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Sample records for fossa involving maxillary

  1. Delayed removal of a maxillary third molar from the infratemporal fossa.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Gregoire-Ferriol, Johanna; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Removal of an impacted superior third molar is usually a simple and uncomplicated procedure for an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon. Nevertheless, complications are possible and include infection, facial swallowing, trismus, wound dehiscence, root fracture or even orosinusal fistula. Iatrogenic displacement into the infratemporal fossa is frequently mentioned but rarely reported. This anatomical fossa includes several important structures such as the internal maxillary artery, the venous pterygoid plexus, the sphenopalatine nerve, the coronoid process of the mandible and the pterygoid muscles. Recommended treatment includes immediate surgical removal if possible or initial observation and secondary removal, as necessary, because of infection, limited mandibular movement, inability to extract the tooth, or the patient's psychological unease. Sometimes, the displaced tooth may spontaneously migrate inferiorly and becomes accessible intraorally. This report describes the location and secondary surgical removal of a left maxillary third molar displaced into the infratemporal fossa, two weeks after first attempt at extraction.

  2. Displacement of a maxillary third molar into the infratemporal fossa: case report.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulos, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The case of a maxillary third molar displaced into the infratemporal fossa, with difficulty in localization due to the synchronous creation of oroantral communication, is described in this article. The patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department and underwent successful surgical treatment through an intraoral access. The causes of tooth displacement into the infratemporal fossa, the aid of a computerized tomography (CT) scan in tooth localization, and the difficulty in treating this complication, particularly when the tooth migrates toward the base of the skull, are emphasized. Prevention of maxillary third molar displacement into the infratemporal fossa predominates over removal and is achieved by adequate flap design, correct extraction technique, and a distal retractor during surgical extraction. In the case of displacement, no effort to retrieve the tooth is recommended because of the risk of hemorrhage, neurologic injury, and further displacement of the tooth. The patient should be treated with antibiotics and referred to an oral and maxillofacial department.

  3. An Inflammatory Pseudotumor Arising from Pterygopalatine Fossa with Invasion to the Maxillary Sinus and Orbital Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Hidenori; Yazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Yuma; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Masachika; Ohkura, Yasuo; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient who had an inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) that invaded to the maxillary sinus and orbital cavity, with the left pterygopalatine fossa as the principal site; this is a very rare case. The patient was an 83-year-old woman who suddenly became aware of impairment in the eyesight and visual field of the left eye. CT images showed a neoplastic lesion that invaded to the maxillary sinus and orbital cavity, with the left pterygopalatine fossa as the principal site, and also showed contrast effects. To obtain a definitive diagnosis from histopathological analysis, the lesion was biopsied, and she was diagnosed as the inflammatory pseudotumor with the immunohistochemical study and multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based clonality assays. The patient had a lymphoid-predominant lesion that responded to radiotherapy but corticosteroids were not effective. It is important to scrutinize the pathology to avoid unnecessary and mutilating surgery. PMID:26167321

  4. Clinical morphology of the mesial fossa of the maxillary first permanent molar in relation to operative dentistry.

    PubMed

    al-Sehaibany, F; White, G; Rainey, J T

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to identify a previously unreported occlusal enamel ridges in the mesial fossa of the maxillary first permanent molars by using caries detector dye. Seventy two maxillary right and left first permanent molars of thirty-six patients were examined in this study. Horizontal linear measurements in millimeters, location, and shape of the occlusal ridge in the mesial fossa were examined clinically and were compared to the transverse ridge in a percentage form. Five occlusal enamel ridges with different locations, and pathways were detected in addition to the transverse ridge, two major ridges (> 33.33% of the transverse ridge) and three minor ridges (< 33.33%) of the transverse ridge). There were symmetrical patterns of the ridges between right and left maxillary first permanent molars (80.5%).

  5. Anatomy of greater palatine foramen and canal and pterygopalatine fossa in Thais: considerations for maxillary nerve block.

    PubMed

    Methathrathip, D; Apinhasmit, W; Chompoopong, S; Lertsirithong, A; Ariyawatkul, T; Sangvichien, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the anatomy of the greater palatine foramen (GPF), greater palatine canal (GPC) and pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) with special reference to the blockage of the maxillary nerve. A correlation between the length of GPC and PPF and the heights of the orbit and the maxilla was also studied using simple linear regression analysis. The morphology of the GPF, GPC and PPF as well as heights of the orbit and the maxilla were assessed in 105 Thai skulls. The thickness of the mucosa over the GPF was also measured from the dissection of 55 cadavers. The results showed that most GPF appeared as an oval foramen located at the palatal aspect of the upper third molar. The GPF was 16.2+/-1.3 mm lateral to the median sagittal plane of the hard palate, 2.1+/-1.3 mm anterior to the posterior border of the hard palate and 5.1+/-1.3 mm from the greatest concavity of the distolateral margin of the hard palate. The mean length of GPC and PPF was 29.7+/-4.2 mm. The mean angles of the GPC in relation to the hard palate and the vertical plane were 57.9+/-5.8 degrees and 6.7+/-5.2 degrees , respectively. In attempting to insert a needle to reach the foramen rotundum through the GPF, 31.7% passed into the orbit while 8.7% passed into the brain. The mean thickness of the mucosa over GPF was 6.7+/-2.3 mm. Two models for estimating the depth of needle injection in maxillary nerve block have been developed as follows: Length of GPC and PPF=19.038+0.314 (orbital height) and length of GPC and PPF=21.204+0.187 (maxillary height). The calculated length combined with the mucosal thickness was the estimated depth of needle injection. In conclusion, our results concerning the GPF, GPC and PPF will provide the useful reference for clinicians to anesthetize the maxillary nerve with a greater degree of success.

  6. Chondroblastoma of the temporal bone: consistent middle fossa involvement.

    PubMed

    Selesnick, S H; Levine, J M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the presentation and clinical course of two patients with temporal bone chondroblastoma, and to review the literature on temporal bone chondroblastoma to identify characteristic clinical and radiological presentations, and optimal treatment regimens. MEDLINE literature searches covering the period from 1966 to January 1998, in all languages, were performed as well as a review of the bibliographies of the identified studies. Strict inclusion criteria were upheld, In total 18 studies had patients whose data could be analyzed. From the 18 studies, 34 patients were identified, but only 21 cases met the inclusion criteria. Demographic, clinical presentation, radiological, operative and treatment parameters were analyzed in this cohort of patients. Ninety-five percent of patients were found to have invasion of the middle cranial fossa and 76% were found to have erosion into the superior aspect of the external auditory canal by temporal bone chondroblastoma. The characteristic growth pattern of temporal bone chondroblastoma may result from embryonal or cartilagenous rests entrapped in the tympanosquamous suture line in the middle fossa floor. Temporal bone chondroblastoma represents a pathology that does not arise from, or have a growth pattern resembling other pathologies in the temporal bone.

  7. Amyloidoma Involving the Orbit, Meckel's Cave and Infratemporal Fossa: 3T MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Menetti, F; Bartolomei, I; Ambrosini-Spaltro, A; Salvi, F; Agati, R; Leonardi, M

    2009-03-23

    Amyloidoma is a rare lesion characterized by tissue deposition of an abnormal fibrillary protein (amyloid). It is the focal and localized counterpart of systemic amyloidosis, where the deposition of amyloid diffusely involves several organs. The few literature reports of intracranial amyloidomas include lesions involving the pituitary gland, orbit, cerebral hemispheres, temporal bone, cerebellopontine angle and jugular foramen. We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman presenting with painless slowly progressive proptosis of the right eye. The patient underwent a contrast-enhanced CT study of the head, followed by 3T MRI which disclosed a homogeneous mass in the right Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus, extending through an enlarged foramen ovale to the infratemporal fossa. The right optic nerve and ocular muscles were enlarged and infiltrated along with the retrobulbar fat by contrast-enhancing tissue. Thin contrast-enhanced MRI scans through the area of interest showed the mass to extend posterior to the gasserian ganglion, involving the cerebellopontine angle cistern, where the intracisternal parts of the III, V, and VI nerves bilaterally appeared enlarged and showed perineural enhancement. The lesion closely mimicked a malignant tumor with perineural tumor infiltration, so we performed fine needle biopsy of the portion of the lesion near the right foramen ovale under fluoroscopic guidance. Histopathology revealed that the lesion was an amyloidoma. Further clinical and blood examinations, serum chemistry, followed by biopsy of the periumbilical fat showed no signs of systemic amyloidosis or an underlying inflammatory or neoplastic disorder. No further treatment was instituted, follow-up MRI six months later showed no enlargement of the mass.

  8. A Rare Case of Twinning Involving Primary Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Anila; Manvikar, Vardendra; Vanishree, M; Amrutha, Rudraraju

    2017-01-01

    Twinning is referred to the development of two separate teeth that arose from the complete separation of one tooth bud. To the best of our knowledge very few cases of twinning in primary or permanent dentition have been previously reported. Here, we report an additional case of twinning involving primary maxillary left lateral incisor and a literature review of clinical and radiographic findings of previous reported cases of gemination and twinning is also discussed. A six-year-old male patient reported to the dental clinic with the complaint of decay in the left front teeth region of the upper jaw. On clinical examination, dentinal caries was observed on the labial surface of primary maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed a deep groove present in relation to the labial surface and incisal edge and continued cervically as a shallow groove. The patient had normal compliment of teeth for his age. The intra-oral periapical radiograph of the maxillary anterior region revealed large crown and a radiolucent notch was observed in relation to the incisal edge of the maxillary left primary lateral incisor. Relatively one pulp chamber and two root canals were observed in relation to the primary maxillary left lateral incisor, which was suggestive of a case of twinning involving primary maxillary left lateral incisor. This present case is the first case report of twining seen in primary dentition. PMID:28384987

  9. Ceraunius Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-06

    The large graben in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is part of a series of graben located on the southern flank of Alba Mons. This collection of graben is called Ceraunius Fossae. The term fossae means long, linear depressions.

  10. Endoscopic transsphenoidal anterior petrosal approach for locally aggressive tumors involving the internal auditory canal, jugular fossa, and cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Masahiro; Kondo, Kenji; Hanakita, Shunya; Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Yoshino, Masanori; Teranishi, Yu; Kin, Taichi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Reports about endoscopic endonasal surgery for skull base tumors involving the lateral part of petrous apex remain scarce. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic transsphenoidal anterior petrosal (ETAP) approach through the retrocarotid space for tumors involving the internal auditory canal, jugular fossa, and cavernous sinus. METHODS The authors performed the ETAP approach in 10 patients with 11 tumors (bilateral in 1 patient) that extensively occupied the lateral part of petrous apex, e.g., the internal auditory canal and jugular fossa. Eight patients presented with diplopia (unilateral abducens nerve palsy), 3 with tinnitus, and 1 with unilateral hearing loss with facial palsy. After wide anterior sphenoidotomy, the sellar floor, clival recess, and carotid prominence were verified. Tumors were approached via an anteromedial petrosectomy through the retrocarotid triangular space, defined by the cavernous and vertical segments of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the clivus, and the petrooccipital fissure. The surgical window was easily enlarged by drilling the petrous bone along the petrooccipital fissure. After exposure of the tumor and ICA, dissection and resection of the tumor were mainly performed under direct visualization with 30° and 70° endoscopes. RESULTS Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 patients (9 tumors). In a patient with invasive meningioma, the tumor was strongly adherent to the ICA, necessitating partial resection. Postoperatively, all 8 patients who had presented with abducens nerve palsy preoperatively showed improvement within 6 months. In the patient presenting with hearing loss and facial palsy, the facial palsy completely resolved within 3 months, but hearing loss remained. Regarding complications, 3 patients showed mild and transient abducens nerve palsy resolving within 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Postoperative CSF rhinorrhea requiring surgical repair was observed in 1 patient. No patient

  11. Mangala Fossa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-13

    The channel feature in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is called Mangala Fossa. This feature was formed by tectonic activity, with the walls being faults that allowed the central portion to slide downward forming a graben.

  12. Oti Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-06

    This image taken by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey shows lava flows and tectonic features related to the Arsia Mons volcanic system. The tectonic graben downdropped blocks bounded by faults are called Oti Fossae.

  13. Cerberus Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-24

    The fractures in this image are part of a large system of fractures called Cerberus Fossae. Athabasca Valles is visible in the lower right corner of the image as seen by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  14. Sacra Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-17

    The steep sided depressions in this image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft are fault bounded tectonic features called graben. These depressions are part of a large region of graben called Sacra Fossae. Sacra Fossae is located on the western margin of Lunae Planum. Orbit Number: 60829 Latitude: 18.2961 Longitude: 287.711 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-08-31 10:01 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20094

  15. Involvement of the maxillary sinus in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: Radiologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Wasserzug, Oshri; Kaffe, Israel; Lazarovici, Towy Sorel; Weissman, Tal; Yahalom, Ran; Fliss, Dan M; Yarom, Noam

    2017-01-01

    The use of bisphosphonates is very common among patients with osteoporosis and multiple myeloma as well as those with bone metastases from various malignancies. The benefits of bisphosphonates are well recognized, but it became evident during the past decade that these medications portend the major adverse effect of osteonecrosis of the jaw, known as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Our aim was to evaluate the specific manifestations of bisphosphonate use on the maxillary sinus in patients with documented bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. A retrospective review of all the patients diagnosed between October 2003 to August 2014 as having bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in a large university-affiliated tertiary care medical center. The records of 173 patients diagnosed as having bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw during the study period were retrieved. The available head and neck computed tomographic images were analyzed for cases of involvement of the maxilla. Manifestations of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw as observed on physical examination and on imaging studies. Seventy-one patients (41%) had involvement of the maxilla, 86 patients (49%) had involvement of the mandible, and 16 patients (9%) had involvement of both the maxilla and the mandible. Computerized tomography studies were available for 50 patients with involvement of the maxilla: 36 (72%) had evidence of maxillary sinus opacification (in comparison, the incidence of maxillary sinus opacification as an incidental finding in the general population is reported to be 19%, p < 0.0001). Sixteen patients (32%) had evidence of oroantral fistula, and five patients (10%) had oronasal fistula. In addition to its well-established effects on the mandible and maxilla, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw significantly affected the maxillary sinus. Its radiologic manifestations should be recognized by clinicians and especially by

  16. Displacement of maxillary third molar into the lateral pharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doksa; Ishii, Syoichiro; Yakushiji, Noboru

    2013-10-01

    Iatrogenic tooth displacement is a rare complication during extraction of impacted molars, but displacement of a maxillary third molar into the maxillary sinus, infratemporal fossa, buccal space, pterygomandibular space, and lateral pharyngeal space has been reported. Currently, 6 published reports describe third molar displacement into the lateral pharyngeal space, only 1 of which involved the loss of a maxillary third molar into this area, which occurred after an attempted self-extraction by the patient. There have been no reported cases of iatrogenic displacement of the maxillary third molar during an extraction procedure. This article describes the recovery, under general anesthesia, of a maxillary third molar from the lateral pharyngeal space after an iatrogenic displacement.

  17. Analysis of the condyle/fossa relationship before and after prosthetic rehabilitation with maxillary complete denture and mandibular removable partial denture.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Vânia Cristina Pintaudi; Laganá, Dalva Cruz; de Paula Eduardo, José Virgilio; Zanetti, Artemio Luiz

    2003-05-01

    The influence of the loss of posterior teeth on the condylar position and on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) remains a controversial issue. This study investigated whether prosthetic rehabilitation promoted modification of the condylar position in subjects without symptoms of TMDs. The temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 12 women (age 37 to 74), all with existing maxillary complete dentures but no removable partial denture (RPD) restoring the Kennedy class I partially edentulous mandibular arch and no clinical signs of TMDs according to the criteria established by Helkimo, were viewed in maximal intercuspal position with corrected lateral tomography before and after prosthetic rehabilitation with a new maxillary complete denture and a mandibular RPD. Before prosthetic rehabilitation, a mandibular stabilizing base was fabricated to prevent the existing maxillary complete denture from dislodging during tomographic examination. Two methods were used to evaluate tomograms: (1) linear measurements of the subjective narrowest anterior and posterior intra-articular joint spaces made from the tomograms by use of a digital caliper and (2) linear measurements of the anterior and posterior intra-articular joint spaces on the basis of drawings and tracings. Repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate differences between measurements carried out on the same subject under the different test conditions of the study (before prosthetic rehabilitation, before prosthetic rehabilitation with a mandibular stabilizing base in position, and after prosthetic rehabilitation) (P<.05). Before prosthetic rehabilitation, a predominance of posterior condylar positions was observed. Before prosthetic rehabilitation with a mandibular stabilizing base in position, a significant decrease was observed in posterior condylar positions (P=.03). This decrease was more marked after prosthetic rehabilitation (P=.02). The subjective evaluation and

  18. Nili Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-31

    The linear depression in today's VIS image is part of Nili Fossae. Orbit Number: 60318 Latitude: 24.7944 Longitude: 80.7404 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-07-20 08:53 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19763

  19. Mangala Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-22

    The linear wall at the bottom of this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is a fault. The linear depression caused by faulting is part of a long depression called Mangala Fossae. Orbit Number: 58979 Latitude: -17.9823 Longitude: 210.806 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-04-01 00:54 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19468

  20. Hephaestus Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-02

    The intersecting linear depressions in this VIS image are part of Hephaestus Fossae. Orbit Number: 60373 Latitude: 21.9161 Longitude: 122.075 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-07-24 20:50 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19765

  1. Ismenia Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-03

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey shows a region of Mars northern hemisphere called Ismenia Fossae. Most of the landforms are the degraded remains of impact crater rim and ejecta from an unnamed crater 75 km diameter just north of this scene.

  2. Labeatis Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-10

    The channel-like features in this image captured by NASA Mars Odyssey are fault bounded down-dropped blocks of material. These tectonic features are called Labaetis Fossae and are located on the eastern margin of the Tharsis Volcanic complex.

  3. Elysium Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-15

    Located east of Elysium Mons, Elysium Fossae is a large tectonic graben. This image from NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows that lava may have flowed in the channel feature. Orbit Number: 61470 Latitude: 23.569 Longitude: 154.765 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-10-23 04:54 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20115

  4. Icaria Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    The channel-like features in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft are tectonic graben. The graben called Icaria Fossae are located in Terra Sirenum. Orbit Number: 65846 Latitude: -41.5696 Longitude: 240.567 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-10-17 14:57 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21185

  5. Medusae Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-05

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey shows a sample of the middle member of the Medusae Fossae formation. The layers exposed in the southeast-facing scarp suggest that there is a fairly competent unit underlying the mesa in the center of the image.

  6. Ceraunius Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-07

    The north-south trending fractures and graben block down-dropped between two fractures in this region are called Ceraunius Fossae and are likely related to Alba Mons to the north shown in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  7. Tantalus Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-27

    Tantalus Fossae, seen in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft, is a set of long valleys on the eastern side of Alba Patera. These valleys are referred to as grabens and are formed by extension of the crust and faulting.

  8. Removal of Infected Maxillary Third Molar from the Infra-temporal Fossa by Caldwell Luc Procedure - Rare Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ram Kumar; Saxena, Anurag; Khanna, Ruchika; Ali, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous or follicular cysts of odontogenic origin are innocuous benign cysts that are often linked with the crowns of permanent teeth. A dentigerous cyst circumventing permanent teeth fails to erupt and is often displaced into ectopic positions in the upper and lower jaw in the maxillofacial region. In the maxilla or upper jaw region, the impacted teeth are often displaced and/or shift into the maxillary sinus and apart from the nasal septum, mandibular condyle, coronoid process and the palate, to harbour such ectopic eruptions of teeth. We report a rare case of an impacted left third molar of maxilla, associated with dentigerous cyst. The impacted tooth was embedded in the anterosuperior part of the infratemporal space. The cyst along with the tooth was removed using a modified Caldwell Luc incision. PMID:28209010

  9. Radio-anatomical Study of the Greater Palatine Canal and the Pterygopalatine Fossa in a Lebanese Population: A Consideration for Maxillary Nerve Block

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim; Sokhn, Sayde

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the component, greater palatine canal-pterygopalatine fossa (GPC-PPF), in a Lebanese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 79 Lebanese adult patients (38 females and 41 males) were included in this study, and a total of 158 cases were evaluated bilaterally. The length and path of the GPCs-PPFs were determined, and the data obtained analyzed statistically. Results: In the sagittal plane, of all the GPCs-PPFs assessed, the average length was 35.02 mm on the right and 35.01 mm on the left. The most common anatomic path consisted in the presence of a curvature resulting in an internal narrowing whose average diameter was 2.4 mm on the right and 2.45 mm on the left. The mean diameter of the upper opening was 5.85 mm on the right and 5.82 mm on the left. As for the lower opening corresponding to the greater palatine foramen, the right and left average diameters were 6.39 mm and 6.42 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that throughout the Lebanese population, the GPC-PPF path is variable with a predominance of curved one (77.21% [122/158] in both the right and left sides); however, the GPC-PPF length does not significantly vary according to gender and side. PMID:27833777

  10. Treatment of cariously involved fused maxillary primary lateral and central incisors.

    PubMed

    ElBadrawy, H E; Diab, M

    2001-01-01

    A 3-and-a-half-year-old male child presented with fused cariously involved right maxillary primary central and lateral incisors as well as a previously traumatized non-vital left primary central incisor with a draining fistula. The child also had other restorative needs and the decision taken was to address all needs under a G.A. With respect to the fused incisors, these were split and root canals treatment was performed for all three incisors which were then restored with stainless steel crowns with esthetic facings.

  11. Nili Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-20

    Nili Fossae is a large band of parallel graben located to the northeast of Syrtis Major. The graben in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft were formed by tectonic activity, with faulting that creates the linear depression. Orbit Number: 64105 Latitude: 23.3115 Longitude: 78.6126 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-05-27 05:24 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20785

  12. Labeatis Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-13

    This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows one of the many graben that make up Labeatis Fossae. Graben are tectonic features created when two bounding faults have an central down dropped block of material. Orbit Number: 61740 Latitude: 29.7682 Longitude: 284.222 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-11-14 10:34 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20235

  13. Olympica Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-25

    This VIS image shows a portion of Olympica Fossae. In this image several lava channels are visible, and it appears that lava has flowed in the larger depressions. The streamlined feature in the central part of the image also indicates that volcanic processes were active in this region. Orbit Number: 61654 Latitude: 24.8964 Longitude: 246.128 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-11-07 08:34. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20222

  14. Claritas Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-05

    The linear depressions in this VIS image are some of the numerous graben that make up Claritas Fossae. Graben form when two faults cause a block of material to be dropped to a lower elevation. Orbit Number: 65197 Latitude: -35.7709 Longitude: 251.553 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-08-25 03:51 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21004

  15. Change of the airway space in mandibular prognathism after bimaxillary surgery involving maxillary posterior impaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Young; Park, Young-Wook; Kwon, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a two- and three-dimensional analysis of the airway using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to determine whether the airway space would be changed in mandibular prognathism after bimaxillary surgery involving maxillary posterior impaction. Patients requiring orthognathic surgery from 2012 to 2014 were recruited for this study. CBCT scans were obtained at three points: preoperatively (T0), immediate postoperatively (T1), and after 6 months postoperatively (T2). The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were measured on the CBCT scan for each patient in a repeatable manner. With the midsagittal plane, linear measurements in the middle of each were obtained. For the CBCT, volumetric measurements of each and total airway were obtained. A total of 22 consecutive patients (11 men and 11 women) were included in the present study. The total volume was significantly reduced (p < .001). However, the change of the diameter and volume of the nasopharynx was not statistically significant (p = .160, p = .137, respectively). In the oropharynx, the change of both the diameter and volume showed statistical significance between preoperatively and immediate postoperatively (p < .001, p = .001, respectively) and also preoperatively and after 6 months postoperatively (p = .001, p = .010, respectively). In the hypopharynx, the change of both the diameter and volume showed statistical significance between preoperatively and immediate postoperatively (p = .001, p < .001, respectively) and also preoperatively and after 6 months postoperatively (p = .001, p < .001, respectively). The bimaxillary surgery involving maxillary posterior impaction can reduce the volume of airway in the patients of mandibular prognathism. Although total airway volume was reduced significantly, the changes in the volume and diameter of the nasopharynx were not statistically significant. The maxillary

  16. [Fracture of the maxillary tuberosity in the hemophiliac patient].

    PubMed

    Duarte Ronces, M; Hernández Cazares, L; Gutiérrez Romero, M

    1990-11-01

    Fracture of the left maxillary tuberosity during surgical extraction of multiple teeth, involving the maxillary sinus and pterigomaxillary fossa in a male patient with classic hemophilia due to factor VIII deficiency, is reported. The subject was treated by a private dentist and afterwards admitted at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery unit of the "20 de Noviembre" Hospital, ISSSTE, where extraction was completed and the fracture detected at surgery. The patient was then referred to Hematology and substitute therapy of factor VIII for two weeks was prescribed but, eventually, persistent bleeding led to suturing the external carotid.

