in other pathways.
Glaser, D L; Dormans, J P; Stanton, R P; Davidson, R S
Unicameral bone cysts are not seen commonly in the calcaneus. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. Calcaneal cysts often are symptomatic, although some of these lesions are detected as incidental findings. Treatment has been advocated based on the fear of pathologic fracture and collapse. Several published series have been divided in their favor for either open treatment or injection management. These series are small, and the optimal treatment is still in question. The current study compared the efficacy of methylprednisolone acetate injection treatment with curettage and bone grafting in the treatment of unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus. All patients treated for unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus during the past 7 years at two institutions were reviewed. Eleven patients met inclusion criteria. All diagnoses were confirmed radiographically or histologically. Demographic information, presenting complaints, diagnostic imaging, treatment modalities, and outcome were analyzed. Long term radiographic and subjective followup was obtained. Eighteen surgical procedures were performed on 11 patients with 12 cysts. Nine injections performed on six patients failed to show healing of the cyst. Nine cysts treated with curettage and bone grafting showed cyst healing. At mean followup of 28 months (range, 12-77 months), all 11 patients had no symptoms; there were no recurrences of the cyst in the nine patients who underwent bone grafting and persistence of the cyst in the two patients who underwent injection therapy. This review reports one of the largest series of cysts in this location. The results indicate that steroid injection treatment, although useful in other locations, may not be the best option for the management of unicameral bone cysts in the calcaneus. Curettage and bone grafting yielded uniformly good results.
Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D
Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.
Dammer, U; Driemel, O; Mohren, W; Giedl, C; Reichert, T E
The so-called "globulomaxillary cyst", described as a fissural cyst, caused by entrapped epithelium between the nasal and maxillary process, is no longer considered for its own entity. Nevertheless, cystic lesions, which correspond to the previous image of globulomaxillary cysts, do still occur in daily practice. This raises the question to which entities pathological processes in this particular region actually belong to. In a retrospective study, 17 cases (12 men and 5 women, 12-59 years old) of primarily diagnosed globulomaxillary cysts are analysed according to clinical, radiological and histological aspects, catamnestic processed and assigned to a new entity. The results are compared with the international literature and draws conclusions on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Seven lateral periodontal cysts, four radicular cysts, two keratocystic odontogenic tumours, one adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, one periapical granuloma, one residual cyst and one undefined jaw cyst were determined. According to the results of our study and the data from the international literature, the entity globulomaxillary cyst is no longer justified.
Moctezuma-Bravo, Gustavo Sergio; Magallanes-González, Eduardo
To describe characteristics of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican population. A retrospective study of 103 odontogenic cysts in 86 patients was done. The data were obtained from files of the Pathology Department of a General Hospital. We observed a frequency of the 8.13 % of odontogenic cysts (103) in 1266 pathological studies. The dentigerous cyst 56 % and odontogenic keratocyst 33 % were the most common odontogenic cysts. Sixty one percent of the cysts appeared in the second and third decades of life. In 71 cysts, 42 % appeared in the posterior region jaw, 29 % in the anterior region of the maxilla and 21 % in the posterior region of the maxilla. A 6.7 % developed a recurrence after treatment and a case of keratocyst of posterior region of the maxilla was associated with epidermoid carcinoma. The study included three women with the syndrome of carcinoma of the basal cell nevus, who presented multiple keratocysts. The dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts were the most frequent odontogenic cysts. They appeared mainly in the second and third decades of life.
Nuñez-Urrutia, Sergio; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme
To determine the relative incidence of odontogenic cysts and to identify the main clinicopathological features among patients treated in the Oral Surgery Department of the Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A retrospective observational study was made of 418 odontogenic cysts diagnosed in 380 patients included in the database of 1235 histopathological diagnoses. The subjects were treated in the Master degree program of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona in the period 1997-2006. The following variables were recorded: gender, age, clinical characteristics of the lesions (size and location), radiological features, duration, treatment, complications and relapses. A descriptive analysis was made of the study variables, using the SPSS version 15.0. The incidence of odontogenic cysts was 33.8%. The mean patient age at appearance of the lesion was 42 years (range 7-83). The cysts were slightly more prevalent in males (58.4%). The lesion size ranged from 2-60 mm, with a mean size of 18.4 mm. The most frequent diagnosis was radicular cyst (50.2%). The most common location of the odontogenic cysts was in the mandible (61.5%), particularly the lower third molar region (36.8%). The most frequently diagnosed lesion was the radicular cyst. Odontogenic cysts were seen to be slightly more prevalent in males, and showed a high mandibular incidence. Knowledge of the biological and histological behavior of odontogenic cysts and their frequency are key aspects for ensuring early detection and adequate treatment.
Rockacy, Matthew; Khalid, Asif
Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) may be incidentally detected in up to 13.5% of patients. These represent a wide variety of lesions including mucinous cysts [intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN)] that have malignant potential. The difficulty in identifying the various PCL and their unpredictable potential for malignant degeneration makes their management cumbersome. The current diagnostic evaluation of PCL often includes EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for cyst fluid analysis. Cyst fluid can be analyzed for tumor markers, cytology, mucins, DNA analysis and amylase. Pancreatic cyst CEA level is considered the most accurate tumor marker for diagnosing mucinous cysts. Approximately 0.2 to 1.0 mL of cyst fluid is required to run the test and a cut-off of 192 ng/ mL can be expected to capture ~75% of mucinous cysts. The presence of a KRAS mutation is very specific for a mucinous cyst but lacks sensitivity. Cytology is especially helpful in diagnosing malignancy typically in the presence of a solid component in the cyst. Newer markers to improve diagnostic accuracy are on the horizon, but clinical studies are awaited. PMID:24714589
Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef
Introduction Progress in the development of surgical techniques has led to the growing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques in mediastinal cyst treatment. Aim To present our experience of treating mediastinal cysts with the minimally invasive technique. Material and methods Fifty patients with mediastinal cysts were treated from 2001 to 2011. There were 32 women and 18 men. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 72, the mean age being 42 years. All patients underwent basic preoperative diagnostic tests of the chest: X-ray, computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and spirometry; 4 patients underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and 3 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the described lesions. Results The VATS was performed in each case. Conversion was carried out due to superior mediastinal location in 10 cases and pleural adhesions in 3 cases. The partial resection of a cyst was performed in 3 patients. One patient was treated conservatively due to heart failure. In that patient the transthoracic needle aspiration of a cyst under ultrasound guidance using alcoholisation with 76% ethanol with a good effect was performed twice. Cyst recurrence was observed in 1 case. Conclusions The surgical access depends on the location of a cyst. The VATS resection of a superior mediastinal cyst is not always feasible. Surgery of mediastinal cysts is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:25337163
Rodriguez Gutierrez, D; Awwad, A; Meijer, L; Manita, M; Jaspan, T; Dineen, R A; Grundy, R G; Auer, D P
Qualitative radiologic MR imaging review affords limited differentiation among types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors and cannot detect histologic or molecular subtypes, which could help to stratify treatment. This study aimed to improve current posterior fossa discrimination of histologic tumor type by using support vector machine classifiers on quantitative MR imaging features. This retrospective study included preoperative MRI in 40 children with posterior fossa tumors (17 medulloblastomas, 16 pilocytic astrocytomas, and 7 ependymomas). Shape, histogram, and textural features were computed from contrast-enhanced T2WI and T1WI and diffusivity (ADC) maps. Combinations of features were used to train tumor-type-specific classifiers for medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, and ependymoma types in separation and as a joint posterior fossa classifier. A tumor-subtype classifier was also produced for classic medulloblastoma. The performance of different classifiers was assessed and compared by using randomly selected subsets of training and test data. ADC histogram features (25th and 75th percentiles and skewness) yielded the best classification of tumor type (on average >95.8% of medulloblastomas, >96.9% of pilocytic astrocytomas, and >94.3% of ependymomas by using 8 training samples). The resulting joint posterior fossa classifier correctly assigned >91.4% of the posterior fossa tumors. For subtype classification, 89.4% of classic medulloblastomas were correctly classified on the basis of ADC texture features extracted from the Gray-Level Co-Occurence Matrix. Support vector machine-based classifiers using ADC histogram features yielded very good discrimination among pediatric posterior fossa tumor types, and ADC textural features show promise for further subtype discrimination. These findings suggest an added diagnostic value of quantitative feature analysis of diffusion MR imaging in pediatric neuro-oncology. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
D'Antonio, F; Khalil, A; Garel, C; Pilu, G; Rizzo, G; Lerman-Sagie, T; Bhide, A; Thilaganathan, B; Manzoli, L; Papageorghiou, A T
To explore the outcome in fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa anomalies apparently isolated on ultrasound imaging. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched electronically utilizing combinations of relevant medical subject headings for 'posterior fossa' and 'outcome'. The posterior fossa anomalies analyzed were Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), mega cisterna magna (MCM), Blake's pouch cyst (BPC) and vermian hypoplasia (VH). The outcomes observed were rate of chromosomal abnormalities, additional anomalies detected at prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), additional anomalies detected at postnatal imaging and concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses. Only isolated cases of posterior fossa anomalies - defined as having no cerebral or extracerebral additional anomalies detected on ultrasound examination - were included in the analysis. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. We used meta-analyses of proportions to combine data and fixed- or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity of the results. Twenty-two studies including 531 fetuses with posterior fossa anomalies were included in this systematic review. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with isolated DWM was 16.3% (95% CI, 8.7-25.7%). The prevalence of additional central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities that were missed at ultrasound examination and detected only at prenatal MRI was 13.7% (95% CI, 0.2-42.6%), and the prevalence of additional CNS anomalies that were missed at prenatal imaging and detected only after birth was 18.2% (95% CI, 6.2-34.6%). Prenatal diagnosis was not confirmed after birth in 28.2% (95% CI, 8.5-53.9%) of cases. MCM was not significantly associated with additional anomalies detected at prenatal MRI or detected after birth. Prenatal diagnosis was not confirmed postnatally in 7.1% (95% CI, 2.3-14.5%) of cases. The rate of chromosomal anomalies in fetuses with
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Taketo; Takagi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kenji; Kimura, Takashi; Okumura, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Toru
Odontogenic cysts, which showed cystic radiolucency in the jaw bone by radiographic examination and computed tomography, were enucleated by operation in 3 dogs. One dog had a odontogenic keratocyst in the incisive bone of the right maxilla and another 2 cases revealed dentigerous cysts in the mandible. These cyst walls were enucleated or transpired by semiconductor laser. Afterwards, osteogenesis was confirmed at the defective part of jaw bone by extirpation of the cyst in all cases, and no recurrence has been noted in any cases. Odontogenic cyst is a disease which should be treated by surgical extirpation or transpiration.
Bernardo, Antonio; Evins, Alexander I; Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Stieg, Philip E
In cases of small intracanalicular tumors (≤ 1.5 cm), the middle fossa approach (MFA) provides the ability for adequate tumor removal with preservation of existing auditory function. Application of a minimally invasive tubular retractor in this approach may help mitigate the risk of postoperative seizures, aphasia, and venous complications by minimizing intraoperative retraction of the temporal lobe. We propose a minimally invasive microscopic and/or endoscopic percutaneous transtubular MFA for the management of intracanalicular tumors. Subtemporal keyhole craniectomies were performed on 5 preserved cadaveric heads (10 sides), with 6 sides previously injected with a synthetic tumor model. A ViewSite Brain Access System tubular retractor (Vycor Medical, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA) was used to provide minimal temporal retraction and protection of the surrounding anatomy. An extradural dissection of the internal auditory canal was performed under microscopic and endoscopic visualization with a minimally invasive surgical drill and tube shaft instruments, the intracanalicular tumors were removed, and degree of resection was assessed. All 10 approaches were completed successfully through the tubular retractor with minimal retraction of the temporal lobe. Excellent visualization of the structures within the internal auditory canal was achieved with both the microscope and 3-dimensional endoscope. On the 6 synthetic intracanalicular tumors resected, 5 gross total (Grade I) and 1 near total (Grade II) resections were achieved. A percutaneous transtubular MFA is a feasible minimally invasive option for resection of small intracanalicular tumors with potential preservation of auditory function, reduced temporal retraction, and enhanced protection of surrounding structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vargo, James D; Przylecki, Wojciech; Camarata, Paul J; Andrews, Brian T
Microvascular reconstruction of the anterior cranial fossa (ACF) creates difficult challenges. Reconstructive goals and flap selection vary based on the defect location within the ACF. This study evaluates the feasibility and reliability of free tissue transfer for salvage reconstruction of low, middle, and high ACF defects. A retrospective review was performed. Reconstructions were anatomically classified as low (anterior skull base), middle (frontal bar/sinus), and high (frontal bone/soft tissue). Subjects were evaluated based on pathologic indication and goal, type of flap used, and complications observed. Eleven flaps in 10 subjects were identified and anatomic sites included: low ( n = 5), middle ( n = 3), and high ( n = 3). Eight of 11 reconstructions utilized osteocutaneous flaps including the osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap (OCRFFF) ( n = 7) and fibula ( n = 1). Other reconstructions included a split calvarial graft wrapped within a temporoparietal fascia free flap ( n = 1), latissimus myocutaneous flap ( n = 1), and rectus abdominis myofascial flap ( n = 1). All 11 flaps were successful without microvascular compromise. No complications were observed in the high and middle ACF defect groups. Two of five flaps in the low defect group using OCRFFF flaps failed to achieve surgical goals despite demonstrating healthy flaps upon re-exploration. Complications included persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak ( n = 1) and pneumocephalus ( n = 1), requiring flap repositioning in one subject and a second microvascular flap in the second subject to achieve surgical goals. In our experience, osteocutaneous flaps (especially the OCRFFF) are preferred for complete autologous reconstruction of high and middle ACF defects. Low skull base defects are more difficult to reconstruct, and consideration of free muscle flaps (no bone) should be weighed as an option in this anatomic area. Thieme Medical Publishers
Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A
It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.
Román-González, Alejandro; Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro
Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME ( Biblioteca Regional de Medicina ) LILACS ( Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud ), Google Scholar and Scielo ( Scientific Electronic Library on Line ) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid.
Hazmy, C H Wan
The calcaneus is not a common site for a unicameral solitary bone cyst. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. The author reports an adult man with a solitary bone cyst of the os calcis which was confirmed radiologically and histologically and successfully treated with curretage and bone grafting.
Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.
Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.
Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.
Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:21915386
Veselinović, Dragan; Krasić, Dragan; Stefanović, Ivan; Veselinović, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Kostić, Aleksandar; Cvetanović, Marija
Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Nis, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.
Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro
Background Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Methods Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina) LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), Google Scholar and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library on Line) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Results Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Conclusions Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid. PMID:28149800
Jurcă, Maria Claudia; Kozma, Kinga; Petcheşi, CodruŢa Diana; Bembea, Marius; Pop, Ovidiu Laurean; MuŢiu, Gabriela; Coroi, Mihaela Cristiana; Jurcă, Alexandru Daniel; Dobjanschi, Luciana
Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is a malformative association of the central nervous system. DWC includes four different types: Dandy-Walker malformation (vermis agenesis or hypoplasia, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and a large posterior fossa); Dandy-Walker variant (vermis hypoplasia, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, normal posterior fossa); mega cysterna magna (large posterior fossa, normal vermis and fourth ventricle) and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. We present and discuss four cases with different morphological and clinical forms of the Dandy-Walker complex. In all four cases, diagnosis was reached by incorporation of clinical (macrocephaly, seizures) and imaging [X-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] data. Two patients were diagnosed with Dandy-Walker complex, one patient was diagnosed with Dandy-Walker variant in a rare association with neurofibromatosis and one patient was diagnosed with a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst associated with left-sided Claude Bernard-Horner syndrome, congenital heart disease (coarctation of the aorta, mitral stenosis) and gastroesophageal reflux. In all forms of DWC, the clinical, radiological and functional manifestations are variable and require adequate diagnostic and therapeutic measures.
Bannon, Ross; Parihar, Shivani; Skarparis, Yiannis; Varsou, Ourania; Cezayirli, Enis
The pterygopalatine fossa is one of the most complex anatomical regions to understand. It is poorly visualized in cadaveric dissection and most textbooks rely on schematic depictions. We describe our approach to creating a low-cost, 3D model of the pterygopalatine fossa, including its associated canals and foramina, using an affordable "desktop" 3D printer. We used open source software to create a volume render of the pterygopalatine fossa from axial slices of a head computerised tomography scan. These data were then exported to a 3D printer to produce an anatomically accurate model. The resulting 'negative space' model of the pterygopalatine fossa provides a useful and innovative aid for understanding the complex anatomical relationships of the pterygopalatine fossa. This model was designed primarily for medical students; however, it will also be of interest to postgraduates in ENT, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and radiology. The technical process described may be replicated by other departments wishing to develop their own anatomical models whilst incurring minimal costs.
Congenital cholesteatoma may be expected in abnormally developed ear, it may cause bony erosion of the middle ear cleft and extend to the infratemporal fossa. We present the first case of congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in a patient with congenital aural atresia that has been complicated with acute mastoiditis. A sixteen year old Egyptian male patient presented with congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa with congenital aural atresia complicated with acute mastoiditis. Two weeks earlier, the patient suffered pain necessitating hospital admission, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft tissue mass in the right infratemporal fossa. On presentation to our institute, Computerized tomography was done as a routine, it proved the diagnosis of mastoiditis, pure tone audiometry showed an air-bone gap of 60 dB. Cortical mastoidectomy was done for treatment of mastoiditis, removal of congenital cholesteatoma was carried out with reconstruction of external auditory canal. Follow-up of the patient for 2 years and 3 months showed a patent, infection free external auditory canal with an air-bone gap has been reduced to 35db. One year after the operation; MRI was done and it showed no residual or recurrent cholesteatoma. Congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in cases of congenital aural atresia can be managed safely even if it was associated with mastoiditis. It is an original case report of interest to the speciality of otolaryngology.
Silverman, C.L.; Simpson, J.R.
Fifty patients with biopsy-proven cerebellar medulloblastoma were retrospectively analyzed for prognostic factors, survival and patterns of failure. Five- and ten-year actuarial survivals for the entire group were 51% and 42%. Survival and local control were significantly better for the 21 patients who received doses greater than 5000 rad to the posterior fossa (85% and 80% respectively) than for the remaining patients (38% and 38%, respectively). Significant prognostic factors included achievement of local control in the posterior fossa (p = .0001) and dose to the posterior fossa (p = .0005). Sex, age, duration of symptoms, extent of surgery and initial T-stagemore » of disease were not significant. Posterior fossa was the predominant site of failure (71% of failures), but 10% of patients failed in the cerebrum and 12% outside the CNS. This experience confirms that survival rates of 70-80% are achievable with current treatment policies but accurate and consistent dose delivery to the posterior fossa is essential.« less
Silverman, C.L.; Simpson, J.R.
Fifty patients with biopsy-proven cerebellar medulloblastoma were retrospectively analyzed for prognostic factors, survival and patterns of failure. Five- and ten-year actuarial survivals for the entire group were 51% and 42%. Survival and local control were significantly better for the 21 patients who received doses greater that 5000 rad to the posterior fossa (85% and 80% respectively) than for the remaining patients (38% and 38%, respectively). Significant prognostic factors included achievement of local control in the posterior fossa (p = .0001) and dose to the posterior fossa (p = .0005). Sex, age, duration of symptoms, extent of surgery and initial T-stagemore » of disease were not significant. Posterior fossa was the predominant site of failure (71% of failures), but 10% of patients failed in the cerebrum and 12% outside the CNS. This experience confirms that survival rates of 70-80% are achievable with current treatment policies but accurate and consistent dose delivery to the posterior fossa is essential.« less
Rosa, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Hiramatsu, Daniel Martins; de Moraes, Fábio Roberto Ruiz; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Soares, Andresa Borges
Oral foregut cysts are congenital choristomas that arise in the oral cavity during embryonic development from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium. This is an unusual report of a neonate with a large congenital sublingual cystic lesion, extending superficially from the left ventral tongue to the anterior floor of the mouth, impeding breast-feeding. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, mucous retention cyst, and oral lymphangioma. The treatment of choice was enucleation under general anesthesia. Histology showed a cystic lesion with a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 and negative for cytokeratin 20, resulting in a final diagnosis of an oral foregut cyst. Three weeks after surgery, the tongue had healed with good mobility, and breast-feeding could be established. No recurrence was present at 6 months of follow-up.
Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael
Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach. PMID:22669964
Soccorso, Giampiero; Walker, Jenny
Antenatally diagnosed abdominal cysts are common, and frequently are ovarian in origin, which usually regress spontaneously. Surgery is indicated in the infantile period in case of very large, persisting or symptomatic cysts. Many surgeons feel that watchful waiting can be justified in newborns with simple and complex cysts. We present a neonate with an ovarian cyst diagnosed antenatally by ultrasound (US) and showing persistent enlargement within 3 months after birth when reached a diameter of 13 cm. Assessment and treatment is described. The extremely large, non-resolving ovarian cysts in neonates present a major challenge for clinicians and should be treated by surgery to avoid complications. We advocate laparotomy and cystectomy when possible to avoid unnecessary loss of functional ovarian tissue.
Mujtaba, Syeddah Shafaq; Faridi, Naveen; Haroon, Saroona
Hydatid cysts in the neck are relatively exceptional, even in areas where Echinococcus granulosis is endemic, such as Asia. Although liver and lung are frequent sites of involvement, it can involve all tissues, with neck remaining one of the most rare sites. It should come in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesion of neck, as the treatment options differ widely from common neck cysts. The role of radiological investigation is important and, in these cases, the involvement of other organs should be investigated. Serological tests may be helpful. The major treatment modality is surgical and the cyst should be excised as a whole, without being ruptured, to prevent any treatment complications, as the cyst fluid can initiate an anaphylactic reaction. Postoperative albendazole therapy is recommended particularly when there is intra-operative spillover. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst localized in the anterior triangle of the neck without any pulmonary or hepatic involvement.
de Oliveira, Alline J; Silveira, Maria Lg; Duarte, Danilo A; Diniz, Michele B
The pediatric dental approach to the oral cavity of newborns requires special attention, as many aspects are unique and peculiar to this period of life. It is important that pediatricians and pediatric dentists be aware of the characteristics within normal newborn patterns and prepared to make a correct diagnosis of abnormalities at early stages. Congenital eruption cysts (ECs) are rarely observed in newborns, as at this stage of a child's life, tooth eruption is unusual. This study reports a case of EC treated successfully by monitoring of the lesion, without any surgical procedure. In the 4th month, the lesion had completely regressed, and the deciduous central incisors had erupted without problems. The clinical and radiographic monitoring of ECs in newborns seems to be a satisfactory management procedure, similar to what is recommended for older children. How to cite this article: de Oliveira AJ, Silveira MLG, Duarte DA, Diniz MB. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;11(1):58-60.
Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng
The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2 × 1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner's syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.
Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng
The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation. PMID:24294394
Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay
Introduction and Objectives: Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Materials and Method: In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Observations and Results: Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. Conclusion: The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. PMID:29731577
Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay
Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior.
De Craene, S; Batteauw, A; Van Lint, M; Claerhout, I; Decock, C
Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
Tauro, Anna; Jovanovik, Jelena; Driver, Colin John; Rusbridge, Clare
Abnormalities within the spinal arachnoid space are often treated surgically, but they can be challenging to detect with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. 3D-CISS sequences are considered superior in evaluating structures surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to the high signal-to-noise ratio, high contrast-to-noise ratio and intrinsic insensitivity to motion with minimal signal loss due to CSF pulsations. Our objective was to describe findings and advantages in adding 3D-CISS sequences to routine MRI in patients affected by spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) or arachnoid adhesions. This article is a retrospective review of medical records of 19 dogs admitted at Fitzpatrick Referrals between 2013 and 2017 that were diagnosed with SAD and confirmed surgically. Inclusion criterions were the presence of clinical signs compatible with compressive myelopathy and an MRI diagnosis, which included the 3D-CISS sequence. Our database was searched for additional 19 dogs diagnosed with other spinal lesions other than SAD that had the same MR sequences. All MR images were anonymized and evaluated by two assessors. 3D-CISS sequence appears to improve confidence in diagnosing and surgical planning (Mann-Whitney U -test: p < 0.0005), delineating SAD from other changes associated with abnormal CSF hydrodynamics and providing more anatomical details than conventional MRI sequences. The clinical data in combination with imaging findings would limit over interpretation, when concurrent pathology within the arachnoid space is present. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.
Khalil, Ayman; Clerkin, James; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Green, Sandra; Javadpour, Mohsen
Multiple cranial nerves palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment is a rare clinical presentation. This case report describes a young man who developed a unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment. There are different theories to explain this presentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We propose that this patient cranial nerve palsies developed following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, potentially as a consequence of rapid change in CSF dynamics. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.
Khalil, Ayman; Clerkin, James; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Green, Sandra; Javadpour, Mohsen
Multiple cranial nerves palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment is a rare clinical presentation. This case report describes a young man who developed a unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment. There are different theories to explain this presentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We propose that this patient cranial nerve palsies developed following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, potentially as a consequence of rapid change in CSF dynamics. PMID:26951144
Varlam, H; Macovei, G N; Antohe, D St
During edification of neocortex, the lateral fossa is involved in the process of development of cerebral hemispheres. It changes its shape and, from a shallow depression at the end of the 3rd month, it becomes a triangular surface with marked borders. Finally, in the same time with the appearance of circumvolutions the opercles that limit it come closer and give rise to the lateral sulcus. The evolution of the lateral fossa can be analysed by linear and surface parameters. Morphometric and statistic analyse of these parameters, compared with those of the cerebral hemisphere, allowed us to establish some original criteria for appreciating the growth of the foetal brain.
Mak, Grace Z.; Reynolds, Jordan P.; Tevar, Amit D.; Pritts, Timothy A.
Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are uncommon solitary cysts of the liver that originate from the embryologic foregut. Clinically and radiographically, these lesions can be difficult to distinguish from neoplasms. Recent reports have demonstrated that ciliated hepatic foregut cysts may undergo dysplastic progression, supporting the argument to excise these cysts when discovered. Fewer than 100 cases have been described in the literature since the first description of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in 1857. We present a patient who recently underwent laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst, review the literature, and propose the rationale for attempting removal of these cysts via a laparoscopic approach. PMID:19366552
Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184
Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro
The authors report the case of a giant medial meniscal cyst in an osteoarthritic knee of an 82-year-old woman that was successfully treated with only arthroscopic cyst decompression. The patient noticed a painful mass on the medial side of the right knee that had been gradually growing for 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated large medial cystic mass measuring 80×65×40 mm that was adjacent to the medial meniscus. An accompanying horizontal tear was also detected in the middle and posterior segments of the meniscus. The medial meniscus was resected up to the capsular attachment to create bidirectional flow between the joint and the cyst with arthroscopic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 14 months postoperatively showed that the cyst had completely disappeared, and no recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. An excellent result could be obtained by performing limited meniscectomy to create a channel leading to the meniscal cyst, even though the cyst was large. Among previously reported cases of meniscal cysts, this case is the largest to be treated arthroscopically without open excision. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Muthucumaru, Mathievathaniy; Ljuhar, Damir; Panabokke, Gayathri; Paul, Eldho; Nataraja, Ramesh; Ferguson, Peter; Dagia, Charuta; Clarnette, Tom; King, Sebastian
To analyse the characteristics of patients with choledochal cysts presenting with acute pancreatitis. Multicenter retrospective review of all paediatric patients (<18 years) with choledochal cysts managed over a 14-year period (2001-2014) at two tertiary paediatric surgical centres. Patient data were analysed for demographics, presentation, radiological classification of cyst type (Todani), operative interventions, complications and long-term follow-up. A total of 49 patients with choledochal cysts were identified with 15 (31%) being Type I fusiform, 18 (37%) Type I cystic and 16 (32%) Type IV-A. Seventeen (35%) patients presented with acute pancreatitis, one having had an ante-natally diagnosed choledochal cyst. Patients presenting with pancreatitis were older when compared to the non-pancreatitis group (5.1 vs. 1.2 years, P = 0.005). Nine out of 16 (53%) patients with Type IV-A cysts presented with pancreatitis compared to five (33%) of Type I fusiform and three (17%) of Type I cystic. There was however no statistically significant association between Todani types and the development of pancreatitis (Type I fusiform, P = 1.0; Type I cystic, P = 0.063; Type IV-A, P = 0.053). The rate of complications was similar in both groups. Pancreatitis was a common presentation in children with a choledochal cyst, however, there was no clear statistically significant association with Todani types and pancreatitis. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Xiao, Yang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Niu, Gai-Ling; Gao, Min
To describe the clinical features and the surgical management of primary iris stromal cyst with rapid growth. A 14-year-old Chinese-Mongolian girl was referred to us with a 1-month history of obstructed vision and photophobia. On an examination, a semitransparent cyst with a densely pigmented posterior wall was revealed in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The information regarding the location and extent of the cyst was further analyzed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. It arose within the iris stroma, measuring 7.52 x 3.60 mm. Blood vessels on the surface of the lesion were revealed by iris angiography. There was no history of amniocentesis, birth trauma, antecedent ocular injury, or maternal illness during gestation. The diagnosis of primary iris stromal cyst was made. A combination of needle aspiration, piecemeal resection of cyst wall, cryotherapy, and argon laser photocoagulation with overlapped spots was used. Histopathology of the cyst wall revealed nonkeratinized, multilayered, stratified squamous epithelium with clusters of goblet cells. Complete resolution of the cyst was successfully achieved. The visual acuity improved to 20/25 from counting fingers. At 6 months of follow-up, there was no recurrence. Complete eradication and devitalization of any remaining epithelial cells are the key factors for preventing recurrence and diffuse epithelialization of the anterior chamber.
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Roller, Lauren A; Bruce, Beau B; Saindane, Amit M
Measurement of posterior fossa volume has been proposed to have diagnostic utility and physiologic significance in the Chiari malformation type 1. This study evaluated the effects of demographics on posterior fossa volume and total intracranial volume in adult control subjects, adult patients with Chiari malformation type 1, and adult patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, who may share some imaging features of patients with Chiari malformation type 1. Twenty-eight patients with Chiari malformation type 1, 21 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and 113 control subjects underwent brain MRI including contrast-enhanced 3D gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T1-weighted imaging. Linear measurements of the posterior fossa and intracranial space were obtained. Manual segmentation of the posterior fossa and intracranial space was performed to yield posterior fossa volume and total intracranial volume. Age, sex, race, and body mass index (weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters; BMI) were controlled for when comparing cohorts. Three of the 12 linear measurements significantly predicted total intracranial volume (accounting for 74% of variance), and four predicted posterior fossa volume (54% of variance). Age, race, sex, and BMI each statistically significantly influenced posterior fossa volume and total intracranial volume. No statistically significant differences in posterior fossa volume, total intracranial volume, or ratio of posterior fossa volume to total intracranial volume were seen between the Chiari malformation type 1 group and control group after controlling for demographics. Patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension were more likely than control subjects to have smaller posterior fossa volumes (odds ratio [OR]=1.81; p=0.01) and larger total intracranial volumes (OR=1.24; p=0.06). Linear measurements of the posterior fossa are not strong predictors of posterior fossa volume. Age, race, sex, and BMI have
Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D
To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.
Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes
Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright Â© 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeon, Hong Gil; Park, Ju Hwan; Park, Hye Min; Kwon, Woon Jung; Cha, Hee Jeong; Lee, Young Jik; Park, Chang Ryul; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong-Joon
We hereby report a case on bronchogenic cyst which is initially non-infected, then becomes infected after bronchoscopic ultrasound (US)-guided transesophageal fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The non-infected bronchogenic cyst appears to be filled with relatively echogenic materials on US, and the aspirate is a whitish jelly-like fluid. Upon contrast-enhanced MRI of the infected bronchogenic cyst, a T1-weighted image shows low signal intensity and a T2-weighted image shows high signal intensity, with no enhancements of the cyst contents, but enhancements of the thickened cystic wall. The patient then undergo video-assisted thoracic surgery 14 days after the FNA. The cystic mass is known to be completely removed, and the aspirate is yellowish and purulent. To understand the image findings that pertain to the gross appearance of the cyst contents will help to diagnose bronchogenic cysts in the future. PMID:24624219
Arce, Kevin; Streff, Christopher S; Ettinger, Kyle S
Odontogenic cysts represent a common form of pathology of the jaws, and the natural history, clinicopathologic findings, and appropriate management strategies are important to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Odontogenic cysts in the pediatric populations are important pathologic entities given their potential impact on the growth and development of the maxillofacial complex. Inappropriate management strategies can severely affect the form and function of the growing child. Categorizing pediatric odontogenic cysts into inflammatory or developmental causes provides a convenient way of conceptualizing these various entities and helps facilitate the appropriate diagnosis and the subsequent management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sigurdsson, T; Johansson, J E; Jahnson, S; Helgesen, F; Andersson, S O
A total of 87 patients with 63 hydroceles and 29 epididymal cysts underwent injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol on an outpatient basis. In the hydrocele group the cure rate after 1 treatment was 67% and the overall cure rate was 87% after a median followup of 14 months. In the group treated for epididymal cyst the corresponding cure rates were 46% and 64%, respectively, with a median followup of 12 months. A low rate of complications was observed. Of 86 evaluable patients 81 (94%) were satisfied with the procedure and the treatment results. Therefore, we recommend injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol as primary treatment for hydroceles and epididymal cysts in patients older than 40 years.
Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin
Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented.
Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin
Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented. PMID:28740968
Ustundag, Emre; Iseri, Mete; Keskin, Gurkan; Yayla, Berna; Muezzinoglu, Bahar
Congenital cysts of the neck are not uncommon. Most of these are thyroglossal, branchial cleft and thymic cysts. Bronchogenic cysts are uncommon developmental anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree and rarely occur in the neck. More than 70 cases of bronchogenic cysts in the head and neck region have been reported in the literature. We report three cases presenting with neck swelling in the hyoid region that were diagnosed as bronchogenic cysts based on clinical and histopathological findings.
Ley, Marie Brix; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of sudden death in the world. The etiology of sudden cardiac death involves a wide range of diseases, but seldom pericardial cysts. A pericardial cyst is an uncommon cyst usually located in the middle mediastinum and rarely in the posterior part. They are usually harmless and asymptomatic. Here, we present a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness, but died suddenly after a CT scan was attempted. The detailed forensic pathologic and histologic examination revealed a pericardial cyst located in the posterior mediastinum. Toxicology and biochemistry tests, including tryptase, found no competing cause of death. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
... biopsy. With Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. NCI Dictionary of cancer terms: Cyst. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?CdrID=46461. Accessed June 8, 2016. ...
The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Purpose The aim of the study was to locate the infraorbital foramen (IOF) in relation to the infraorbital margin (IOM) for proper injections of local anesthetics in skull specimens. Another aim was to determine the depth of needle penetration into pterygopalatine fossa through the greater palatine canal (GPC). Materials and Methods 102 skull halves were used to measure the distances between (1) IOF and IOM and (2) IOF and alveolar ridge of maxilla at second premolar. Needles were inserted and bent at a 45° angle, passing through the GPC at the level of hard palate. The depth of the tip of needle emerging out of GPC into pterygopalatine fossa was measured. Results The mean distance between IOF and IOM was 6.46 ± 1.57 mm on the right side and 6.74 ± 1.72 mm on the left. The mean distance between IOF and alveolar bone process of the maxilla at second premolar was 29.07 ± 3.58 mm on the right side and 29.39 ± 3.78 mm on the left. The mean depth of penetration of the needle into the pterygopalatine fossa was similar on both sides. Conclusions Proper identification of IOF and pterygopalatine fossa is of great significance during local anesthesia injections, due to their close proximity to vital anatomic structures. PMID:29410916
Abe, S; Furukawa, K; Endo, S; Hoshi, S; Kanaya, H
A rare case of acute epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa caused by forehead impact is reported. This 36-year-old man fell from a truck and hit his face. He was conscious and was brought to our center 30 minutes after the injury. On admission, a contused wound of the right forehead was noticed. He was restless and had severe pain in the neck and upper extremities. Skull X-ray showed a linear fracture of the frontal bone and computed tomography (CT) scan was normal. He continued to be restless and sudden respiratory arrest and pupillary dilation occurred 10 hours after the admission. A CT scan revealed a lenticular high density area in the left posterior fossa which extended to the supratentorial region. The 4th ventricle was compressed and displaced to the right and also the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns were not visualized at all. Immediate surgery disclosed a 30 g epidural hematoma of the left posterior fossa and the supratentorium and the clot was completely evacuated. The source of bleeding could not be identified. Opening of the dura revealed contusion in the occipital lobe. He died on the 17th postoperative day. The possible mechanism in the production of the posterior fossa hematoma in this case is discussed.
Wong, M. P.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.
We use Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to measure small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae regions of Mars. We find that previous geometry estimates based on imagery alone are inaccurate, but MOLA data support image-based interpretations of eruptive style. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Gillespie, R P; Shagets, F W; de los Reyes, R A
Bilateral temporalis myofascial flaps in continuity with frontal periosteum can be used in repairing extensive dural and bone defects of the anterior cranial fossa floor. The technique of preserving and using this flap is described and offers an alternative to the use of frontal pericranial tissue for repair of anterior dural defects.
Struewer, Johannes; Kiriazidis, Ilias; Figiel, Jens; Dukatz, Thomas; Frangen, Thomas; Ziring, Ewgeni
Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of mandibular trauma due to anatomical and biomechanical factors. Owing to the proximity of the temporal glenoid fossa to the middle meningeal artery, there is the risk of serious sequelae in case of trauma. The authors report the case of a 36-year-old male patient, who was beaten up in a family dispute and presented with complex mandibular and maxillofacial fractures, including mandibular condyle intrusion into the middle cranial fossa causing extensive meningeal bleeding. The patient underwent immediate surgery, with evacuation of the epidural haematoma via a temporal approach. In addition open reduction and reconstruction of the temporal glenoid fossa via anatomic reduction of the fragments was performed. A functional occlusion was re-established via miniplate reconstruction of the complex mandibular body and ramus fractures. Prompt diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach are essential to minimize the complications. Advanced imaging modalities of computed tomography are indicated. Treatment options should be individualized in particular in case of suspected neurological injury. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
d'Avella, D; Servadei, F; Scerrati, M; Tomei, G; Brambilla, G; Massaro, F; Stefini, R; Cristofori, L; Conti, A; Cardali, S; Tomasello, F
We report 24 patients with a traumatic acute subdural haematoma of the posterior fossa managed between 1997 and 1999 at 8 Italian neurosurgical centres. Each centre provided data about patients' clinico-radiological findings, management, and outcomes, which were retrospectively reviewed. A poor result occurred in 14 patients (58.3%). Ten patients (41.7%) had favourable results. Patients were divided into two groups according to their admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. In Group 1 (12/24 cases; GCS score, > or =8), the outcome was favourable in 75% of cases. In Group 2 (12/12 cases; GCS score, <8), the outcome was poor in 91.6% of cases. Nineteen patients underwent posterior fossa surgery. Factors correlating to outcome were GCS score, status of the basal cisterns and the fourth ventricle, and the presence of supratentorial hydrocephalus. Multivariate analysis showed significant independent prognostic effect only for GCS score (P<0.05). acute posterior fossa subdural haematomas can be divided into two distinct groups: those patients admitted in a comatose state and those with a moderate/mild head injury on admission. Comatose patients present usually with signs of posterior fossa mass effect and have a high percentage of bad outcomes. On the contrary, patients admitted with a GCS of 8 or higher are expected to recover. In these patients the thickness of the haematoma (<1 cm) seems to be a guide to indicate surgical evacuation of the haematoma.
Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Gonin-Flambois, Coralie; Gitiaux, Cyril; Quijano, Susana; Boddaert, Nathalie; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Barnerias, Christine; Dulac, Olivier; Brunelle, Francis; Desguerre, Isabelle
Aim: Posterior fossa strokes account for about 10% of ischaemic strokes in children. Although motor and dysautonomic symptoms are common, to our knowledge cognitive and affective deficits have not been described in the paediatric literature. Our aim, therefore, was to describe these symptoms and deficits. Method: In a retrospective study, we…
Xu, Feng; Sun, Xicai; Hu, Li; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Dehui; Pasic, Thomas R; Kern, Robert C
The endoscopic extended medial maxillectomy approach for the management of lesions of the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa provides excellent exposure and results with good hemostasis and low morbidity. This approach is a viable alternative to the open approaches to these areas. To describe an endoscopic extended medial maxillectomy approach for the treatment of nonmalignant tumors in the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa. From January 2004 to June 2007, five patients who had tumors in the pterygopalatine fossa and/or infratemporal fossa, and underwent surgical resection of the tumors with the endoscopic extended medial maxillectomy approach, were reviewed regarding demographics, preoperative images, tumor cell type, surgical techniques, and outcomes. Five patients underwent the procedure mentioned above; three females and two males with a mean age of 38 and a range of 21-58 years. All patients had adequate exposure and total tumor resection with the endoscopic extended medial maxillectomy approach. None of the patients required an external approach for tumor extirpation. There were no major postoperative complications. No evidence of tumor recurrence was noted after follow-up for 12-78 months.
Barlow, N. G.