  17. Maxillary Ameloblastoma with Orbital Involvement: An Institutional Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Milman, Tatyana; Lee, Vivian; LiVolsi, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe 8 patients with orbital involvement by ameloblastoma and to review the literature on this topic. Methods The electronic medical records and pathology databases of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania were searched to identify all patients with histopathologically confirmed ameloblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2015. PubMed database was searched for all well-documented cases of maxillary ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma exameloblastoma with orbital involvement published in the English literature. The information collected on the compiled 23 patients included age, sex, clinical presentation, imaging findings, management, tumor histopathologic features, and follow up. Results Review of medical records identified 8 patients with orbital involvement by ameloblastoma. Literature search yielded 15 patients with well-documented orbital involvement by ameloblastoma. Most tumors occurred in men (19 of 23, M:F = 4–5:1) with an average age of 56 years. The overall rates of recurrence, visual compromise, death, and confirmed disease-related mortality were 70% (16/23), 26% (6/23), 39% (9/23), and 22% (5/23), respectively. The initial surgical approach correlated with prognosis. The rates of recurrence, orbital exenteration, and mortality in the cohort managed with conservative surgery or partial maxillectomy were 57% (8/14), 29% (4/14), and 50% (7/14), respectively. In contrast, the patients initially managed with a radical resection had substantially lower frequencies of tumor recurrence (2/7, 29%), exenteration (1/7, 14%), and death (1/7, 14%). Malignant transformation to ameloblastic carcinoma occurred in the setting of recurrent disease in 3 patients and in 1 patient with prolonged duration of symptoms, suggestive of a long-standing tumor. Conclusions Maxillary ameloblastoma can rarely involve the orbit, leading to significant ocular morbidity and occasional mortality. Prompt radical resection of the tumor has the potential to

  18. Maxillary Ameloblastoma with Orbital Involvement: An Institutional Experience and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Milman, Tatyana; Lee, Vivian; LiVolsi, Virginia

    To describe 8 patients with orbital involvement by ameloblastoma and to review the literature on this topic. The electronic medical records and pathology databases of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania were searched to identify all patients with histopathologically confirmed ameloblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2015. PubMed database was searched for all well-documented cases of maxillary ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma ex-ameloblastoma with orbital involvement published in the English literature. The information collected on the compiled 23 patients included age, sex, clinical presentation, imaging findings, management, tumor histopathologic features, and follow up. Review of medical records identified 8 patients with orbital involvement by ameloblastoma. Literature search yielded 15 patients with well-documented orbital involvement by ameloblastoma. Most tumors occurred in men (19 of 23, M:F = 4-5:1) with an average age of 56 years. The overall rates of recurrence, visual compromise, death, and confirmed disease-related mortality were 70% (16/23), 26% (6/23), 39% (9/23), and 22% (5/23), respectively. The initial surgical approach correlated with prognosis. The rates of recurrence, orbital exenteration, and mortality in the cohort managed with conservative surgery or partial maxillectomy were 57% (8/14), 29% (4/14), and 50% (7/14), respectively. In contrast, the patients initially managed with a radical resection had substantially lower frequencies of tumor recurrence (2/7, 29%), exenteration (1/7, 14%), and death (1/7, 14%). Malignant transformation to ameloblastic carcinoma occurred in the setting of recurrent disease in 3 patients and in 1 patient with prolonged duration of symptoms, suggestive of a long-standing tumor. Maxillary ameloblastoma can rarely involve the orbit, leading to significant ocular morbidity and occasional mortality. Prompt radical resection of the tumor has the potential to decrease the likelihood of recurrence and

  19. Medusae Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 31 July 2002) This image crosses the equator at about 155 W longitude and shows a sample of the middle member of the Medusae Fossae formation. The layers exposed in the southeast-facing scarp suggest that there is a fairly competent unit underlying the mesa in the center of the image. Dust-avalanches are apparent in the crater depression near the middle of the image. The mesa of Medusae Fossae material has the geomorphic signatures that are typical of the formation elsewhere on Mars, but the surface is probably heavily mantled with fine dust, masking the small-scale character of the unit. The close proximity of the Medusae Fossae unit to the Tharsis region may suggest that it is an ignimbrite or volcanic airfall deposit, but it's eroded character hasn't preserved the primary depositional features that would give away the secrets of formation. One of the most interesting feature in the image is the high-standing knob at the base of the scarp in the lower portion of the image. This knob or butte is high standing because it is composed of material that is not as easily eroded as the rest of the unit. There are a number of possible explanations for this feature, including volcano, inverted crater, or some localized process that caused once friable material to become cemented. Another interesting set of features are the long troughs on the slope in the lower portion of the image. The fact that the features keep the same width for the entire length suggests that these are not simple landslides.

  20. Claritas Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 20 June 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Claritas Fossae is very degraded. This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story Not every crater on Mars has a name. The one in this image doesn't. What would you name it if you could? That's what planetary scientists ask themselves when they come across such features. If they think of a good name, they can submit it for approval to a group of world astronomers who are members of the International Astronomical Union. There are special rules, though, so not any name can be selected. The selection committee especially wants to make sure that all world cultures are represented. While this crater may not have a name, the region it lies in does. It is called Claritas Fossae. 'Claritas' is the Latin word for 'bright.' 'Fossae' are long, narrow, shallow depressions that mark the region. You can see these best in the context image to the right. You can tell just by looking at this crater that it is very ancient. Its rim is very degraded from erosion and bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. Compare its roughened rim to the smoother outline of the small crater on the rim's edge (upper right). The smoother rim of the small one means that it is considerably younger than its older, choppier neighbor. You know it was certainly created after the large crater because it lies on top of the rim. Other than the old and young generations of craters, the surface looks pretty uniform in hue and perhaps even

  1. Claritas Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 20 June 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Claritas Fossae is very degraded. This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story Not every crater on Mars has a name. The one in this image doesn't. What would you name it if you could? That's what planetary scientists ask themselves when they come across such features. If they think of a good name, they can submit it for approval to a group of world astronomers who are members of the International Astronomical Union. There are special rules, though, so not any name can be selected. The selection committee especially wants to make sure that all world cultures are represented. While this crater may not have a name, the region it lies in does. It is called Claritas Fossae. 'Claritas' is the Latin word for 'bright.' 'Fossae' are long, narrow, shallow depressions that mark the region. You can see these best in the context image to the right. You can tell just by looking at this crater that it is very ancient. Its rim is very degraded from erosion and bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. Compare its roughened rim to the smoother outline of the small crater on the rim's edge (upper right). The smoother rim of the small one means that it is considerably younger than its older, choppier neighbor. You know it was certainly created after the large crater because it lies on top of the rim. Other than the old and young generations of craters, the surface looks pretty uniform in hue and perhaps even

  2. Mangala Fossa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 29 May 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS release captures Mangala Fossa. Mangala Fossa is a graben, which in geologic terminology translates into a long parallel to semi-parallel fracture or trough. Grabens are dropped or downthrown areas relative to the rocks on either side and these features are generally longer than they are wider. There are numerous dust devil trails seen in this image. In the lower portion of this image several dust devil tracks can be seen cutting across the upper surface then down the short stubby channel and finally back up and over to the adjacent upper surface. Some dust avalanche streaks on slopes are also visible. The rough material in the upper third of the image contains a portion of the rim of a 90 km diameter crater located in Daedalia Planum. The smooth crater floor has a graben (up to 7 km wide) and channel (2 km wide) incised into its surface. In the middle third and right of this image one can see ripples (possibly fossil dunes) on the crater floor material just above the graben. The floor of Mangala Fossa and the southern crater floor surface also have smaller linear ridges trending from the upper left to lower right. These linear ridges could be either erosional (yardangs) or depositional (dunes) landforms. The lower third of the scene contains a short stubby channel (near the right margin) and lava flow front (lower left). The floor of this channel is fairly smooth with some linear crevasses located along its course. One gets the impression that the channel floor is mantled with some type of indurated material that permits cracks to form in its surface. The Story In the Daedalia Plains on Mars, the rim of an old eroded crater rises up, a wreck of its former self (see context image at right). From the rough, choppy crater rim (top of the larger THEMIS image), the terrain descends to the almost smooth crater floor, gouged deeply by a trough, a channel, and the occasional dents of small, scattered craters. The deep

  3. Mangala Fossa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 29 May 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS release captures Mangala Fossa. Mangala Fossa is a graben, which in geologic terminology translates into a long parallel to semi-parallel fracture or trough. Grabens are dropped or downthrown areas relative to the rocks on either side and these features are generally longer than they are wider. There are numerous dust devil trails seen in this image. In the lower portion of this image several dust devil tracks can be seen cutting across the upper surface then down the short stubby channel and finally back up and over to the adjacent upper surface. Some dust avalanche streaks on slopes are also visible. The rough material in the upper third of the image contains a portion of the rim of a 90 km diameter crater located in Daedalia Planum. The smooth crater floor has a graben (up to 7 km wide) and channel (2 km wide) incised into its surface. In the middle third and right of this image one can see ripples (possibly fossil dunes) on the crater floor material just above the graben. The floor of Mangala Fossa and the southern crater floor surface also have smaller linear ridges trending from the upper left to lower right. These linear ridges could be either erosional (yardangs) or depositional (dunes) landforms. The lower third of the scene contains a short stubby channel (near the right margin) and lava flow front (lower left). The floor of this channel is fairly smooth with some linear crevasses located along its course. One gets the impression that the channel floor is mantled with some type of indurated material that permits cracks to form in its surface. The Story In the Daedalia Plains on Mars, the rim of an old eroded crater rises up, a wreck of its former self (see context image at right). From the rough, choppy crater rim (top of the larger THEMIS image), the terrain descends to the almost smooth crater floor, gouged deeply by a trough, a channel, and the occasional dents of small, scattered craters. The deep

  4. Is furcation involvement in maxillary molars a predictor for subsequent bone augmentation prior to implant placement? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Walter, Clemens; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea C; Kühl, Sebastian; Weiger, Roland; Lang, Niklaus P; Zitzmann, Nicola U

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the interfurcal bone height in relation to the possible need for subsequent sinus floor elevation in patients with advanced periodontitis and furcation involvement of first and/or second maxillary molars. Seventeen dentate patients, who received cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detailed preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgical interventions at periodontally involved maxillary molars (17 first and 15 second molars), were consecutively recruited for the study. The minimal bone height in the interfurcal region was measured from CBCT and related to furcation involvement, residual bone above the root tips, and the clinical probing pocket depth (PPD). The minimal interfurcal bone height measured 4.1 ± 2.6 mm on average with 75% of maxillary molars having ≤ 6 mm and almost 60% having only ≤ 4 mm bone height left below the sinus floor. A higher risk for reduced interfurcal bone height of ≤ 4 mm was given when residual PPD of ≥ 6 mm was remaining at two or more tooth sites (OR 0.10; 0.11). The majority of periodontally involved maxillary molars had a substantially reduced interfurcal bone height, particularly with at least two sites with residual PPD ≥ 6 mm. This was a predictor for a subsequent need for sinus floor elevation when tooth replacement with a dental implant is desired. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hephaestus Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 3 July 2002) Off the western flank of Elysium are the Hephaestus Fossae, including linear arrangements of small, round pits. These features are commonly called 'pit chains' and most likely represent the collapse of lava tubes. Lava tubes allow molten rock to move long distances underground. When the lava drains out it leaves unsupported tunnels, which can collapse and form pits. These particular pit chains are unusual because they change direction abruptly. In the lower portion of the image, pits have collapsed at the bends and allow us to observe the sharp, nearly right angle corners. These direction changes are most likely due to some sort of structural control during the emplacement of the lava tubes. There is an extraordinarily high concentration of small, degraded craters on the plains surface. The size range of these craters is fairly consistent and they all appear to be of similar age. It is unlikely that these were caused by primary impacts (impacts of meteors onto the surface) because both the size and timing distributions of primary impactors vary tremendously. However, the craters in the image could have been created from secondary impacts. Secondaries are impacts of material that is excavated during a large cratering event nearby or from the disintegration of a primary meteor in the atmosphere into many smaller parts that rain onto the surface. In contrast to these older, small craters, there is a relatively young crater in the center of the image. A hummocky ejecta blanket is visible around the crater and has covered some of the smaller craters on the plain around it. The edges of the crater are sharp, formed by rocky material in the crater rim. This material is visible as the layer of rough, grooved material at the top of the inside walls. Small dust avalanches have left dark streaks down the inside walls of the crater.

  6. Yardangs in Medusa Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-05

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey covers a portion of the Medusa Fossae formation, near the equator of Mars. The most characteristic feature of the Medusa Fossae formation is the abundance of yardangs, which are erosional landforms carved by wind.

  7. Periodontal surgery in furcation-involved maxillary molars revisited--an introduction of guidelines for comprehensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Walter, Clemens; Weiger, Roland; Zitzmann, Nicola Ursula

    2011-02-01

    Maxillary molars with interradicular loss of periodontal tissue have an increased risk of additional attachment loss with an impaired long-term prognosis. Since accurate clinical analysis of furcation involvement is not feasible due to limited access, morphological variations and measurement errors, additional diagnostics, e.g., with cone-beam computed tomography, may be required. Surgical treatment options have graduated from a less invasive approach, i.e., keeping as much periodontal attachment as possible, to a more invasive approach: (1) open flap debridement with/without gingivectomy or apically repositioned flap and/or tunnelling; (2) root separation; (3) amputation/trisection of a root (with/without root separation or tunnel preparation); (4) amputation/trisection of two roots; and (5) extraction of the entire tooth. Tunnelling is indicated when the degree of root separation allows for opening of the interradicular region. Alternatively, root separation is performed particularly in root-canal treated teeth with reduced coronal tooth substance requiring crown restorations. As soon as the attachment of one or two roots in maxillary molars is severely reduced, root removal is indicated and performed either as amputation or trisection including the corresponding part of the clinical crown. While the indication for regenerative measures in maxillary molars with furcation involvement is very limited, extraction and replacement with implants is restricted, particularly in sites requiring complex alveolar ridge augmentation and sinus elevation. A systematic approach for decision making in furcation-involved maxillary molars is described in this overview, including what constitutes accurate diagnosis and what indications there are for the different surgical periodontal treatment options.

  8. Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Treatment Involves Much More Than Just Canine Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Giordani Santos; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed highlight some clinical features present in patients whose maxillary lateral incisors are missing, and proposed more logical, rational and predictable solutions to inform decision making in rehabilitation procedures. Methods: Literature review and discussion. Conclusion: Choosing the best possible treatment for congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors depends on the multidisciplinary diagnosis of facial, occlusal, functional and periodontal features. It also depends on the individual long-term stability, and it does not only rely on canine-guided disocclusion. PMID:27006720

  9. Tantalus Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 25 June 2002) The Science Tantalus Fossae is a set of long valleys on the eastern side of Alba Patera. These valleys are referred to as grabens and are formed by extension of the crust and faulting. When large amounts of pressure or tension are applied to rocks on timescales that are fast enough that the rock cannot respond by deforming, the rock breaks along faults. In the case of a graben, two parallel faults are formed by extension of the crust and the rock in between the faults drops downward into the space created by the extension. Numerous sets of grabens are visible in this THEMIS image, trending from north-northeast to south-southwest. Because the faults defining the graben are formed parallel to the direction of the applied stress, we know that extensional forces were pulling the crust apart in the west-northwest/east-southeast direction. The large number of grabens around Alba Patera is generally believed to be the result of extensional forces associated with the uplift of Alba Patera. Also visible in this image are a series of linearly aligned pits, called a pit chain. The pits are not the result of impact cratering, but are similar to sinkholes on Earth. Sinkholes are typically formed by the removal of rock (commonly limestone) underground by groundwater -- when enough rock is removed, the overlying rock becomes too heavy to be supported, and it collapses, forming a pit. Unlike sinkholes, however, the pit chains near Alba Patera were likely formed when empty underground lava tubes collapsed, accounting for the presence and alignment of many pits. Numerous channel features are also observed in the image, and follow the local topographic slope, which is downhill to the east-southeast. One of these, a long channel in the center of the image, nicely demonstrates the complex relations possible between geologic features. The geologist's rule of superposition says that a feature on top of (superposing) another feature, or cutting across another

  10. Tantalus Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 25 June 2002) The Science Tantalus Fossae is a set of long valleys on the eastern side of Alba Patera. These valleys are referred to as grabens and are formed by extension of the crust and faulting. When large amounts of pressure or tension are applied to rocks on timescales that are fast enough that the rock cannot respond by deforming, the rock breaks along faults. In the case of a graben, two parallel faults are formed by extension of the crust and the rock in between the faults drops downward into the space created by the extension. Numerous sets of grabens are visible in this THEMIS image, trending from north-northeast to south-southwest. Because the faults defining the graben are formed parallel to the direction of the applied stress, we know that extensional forces were pulling the crust apart in the west-northwest/east-southeast direction. The large number of grabens around Alba Patera is generally believed to be the result of extensional forces associated with the uplift of Alba Patera. Also visible in this image are a series of linearly aligned pits, called a pit chain. The pits are not the result of impact cratering, but are similar to sinkholes on Earth. Sinkholes are typically formed by the removal of rock (commonly limestone) underground by groundwater -- when enough rock is removed, the overlying rock becomes too heavy to be supported, and it collapses, forming a pit. Unlike sinkholes, however, the pit chains near Alba Patera were likely formed when empty underground lava tubes collapsed, accounting for the presence and alignment of many pits. Numerous channel features are also observed in the image, and follow the local topographic slope, which is downhill to the east-southeast. One of these, a long channel in the center of the image, nicely demonstrates the complex relations possible between geologic features. The geologist's rule of superposition says that a feature on top of (superposing) another feature, or cutting across another

  11. Malignant schwannoma of the infratemporal fossa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Al Jalil, Abdelfettah; Tourabi, Khalid; Lakouichmi, Mohamed; Essadi, Ismail; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2015-07-04

    Malignant schwannomas or neurofibrosarcomas are rare nerve tumors of unknown etiology. These neoplasms are highly aggressive with a marked propensity for local recurrence and metastatic spread. Their management continues to be a challenge for pathologists and surgeons. Maxillofacial locations are very exceptional. We report the case of a patient with unusual malignant schwannoma of the infratemporal fossa discovered at a late evolving stage. A 56-year-old woman, of Moroccan nationality, presented to our hospital in 2013 with a large right-sided hemifacial swelling that had evolved over the previous 4 months, with a limitation of mouth opening, nasal obstruction and episodes of epistaxis. A CT scan and MRI showed a large and invasive tumor occupying her right infratemporal fossa and maxillary sinus, with sphenoidal, ethmoidonasal, nasopharyngeal and intraorbital extension. A nasal endoscopic biopsy was performed. Immunohistochemical examination concluded a diagnosis of malignant schwannoma, and a palliative radiotherapy was decided; however, our patient died 10 days later. Malignant schwannoma of paranasal sinuses and the anterior skull base is a rare tumor that involves a high rate of local invasion. The prognosis is poorer compared to that occurring in the trunk and extremities.

  12. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclassified as Aspergillus tubingensis by sequencing. We present a report of a patient with an osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone with a probable invasive Aspergillus tubingensis infection. Case presentation We describe an immune compromised patient suffering from osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone after tooth extraction. The osteomyelitis probably resulted in dentogenic pansinusitis presenting as an acute ethmoiditis. Histologic examination of biopsy samples showed osteomyelitis, and inflammation of the surrounding connective tissue. Cultures of the alveolar wound grew Aspergillus tubingensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphoterocin B, which was changed to oral treatment with voriconazole based on susceptibility testing (MIC for voriconazole was 1 μg/ml). Conclusion This case shows that Aspergillus tubingensis may have the potential to cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. A larger proportion of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates are less susceptible to azoles compared to Aspergillus niger. Therefore, correct species identification and susceptibility testing is crucial for the choice of anti-fungal treatment, screening of azole resistance, and characterization of the pathogenic potential of the various species within Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23374883

  13. More Olympica Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-22

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a different part of Olympica Fossae. In this region lava channels dominate. The complex interaction of volcanic and tectonic processes is illustrated by the central feature in this image.

  14. Faults in Claritas Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-15

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter captured this image of the Claritas Fossae region, characterized by systems of graben. A graben forms when a block of the planet crust drops down between two faults, due to extension, or pulling, of the crust.

  15. Radiologic evaluation of an unusually sized complex odontoma involving the maxillary sinus by cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Isler, Sabri Cemil; Demircan, Sabit; Soluk, Merva; Cebi, Zerrin

    2009-01-01

    As a group, odontomas are the most common odontogenic neoplasms. This case report illustrates the benefits of cone beam computed tomography, in terms of treatment planning and surgical technique, to localize a large maxillary odontoma and accurately establish its relationship with the maxillary sinus and molar.

  16. Posterior Fossa Tumors.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Lara A; Young Poussaint, Tina

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types. Here we discuss the most common posterior fossa tumors in children, including typical imaging findings on CT, cMR imaging, and advanced MR imaging studies.

  17. Memnonia Fossae Enhanced Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    Tharsis-centered volcanic and tectonic activity resulted in the formation of radial grabens of Memnonia Fossae, which cut materials of the ancient cratered highlands and the relatively young, highland-embaying lava flows as seen by NASA's Viking Orbiter 2. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00151

  18. Medusae Fossae #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This northern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.4 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  19. Medusae Fossae #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This southern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.0 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  20. Interconnecting the posterior and middle cranial fossae for tumors that traverse Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S W; Jackler, R K; Pitts, L H; Gutin, P H

    1995-03-01

    Meckel's cave is an avenue for tumor to spread between the posterior and middle cranial fossae. The most common neoplasms that traverse this channel are trigeminal schwannomas and meningiomas. The classic approach to address disease in both cranial fossae involves separate craniotomies. Recent innovations in skull base surgery have made it possible to perform a single opening with simultaneous exposure of the posterior and middle fossae, without undue brain retraction. Tumors with a large middle fossa component and a smaller posterior fossa portion are exposed via subtemporal craniotomy with petrosectomy and tentorium division. However, tumors with a large posterior fossa component and a smaller middle fossa portion in the setting of serviceable hearing are addressed with retrosigmoid craniotomy and petrosectomy. For bilobed tumors with substantial components in both fossae, subtemporal craniotomy combined with varying degrees of transtemporal petrosectomy and tentorium division is employed. The evolution of techniques to address tumors that traverse Meckel's cave is reviewed and a treatment algorithm is proposed.

  1. Yardangs in Medusa Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 29 July 2002) This THEMIS visible image covers a portion of the Medusa Fossae formation, near the equator of Mars. The most characteristic feature of the Medusa Fossae formation is the abundance of 'yardangs', which are erosional landforms carved by the wind. These features usually form in a linear fashion, and can be indicators of prevailing paleowind directions. On Earth, yardangs are typically found in rocks that are easily eroded, such as those that form from consolidated volcanic ash, dust-fall deposits or lake sediments. In this particular area of Medusa Fossae, the size, spacing, and orientation of the yardangs varies throughout the image. The largest form a stripe across the center of the image, while the smallest are found in the top half of the image (look closely). The small yardangs at the very top of the image are oriented NW-SE; however, the orientation changes to NE-SW near the bright ridge in the center of the image. The variation in size and orientation appears to correspond with topographic layers, and may be due either to differences in consolidation or changes in wind strength or direction as the yardangs were formed. Finally, the terrain in the lower third of the image appears etched or pitted, and was probably also formed by wind erosion.

  2. Yardangs in Medusa Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 29 July 2002) This THEMIS visible image covers a portion of the Medusa Fossae formation, near the equator of Mars. The most characteristic feature of the Medusa Fossae formation is the abundance of 'yardangs', which are erosional landforms carved by the wind. These features usually form in a linear fashion, and can be indicators of prevailing paleowind directions. On Earth, yardangs are typically found in rocks that are easily eroded, such as those that form from consolidated volcanic ash, dust-fall deposits or lake sediments. In this particular area of Medusa Fossae, the size, spacing, and orientation of the yardangs varies throughout the image. The largest form a stripe across the center of the image, while the smallest are found in the top half of the image (look closely). The small yardangs at the very top of the image are oriented NW-SE; however, the orientation changes to NE-SW near the bright ridge in the center of the image. The variation in size and orientation appears to correspond with topographic layers, and may be due either to differences in consolidation or changes in wind strength or direction as the yardangs were formed. Finally, the terrain in the lower third of the image appears etched or pitted, and was probably also formed by wind erosion.

  3. Pterygopalatine Fossa: Not a Mystery!

    PubMed

    Derinkuyu, Betul Emine; Boyunaga, Oznur; Oztunali, Cigdem; Alimli, Ayse Gul; Ucar, Murat

    2016-12-06

    The pterygopalatine fossa is an important anatomic crossroads that is connected with numerous intra- and extracranial spaces via foramina and fissures. Although this fossa is small, its central location in the skull base and its communications provide clinical, radiological, and anatomical significance. In this pictorial review, we aimed to describe the radiologic anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa, as well as to give some pathologic examples to better understand this major conduit.

  4. Osteoradionecrosis of sphenoid and temporal bones in a patient with maxillary sinus carcinoma: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuchi, T.; Sano, K.; Kaminogo, M. )

    1990-09-01

    A case of radionecrosis of sphenoid and temporal bones is reported. The patient received a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for his left maxillary sinus carcinoma. After the combined therapy, necrosis accompanying inflammation developed in the maxillary and temporal regions. Excision of the necrotic tissues was done, and the left ascending ramus of the mandible was resected because of persistent tumor mass at the left infratemporal fossa. Although the excision wound of the maxilla healed by epithelialization, an area of nonvital bone remained exposed in the temporal region, where progressive osteonecrosis with infection led to breakdown of the skin. The necrotic bones of the zygomatic arch and the sphenotemporal sutural region became visible through the skin defect, and computerized tomography scan revealed bone necrosis involving the inferolateral area and the base of the skull. Excision of the necrotic bone and reconstruction with sternocleidomastoid myocutaneous flap were performed.