Depth to diameter ratios for fresh impact craters on Mars are commonly cited as approximately 0.2 for simple craters and 0.1 for complex craters. Recent computation of depth-diameter ratios in the Amazonis-Memnonia region of Mars indicates that craters within the Medusae Fossae Formation deposits found in this region display greater depth-diameter ratios than expected for both simple and complex craters. Photoclinometric and shadow length techniques have been used to obtain depths of craters within the Amazonis-Memnonia region. The 37 craters in the 2 to 29 km diameter range and displaying fresh impact morphologies were identified in the area of study. This region includes the Amazonian aged upper and middle members of the Medusae Fossae Formation and Noachian aged cratered and hilly units. The Medusae Fossae Formation is characterized by extensive, flat to gently undulating deposits of controversial origin. These deposits appear to vary from friable to indurated. Early analysis of crater degradation in the Medusae Fossae region suggested that simple craters excavated to greater depths than expected based on the general depth-diameter relationships derived for Mars. However, too few craters were available in the initial analysis to estimate the actual depth-diameter ratios within this region. Although the analysis is continuing, we are now beginning to see a convergence towards specific values for the depth-diameter ratio depending on geologic unit.
Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S
A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.
Serra, David; Pereira, Sara; Robalo-Cordeiro, Margarida; Tellechea, Oscar
We report the observation of a 24-year-old woman presenting a plaque-like lesion of the occipital scalp with hair rarefaction. This lesion was congenital and consisted of numerous, agminated, very small, trichilemmal cysts. It remained stable since birth, slowly growing in proportion with the patient during childhood. We discuss the nosological status of this intriguing lesion and its relationship with the recently described trichilemmal cyst nevus.
Nour, Sarah M; Lawrence, John R; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D W; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W; Topp, Edward
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(5) bacteria (mean +/- standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and STREPTOMYCES: A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents.
Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 ± 0.5) × 105 bacteria (mean ± standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and Streptomyces. A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:12514048
Pedro-Aguilar, L; Fuentes-Cataño, C; Pedroza-Seres, M
To describe the ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) features and complications associated with iris cysts. A retrospective case series. Thirteen patients with iris cysts were identified in a 10 year period study at a ophthalmologic reference Center in Mexico City. The variables included demographic data, ocular and medical history, clinical course, and complications. All patients were examined by UBM, and type, number, location, and acoustic characteristics of cysts were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed. Thirteen patients were included (8 men and 5 women). The mean age was 44.5 ± 15.5 years (range 6-70 years). The origin most prevalent was neuroepithelial (92.3%), and 7.7% had stromal cysts. Regarding to location 76.9% were found in the periphery, and 69.2% between meridians II and VI. All cysts showed a moderate to high reflectivity in the wall. Complications were present in 38.5% of cases (15.4% partial angle closure, 15.4% secondary angle closure glaucoma and 7.7% dyscoria). Most cysts are derived from iris pigmented epithelium, with a benign course and a minor rate of complications. The UBM is an indispensable tool that allows us to plan more specific and conservative treatments, with less damage to ocular structures and, therefore, better visual prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh
A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future.
Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh
Summary A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Learning points Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future. PMID:24683475
Marx, Sascha; El Damaty, Ahmed; Manwaring, Jotham; El Refaee, Ehab; Fleck, Steffen; Fritsch, Michael; Gaab, Michael R; Schroeder, H W S; Baldauf, Jörg
Obstructive hydrocephalus in patients with posterior fossa tumors is frequently seen. Treatment options include immediate tumor removal or prior cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedures. The necessity and feasibility of an ETV in these situations has not yet been proven in adult patients. We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained database for ETVs before surgery of posterior fossa tumors in adults. The primary focus of data analyses was the question of whether the ETV was suitable to treat the acute situation of hydrocephalus without an increased rate of complications due to the special anatomical situation with a posterior fossa tumor. We also analyzed whether any further CSF diverting procedures were necessary. A total of 40 adult patients who underwent an ETV before posterior fossa tumor surgery were analyzed. Overall, 33 patients (82.5%) had clinical signs of hydrocephalus, and all of them improved in their clinical course after ETV. Seven patients (17.5%) did not demonstrate clinical signs of hydrocephalus, but ETV was performed with prophylactic or palliative intent in six patients and one patient, respectively. No complications were observed due to ETV itself. No permanent shunting procedure was necessary in a mean follow-up of 76.5 months. Early additional CSF diverting procedures (redo ETV, external ventricular drain) were performed in five patients (12.5%). The present series confirms the feasibility and safety of ETV before posterior fossa tumor surgery in adult patients. If patients had symptomatic hydrocephalus before tumor surgery, an ETV can be performed, followed by early elective tumor surgery. A prophylactic ETV in asymptomatic patients is not advised. Early elective tumor surgery should be performed in these patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Yan, Huang; Han, Xiao; Jin, Mengran; Liu, Zhen; Xie, Dingding; Sha, Shifu; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang
To investigate whether the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) morphology in Chiari I malformation without syringomyelia (also called syrinx) (CMI-only) is different from that in Chiari I malformation with syrinx (CMI-S). Nineteen CMI patients without syrinx constituted the CMI-only group, whereas 48 CMI patients with syrinx were assigned to the CMI-S group. Another cohort of 40 age-matched asymptomatic adolescents was enrolled to serve as the control group. Six measurements were evaluated and compared between these three groups from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including the length of the clivus (AB), the anteroposterior diameter of the foramen magnum (BC), the length of the supraocciput (CD), the anteroposterior diameter of the posterior fossa (DA), the posterior fossa height (BE) and the clivus gradient ([Formula: see text]). The posterior cranial fossa morphology in relation to syrinx severity was also investigated. Compared to the normal controls, the AB, CD, DA, BE and [Formula: see text] were significantly larger in the CMI-S group. Similar changes in AB, CD, DA and BE were also demonstrated in the CMI-only group, while the clivus gradient ([Formula: see text]) was found to be normal when compared with the control group. A significantly decreased clivus gradient was observed in the CMI-S group as compared to CMI-only group. In addition, the clivus was significantly flattened in patients with a distended-syrinx in comparison to those with a non-distended syrinx. Small size of the posterior fossa was detected both in CMI cases with and without syrinx. The clivus gradient served as the only morphologic difference in the PCF between CMI-S and CMI-only patients and was correlated with the severity of the syrinx, may support the theory that the restricted circulation of cerebrospinal fluid at the anterior paramedial subarachnoid space contributes to the formation of a syrinx.
Sullivan, R J; Meyer, J S; Dormans, J P; Davidson, R S
The differential between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts usually is clear clinically and radiographically. Occasionally there are cases in which the diagnosis is not clear. Because natural history and treatment are different, the ability to distinguish between these two entities before surgery is important. The authors reviewed, in a blinded fashion, the preoperative magnetic resonance images to investigate criteria that could be used to differentiate between the two lesions. All patients had operative or pathologic confirmation of an aneurysmal bone cyst or unicameral bone cyst. The authors analyzed the preoperative magnetic resonance images of 14 patients with diagnostically difficult bone cysts (eight children with unicameral bone cysts and six children with aneurysmal bone cysts) and correlated these findings with diagnosis after biopsy or cyst aspiration and contrast injection. The presence of a double density fluid level within the lesion strongly indicated that the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. Other criteria that suggested the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst were the presence of septations within the lesion and signal characteristics of low intensity on T1 images and high intensity on T2 images. The authors identified a way of helping to differentiate between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts on magnetic resonance images. Double density fluid level, septation, and low signal on T1 images and high signal on T2 images strongly suggest the bone cyst in question is an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. This may be helpful before surgery for the child who has a cystic lesion for which radiographic features do not allow a clear differentiation of unicameral bone cyst from aneurysmal bone cyst.
Taylor, Davis G; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Jane, John A; Oldfield, Edward H
OBJECTIVE A subset of patients with Chiari I malformation demonstrate patent subarachnoid spaces around the cerebellum, indicating that reduced posterior fossa volume alone does not account for tonsillar descent. The authors distinguish two subsets of Chiari I malformation patients based on the degree of "posterior fossa crowdedness" on MRI. METHODS Two of the coauthors independently reviewed the preoperative MR images of 49 patients with Chiari I malformation and categorized the posterior fossa as "spacious" or "crowded." Volumetric analysis of posterior fossa structures was then performed using open-source DICOM software. The preoperative clinical and imaging features of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The posterior fossae of 25 patients were classified as spacious and 20 as crowded by both readers; 4 were incongruent. The volumes of the posterior fossa compartment, posterior fossa tissue, and hindbrain (posterior fossa tissue including herniated tonsils) were statistically similar between the patients with spacious and crowed subtypes (p = 0.33, p = 0.17, p = 0.20, respectively). However, patients in the spacious and crowded subtypes demonstrated significant differences in the ratios of posterior fossa tissue to compartment volumes as well as hindbrain to compartment volumes (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0004, respectively). The average age at surgery was 29.2 ± 19.3 years (mean ± SD) and 21.9 ± 14.9 years for spacious and crowded subtypes, respectively (p = 0.08). Syringomyelia was more prevalent in the crowded subtype (50% vs 28%, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS The authors' study identifies two subtypes of Chiari I malformation, crowded and spacious, that can be distinguished by MRI appearance without volumetric analysis. Earlier age at surgery and presence of syringomyelia are more common in the crowded subtype. The presence of the spacious subtype suggests that crowdedness alone cannot explain the pathogenesis of Chiari I malformation in many patients, supporting
Aydoğdu, Koray; Şahin, Furkan; İncekara, Funda; Fındık, Göktürk; Kaya, Sadi; Ağaçkıran, Yetkin
Parathyroid cysts are unilocular, thin-walled cysts, and they are seen very rarely. Their formation mechanisms are not clear. They are usually localized in the cervical region, and mediastinal settlements are rare. They are usually asymptomatic, but cysts that have settled in the neck may be symptomatic, such as tracheal pressure symptoms. There are two types-namely, functional cysts and non-functional cysts-depending on their hormonal characteristics. There are still difficulties in the diagnosis, and they can be mistaken by thyroid pathology. Treatment is surgery. We discussed two cases of parathyroid cysts that we surgically excised.
Kang, Sang-Gue; Kim, Chul-Han; Cho, Hong-Ki; Park, Mi-Youn; Lee, Yoon-Jin
Epidermal cysts are the most common cysts of the skin. Aconventional epidermal cyst rarely reaches a size of more than 5 cm in diameter. We report on two cases of giant epidermal cyst occurring in the neck. One patient had a cyst measuring 12×9×9 cm and the other patient had a non-pulsatile, dome-shaped lesion in the neck, which measured 6×5×3 cm. The lesions were totally excised. Histopathologically, both were confirmed as giant epidermal cysts. PMID:22028561
Du, Wei; Cui, Meng; Li, Peng; Wang, Jiheng; Luo, Ruihua; Qi, Jinxing; Zhao, Ming; Lou, Weihua
Abstract Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) arising in the pterygopalatine fossa was rare, only 3 cases have been reported. In previous literature, few authors reported whether the visual deficit could be resolved following the resection of the tumor. One patient with visual dysfunction induced by ACC arising in the pterygopalatine fossa was reported. Complete visual recovery was achieved following the operation. And the patient was satisfied with the appearance and the functional results in the follow-up. Visual loss contributed by the tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa could recover in selected patients. PMID:26039119
Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I
Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.
Brown, A. J.
The Nili Fossae region is the site of a number of proposed Landing Sites for the Mars 2020 Rover. A distinguishing feature of many of these sites is the access to large exposures of carbonate (Ehlmann et al. 2008). Serpentinization has been proposed as a formation mechanism of these carbonates, including carbonated (Brown et al. 2010, Viviano, et al. 2013) and low temperature, near surface serpentinization. The potential for carbonated serpentization at Nili Fossae links the region to Earth analogs in terrestrial greenstone belts such as the Pilbara in Western Australia, where talc-carbonate bearing komatiite cumulate units of the Dresser Formation overlie the siliceous, stromatolite-bearing Strelley Pool Chert unit (Van Kranendonk and Pirajno, 2004). If a similar relationship exists on Mars, investigations of rocks stratigraphically beneath the carbonate-bearing units at Nili Fossae ("the basement rocks") may provide the best chance to examine well preserved organic material from the Noachian. This hypothesis is testable by Mars 2020. In preparation for the the Mars 2020 landing site, we are examining the thermodynamic relationships that favor formation of serpentine and talc-carbonate and different pressures and temperatures in the crust (Barnes 2007). This will allow us to constrain the low grade metamorphism required to replicate the proposed models of serpentinisation and help us understand the regional metamophic gradient that is critical to furthering our knowledge of the ancient rocks of Nili Fossae. Refs:Barnes, S. J. "Komatiites: Petrology, Volcanology, Metamorphism, and Geochemistry." S.E.G. 13 (2007): 13. Brown, A. J., et al.. "Hydrothermal Formation of Clay-Carbonate Alteration Assemblages in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars." EPSL 297 (2010): 174-82. Ehlmann, B. L. et al. "Orbital Identification of Carbonate-Bearing Rocks on Mars." Science 322, no. 5909 1828-32. Van Kranendonk, M.J., and F. Pirajno. "Geochemistry of Metabasalts and Hydrothermal
Ivanov, Anton B.; Cantini, Federico
Medussae Fossae (MFF) is a well known formation, stretching west of Tharsis volanoes. It is characterized as a relatively young Amazonian units (Amm, Amu), due to widespread signs of erosion. Earth based imaging radar observations at 3.5 cm  and 12 cm  have discovered a dark radar feature (Stealth), which roughly correlates with the MFF outline.Recent investigations , suggested that the unit emplacement is in fact during Hesperian period, but it is composed of material that can be easily eroded. It is not clear when the erosion happened and if it is a continuing process. Hypotheses on MFF formation range from volcanic material emplacement (ash flow tuffs or pyroclastic materials) to an ice-rich dusty mantle, deposited during high obliquity.In this work, we will present the latest observations of the East Medussae Fossae formation by the long wavelength MARSIS radar, continuing the work reported in , as well as complementing data surveyed by SHARAD data in . The MARSIS radar has detected strong subsurface interfaces in the areas of Gordi and Eumenides Dorsae at depths up to 1.5km. We will present our analysis of the data, inferring the dielectric properties of the material to constrain properties of the material constituting the Medusae Fossae formation. We will also demonstrate an efficient user interface to work with MARSIS data inside a Geographical Information System (GIS).The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement 607379. D. Muhleman, et al., "Radar images of mars," Science, vol. 253, no. 5027, 1991. J. K. Harmon, et al., "Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces," Icarus, vol. 220, aug 2012. L. Kerber, et al., "The dispersal of pyroclasts from Apollinaris Patera, Mars: Implications for the origin of the Medusae Fossae Formation," Icarus, vol. 216, nov 2011. T. R. Watters, et al., "Radar Sounding of the
Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has
Chiang, Austin L; Lee, Linda S
The approach to incidentally noted pancreatic cysts is constantly evolving. While surgical resection is indicated for malignant or higher risk cysts, correctly identifying these highest risk pancreatic cystic lesions remains difficult. Using parameters including cyst size, presence of solid components, and pancreatic duct involvement, the 2012 International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) and the 2015 American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) guidelines have sought to identify the higher risk patients who would benefit from further evaluation using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Not only can EUS help further assess the presence of solid component and nodules, but also fine needle aspiration of cyst fluid aids in diagnosis by obtaining cellular, molecular, and genetic data. The impact of new endoscopic innovations with novel methods of direct visualization including confocal endomicroscopy require further validation. This review also highlights the differences between the 2012 IAP and 2015 AGA guidelines, which include the thresholds for sending patients for EUS and surgery and methods, interval, and duration of surveillance for unresected cysts. PMID:26811661
Bravo, Isabel; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel
The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell wall) and functional (long- or short-term endurance) differences. These characteristics were initially thought to clearly distinguish pellicle (thin-walled) cysts from resting (double-walled) dinoflagellate cysts. The former were considered short-term (temporal) and the latter long-term (resting) cysts. However, during the last two decades further knowledge has highlighted the great intricacy of dinoflagellate life histories, the ecological significance of cyst stages, and the need to clarify the functional and morphological complexities of the different cyst types. Here we review and, when necessary, redefine the concepts of resting and pellicle cysts, examining both their structural and their functional characteristics in the context of the life cycle strategies of several dinoflagellate species. PMID:27694774
Caruso, Riccardo; Artico, Marco; Colonnese, Claudio; Marrocco, Luigi; Wierzbicki, Venceslao
Supratentorial endodermal cysts are very rare pathological entities. Their pathoembryology is largely unknown and they can represent a diagnostic challenge. A research performed on the PubMed database in December 2010, to screen for supratentorial endodermal cyst studies, demonstrated that since 1960 only 31 supratentorial endodermal cysts have been described in the literature, including our case: a 42-year-old woman with a parasellar endodermal cyst. These lesions are usually benign. As with other types of brain cysts, the signs and symptoms caused by supratentorial endodermal cysts are mainly linked to the compression or irritation of surrounding neural structures. Upon neuroimaging examination, they typically appear as a round or lobulated mass. The signal intensity may vary depending on the protein content of the cyst. The majority of reported supratentorial endodermal cysts were completely excised with good or excellent results. Incomplete excision can result in an increased risk of recurrence, infection, and dissemination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu
The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.
Edwards, A G; Lawrence, A; Tsaltas, J
This case illustrates that when a dermoid cyst is punctured, an immediate operative laparoscopy or laparotomy should be performed, along with lavage, to avoid the problems associated with dermoid cyst contents spillage.
Davidson, H J; Blanchard, G L
Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus was identified ultrasonographically and confirmed histologically in 3 dogs. Surgical resection of the cysts, with reconstruction of the lacrimal canaliculi, was curative in all 3 cases.
Bendella, Habib; Brackmann, Derald E; Goldbrunner, Roland; Angelov, Doychin N
Little is known about the reasons for occurrence of facial nerve palsy after removal of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Since the intra-arachnoidal portion of the facial nerve is considered to be so vulnerable that even the slightest tension or pinch may result in ruptured axons, we tested whether a graded stretch or controlled crush would affect the postoperative motor performance of the facial (vibrissal) muscle in rats. Thirty Wistar rats, divided into five groups (one with intact controls and four with facial nerve lesions), were used. Under inhalation anesthesia, the occipital squama was opened, the cerebellum gently retracted to the left, and the intra-arachnoidal segment of the right facial nerve exposed. A mechanical displacement of the brainstem with 1 or 3 mm toward the midline or an electromagnet-controlled crush of the facial nerve with a tweezers at a closure velocity of 50 and 100 mm/s was applied. On the next day, whisking motor performance was determined by video-based motion analysis. Even the larger (with 3 mm) mechanical displacement of the brainstem had no harmful effect: The amplitude of the vibrissal whisks was in the normal range of 50°-60°. On the other hand, even the light nerve crush (50 mm/s) injured the facial nerve and resulted in paralyzed vibrissal muscles (amplitude of 10°-15°). We conclude that, contrary to the generally acknowledged assumptions, it is the nerve crush but not the displacement-induced stretching of the intra-arachnoidal facial trunk that promotes facial palsy after cerebellopontine angle surgery in rats.
Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masahiro; Isaka, Takahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki; Wada, Keita; Takagi, Kenji; Kato, Kenichiro
A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken. Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided. PMID:16874882
Thakur, Jagdeep S; Minhas, Ravinder S; Mohindroo, Narinder K; Sharma, Dev R; Mohindroo, Shobha; Thakur, Anamika
The head and neck are two of the most common sites of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, primary tumors of the infratemporal fossa are infrequent, and NHL in this region is extremely rare. We present a case of a 41-year-old female that presented with swelling in the right preauricular region that had persisted for the past two years. The patient was diagnosed as having a small lymphocytic NHL. She initially underwent chemo-radiation but reported relapse. The tumor was excised and again the patient underwent chemotherapy. The patient remained symptomatic and developed a second primary squamous cell carcinoma in the right retromolar trigone. We discussed NHL with an emphasis on extranodal manifestations. Extranodal NHL that is limited to a single site can be managed by surgery and regular follow up. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of primary NHL of the infratemporal fossa to be reported in the literature.
Leithner, Andreas; Machacek, Felix; Haas, Oskar A; Lang, Susanna; Ritschl, Peter; Radl, Roman; Windhager, Reinhard
Recent genetic and immunohistochemical studies propose that the primary aneurysmal bone cyst is a tumour and not a reactive tumour-simulating lesion. Based on a familial case of aneurysmal bone cyst the authors contacted 135 patients with this disease. Sixty-eight females and 67 males (median age 14 years; range 2-73 years) were asked if other family members had bone lesions. One hundred and seven patients (79%) denied having other family members with lesions, 23 patients (17%) did not answer, and five patients (4%) gave evidence of other bone lesions in the family. These data indicate that a predisposing genetic defect could be part of a multifactorial pathogenesis in the development of some aneurysmal bone cysts.
Yamasoba, T; Sugimura, H
A cyst of the nasolacrimal drainage system (NLDS) is rare in an adult. We report a case in a 29-year-old man of a mucous retention cyst of the NLDS, which appeared 2 years after the patient developed dacryocystitis coincident with an aggravation of chronic sinusitis. The lesion was successfully managed by removing the bony wall of the NLDS at the interface with the ethmoid and nasal cavity, as well as the membranous closure of the ostium of the common canaliculus. We speculate that the cyst development might have been initiated by inflammatory change such as mucosal adhesion in the NLDS resulting from the spread of secondary infection from the sinonasal tract.