  5. Olympica Fossae Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the enigmatic valley of the Olympica Fossae region. Unknown is whether water, lava, or mud, or some combination of these things, once poured through the valley system.

    Location near: 24.2oN, 115.7oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  6. Nili Fossae - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-28

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Nili Fossae. Dark "blue" is interpreted to be basaltic rock/sand. Orbit Number: 17546 Latitude: 24.4543 Longitude: 79.8833 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2005-11-28 02:22. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20223

  7. Medusae Fossae #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-13

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This northern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.4 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west. Science Magazine, Volume 279, Number 5357, 13 March 1998, M. C. Malin, et. al., "Early Views of the Martian Surface from the Mars Orbiter Camera of Mars Global Surveyor", pp. 1681-1685 (Fig. 1A) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00800

  8. Guided tissue regeneration in Class II furcation involved maxillary molars: a controlled study of 8 split-mouth cases.

    PubMed

    Avera, J B; Camargo, P M; Klokkevold, P R; Kenney, E B; Lekovic, V

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the effectiveness of polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in the healing of interproximal Class II furcation defects in maxillary molars using a surgical treatment technique based on the principles of guided tissue regeneration. Eight subjects with similar bilateral Class II furcation lesions on the mesial aspect of maxillary first molars participated in this study. Patients received initial therapy consisting of oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planing, and occlusal adjustment if necessary. Clinical parameters evaluated included plaque index, sulcular bleeding index, probing depth, attachment level, gingival recession, and open horizontal and vertical furcation fill. An acrylic occlusal stent was used to assure reproducibility of measurements. Experimental sites received a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane following surgical exposure of the furcation. Control sites were treated in the exact same manner but without a membrane. Membranes were removed at 6 weeks after the first surgery. Reentry surgeries were performed at 9 months. Postsurgical results showed a significant improvement in probing depth, attachment level, and open horizontal furcation fill for both groups when compared to baseline values, with experimental sites performing significantly better than controls. Control sites showed a slight loss in open vertical furcation fill while experimental sites remained unchanged. This study suggests that guided tissue regeneration using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes is of some but limited value in the treatment of maxillary molar interpoximal Class II furcation lesions.

  9. Posterior Fossa Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Essam A.; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Achilli, Vittorio; Aristegui, Miguel; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Posterior fossa meningioma is the second most common tumor in the cerebellopontine angle. It has a higher rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality compared to acoustic neuroma. Forty posterior fossa meningioma patients managed in our centers were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were managed surgically with 42 surgical procedures. The approaches used were the translabyrinthine approach in 18 patients (43%), the modified transcochlear in 11 cases (26%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid in 5 cases (12%), the suboccipital in 4 cases (10%), the petro-occipital trassigmoid transcervical in 2 cases (5%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid transtentorial in 1 case (2%), and a subtemporal transtentorial for another case (2%). Facial nerve anatomical integrity was preserved in 87% of procedures but was interrupted in 5 cases, with 4 of the latter subsequently repaired. Total tumor removal was accomplished in 38 cases. A second-stage total tumor removal is planned for the remaining case. There was only one case of perioperative death and no cases of radiological recurrence so far. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4p206-bFigure 5p207-bFigure 5 PMID:17171173

  10. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  11. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  12. Displacement and pulpal involvement of a maxillary incisor associated with a talon cusp: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Maroto, Myriam; Barbería, Elena; Arenas, Marcela; Lucavechi, Tania

    2006-06-01

    The talon cusp is a relatively uncommon dental anomaly manifested as an accessory cusp-like structure on the crown of anterior teeth. The presence of a talon cusp can cause clinical problems. This article reports the case of a patient presenting a talon cusp affecting the permanent maxillary right central incisor causing clinical problems related to caries, displacement of the tooth, occlusal position and tendency to dental traumatism. The management of this tooth included caries removal and reduction of the cusp. Pulp-capping with calcium hydroxide was required because of the presence of pulp horn extensions in the talon cusp.

  13. Mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients: a case-series of patients with maxillary sinus involvement and a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Michele D; Fortuna, Giulio; Leuci, Stefania; Adamo, Daniela; Ruoppo, Elvira; Siano, Maria; Mariani, Umberto

    2011-08-01

    To review the current literature on mucormycosis in immunocompentent/otherwise healthy individuals, to which five new cases with maxillary sinus involvement have been added. We searched in the PudMed database all articles in the English language related to human infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales, in immunocompetent/otherwise healthy patients, starting from January 1978 to June 2009. In addition, we updated the literature by reporting five new cases diagnosed and treated at the oral medicine unit of our institution. The literature review showed at least 126 articles published from 35 different countries in the world, to a total of 212 patients described. The most affected country was India with 94 (44.3%) patients and the most representative clinical form was the cutaneous/subcutaneous with 90 (42.5%) patients. Our five immunocompetent patients with a diagnosed infection of Mucorales localized at the maxillary sinus completely healed with lyposomial amphotericin B. The literature analysis revealed that even in immunocompetent/otherwise healthy individuals mucormycosis infection has a worldwide distribution. What might be the real predisposing factors involved in its pathogenesis in such patients and the real causes of this peculiar geographic distribution still remains unknown. It is likely that, in our cases, a chronic insult of a well-defined and localized body area might have resulted in a local immunocompromission, thus fostering the development of an invasive fungal infection. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of enamel projections and its co-relation with furcation involvement in maxillary and mandibular molars: A study on dry skull.

    PubMed

    Bhusari, Prashant; Sugandhi, Ayushi; Belludi, Sphoorthi Anup; Khan, Shoyab

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of cervical enamel projection (CEP) in molars of Indian dry human skulls and to evaluate its relationship with furcation involvement (FI). The material consisted of 944 upper and lower first, second and third permanent molars from 89 Indian dry human skulls. CEPs were investigated from the buccal aspect of the tooth and classified according to a system describeddescribed by Masters and Hoskins. FI was measured horizontally from the buccal aspect into the furcation with a graduated probe to the nearest millimeter. Any measurement ≥2 mm was considered to have positive FI. The results showed that CEPs was found more frequently in the mandibular than in the maxillary molars (2:1). The highest incidence of CEP was found in the mandibular second molar (14.7%) followed by the maxillary second molar (14.6%). The mandibular third molar showed the lowest incidence (5.5%). The association between CEP and FI (87.5%) was statistically significant. This favors the view of the possible role played by such anomalies in the progression of periodontal diseases. CEP in male skulls (77.4%) was significantly more prevalent than in female skulls (20.4%). No significant difference was found between the right and left side of maxillary and mandibular teeth with CEP and FI. The findings suggested the role of CEPs as a local contributing factor in localized chronic periodontitis and FI in molars. Detailed examination as well as early diagnosis of periodontal disease at the region of furcation is clinically very important.

  15. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  16. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  17. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  18. [Bacteriological study of maxillary sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Renon, P; Casanova, M; Verdier, M; Asperge, A; Le Mouel, C

    1984-01-01

    Suppurated maxillary sinusitis are frequent diseases. Diameatic puncture allows bacteriological investigations. Our results are positive in two thirds of cases. The bacterial flora is very varied, whose identification and antibiograms involve efficient treatment with daily washing and in situ antibiotherapy.

  19. Sirenum Fossae Trough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) orbits the red planet twelve times each day. The number of pictures that MOC can take varies from orbit to orbit, depending upon whether the data are being stored in MGS's onboard tape recorder for playback at a later time, or whether the data are being sent directly back to Earth via a real-time radio link. More data can be acquired during orbits with real-time downlink.

    During real-time orbits, the MOC team often will take a few random or semi-random pictures in between the carefully-selected, hand-targeted images. On rare occasions, one of these random pictures will surprise the MOC team. The picture shown here is an excellent example, because the high resolution view (top) is centered so nicely on a trough and an adjacent, shallow crater that it is as if someone very carefully selected the target for MOC. The high-resolution view covers an area only 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide by 2.3 km (1.4 mi) long. Hitting a target such as this with such a small image is very difficult to do, on purpose, because there are small uncertainties in the predicted orbit, the maps used to select targets, and the minor adjustments of spacecraft pointing at any given moment. Nevertheless, a very impressive image was received.

    The high resolution view crosses one of the troughs of the Sirenum Fossae near 31.2oS, 152.3oW. The context image (above) was acquired at the same time as the high resolution view on July 23, 2000. The small white box shows the location of the high resolution picture. The lines running diagonally across the context image from upper right toward lower left are the Sirenum Fossae troughs, formed by faults that are radial to the volcanic region of Tharsis. Both pictures are illuminated from the upper left. The scene shows part of the martian southern hemisphere nearly autumn.

  20. Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

    2000-01-01

    Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

  1. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. In the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shown on the right, the crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The MOC image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The context image (left; the best Viking view of the area; VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. Medusae Fossae Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 15 April 2003

    The Medusae Fossae formation is an enigmatic pile of eroding sediments that spans over 5000 km in discontinuous masses along the martian equator. The yardang ridges, formed from the scouring action of windblown sand, are a characteristic feature of this formation. In this image, there is evidence for a period of erosion when winds scoured the surface at nearly right angles to the prominent yardang direction.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -5.1, Longitude 184.4 East (175.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  3. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. In the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shown on the right, the crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The MOC image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The context image (left; the best Viking view of the area; VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  4. Herpes Zoster with Post Herpetic Neuralgia Involving the Right Maxillary Branch of Trigeminal Nerve: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Kailasam; Sankari, S Leena; Potluri, Venkata Lakshmi Aparna; Prabakaran, Akila

    2017-01-01

    Herpes Zoster (HZ) is an acute, self-limiting, neuro cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) that remains latent in the dorsal root ganglion. About 50% of occurrence is seen in older age groups and immunocompromised patients. Less than 5% occur in children. HZ is characterized by the unilateral pain, burning and tingling sensation followed by the vesicular eruptions limited to the single dermatome that are innervated by the single cranial ganglion, sometimes it leads to Post Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN). We report a case of a HZ in a 22-year-old young female patient involving the right maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve along with PHN. PMID:28274075

  5. Clay at Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Nili Fossae region of Mars was compiled from separate images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), two instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken at 0730 UTC (2:30 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 4, 2006, near 20.4 degrees north latitude, 78.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. HiRISE's image was taken in three colors, but its much higher resolution shows features as small as 30 centimeters (1 foot) across.

    CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, discovered that some of the most ancient regions of Mars are rich in clay minerals, formed when water altered the planet's volcanic rocks. From the OMEGA data it was unclear whether the clays formed at the surface during Mars' earliest history of if they formed at depth and were later exposed by impact craters or erosion of the overlying rocks. Clays are an indicator of wet, benign environments possibly suitable for biological processes, making Nili Fossae and comparable regions important targets for both CRISM and HiRISE.

    In this visualization of the combined data from the two instruments, the CRISM data were used to calculate the strengths of spectral absorption bands due to minerals present in the scene. The two major minerals detected by the instrument are olivine, a mineral characteristic of primitive igneous rocks, and clay. Areas rich in olivine are shown in red, and minerals rich in clay are shown in green. The derived colors were then overlayed on the HiRISE image.

    The area where the CRISM and HiRISE data overlap is shown at the upper left, and is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) across. The three boxes outlined in blue are enlarged to show how the different minerals in the scene match up with different landforms. In the image

  6. Clay at Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Nili Fossae region of Mars was compiled from separate images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), two instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken at 0730 UTC (2:30 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 4, 2006, near 20.4 degrees north latitude, 78.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. HiRISE's image was taken in three colors, but its much higher resolution shows features as small as 30 centimeters (1 foot) across.

    CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, discovered that some of the most ancient regions of Mars are rich in clay minerals, formed when water altered the planet's volcanic rocks. From the OMEGA data it was unclear whether the clays formed at the surface during Mars' earliest history of if they formed at depth and were later exposed by impact craters or erosion of the overlying rocks. Clays are an indicator of wet, benign environments possibly suitable for biological processes, making Nili Fossae and comparable regions important targets for both CRISM and HiRISE.

    In this visualization of the combined data from the two instruments, the CRISM data were used to calculate the strengths of spectral absorption bands due to minerals present in the scene. The two major minerals detected by the instrument are olivine, a mineral characteristic of primitive igneous rocks, and clay. Areas rich in olivine are shown in red, and minerals rich in clay are shown in green. The derived colors were then overlayed on the HiRISE image.

    The area where the CRISM and HiRISE data overlap is shown at the upper left, and is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) across. The three boxes outlined in blue are enlarged to show how the different minerals in the scene match up with different landforms. In the image

  7. MR-Guided Laser-Induced Thermotherapy of the Infratemporal Fossa and Orbit in Malignant Chondrosarcoma via a Modified Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Mack, Martin G.; Straub, Ralf; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan

    2001-12-15

    A 76-year-old patient presented with a recurrent mass of a malignant chondrosarcoma in the right infratemporal fossa and in the left maxillary sinus with orbital invasion. The patient was treated with a palliative intention with MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy using a modified applicator technique. Following treatment clinical symptoms improved and MRI revealed complete laser-induced tumor necrosis.

  8. Mucopyocele of the maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kshar, Avinash; Patil, Abhijeet; Umarji, Hemant; Kadam, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Mucoceles are defined as chronic, cystic lesions in the paranasal sinuses. When the mucocele content becomes infected, the lesion is defined as mucopyocele. Most mucoceles are located in the frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses and normally they involve the frontal-ethmoid complex, expanding to the superior-medial region of the orbit, leading to ocular disorders; maxillary sinus presentation is rare. In the present article, the authors described a rare case of mucopyocele in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24688571

  9. Western Portion of Acheron Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-16

    Located north of Olympus Mons and west of Alba Patera, Acheron Fossae provides a record of early tectonic activity in the Tharsis region. Acheron Fossae is a relatively high standing region characterized by multiple subparallel graben. As seen in the image, the graben trend generally to the northwest. The entire area predates the Alba Patera flows (which embay the eastern most Acheron grabens) and the Olympus Mons volcano (one of the youngest Tharsis features). The subdued nature of the highstanding hills, the erosion the graben walls, the eroded rims of all the visible craters, and the wind etching of the flat surfaces all help indicate the great age of Acheron Fossae. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04034

  10. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular and glenoid fossa changes after bone-anchored Class III intermaxillary traction

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Nguyen, Tung; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatment for young Class III patients involves extraoral devices designed to either protract the maxilla or restrain mandibular growth. The use of skeletal anchorage offers a promising alternative to obtain orthopedic results with fewer dental compensations. Our aim was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the mandibles and the glenoid fossae of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 year) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). The patients had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before initial loading and at the end of active treatment. Three-dimensional models were generated from these images, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed by using color maps. Results Posterior displacement of the mandible at the end of treatment was observed in all subjects (posterior ramus: mean, 2.74 ± 1.36 mm; condyles: mean, 2.07 ± 1.16 mm; chin: mean, −0.13 ± 2.89 mm). Remodeling of the glenoid fossa at the anterior eminence (mean, 1.38 ± 1.03 mm) and bone resorption at the posterior wall (mean, −1.34 ± 0.6 mm) were observed in most patients. Conclusions This new treatment approach offers a promising alternative to restrain mandibular growth for Class III patients with a component of mandibular prognathism or to compensate for maxillary deficiency in patients with hypoplasia of the midface. Future studies with long-term follow-up and comparisons with facemask and chincup therapies are needed to better understand the treatment effects. PMID:22748987

  11. Solitary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Maxillary Sinus, Progressing to Smoldering Multiple Myeloma with Multifocal Skeletal Involvement, which Resolved Completely Following Chemotherapy Alone.

    PubMed

    Jeyaraj, Priya; Venkatesan, Manu; Nijhawan, V S

    2016-07-01

    Plasmacytoma is an uncommon malignant tumor originating either from plasma cells located in the bone marrow also known as the solitary bone plasmacytoma, or from plasma cells located outside the bone, for e.g. in mucosal surfaces, referred to as the extramedullary plasmacytoma also called the solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Both, solitary as well as extramedullary bone plasmacytomas may, particularly in later stages, be accompanied by other osteolytic bone lesions (multifocal bone involvement) and features such as anemia, hypercalcemia, or renal impairment attributable to and indicative of progression to multiple myeloma. These three distinct disorders together comprise the plasma cell neoplasms and essentially represent a continuum of related disease processes. Extramedullary and solitary bone plasmacytomas of the head and neck region are extremely uncommon, and amongst them plasmacytoma of the maxilla is extremely rare. Such a case is being reported here for its rarity. Also, it was associated with multifocal skeletal involvement, making a correct categorization difficult as well as imperative in order to institute the correct treatment. Radiotherapy is considered to be the treatment of choice of plasmacytoma, with adjuvant chemotherapy for multi focal involvement. Surgery is usually limited to biopsy and excision of any residual disease following radiotherapy. The case presented responded extremely well to chemotherapy alone, with a complete resolution of the maxillary tumor, obviating the need for radiotherapy.

  12. Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

  13. Piriformis fossa - an anatomical and orthopedics consideration.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, O P; Mittal, P S; Naik, D C

    2014-03-01

    Piriformis fossa is an important anatomical landmark having significant clinical value in orthopedic surgery; but its location and anatomical relationship with surrounding structures are not clearly defined. Hence it is necessary to clearly describe it in respect to anatomical and orthopedic aspect. Fifty Cadaveric dry femoral bones and Dissection of the four hip specimens were used to study the Piriformis fossa in respect to location and its relationship with surrounding structures. Clinical importance of piriformis fossa was determined in reference to antegrade femoral nail insertion. Piriformis muscle and so called piriformis fossa are unrelated entities. Piriformis fossa is anatomical site of insertion of obturator externus. In dry cadaveric femora; fossa was not always located in the direction of femoral shaft. It was located in the direction of femoral shaft in 24% cases only. In 68% cases femoral canal was aligned lateral and in 8% cases, it lies medial to the fossa. Piriformis fossa should be named as Trorchanteric fossa or Obturator fossa for better anatomical description. So called Piriformis fossa does not found to be universally corresponding to femoral shaft hence selection of entry site should be based on variable proximal femur and area on femur which corresponds to femoral shaft.

  14. Novel Application of Percutaneous Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Oral Bleeding From a Noninvoluting Congenital Hemangioma Involving the Right Buccal Space and Maxillary Tuberosity

    SciTech Connect

    Salehian, Sepand; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Kasten, Steven; Edwards, Sean P.

    2011-02-15

    Cryotherapy is the application of varying extremes of cold temperatures to destroy abnormal tissue. The intent of this article is to describe a novel technique using percutaneous cryotherapy for treating a noninvoluting congenital craniofacial hemangioma (NICH). An 18-year-old woman with type 1 von Willebrand's disease, as well as a qualitative platelet aggregation disorder, presented with multiple recurrent episodes of oral bleeding from a NICH involving the right buccal space and maxillary tuberosity. The patient was initially treated with a combination of endovascular particulate embolization, percutaneous sclerotherapy, tissue cauterization, and laser therapy between the ages of 4 and 8 years of age. At 18 years of age, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of oral bleeding related to the NICH. Endovascular embolization was performed using particulate and a liquid embolic agent with limited success. Due to the refractory nature of this bleeding, the patient underwent successful lesion ablation using percutaneous cryotherapy. At 9-month follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no episodes of recurrent bleeding.

  15. Involvement of the Nonneuronal Cholinergic System in Bone Remodeling in Rat Midpalatal Suture after Rapid Maxillary Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Wang, Lue; Miao, Cong; Ge, Lihua; Tian, Zhenchuan; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies sought to analyze the expression and function of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo due to the lack of suitable models. We established a rat maxilla expansion model in which the midline palatine suture of the rat was rapidly expanded under mechanical force application, inducing tissue remodeling and new bone formation, which could be a suitable model to investigate the role of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo. During the expansion, the expression pattern changes of the nonneuronal cholinergic system components and the mRNA levels of OPG/RANKL were detected by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR. The value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly increased after 1 day of expansion, indicating dominant bone resorption induced by the mechanical stimulation; however after 3 days of expansion, the value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased, suggesting a dominant role of the subsequent bone formation process. Increasing expression of Ach was detected after 3 days of expansion which indicated that ACh might play a role in bone formation. The mRNA expression levels of other components also showed observable changes during the expansion which confirmed the involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in the process of bone remodeling in vivo. Further researches are still needed to figure out the detailed functions of the nonneuronal cholinergic system and its components. PMID:27478838

  16. Cholesterol granuloma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ting-Kuang

    2006-06-01

    Cholesterol granuloma (CG) of the maxillary sinus is very rare. In this study, the searching of the literature was performed with the keywords of cholesterol granuloma and maxillary sinus. All retrieved literature were reviewed throughout to identify and analyze all individual characteristics. Two additional cases in our hospital were also included. The result showed that, in the overall 37 cases, the ratio of male to female was about 3:1. Caucasian (14/37) and Turkish (10/37) were reported more frequently. CG of maxillary sinus had an opposite sex predilection compared with the fungus balls of the maxillary sinus. In addition, the comorbidity of these two diseases was found only in one patient in the literature. These results suggested that the different mechanisms other than poor aeration of the maxillary sinus played a role in the formation of CG of maxillary sinus. The diagnosis for CG of the maxillary sinus before operation is difficult, but the clear golden yellow rhinorrhea and hemorrhagic signs may provide a good diagnostic evidence. The symptoms were vague and about half of the patients presented with non-specific symptoms. Therefore, it seemed reasonable that CG of the maxillary sinus was under diagnosed in the clinical practice. Treatment consists of complete excision via Caldwell-Luc or endoscopic approach and provides a good prognosis. Bilateral involvements are rare but possible in this disease entity.

  17. Computed tomography measurements of different dimensions of maxillary and frontal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrand-Johnson, Pernilla; Jannert, Magnus; Strömbeck, Anita; Abul-Kasim, Kasim

    2011-04-05

    We have previously proposed the use of Doppler ultrasound to non-invasively stage sinus infection, as we showed that acoustic streaming could be generated in nonpurulent sinus secretions and helped to distinguish it from mucopurulent sinus secretions. In order to continue this development of a clinically applicable Doppler equipment, we need to determine different dimensions of the paranasal sinuses, especially the thickness of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus (at the canine fossa). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the thickness of the canine fossa. This study aimed to (a) estimate different dimensions of the maxillary and frontal sinuses measured on computed tomography (CT) of the head, (b) define cut-off values for the normal upper and lower limits of the different measured structures, (c) determine differences in age, side and gender, (d) compare manually and automatically estimated maxillary sinuses volumes, and (e) present incidental findings in the paranasal sinuses among the study patients. Dimensions of 120 maxillary and frontal sinuses from head CTs were measured independently by two radiologists. The mean value of the maxillary sinus volume was 15.7±5.3 cm3 and significantly larger in males than in females (P=0.004). There was no statistically significant correlation between the volume of maxillary sinuses with age or side. The mean value of the bone thickness at the canine fossa was 1.1±0.4 mm. The automatically estimated volume of the maxillary sinuses was 14-17% higher than the calculated volume. There was high interobserver agreement with regard to the different measurements performed in this study. Different types of incidental findings of the paranasal sinuses were found in 35% of the patients. We presented different dimensions of the maxillary and frontal sinuses on CTs. We believe that our data are necessary for further development of a clinically applicable Doppler equipment for staging rhinosinusitis.

  18. [Maxillary sinus hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    Plaza, G; Ferrando, J; Martel, J; Toledano, A; de los Santos, G

    2001-03-01

    Maxillary sinus hypoplasia is rare, with an estimated prevalence of 1-5%. Out of the CT scans performed in sinusal patients between March 1998 and June 1999, we report on 4 isolated maxillary sinus hypoplasia, 4 maxillary sinus hypoplasia associated to concha bullosa, and 10 isolated conchae bullosas. All cases were evaluated by nasosinusal endoscopy and CT scan. Size, location and uni/bilateral presentation of concha bullosa is correlated to maxillary sinus hypoplasia presence, specially with regards to uncinate process presence, medial or lateral retraction. The pathogenesis of maxillary sinus hypoplasia is reviewed, and its relation to concha bullosa, evaluating how this could explain some cases of the so called chronic maxillary sinus atelectasia, as an acquired and progressive variant of maxillary sinus hypoplasia in adults.