Katz, L B; Ehya, H
Peculiar ring-like structures identified as Liesegang rings (LRs) were found in renal cyst fluid from three patients with benign renal cysts. They ranged in size from 5 to 820 mu. Most had a double-layer outer wall with equally spaced radial cross-striations and an amorphous central nidus. Special stains were performed in one case, and the results are discussed. Reports of LRs in cystic or inflamed tissues have recently appeared in the literature. Some LRs have been mistaken for eggs or mature components of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. We propose that cytologic assessment of renal cyst fluid in conjunction with histologic examination decreases the likelihood of misdiagnosis of LRs.
Poorzand, Hoorak; Teshnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Baghini, Vahid Shojaei; Gifani, Mehrnoosh; Gholoobi, Arash; Zirak, Nahid
We present a 29-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department with shortness of breath. Using echocardiography, a giant multi-cystic mass was detected in the right ventricle, attached to the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve and basal portion of the interventricular septum. Serologic tests (hydatid cyst antibody) confirmed Echinococcus infection. Lung computed tomography with intravenous contrast showed involvement of the pulmonary vasculature. The patient underwent cardiac surgery and the large cardiac cyst and the one in the right pulmonary artery branch were both removed. The tricuspid valve was also replaced by a bioprosthetic one. Albendazole was started preoperatively and was continued for six months after surgery. The patient recovered uneventfully and was followed up for one year. This is a report of a rare case of a very large cardiac hydatid cyst complicated by pulmonary embolism with attachments to both the tricuspid valve and interventricular septum.
Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Sharma, Yash Paul; Bhagra, Tilak; Sud, Bindu
Anomalies of third or fourth branchial apparatus origin are very uncommon and present as recurrent neck infections or thyroiditis with a predominant left-sided involvement. Radiological diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and is critical for initiation of proper treatment. We describe a case of branchial sinus of pyriform fossa with external fistulization that presented in adulthood and was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The radiological features of this rare anomaly are revisited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Varma, Abhay; Bogaards, Arjen; Fullagar, Tim; Fenstermaker, Robert; Selker, Robert; Abrams, Judith
In two randomized prospective studies of brain tumor PDT more than 180 patients have been accrued. At the Toronto site we recognized two patients who developed a lower motor neuron (LMN) facial paralysis in the week following the PDT treatment. In both cases a temporal lobectomy was undertaken and the residual tumor cavity was photo-illuminated. The surface illuminated included the temporal fossa floor, thus potentially exposing the facial nerve to the effect of PDT. The number of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital tumors in this cohort was 39, 24, 12 and 4, respectively. Of the 24 temporal tumors 18 were randomized to Photofrin-PDT. Of these 18 a temporal lobectomy was carried out exposing the middle fossa floor as part of the tumor resection. In two of the 10 patients where the lobectomy was carried out and the fossa floor was exposed to light there occurred a postoperative facial palsy. Both patients recovered facial nerve function in 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. 46 J/cm2 were used in the former and 130 J/cm2 in the latter. We did not encounter a single post-operative LMN facial plasy in the 101 phase 2 patients treated with Photofrin-PDT. Among 688 supratentorial brain tumor operations in the last decade involving all pathologies and all locations no case of early post-operative LMN facial palsy was identified in the absence of PDT. One further patient who had a with post-PDT facial palsy was identified at the Denver site. Although it is possible that these patients had incidental Bell's palsy, we now recommend shielding the temporal fossa floor during PDT.
Zimbelman, J. R.
This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geo-logic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.
Zimbelman, J. R.
This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geologic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.
Hanzlik, Emily; Woodrome, Stacey E; Abdel-Baki, Mohamed; Geller, Thomas J; Elbabaa, Samer K
Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in the pediatric population. As children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, more research is being focused on the long-term cognitive outcomes of the survivors. This review examines the literature on different cognitive outcomes of survivors of different childhood posterior fossa CNS tumor types. The authors reviewed the literature for articles published from 2000 to 2012 about long-term neuropsychological outcomes of children diagnosed with posterior fossa brain tumors before the age of 18, which distinguished between histological tumor types, and had a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The literature search returned 13 articles, and a descriptive analysis was performed comparing intelligence quotient (IQ), attention/executive function, and memory components of 456 survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors. Four articles directly compared astrocytoma and medulloblastoma survivors and showed medulloblastoma survivors fared worse in IQ, attention/executive function, and memory measurements. Five articles reporting medulloblastomas found IQ, attention, and memory scores to be significantly below the standardized means. Articles examining astrocytoma survivors found IQ scores within the normal range for the population. Survivors of ependymomas reported 2/23 survivors impaired on IQ scores, while a second study reported a significant number of ependymoma survivors lower than the expected population norm. Tumor histopathology and the type of postoperative adjuvant therapy seem to have a significant impact on the long-term neuropsychological complications of pediatric posterior fossa CNS tumor survivors. Age at diagnosis and treatment factors are important variables that affect the outcomes of the survivors.
Amador, Elena S; Bandfield, Joshua L; Brazelton, William J; Kelley, Deborah
Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface. Results from Lost City show a spectrally distinguishable suite of Mg-rich serpentine, Ca carbonates, talc, and amphibole minerals. Aggregated detections of low-grade metamorphic minerals in rocks from Nili Fossae were mapped and yielded a previously undetected serpentine exposure in the region. Direct comparison of the two spectral suites indicates similar mineralogy at both Lost City and in the Noachian (4-3.7 Ga) bedrock of Nili Fossae, Mars. Based on mapping of these spectral phases, the implied mineralogical suite appears to be extensive across the region. These results suggest that serpentinization was once an active process, indicating that water and energy sources were available, as well as a means for prebiotic chemistry during a time period when life was first emerging on Earth. Although the mineralogical assemblages identified on Mars are unlikely to be directly analogous to rocks that underlie the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, related geochemical processes (and associated sources of biologically accessible energy) were once present in the subsurface, making Nili Fossae a compelling candidate for a once-habitable environment on Mars. Key Words: Mars-Habitability-Serpentinization-Analogue. Astrobiology 17, 1138-1160.
Amador, Elena S.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Brazelton, William J.; Kelley, Deborah
Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface. Results from Lost City show a spectrally distinguishable suite of Mg-rich serpentine, Ca carbonates, talc, and amphibole minerals. Aggregated detections of low-grade metamorphic minerals in rocks from Nili Fossae were mapped and yielded a previously undetected serpentine exposure in the region. Direct comparison of the two spectral suites indicates similar mineralogy at both Lost City and in the Noachian (4-3.7 Ga) bedrock of Nili Fossae, Mars. Based on mapping of these spectral phases, the implied mineralogical suite appears to be extensive across the region. These results suggest that serpentinization was once an active process, indicating that water and energy sources were available, as well as a means for prebiotic chemistry during a time period when life was first emerging on Earth. Although the mineralogical assemblages identified on Mars are unlikely to be directly analogous to rocks that underlie the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, related geochemical processes (and associated sources of biologically accessible energy) were once present in the subsurface, making Nili Fossae a compelling candidate for a once-habitable environment on Mars.
Sheikh, Salwa S; Amr, Samir S
Mycotic cysts are subcutaneous cystic granulomas caused by either dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi (pheomycotic cysts) or eumycotic (nonpigmented fungi) present in soil, wood, and decaying plant material. These fungi gain access to the tissues via a wooden splinter or thorn. No deep tissue involvement or extension to bone is known to occur. We reviewed our surgical pathology files for the last 32 years. All cases with the diagnosis of cysts with fungi, thorns, or splinters and associated granulomatous and acute inflammation were reviewed. Gomori's silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains were performed in all cases. Twenty-one cases of mycotic cyst were found, including eight pheomycotic cysts (one with a recurrent lesion seen 11 months after the initial excision of the cyst). Thirteen cysts had nonpigmented fungal hyphae. There were 14 males and seven females, with an age range of 5-76 years. The dorsum of the foot was the most frequently affected site (12 cases). Four cases involved the fingers, two involved the knee area, two involved the big toe, and one each involved the leg, ankle, and forearm. The cysts measured 0.6-4.5 cm in diameter. Histologically, there was granulomatous inflammation with a variable degree of neutrophilic infiltrate giving central abscess formation. Twelve cases showed a wooden splinter. All cases were positive for fungal organisms, mostly septate hyphae and spores that were highlighted by special stains. Fungal pigment, ranging from yellow-brown to light brown to black, was observed in eight cases. No extension to deep tissues was noted. The clinical impression varied widely including ganglion, sebaceous cyst, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, and lipoma. One patient was immunosuppressed following renal transplantation. All patients were treated by simple excision. No antifungal chemotherapy was needed or administered in any of the patients. One patient had a recurrence of his lesion within 1 year as a result of inadequate initial
Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...
Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...
Suresh, K.; Smith, H. V.; Tan, T. C.
Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis. PMID:16151162
Nishio, S; Morioka, T; Suzuki, S; Fukui, M
Two unusual cases of pituitary cysts are described. Both patients presented with sudden onset of severe headache, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated pituitary cysts, which regressed over months. Although the precise etiology of the cysts was unproven, the cystic lesions in our patients are thought to have shrunken after "pituitary apoplexy."
Cho, Hang S; Byeon, Hyung K; Kim, Jun-Hee; Kim, Kyung S
Tornwaldt's cyst (sometimes called Thornwaldt's cyst) is a rare cause of occipital headache. Owing to the rare occurrence of occipital headache as a symptom of Tornwaldt's cyst, if the patient presented only with occipital headache, this clinical symptom may be falsely perceived as a sign of neurologic disease leading to time-consuming diagnostic examinations that delay the establishment of a correct diagnosis.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...
Kataria, Kamal; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Manish; Yadav, Rajni
Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature. PMID:29181131
Golanov, A V; Cherekaev, V A; Serova, N K; Pronin, I N; Gorlachev, G E; Kotel'nikova, T M; Podoprigora, A E; Kudriavtseva, P A; Galkin, M V
Medial middle fossa meningiomas are challenging for neurosurgical treatment. Invasion of cranial nerves and vessels leads to high risk of complications after removal of such meningiomas. Currently methods of conformal stereotactic radiation treatment are applied wider and wider for the discussed lesions. During a 3.5-year period 80 patients with medial middle fossa meningiomas were treated in Burdenko Moscow Neurosurgical Institute using linear accelerator "Novalis". In 31 case radiation treatment was preceded by surgical resection. In majority of patients symptoms included cranial nerve dysfunction: oculomotor disturbances in 62.5%, trigeminal impairment--in 37.5%, visual deficit--in 43.8%, facial nerve palsy--in 1.25%. 74 patients underwent radiotherapy with classical fractioning, 2--in hypofractionated mode and 4 received radiosurgery. In cases of classical fractioning mean marginal dose reached 46.3 Gy during 28-33 fractions, in hypofractioning (7 fractions)--31.5 Gy, in radiosurgery--16.25 Gy. Mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (6-42 months). Control of tumor growth was achieved in 97.5% of cases (78 patients): in 42 (52.5%) lesion shrinked, in 36 (45%) stabilization was observed. Clinical examination revealed improvement of visual function in 15 patients (18%) and deterioration in 2 (2.5%). No new neuropathies were found. Stereotactic radiation treatment is the method of choice for medial anterior and middle fossa meningiomas due to effective control of tumor progression and minimal rate of complications.
Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Morawski, Krzysztof; Bartoszewicz, Robert
The main tumor of cerebellopontine angle are vestibular schwannoma (80-90%). According to National Institute of Health Consensus Development Conference the best treatment method is microsurgery. There are three principal surgical approaches: translabyrinthin, retrosigmoid and middle fossa. Only the latter two approaches provide the possibility of hearing preservation. Technique of surgery and postoperative morbidity after MFA. 39 patients (40 tumor) suffered from tumor of cerebellopontine angle, operated by using middle fossa approach in years 1998-2007. We evaluate hearing preservation and function of facial nerve and others postoperative morbidity. 22.5% of patients has hearing impairment and 32.5% has facial weakness. By individual cases we observed: CSF leak, meningitis, corneal ulceration, ischialgia, wound bleeding and venue thrombosis. 1/3 of patients suffered from headache and disequilibrium and 1/6 suffered from tinnitus. According to NIH middle fossa approach is one of three possible approaches in microsurgery of cerebellopontine angle tumors. There is possible total tumor removal with hearing preservation. Monitoring of facial and cochlear nerve during operation is recommended.
Caffo, M; Germanò, A; Caruso, G; Meli, F; Calisto, A; Tomasello, F
Growing Skull Fractures (GSF) are rare complications of head trauma, primarily reported in infancy and early childhood. GSF are commonly located on calvaria, and rarely in other locations, including the skull base. In this study, we report two cases of GSF occurring in unusual locations. The first, a 8-month old girl, with a GSF of the suboccipital posterior fossa region, and the second, a 4-year old boy with a GSF of the right orbital roof. Both cases underwent operative treatment of the GSF, with microsurgical dissection and excision of the protruding gliotic brain tissue, watertight duraplasty and autologous bone cranial repair. The authors conducted a Medline search of the relevant English literature from 1966 to 2002. From the search, three cases of suboccipital posterior fossa region GSF and twelve series of orbital GSF, describing a total of 22 cases, have been found. A survey of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this entity in these locations is reported. A review of suboccipital posterior fossa and orbital roof GSF cases, of nosological, ophthalmological and neurological data, neuroradiological and operative findings, and results of different treatment strategies are described.
Upadhyay, Smita; Dolci, Ricardo L L; Buohliqah, Lamia; Fiore, Mariano E; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Prevedello, Daniel M; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L
Objective Access to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae presents a significant surgical challenge, owing to their deep-seated location and complex neurovascular anatomy. This study elucidates the benefits of incremental medial maxillectomies to access this region. We compared access to the medial aspect of the infratemporal fossa provided by medial maxillectomy, anteriorly extended medial maxillectomy, endoscopic Denker approach (i.e., Sturmann-Canfield approach), contralateral transseptal approach, and the sublabial anterior maxillotomy (SAM). Methods We studied 10 cadaveric specimens (20 sides) dissecting the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae bilaterally. Radius of access was calculated using a navigation probe aligned with the endoscopic line of sight. Area of exposure was calculated as the area removed from the posterior wall of maxillary sinus. Surgical freedom was calculated by computing the working area at the proximal end of the instrument with the distal end fixed at a target. Results The endoscopic Denker approach offered a superior area of exposure (8.46 ± 1.56 cm(2)) and superior surgical freedom. Degree of lateral access with the SAM approach was similar to that of the Denker. Conclusion Our study suggests that an anterior extension of the medial maxillectomy or a cross-court approach increases both the area of exposure and surgical freedom. Further increases can be seen upon progression to a Denker approach.
Upadhyay, Smita; Dolci, Ricardo L. L.; Buohliqah, Lamia; Fiore, Mariano E.; Filho, Leo F.S. Ditzel; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Otto, Bradley A.; Carrau, Ricardo L.
Objective Access to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae presents a significant surgical challenge, owing to their deep-seated location and complex neurovascular anatomy. This study elucidates the benefits of incremental medial maxillectomies to access this region. We compared access to the medial aspect of the infratemporal fossa provided by medial maxillectomy, anteriorly extended medial maxillectomy, endoscopic Denker approach (i.e., Sturmann-Canfield approach), contralateral transseptal approach, and the sublabial anterior maxillotomy (SAM). Methods We studied 10 cadaveric specimens (20 sides) dissecting the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae bilaterally. Radius of access was calculated using a navigation probe aligned with the endoscopic line of sight. Area of exposure was calculated as the area removed from the posterior wall of maxillary sinus. Surgical freedom was calculated by computing the working area at the proximal end of the instrument with the distal end fixed at a target. Results The endoscopic Denker approach offered a superior area of exposure (8.46 ± 1.56 cm2) and superior surgical freedom. Degree of lateral access with the SAM approach was similar to that of the Denker. Conclusion Our study suggests that an anterior extension of the medial maxillectomy or a cross-court approach increases both the area of exposure and surgical freedom. Further increases can be seen upon progression to a Denker approach. PMID:26949591
Pita-Machado, Reinado; Perez-Diaz, Marlen, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lorenzo-Ginori, Juan V., E-mail: email@example.com
Wavelet transform based de-noising like wavelet shrinkage, gives the good results in CT. This procedure affects very little the spatial resolution. Some applications are reconstruction methods, while others are a posteriori de-noising methods. De-noising after reconstruction is very difficult because the noise is non-stationary and has unknown distribution. Therefore, methods which work on the sinogram-space don’t have this problem, because they always work over a known noise distribution at this point. On the other hand, the posterior fossa in a head CT is a very complex region for physicians, because it is commonly affected by artifacts and noise which aremore » not eliminated during the reconstruction procedure. This can leads to some false positive evaluations. The purpose of our present work is to compare different wavelet shrinkage de-noising filters to reduce noise, particularly in images of the posterior fossa within CT scans in the sinogram-space. This work describes an experimental search for the best wavelets, to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Results showed that de-noising with wavelet filters improved the quality of posterior fossa region in terms of an increased CNR, without noticeable structural distortions.« less
Ber, R; Bar-Yosef, O; Hoffmann, C; Shashar, D; Achiron, R; Katorza, E
Posterior fossa malformations are a common finding in prenatal diagnosis. The objectives of this study are to re-evaluate existing normal MR imaging biometric data of the fetal posterior fossa, suggest and evaluate new parameters, and demonstrate the possible clinical applications of these data. This was a retrospective review of 215 fetal MR imaging examinations with normal findings and 5 examinations of fetuses with a suspected pathologic posterior fossa. Six previously reported parameters and 8 new parameters were measured. Three new parameter ratios were calculated. Interobserver agreement was calculated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient. For measuring each structure, 151-211 MR imaging examinations were selected, resulting in a normal biometry curve according to gestational age for each parameter. Analysis of the ratio parameters showed that vermian lobe ratio and cerebellar hemisphere ratio remain constant with gestational age and that the vermis-to-cisterna magna ratio varies with gestational age. Measurements of the 5 pathologic fetuses are presented on the normal curves. Interobserver agreement was excellent, with the intraclass correlation coefficients of most parameters above 0.9 and only 2 parameters below 0.8. The biometry curves derived from new and existing biometric data and presented in this study may expand and deepen the biometry we use today, while keeping it simple and repeatable. By applying these extensive biometric data on suspected abnormal cases, diagnoses may be confirmed, better classified, or completely altered. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Singh, Shrawan K.; Agrawal, Santosh K.; Mavuduru, Ravimohan S.
Objective: Management of distal anterior urethral stricture is a common problem faced by practicing urologists. Literature on urethral stricture mainly pertains to bulbar urethral stricture and pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect. The present article aims to review the management of the strictures of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethra. Materials and Methods: The literature in English language was searched from the National Library of Medicine database, using the appropriate key words for the period 1985-2010. Out of 475 articles, 115 were selected for the review based on their relevance to the topic. Results: Etiology of stricture is shifting from infective to inflammatory and iatrogenic causes. Stricture of fossa navicularis is most often caused by lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and instrumentation. Direct visual internal urethrotomy is limited to selected cases in the management of pendulous urethral stricture. With experience and identification of various prognostic factors, conservative management by dilatation and internal urethrotomy is being replaced by various reconstructive procedures, using skin flaps and grafts with high success rates. Single-stage urethroplasty is preferred over the 2-stage procedure as the latter disfigures the penis and poses sexual problems temporarily. Conclusions: Flaps or grafts are useful for single-stage reconstruction of fossa navicularis and pendulous urethral strictures. The buccal and lingual mucosa serves as a preferred resource material for providing the inner lining of the urethra. Off-the-shelf materials, such as acellular collagen matrix, are promising. PMID:22022062
Connolly, M; de Berker, D A R
We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with eight digital myxoid cysts (DMCs) involving the fingers of both hands. They developed within 12 months of the patient starting a job that involved pushing a garment into an embroidery mould, thus exerting a downward force on the fingertips. The pressure exerted from this force could have potentially damaged the joint synovial capsule, leading to rupture and loss of synovial gel, thus inducing myxoid cysts. This case suggests that DMCs may be related to occupation, and to our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of occupationally induced DMCs.
Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M
We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tirado, Mariantonieta; Ständer, Sonja; Metze, Dieter
Goltz-Gorlin syndrome presents with multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and cutaneous cysts, among other manifestations. The cutaneous cysts have been described as both epidermoid cysts and keratocysts but were not further characterized. Light microscopic examinations were made on 23 cutaneous cysts in 4 patients associated with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome located on extremities, face, trunk, palms, and soles and compared with nonsyndromic vellus hair cysts, steatocystomas, and hybrid cysts. Twenty-one of the syndromic cysts revealed alternating infundibular-like and steatocystoma-like squamous epitheliums in varying proportions. The cysts were lined by both smooth and corrugated squamous epithelium. The horny layer was composed by alternating areas of thin, lamellate, and compact eosinophilic keratin. Only 2 cases showed an exclusive steatocystoma-like type of epithelium very similar to odontogenic keratocysts. Sebaceous glands and follicular structures were absent. There were no differences between palmar and plantar cysts and other anatomic locations. The ultrastructural findings in syndromatic cysts confirmed variable expression of keratohyalin granules. Only 3 of 6 cases of nonsyndromic hybrid cysts showed overlapping features with syndromic cysts. Immunohistochemical profiling of keratin, involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, and BCL-2 expression in syndromatic cysts showed exclusive positivity of K19 and continuous staining for BCL-2. In summary, 2 types of cutaneous cysts are characteristic of Goltz-Gorlin, irrelevant of their anatomic location, namely steatocystoma-like and more frequently hybrid-like. The diagnosis of syndromic hybrid-like cysts should be considered whenever infundibular and steatocystoma differentiation alternate and overlap. Altogether, these findings in epithelial cysts may raise the suspicion of Goltz-Gorlin as an underlying cause.
Kirn, Sarah L.; Townsend, David W.; Pettigrew, Neal R.
The life cycle of dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium includes sexual reproduction followed by the formation of a dormant hypnozygote cyst, which serves as a resting stage. Negatively buoyant cysts purportedly fall to the benthos where they undergo a mandatory period of quiescence. Previous reports of cysts in the surficial sediments of the Gulf of Maine, where Alexandrium blooms are well documented, show a broad distribution of cysts, with highest concentrations generally in sediments below 100 m depth. We report here an exploration of cysts suspended in the water column, where they would be better positioned to inoculate springtime Alexandrium populations. During cruises in February, April, and June of 2000, water samples were collected at depths just off the bottom (within 5 m), at the top of the bottom nepheloid layer, and near the surface (1 m) and examined for cyst concentrations. Suspended cysts were found throughout the Gulf of Maine and westernmost Bay of Fundy. Planktonic cyst densities were generally greater in near-bottom and top of the bottom nepheloid layer samples than in near-surface water samples; densities were of the order of 10 2 cysts m -3 in surface waters, and 10 2-10 3 cysts m -3 at near-bottom depths. Temporally, they were most abundant in February and least abundant in April. Reports by earlier workers of cysts in the underlying sediments were on the order of 10 3 cysts cm -3. We present calculations that demonstrate the likelihood of cyst resuspension from bottom sediments forced by swell and tidal currents, and propose that such resuspended cysts are important in inoculating the seasonal bloom. We estimate that suspended cysts may contribute significantly to the annual vegetative cell population in the Gulf of Maine.
Forte, Vito; Fuoco, Gabriel; James, Adrian
A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts based on the extent of the cyst and on the embryologic tissue of origin is proposed. Retrospective chart review. The charts of 20 patients with either congenital or acquired laryngeal cysts that were treated surgically between 1987 and 2002 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentation, radiologic findings, surgical management, histopathology, and outcome were recorded. A new classification system is proposed to better appreciate the origin of these cysts and to guide in their successful surgical management. Fourteen of the supraglottic and subglottic simple mucous retention cysts posed no diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and were treated successfully by a single endoscopic excision or marsupialization. The remaining six patients with congenital cysts in the study were deemed more complex, and all required open surgical procedures for cure. On the basis of the analysis of the data of these patients, a new classification of congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed. Type I cysts are confined to the larynx, the cyst wall composed of endodermal elements only, and can be managed endoscopically. Type II cysts extend beyond the confines of the larynx and require an external approach. The Type II cysts are further subclassified histologically on the basis of the embryologic tissue of origin: IIa, composed of endoderm only and IIb, containing endodermal and mesodermal elements (epithelium and cartilage) in the wall of the cyst. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic tissue of origin. This classification can help guide the surgeon with initial management and help us better understand the origin of these cysts.
Vardakostas, D; Damaskos, C; Garmpis, N; Antoniou, E A; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G; Dimitroulis, D
Liver cysts are divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital cystic lesions include polycystic liver disease, simple cysts, duct related and ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. Acquired cystic lesions are divided into infectious and non-infectious. The infectious cysts are the hydatid cyst, the amoebic abscess, and the pyogenic abscess, whereas the non-infectious cysts are neoplastic cysts and false cysts. While modern medicine provides a lot of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities, there has emerged a pressing need for understanding the various types of liver cysts, the possible minimal therapeutic options along with their indications and complications. We aim is to clarify the role of minimally invasive techniques in the management of hepatic cysts. A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE database. The search terms were: liver cyst, minimally invasive, laparoscopic, percutaneous, drainage and fenestration. We reviewed 82 English language publications articles, published until October 2017. Minimally invasive management of liver LC is an emerging field including many therapeutic modalities ranging from the percutaneous aspiration of pyogenic abscesses to laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatic cystadenomas. The most used techniques are percutaneous drainage, laparoscopic fenestration, and laparoscopic hepatectomy. The application of the various minimally invasive approaches, as well as their indication and complications, depend on the type of the cystic lesion, its size and its position in the liver. Percutaneous drainage is mostly used in simple cysts, hydatid cysts, pyogenic abscesses and bilomas. Laparoscopic fenestration is mostly used in simple cysts and polycystic liver disease. Finally, laparoscopic hepatectomy is mostly used in polycystic liver disease, hydatid cysts, and cystadenomas.
Khalsa, Siri Sahib S; Siu, Alan; DeFreitas, Tiffani A; Cappuzzo, Justin M; Myseros, John S; Magge, Suresh N; Oluigbo, Chima O; Keating, Robert F
OBJECTIVE Previous studies have indicated an association of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) and a small posterior fossa. Most of these studies have been limited by 2D quantitative methods, and more recent studies utilizing 3D methodologies are time-intensive with manual segmentation. The authors sought to develop a more automated tool to calculate the 3D posterior fossa volume, and correlate its changes after decompression with surgical outcomes. METHODS A semiautomated segmentation program was developed, and used to compare the pre- and postoperative volumes of the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and the CSF spaces (cisterna magna, prepontine cistern, and fourth ventricle) in a cohort of pediatric patients with CM-I. Volume changes were correlated with postoperative symptomatic improvements in headache, syrinx, tonsillar descent, cervicomedullary kinking, and overall surgical success. RESULTS Forty-two pediatric patients were included in this study. The mean percentage increase in PCF volume was significantly greater in patients who showed clinical improvement versus no improvement in headache (5.89% vs 1.54%, p < 0.05) and tonsillar descent (6.52% vs 2.57%, p < 0.05). Overall clinical success was associated with a larger postoperative PCF volume increase (p < 0.05). These clinical improvements were also significantly associated with a larger increase in the volume of the cisterna magna (p < 0.05). The increase in the caudal portion of the posterior fossa volume was also larger in patients who showed improvement in syrinx (6.63% vs 2.58%, p < 0.05) and cervicomedullary kinking (9.24% vs 3.79%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS A greater increase in the postoperative PCF volume, and specifically an increase in the cisterna magna volume, was associated with a greater likelihood of clinical improvements in headache and tonsillar descent in patients with CM-I. Larger increases in the caudal portion of the posterior fossa volume were also associated with a greater likelihood of
Wynne, Elisabeth; Louie, Adeline
Epidermal cysts are common cysts located cutaneously or subcutaneously in the head, neck, and trunk. However, deep epidermal cysts of the breast are very rare, and are frequently associated with traumatic implantation. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The patient was evaluated using mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, which uniquely characterized the mass and revealed a second mass. Histological analysis revealed fragments of an epidermoid cyst. The origin of the cysts and location deep within the breast tissue likely were due to a previous bilateral-reduction mammoplasty.
Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Ng, Alex W. H.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho-Keung
Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing extra-axial tumours that insinuate between brain structures, while their occurrences in intra-axial or intradiploic locations are exceptionally rare. We present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in two patients with atypical epidermoid cysts. CT and MRI findings for the first case revealed an intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst that demonstrated no restricted diffusion. The second case demonstrated an aggressive epidermoid cyst that invaded into the intradiploic spaces, transverse sinus, and the calvarium. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts. PMID:25667778
Luna-Nácar, Milka; Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Carrero, Julio C.
The cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica is a promising therapeutic target against human amoebiasis. Our research team previously reported the production in vitro of Cyst-Like Structures (CLS) sharing structural features with cysts, including rounded shape, size reduction, multinucleation, and the formation of a chitin wall coupled to the overexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the chitin synthesis pathway. A proteomic study of E. histolytica trophozoites, cysts, and in vitro-produced CLS is reported herein to determine the nature of CLS, widen our knowledge on the cyst stage, and identify possible proteins and pathways involved in the encystment process. Total protein extracts were obtained from E. histolytica trophozoites, CLS, and partially purified cysts recovered from the feces of amoebic human patients; extracts were trypsin-digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, 1029 proteins were identified in trophozoites, 550 in CLS, and 411 in cysts, with 539, 299, and 84 proteins unique to each sample, respectively, and only 74 proteins shared by all three stages. About 70% of CLS proteins were shared with trophozoites, even though differences were observed in the relative protein abundance. While trophozoites showed a greater abundance of proteins associated to a metabolically active cell, CLS showed higher expression of proteins related to proteolysis, redox homeostasis, and stress response. In addition, the expression of genes encoding for the cyst wall proteins Jessie and Jacob was detected by RT-PCR and the Jacob protein identified by Western blotting and immunofluorescence in CLS. However, the proteomic profile of cysts as determined by LC-MS/MS was very dissimilar to that of trophozoites and CLS, with almost 40% of hypothetical proteins. Our global results suggest that CLS are more alike to trophozoites than to cysts, and they could be generated as a rapid survival response of trophozoites to a stressful condition
Nayan, Smriti; MacLean, Jonathan; Sommer, Doron
We report a unique case of a fourth branchial cleft cyst found within the thymus of an adult patient. In the literature to date, there have been no reports of such a finding in the adult population. These anomalies can often cause recurrent acute suppurative thyroiditis or recurrent deep neck abscesses. Delay in recognizing the underlying etiology can lead to significant complications.
Hammoud, Sommer; Weber, Kristy; McCarthy, Edward F
Unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis are extremely rare. This study summarizes the clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 16 cases. Patients ranged in age from nine to 69. Most lesions were in the anterior portion of the iliac wing; many appeared to be related to an open iliac crest apophysis. This suggests that the pathogenesis of unicameral bone cysts in this portion of the ilium is similar to that seen in the proximal humerus and the proximal femur. The correct diagnosis was made preoperatively in only five cases. This indicates that, although they are well documented, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis remain a diagnostic problem. Patients received a spectrum of treatments from curettage to observation. There appeared to be no difference in the outcome after any form of treatment. Therefore, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis can be managed conservatively. The choice to manage patients conservatively depends on making the correct diagnosis based on clinical history and imaging. The most effective imaging is a combination of plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:16089077
Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like peptides play diverse roles in plant growth and development including maintenance of the stem cell population in the root meristem. Small secreted peptides sharing similarity to plant CLE signaling peptides have been isolated from several cyst nematode species including...
Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...
Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...
Nouira, F; Chouikh, T; Charieg, A; Ghorbel, S; Jlidi, S; Chaouachi, B
Hydatid cysts are endemic in certain regions of the world and particulary in North Africa. They are usually located in the liver, lung, and spleen, though many uncommon locations have been reported. This is the first report of a child with primary pelvic hydatid disease causing a sciatic compression.
Anderson, Davina M; White, Richard A S
To describe the clinical and morphologic characteristics of nasal dermoid sinus cysts in the dog. Retrospective clinical study. Six client-owned dogs. Medical records (1995 to 1999) of 6 dogs that had a discharging sinus in the midline of the nose removed surgically were reviewed for signalment, physical examination, surgical and histopathologic findings, and outcome. Three golden retrievers, 1 springer spaniel, 1 cocker spaniel, and 1 Brittany spaniel with a history of intermittent discharge from a small opening in the midline on the bridge of the nose at the junction between the nasal planum and the skin were identified. The condition was unresponsive to antibiotic therapy, and previous surgical excision had been unsuccessful in 3 dogs. None of the dogs had any other congenital defects, and all dogs responded to complete surgical excision of the tract and cyst. On histopathologic examination of excised tissue, there were adnexal structures along a tract lined with stratified squamous epithelium, consistent with a developmental abnormality of ectodermal tissue. The lesions were diagnosed as nasal dermoid sinus cysts, similar to the congenital condition described in humans. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts are rare developmental defects related to abnormal development of the pre-nasal space and may extend into the cranial vault causing cerebral abscesses or recurrent meningitis. Complete surgical excision has a good prognosis. This is a new condition that should be added to the surgical differential diagnosis for a discharging sinus over the external nares in dogs. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons
Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.
Torres, Janina P; Íñiguez, Rodrigo D
Paraovarian cysts are very uncommon in children To present a case of giant paraovarian cyst case in a child and its management using a modified laparoscopic-assisted technique A 13-year-old patient with a 15 day-history of intermittent abdominal pain, located in the left hemiabdomen and associated with progressive increase in abdominal volume. Diagnostic imaging was inconclusive, describing a giant cystic formation that filled up the abdomen, but without specifying its origin. Laboratory tests and tumor markers were within normal range. Video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy, a modified laparoscopic procedure with diagnostic and therapeutic intent, was performed with a successful outcome. The histological study reported giant paraovarian cyst. Cytology results were negative for tumor cells. The patient remained asymptomatic during the postoperative follow-up. The video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy is a safe procedure and an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the treatment of giant paraovarian cysts. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Ali, Mohammad Abdulhadi Abbas
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is known to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The expression of EMMPRIN in odontogenic cysts has not been previously studied. This study was done to determine the presence and the variability of EMMPRIN expression in various types of odontogenic cysts. An immunohistochemical study using a polyclonal anti-EMMPRIN antibody was done using 48 odontogenic cyst cases: 13 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), 18 dentigerous cysts (DCs), and 17 periapical cysts (PAs). Twelve cases of normal dental follicles (DFs) were also included in this study for comparison. EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was detected in all of the cysts and DFs studied. In odontogenic cysts, EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was generally higher in basal cells than in suprabasal cells. The overall EMMPRIN expression in the epithelial lining of the 3 different types of odontogenic cyst was significantly higher than in the DFs. Overall EMMPRIN expression was also found to be significantly higher in the epithelial lining of OKCs than in the other types of cysts. This study confirmed that EMMPRIN is present in odontogenic cysts and DFs. The higher EMMPRIN expression in OKCs suggests that it may be involved in the aggressive behavior of this type of cyst.
Llorens Salvador, R; Sangüesa Nebot, C; Pacheco Usmayo, A; Picó Aliaga, S; Garcés Iñigo, E
Ovarian cysts are the most common abdominal cysts in female fetuses and newborn girls. Ultrasonography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing ovarian cysts because it makes it possible to differentiate them from other cystic lesions. Although most neonatal ovarian cysts regress in the first few months after birth, complications can occur during gestation or after birth. The manifestations of ovarian cysts on ultrasonography will depend on the complications. The management is controversial, although the current trend favors watchful waiting. We describe the different presentations of neonatal ovarian cysts with their complications and their patterns of findings on ultrasonography. We also discuss the differential diagnosis with other cystic abdominal lesions, and finally we discuss the therapeutic management of neonatal ovarian cysts. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Bermingham, Niamh; O'Sullivan, Michael
Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst. PMID:22949002
Nardello, O; Muggianu, M; Cabras, V; Farina, G P; Cagetti, M
Systematic surveys with advanced non-invasive imaging techniques have revealed that hepatic cysts are quite common in the general population. Therefore, we retrospectively examined our case series and compared it with the literature. Between January 1990 and December 2000, 228 patients with non-parasitic liver cysts were referred to the outpatients section of the Department of Surgery of the University of Cagliari and 23 were submitted to treatment: 14 patients (60.8%) for solitary cyst and 9 (39.2%) for multiple simple cysts of the liver. One patient (4.5%) had right upper quadrant pain. Eleven (47.8%) patients were asymptomatic: 7 (63.7%) required treatment for other pathologies, 3 (27.3%) for a progressive enlargement of the cyst and 1 (9%) for a suspected hydatid disease. Mean diameter of the treated cysts measured by preoperative CT or US was 8.8 cm (range 7-14). Percutaneous aspiration-injection reaspiration (PAIR) was performed in 5 patients (21.7%), US-guided in 2 cases (40%) and CT-guided in 3 (60%). Twenty patients (86.9%) underwent cysts unroofing, 18 (78.2%) with open surgical fenestration and the latest 2 cases with a laparoscopic approach. Two patients had PAIR as second treatment for recurrence: CT-guided in one and US-guided in the other case. Four (25%) out of 16 patients treated exclusively for cystic liver disease, had fever in 3 cases and nausea and vomiting in 1 case; 8 patients (50%) had an intraperitoneal drainage for a mean of 6-7 days (range 4-11) and of 116 cc of serum-hematic liquid. In our opinion the choice of an adequate treatment must be based on an accurate evaluation of the clinical aspects of the patients and on the characteristics of cystic lesions such as number, size and location. These data let us to choose a surgical treatment rather than a strict US follow-up and to get the best outcome in terms of absence of recurrence, and less biological and economic costs.
Huang, George T-J
The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment - the natural function of epithelium. This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object.
Huang, George T.-J.
Introduction The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. The hypothesis Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment – the natural function of epithelium. Evaluation of the hypothesis This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object. PMID:25346864
Whitehead, Matthew T; Oh, Christopher C; Choudhri, Asim F
Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size.
Rizk, Ahmed R; Bettag, Martin
Colloid cysts usually occur in the anterior third ventricle at the level of the foramina of Monro. Colloid cysts may extend from the third toward the lateral ventricle. We present a rare case of multiple intraventricular colloid cysts, two of which were in the third ventricle and one in the lateral ventricle. A 40-year-old female patient presented with three intraventricular cystic lesions: one cyst in the typical localization in the anterior rostral third ventricle, another cyst behind it in the same (third) ventricle, and a larger bulging cyst in the right lateral ventricle. A bilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been inserted 26 years before to treat hydrocephalus. All three cysts had different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics. We removed the cysts through an endoscopically assisted right transcortical transventricular microsurgical approach, using the right ventricular catheter as a guide to the lateral ventricle. After removal of the lateral ventricular cyst, we observed that the foramen of Monro was greatly enlarged (most likely as a result of the large cyst), which allowed us to remove the cysts in the third ventricle. During surgery, the cysts were found to have different consistencies. MRI 2 years following surgery showed complete removal and no hydrocephalus. The patient had no symptoms, and the clinical examinations were normal. Colloid cysts may become large and extend to the lateral ventricle, especially in patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Studying the relevant pathoanatomy of these cysts is very important for preoperative planning including the choice of surgical approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi
Objectives An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). Results The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. Conclusions The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression. PMID:28584604
Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi
An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant ( p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression.
Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Yamashita, Shinichi; Takano, Koichi; Ueda, Yukiyo; Fujii, Akira
This article describes a classification and imaging diagnosis of intracranial midline cystic malformations based on neuroembryologic analysis. Midline cystic malformations are classified into two categories from an embryologic point of view. In one category, the cyst represents expansion of the roof plate of the brain vesicle, and in the other the cyst consists of extraaxial structures such as an arachnoid membrane or migrating ependymal cells. Infratentorial cysts, such as the Dandy-Walker cyst or Blake's pouch cyst, and supratentorial cysts, such as a communicating interhemispheric cyst with callosal agenesis or a dorsal cyst with holoprosencephaly, are included in the first category. Infratentorial arachnoid cavities, such as the arachnoid cyst, arachnoid pouch, and mega cisterna magna, are in the second category. Noncommunicating interhemispheric cysts, such as interhemispheric arachnoid cyst or ependymal cyst, with callosal agenesis are also in the second category. A careful review of embryologic development is essential for understanding these midline cysts and for making a more accurate radiologic diagnosis.
Kawaida, M; Fukuda, H; Shiotani, A; Kohno, N
Two cases of hypopharyngeal cyst are reported. Both cysts occurred in the piriform sinus of the hypopharynx. Histopathological examination indicated that both were retention cysts. These cysts were removed by laryngomicrosurgical technique using a side-opened direct laryngoscope. In the cyst with a distinct base, a laryngomicrosurgical snare was used for removal. In the wide-based cyst, the mucous membrane around the cyst was incised with an electrosurgical instrument and then detached to facilitate removal. In this paper, we describe our surgical procedure for removing hypopharyngeal cysts and discuss the causes of such cysts.