  19. Anatomic (positional) variation of maxillary wisdom teeth with special regard to the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Lanzer, Martin; Pejicic, Rada; Kruse, Astrid L; Schneider, Thomas; Grätz, Klaus W; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo

    2015-01-01

    The removal of wisdom teeth is one of the most common interventions in oral surgery. In order to avoid complications, a profound knowledge of the anatomy of teeth and adjacent tissues is crucial. In the case of maxillary wisdom teeth, their relationship to the maxillary sinus, to the pterygoid fossa, to the maxillary tuber and the adjacent venous plexus is particularly important. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging, for example by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), is increasingly utilized in practice. However, the necessity of CBCT imaging is still a matter of intensive debate. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomic (positional) variation of maxillary wisdom teeth and, based on these findings, to elucidate the additional benefit of such imaging. A retrospective case study was performed using patients examined by means of CBCT imaging in the Department of Dento-Maxillofacial Radiology during the period from 2008 to 2013. Primary study variables comprised the spatial relationship of the teeth to the maxillary sinus, the degree of retention and root development, the covering of the root with bone and mucosa, the root configuration, and the developmental stage of the tooth. In addition, the association of the inclination of teeth in the transversal and sagittal plane with the above variables was evaluated. Descriptive statistical parameters were calculated for all results of the examination. In total, CBCT recordings of 713 maxillary wisdom teeth from 430 patients were evaluated. Their mean age was 29.8 years, and the proportion of male patients slightly prevailed (54.4%). Most teeth exhibited fully developed roots (64.1%). Overall 22.9% of third molars were impacted, 32.3% were retained, and 6.5% were erupting. In more than a third of the patients, wisdom teeth were in occlusion. The inclination of the third molars both in the transversal and sagittal plane was significantly associated with the distance of the root from the maxillary sinus as well

  20. Acheron Fossae in Visible Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This visible-light image, taken by the thermal emission imaging system's camera on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, shows the highly fractured, faulted and deformed Acheron Fossae region of Mars. The scarps visible in this image are approximately one kilometer (3,300 feet) high, based on topography derived from the laser altimeter instrument on Mars Global Surveyor.

    Dark streaks only 50 meters (164 feet) across can be seen on some of the cliff faces. These streaks may be formed when the pervasive dust mantle covering this region gives way on steep slopes to create dust avalanches.

    The image also shows impact craters as small as 500 meters (1,640 feet) in diameter, as well as smooth and textured plains.

    Acheron Fossae is located 1,050 kilometers (650 miles) north of the large shield volcano Olympus Mons. This image covers an area about 18 by 9 kilometers (11 by 6 miles) centered at 37 degrees north, 131 degrees west. North is to the top of this image, which was acquired on February 19,2002, at about 3:15 p.m. local Martian time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  2. Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.

  3. Maxillary air cyst.

    PubMed

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-12-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options.

  4. Some historical aspects of the surgical treatment of the infected maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Tange, R A

    1991-06-01

    Sinus surgery probably originates from the time of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Instruments were used to remove the brain through the nose as a part of the mummification process. The interest in the pathology of the maxillary sinus started to rise in the 17th century. Antral trephination for suppuration was the most common maxillary sinus operation in that period. An oro-antral fistula was often created by the extraction of a molar to drain the infected maxillary sinus daily. Later on the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus was opened through the canine fossa and was kept open for irrigation. Caldwell (1893), Scanes Spicer (1894) and later Luc in 1897 closed the canine fossa incision after an intranasal antrostomy and the removal of the infected mucosa. This so-called Caldwell-Luc procedure is still the most commonly used maxillary sinus operation today. After the introduction of the endoscopy in the beginning of this century endonasal surgery has been developed in the last decades into one of the important surgical procedures for maxillary sinus infections today.

  5. Nili Fossae Trough, Candidate MSL Landing Site

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-20

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows Nili Fossae region of Mars, one of the largest exposures of clay minerals, and a prime candidate landing site for Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity.

  6. Striae in the popliteal fossa (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Striae in the popliteal fossa: Striae or stretch marks result from stretching of the skin, or other influences such as Cushing's syndrome. Most pregnant women experience striae at some point during their ...

  7. Nili Fossae Resource and Science ROIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markle, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    The Nili Fossae region presents multiple resource and science ROIs for establishing a permanent colony on Mars. Water ice appears to cover a large are and multiple geological formations provide opportunity for science missions.

  8. Anterolateral corridor approach to the infratemporal fossa and central skull base in maxillectomy: rationale and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Jeremy D; Crowther, John; Taylor, William M; Wong, Ling Siew; Paterson, Tom; Devine, John; Wales, Craig; MacIver, Colin

    2015-11-01

    We describe the technical aspects and report our clinical experience of a surgical approach to the infratemporal fossa that aims to reduce local recurrence after operations for cancer of the posterior maxilla. We tested the technique by operating on 3 cadavers and then used the approach in 16 patients who had posterolateral maxillectomy for disease that arose on the maxillary alveolus or junction of the hard and soft palate (maxillary group), and in 19 who had resection of the masticatory compartment and central skull base for advanced sinonasal cancer (sinonasal group). Early proximal ligation of the maxillary artery was achieved in all but one of the 35 patients. Access to the infratemporal fossa enabled division of the pterygoid muscles and pterygoid processes under direct vision in all cases. No patient in the maxillary group had local recurrence at median follow up of 36 months. Four patients (21%) in the sinonasal group had local recurrence at median follow up of 27 months. Secondary haemorrhage from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery resulted in the only perioperative death. The anterolateral corridor approach enables controlled resection of tumours that extend into the masticatory compartment. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Jugular fossa meningioma: presentation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Rutt, Amy L; Chen, Xiaoli; Sataloff, Robert T

    2009-10-01

    Primary jugular fossa meningiomas are among the rarest subtypes of meningioma. They are intimately related to the lower cranial nerves, the jugular bulb and vein, and the temporal bone, and they have a tendency to extend both intra- and extracranially. The most common morbidity associated with jugular fossa lesions is lower cranial nerve deficits. In these cases, the differential diagnosis and preoperative radiographic diagnosis are very important because preoperative management and operative planning for the jugular fossa subtype differ considerably from those of other types of meningioma. Because of the rarity of this condition, our understanding of its treatment, long-term follow-up, and recurrence is limited. As experience with radiosurgical treatment of all meningiomas is accumulating, we may find that radiosurgery of jugular fossa meningiomas is appropriate. In the meantime, cure is still possible with complete surgical resection, and surgical morbidity can be minimized through meticulous planning and surgical technique. We describe a case of primary jugular fossa meningioma in a 45-year-old man who presented with complaints of chronic left aural fullness, hearing loss, and difficulty understanding voices. Imaging revealed the presence of a destructive jugular fossa mass. The patient underwent surgical resection without complication, and he was free of recurrence at 1 year of follow-up.

  10. Dermoid Cyst of the Infratemporal Fossa: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Thomas M.; Griffith, Adam; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Barnett, Samuel L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare tumors of congenital origin. We report a case of a large dermoid tumor arising in the infratemporal fossa (ITF) with erosion into the middle cranial fossa. After reviewing the literature, we believe this represents the first reported dermoid tumor of the ITF with extension into the middle cranial fossa. Results A 21-year-old women presented with a large cystic mass involving the left infratemporal fossa and middle cranial fossa that was discovered following a motor vehicle collision. Neurologic examination was normal. The mass was resected through a frontotemporal extradural approach with endoscopic assistance. Imaging studies, gross findings, and histopathology were consistent with a dermoid tumor. Conclusion This is the first report of a dermoid cyst arising in the ITF with extension into the middle cranial fossa. We suggest including dermoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of cystic abnormalities in this region. Complete resection of the cyst remains the preferred treatment with surgical approach guided by preoperative imaging. PMID:25083385

  11. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  12. Maxillary protraction after surgically assisted maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    FURQUIM, Laurindo Zanco; JANSON, Guilherme; FURQUIM, Bruno D’Aurea; IWAKI FILHO, Liogi; HENRIQUES, José Fernando Castanha; FERREIRA, Geovane Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 32-year-old woman with a Class III malocclusion, whose chief compliant was her dentofacial esthetics. The pretreatment lateral cephalometric tracings showed the presence of a Class III dentoskeletal malocclusion with components of maxillary deficiency. After discussion with the patient, the treatment option included surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) followed by orthopedic protraction (Sky Hook) and Class III elastics. Patient compliance was excellent and satisfactory dentofacial esthetics was achieved after treatment completion. PMID:20857013

  13. Ultrasound-guided injection of the maxillary nerve in the horse.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H D; Garcia-Pereira, F L; Mohankumar, P S

    2014-03-01

    Infiltration of the equine maxillary nerve with local anaesthetic can be useful for both diagnostic and surgical procedures. The deep location and proximity of the nerve to surrounding vascular and orbital structures make an accurate, complication-free injection a challenge using traditional techniques reliant upon surface anatomical landmarks. To develop an ultrasound-guided injection technique of the maxillary nerve in equine cadavers and to evaluate its efficacy and potential for complications in vivo. Descriptive cadaver anatomical and clinical study. The relevant anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa was reviewed in 6 cadaver heads from mature horses of a range of ages, breeds and genders. In an additional 13 cadaver heads, ultrasound-guided injection of 0.2 ml New Methylene Blue dye was performed on both left and right maxillary nerves (n = 26 attempts) in the pterygopalatine fossa. An independent observer dissected the area and recorded the number of times that dye successfully contacted the nerve, along with inadvertent penetration of other structures. The procedure was then performed on 8 clinical cases undergoing a variety of standing surgical procedures on the head. Dye was successfully deposited in contact with the nerve during all attempts on cadaver heads, with no penetration of the orbital cone, deep facial vein and maxillary artery or associated branches. In a single cadaver, a unilateral gas artefact in the masseter muscle prohibited an injection attempt. Analgesia of the maxillary nerve was achieved in <15 min in all clinical cases, with complete loss of ipsilateral cutaneous sensation over the rostral face. No gross or ultrasonographic abnormalities were detected following the procedure. Using ultrasonographic landmarks of the pterygopalatine fossa, local anaesthetic can be deposited around the maxillary nerve without the inadvertent penetration of adjacent vital structures. The technique allows for vascular structures to be visualised and

  14. Effect of Incremental Endoscopic Maxillectomy on Surgical Exposure of the Pterygopalatine and Infratemporal Fossae

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Smita; Dolci, Ricardo L. L.; Buohliqah, Lamia; Fiore, Mariano E.; Filho, Leo F.S. Ditzel; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Otto, Bradley A.; Carrau, Ricardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Access to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae presents a significant surgical challenge, owing to their deep-seated location and complex neurovascular anatomy. This study elucidates the benefits of incremental medial maxillectomies to access this region. We compared access to the medial aspect of the infratemporal fossa provided by medial maxillectomy, anteriorly extended medial maxillectomy, endoscopic Denker approach (i.e., Sturmann-Canfield approach), contralateral transseptal approach, and the sublabial anterior maxillotomy (SAM). Methods We studied 10 cadaveric specimens (20 sides) dissecting the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae bilaterally. Radius of access was calculated using a navigation probe aligned with the endoscopic line of sight. Area of exposure was calculated as the area removed from the posterior wall of maxillary sinus. Surgical freedom was calculated by computing the working area at the proximal end of the instrument with the distal end fixed at a target. Results The endoscopic Denker approach offered a superior area of exposure (8.46 ± 1.56 cm2) and superior surgical freedom. Degree of lateral access with the SAM approach was similar to that of the Denker. Conclusion Our study suggests that an anterior extension of the medial maxillectomy or a cross-court approach increases both the area of exposure and surgical freedom. Further increases can be seen upon progression to a Denker approach. PMID:26949591

  15. Maxillary orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Richard E; Ochs, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Maxillary surgery to correct dentofacial deformity has been practiced for almost 100 years. Significant advances have made maxillary surgery a safe and efficient means of correcting midface deformities. Anesthetic techniques, specifically hypotensive anesthesia, have allowed for safer working conditions. Landmark studies have proven manipulation and segmentalization of the maxilla is safe and allowed this surgery to become a mainstay in corrective jaw surgery. This article provides an overview of surgical techniques and considerations as they pertain to maxillary surgery for orthognathic surgery. Segmental surgery, openbite closure, vertical excess, grafting, and a technology update are discussed.

  16. Bilateral Maxillary Sinus Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Khanduri, Sachin; Agrawal, Sumit; Goyal, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinus hypoplasia (MSH) is an uncommon abnormality of paranasal sinuses noted in clinical practice. Computed tomography (CT) scan helps in diagnosing the anomaly along with any anatomical variation that may be associated with it. MSH is usually associated with other anomalies like uncinate process hypoplasia. Three types of MSH have been described. Type 1 MSH shows mild maxillary sinus hypoplasia, type 2 shows significant sinus hypoplasia with narrowed infundibular passage and hypoplastic or absent uncinate process, and type 3 is cleft like maxillary sinus hypoplasia with absent uncinate process. CT and endoscopic examination usually complement each other in diagnosing MSH. PMID:25548709

  17. Trochanteric fossa or piriform fossa of the femur: time for standardised terminology?

    PubMed

    Ansari Moein, C M S; Gerrits, P D; ten Duis, H J

    2013-06-01

    Piriform fossa, trochanteric fossa and greater trochanteric tip have each been described as entry points for antegrade femoral nailing. However, the terminology used for these entry points is confusing. The accuracy of the entry point nomenclature in published text and illustrations was recorded in this review study. The trochanteric fossa, a deep depression at the base of the femoral neck is indicated as 'piriform fossa' in the vast majority of the publications. Other publications indicate the insertion site of the tendon of the piriformis muscle on the greater trochanteric tip as 'piriform fossa'. As a result of recurrent terminology error and consistent reproductions of it, the recommended entry point in literature is confusing and seems to need standardisation. The piriform fossa does not appear to exist in the femoral region. The trochanteric fossa is the standard entry point which most surgeons recommend for facilitating a standard straight intramedullary nail, as is in line with the medullary canal. The greater trochanteric tip is the lateral entry point for intramedullary nails with a proximal lateral bend.

  18. [The maxillary sinus: evolution and function in aging].

    PubMed

    Dargaud, J; Cotton, F; Buttin, R; Morin, A

    2003-03-01

    The maxillary sinus, or Highmore's antrum, is located in the maxillary bone. The maxillary, above the buccal cavity, below the orbital cavity and outside the nasal fossa, is going to take a part in the formation of the three cavities which surround it. Although voluminous, it is consists of a light bone. This distinctive feature is essentially due to the fact that the maxillary has a cavity. The maxillary sinus occupies the upper 2/3s of this maxillary bone. It is the largest of the facial structure's cavities. Its volume is very variable, depending on the individual, the condition of their edentulousness and their age. We find small, average or large sinuses. This sinus communicates with the corresponding nasal fossa by a canal. It opens at the level of the nasofrontalis duct by a meatic ostium, an ostium located at the top of the meatus nasi medius, i.e. under the floor of the sinus. This highly positioned drainage location easily explains the problems that sinus pathologies can come up against. The sinus is lined with a mucous membrane and we can point out that in the normal condition this mucous membrane adheres weakly to the bone. It is more or less thick as a function of the pathologies to which the sinus has been subjected, or even as a function of the geographical location where the individual lives. The imaging of this sinus as a function of age is not obvious due to the fact that it is invisible throughout embryonic and foetal development, and that it only becomes visible to X-rays relatively late, at about 6 years old. Its role is important at the level of the growth of the facial structure because it is always easier to have growth around cavities. It also has a mechanical role concerning the transmission of shockwaves during traumas. In old individuals, due to the condition of the edentulousness, the volume of the sinus is larger; in fact one can note the resorption of the alveolar bone. The maxillary sinus is a cavity which plays a very important role

  19. Infratemporal fossa abscess: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kamath, M Panduranga; Bhojwani, Kiran M; Mahale, Ajit; Meyyappan, Hari; Abhijit, Kumar

    2009-05-01

    An abscess in the infratemporal fossa is a rare complication of dental extraction. Although it is a recognized entity, only a handful of cases have been reported in the literature. We describe a case of abscess in the infratemporal fossa of a 55-year-old woman with noninsulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes who presented with left-sided facial pain and marked trismus. The abscess was managed successfully with external drainage. We have made an attempt to comprehensively review the literature on this rare condition, with special emphasis on its anatomic complexity and varied clinical presentation, and we provide a detailed discussion of the diagnosis and management of this condition.

  20. 21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the temporomandibular...

  1. Immediate maxillary denture base extension for posterior palatal seal.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Hosokawa, R; Tsuga, K; Yoshida, M

    2000-03-01

    A procedure for extension of the maxillary denture base for development of a posterior palatal seal is described. The technique involves provisional extension with paraffin wax and adding direct relining resin supported by a silicone putty core. This simple, quick procedure achieves immediate recovery of retention for underextended maxillary dentures without additional laboratory procedures.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glenoid fossa prosthesis. 872.3950 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glenoid fossa prosthesis. 872.3950 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glenoid fossa prosthesis. 872.3950 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glenoid fossa prosthesis. 872.3950 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the temporomandibular...

  6. Topography of the third portion of the maxillary artery via the transantral approach in Asians.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyun-Ho; Jo, Jae-Beom; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Oh, Chang-Seok; Koh, Ki-Seok; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2010-07-01

    The maxillary artery (MA) passes over the lateral pterygoid muscle in the infratemporal fossa and enters the pterygopalatine fossa through the pterygomaxillary fissure. Refractory epistaxis is managed by ligation of the sphenopalatine artery via a transmaxillary-transantral approach; there is considerable risk of complications associated with such invasive surgical approaches. The aim of this study was to describe the gross anatomy and variations therein of the MA and its branches at the pterygopalatine fossa. One hundred hemifaces of embalmed Korean adult cadavers were dissected to establish the precise course of the MA and its branching patterns. The average thickness of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus was 0.8 mm, but varied over a wide range from 0.2 to 3.6 mm. We classified the third part of the MA into 3 morphological categories: looped (61%), bifurcated (19%), and straight (18%). Two cases could not be classified into any of these 3 categories. The pattern of the bifurcation between the sphenopalatine and descending palatine arteries was classified into 4 types: Y (19%), intermediate (36%), M (17%), and T (28%). The posterior wall of the maxillary sinus was divided into 9 sections. The branching areas of the sphenopalatine and descending palatine arteries were most frequently (62% of cases) located at the top of the medial partition and at the middle of the medial partition (30% of cases).

  7. Exhumed Layers Near the Nili Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-24

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows densely fractured light-toned rock in the vicinity of the Nili Fossae. The light-toned material is finely layered; these layers can be seen in cross-section along a scarp face at the bottom of the image.

  8. Facial translocation approach to infratemporal fossa and cranial base in extensive angiofibroma: A review of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Das, Udaya Chand; Stephen, A; Ross, Anitha; Chary, Geetha; Chand, Ashis K

    2005-01-01

    Angiofibroma extending to infratemporal fossa, orbit and middle cranial fossa is a difficult problem for a surgeon to tackle. Traditional extracranial excision with radiotherapy for the intracranial extension was practiced for a long time with variable results. Different approaches to remove such a tumour are described but most of them are not free from resultant morbidity in the form of facial asymmetry and incomplete tumour removal. Facial translocation approach facilitates complete tumour removal without cutting through the tumour thereby reducing per-operative blood loss. It also avoids facial asymmetry as the zygomatico-orbito-maxillary bony complex is replaced after the tumour removal. We present a review of seven cases with the results. The surgical steps, advantages, disadvantages and the complications are discussed.

  9. Hypertensive posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome causing posterior fossa edema and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Grossbach, Andrew J; Abel, Taylor J; Hodis, Brendan; Wassef, Shafik N; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2014-02-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well characterized entity resulting from the inability of cerebral autoregulation to adequately protect the brain from uncontrolled hypertension. It primarily affects the occipital lobes, but can also involve the structures in the posterior fossa including the brainstem and cerebellum. Treatment usually consists of strict blood pressure control, but more aggressive management may be indicated with acutely worsening neurological status. We present a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy that resulted in hydrocephalus and brainstem compression necessitating surgical decompression requiring ventriculostomy and suboccipital craniectomy. In rare cases, PRES can present with severe brainstem compression requiring emergent posterior fossa decompression. When brainstem signs are present on exam, emergent posterior fossa decompression may be safer than ventriculostomy alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Maxillary ameloblastic fibroma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongming; Xue, Weishuang; Yan, Aihui

    2013-12-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a benign tumor, it is a true mixed tumor composed of neoplastic epithelium and mesenchymal. This tumor is rare, and it almost arises in the mandible. A 22-years old female patient referred AF in the maxillary was present. The tumor was asymptomatic, except the right facial bulge. The radiograph showed a well-circumscribed neoplasm with several low density cysts involving the right maxillary and ethmoid. The lesion was enucleated and the material was sent for histopathologic examination. Microscopically, it was composed epithelium and mesenchymal with histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastic fibroma.

  11. Maxillary ameloblastic fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniela Otero Pereira da; Alves, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuna; Cruz, Ricardo Lopes da; Lourenço, Simone de Queiroz Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma is a relatively rare benign odontogenic tumor in which both the epithelial and ectomesenchymal components are neoplastic. An 8-year-old Caucasian boy was referred to the dentist for evaluation of failed eruption of the maxillary left first molar. The panoramic radiograph showed a well-circumscribed unilocular radiolucency involving an unerupted maxillary left first permanent molar. The lesion was enucleated and the material was sent for histopathologic examination. Microscopically, it was composed by cords and islands of odontogenic epithelium in a myxoid cell-rich stroma that closely resemble the dental papilla with histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastic fibroma. After 24 months of follow-up no recurrence was observed and the maxillary left first molar erupted spontaneously through the buccal mucosa and was aligned with a fixed orthodontic appliance. This case emphasized the importance of careful differential diagnosis of intraosseous oral lesions and reported a rarity of the lesion and its atypical location.

  12. [Reconstruction of postburn popliteal fossa contractures using popliteal fossa middle artery pedicled flaps in children].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zairong; Sun, Guangfeng; Tang, Xiujun; Deng, Chengliang; Jin, Wenhu; Wang, Dali; Wang, Bo

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the characteristics of blood supply of popliteal fossa middle artery pedicled flaps and the feasibility of reconstruction of postburn popliteal fossa contractures using the flaps in children. Between January 2008 and October 2010, 6 cases of postburn popliteal fossa contractures were recontructed using popliteal fossa middle artery pedicled flaps. Of them, 2 were boys and 4 were girls, aged from 2 years and 2 months to 10 years. All burns were caused by hot water. The wound ranged from 5 cm x 4 cm to 10 cm x 8 cm after scar relaxation. The size of the flap ranged from 6 cm x 4 cm to 11 cm x 9 cm. Donor sites were covered with split-thickness skin graft in 5 cases, and sutured directly in 1 case. All the flaps and the skingraft survived; no vascular crisis or flap necrosis occurred. All incisions at donors and wounds healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12-24 months. The color, texture, and appearance of the flaps were good. Hyperplastic scar was found at incision of popliteal fossa in 1 case at 6 months after operation; the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint was 0-175 degrees, and no obvious change was observed at 15 months after operation. The others had no functional disturbance of the knee joints or claudication; the ROM of the knee joint was 0-180 degrees. The popliteal fossa middle artery pedicled flap has reliable blood supply, simple operative procedure, and good results in reconstruction of popliteal fossa contracture.

  13. Mature posterior fossa teratoma mimicking dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Bohara, Manoj; Yonezawa, Hajime; Karki, Prasanna; Bakhtiar, Yuriz; Hirano, Hirofumi; Kitazono, Ikumi; Matsuyama, Nozomu; Arita, Kazunori

    2013-10-01

    We describe a very rare case of mature posterior fossa teratoma in an adult who presented with clinico-radiological findings consistent with a dermoid cyst. A computed tomography scan showed a hypodense mass in the cistern magna with calcification and a sinus tract in the occipital bone. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypo- to hyperintense mass without contrast enhancement. The intraoperative picture showed a dermal sinus and a cyst containing lipid, keratin and hair. Histopathological examination showed a tumor with components of all the three germ layers; thereby, a diagnosis of mature teratoma was made. The histopathological differentiation between teratoma and dermoid cyst is very valuable for ruling out the presence of immature/malignant or germinomatous components that would require further adjuvant therapies. Thus, we here present a rare case of posterior fossa teratoma mimicking dermoid cyst and emphasize the importance of histopathological differentiation between these entities.

  14. Posterior Fossa Neurenteric Cysts Can Expand Rapidly: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Priamo, Francesco A.I.; Jimenez, Elpidio D.; Benardete, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Neurenteric cysts are considered congenital lesions that may slowly expand over time. Although more commonly found in the spinal canal, they may be found intracranially, particularly in the posterior fossa. Here, we present an unusual case of a large, rapidly expanding histologically confirmed posterior fossa neurenteric cyst in a 53-year-old woman, who presented with quadriparesis. Computed tomography imaging done ~1.5 years before admission failed to demonstrate any obvious abnormality; however, the lesion had grown to 4 cm in maximal dimension at presentation with significant mass effect. The lesion was resected microsurgically using a retrosigmoid approach. The patient improved postoperatively and was neurologically intact at last follow-up. We could find no other documented case of marked, rapid expansion of a neurenteric cyst in the literature. We conclude that, although neurenteric cysts are thought to be congenital, they can undergo rapid expansion even in adults. The mechanism of expansion is unknown but may involve increased secretion, hemorrhage, or inflammation. We discuss the surgical management and review the literature in view of this surprising finding. PMID:23984213

  15. Treatment of a subtype of trigeminal neuralgia with descending palatine neurotomy in the pterygopalatine fossa via the greater palatine foramen-pterygopalatine canal approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junbing; Huang, Daiyin; Chen, Songling; Zhu, Shuangxi; Rong, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    To discuss an effective surgical treatment of a subtype of trigeminal neuralgia with descending palatine neuralgia of the maxillary division. Nine patients, who suffered from trigeminal neuralgia with descending palatine neuralgia of the maxillary division, received neurotomy and avulsion of the descending palatine nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa via the greater palatine foramen-pterygopalatine canal approach. Seven of the patients had a recurrence of descending palatine neuralgia after they received treatment of maxillary neuralgia with neurotomy and avulsion of the infraorbital nerve; two patients were diagnosed with descending palatine neuralgia of the maxillary division in our department. Postoperative follow-up was conducted. Pain in the palate disappeared; all patients felt numb and paresthetic in the area innervated by the trigeminal nerve, with no pain. During the 3-36 months of follow-up, no recurrence occurred. Descending palatine neurotomy in the pterygopalatine fossa via the greater palatine foramen-pterygopalatine canal approach is a simple, safe and effective way to treat a subtype of trigeminal neuralgia--descending palatine neuralgia. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A retrospective study on 69 cases of maxillary tooth transposition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shiu-yin; Chu, Vanessa; Ki, Yung

    2012-01-01

    The published literature on tooth transposition includes only a few studies that have involved more than 50 subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of true maxillary tooth transposition and possible associated dental anomalies in a larger sample of children. The dental records and radiographs of children who had been diagnosed as having true maxillary tooth transposition at a School Dental Clinic in Hong Kong were studied retrospectively. Data were analyzed for sex and side distribution, as well as for associated dental anomalies. Trends of differences were analyzed statistically using the Fisher exact or chi-squared test. A total of 69 cases of true maxillary tooth transposition were identified and studied; its prevalence in Hong Kong Chinese children was 0.81%. More females than males were affected, and the difference between the sexes was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth, microdontia of the maxillary lateral incisors or dental impaction was higher in patients with maxillary tooth transposition than in the general population (P < 0.05, P < 0.0005, and P < 0.0001, respectively). The fact that patients with maxillary tooth transposition were more likely to have congenital absence or microdontia of the maxillary lateral incisors lent further support to the contention that a developmental field defect plays a role in the pathogenesis of maxillary tooth transposition.

  17. Cerberus Fossae: In the Relay Zone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-18

    The trenches or fossae are found in Athabasca Valles as seen by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These trenches or "fossae" are about a kilometer (0.62 miles) across. This area shows where two segments have joined up and are close to a third section. The fossae are probably areas where the surface has collapsed down into voids made from faults (huge cracks with movement on either side) that don't extend up to the surface. In structural geology, when multiple faults are closely spaced, we call that a relay zone. These zones have much higher stress built up in the crust and consequently tend to be more fractured. These fractures can serve as "pipes" for fluids (water, lava, gases) to flow through. This area corresponds with the youngest of Mars' giant outflow channels, Athabasca Valles, that is only 2 to 20 million years old and shows geologic evidence of having been formed and modified jointly by water and lava. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19300

  18. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    PubMed

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  19. Posterior fossa syndrome—a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Salima S.; Hettige, Samantha; Mankad, Kshtij

    2016-01-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), or cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), is a collection of neurological symptoms that occur following surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumour, and is characterised by either a reduction or an absence of speech. Some authors suggest that CM is only one symptom of the CMS complex that also includes ataxia, hypotonia and irritability as well as cranial nerve deficits, neurobehavioral changes and urinary retention or incontinence. It is seen almost exclusively in children. In 1985 Rekate et al. published the first work describing CM as a clinical entity, occurring as a consequence of bilateral cerebellar injury. Other associated symptoms include visual impairment, altered mood, impaired swallowing and significant gross and fine motor deficits. The effects of this can have a devastating impact on both the patient and their carers, posing a significant clinical challenge to neurorehabilitation services. The reported incidence was between 8% and 31% of children undergoing surgery for posterior fossa tumour. The underlying pathologies include vasospasm, oedema, and axonal/neuronal injury. Neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the anatomical location of postoperative injury. There have been a number of suggestions for treatment interventions for PFS. However, apart from some individual reports, there have been no clinical trials indicating possible benefit. Occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, as well as neurocognitive support, contribute to the recovery of these patients. PMID:27942479

  20. Chronic odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ugincius, Paulius; Kubilius, Ricardas; Gervickas, Albinas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate average age of the patients in both sexes treated for MS, distribution by sex, amount of dexter and sinister MS with and without the fistulas into the maxillary sinus, with and without the foreign-bodies, length of stay in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine during the period from 1999 till 2004. The retrospective data analysis of the patients' treated from chronic MS was made. 346 patients (213 females and 133 males) were treated for chronic MS. 55 cases of chronic dexter MS with a fistula into maxillary sinus, 98 cases of chronic dexter MS without a fistula, 45 cases of chronic sinister MS with a fistula, 112 cases chronic sinister MS without a fistula, 16 cases of foreign-bodies in dexter maxillary sinus, 20 cases of foreign-bodies in sinister maxillary sinus have been detected. The main age of the female was 46.6+/-15.0, the main age of the men was 42.1+/-14.4. Statictically significant difference in the age difference of the women and the men was found (p=0.0024). It was determined, that females diagnosed and treated with chronic MS were 1.6 times more than males during the period from 1999 till 2004 in Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine. Females treated for chronic MS were 4.5 years older than males.

  1. Modified maxillary protraction headgear for the correction of class III skeletal malocclusion with anterior open bite.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Haroon Shahid; Amjad, Al-Taki

    2005-12-01

    This is a case report of a 10-year-old girl with a hyper divergent class III skeletal malocclusion caused primarily due to maxillary retrognathism. Treatment involved the use of a modified maxillary protraction face mask that carries the point of force application extra orally to pass through the centre of resistance of the maxillary dentoalveolar complex. After 8 months, the maxilla was displaced anteriorly without rotation. Maxillary occlusal plane showed a clockwise rotation. Maxillary incisors were extruded and retroclined. Mandible was displaced downward and backward. Another 18 months were required for fixed orthodontic treatment to achieve perfect interdigitation.

  2. Pituitary fossa: a correlative anatomic and MR study

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, L.; Pech, P.; Daniels, D.; Charles, C.; Williams, A.; Haughton, V.

    1984-11-01

    This study characterizes the normal appearance of the pituitary fossa in partial saturation magnetic resonance (MR) images. In sagittal images, the pituitary fossa appears inhomogeneous. Correlation of sagittal MR images in normal subjects with sagittal cryomicrotomic images in cadavers suggests that the highest intensity signal from the posterior-inferior pituitary fossa is due to a fat pad. This conclusion was supported by MR images and postmortem cryotome sections obtained in normal subhuman primates.

  3. Surgical management of posterior fossa metastases.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Geraint J; Jenkinson, Michael D; Zakaria, Rasheed

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of brain metastases is associated with a poor prognosis reflecting uncontrolled primary disease that has spread to the relative sanctuary of the central nervous system. 20 % of brain metastases occur in the posterior fossa and are associated with significant morbidity. The risk of acute hydrocephalus and potential for sudden death means these metastases are often dealt with as emergency cases. This approach means a full pre-operative assessment and staging of underlying disease may be neglected and a proportion of patients undergo comparatively high risk surgery with little or no survival benefit. This study aimed to assess outcomes in patients to identify factors that may assist in case selection. We report a retrospective case series of 92 consecutive patients operated for posterior fossa metastases between 2007 and 2012. Routine demographic data was collected plus data on performance status, primary cancer site, details of surgery, adjuvant treatment and survival. The only independent positive prognostic factors identified on multivariate analysis were good performance status (if Karnofsky performance score >70, hazard ratio (HR) for death 0.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.69), adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (HR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.21-0.65) and adjuvant chemotherapy where there was extracranial disease and non-synchronous presentation (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.31-0.82). Patients presenting with posterior fossa metastases may not be investigated as thoroughly as those with supratentorial tumours. Staging and assessment is essential however, and in the meantime emergencies related to tumour mass effect should be managed with steroids and cerebrospinal fluid diversion as required.

  4. Posterior fossa syndrome: Review of the behavioral and emotional aspects in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Jane C; Abrams, Annah N

    2017-02-15

    Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, occurs in the posterior fossa, the part of the intracranial cavity that contains the brainstem and the cerebellum. The cerebellum is involved in many complex aspects of human behavior and function, and when it is disrupted or insulted, this can lead to significant sequelae in children with posterior fossa tumors. A constellation of impairing and distressing symptoms, including mutism, ataxia/hypotonia, and emotional lability, develops in approximately 25% of children after the surgical resection of posterior fossa tumors. These symptoms may impede treatment and frequently require intervention in order for children to be able to participate in their care. The eventual recovery of speech occurs for most, but with slowly improving dysarthria over many months. Behavioral changes and emotional lability also occur. This phenomenon has been classified differently by different investigators over the past 35 years. For the purposes of this article, the term posterior fossa syndrome is used to refer to the neuropsychiatric and behavioral features that compose this condition. The current review summarizes the development of the clinical understanding of this phenomenon with a focus on near- and long-term psychosocial and psychiatric implications. Also, clinical examples of the presentation, management, and lasting implications of this syndrome are provided. This review is intended to be a resource for clinicians who treat affected children. Cancer 2017;123:551-559. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. Bullet removal from the infratemporal fossa

    PubMed Central

    Merza, Ahmed Maki

    2016-01-01

    War injuries are the cornerstone of maxillofacial surgery, and it led to the initiation and development of this specialty, and each case represents a challenge to the surgeon who deals with it. In this article, we present a 30-year-old male patient who was referred to our emergency department complaining of gunshot wound, severe pain, and limitation in mouth opening. Preoperative imaging showed a bullet with a very long path lodged in the infratemporal fossa. Three different approaches with the aid of C-arm imaging system were used for the removal of this bullet; the last approach was the successful one. PMID:28299274

  6. [Synovial sarcoma of the infratemporal fossa].

    PubMed

    Tamarit Conejeros, José Manuel; Estrems Navas, Paloma; Estellés Ferriol, Enrique; Dalmau Galofre, José

    2010-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is the fourth most common type of sarcoma. It is usually found in the knee or ankle joints, and is exceptional in the head and neck. Most cases are diagnosed in men between 20 and 40 years of age. Diagnosis is often casual due to the infrequent nature of this tumour and its non-specific clinical and radiological characteristics. Confirmation is therefore based on immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy techniques. We report a case of biphasic sinovial sarcoma located in the infratemporal fossa treated at our hospital and we make a review of the literature. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. BAER suppression during posterior fossa dural opening

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Christopher B.; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Jiang, Yi Dan; Yao, Tom; Zhang, Yi Ping; Sun, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative monitoring with brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) provides an early warning signal of potential neurological injury and may avert tissue damage to the auditory pathway or brainstem. Unexplained loss of the BAER signal in the operating room may present a dilemma to the neurosurgeon. Methods: This paper documents two patients who displayed a unique mechanism of suppression of the BAER apparent within minutes following dural opening for resection of a posterior fossa meningioma. Results: In two patients with anterior cerebellopontine angle and clival meningiomas, there was a significant deterioration of the BAER soon after durotomy but prior to cerebellar retraction and tumor removal. Intracranial structures in the posterior fossa lying between the tumor and dural opening were shifted posteriorly after durotomy. Conclusion: We hypothesized that the cochlear nerve and vessels entering the acoustic meatus were compressed or stretched when subjected to tissue shift. This movement caused cochlear nerve dysfunction that resulted in BAER suppression. BAER was partially restored after the tumor was decompressed, dura repaired, and bone replaced. BAER was not suppressed following durotomy for removal of a meningioma lying posterior to the cochlear complex. Insight into the mechanisms of durotomy-induced BAER inhibition would allay the neurosurgeon's anxiety during the operation. PMID:25883849

  8. An unusual foreign body in the infratemporal fossa

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Infratemporal fossa injuries are uncommon and often go undetected presenting later with complications. We present a case of an infratemporal fossa penetrating injury with a ball point spring following a vehicular accident. Post-traumatic trismus even following supposedly trivial injury in the area should raise suspicion of possible injury in this location. PMID:27833297

  9. Cerebellar Mutism Syndrome After Posterior Fossa Surgery: A Report of Two Cases of Pilocytic Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    GÜNDÜZ, Hasan Burak; YASSA, Mustafa İlker Kuntay; OFLUOĞLU, Ali Ender; POSTALCI, Lütfü; EMEL, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar mutism is a type of syndrome including decreased speech, hypotonia, ataxia and emotional instability which occurs after posterior fossa surgery. It has been first reported by Rekate et al. and Yonemasu in 1985. It is well known that long tract signs and lower cranial nerve involvement are not seen with this syndrome and understanding is preserved. However, the pathophysiology of cerebellar mutism has not been well clarified yet. It is mainly seen in patients with medulloblastoma and brainstem involvement. In this report, we present two extraordinary cases of cerebellar mutism after posterior fossa surgery. They were considered extraordinary because their hystopathological analysis results yielded pilocytic astrocytoma which is out of the predefined risk factors. PMID:28360572

  10. Carcinoma of Maxillary Sinus Masquerading as Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ramachamparambathu, Ashir Kolikkal; Vengal, Manoj; Siyo, Nizaro; Ahmed, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Malignant tumours of maxillary sinus are rare. They are usually diagnosed in the late stages when they perforate the sinus walls. The presence of large air space in the maxillary sinus facilitates asymptomatic growth of the sinus malignancy. The clinical presentation of these tumours depends on the sinus wall involved by the disease. The medial wall is usually the first to become eroded, leading to nasal obstruction, epistaxis or discharge. Rarely, symptoms of maxillary sinus carcinoma can resemble dental infection and the affected patients may visit dental clinic seeking treatment. This report presents a case of carcinoma of maxillary sinus mimicking odontogenic infection. Computed tomographic findings explained the reason for the present lesion to masquerade as an inflammatory condition. The importance of advanced imaging modalities for prompt identification of such lesions is discussed. PMID:27790593

  11. Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement Using Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Patrick D.; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia in cleft, syndromic, and noncleft patients. In this article, the authors provide a review of current data and recommendations concerning Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis. In addition, they outline their technique for treating severe maxillary hypoplasia with distraction osteogenesis using internal devices. PMID:25383054

  12. Comparison of speech and aesthetic outcomes in patients with maxillary reconstruction versus maxillary obturators after maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Jana M; Tang, Judith A Lam; Wolfaardt, Johan; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi

    2011-02-01

    Two options exist for restoring structure and function after maxillectomy. Prosthodontic rehabilitation requires that an obturator be constructed to address the oronasal communication that exists after resection of the maxilla. Surgical reconstruction of the defect is another option, often accomplished with the use of bone-containing flaps. To determine whether prosthetic rehabilitation or surgical reconstruction of the maxilla provides better speech and facial aesthetic outcomes after maxillectomy. Fifty-nine patients in three groups were included: 23 patients with maxillary obturators, 16 patients with maxillary reconstruction, and 20 patients without any maxillary defects but who were diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer and who served as a control group. Using digitized photographs, facial attractiveness was rated on a 10-point scale by eight judges who were blinded to treatment group. Speech outcomes included nasalance, velopharyngeal orifice opening, and speech intelligibility. There were no significant between-group differences found for facial attractiveness ratings. However, patients in either group who had involvement of the orbital rim or the orbital rim and zygoma were rated as significantly less attractive than those without such involvement. With respect to speech outcomes, the control group (ie, nasopharynx) had smaller velopharyngeal orifice areas than the obturator group; however, this was not clinically significant as scores in both groups were within normal limits. In conclusion, this study found no differences between surgical reconstruction or prosthodontic intervention of maxillary defects when facial attractiveness was assessed by naive raters and speech outcomes were assessed using objective measurements.

  13. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the ischio-rectal fossa.

    PubMed

    Teoh, K H; Reddy, S; Beggs, I; Al-Nafussi, A; Mander, B J; Porter, D E

    2009-06-01

    Primary sarcomas in the ischiorectal fossa are occasionally reported and represent a significant challenge due to the proximity of rectum, levator muscles and pudendal neurovascular structures. We report a case in which the diagnosis changed between biopsy (desmoid tumour) and resection (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour), requiring a multidisciplinary surgical approach involving different sub-specialties. It also illustrates the importance of undertaking sarcoma surgery in a recognized sarcoma centre with sarcoma expertise available across a range of disciplines.

  14. Non-pulsatile traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery following trauma to mandible.

    PubMed

    Soh, Hui Yuh; Muda, Ahmad Sobri; Jabar, Nazimi Abd; Nordin, Rifqah; Nabil, S; Ramli, Roszalina

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm involving the maxillary artery is rare. Owing to its anatomic location, internal maxillary artery is usually protected by its surrounding structures. Formation of pseudoaneurysm usually takes place after several weeks to months of the initial injury. In this case, we reported a pseudoaneurysm arising from left internal maxillary artery following blunt injuries within 3 hours after a road accident and the treatment with endovascular embolization with titanium coils prior to open reduction and internal fixation of the fractured mandibles.

  15. Asystole during posterior fossa surgery: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Keshav; Philip, Frenny Ann; Rath, Girija Prasad; Mahajan, Charu; Sujatha, M.; Bharti, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    Asystole during posterior fossa neurosurgical procedures is not uncommon. Various causes have been implicated, especially when surgical manipulation is carried out in the vicinity of the brain stem. The trigemino-cardiac reflex has been attributed as one of the causes. Here, we report two cases who suffered asystole during the resection of posterior fossa tumors. The vago-glossopharyngeal reflex and the direct stimulation of the brainstem were hypothesized as the causes of asytole. These episodes resolved spontaneously following withdrawal of the surgical stimulus emphasizing the importance of anticipation and vigilance during critical moments of tumor dissection during posterior fossa surgery. PMID:22870159

  16. Gallbladder Fossa Abscess Masquerading as Cholecystitis After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Paul; Fakhri, Asif; Baumgartner, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a 59-y-old woman who had undergone cholecystectomy and was subsequently found to have an abscess within the gallbladder fossa. A hepatobiliary scan using (99m)Tc-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid demonstrated the characteristic rim sign, a photopenic defect surrounded by a rim of mildly increased activity immediately adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. The rim sign was thought to be the result of reactive inflammation in the hepatic tissue adjacent to a postoperative abscess within the gallbladder fossa. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  17. Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement. PMID:25678816

  18. Progressive immediate loading of a perforated maxillary sinus dental implant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement.

  19. Maxillary Sinus Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors: A Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Chase C.; Eisenbach, Colby; Torres, Carlos; Graham, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an immunohistochemically diverse entity demonstrating neoplastic and nonneoplastic qualities. Although IMTs can arise in any area of the body, lesions arising in certain sites, namely, the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pterygopalatine fossa, demonstrate a heightened neoplastic and invasive potential. Despite case specific complete tumor regression and disease remission in response to pharmacotherapeutics, a subset of IMTs remain resistant to all forms of therapy. We present such a case, a 34-year-old female patient, with a highly resistant, maxillary sinus IMT. Her refractory, ALK-1 negative IMT has not responded well to novel therapies reported in current literature. This case suggests the role of zonal expressivity within a single lesion as a probable mechanism for its highly resistant nature and should promote determination of each IMT's cytogenetic profile to provide more effective targeted therapy. Paper includes a literature review of all maxillary sinus IMTs from 1985 to 2014 along with their immunohistochemical staining, treatments, and outcomes. PMID:25763286

  20. Rippled Surfaces on a Slope in Coloe Fossae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-09

    This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a set of landforms that appears to form a nested chevron pattern on a slope in Coloe Fossae. Interestingly, nearby surfaces on the same slope are all parallel.

  1. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis with extension to the posterior fossa: case report.

    PubMed

    Soloniuk, D S; Moreland, D B

    1988-11-01

    A 25-year-old man with juvenile onset diabetes presented with rhinoorbital mucormycosis. He was treated aggressively with orbital extirpation and amphotericin B. Six months later, he presented with posterior fossa extension of the mucormycosis.

  2. Mineral Spectra from Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Spectra collected by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) indicate the presence of three distinct minerals. The graphed information comes from an observation of terrain in the Nili Fossae area of northern Mars. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    Iron-magnesium smectite clay is formed through alteration of rocks by liquid water and is characterized by distinctive absorptions at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.3 micrometers due to water (H2O) and OH in the atomic structure of the mineral. Olivine is an iron magnesium silicate and primary igneous mineral, and water is not in its structure. Its spectrum is characterized by a strong and broad absorption at 1.0 micrometer due to ferrous iron (Fe2+). Carbonate is an alteration mineral identified by the distinctive paired absorptions at 2.3 and 2.5 micrometers. The precise band positions at 2.31 and 2.51 micrometers identify the carbonate at this location as magnesium carbonate. The broad 1.0 micrometer band indicates some small amount of ferrous iron is also present and the feature at 1.9 micrometers indicates the presence of water. CRISM researchers believe the magnesium carbonate found in the Nili Fossae region formed from alteration of olivine by water.

    The data come from a CRISM image catalogued as FRT00003E12. The spectra shown here are five-pixel-by-five-pixel averages of CRISM L-detector spectra taken from three different areas within the image that have then been ratioed to a five-pixel-by-five-pixel common denominator spectrum taken from a spectrally unremarkable area with no distinctive mineralogic signatures. This technique highlights the spectral contrasts between regions due to their unique mineralogy. The spectral wavelengths near 2.0 micrometers are affected by atmospheric absorptions and have been removed for clarity.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars

  3. Mineral Spectra from Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Spectra collected by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) indicate the presence of three distinct minerals. The graphed information comes from an observation of terrain in the Nili Fossae area of northern Mars. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    Iron-magnesium smectite clay is formed through alteration of rocks by liquid water and is characterized by distinctive absorptions at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.3 micrometers due to water (H2O) and OH in the atomic structure of the mineral. Olivine is an iron magnesium silicate and primary igneous mineral, and water is not in its structure. Its spectrum is characterized by a strong and broad absorption at 1.0 micrometer due to ferrous iron (Fe2+). Carbonate is an alteration mineral identified by the distinctive paired absorptions at 2.3 and 2.5 micrometers. The precise band positions at 2.31 and 2.51 micrometers identify the carbonate at this location as magnesium carbonate. The broad 1.0 micrometer band indicates some small amount of ferrous iron is also present and the feature at 1.9 micrometers indicates the presence of water. CRISM researchers believe the magnesium carbonate found in the Nili Fossae region formed from alteration of olivine by water.

    The data come from a CRISM image catalogued as FRT00003E12. The spectra shown here are five-pixel-by-five-pixel averages of CRISM L-detector spectra taken from three different areas within the image that have then been ratioed to a five-pixel-by-five-pixel common denominator spectrum taken from a spectrally unremarkable area with no distinctive mineralogic signatures. This technique highlights the spectral contrasts between regions due to their unique mineralogy. The spectral wavelengths near 2.0 micrometers are affected by atmospheric absorptions and have been removed for clarity.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars

  4. The complex arrangement of an "aorto-jejunal paraduodenal" fossa, as revealed by dissection of human posterior parietal peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Barberini, Fabrizio; Zani, Augusto; Ripani, Maurizio; Di Nitto, Valentina; Brunone, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal fossae derive from normal or anomalous coalescence of the peritoneum during fetal development, or from the course of retroperitoneal vessels. Clinically, internal abdominal hernias may be housed inside these fossae. In this report from an autopsy, a singular peritoneal fossa was delimited superiorly by an arcuate serous fold, raised up by the inferior mesenteric vein, and infero-posteriorly by two (right and left) avascular folds, extending from the abdominal aorta to the jejunum. The right fold reached the duodeno-jejunal flexure, which was located on the right side of the aorta. The left fold subdivided into two, anterior and posterior, secondary folds. The anterior fold reached the superior edge of the first jejunal loop, and the posterior fold turned medially to connect with the inferior edge of the proximal limb of the same loop. This fossa consisted of three recesses: superior, Located behind the subserous vascular arch, antero-inferior and postero-inferior, separated by interposition of the left posterior secondary fold, between the jejunum and aorta. The complex arrangement of this fossa suggests that it might have originated from a coalescence arising beyond the duodeno-jejunal flexure and including the first jejunal loop, and from the subserous course of the inferior mesenteric vein. Because of displacement to the right of the flexure, processes of coalescence in a location normally occupied by the ascending duodenum might have occurred in a similar pattern for the jejunum, involving the mesoduodenum and the proximal part of the mesentery. Labyrinthine fossae like this might cause strangulation of internal abdominal hernias and hinder intraoperative maneuvers.

  5. Solitary median maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Bolan, Michele; Derech, Carla D'Agostini; Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Pereira, Eliana Ternes; Almeida, Izabel Cristina Santos

    2009-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCIS) is a rare abnormality characterized by the presence of a central incisor positioned at the maxillary mid-axis. This morphologic defect also can be associated with other diseases. The purpose of this paper was to present a case report of a 4-year-old twin child with SMMCIS. The patient showed a symmetrical primary maxillary central incisor located at the midline, with an absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum, and an incisive papilla. Radiographic examination confirmed the presence of only a maxillary central incisor in both dentitions. The patient was referred for a genetic and otolaryngological assessment, however, no other abnormality than the ones reported were detected.