Umunna, J I
Clot obstruction often complicates transvesical prostatectomy. Any measure that prevents this will be a great relief to both surgeon and patient. To demonstrate that packing the prostatic fossa with roller gauze bandage after transvesical prostatectomy can prevent post-operative clot blockage of bladder drainage . Charts of all patients who had transvesical prostatectomy at Jasman Hospital Udo by me from 1988 to 1997 were sorted into two groups , Group A, not packed and Group B, packed. Information sought included patient's age, type of prostatectomy performed, whether the prostatic fossa was packed or not , average duration of catheter drainage, and complications. There were 68 patients who had no fossa packing and 72 in Group B with fossa packing. The age range of the two groups A and B were respective 45-85 year-old and 50-83 years. In both groups the highest number of patients was in the 60 t0 79 age bracket (48 in group A , 70%, and 56 in group B (78%). Bladder blockage occurred in 32(47%) patients without packing and none (0%) in group B with packing. Average duration of bladder drainage was 14 days in each group. There was no persisting vesico-cutaneous fistula. Temporary urinary incontinence occurred in three (3%) patients who had no packing and in five (7%) with packing. Gauze-packing of the prostatic fossa during transvesical prostatectomy can prevent bladder obstruction from clot retention without undue complications.
Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai
A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area. PMID:25859111
Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai
A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area.
Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak
Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions.
Yilmaz, Zeliha Colak; Deeren, Anne-Marie; De Sutter, Nancy; Viaene, Nicole
Heterodera is a genus of cyst-forming nematodes, including the cereal cysts which can provoke yield reductions in grain crops. As little is known about the occurrence of these cysts in Belgian grain fields, a survey was organized, starting in Flanders. Soil samples were taken from 50 fields where cereals are grown in rotation with mainly beet, potato and vegetables. Cysts were extracted from the 112 samples and 10 individuals per sample were identified up to species level by morphometrical and morphological observations. The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was found in 34 fields (56%) at infestation levels varying from 0.6 to 1322 cysts/kg soil. Other Heterodera species (e.g. H. trifolii, H. mani) were found in low numbers and sometimes in mixtures with H. schachtii, but no cereal cysts were detected. This survey confirms that beet cyst nematodes are a problem in Flanders. The few cereal cysts that might be present were perhaps not detected due to the few individuals that were identified. For this reason, molecular identification tools which allow fast and accurate identification of Heterodera species would be very useful. It could be interesting to find out why cereal cysts are suppressed in our regions and to expand the survey to the Walloon region where more cereals are grown.
Thirty-nine patients initially treated for choledochal cyst (25: cyst-enterostomy for 15 type I and 10 type IV A, 13: cyst excision for 8 type I and 5 type IV A, 1: sphincterotomy for type III) have been completely followed up for a mean period of 17 years to examine the effect of surgical management on their lives. Eighteen of 25 cases with cyst-enterostomy (72%) needed retreatment due to the complications but one could not be retreated because of the presence of advanced bile duct carcinoma. Fourteen of 17 cases were retreated with cyst excision, of whom 12 showed an excellent outcome but other two were suffering from cholangitis and hepatolithiasis. The remaining 3 patients retreated with PTCS or cyst-enterostomy showed a poor outcome. Of 13 patients who had undergone cyst excision with hepatico-jejunostomy as the first choice, 12 showed a good outcome but one needed retreatment due to the anastomotic stenosis and hepatolithiasis. Thus, excision of cyst should be the surgical management for choledochal cyst. However, it should be noted that three of 27 patients treated initially or secondarily with cyst excision showed unsatisfactory results mainly due to the anastomotic stenosis. The results demonstrate that hepaticojejunostomy with a wide opening stoma is necessary to prevent postoperative morbidity.
Hou, Hsien-Yang; Wu, Karl; Wang, Chen-Ti; Chang, Shun-Min; Lin, Wei-Hsin; Yang, Rong-Sen
There is a variety of treatment modalities for unicameral bone cysts, with variable outcomes reported in the literature. Although good initial outcomes have been reported, the success rate has often changed with longer-term follow-up. We introduce a novel, minimally invasive treatment method and compare its clinical outcomes with those of other methods of treatment of this lesion. From February 1994 to April 2008, forty patients with a unicameral bone cyst were treated with one of four techniques: serial percutaneous steroid and autogenous bone-marrow injection (Group 1, nine patients); open curettage and grafting with a calcium sulfate bone substitute either without instrumentation (Group 2, twelve patients) or with internal instrumentation (Group 3, seven patients); or minimally invasive curettage, ethanol cauterization, disruption of the cystic boundary, insertion of a synthetic calcium sulfate bone-graft substitute, and placement of a cannulated screw to provide drainage (Group 4, twelve patients). Success was defined as radiographic evidence of a healed cyst or of a healed cyst with some defect according to the modified Neer classification, and failure was defined as a persistent or recurrent cyst that needed additional treatment. Patients who sustained a fracture during treatment were also considered to have had a failure. The outcome parameters included the radiographically determined healing rate, the time to solid union, and the total number of procedures needed. The follow-up time ranged from eighteen to eighty-four months. Group-4 patients had the highest radiographically determined healing rate. Healing was seen in eleven of the twelve patients in that group compared with three of the nine in Group 1, eight of the twelve in Group 2, and six of the seven in Group 3. Group-4 patients also had the shortest mean time to union: 3.7 ± 2.3 months compared with 23.4 ± 14.9, 12.2 ± 8.5, and 6.6 ± 4.3 months in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This new
Lawal, AO; Adisa, AO; Sigbeku, OF
Aim: Though many studies have examined cysts of the jaws, most of them focused on a group of cysts and only few have examined cysts based on a particular classification. The aim of this study is to review cysts of the oro-facial region seen at a tertiary health centre in Ibadan and to categorize these cases based on Lucas, Killey and Kay and WHO classifications. Materials and Methods: All histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts were retrieved from the oral pathology archives. Information concerning cyst type, topography, age at time of diagnosis and gender of patients was gathered. Data obtained was analyzed with the SPSS 18.0.1 version software. Results: A total of 92 histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts comprising 60 (65.2%) males and 32 (34.8%) females were seen. The age range was 4 to 73 years with a mean age of 27.99 ± 15.26 years. The peak incidence was in the third decade. The mandible/ maxilla ratio was 1.5:1. Apical periodontal was the most common type of cyst accounting for 50% (n = 46) of total cysts observed. Using the WHO classification, cysts of the soft tissues of head, face and neck were overwhelmingly more common in males than females with a ratio of 14:3, while non-epithelial cysts occurred at a 3:1 male/female ratio. Conclusion: This study showed similar findings in regard to type, site and age incidence of oro-facial cysts compared to previous studies and also showed that the WHO classification protocol was the most comprehensive classification method for oro-facial cysts. PMID:22923885
Anglès, Sílvia; Jordi, Antoni; Garcés, Esther; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Palanques, Albert
The life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum consists of an asexual stage, characterized by motile vegetative cells, and a sexual stage, a resting cyst that once formed remains dormant in the sediment. Insight into the factors that determine the distribution and abundance of resting cysts is essential to understanding the dynamics of the vegetative phase. In investigations carried out between January 2005 and January 2008 in Arenys de Mar harbor (northwestern Mediterranean Sea), the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. minutum resting cysts and of the sediments were studied during different bloom stages of the vegetative population. Maximum cyst abundance was recorded mainly in the innermost part of the harbor while the lowest abundance always occurred near the harbor entrance, consistent with the distribution of silt-clay sediment fractions. The tendency of cysts in sediments to increase after bloom periods was clearly associated with new cyst formation, while cyst abundance decreased during non-bloom periods. Exceptions to this trend were observed in stations dominated by the deposition of coarse sediments. High correlation between the presence of cysts and clays during non-bloom periods indicates that cysts behave as passive sediment particles and are influenced by the same hydrodynamic processes as clays. In Arenys de Mar, the main physical forcing affecting sediment resuspension is the seiche, which was studied using in situ measurements and numerical models to interpret the observed distribution patterns. During non-bloom periods, cyst losses were smaller when the seiche was more active and at the station where the seiche-induced current was larger. Thus, seiche-forced resuspension appears to reduce cyst losses by reallocating cysts back to the sediment surface such that their burial in the sediment is avoided. The observed vertical profiles of the cysts were consistent with this process.
Okamura, S.; Inaba, M.; Shinjo, R.; Adachi, Y.
New isotopic and trace element data presented here imply a temporal change in magma sources and thermal conditions beneath the northern Fossa Magna of NE Japan from the Miocene to the Pliocene. Rocks from more sediment melt-rich Early Miocene volcanoes have less radiogenic 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd, high Zr/Hf, and little or no Hf anomaly (Hf/Hf*; ˜1.0). The mantle wedge in the Early Miocene consisted of enriched mantle source. We propose that during the onset of subduction, influx of hot asthenospheric mantle provided sufficient heat to partially melt newly subducting sediment. Geochemical modeling results suggest breakdown of zircon in the slab surface sediments for the Early Miocene lavas in the northern Fossa Magna region. In the Middle Miocene, the injection of hot and depleted asthenospheric material replaced the mantle beneath the northern Fossa Magna region of NE Japan. This caused the isotopic signature of the rocks to change from enriched to depleted. The Middle Miocene lavas characterized by most radiogenic Hf and Nd isotope ratios, have high Zr/Hf, low Lu/Hf, and little or no Hf anomaly. An appropriate working petrogenetic model is that the Middle Miocene lavas were derived from asthenospheric depleted mantle, slightly ( < 1%) contaminated by slab melt accompanied by full dissolution of zircon. All the Late Miocene and Pliocene samples are characterized by distinctly more radiogenic 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd, and more negative Hf anomalies (greater Hf/Hf* variability; ˜0.3). The Pliocene samples are displaced toward lower Hf/Hf* and Zr/Hf, and higher Lu/Hf relative to the Middle Miocene samples, which requires mixing between depleted mantle and a partial melt of subducted metasediment saturated with trace quantity of zircon.
Walsh, Stig A.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Knoll, Monja A.; Bourdon, Estelle; Barrett, Paul M.; Milner, Angela C.; Nudds, Robert L.; Abel, Richard L.; Sterpaio, Patricia Dello
Extinct animal behavior has often been inferred from qualitative assessments of relative brain region size in fossil endocranial casts. For instance, flight capability in pterosaurs and early birds has been inferred from the relative size of the cerebellar flocculus, which in life protrudes from the lateral surface of the cerebellum. A primary role of the flocculus is to integrate sensory information about head rotation and translation to stabilize visual gaze via the vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR). Because gaze stabilization is a critical aspect of flight, some authors have suggested that the flocculus is enlarged in flying species. Whether this can be further extended to a floccular expansion in highly maneuverable flying species or floccular reduction in flightless species is unknown. Here, we used micro computed-tomography to reconstruct “virtual” endocranial casts of 60 extant bird species, to extract the same level of anatomical information offered by fossils. Volumes of the floccular fossa and entire brain cavity were measured and these values correlated with four indices of flying behavior. Although a weak positive relationship was found between floccular fossa size and brachial index, no significant relationship was found between floccular fossa size and any other flight mode classification. These findings could be the result of the bony endocranium inaccurately reflecting the size of the neural flocculus, but might also reflect the importance of the flocculus for all modes of locomotion in birds. We therefore conclude that the relative size of the flocculus of endocranial casts is an unreliable predictor of locomotor behavior in extinct birds, and probably also pterosaurs and non-avian dinosaurs. PMID:23825638
Voudouris, John C; Woodside, Donald G; Altuna, Gurkan; Kuftinec, Mladen M; Angelopoulos, Gerassimos; Bourque, Paul J
Changes in the condyle, the glenoid fossa, and the muscles of mastication were investigated in subjects undergoing continuous orthopedic advancement of the mandible with a Herbst-block appliance. The total sample consisted of 56 subjects and included 15 nonhuman primates (in the middle mixed, early permanent, and permanent dentitions), 17 human Herbst patients in the early permanent dentition, and 24 human controls from the Burlington Growth Center. The 8 nonhuman primates in the middle mixed dentition were the focus of this study. Mandibular advancement was obtained progressively in 5 animals by adding stops to the telescopic arms of fixed functional Herbst appliances with occlusal coverage; activations of 5.0 mm, 7.0 mm, and 8.0 mm were achieved. Two primates served as controls, and the third was a sham control. Two experimental animals and the 2 controls also wore surgically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the superior and inferior heads of the lateral pterygoid muscles and in the superficial masseter and anterior digastric muscles. Changes in condylar growth direction and amount were assessed with the Björk method from measurements made on serial cephalometric tracings superimposed on metallic implants. Undecalcified sections, treated with intravenous tetracycline vital staining, were viewed with fluorescence microscopy to examine histologic changes in the condyle and the glenoid fossa. New bone formation in the fossa associated with continuous mandibular protrusion was quantified by using computerized histomorphometric analysis of decalcified histological sections and polarized light. The unique combination of permanently implanted electromyographic electrodes, tetracycline vital staining, and histomorphometry represents a significant technological advancement in methods and materials. Together, they demonstrated different muscle-bone interaction results for functional appliances than those reported in previous studies. In Part 1 of this study, we
Pirttiniemi, P; Kantomaa, T; Tuominen, M; Salo, L
The articular surface of the glenoid fossa shows some analogy to the mandibular condyle, since the surface is covered by secondary cartilage, which makes the process more elastic than purely bony structures. The condylar cartilage has been shown to be responsive to alterations in load pressures, and this secondary type of cartilage is also able to increase its proliferative activity to a limited extent when the load pressure is altered. The aim here was to measure changes in proliferative activity and type II collagen secretion in the articular surface of the glenoid fossa after steady experimental posterior relocation of the fossa in the rabbit without actively interfering with normal masticatory action. The shape of the articular disc and interrelations of the joint components were measured macroscopically. Twenty-four five-day-old rabbits underwent gluing of the interparietal, temporoparietal, and lambdoidal sutures. Three experimental and 3 control rabbits were injected with tritiated thymidine at 10, 15, 20, and 30 days and were killed after 2 h for histological, autoradiographic, and immunohistochemical examination. The total number of labeled cells in the proliferative layer near the articular eminence was higher in the experimental group, the difference being greatest in the 15- and 20-day-old rabbits. Immunohistochemical examination revealed less staining for type II collagen on the postero-inferior side of the eminence in the experimental group. The articular disc was flattened in the experimental group, and the elastic tissue bundle connecting the articular eminence and the anterior border of the disc was significantly narrower and longer.
Harreld, J H; Mohammed, N; Goldsberry, G; Li, X; Li, Y; Boop, F; Patay, Z
Postoperative intraspinal subdural collections in children after posterior fossa tumor resection may temporarily hinder metastasis detection by MR imaging or CSF analysis, potentially impacting therapy. We investigated the incidence, imaging and clinical features, predisposing factors, and time course of these collections after posterior fossa tumor resection. Retrospective review of postoperative spine MRI in 243 children (5.5 ± 4.6 years of age) from our clinical data base postresection of posterior fossa tumors from October 1994 to August 2010 yielded 37 (6.0 ± 4.8 years of age) subjects positive for postoperative intraspinal subdural collections. Their extent and signal properties were recorded for postoperative (37/37), preoperative (15/37), and follow-up spine (35/37) MRI. Risk factors were compared with age-matched internal controls (n = 37, 5.9 ± 4.5 years of age). Associations of histology, hydrocephalus and cerebellar tonsillar herniation, and postoperative intracranial subdural collections with postoperative intraspinal subdural collections were assessed by the Fisher exact test or χ(2) test. The association between preoperative tumor volume and postoperative intraspinal subdural collections was assessed by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The overall incidence of postoperative intraspinal subdural collections was 37/243 (15.2%), greatest ≤7 days postoperatively (36%); 97% were seen 0-41 days postoperatively (12.9 ± 11.0 days). They were T2 hyperintense and isointense to CSF on T1WI, homogeneously enhanced, and resolved on follow-up MR imaging (35/35). None were symptomatic. They were associated with intracranial subdural collections (P = .0011) and preoperative tonsillar herniation (P = .0228). Postoperative intraspinal subdural collections are infrequent and clinically silent, resolve spontaneously, and have a distinctive appearance. Preoperative tonsillar herniation appears to be a predisposing factor. In this series, repeat MR imaging by 4 weeks
Puffer, Ross C; Graffeo, Christopher; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Van Gompel, Jamie J
Cerebellar stroke causes major morbidity in the aging population. Guidelines from the American Stroke Association recommend emergent decompression in patients who have brainstem compression, hydrocephalus, or clinical deterioration. The objective of this study was to determine 30-day and 1-year mortality rates in patients >60 years old undergoing emergent posterior fossa decompression. Surgical records identified all patients >60 years old who underwent emergent posterior fossa decompression. Mortality rates were calculated at 30 days and 1 year postoperatively, and these rates were compared with patient and procedure characteristics. During 2000-2014, 34 emergent posterior fossa decompressions were performed in patients >60 years old. Mortality rates at 30 days were 0%, 33%, and 25% for age deciles 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years. Increasing age (alive at 30 days 75.2 years ± 1.7 vs. deceased 81.1 years ± 1.7, P = 0.01) and smaller craniectomy dimensions were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality rates at 1 year were 0%, 50%, and 67% for age deciles 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years. Increasing age was significantly associated with mortality at 1 year (alive at 1 year 72.3 years ± 2.0 vs. deceased 81.1 years ± 1.2, P < 0.01). Type of pathology, side of pathology, volume of bleed/infarct, and placement of an external ventricular drain were not associated with mortality. Age was independent of admission Glasgow Coma Scale score as a predictor of mortality at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year postoperatively. Increasing age and smaller craniectomy size were significantly associated with mortality in patients undergoing emergent posterior fossa decompression. Among patients ≥80 years old, one-quarter were dead within 1 month of the operation, and more than two-thirds were dead within 1 year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yamada, Masato; Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Tokumaru, Takao; Aoyagi, Masaru; Kawano, Yoshihisa; Yano, Tomoyuki; Kishimoto, Seiji
The study aimed to assess the usefulness of skull base surgery for large juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) with lateral extension to the infratemporal fossa. Eleven cases were enrolled for this study, and the mean age was 17.7 years old (range: 8-32). Six out of 11 cases underwent surgery as an initial treatment, and the other five underwent secondary surgery after initial surgery or radiotherapy in other institutions. The range of extension of tumor, feeding arteries, surgical approach, and treatment outcome were estimated. All tumors originated from the sphenopalatine foramen. Based on the imaging study, there was extension to the cavernous sinus observed in eight cases, as well as to the middle cranial fossa (8), orbit (4), and anterior cranial fossa (1). These tumors were diagnosed as Andrews' Stage IVa (3) and IVb (8). However, infiltration into the cavernous sinus was observed in one case only during surgery. Ten tumors were separated carefully from the cavernous sinus or dura and were accurately diagnosed as Stage IIIb. In all cases, the main arterial feeders of the JNAs were branches of the external carotid artery, which were embolized prior to surgery. However, 10 cases were also fed by branches of the internal carotid artery (branches of the ophthalmic artery), in which these arteries could not be embolized. Coronal skin incision (1) and a facial dismasking flap (9) were used, and in one case, wide lateral skin incision with temporary incision of the facial nerve was applied. The orbito-zygomatic approach and its modification was applied to all the cases. Fronto-lateral craniotomy was applied in four cases and lateral craniotomy in seven cases. Total resection was achieved in 10 cases and subtotal resection in one case. No mortality was noted in this series. Temporal trismus was observed in all cases which subsided gradually. Cheek numbness and facial palsy were observed in three and two cases, respectively. Coupled with craniotomy, tumor removal
Sajad, Mir; Kirmani, Masood A; Patigaroo, A R
A 25 year old male presented to our ENT OPD with the history of hyperemic swelling left zygomatic area with a pointed pustule in the centre resembling a furuncle,which progressed into a discharging sinus, complicated by trismus. The patient had a past history of trauma in the vicinity of the left zygomatic area 4-months back with a pointed stick the tip of the stick which had got lodged in the wound at that time was removed. The diagnostic dilemma was solved as neglected foreign body infratemporal fossa.
Sharma, Divashree; Khasgiwala, Ankit; Maheshwari, Bharat; Singh, Charanpreet; Shakya, Neelam
Temporomandibular joint dislocation refers to the dislodgement of mandibular condyle from the glenoid fossa. Anterior and anteromedial dislocations of the mandibular condyle are frequently reported in the literature, but superolateral dislocation is a rare presentation. This report outlines a case of superolateral dislocation of an intact mandibular condyle that occurred in conjunction with an ipsilateral mandibular parasymphysis fracture. A review of the clinical features of superolateral dislocation of the mandibular condyle and the possible techniques of its reduction ranging from the most conservative means to extensive surgical interventions is presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ferneyhough, Gareth B; Thibealut, Corey M; Dascalu, Sergiu M; Harris, Frederick C
The creation and simulation of ion channel models using continuous-time Markov processes is a powerful and well-used tool in the field of electrophysiology and ion channel research. While several software packages exist for the purpose of ion channel modeling, most are GUI based, and none are available as a Python library. In an attempt to provide an easy-to-use, yet powerful Markov model-based ion channel simulator, we have developed ModFossa, a Python library supporting easy model creation and stimulus definition, complete with a fast numerical solver, and attractive vector graphics plotting.