  6. Costello syndrome: Analysis of the posterior cranial fossa in children with posterior fossa crowding.

    PubMed

    Calandrelli, Rosalinda; D'Apolito, Gabriella; Marco, Panfili; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) to shed light on the mechanism of cerebellar herniation in children with Costello syndrome (CS) and posterior fossa crowding. We performed a morphovolumetric PCF analysis on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven children with CS (mean age 31 ± 16 months) comparing the MRI scans with those of seven age-matched healthy subjects.PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV) and cerebellar volume (CeV) were assessed on axial T2-weighted MRI. Morphometric parameters (diameters of the foramen magnum, tentorial angle, basiocciput, supraocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths) were measured on sagittal T1-weighted MRI. The volume of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces was calculated as PCFV minus PCFBV.Five out of seven CS children showed tonsillar herniation in the upper cervical canal; no child had hydrocephalus but three out of seven children showed ventriculomegaly. In addition, the PCFV/PCFBV ratio, PCFV, CSF spaces volume, basiocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths and latero-lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the foramen magnum were significantly reduced, whereas no significant changes were found in supraocciput length, PCFBV, CeV or hindbrain volume. The volumetric reduction of the PCF due to bony posterior fossa hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for developing cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum in children with CS. The altered anatomy of the foramen magnum and upward expansion of the PCF secondary to an increased tentorial slope serves to explain the possible mechanism of cerebellar herniation in patients with CS.

  7. Costello syndrome: Analysis of the posterior cranial fossa in children with posterior fossa crowding

    PubMed Central

    D’Apolito, Gabriella; Panfili, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) to shed light on the mechanism of cerebellar herniation in children with Costello syndrome (CS) and posterior fossa crowding. We performed a morphovolumetric PCF analysis on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven children with CS (mean age 31 ± 16 months) comparing the MRI scans with those of seven age-matched healthy subjects. PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV) and cerebellar volume (CeV) were assessed on axial T2-weighted MRI. Morphometric parameters (diameters of the foramen magnum, tentorial angle, basiocciput, supraocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths) were measured on sagittal T1-weighted MRI. The volume of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces was calculated as PCFV minus PCFBV. Five out of seven CS children showed tonsillar herniation in the upper cervical canal; no child had hydrocephalus but three out of seven children showed ventriculomegaly. In addition, the PCFV/PCFBV ratio, PCFV, CSF spaces volume, basiocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths and latero-lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the foramen magnum were significantly reduced, whereas no significant changes were found in supraocciput length, PCFBV, CeV or hindbrain volume The volumetric reduction of the PCF due to bony posterior fossa hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for developing cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum in children with CS. The altered anatomy of the foramen magnum and upward expansion of the PCF secondary to an increased tentorial slope serves to explain the possible mechanism of cerebellar herniation in patients with CS. PMID:26246091

  8. Functional morphology of the Neandertal scapular glenoid fossa.

    PubMed

    Macias, Marisa E; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Neandertals and Homo sapiens are known to differ in scapular glenoid fossa morphology. Functional explanations may be appropriate for certain aspects of glenoid fossa morphology; however, other factors--e.g., allometry, evolutionary development--must be addressed before functional morphology is considered. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, shape of the scapular glenoid fossa was compared among Neandertals, early and recent modern humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, Australopithecus afarensis, and Au. sediba. Permutation analysis revealed that side, sex, and lifestyle did not correlate with shape. Of the features we found to differ between groups, anterior glenoid rim morphology and fossa curvature did not correlate with the aforementioned shape variables; thus, a functional explanation is appropriate for these components of glenoid fossa shape. Shared morphology among recent humans and chimpanzees (to the exclusion of Neandertals and orangutans) suggests independent forces contributing to these morphological configurations. Potential explanations include adaptations to habitual behavior and locomotor adaptations in the scapulae of recent humans and chimpanzees; these explanations are supported by clinical and experimental literature. The absence of these morphological features in Neandertals may support the lack of these selective forces on their scapular glenoid fossa morphology.

  9. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, H; Rhoton, A L; Peace, D

    1988-07-01

    The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns was examined in 15 cadavers using 3X to 40X magnification. Liliequist's membrane was found to split into two arachnoidal sheets as it spreads upward from the dorsum sellae: an upper sheet, called the diencephalic membrane, which attaches to the diencephalon at the posterior edge of the mamillary bodies, and a lower sheet, called the mesencephalic membrane, which attaches along the junction of the midbrain and pons. Several other arachnoidal membranes that separate the cisterns were identified. These include the anterior pontine membrane, which separates the prepontine and cerebellopontine cisterns; the lateral pontomesencephalic membrane, which separates the ambient and cerebellopontine cisterns; the medial pontomedullary membrane, which separates the premedullary and prepontine cisterns; and the lateral pontomedullary membrane, which separates the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns. The three cisterns in which the arachnoid trabeculae and membranes are the most dense and present the greatest obstacle at operation are the interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns and the cisterna magna. Numerous arachnoid membranes were found to intersect the oculomotor nerves. The neural and vascular structures in each cistern are reviewed.

  10. Endoscopic ligation of the internal maxillary artery for treatment of intractable posterior epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Pritikin, J B; Caldarelli, D D; Panje, W R

    1998-02-01

    Lack of universal success with both transantral ligation of the internal maxillary artery and percutaneous embolization of the distal branches of the internal maxillary distribution has led to consideration of alternative techniques to control intractable posterior epistaxis. One such technique takes advantage of advances in endoscopic technology and instrumentation, as well as a nearly constant anatomic configuration. The internal maxillary artery divides into terminal branches within the pterygomaxillary fossa, sending branches through the bony maxilla to exit the posterolateral nasal wall in the posterior aspect of the middle meatus. Endoscopic identification and ligation of these terminal branches of the internal maxillary artery (the sphenopalatine and nasopalatine arteries) as they exit the maxilla has been performed on 10 patients with a 100% success rate and no morbidity or mortality associated with the procedure. These results compare favorably to the average reported success rates of 89% for transantral ligation and 94% for percutaneous embolization, and average complication rates of 28% and 27%, respectively. This endonasal procedure has been performed for spontaneous epistaxis as well as postsurgical nasal bleeding with equal success. The ascending scale of treatment previously outlined in the literature may be amended, as a potentially definitive procedure is available, and we believe that this technique is easier to perform, has less associated morbidity, and has equal efficacy in comparison to transantral ligation or percutaneous embolization in the treatment of intractable posterior epistaxis.

  11. Pilot Study Examining the Safety and Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxylapatite Filler With Integral Lidocaine Over a 12-Month Period to Correct Temporal Fossa Volume Loss.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit L W; Levin, Melissa K; Marmur, Ellen S

    2017-08-29

    Age-related volume loss in the temporal fossae is due to thinning of the epidermis, loss of subcutaneous structural volume, and change in the bony architecture. Temporal concavities are important areas of 3-dimensional volume restoration. The temporal fossae is becoming an increasingly popular area for patients seeking soft tissue augmentation with injectable fillers such as calcium hydroxylapatite with integral lidocaine [CaHA (+)]. This pilot study aims to define the safety, efficacy, technique, and patient-reported outcomes for injectable CaHA (+) to correct volume loss in the temporal fossae over a 12-month period. This was a single-investigator, nonblinded study involving 20 participants. Participants received filler injection into their temporal fossae, with follow-up evaluations at Day 14, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. CaHA (+) results in statistically significant improvement in temporal fossae appearance lasting up to 12 months. Subjects reported "moderate" global aesthetic improvement over the 12-month period. As the cosmetic field continues to advance, it is important for practitioners to have access to research regarding the efficacy and safety of injectables. These results show that CaHA (+) is an effective and safe option to correct temporal fossae volume loss associated with high patient satisfaction.

  12. Clinical studies of photodynamic therapy for malignant brain tumors: facial nerve palsy after temporal fossa photoillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Varma, Abhay; Bogaards, Arjen; Fullagar, Tim; Fenstermaker, Robert; Selker, Robert; Abrams, Judith

    2003-06-01

    In two randomized prospective studies of brain tumor PDT more than 180 patients have been accrued. At the Toronto site we recognized two patients who developed a lower motor neuron (LMN) facial paralysis in the week following the PDT treatment. In both cases a temporal lobectomy was undertaken and the residual tumor cavity was photo-illuminated. The surface illuminated included the temporal fossa floor, thus potentially exposing the facial nerve to the effect of PDT. The number of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital tumors in this cohort was 39, 24, 12 and 4, respectively. Of the 24 temporal tumors 18 were randomized to Photofrin-PDT. Of these 18 a temporal lobectomy was carried out exposing the middle fossa floor as part of the tumor resection. In two of the 10 patients where the lobectomy was carried out and the fossa floor was exposed to light there occurred a postoperative facial palsy. Both patients recovered facial nerve function in 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. 46 J/cm2 were used in the former and 130 J/cm2 in the latter. We did not encounter a single post-operative LMN facial plasy in the 101 phase 2 patients treated with Photofrin-PDT. Among 688 supratentorial brain tumor operations in the last decade involving all pathologies and all locations no case of early post-operative LMN facial palsy was identified in the absence of PDT. One further patient who had a with post-PDT facial palsy was identified at the Denver site. Although it is possible that these patients had incidental Bell's palsy, we now recommend shielding the temporal fossa floor during PDT.

  13. Traumatic displacement of maxillary permanent incisor into the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Bueno, Sebastião Cristian; da Silveira, Daniel Trivelato; Custódio, Antônio Luís Neto

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe a case of unviable alveolar repositioning of an intruded tooth into the nasal cavity and to bring the subject of intrusive tooth injury among patients with dentoalveolar fractures to the attention of trauma surgeons. A 26-year-old male was involved in a car accident and crashed his mouth against the dashboard due to sudden deceleration. Intraoral examination revealed an anterior maxillary dentoalveolar fracture and absence of the central maxillary incisors, right lateral maxillary incisor, and left maxillary canine. Computed tomography showed a dislocated tooth in the nasal cavity. The "missing" left maxillary canine was easily recovered from the floor of the left nostril. Because complete dislocation of a tooth can cause a frontal sinus abscess, an airway complication, a respiratory tract obstruction, and a complicated lung abscess or sinusitis, anytime a tooth is not accounted for after a dentoalveolar trauma, the possibility that it has been fully intruded should be considered. Computed tomographic scan should be a routine diagnostic study in all cases with associated missing anatomical structures in the oral and maxillofacial region. The need to involve the dental professional in the initial assessment of dental trauma in emergency rooms in hospitals is important in order to identify how many teeth might be missing after dental trauma and to correctly reposition the avulsed teeth when possible.

  14. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  16. The Age of the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a complicated and discontinuous formation located in the southern parts of Elysium Planitia and Amazonis Planitia (130°-230°E and 12°S-12°N), covering an area of approximately 2.1 x 106 km2 and having an estimated volume of 1.4 x 106 km3 [1]. It is thought to have been deposited during the Amazonian period [2,3]. However, much of the cratering record may have been erased as friable units were eroded and long-buried terrains exhumed [4-6]. The formation is characterized by large accumulations of fine-grained, friable deposits and evidence of large amounts of erosion. There are many theories regarding the emplacement of this formation; recently the literature has focused on three possibilities: ignimbrites, ash fall, and aeolian dust. Some modified and inverted fluvial channels have been found within the deposit [7,8], (Fig. 1), indicating that there was some fluvial activity during or after the emplacement of the MFF. If the MFF is among the youngest surficial deposits on Mars [9], it is implied that meandering, channelized flow must have extended into the Amazonian, a significant constraint when considering the atmospheric evolution of the planet through time. Because of the wide implications that these findings have for the evolution of Mars and the Martian atmosphere, it is instructive to re-examine the evidence for the Amazonian age of the MFF. The initial conclusion comes from two main arguments: the relatively few superposed craters on the unit, and the superposition of the MFF on young lowland lava deposits [1, 9]. Using new high resolution data, we reexamine the relationships both within the MFF and with respect to adjacent units. Cratering Record The cratering record of the MFF and other easily eroded units has often been deemed unreliable [4, 10, 12], but it continues to be cited as evidence for the formation's young age. Throughout the MFF, pedestal craters, inverted craters, and remnant knobs can be

  17. Three-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joint after maxillary protraction in children with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunju; Son, Woo-Sung; Kwak, Chun; Kang, Eun-Hee; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 3-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joints of children with skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency after facemask therapy for maxillary protraction. Eighteen children with anterior crossbite and a Class III molar relationship underwent facemask therapy for maxillary protraction, after which they exhibited positive overjet and a Class II molar relationship. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images of the patients were obtained before (T1) and after (T2) facemask protraction, and the 3-dimensional coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in T1 and T2 images were compared. After facemask therapy, the mandibular condyles of the patients were displaced outside, upward, and backward. Additionally, the anterior and posterior walls of the glenoid fossa had negative values for anteroposterior change. Three-dimensional analysis of the temporomandibular joint showed that facemask therapy resulted in bone apposition (to the anterior wall) and bone resorption (of the posterior wall) in the glenoid fossa. This bone remodeling resulted in upward and backward displacement of the condyle.(J Oral Sci 58, 501-508, 2016).

  18. Spontaneous defects between the mastoid and posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Rereddy, Shruthi K; Mattox, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions Spontaneous defects between the mastoid and the posterior cranial fossa are exceedingly rare. Patients with these lesions may have a lower BMI compared to those with middle cranial fossa encephaloceles, but are otherwise demographically similar. This study recommends repair via a transtemporal approach to allow for examination of the entire posterior face of the temporal bone. Objective To describe cases of spontaneous posterior cranial fossa defects. Methods This study reviewed all cases of spontaneous posterior fossa defects presenting to a tertiary referral center over the last decade and described clinical presentation, imaging, operative findings, and outcomes. We also compared these lesions to those previously reported in the literature as well as the more common spontaneous encephaloceles of the middle cranial fossa. Results This study identified five cases with a mean age of 61.4 years, female-to-male ratio of 4:1, and a mean BMI of 31. Three cases presented with spontaneous pneumocephalus, one with CSF otorrhea, and one as an incidental imaging finding. Four defects were found medial to the sigmoid sinus and one was in the lateral retrosigmoid air cells.

  19. [Evolution of maxillary sinus surgery in a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Waizel-Haiat, Salomón; Solano-Mendoza, María del Carmen; Vargas-Aguayo, Alejandro Martin

    2012-01-01

    Maxillary sinus surgery has been evolving and, due to advances in technology, endoscopic surgery is widely used in the maxillary sinus for multiple pathologies that 15 years ago were treated through open approaches. For this reason, we conducted an observational descriptive study. We reviewed the clinical records of patients with pathology involving the maxillary sinus and who were surgically treated from January 2008 to December 2009, type of disease, surgical approach used, presence of complications, pre- and postoperative score according to the Lund-Mackay scale, and resolution (or not) of symptoms. We compared these results with a previous study carried out in 1994 in our hospital. We found a total of 177 patients with maxillary sinus-related pathology, of whom 46 patients were excluded. In 131 patients we found a clear predominance of chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps as a pre-surgical diagnosis. We used four different approaches: endoscopic (88.5%), combined approach (5.5%), sublabial expanded (4.5%) and Caldwell Luc (1.5%); 41% of the patients received 0 points on the postoperative Lund-Mackay scale. Surgery of the maxillary sinus in our hospital has evolved considerably; the endoscopic approach was used as a surgical treatment in >90% of patients with a low percentage of complications.

  20. Unilateral Maxillary Sinus Actinomycosis with a Closed Oroantral Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Lentner, Mark; Li, Hui; Nagorsky, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a bacterial infection due to Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive, anaerobic organism that normally affects the cervicofacial region. However, facial injury or trauma (i.e., dental procedures) can allow this bacteria to inhabit other regions. There have been rare reports of actinomycosis of the paranasal sinuses. We present a case of a 50-year-old female who originally presented with a suspected oroantral fistula who subsequently was found to have actinomycosis involving her right maxillary sinus. Additionally, the dental extraction site revealed no connection with the maxillary sinus. We discuss the diagnostic approach and management of this patient as it relates to the limited existing literature. PMID:28352486

  1. Management of an unusual maxillary dentoalveolar fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, A R; Tauro, David P; Shubha, A B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the management of a trauma-induced maxillary dentoalveolar fracture of the right maxilla in an 8-year-old boy. The child presented with swelling of the right maxillary region, difficulty in chewing and closing the mouth, and a sutured laceration on the cheek. Complete palatal displacement of the fractured fragment involving the deciduous canine and molars was observed clinically and confirmed by radiological examination. The fracture was reduced and stabilized using a custom-fabricated, open-cap acrylic splint with modified interdental wiring under general anesthesia.

  2. Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

  3. Fossa navicularis magna detection on cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mupparapu, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report and discuss the detection of fossa navicularis magna, a close radiographic anatomic variant of canalis basilaris medianus of the basiocciput, as an incidental finding in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The CBCT data of the patients in question were referred for the evaluation of implant sites and to rule out pathology in the maxilla and mandible. CBCT analysis showed osseous, notch-like defects on the inferior aspect of the clivus in all four cases. The appearance of fossa navicularis magna varied among the cases. In some, it was completely within the basiocciput and mimicked a small rounded, corticated, lytic defect, whereas it appeared as a notch in others. Fossa navicularis magna is an anatomical variant that occurs on the inferior aspect of the clivus. The pertinent literature on the anatomical variations occurring in this region was reviewed. PMID:27051639

  4. Ganglion cyst in the supraspinous fossa: arthroscopically undetectable cases.

    PubMed

    Shimokobe, Hisao; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Eiichiro; Kume, Shinichiro; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Nagata, Kensei; Shiba, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes of arthroscopic decompression for ganglion cyst in the supraspinous fossa; however, little attention has been paid to the difficulty in detecting these cysts during arthroscopy. In this report, we present 2 cases in which ganglion cysts in the supraspinous fossa were undetectable during arthroscopy. The ganglion cysts were not identified in these cases during surgery despite arthroscopic decompression being performed through the area in which the cyst was expected until the suprascapular nerve was entirely exposed. After surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the disappearance of the ganglion cyst and external rotation strength was fully improved, without shoulder pain. We emphasize here that surgeons should be aware of this difficulty when performing arthroscopic decompression of ganglion cysts in the supraspinous fossa.

  5. Combined simultaneous transcranial and endoscopic endonasal resection of sphenoorbital meningioma extending into the sphenoid sinus, pterygopalatine fossa, and infratemporal fossa

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Masahide; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Shuho; Matsumura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sphenoorbital meningiomas are surgically challenging because of their nature to extend to adjacent structures. Here, we describe a case of recurrent sphenoorbital meningioma extending into the sphenoid sinus, pterygopalatine fossa, and infratemporal fossa, which was resected using combined simultaneous transcranial and endoscopic endonasal approaches. Case Description: A 62-year-old man who had 15 years earlier undergone partial resection of a left sphenoorbital meningioma presented with a 1-year history of progressive proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a Gd-enhancing tumor occupying the left sphenoid wing and orbital lateral wall and extending into extracranial structures such as the sphenoid sinus, pterygopalatine fossa, and infratemporal fossa as well as adjacent structures such as the cavernous sinus and superior orbital fissure (SOF). Based on the MRI findings of tumor extension into the sphenoid sinus with broad continuity, the risk of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage through the large defect in the sphenoid sinus was considered high. Subtotal resection using combined simultaneous transzygomatic and endoscopic endonasal approaches was performed, leaving residual tumor in the cavernous sinus and SOF. The large skull base defect between the middle fossa and sphenoid sinus was covered with a free graft of fascia lata from the transcranial side and with a vascularized nasoseptal flap from the endonasal side. No CSF rhinorrhea and no neurological deficits developed postoperatively. Conclusion: Combined simultaneous transcranial and endoscopic endonasal approaches may become a safe and feasible alternative for sphenoorbital meningioma with a large skull base defect penetrating to the paranasal sinus.

  6. Internal Maxillary Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Bypass: Infratemporal Approach for Subcranial-Intracranial (SC-IC) Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nossek, Erez; Costantino, Peter D.; Eisenberg, Mark; Dehdashti, Amir R.; Setton, Avi; Chalif, David J.; Ortiz, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internal maxillary artery (IMax)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass has been recently described as an alternative to cervical extracranial-intracranial bypass. This technique uses a “keyhole” craniectomy in the temporal fossa that requires a technically challenging end-to-side anastomosis. OBJECTIVE: To describe a lateral subtemporal craniectomy of the middle cranial fossa floor to facilitate wide exposure of the IMax to facilitate bypass. METHODS: Orbitozygomatic osteotomy is used followed by frontotemporal craniotomy and subsequently laterotemporal fossa craniectomy, reaching its medial border at a virtual line connecting the foramen rotundum and foramen ovale. The IMax was identified by using established anatomic landmarks, neuronavigation, and micro Doppler probe (Mizuho Inc. Tokyo, Japan). Additionally, we studied the approach in a cadaveric specimen in preparation for microsurgical bypass. RESULTS: There were 4 cases in which the technique was used. One bypass was performed for flow augmentation in a hypoperfused hemisphere. The other 3 were performed as part of treatment paradigms for giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms. Vein grafts were used in all patients. The proximal anastomosis was performed in an end-to-side fashion in 1 patient and end-to-end in 3 patients. Intraoperative graft flow measured with the Transonic flow probe ranged from 20 to 60 mL/min. Postoperative angiography demonstrated good filling of the graft with robust distal flow in all cases. All patients tolerated the procedure well. CONCLUSION: IMax to middle cerebral artery subcranial-intracranial bypass is safe and efficacious. The laterotemporal fossa craniectomy technique resulted in reliable identification and wide exposure of the IMax, facilitating the proximal anastomosis. ABBREVIATIONS: EC-IC, extracranial-intracranial IMax, internal maxillary artery MCA, middle cerebral artery SC-IC, subcranial-intracranial STA, superficial temporal artery PMID:24618804

  7. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pavuluri, Chaitanya; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral in either of the jaws. This paper reports the presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth in the right maxillary central incisor region with trauma involving both maxillary central incisors and also the management of the supernumerary tooth and traumatized teeth in a 14-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Pavuluri C, Nuvvula S. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):30-32.

  8. Discovery of Olivine in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, T.M.; Clark, R.N.; Bandfield, J.L.; Smith, M.D.; Pearl, J.C.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    We have detected a 30,000-square-kilometer area rich in olivine in the Nili Fossae region of Mars. Nili Fossae has been interpreted as a complex of grabens and fractures related to the formation of the Isidis impact basin. We propose that post-impact faulting of this area has exposed subsurface layers rich in olivine. Linear mixture analysis of Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectra shows surface exposures of 30% olivine, where the composition of the olivine ranges from Fo30 to Fo70.

  9. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet in Rosenmuller Fossa: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Joshua D.; Glenn, Chad A.; Conner, Andrew K.; Bonney, Phillip A.; Sanclement, Jose A.; Sughrue, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the anterior skull base may occur in gunshot victims and can result in traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Less commonly, CSF leaks occur days or even weeks after the trauma occurred. Here, we present the case of a 21-year-old man with a delayed-onset, traumatic CSF leak secondary to a missile injury that left a bullet fragment in the Rosenmuller fossa. The patient was treated successfully with endoscopic, endonasal extraction of the bullet, and repair with a nasal septal flap. Foreign bodies lodged in Rosenmuller fossa can be successfully treated with endoscopic skull base surgery. PMID:27330924

  10. Dual embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors: clinical implications in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Rosar, Julia Petruccelli; Sathler, Renata; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are craniofacial anomalies highly prevalent in the overall population. In oral clefts involving the alveolar ridge, variations of number, shape, size and position are observed in maxillary lateral incisors. The objective of this manuscript is to elucidate the embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors in order to understand the etiology of these variations. Contextualization: The hypothesis that orofacial clefts would split maxillary lateral incisor buds has been previously reported. However, recent studies showed that maxillary lateral incisors have dual embryonic origin, being partially formed by both the medial nasal process and the maxillary process. In other words, the mesial half of the lateral incisor seems to come from the medial nasal process while the distal half of the lateral incisor originates from the maxillary process. In cleft patients, these processes do not fuse, which results in different numerical and positional patterns for lateral incisors relating to the alveolar cleft. In addition to these considerations, this study proposes a nomenclature for maxillary lateral incisors in patients with cleft lip and palate, based on embryology and lateral incisors position in relation to the alveolar cleft. Conclusion: Embryological knowledge on the dual origin of maxillary lateral incisors and the use of a proper nomenclature for their numerical and positional variations renders appropriate communication among professionals and treatment planning easier, in addition to standardizing research analysis. PMID:26560830

  11. A Comparison between splenic fossa and subhepatic fossa auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Wang, Zhifei; Shen, Jie; Yu, Feiyan; Xie, Limei; Pan, Yongming; Lin, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To test the alternative possible locations for the placement of a liver graft and the relevant surgical technique issues, we developed a porcine model of auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation (APHLT) and evaluated the difference between 2 styles of liver transplantation, either subhepatic fossa or splenic fossa APHLT, by comparing survival and biochemical indexes. Thirty‐eight miniature pigs were randomly divided into 2 groups. A left hemihepatic graft without the middle hepatic vein (HV) was procured from the living donor. In group A (n = 9), an 8 mm diameter polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft approximately 2.5 cm long was connected to the left HV while another PTFE graft of the same size was connected to the left portal vein (PV). The liver graft was implanted in the right subhepatic fossa following splenectomy and right nephrectomy. In group B (n = 10), a PTFE graft of the same size was connected to the left HV while the liver graft was implanted in the splenic fossa following splenectomy and left nephrectomy. Survival rate and complications were observed at 2 weeks after transplantation. Data were collected from 5 animals in group A and 6 animals in group B that survived longer than 2 weeks. The liver function and renal function of the recipients returned to normal at 1 week after surgery in both groups. Eighty‐eight percent (14/16) of the PTFE grafts remained patent at 2 weeks after surgery, but 44% of the PTFE grafts (7/16) developed mural thrombus. No significant differences in the survival rate and biochemistry were found between the 2 groups. In conclusion, the splenic fossa APHLT can achieve beneficial outcomes similar to the subhepatic fossa APHLT in miniature pigs, although it also has a high morbidity rate due to hepatic artery thrombosis, PV thrombosis, and PTEF graft mural thrombus formation. Liver Transplantation 22 812–821 2016 AASLD. PMID:26785299

  12. Sex determination using maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kanthem, Ranjith Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Yeluri, Sivaranjani; Kumari, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individual identification is a subtle concept and often one of the most important priorities in mass disasters, road accidents, air crashes, fires, and even in the investigation of criminal cases. Matching specific features detected on the cadaver with data recorded during the life of an individual is an important aspect in forensics, and can be performed by fingerprint analysis, deoxyribonucleic acid matching, anthropological methods, radiological methods and other techniques which can facilitate age and sex identification. Sinus radiography is one such method that has been used for determination of the sex of an individual. Hence, an attempt is being made to use the different dimensions of the maxillary sinus in the determination of sex using coronal and axial sections of plain computed tomography (CT) scan. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients including 17 male and 13 female, visiting the Outpatient Department of the Mamata General Hospital were included as the study subjects. The dimensions of right and left maxillary sinuses of 30 subjects from plain CT were measured using SYNGO software and statistical analysis was done. Results: Sex determination using height, length, width, and volume of the maxillary sinus on both sides showed statistically significant results with a higher percentage of sexual dimorphism in the case of volume. Conclusion: Volume of the right maxillary sinus can be used as accurate diagnostic parameter for sex determination. PMID:26005308

  13. Fretted Terrain Valley in Coloe Fossae Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    The image in figure 1 shows lineated valley fill in one of a series of enclosed, intersecting troughs known as Coloe (Choloe) Fossae. Lineated valley fill consists of rows of material in valley centers that are parallel to the valley walls. It is probably made of ice-rich material and boulders that are left behind when the ice-rich material sublimates. Very distinct rows can be seen near the south (bottom) wall of the valley. Lineated valley fill is thought to result from mass wasting (downslope movement) of ice-rich material from valley walls towards their centers. It is commonly found in valleys near the crustal dichotomy that separates the two hemispheres of Mars. The valley shown here joins four other valleys with lineated fill near the top left corner of this image. Their juncture is a topographic low, suggesting that the lineated valley fill from the different valleys may be flowing or creeping towards the low area (movement towards the upper left of the image). The valley walls appear smooth at first glance but are seen to be speckled with small craters several meters in diameter at HiRISE resolution (see contrast-enhanced subimage). This indicates that at least some of the wall material has been stable to mass wasting for some period of time. Also seen on the valley wall are elongated features shaped like teardrops. These are most likely slightly older craters that have been degraded due to potentially recent downhill creep. It is unknown whether the valley walls are shedding material today. The subimage is approximately 140 x 400 m (450 x 1280 ft).

    Image PSP_001372_2160 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 11, 2006. The complete image is centered at 35.5 degrees latitude, 56.8 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 290.3 km (181

  14. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasal fossa.

    PubMed

    González-Lagunas, Javier; Alasà-Caparrós, Cristian; Vendrell-Escofet, Gerard; Huguet-Redecilla, Pere; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of a T4N2CMx polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma located in the nasal fossae and extending to the pterygoid area is presented. The primary tumor was excised through a Lefort I maxillotomy and the neck was managed with a supraomohyoid neck dissection. Adjuntive postoperative radiotherapy was also administered to the patient.

  15. Mandibular fossa morphology in the Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Durband, Arthur C

    2008-10-01

    There has been debate in recent years concerning the significance of the mandibular fossa morphology in the Ngandong and Sambungmacan hominids. These fossils lack a postglenoid process and their squamotympanic fissure runs along the apex of the fossa for its entire length. This configuration differs from that seen in other fossil and modern humans, which have a prominent postglenoid process and a squamotympanic fissure that takes a more posterior course that does not lie in the apex of the fossa. Some recent studies have suggested that the Ngandong and Sambungmacan hominids are not unique in their expression of these characteristics, and that they can also be found in other fossil crania from Africa and Indonesia. The present study reexamines these morphologies in an effort to better understand their distribution in the hominid fossil record. The results confirm that the lack of a prominent postglenoid process in combination with a squamotympanic fissure that lies wholly in the apex of the mandibular fossa along its entire length is indeed autapomorphic for the Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils. This finding, in conjunction with work on other nonmetric features in these hominids, suggests that at least two hominid morphs, possibly representing separate species, were present on Java during the Pleistocene. In addition, if this apparent autapomorphy is confirmed, then it is also unlikely that the Ngandong hominids contributed to the gene pool of modern humans.

  16. Piezosurgery for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Aanand N; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the use of a piezosurgery medical device to perform a craniotomy and produce a split calvarial graft for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral hospital. Ten consecutive patients undergoing middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of meningoencephaloceles. Therapeutic. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, success rate as defined by the ability to fashion a split calvarial graft that achieves complete closure of the tegmen defect. As a secondary outcome measure, evidence of integration of the split calvarial bone graft with the adjacent skull base was assessed. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. An appropriately sized calvarial bone graft was produced, and complete closure of the tegmen defect was achieved in all 10 cases. Computed tomography demonstrated evidence of integration of the bone graft in eight cases between 4 and 9 months after surgery. The piezosurgery medical device provides a safe and effective means by which the middle fossa craniotomy and split calvarial bone graft can be produced to repair defects of the middle fossa tegmen, with integration of the bone graft in the majority of cases.

  17. The Prevalence of Concha Bullosa and Nasal Septal Deviation and Their Relationship to Maxillary Sinusitis by Volumetric Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    sinusitis is evident. females (41.8%; P < .0001). 12.1% had right maxillary sinusitis , 15.6% had left-sided involvement , and 21.0% had bilateral sinus ...19.9%) 395 (80.1%) 206 (41.8%) 287 (58.2%) Figure 3: Coronal CT scan demonstrating bilateral maxillary sinusitis (arrows). The degree of sinus ...concha. There is similar degree of sinus inflammation in both maxillary sinuses . of 171 patients with deviated septum had no evidence of maxillary

  18. Three-dimensional assessment of the temporomandibular joint and mandibular dimensions after early correction of the maxillary arch form in patients with Class II division 1 or division 2 malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Ciger, Semra

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess three-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joint positions and mandibular dimensions after correction of dental factors restricting mandibular growth in patients with Class II division 1 or division 2 malocclusion in the pubertal growth period. Methods This prospective clinical study included 14 patients each with Class II division 1 (group I) and Class II division 2 (group II) malocclusions. The quad-helix was used for maxillary expansion, while utility arches were used for intrusion (group I) or protrusion and intrusion (group II) of the maxillary incisors. After approximately 2 months of treatment, an adequate maxillary arch width and acceptable maxillary incisor inclination were obtained. The patients were followed for an average of 6 months. Intraoral and extraoral photographs, plaster models, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained before and after treatment. Lateral cephalometric and temporomandibular joint measurements were made from the CBCT images. Results The mandibular dimensions increased in both groups, although mandibular positional changes were also found in group II. There were no differences in the condylar position within the mandibular fossa or the condylar dimensions. The mandibular fossa depth and condylar positions were symmetrical at treatment initiation and completion. Conclusions Class II malocclusion can be partially corrected by achieving an ideal maxillary arch form, particularly in patients with Class II division 2 malocclusion. Restrictions of the mandible in the transverse or sagittal plane do not affect the temporomandibular joint positions in these patients because of the high adaptability of this joint. PMID:26023540

  19. Three-dimensional assessment of the temporomandibular joint and mandibular dimensions after early correction of the maxillary arch form in patients with Class II division 1 or division 2 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Coskuner, Hande Gorucu; Ciger, Semra

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess three-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joint positions and mandibular dimensions after correction of dental factors restricting mandibular growth in patients with Class II division 1 or division 2 malocclusion in the pubertal growth period. This prospective clinical study included 14 patients each with Class II division 1 (group I) and Class II division 2 (group II) malocclusions. The quad-helix was used for maxillary expansion, while utility arches were used for intrusion (group I) or protrusion and intrusion (group II) of the maxillary incisors. After approximately 2 months of treatment, an adequate maxillary arch width and acceptable maxillary incisor inclination were obtained. The patients were followed for an average of 6 months. Intraoral and extraoral photographs, plaster models, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained before and after treatment. Lateral cephalometric and temporomandibular joint measurements were made from the CBCT images. The mandibular dimensions increased in both groups, although mandibular positional changes were also found in group II. There were no differences in the condylar position within the mandibular fossa or the condylar dimensions. The mandibular fossa depth and condylar positions were symmetrical at treatment initiation and completion. Class II malocclusion can be partially corrected by achieving an ideal maxillary arch form, particularly in patients with Class II division 2 malocclusion. Restrictions of the mandible in the transverse or sagittal plane do not affect the temporomandibular joint positions in these patients because of the high adaptability of this joint.

  20. Endoscopic retrieval of a dental Implant into the maxillary sinus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    BASSI, M. ANDREASI; ANDRISANI, C.; LICO, S.; ORMANIER, Z.; ARCURI, C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose In this article the Authors show a safe and predictable technique to remove displaced implants from the maxillary sinus. Materials and methods A 49-year-old female was referred, to this centre by a general dentist, for the retrieval of the ectopic dental implant. After a preliminary clinical and radiological evaluation of the case the surgical procedure was performed. A loco-regional anesthesia was carried out and then the Maxillary Sinus Retrieval Device (MSRD), proposed in this study, was inserted in the canine fossa, via a circular antrostomy 5,5mm wide, previous execution of a mucoperiosteal flap. The MSRD is a trocar, modified with a funnel-shaped cannula in order to allow the easy access of both an endoscope and a suction cannula or, in alternative, a straight forceps. The implant was easily found end retrieved thanks to the endoscopic control. The postoperative was uneventful and no nasal bleeding was reported by the patient. Conclusion The Authors recommend the use of the MSRD in order to minimize the biological sacrifice consequent to the implant retrieval in the maxillary sinus. PMID:28042433

  1. Frequency of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinus and response to surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Crovetto-Martínez, Rafael; Martin-Arregui, Francisco J.; Zabala-López-de-Maturana, Aitor; Tudela-Cabello, Kiara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Odontogenic sinusitis usually affects the maxillary sinus but may extend to the anterior ethmoid sinuses. The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid sinuses and determine also the surgical resolution differences between odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and odontogenic maxillary associated to anterior ethmoidal sinusitis. Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study performed on 55 patients diagnosed of odontogenic sinusitis and treated surgically by functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Results: This study showed that 52.7% of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis spreads to anterior ethmoid, causing added anterior ethmoid sinusitis. We found that 92.3% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (who underwent middle meatal antrostomy) and 96.5% of the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis extended to the anterior ethmoid (treated with middle meatal antrostomy and anterior ethmoidectomy) were cured. Conclusions: Ethmoid involvement is frequent in maxillary odontogenic sinusitis. The ethmoid involvement does not worsen the results of “functional endoscopic sinus surgery” applied to the odontogenic sinusitis. Key words:Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, ethmoiditis, functional endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:24608208

  2. [Fracture of the glenoid fossa without mandibular condylar dislocation or fracture: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Şahan, Murat; Derin, Serhan; Beydilli, Halil; Çullu, Neşet

    2014-01-01

    The mandibular condyle region which protects the middle cranial fossa from facial and jaw traumas has an excellent osteomuscular structure. Condylar structures reduce or limit the force of trauma. Most importantly, the condylar neck is the weakest part of the mandible and is easily fractured without dislocation. Generally, this mechanism prevents condylar penetration into the middle cranial fossa; however, there are condylar penetration into the middle cranial fossa can be rarely. Glenoid fossa fractures without mandibular condylar fracture and dislocation can be made. In this article, we present two cases to assess the isolated glenoid fossa fractures of the temporal bone.

  3. Maxillary and mandibular hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, A. H.; Thriveni, R.

    2012-01-01

    Brown tumor is a focal lesion differentiated from other giant cell tumor by the presence of hyperparathyroidism. These lesions are non-neoplastic and they appear as a mass with partly cystic and partly solid areas. Clinically they are slow growing lesions that can be locally destructive resulting in variety of symptoms such as significant bone swelling, pain and pathological fracture. Here is a female patient of 26 years with brown tumor involving mandible, maxilla and left knee joint. PMID:23251059

  4. Accuracy of a LeFort I maxillary osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Steven; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2005-11-01

    An optimal outcome of combined surgery and orthodontics involving the maxilla is dependent on many factors. Accurate placement of the maxilla by the surgical team is ultimately of paramount importance. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of LeFort I maxillary osteotomy with respect to the presurgical prediction. The sample comprised 42 patients (33 females, nine males) who had undergone LeFort I osteotomy procedure alone or in combination with a mandibular osteotomy with or without genioplasty. Tracings of presurgical and immediate postsurgical lateral cephalograms and surgical predictions were digitized and compared using Quick Ceph software analysis. Vertical and horizontal measurements to various skeletal landmarks were used to assess the discrepancy between the predicted maxillary position and the actual postsurgical result. Statistically significant differences were found between the predicted and actual postsurgical maxillary molar vertical position, and significant differences were also found for the palatal plane angular measurements. Two surgical teams were compared, and surgical team 1 had significantly less variation in the surgical outcomes than did surgical team 2. When single-jaw and bimaxillary surgery were compared, no significant differences were found. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences found when assessing the primary direction of movement (impaction vs downgraft vs advancement). Overall, 66% of the results were within two mm of prediction and 26% of the results were within one mm of prediction. A LeFort I maxillary osteotomy can be an accurate procedure with a wide range of discrepancy.

  5. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in a patient with cerebellar mutism after operation in posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Gedik, Gonca Kara; Sari, Oktay; Köktekir, Ender; Akdemir, Gökhan

    2017-04-01

    Cerebellar mutism is a transient period of speechlessness that evolves after posterior fossa surgery in children. Although direct cerebellar and brain stem injury and supratentorial dysfunction have been implicated in the mediation of mutism, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the evolution of this kind of mutism remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dentatothalamocortical tract injuries and single photon emission computed tomography showed cerebellar and cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with cerebellar mutism. However, findings with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in this group of patients have not been documented previously. In this clinical case, we report a patient who experienced cerebellar mutism after undergoing a posterior fossa surgery. Right cerebellar and left frontal lobe hypometabolism was shown using FDG PET/CT. The FDG metabolism of both the cerebellum and the frontal lobe returned to normal levels after the resolution of the mutism symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Pre-maxillary hypo-hyperdontia: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, S V S G; Mallineni, S K; Nuvvula, S

    2013-01-01

    Agenesis of bilateral maxillary canines is very rare and mesiodens is a commonly occurring supernumerary tooth type. Concomitant occurrence of both hypodontia and hyperdontia is extremely rare and it is a condition of mixed numeric variation in the same individual. The reported prevalence of this condition ranges between 0.002% and 3.1%. The purpose of this case report is to describe a rare occurrence of hypo-hyperdontia involving agenesis of both maxillary canines, mesiodens and associated with taurodontism.

  7. Maxillary haemangioma successfully resected by endoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, T; Inoue, R; Ohta, Y; Watanabe, Y; Iino, Y

    2009-07-01

    We report an extremely rare case of maxillary haemangioma. Case report and review of the literature concerning haemangioma arising from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Maxillary haemangioma is rare and sometimes requires wider resection than nasal haemangioma if a large tumour is found. We present a case of maxillary haemangioma in a 37-year-old Japanese woman, which was completely resected by pre-operative embolisation and endoscopic sinus surgery. Our findings suggest that if a large maxillary haemangioma is diagnosed pre-operatively, the treatment of choice is pre-operative embolisation followed by endoscopic sinus surgery, in order to avoid the surgical complications associated with wide resection.

  8. Posterior fossa imaging in 158 children with ataxia.

    PubMed

    Boddaert, N; Desguerre, I; Bahi-Buisson, N; Romano, S; Valayannopoulos, V; Saillour, Y; Seidenwurm, D; Grevent, D; Berteloot, L; Lebre, A-S; Zilbovicius, M; Puget, S; Salomon, R; Attie-Bitach, T; Munnich, A; Brunelle, F; de Lonlay, P

    2010-10-01

    To propose a MRI cerebellar algorithm that may be applied to guide genetic/malformative or biochemical investigations for patients with cerebellar ataxia. Cerebral MRI of 158 patients with cerebellar ataxia and no supratentorial abnormality were examined according to a new categorization system based on posterior fossa imaging. The clinical and radiological findings were confronted to biochemical and/or genetic results using the MR cerebellar algorithm. Seven groups of cerebellar MRI pattern were described: vermian dysgenesis (n=27), cerebellar hypoplasia (n=15), hemispheric cerebellar dysgenesis (n=6), unilateral hemispheric atrophy (n=5), global cerebellar atrophy (n=84), signal abnormalities (n=11) and normal MRI (n=10). Cerebellar hypoplasia, vermian dysgenesis and hemispheric cerebellar dysgenesis groups were classified as malformative disorders. Global atrophy and signal abnormality groups were classified as metabolic disorders. In the vermian dysgenesis group, a specific genetic diagnosis was obtained in eight children (8/27) and all of the mutated genes (AHI1 (JBS3), CEP290 (JBS5), TMEM67 (JBS6), and RPGRIP1L (JBS7)) are involved in primary cilia function. In the group of pontocerebellar hypoplasia specific genetic diagnosis was obtained in one patient (PCH2) (1/15). Thus, nine of 42 children classified as malformative disorder had a molecular diagnosis. Global atrophy and signal abnormality groups were classified as metabolic disorders, specific biochemical was obtained in 46/95 children. In global atrophy group, respiratory chain deficiency was diagnosed in 18 children (18/84). In 21 children a congenital disorders of glycosylation type 1a (CDG Ia) was diagnosed (21/84) and infantile neuroaxonale dystrophy (INAD) was diagnosed in one child. In signal abnormalities group, specific biochemical diagnosis was obtained in six out of 11 children, five children with respiratory chain deficiency and one child with sulphite oxidase deficiency. In hemispheric

  9. Temporal fossa bone grafts: a new technique in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Spear, S L; Wiegering, C E

    1987-04-01

    The calvarium has become an increasingly popular bone-graft donor site. Previously described harvesting techniques are often difficult to perform and may produce unsatisfactory bone fragments. However, full-thickness bone grafts taken from the region of the temporal fossa, beneath the temporaiis muscle, have proven to be of high quality and technically easy to obtain. In our experience with eight patients, temporal fossa bone grafts were used primarily around the orbit, including reconstruction of the orbital floor, frontal bone, and zygoma. The procedure begins with a hemicoronal or bicoronal incision; the temporalis muscle is reflected, and an underlying bone plate up to 4 X 6 cm is removed. The resulting bone graft is consistently 3 to 4 mm in thickness. The cranial defect is packed with bone debris, and the muscle is replaced. This technique has proven to be safe, technically simple, consistently productive of high-quality bone grafts, and within discernible donor-site deformity.

  10. Encephalomyelitis by Toxoplasma gondii in a captive fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox).

    PubMed

    Corpa, J M; García-Quirós, A; Casares, M; Gerique, A C; Carbonell, M D; Gómez-Muñoz, M T; Uzal, F A; Ortega, J

    2013-03-31

    Encephalomyelitis due to Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed in a fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). The animal had ataxia, atrophy of hind limb muscles and progressive wasting before dying 12 months after the onset of clinical signs. Toxoplasmosis was suspected antemortem based on clinical signs and the detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR on EDTA-blood from live animal. Necropsy revealed necrotizing gastritis and severe emaciation. The main histological lesions included non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with dilation of myelin sheaths and swollen axons in the spinal cord, and multifocal gliosis in the brain with intralesional protozoan cysts that stained positive for T. gondii immunohistochemistry. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in a fossa, and a new host record. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×109/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278 mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  12. [Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa].

    PubMed

    Kachkov, I A; Rusinov, A I; Stashuk, G A

    1999-01-01

    The 41-year-old patient experienced a trauma in childhood. Her examination revealed the hypertensive syndrome, truncal and cerebellar symptoms, suboccipital pain. Computed tomography indicated that in the posterior cranial fossa was a 48 x 78 x 37-mm spreading from the tentorium of the cerebellum to the foramen magnum and descending along the clivus. At surgery, chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa was totally removed, the total volume of liquid and dense fractions was as high as 100 ml. After surgery, the patient recovered working capacity. The interest of this clinical case is due to a rare traumatic pathology, long disease, problematic preoperative diagnosis of chronic hematoma, a large formation, fair postoperative outcome.

  13. Branchial sinus of the piriform fossa: reappraisal of third and fourth branchial anomalies.

    PubMed

    James, Adrian; Stewart, Craig; Warrick, Paul; Tzifa, Constance; Forte, Vito

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to review clinical and embryologic aspects of third and fourth branchial anomalies. Retrospective study. We reviewed the institutional and departmental databases at our institution to identify all cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies encountered from 1992 to 2006. All patient records were examined with respect to demographics, clinical history, and radiologic and pathologic reports. We identified 17 cases of third and fourth branchial anomalies, the largest series of its kind reported to date. The lesions were predominantly left sided, all presenting with neck infection. Fistula formation was iatrogenic, secondary to incision and drainage. Preoperative direct laryngoscopy always revealed a pit within the apex of the piriform fossa. Surgical excision involved ipsilateral thyroidectomy as the lesion passed through the thyroid gland. No lesions following the classical course of a either a third or fourth branchial anomaly were identified. The clinical presentation of branchial sinuses arising from the piriform fossa is more in keeping with derivation from the thymopharyngeal duct (of the third pouch) than the hypothetical course of third and fourth branchial fistulae.

  14. Cervical spinal cord infarction after posterior fossa surgery: a case-based update.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Almagro, María-José; Izura, Virginia; Serrano, Cristina; Ruiz-Espejo, Antonio M; Sánchez-Del-Rincón, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    Several positions are currently utilized for operating patients with posterior fossa lesions. Each individual position has its own risks and benefits, and none has demonstrated its superiority. A dreaded, and probably underreported, complication of these procedures is cervical cord infarction with quadriplegia. We reviewed eight previous reported instances of this devastating complication aimed at ascertaining its pathogenesis to suggest preventive strategies. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the occurrence of this complication. Some factors involved in the production of cervical cord infarction include patient's position (seated or prone), hyperflexion of the neck, excessive spinal cord traction, canal stenosis, and systemic arterial hypotension. We hypothesize that spinal cord infarction in our patient might have resulted from compromised blood supply to the midcervical cord caused by tumor infiltration of the cervical leptomeninges in addition to a brief episode of arterial hypotension during venous air embolism. We treated an 8-year-old girl who developed quadriplegia after surgery for a fourth ventricular ependymoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated cervical cord infarction. Evoked potentials confirmed the diagnosis. With this report, we want to draw the attention of neurosurgeons to the possibility of the occurrence of this dreadful complication during posterior fossa procedures. Retrospectively, the only measures that might have helped to avoid this complication in our patient would have been using the prone position and intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials.

  15. Endoscopic versus Open Approach to the Infratemporal Fossa: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Tantawy, Ahmed; Ibraheim, Ahmed; Solares, Arturo C.; Otto, Bradley A.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Filho, Leo Ditzel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various lateral and anterior approaches to access the infratemporal fossa (ITF) have been described. We provide our observations regarding the endoscopic transpterygoid and preauricular subtemporal approaches, listing their respective advantages and limitations through cadaveric dissection. Methods A cadaver study was performed on five adult specimens. An endoscopic transpterygoid approach to the ITF was completed bilaterally in three specimens, and an open preauricular ITF approach was performed bilaterally in two specimens. Results After completing the cadaveric dissections, we studied differences between the endoscopic transpterygoid approach and open preauricular subtemporal approaches in regard to exposure and ease of dissection of different structures in the ITF. Conclusions In comparison with a lateral approach, the endonasal endoscopic transpterygoid approach provides better visualization and more direct exposure of median structures such as the nasopharynx, eustachian tube, sella, and clivus. We concluded that the endoscopic transpterygoid approach can be utilized to resect benign lesions and some select group of malignancies involving the infratemporal and middle cranial fossae. Open approaches continue to play an important role, especially in the resection of extensive malignant tumors extending to these regions. PMID:26401477

  16. Extradural Dermoid Cyst of the Anterior Infratemporal Fossa. Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Filomena, Carol A.; Nonaka, Yoichi; Matsuda, Masahide; Zomorodi, Ali R.; Friedman, Allan H.; Fukushima, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare in the skull base. There have been 10 reported cases of dermoid cysts in the cavernous sinus, two in the petrous apex, and one in the extradural Meckel cave. This is the first case report of a dermoid cyst in the anterior infratemporal fossa attached to the anterior dura of the foramen ovale. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings, histologic features, tumor origin, and operative technique are described along with a review of the literature. PMID:26623226

  17. Extradural Dermoid Cyst of the Anterior Infratemporal Fossa. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Filomena, Carol A; Nonaka, Yoichi; Matsuda, Masahide; Zomorodi, Ali R; Friedman, Allan H; Fukushima, Takanori

    2015-11-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare in the skull base. There have been 10 reported cases of dermoid cysts in the cavernous sinus, two in the petrous apex, and one in the extradural Meckel cave. This is the first case report of a dermoid cyst in the anterior infratemporal fossa attached to the anterior dura of the foramen ovale. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings, histologic features, tumor origin, and operative technique are described along with a review of the literature.