Dapremont, A.; Wray, J. J.
Hephaestus Fossae are a system of sub-parallel fractures on Mars (> 500 km long) interpreted as near-surface tensional cracks . Images of the Martian surface from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have revealed cratered cones within the Hephaestus Fossae region. A volcanic origin (cinder/tuff cones) has been proposed for these features based on morphometric measurements and fine-scale surface characteristics . In an effort to further constrain the origin of these cones as the products of igneous or sedimentary volcanism, we use data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). We take advantage of CRISM's S (0.4 - 1.0 microns) and L (1.0 - 3.9 microns) detector wavelength ranges to investigate the presence or absence of spectral signatures consistent with previous identifications of igneous and mud volcanism products on Mars [3,4]. Hephaestus Fossae cratered cone rims exhibit a consistent nanophase ferric oxide signature. We also identify ferrous phases and 3-micron absorptions (attributed to fundamental vibrational stretch frequencies in H2O) on the crater rims of several cones. Mafic signatures on cratered cone rims support an igneous provenance for these features. The 3-micron absorptions are consistent with the presence of structurally bound or adsorbed water. Our CRISM observations are similar to those of small edifice features in Chryse Planitia, which were interpreted as mud volcanism products based on their enrichment of nanophase ferric minerals and 3-micron absorptions on summit crater rims . Hydrothermal activity was invoked for a Coprates Chasma pitted cone (scoria/tuff cone) based on CRISM identification of partially dehydrated opaline silica, which we do not observe in Hephaestus Fossae . Our spectral observations are more consistent with mud volcanism, but we do not definitively rule out an igneous volcanic origin for the cones in our study region. We demonstrate that VNIR spectroscopy is a valuable
Khamaysi, Iyad; Abu Ammar, Aiman; Vasilyev, Gleb; Arinstein, Arkadii; Chowers, Yehuda; Zussman, Eyal
Differentiation between mucinous and non-mucinous pancreatic cysts is exceedingly important and challenging, particularly as the former bears malignant transformation potential. Pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF)-based diagnostics, including analyses of biochemical markers, as well as cytology, has shown inadequate accuracy. Herein, a preliminary single-center study of 22 PCF samples, collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), assessed the rheological behavior of PCF and its correlation with lesion type. The dependence of PCF shear viscosity on shear rate was found to follow a power law and could be fitted using Ostwald–de Waele model. Three types of flow curves were identified, where two types correlated with non-mucinous cysts, differing by their power law exponent, and the third type corresponding to mucinous cysts. Viscosity measured at a high shear rate was shown to serve as an accurate and independent marker distinguishing between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts, with an optimal cutoff value of ηc = 1.3 cP The accuracy of this novel technique proved superior to string-sign, cytology, carcinoembryonic antigen, and amylase assessments. Moreover, the combined predictive value of ηc and patient age provided for sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 95.5%, respectively. This simple and rapid diagnostic tool can be immediately implemented after EUS-FNA sampling. PMID:28358122
Li, Nannan; Gao, Xing; Xu, Ziyuan; Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Laikuan; Wang, Jinrui; Liu, Wei
To investigate the incidence and prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents and compare the features of the two most common types, dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). A retrospective review in a series of 369 patients with all histological diagnoses of developmental odontogenic cysts in children (≤12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) was conducted. Among these, 361 (97.8%) patients were diagnosed as dentigerous cyst (n = 281) and KCOT (n = 80), with the male-to-female ratios of dentigerous cyst and KCOT both being 2:1. The average age of the patients with KCOT was older than that of those with dentigerous cyst (14.7 years vs 11.8 years, p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (59.1%) was more common in children, but KCOT (78.8%) was more common in adolescents (p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (57.6%) predominantly located on the maxilla, but KCOT (60.3%) predominantly located on the mandible (p = 0.010). Adolescent patients with lesions located on the mandible would favor KCOT over dentigerous cyst. This study aids in better knowledge of the prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in a large pediatric population, and shows that a well-supported early diagnosis is indispensable for a more adequate treatment.
Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen
Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world’s population. A key to the success of T.gondii is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in a fragile brain cyst phenotype revealed bymore » a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that reinforces the cyst wall structure and confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst.« less
Görgen, Hüsnü; Api, Murat; Çetin, Ahmet
We report here the rare case of a 28-year-old woman with a large hydatid cyst in her left lower pelvis with an unusual sonographic presentation mimicking a multicystic ovarian tumor. Laparoscopic evaluation revealed normal uterus and ovaries with a swelling in the left retropritoneal area. We decided to reach this tumour by the vaginal route and multiple scolex, daughter cysts were removed via a left lateral vaginal wall incision. The pericystic cavity was thoroughly washed. The patient was discharged on the first postoperative day. Mebendazole (100 mg twice daily) was administered for 4 months. This parasite should be kept in mind and considered when making the differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic masses, particularly if the patient is from an endemic area. PMID:24591878
Heng-Kun, W; Yan-Ling, G; Wen-Feng, Z; Zhe, S; Ren-Xin, W; Xiao-Tao, Z
Ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint is a rare disease, which may arise from myxoid degeneration of the collagenous tissue of the temporomandibular joint capsule, without epithelial or endothelial lining. We report a case of cystic lesion in a 40-year-old female patient. The patient had a left pre-auricular oval-shaped swelling without any articular symptoms. The pathological analysis after surgical removal allowed diagnosing the lesion as a ganglion cyst of the left temporomandibular joint. We made a literature review and noted that this condition was predominant in female patients. We recommend using MRI for diagnostic purposes and surgery as the best therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Udani, Vikram; Holly, Langston T; Chow, Daniel; Batzdorf, Ulrich
We describe our use of a perforated titanium plate to perform a partial posterior fossa cranioplasty in the treatment of cerebellar ptosis and dural ectasia after posterior fossa decompression (PFD). Twelve patients who had undergone PFD underwent posterior fossa reconstruction using a titanium plate. Symptoms were related to either descent of the cerebellum into the decompression or to dural ectasia into the craniectomy defect. Twelve patients who had undergone large suboccipital craniectomies and who presented with persistent headaches and some with neurological symptoms related to syringomyelia, underwent reoperation with placement of a small titanium plate. Ten of 12 patients showed symptomatic improvement after reoperation. Placement of a titanium plate appears to be an effective method of treatment of cerebellar ptosis and dural ectasia after PFD for Chiari malformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Pardis, Soheil; Asadzadeh, Maryam; Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali
The aim of this study is to evaluate the caveolin-1 expression in a group of odontogenic cysts and tumors. In this cross-sectional study, the expression of caveolin-1 was evaluated immunohistochemically in 75 samples including 18 cases of dentigerous cyst, 18 odontogenic keratocysts, 3 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, 2 calcifying odontogenic cysts and 34 ameloblastomas (solid and unicystic). Positive immunohistochemical reaction was found in 100% of odontogenic cysts and this was significantly more than both unicystic (65%) and solid (55%) ameloblastomas. The present study showed the expression of caveolin-1 in all odontogenic cysts and more than ameloblastomas. The results suggested that absence of caveolin-1 might enhance aggressiveness of odontogenic lesions and could be a useful marker for distinguishing ameloblastomas from other odontogenic lesions.
Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi
Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.
Watts, Elizabeth A.; Dhara, Animesh; Sinai, Anthony P.
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting all warm blooded animals and humans. Infectious, transmissible forms of the parasite include oocysts produced by the sexual cycle within the definitive feline host and tissue cysts that form Toxoplasma in the CNS and muscle during the asexual cycle within all chronically infected warm-blooded hosts. These tissue cysts are populated with slow growing bradyzoites which have been until recently thought to be dormant entities in the context of immune sufficiency. Reactivation to active growth during immune suppression is of critical clinical importance. Yet we know little about tissue cysts or the bradyzoites they house as the diversity of tissue cysts cannot be replicated in cell culture systems. Our optimization of tissue cyst purification from the brains of infected mice using Percoll gradients provides an efficient means to recover in vivo derived tissue cysts that can be applied to imaging, cell-biologic, biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. PMID:28510363
Salako, N O; Taiwo, E O
A retrospective analysis of oral cysts that were seen over an 11-year period in children at a dental institution in Nigeria was carried out. In general, oral cysts accounted for only 2.6% of the total biopsied lesions during the period under review. The most common oral cysts were the mucous retention cysts, the gingival cysts of infants and the dentigerous cyst. The commonest sites were the maxilla, the mandible and the floor of the mouth respectively and there was no significant difference in sex preference. Most of the cases were seen in the age group 11-16 years while the least was in the group aged 6-10 years.
Reiersen, David A; Gungor, Anil A
Review vallecular cysts and report the surgical management of a vallecular cyst of unusual size with near-complete obliteration of the airway. This case report describes an unusually large mucus retention cyst in an 8-week-old infant that was diagnosed during induction of general anesthesia and prevented visualization of airway. Intubation was performed after rapid aspiration of the cyst contents. Vallecular cysts can present as a life-threatening obstruction in infants and complicate the establishment of an airway after induction of anesthesia. In our case, rapid thinking and aspiration of the cyst contents helped establish the airway for definitive CO2 laser excision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hadar, T; Shvero, J; Nageris, B I; Yaniv, E
To present our experience of endoscopic surgery for symptomatic mucus retention cyst of the maxillary sinus. Retrospective study. Teaching hospital, Israel. 60 patients with 65 symptomatic cysts of the maxillary sinus who were operated on endoscopically. Only patients with large cysts that filled at least 50% of the sinus space were included. A rigid nasal endoscope was used in all cases; most of the cysts were removed through the natural sinus ostium. Cysts recurred in only two patients during the first postoperative year. There were no complications from the procedure. The endoscopic approach to the treatment of maxillary sinus cyst is associated with a low rate of recurrence (3% in this study) and no complications, and we recommend it as the surgical procedure of choice. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
Matijević, Stevo; Jovivić, Bojan; Bubalo, Marija; Dukić, Smiljka; Cutović, Tatjana
Radicular cysts treatment involves surgical approach, more or less aggressive. However, treatment of large cystic lesions, including radicular cysts, causes some of dilemmas concerning the choice of the surgical method, especially the degree of radicalism. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with large radicular cyst in the mandible. A large elliptical multilocular radiolucency, located in the left side of the mandible, being in close vicinity to the mandibular canal, was registered at the orthopantomographic radiography. There was a risk of pathological fracture of the mandible. However, the cyst was completely removed by enucleation without intraoperative and postoperative complications. The presented case support the opinion that careful enucleation of large mandibular cysts may be done without complications, such as damages of surrounding anatomical structures or mandibular fracture. The authors indicate reasons for strong support of the undertaken surgical approach of treating large radicular cysts in the mandible.
Guillaud, V; Rémond, J; Balme, B; Moulin, G
In a 40-year old man undergoing, under local anaesthesia, excision of an epidermal cyst located in the frontal region, at the border of the scalp, the operator had difficulties in removing the deep part of the cyst and perceived an underlying bone depression. The depression was caused by a 2 x 1.3 cm wide lacuna in the calvarium, which was subsequently treated by neurosurgeons. Histology showed only fragments of a simple epidermal cyst wall and no evidence of dermoid cyst. The causes of osteolysis associated with congenital or acquired skin lesions are reviewed. In this case, the old age and volume of the cyst may explain the osteolysis by mechanical compression. This case is exceptional since we were unable to find other examples in the literature, apart from dermoid and trichilemmal cysts.
Yang, Guang; Wen, Xiaoyu; Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen
Case report. We report a rare case that a ganglion cyst compressed the sciatic nerve and caused sciatica and claudication in a 51-year-old male. Sciatica and claudication commonly occurs in spinal stenosis. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported on sciatica resulting from posterior ganglion cyst of hip. A 51-year-old male had a 2-month history of radiating pain on his right leg. He could only walk 20 to 30 m before stopping and standing to rest for 1 to 3 minutes. Interestingly, he was able to walk longer distances (about 200 m) when walking slowly in small steps, without any rest. He had been treated as a case of lumbar disc herniation, but conservative treatment was ineffective. On buttock examination, a round, hard, and fixative mass was palpated at the exit of the sciatic nerve. MR imaging of hip revealed a multilocular cystic mass located on the posterior aspect of the superior gemellus and obturator internus, compressing the sciatic nerve. On operation, we found that the cyst extended to the superior gemellus and the obturator internus, positioned right at the outlet of the sciatic nerve. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient continued to be symptom free. He returned to comprehensive physical activity with no limitations. For an extraspinal source, a direct compression on the sciatic nerve also resulted in sciatica and claudication. A meticulous physical examination is very important for the differential diagnosis of extraspinal sciatica from spinal sciatica.
Aparna, Manikkath; Chakravarthy, Arumugam; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Radhakrishnan, Raghu
Endodontic diagnosis is challenging and depends on the organisation of information from the patient history, clinical examination and analysis of the pulp, radiographic and histopathological assessment. A 35-year-old man was endodontically treated for radiolucency in relation to the roots of maxillary central incisors as it was a provisionally diagnosed case of radicular cyst. Since the palatal swelling persisted, the lesion was re-evaluated using relevant diagnostic aids and a diagnosis of nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC) was made, which was missed during the initial assessment. An erroneous interpretation of cystic radiolucency in relation to maxillary central incisors can often lead to inappropriate treatment planning. This case highlights the relevant aspects in the diagnosis of NPDC when it is mistaken for a radicular cyst and emphasises the need for thorough clinical examination and relevant investigations for periapical radiolucencies of questionable origin before initiating endodontic therapy. PMID:24642171
Schoots, Ivo G; Zaccai, Keren; Hunink, Myriam G; Verhagen, Paul C M S
We systematically evaluated the Bosniak classification system with malignancy rates of each Bosniak category, and assessed the effectiveness related to surgical treatment and oncologic outcome based on recurrence and/or metastasis. In a systematic review according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and the QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria, we selected 39 publications for inclusion in this analysis and categorized them into 1) surgical cohorts-all cysts treated surgically and 2) radiological cohorts-cysts with surgical treatment or radiological followup. A total of 3,036 complex renal cysts were categorized into Bosniak II, IIF, III and IV. In surgical and radiological cohorts pooled estimates showed a malignancy prevalence of 0.51 (0.44, 0.58) in Bosniak III and 0.89 (0.83, 0.92) in Bosniak IV cysts, respectively. Stable Bosniak IIF cysts showed a malignancy rate of less than 1% during radiological followup (surveillance). Bosniak IIF cysts, which showed reclassification to the Bosniak III/IV category during radiological followup (12%), showed malignancy in 85%, comparable to Bosniak IV cysts. The estimated surgical number needed to treat to avoid metastatic disease of Bosniak III and IV cysts was 140 and 40, respectively. The effectiveness of the Bosniak classification system for complex renal cysts was high in categories II, IIF and IV, but low in category III, and 49% of Bosniak III cysts was overtreated because of a benign outcome. This surgical overtreatment combined with the excellent outcome for Bosniak III cysts may suggest that surveillance is a rational alternative to surgery. This will require further study to assess whether surveillance of Bosniak III cysts will prove safe. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yalcinkaya, Serhat; Vural, A Hakan; Ozal, Hasan
Bronchogenic cysts are usually discovered only incidentally in the adult. A giant bronchogenic cyst in a 19-year-old woman presenting with pain and shortness of breath was mistaken for tension pneumothorax and initially treated with tube thoracostomy. Giant bullae were diagnosed by computed tomography. Bullae resection was undertaken, but the remaining lung tissue required pneumonectomy. Pathologic examination of the specimen confirmed bronchogenic cyst.
Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Altiok, Merih; Battal, Muharrem; Bender, Omer; Ozcan, Deniz; Karahan, Servet
The splenic cysts constitute a very rare clinical entity. They may occur secondary to trauma or even being more seldom due to parasitic infestations, mainly caused by ecchinocccus granulosus. Literature lacks a defined concencus including the treatment plans and follow up strategies, nor long term results of the patients. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses. Twenty-four patients with splenic cysts have undergone surgery in our department over the last 9 years. Data from eighteen of the twenty-four patients were collected prospectively, while data from six were retrospectively collected. All patients were assessed in terms of age, gender, hospital stay, preoperative diagnosis, additional disease, serology, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), cyst recurrences and treatment. In this study, the majority of patients presented with abdominal discomfort and palpable swelling in the left hypochondrium. All patients were operated on electively. The patients included 14 female and 10 male patients, with a mean age of 44.77 years (range 20-62). Splenic hydatid cysts were present in 16 patients, one of whom also had liver hydatid cysts (6.25%). Four other patients were operated on for a simple cyst (16%) two patients for an epithelial cyst, and the last two for splenic lymphangioma. Of the 16 patients diagnosed as having splenic hydatit cysts, 11 (68.7%) were correctly diagnosed. Only two of these patients were administered benzimidazole therapy pre-operatively because of the risk of multicystic disease The mean follow-up period was 64 months (6-108). There were no recurrences of splenic cysts. Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of a parasitic cyst when no definitive alternative diagnosis can be made. In the treatment of splenic hydatidosis, benzimidazole therapy is not necessary, although it is crucial to perform
Lantinga, M A; Wijnands, T F M; Te Morsche, R H M; de Sévaux, R G L; Kuipers, S; Allegaert, K; Burger, D; Drenth, J P H
Hepatic cyst infection is a potentially severe complication in cystic disease. Treatment demands effective antibiotic concentrations within the infected cyst. The aim of this study was to use elective hepatic cyst drainage as a unique pharmacokinetic model to investigate whether cefazolin, a first-generation cephalosporin, is able to penetrate hepatic cysts. Patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous aspiration sclerotherapy of a symptomatic non-infected, non-neoplastic hepatic cyst were eligible for this study. All participants received a single perioperative prophylactic dose of cefazolin (1000 mg, intravenously). We collected blood and cyst fluid samples to determine total and unbound cefazolin concentrations using HPLC. The primary outcome was hepatic cyst penetration, expressed as the ratio (%) of unbound concentration of cefazolin in cyst fluid to plasma (both in mg/L). We included eight patients [male = 25%, median age = 60 years (IQR 54-75), median estimated glomerular filtration rate = 97 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (IQR 67-102) and median serum albumin = 40 g/L (IQR 37-40)]. We detected low concentrations of unbound cefazolin in cyst fluid (≤1.0 mg/L). The median plasma unbound cefazolin peak level (immediately after cefazolin administration) was 36.6 mg/L (IQR 23.7-54.1) and the level at the time of cyst fluid aspiration was 16.1 mg/L (IQR 13.0-20.1). In total, the hepatic cyst penetration of free cefazolin was only 2.2% (IQR 0.7-5.2). We developed a study model to investigate the penetration of antibiotics into hepatic cysts. Cefazolin did not reach adequate intracystic concentrations. Future studies should explore alternatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
James, Adrian; Stewart, Craig; Warrick, Paul; Tzifa, Constance; Forte, Vito
The objective of this study was to review clinical and embryologic aspects of third and fourth branchial anomalies. Retrospective study. We reviewed the institutional and departmental databases at our institution to identify all cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies encountered from 1992 to 2006. All patient records were examined with respect to demographics, clinical history, and radiologic and pathologic reports. We identified 17 cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies, the largest series of its kind reported to date. The lesions were predominantly left sided, all presenting with neck infection. Fistula formation was iatrogenic, secondary to incision and drainage. Preoperative direct laryngoscopy always revealed a pit within the apex of the piriform fossa. Surgical excision involved ipsilateral thyroidectomy as the lesion passed through the thyroid gland. No lesions following the classical course of a either a third or fourth branchial anomaly were identified. The clinical presentation of branchial sinuses arising from the piriform fossa is more in keeping with derivation from the thymopharyngeal duct (of the third pouch) than the hypothetical course of third and fourth branchial fistulae.
Son, Byung Chul; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Sung, Jae Hoon; Yang, Seung-Ho
The authors reviewed the surgical experience and operative technique in a series of 11 patients with middle fossa tumors who underwent surgery using the transzygomatic approach and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IOM) at a single institution. This approach was applied to trigeminal schwannomas (n = 3), cavernous angiomas (n = 3), sphenoid wing meningiomas (n = 3), a petroclival meningioma (n = 1), and a hemangiopericytoma (n = 1). An osteotomy of the zygoma, a low-positioned frontotemporal craniotomy, removal of the remaining squamous temporal bone, and extradural drilling of the sphenoid wing made a flat trajectory to the skull base. Total resection was achieved in 9 of 11 patients. Significant motor pathway damage can be avoided using a change in motor-evoked potentials as an early warning sign. Four patients experienced cranial nerve palsies postoperatively, even though free-running electromyography of cranial nerves showed normal responses during the surgical procedure. A simple transzygomatic approach provides a wide surgical corridor for accessing the cavernous sinus, petrous apex, and subtemporal regions. Knowledge of the middle fossa structures is essential for anatomic orientation and avoiding injuries to neurovascular structures, although a neuronavigation system and IOM helps orient neurosurgeons.
Brucoli, Matteo; Giarda, Mariangela; Valente, Guido; Benech, Arnaldo
Hemangiopericytoma is a rare vascular tumor first described by Stout and Murray in 1942 and characterized by a proliferation of Zimmermann's pericytes, smooth muscle cells arranged around blood vessels. This tumor presents as a slowly enlarging painless mass. Diagnosis with certainty is often a difficult one because of the close likeness with other spindle cell tumors; it requires the help of immunohistochemical techniques and sometimes ultrastructural techniques. Only 15% of hemangiopericytomas are localized in the cervicofacial region; in particular, occurrence in the infratemporal fossa is an exceptional occurrence. In this article, we report an unusual case of recidivate hemangiopericytoma of the infratemporal fossa that has progressively assumed features of malignancy over 30 years. The hemangiopericytoma relapse potentiality is elevated, even when the histologic characteristics of the tumor indicate a low aggressivity, and therefore every hemangiopericytoma must be considered to have malignant potential. In conclusion, the unpredictable behavior of hemangiopericytoma requires a radical primary treatment to avoid the risk of relapses that always are frequent and aggressive.
Leonardi, Rosalia; Caltabiano, Mario; Cavallini, Costanza; Sicurezza, Edoardo; Barbato, Ersilia; Spampinato, Concetto; Giordano, Daniela
To investigate condylar symmetry and condyle fossa relationships in subjects with functional posterior crossbite comparing findings before and after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatment through low-dose computed tomography (CT). Twenty-six patients (14 girls and 12 boys, mean age 9.6 ± 1.4 years) with functional posterior crossbite (FPXB) diagnosis underwent rapid palatal expansion with a Hyrax appliance. Patients' temporomandibular joints (TMJ) underwent multislice CT scans before rapid palatal expansion (T0) and after (T1). Joint spaces were compared with those of a control sample of 13 subjects (7 girls and 5 boys, mean age 11 ± 0.6 years). Anterior space (AS), superior space (SS), and posterior space (PS) joint space measurements at T0 between the FPXB side and contralateral side demonstrated no statistically significant differences. After RME treatment (T1), all three joint spaces increased on both the FPXB side and the non-crossbite side. However, differences were statistically significant only for the SS when comparing the two sides at T1. SS increased more than AS and PS in the non-crossbite condyle (0.28 mm) and FPXB condyle (0.37 mm), and PS increased only on the FPXB side (0.34 mm). There were no statistically significant differences in condyle position within the glenoid fossa between the FPXB and non-crossbite side before treatment. Increases in joint spaces were observed after treatment with RME on both sides. These changes were, however, of small amounts.
Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.
Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).
Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.
Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).
Patek, Kyla J; Kline-Fath, Beth M; Hopkin, Robert J; Pilipenko, Valentina V; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Spaeth, Christine G
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between intracranial and extracranial anomalies and neurodevelopmental outcome for fetuses diagnosed with a posterior fossa anomaly (PFA) on fetal MRI. Cases of Dandy-Walker malformation, vermian hypogenesis/hypoplasia, and mega cisterna magna (MCM) were identified through the Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati between January 2004 and December 2010. Parental interview and retrospective chart review were used to assess neurodevelopmental outcome. Posterior fossa anomalies were identified in 59 fetuses; 9 with Dandy-Walker malformation, 36 with vermian hypogenesis/hypoplasia, and 14 with MCM. Cases with isolated PFAs (14/59) had better outcomes than those with additional anomalies (p = 0.00016), with isolated cases of MCM all being neurodevelopmentally normal. Cases with additional intracranial anomalies had a worse outcome than those without intracranial anomalies (p = 0.00017). The presence of extracranial anomalies increased the likelihood of having a poor outcome (p = 0.00014) as did the identification of an abnormal brainstem (p = 0.00018). Intracranial and extracranial anomalies were good predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in this study. The prognosis was poor for individuals with an abnormal brainstem, whereas those with isolated MCM had normal neurodevelopmental outcome. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Chuanhui; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; He, Hongwei
Cognard type IV anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare lesions with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We present our experience with the use of Onyx via the arterial route in these aggressive lesions. Between October 2009 and October 2011, six consecutive patients diagnosed with Cognard type IV anterior cranial fossa DAVFs were treated transarterially with Onyx in our department. All patients were male; mean age was 55 years (range 38-68). Four patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage as the initial manifestation; one patient presented with seizures at the time of diagnosis and experienced intracranial hemorrhage during the antiepileptic therapy; and the other patient was asymptomatic. In five patients, complete obliteration was achieved with transarterial Onyx injection in a single treatment session; in the remaining patient, subtotal occlusion was achieved and gamma knife treatment was followed. The average time of injection was 19 min (range 5-28) for every pedicle catheterized and the average amount of Onyx was 3.2 ml (range 0.4-6.3) for each lesion. All patients recovered uneventfully after embolization. No mortality or permanent morbidity was observed in this series. Follow-up digital subtraction or MR angiography confirmed durable obliteration of the fistulas in five cured cases. No patients suffered intracranial hemorrhage during the follow-up period. In this small series, our experience with the use of Onyx for arterial embolization of Cognard type IV DAVFs is encouraging, with durable complete cure in most lesions without severe complications.
de Noronha Santos Netto, Juliana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; de Queiroz Chaves Lourenço, Simone
Several cell types are associated with the development of cystic and tumoral odontogenic lesions. Among inflammatory cells, mast cells can be associated with their pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze mast cells in periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Tissue sections were submitted to toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemistry with antibody anti-tryptase (clone G3). Mast cells were quantitated using Image-Pro Plus software to obtain the mean number of mast cells in three regions: epithelial, superficial portion of the fibrous wall and deep portion of the fibrous wall from 20 periapical cysts, 20 dentigerous cysts (six non-inflamed and 14 inflamed) and 20 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (four non-inflamed and 16 inflamed). The mean number of mast cells detected per lesion by immunohistochemistry (4.1) was higher than by histochemistry (1.5) (P<0.0001). Inflamed dentigerous cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors showed a higher mean number of mast cells than non-inflamed lesions in all regions. The deep region from all cysts showed the highest mean number of degranulated mast cells, except for non-inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumors analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining detected higher number of mast cells than histochemistry. The higher number of mast cells observed in inflamed lesions could indicate the participation of these cells in the inflammatory response in odontogenic lesions. The prevalence of degranulated mast cells in the deep region suggests intense activity of these cells, possibly related to growth of cystic lesions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
The linear depressions in this VIS image are graben. Graben are formed from tectonic activity with large blocks of material moving downward between paired faults. The crater in the bottom half of the image is oval rather than round, which could have been due to impacting into this region of tectonic deformation. Orbit Number: 66271 Latitude: -29.9918 Longitude: 211.199 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-11-21 15:19 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21287
This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a portion of one of the larger depressions on the NW edge of the Elysium volcanic complex. Portions of this large channel system appear to have been created by liquid flow, while other portions appear to have tectonic action as the formation process. Orbit Number: 61770 Latitude: 28.4502 Longitude: 138.828 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-11-16 21:51 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20236
The grabens fractures that dominate this scene from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft are located northwest of a large shield volcano called Elysium Mons. Layered rock is evident along the lips of the graben as are ripples on the floors of these features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04001
This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows several linear depressions that cross an unnamed crater. The depressions are tectonic fractures that are hundreds of km long. Orbit Number: 58617 Latitude: -29.6672 Longitude: 211.652 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-03-02 05:34 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19440
The linear depression in the center of this image captured by NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft is a graben - a fault bounded block of material. The graben crosses the crater and ejecta in the middle of the image.
The linear depressions in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft are called graben. Graben are bounded on both sides by faults, and the central material has shifted downward between the faults.
The channel shown here is part of a large system of depressions located on the eastern side of the Elysium Mons volcanic complex. The depression in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is located just south of Albor Tholus.
Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Segovia-Gamboa, Norma; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo
Cysts of Naegleria fowleri present an external single-layered cyst wall. To date, little information exists on the biochemical components of this cyst wall. Knowledge of the cyst wall composition is important to understand its resistance capacity under adverse environmental conditions. We have used of a monoclonal antibody (B4F2 mAb) that specifically recognizes enolase in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens. By Western blot assays this antibody recognized in soluble extracts of N. fowleri cysts a 48-kDa protein with similar molecular weight to the enolase reported in E. invadens cysts. Immunofluorescence with the B4F2 mAb revealed positive cytoplasmic vesicles in encysting amebas, as well as a positive reaction at the cell wall of mature cysts. Immunoelectron microscopy using the same monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of enolase in the cell wall of N. fowleri cysts and in cytoplasmic vesicular structures. In addition, the B4F2 mAb had a clear inhibitory effect on encystation of N. fowleri. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.
Frydenlund, A; Eramian, M; Daley, T
Odontogenic cysts originate from remnants of the tooth forming epithelium in the jaws and gingiva. There are various kinds of such cysts with different biological behaviours that carry different patient risks and require different treatment plans. Types of odontogenic cysts can be distinguished by the properties of their epithelial layers in H&E stained samples. Herein we detail a set of image features for automatically distinguishing between four types of odontogenic cyst in digital micrographs and evaluate their effectiveness using two statistical classifiers - a support vector machine (SVM) and bagging with logistic regression as the base learner (BLR). Cyst type was correctly predicted from among four classes of odontogenic cysts between 83.8% and 92.3% of the time with an SVM and between 90 ± 0.92% and 95.4 ± 1.94% with a BLR. One particular cyst type was associated with the majority of misclassifications. Omission of this cyst type from the data set improved the classification rate for the remaining three cyst types to 96.2% for both SVM and BLR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abderrahmen, Khansa; Bouhoula, Asma; Aouidj, Lasaad; Jemel, Hafedh
Intracranial dermoid cysts are benign, slow growing tumors derived from ectopic inclusions of epithelial cells during closure of neural tube. These lesions, accounting for less than 1% of intracranial tumors, have characteristic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances that generally permits preoperative diagnosis. However, the radiologic features are uncommon and the cyst can be easily misdiagnosed with other tumors in rare cases. Herein, we report a case of a left temporoparietal dermoid cyst in a 48-year-old woman that was peroperatively and histopathologically proven but not advocated on CT and MRI. Clinical, radiological and histopathological features of a dermoid cyst are reviewed.
Puralingegowda, Anil Kumar; Mohanty, Pankaj Kumar; Razak, Abdul; Nagesh N, Karthik; Chandrayya, Ramachandra
A 3-week-old neonate developed abdominal distension and vomiting which subsided after conservative management. However, there was a recurrence of symptoms for which a lower gastrointestinal tract contrast study was performed. The infant had a filling defect in the area of the transverse colon. A CT scan was performed, showing a duplication cyst arising from the small bowel and indenting the transverse colon. Resection of the duplication cyst and end-to-end anastomosis of the bowel was performed. The duplication cyst was of tubular type, and a sealed perforation was noted in the cyst wall. PMID:25006055
Tal, H; Altini, M; Lemmer, J
While mucoceles of the oral mucosa are relatively common, multiple mucous retention cysts have not previously been reported. In this article two such cases, in which numerous minor salivary gland ducts had dilated to the point of cyst formation, are described. The number of individual cysts exceeded 100 in each case. Since it is clear that these cysts formed as a result of dilatation of salivary ducts, it would seem that either the ducts were blocked by altered secretion or there was an acquired or congenital weakness in their structure.
Grundmann, E W
Present day knowledge in laryngology maintains that the free edge of the true cord mucosa is devoid of glands so that retention cysts should not occur in this tissue. When such cysts do occur, it is difficult to define their pathogenesis. Reference is made to the author's earlier study which found a regular occurrence of mucous glands in the squamous epithelial region of the vocal cords. A retention cyst in the true cord is described histologically in the present report. The glands responsible for these cysts are believed to function by moistening the mucous membrane of the vocal cords.
Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Boechat, Karol Pereira Ruela; dos Santos, Georgia Mouzinho Lima; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas
ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of treatment with CO2 laser for Bartholin gland cysts. Methods Thirty-one women with Bartholin gland cysts were treated with CO2 laser at an outpatient´s setting. Skin incision was performed with focused laser beam, the capsule was opened to drain mucoid content, followed by internal vaporization of impaired capsule. Results There were no complications. Five patients had recurrence of the cyst and were submitted to a second and successful session. Conclusion CO2 laser surgery was effective to treat Bartholin gland cysts with minimal or no complications, and can be performed at an outpatient´s setting. PMID:27074230
Clausen, Lykke K. B.; Andersen, Kasper N.; Hygum, Thomas L.; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja
Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans that withstand environmental extremes by entering dormant states, such as cryptobiosis (latent life). In addition, they may also form cysts. Here, we present the first report of cyst formation in a marine heterotardigrade, i.e., Echiniscoides sigismundi, which constitutes a cryptic species complex present worldwide in tidal zones. The cysts were initially discovered during experimental series constructed to investigate osmotic stress tolerance. The animals, which eventually formed cysts, showed signs of an imminent molt at the beginning of experimentation. We use the term "cyst" for stages, where a total of three or more cuticles have been synthesized. Our observations show that encystment in E. sigismundi involves synthesizing of at least two new cuticle layers. Legs with discharged claws are present in connection with the first outer cuticle, as well as the second cuticular layer. In the most developed cyst, a third cuticle lacking claws seems to surround the animal, which is delineated by a fourth cuticle. Many features are shared with the well-studied cysts of eutardigrades. The cysts of E. sigismundi, however, lack pigmentation and have an extra set of claws, and the animal inside retains buccopharyngeal sclerified parts, until discharging the third cuticle. The finding of cysts in a marine heterotardigrade is novel and confirms that encystment also occurs within this major evolutionary lineage.
Rațiu, Cristian; Ilea, Aranka; Gal, Florin A; Ruxanda, Flavia; Boşca, Bianca A; Miclăuș, Viorel
The article aims to highlight the challenge of establishing the presumptive aetiological diagnosis when unilocular or multilocular radiolucencies are identified in an elderly patient's jawbones. A mandibular cyst-like lesion was identified in a 73-year-old patient. The therapeutic decision was cyst enucleation and grafting of the bone defect. The initial presumptive diagnosis was invalidated by the histopathological examination that revealed the features characteristic for the aneurysmal bone cyst. Aneurysmal bone cyst in an elderly patient is a rare condition. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gedam, Jaya; Bhalerao, Minal; Nadar, Ponambalaganpathi A
Cystic abdominal lesions are extremely common in adolescent girls and are now diagnosed more frequently due to the availability of better imaging modalities. Presentations as huge cysts have become rare as most of them are diagnosed and treated early. Adolescent girls presenting with huge benign abdominal cysts is not uncommon, most of them due to serious cystadenomas of the ovary, but large follicular cysts are rare. We present a 13-year-old girl who presented with a large abdominal mass which was subsequently diagnosed as juvenile follicular cyst of the ovary. PMID:25177606
Heyes, Richard; Lott, David G
Objective Laryngeal cysts may occur at any mucosa-lined location within the larynx and account for 5% to 10% of nonmalignant laryngeal lesions. A number of proposed classifications for laryngeal cysts exist; however, no previously published classification aims to guide management. This review analyzes contemporary laryngeal cyst management and proposes a framework for the terminology and management of cystic lesions in the larynx. Data Sources PubMed/Medline. Review Methods A primary literature search of the entire Medline database was performed for all titles of publications pertaining to laryngeal cysts and reviewed for relevance. Full manuscripts were reviewed per the relevance of their titles and abstracts, and selection into this review was according to their clinical and scientific relevance. Conclusion Laryngeal cysts have been associated with rapid-onset epiglottitis, dyspnea, stridor, and death; therefore, they should not be considered of little significance. Symptoms are varied and nonspecific. Laryngoscopy is the primary initial diagnostic tool. Cross-sectional imaging may be required, and future use of endolaryngeal ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may revolutionize practice. Where possible, cysts should be completely excised, and there is growing evidence that a transoral approach is superior to transcervical excision for nearly all cysts. Histology provides definitive diagnosis, and oncocytic cysts require close follow-up. Implications for Practice A new classification system is proposed that increases clarity in terminology, with the aim of better preparing surgeons and authors for future advances in the understanding and management of laryngeal cysts.
Eymann, R; Kiefer, M
Headache is the most common symptom of colloid cysts, Rathke cysts, and craniopharyngioma due to their location in the midline, being extra-axial and typically presenting in the parasellar region. Although these tumors are generally considered benign, each has its typical characteristics defined by its location and histology. These individual characteristics define whether surgery is necessary at all and if so, the preferred surgical approach and resection's totality. The histopathological findings primarily indicate that embryonic malformations-at the first glance, ectodermal in nature-cause these tumors. Due to the fact that these disturbances occur at the boundary between ectodermal stomodeum and endodermal cephalogaster, however, does leave some doubts.
Sysolyatin, P G; Sysolyatin, S P; Baydik, O D
The aim of the study was the assessment of effectiveness of endoscopic techniques in the treatment of extensive odontogenic cysts. Endosurgery for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes was used in 67 patients with odontogenic cysts of the jaws: 23 follicular cysts, 19 radicular cysts, 6 residual cysts, and 19 keratokists. The results prove that the developed methods of endovideosurgery of odontogenic cysts have low invasiveness, provide an optimal healing of bone tissue and reduce postoperative complications.
Correa, Gustavo Gumz; Amaral, Lázaro Faria; Vedolin, Leonardo Modesti
Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common human cerebellar malformation, characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle, and an enlarged posterior fossa with upward displacement of the lateral sinuses, tentorium, and torcular. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, there are several genetic loci related to DWM as well as syndromic malformations and congenital infections. Dandy-Walker malformation is associated with other central nervous system abnormalities, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, ectopic brain tissue, holoprosencephaly, and neural tube defects. Hydrocephalus plays an important role in the development of symptoms and neurological outcome in patients with DWM, and the aim of surgical treatment is usually the control of hydrocephalus and the posterior fossa cyst. Imaging modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for the diagnosis of DWM and distinguishing this disorder from other cystic posterior fossa lesions. Persistent Blake's cyst is seen as a retrocerebellar fluid collection with cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity and a median line communication with the fourth ventricle, commonly associated with hydrocephalus. Mega cisterna magna presents as an extraaxial fluid collection posteroinferior to an intact cerebellum. Retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts frequently compress the cerebellar hemispheres and the fourth ventricle. Patients with DWM show an enlarged posterior fossa filled with a cystic structure that communicates freely with the fourth ventricle and hypoplastic vermis. Comprehension of hindbrain embryology is of utmost importance for understanding the cerebellar malformations, including DWM, and other related entities.
Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Verstraete, Frank J M; Zin, Bliss P; Kass, Philip H; Cox, Darren P; Jordan, Richard C
To characterize clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts and determine whether histologic findings were associated with clinical features. Retrospective case series. 41 dogs. Medical records were reviewed to obtain clinical data, including breed, age, sex, and lesion location. Microscopic sections and results of diagnostic imaging were reviewed. Odontogenic cysts were identified in 41 dogs between 1995 and 2010. There were 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 1 with a radicular cyst, 1 with a lateral periodontal cyst, and 1 with a gingival inclusion cyst. In addition, 9 dogs with odontogenic cysts that had clinical and histologic features suggestive of, but not diagnostic for, odontogenic keratocysts seen in people were identified. In all 9 dogs, these cysts were located in the maxilla and surrounded the roots of normally erupted teeth. Of the 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 23 had a single cyst, 5 had 2 cysts, and 1 had 3 cysts. Six cysts were associated with an unerupted canine tooth, and 30 were associated with an unerupted first premolar tooth (1 cyst was associated both with an unerupted canine tooth and with an unerupted first premolar tooth). Dentigerous cysts were identified in a variety of breeds, but several brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population during the study period. Results suggested that a variety of odontogenic cysts can occur in dogs. In addition, cysts that resembled odontogenic keratocysts reported in people were identified. We propose the term canine odontogenic parakeratinized cyst for this condition.
Wharton, D A; Worland, M R
The loss during desiccation of osmotically active water (OAW), which freezes during cooling to -45 degrees C, and osmotically inactive water (OIW), which remains unfrozen, from the cysts of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Exotherms and endotherms associated with non-egg compartments were not detected after 5 min desiccation at 50% relative humidity and 20 degrees C. The pattern of water loss from the cysts indicates that water is lost from compartments outside the eggs first, that nearly all the non-egg water is OAW and that the OIW content of the cyst is contained within the eggs. Water is lost from the eggs only after the OAW content outside the eggs falls below that within the eggs. Both OAW and OIW are lost from the eggs during desiccation but the eggs retain a small amount of OIW. Other animals which survive some desiccation but which are not anhydrobiotic will tolerate the loss of OAW but not the loss of their OIW. Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both their OAW and a substantial proportion of their OIW.