  18. Morphology of the caudal fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Olby, Natasha J; McCullough, Susan; Pease, Anthony P; Broadstone, Richard; Osborne, Jason A

    2009-01-01

    Chiari malformations and syringohydromyelia are an important disease complex in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Although abnormalities in caudal fossa morphology are considered major contributors to the development of this disease, limited information exists on the range of morphologies in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and on the relationship of these to clinically evident disease. Sixty-four Cavalier King Charles Spaniels were studied. Each underwent a neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and brain. T2-weighted sagittal images were used to determine both the morphologic characteristics and volume of the caudal fossa in each dog. This volume was also analyzed as a percentage of total cranial cavity volume. Each attribute was correlated with neurological grade and presence of syringohydromyelia. Fifteen dogs had neurologic signs, and 59 had morphologic abnormalities of the craniocervical junction. While 27 dogs had syringohydromyelia, 13 of these were clinically normal. Cerebellar herniation and occipital dysplasia were common findings but were not associated with syringohydromyelia. Dorsal compressive lesions were noted at the first and second cervical vertebral junction. Factors associated with the presence of neurologic signs included syringohydromyelia and the ratio of caudal fossa/total cranial cavity volume; dogs with signs had significantly larger syringohydromyelia than asymptomatic dogs. Caudal fossa size was not associated with syringohydromyelia. A positive association was identified between foramen magnum size and length of cerebellar herniation. The prevalence of craniocervical junction abnormalities is high in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. While several factors are associated with neurologic signs, occipital hypoplasia appears to be the most important factor.

  19. Minimally invasive surgery (endonasal) for anterior fossa and sellar tumors.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Timothy; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Teo, Charles

    2010-10-01

    The primary goal of any surgical approach is to adequately visualize and treat the pathologic condition with minimal disruption to adjacent normal anatomy. The work of several researchers has revealed the promise of minimally invasive endonasal neurosurgery and paved the way for broader applications of the technology. This article discusses the current state of minimally invasive endonasal techniques to address the pathologic conditions of the anterior cranial fossa and parasellar region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Middle fossa approach: Applications in temporal bone lesions.

    PubMed

    Domenech Juan, Iván; Cruz Toro, Paula; Callejo Castillo, Ángela; Moya, Rafael; Merán Gil, Jorge L; Bartel, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The middle fossa approach is a surgical technique that is very useful for lateral skull base surgery. However, it is true that it has limited surgical indications and implementation due to its technical complexity. We present our experience in 10 patients in whom the middle fossa approach was the treatment of choice because of the extent of the injury and complexity of the lesion or process. Despite the complexity of the cases, there was no mortality associated with surgery. Postoperative complications were found in 2 patients who presented an epidural hematoma and a cortico-subcortical hematoma. Hearing function was preserved in 5 patients out of the 7 who had adequate hearing at the time of surgery. House/Brackmann I-II facial nerve function was achieved in 8 patients; the remaining 2 had no deterioration of the nerve function. In 9 out of 10 patients, the surgery achieved complete solution of the lesion. The middle fossa approach is a safe and reliable surgical technique. It gives us great control and exposure of different skull base processes. We consider its knowledge of great importance, because it may be the only viable surgical alternative in some specific patients. That is the reason why it is important to learn this approach and know about it in our specialty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical Anatomy of the Extended Middle Cranial Fossa Approach

    PubMed Central

    Arìstegui, Miguel; Cokkeser, Yasar; Saleh, Essam; Naguib, Maged; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdel; Sanna, Mario

    1994-01-01

    The extended middle cranial fossa approach includes removal of the petrous bone from its subtemporal surface in order to expose widely the internal auditory canal and the posterior fossa dura around its porus while preserving all the important and closely related anatomical structures. We have dissected 25 temporal bones and five fresh cadavers in order to define the limits of this approach. Measurements were obtained between the different structures to find reliable angles and distances that could guide working in this area. A new method of identification of the internal auditory canal is discussed based on the measurements taken. The results of the present work showed wide variations in the different structures. The arcuate eminence was coincident with the superior semicircular canal in only 48% of bones. Dehiscence of the geniculate ganglion and of the internal carotid artery was noted in 16% and 20% of specimens, respectively. The angles measured between the different structures showed great variations. However, the angle between the internal auditory canal and superior petrosal sinus was constant. Though the extended middle cranial fossa is a versatile approach, it affords a limited access to the cerebellopontine angle. A thorough understanding of the complex and variable anatomy of this area is necessary should this approach be utilized. ImagesFigure 1p183-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171170

  2. Oral rehabilitation for a patient with oligodontia and maxillary hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Da-Woon; Vang, Mong-Sook; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    An 18 year old female with oligodontia and maxillary hypoplasia was treated using an interdisciplinary team approach involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons and prosthodontists. Full mouth one-piece fixed partial dentures were the final restoration. The fixed partial dentures fabricated for the maxilla and mandible using the concept of a shortened dental arch resulted in improved esthetics and the masticatory function. This paper describes the treatment procedures for an oligodontia patient with alveolar bone hypoplasia. PMID:21165248

  3. Masticatory efficiency after rehabilitation of acquired maxillary and mandibular defects

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, N. Vasantha; Ramesh, Ganesh; Thareja, Amit; Patil, Seema

    2015-01-01

    The effect of oral cancer with its therapeutic intervention involves significant facial and functional disabilities. It is customary to rehabilitate these patients by surgical or prosthetic means. Studies have been done to assess mastication and other functions after rehabilitation. A review of these studies for assessing masticatory function has been done under separate sections for maxillary and mandibular defects. Different masticatory tests are mentioned. Further scope for research has been highlighted. PMID:26392731

  4. Discrepancy between preoperative MRI evaluation and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Lee, M J; Kwon, K H; Chung, E J; Yoon, D Y; Rho, Y S

    2014-06-01

    Preoperative radiological evaluation of the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very important in planning curative surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of preoperative radiological evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the extent of local invasion in maxillary SCC. A retrospective study was conducted of 33 patients who underwent a maxillectomy for maxillary SCC. We compared the MRI findings for 18 structures around the maxillary sinus with intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings. Discrepancies were found between preoperative MRI findings and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for 22 patients (66.7%). Overall, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI were 83.4%, 83.0%, 64.5%, and 90.4%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that MRI evaluation of the posterolateral structures including the pterygoid plate, pterygoid muscle, and infratemporal fossa had a lower area under the curve (0.614) and a significantly lower accuracy when compared with the other structures (P = 0.294, 95% confidence interval 0.405-0.822). In conclusion, as the accuracy of preoperative MRI evaluation of the posterolateral structures is low, careful evaluation of local extension to the posterolateral structures is needed when planning curative surgery for maxillary SCC. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geology of the Bellona Fossae (V15) Region of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    A preliminary geologic map of the the Bellona Fossae (V15) quadrangle on Venus was produced as part of the NASA-funded planetary mapping program. Geologic interpretations are based primarily on the basis of morphology, texture, radar reflectance, and relative stratigraphy derived from Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, based on FMAP mosaics showing SAR data at 75 m/pixel resolution, and compiled on a digital base map at 1:5M scale produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. This quadrangle covers approximately 5 million square kilometers of the northern lowlands of Venus, and it includes the Bellona Fossae and Fee Fossae fracture systems of western Kawelu Planitia and northern Ulfrun Regio, along with an arcuate chain of volcano-tectonic centers called coronae (e.g., Ki and Tituba Coronae). Exposed materials are dominated by relatively featureless regional plains and several centers of lobate plains (e.g., Uzume Fluctus) interpreted to be lava flow fields emplaced by effusion from separate vents. Based on stratigraphic relationships at unit contacts, the oldest exposed material units are isolated patches of complex-faulted tessera terrain, restricted to the eastern and southwestern margins of the quadrangle. Relatively small exposures of lineated plains, mountain belt, ridged plains, and dark plains materials are scattered throughout the quadrangle, with only a few impact craters and their associated ejecta and impact-induced flows (e.g., Mumtaz-Mahal crater) representing the latest materials. The tectonism associated with the coronae appears to predate the regional plains for the most part, but individual coronae are the source for lobate plains volcanism which implies that activity at these structural features encompasses much of the time span portrayed in the regional stratigraphy. Northeast-southwest-oriented lineaments exposed in Bellona Fossae not only are generally coincident with the coronae structures, but also cut patches of the stratigraphically

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency Application via the Pterygopalatine Fossa: A Practical Approach to Treat Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Nader, Antoun; Bendok, Bernard R; Prine, Jeremy J; Kendall, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Although pharmacological therapy is the primary treatment modality for trigeminal neuralgia associated pain, ineffective analgesia and dose limiting side effects often prompt patients to seek alternative pharmacological solutions such as interventional nerve blockade. Blockade of the Gasserian ganglion or its branches is an effective analgesic procedure for trigeminal neuralgia, traditionally performed using fluoroscopy or CT imaging. Ultrasonography allows point of care and real time visualization of needle placement within the surrounding anatomical structures. The use of ultrasonography with pulsed radiofrequency therapy for trigeminal neuralgia has not been reported. Our case is a 66-year-old male suffering from trigeminal neuralgia for 4 years that was refractory to pharmacologic therapy. Neurological examination was normal with no sensory deficit. Imaging showed no vascular compression or mass involving the trigeminal nerve. A diagnostic ultrasound-guided trigeminal nerve block via the pterygopalatine fossa with 4 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% and 4 mg dexamethasone provided immediate pain relief (100%) with sustained analgesia >50% at 2 weeks. Pain relief was not sustained at one month, with return to pretreatment symptoms. A series of injections were performed with similar intermittent analgesic effectiveness. The decision was made that the patient was a suitable candidate for pulsed radiofrequency application in the pterygopalatine fossa. We successfully used an alternative approach through the pterygopalatine fossa to treat trigeminal neuralgia using ultrasound guidance in an office setting. Our case demonstrates the utility of ultrasound-guidance pulsed radiofrequency treatment in the pterygopalatine fossa as a potential alternative to other percutaneous techniques for patients with medical refractory trigeminal neuralgia.

  7. KCOT Occurring in Bilateral Maxillary Sinus in Non-Syndromic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Newaskar, Vilas; Rajmohan, Sushmita; Dashore, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) also termed as Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour (KCOT) (WHO 2005) is a pathology with unique behavior because of which it is under much scrutiny and continued study. The pathology usually presents itself commonly in mandible and less commonly in maxilla. The occurrence of KCOT in maxillary sinus is reported as rare and multiple occurrences are mostly associated along with the presence of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCC) syndrome. Here, we present a rare case of bilateral Maxillary OKC involving maxillary sinuses, without the presence of NBCC syndrome. An interesting feature of this case is the presence of left upper third molar in ectopic position in maxillary sinus and a vertically impacted right third molar suggesting an origin from the dental lamina. PMID:27656578

  8. Maxillary sinus hemangioma: MR and CT studies.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, M V; Bonner, F M; Abdo, G J

    1989-01-01

    A maxillary sinus hemangioma was detected as an incidental finding during magnetic resonance imaging of the head. The CT findings are more characteristic for the diagnosis of this lesion. Preoperative diagnosis of maxillary sinus hemangioma is important since these lesions can frequently cause a large amount of hemorrhage during surgery.

  9. [A rare complication during the surgical removal of an impacted maxillary third molar].

    PubMed

    Hoekema, A; Apperloo, R C; de Lange, J

    2012-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy was referred by his orthodontist due to the dysmorphic condition of the impacted teeth 18 and 28. Because teeth 17 and 27 were close related to the third molars, the decision was made to remove the impacted teeth under general anaesthesia. During luxation of tooth 28, it was accidentally displaced deeper into the socket. The tooth could still not be localized after the use of radiographs, an antrostomy, and surgical exploration. It was decided to leave the 28 in its place and to perform cone beam computertomography. This showed that tooth 28 was displaced into the infratemporal fossa. Since the patient was free of symptoms, a period of watchful waiting was initiated. A control visit and cone beam computertomography 9 months postoperatively revealed no signs or symptoms or changes in the position of the displaced tooth. It was therefore decided to leave the third molar in its displaced position. Displacement of a maxillary third molar into the infratemporal fossa is considered a rare complication.

  10. Determinant factors of Yemeni maxillary arch dimensions.

    PubMed

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2015-01-01

    Information about maxillary arch and palatal dimensions in human populations is important for clinical orthodontics. This study was conducted to assess the determinants of maxillary arch dimensions in a sample of Yemeni individuals aged 18-25 years. The study sample comprised 214/765 adults (101 women, 113 men) who underwent clinical examination and fulfilled the study criteria. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure maxillary arch and palatal dimensions. The majority of mean maxillary arch dimensions were significantly greater in men than in women, with inter-second molar distance showing the greatest difference and palatal depth showing the least difference. Measurements of palatal depth and relationships of the canines to one another and to other teeth thus had the widest ranges, implying that these dimensions are the strongest determinants of maxillary arch size.

  11. Application of fossa bone graft to stabilize stock total joint prosthesis in temporomandibular joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guo; Yang, Chi; He, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaohu; Abdelrehem, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    To describe a new glenoid fossa bone graft technique, and to evaluate its effect on the stability of stock fossa prosthesis implantation in total alloplastic joint replacement surgery. Eight patients who underwent total joint replacement surgery with a Biomet stock prosthesis (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) from November 2013 to April 2014 were included in this study. ProPlan CMF 1.4 software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) was used to choose the prosthesis size and place it in the right position. The depth of the fossa was measured, and the osteotomy line was designed to cut the bone which overlapped the fossa prosthesis. A bone graft, taken from the bottom of the articular eminence or the condylar neck, was used to fill in the fossa and make a flat plane in combination with the residual eminence for the positioning of the fossa prosthesis. The stability of the fossa prosthesis was evaluated both intra-operatively and postoperatively with computed tomography (CT) scanning after at least 6 months of follow-up. The bone contact area of the fossa prosthesis and the volume of the grafted bone were measured. Fossa prostheses were intra-operatively stable after bone grafting. All patients had stable occlusion after surgery and at follow-up. Postoperative measurement showed that the bone contact area with the fossa prosthesis increased from 52.8% to 88.5% after bone grafting. Postoperative CT measurements (at an average of 9 months after surgery) showed that the bone graft volume decreased by 11.1%. Bone grafts in the glenoid fossa help to improve the stability of Biomet stock fossa prosthesis implantation. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is a well-known condition in both the dental and otolaryngology communities. It occurs when the Schneiderian membrane is violated by conditions arising from dentoalveolar unit. This type of sinusitis differs in its pathophysiology, microbiology, diagnostics and management from sinusitis of other causes, therefore, failure to accurately identify a dental cause in these patients usually lead to persistent symptomatology and failure of medical and surgical therapies directed toward sinusitis. Unilateral recalcitrant disease associated with foul smelling drainage is a most common feature of odontogenic sinusitis. Also, high-resolution CT scans and cone-beam volumetric computed tomography can assist in identifying dental disease. Sometimes dental treatment alone is adequate to resolve the odontogenic sinusitis and sometimes concomitant or subsequent functional endoscopic sinus surgery or Caldwell-Luc operation is required. The aim of this article is to give a review of the most common causes, symptoms, diagnostic and treatment methods of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Search on Cochrane Library, PubMed and Science Direct data bases by key words resulted in 35 articles which met our criteria. It can be concluded that the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis is likely underreported in the available literature.

  13. Esthetic periodontal surgery for impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypass: infratemporal approach for subcranial-intracranial (SC-IC) bypass.

    PubMed

    Nossek, Erez; Costantino, Peter D; Eisenberg, Mark; Dehdashti, Amir R; Setton, Avi; Chalif, David J; Ortiz, Rafael A; Langer, David J

    2014-07-01

    Internal maxillary artery (IMax)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass has been recently described as an alternative to cervical extracranial-intracranial bypass. This technique uses a "keyhole" craniectomy in the temporal fossa that requires a technically challenging end-to-side anastomosis. To describe a lateral subtemporal craniectomy of the middle cranial fossa floor to facilitate wide exposure of the IMax to facilitate bypass. Orbitozygomatic osteotomy is used followed by frontotemporal craniotomy and subsequently laterotemporal fossa craniectomy, reaching its medial border at a virtual line connecting the foramen rotundum and foramen ovale. The IMax was identified by using established anatomic landmarks, neuronavigation, and micro Doppler probe (Mizuho Inc. Tokyo, Japan). Additionally, we studied the approach in a cadaveric specimen in preparation for microsurgical bypass. There were 4 cases in which the technique was used. One bypass was performed for flow augmentation in a hypoperfused hemisphere. The other 3 were performed as part of treatment paradigms for giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms. Vein grafts were used in all patients. The proximal anastomosis was performed in an end-to-side fashion in 1 patient and end-to-end in 3 patients. Intraoperative graft flow measured with the Transonic flow probe ranged from 20 to 60 mL/min. Postoperative angiography demonstrated good filling of the graft with robust distal flow in all cases. All patients tolerated the procedure well. IMax to middle cerebral artery subcranial-intracranial bypass is safe and efficacious. The laterotemporal fossa craniectomy technique resulted in reliable identification and wide exposure of the IMax, facilitating the proximal anastomosis.

  15. Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak following Posterior Cranial Fossa Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Imran; Vohra, Anjum Habib; Shams, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cerebrospinal fluid leakage remains a significant cause of morbidity following posterior fossa surgery, and its treatment remains a difficult problem. The aim of the study was to propose a treatment algorithm for its management. Methods: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on 147 patients who underwent elective posterior fossa surgery for a variety of diseases. Patients with post operative CSF leakage had either been treated initially with conservative measures including re-suturing of the wound, with CSF lumbar drainage to be employed in case the CSF leakage didn’t stop, or the initial intervention was the institution of CSF lumbar drainage simultaneously with conservative measures. VP (ventriculo-peritoneal) shunt was done in patients with gross hydrocephalus on postoperative CT brain. Results: There were 25 (17%) cases of CSF leakage, including 24 incisional CSF leaks and one case of CSF otorrhea. In eight patients with incisional CSF leakage treated initially with conservative measures including re-suturing of the wound, CSF leakage stopped in only two cases. CSF lumbar drainage instituted later on in six cases with persistent leakage stopped the CSF leakage. In fourteen patients managed initially with re-suturing of the wound and concomitant CSF lumbar drainage, CSF leakage settled in all the cases. Two patients with gross hydrocephalus on post operative CT were managed successfully with VP shunt. Re-suturing of the wound with concomitant CSF lumbar drainage was found to be significantly associated (p=0.003) with the stoppage of CSF leakage, and the settlement of meningitis (p= 0.014). Conclusion: Incisional CSF leaks after posterior fossa surgery should be managed with re-suturing of the wound and concomitant CSF lumbar drainage, instead of an initial trial of conservative therapy alone. PMID:28083041

  16. Cemento-ossifying fibroma presenting as a posterior fossa mass lesion.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Ritesh; Sharma, Arpit; Gaikwad, Ninad; Mahore, Amit; Goel, Atul

    2010-04-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign lesions of the jaw, which arise from the periodontal membrane. Histopathologically these are composed of fibrous tissues with calcified structures resembling bone and cementum. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice. They have rarely been reported in the ethmoid sinus, maxillary sinus and sphenoid sinus Mastoid bone is an extremely rare site of such tumors. Only one case of cemento-ossifying fibroma of petromastoid bone has been reported before. We present a case of cementoossifying fibroma involving the petromastoid bone, with the large intracranial component causing compression on the cerebellum. This unique case may provide insight into the etiopathogenesis of these tumors.

  17. Posterior fossa ruptured dermoid cyst presenting with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wani, Abrar A; Raswan, Uday S; Malik, Nayil K; Ramzan, Altaf U

    2016-10-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions of embryological origin that represent 0.1-0.7% of all intracranial tumors. They are mainly located in the supra tentorial space, especially in the parasellar region. Their location in the posterior fossa remains uncommon. Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of dermoid cyst, which had ruptured into ventricular system. Computed Tomography and MRI revealed fat in the fourth ventricle, prepontine cistern, and cerebellomedullary cistern. Hydrocephalus was noted. We performed right ventriculo-peritoneal shunt on which patient improved and he continues to remain asymptomatic one year after.

  18. Hesperian age for western Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars.

    PubMed

    Zimbelman, James R; Scheidt, Stephen P

    2012-06-29

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars is an intensely eroded deposit north of the cratered highlands. It is widely thought that MFF materials were emplaced through ignimbrite eruptions. Recent geologic mapping of western MFF identified outliers of MFF materials well beyond the previously mapped western extent for the deposit, including outliers close to Gale crater. We report counts of impact craters on the MFF units that have implications for our understanding of the general history of MFF and the uppermost layered materials on the Gale crater mound.

  19. Posterior fossa ruptured dermoid cyst presenting with hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    A. Wani, Abrar; Raswan, Uday S.; Malik, Nayil K.; Ramzan, Altaf U.

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions of embryological origin that represent 0.1-0.7% of all intracranial tumors. They are mainly located in the supra tentorial space, especially in the parasellar region. Their location in the posterior fossa remains uncommon. Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of dermoid cyst, which had ruptured into ventricular system. Computed Tomography and MRI revealed fat in the fourth ventricle, prepontine cistern, and cerebellomedullary cistern. Hydrocephalus was noted. We performed right ventriculo-peritoneal shunt on which patient improved and he continues to remain asymptomatic one year after. PMID:27744466

  20. Ligation of an unusually large vessel during maxillary sinus floor augmentation. A case report.

    PubMed

    Testori, Tiziano; Rosano, Gabriele; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present case report was to document a maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure involving ligation of a blood vessel with a nearly 3-mm diameter in the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. A bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure was performed in a 51-year-old healthy man. The preoperative computed tomography scan revealed a bony canal within the lateral maxillary sinus wall of the right as well as the left side close to the alveolar ridge. A vessel with a diameter of nearly 3 mm was identified during the sinus floor augmentation on the left side. The vessel was exposed and ligated. A vessel with a diameter of approximately 1 mm was identified on the right side and the sinus floor augmentation was performed without ligation. No complications were observed and the postoperative healing was uneventful. Although accidental laceration of vessels with an unusually large diameter during maxillary sinus floor augmentation is not life-threatening, impaired visualisation may compromise the augmentation procedure, including the elevation of the Schneiderian membrane. Moreover, postoperative bleeding and formation of a haematoma may occur. Therefore, ligation of vessels with an unusually large diameter is recommended during maxillary sinus floor augmentation to minimise intra- and postoperative complications.

  1. Unusual Anatomy of Maxillary Second Premolars

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Gomes, Fábio; de Sousa, Bruno Carvalho; de Souza, Fabricio Dias; dos Santos, Roberto Alves; Maniglia-Ferreira, Cláudio

    2009-01-01

    In this study, endodontic treatments of maxillary second premolars with unusual anatomical configuration were presented. Maxillary second premolars usually have one root with one or two root canals. The occurrence of variations in anatomical configuration is also common; therefore, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during the endodontic treatment. These teeth may also require special shaping and filling techniques. This article reports and discusses the treatment recommendations for unusual occurrences of anatomical configurations in four different maxillary second premolars. PMID:19421396

  2. Cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with brain tumours of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels; Grillner, Pernilla; Gudrunardottir, Thora; Gupta, Ramneek; Gustavsson, Bengt; Heyman, Mats; Holm, Stefan; Karppinen, Atte; Klausen, Camilla; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Mathiasen, René; Nilsson, Pelle; Nysom, Karsten; Persson, Karin; Rask, Olof; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Sehested, Astrid; Thomassen, Harald; Tonning-Olsson, Ingrid; Zetterqvist, Barbara; Juhler, Marianne

    2017-06-21

    Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined. This observational, prospective, multicentre study will include 500 children with posterior fossa tumours. It opened late 2014 with participation from 20 Nordic and Baltic centres. From 2016, five British centres and four Dutch centres will join with a total annual accrual of 130 patients. Three other major European centres are invited to join from 2016/17. Follow-up will run for 12 months after inclusion of the last patient. All patients are treated according to local practice. Clinical data are collected through standardized online registration at pre-determined time points pre- and postoperatively. Neurological status and speech functions are examined pre-operatively and postoperatively at 1-4 weeks, 2 and 12 months. Pre- and postoperative speech samples are recorded and analysed. Imaging will be reviewed centrally. Pathology is classified according to the 2007 WHO system. Germline DNA will be collected from all patients for associations between CMS characteristics and host genome variants including pathway profiles. Through prospective and detailed collection of information on 1) differences in incidence and clinical course of CMS for different patient and tumour characteristics, 2) standardized surgical data and their association with CMS, 3) diversities and results of other therapeutic interventions

  3. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure".

  4. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

    PubMed Central

    Sampannang, Apichakan; Tuamsuk, Panya; Kanpittaya, Jaturat

    2016-01-01

    The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females) were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84%) was much greater than that of female (1.94%) compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type). PMID:27648305

  5. Reconciling the convergence of supraspinous fossa shape among hominoids in light of locomotor differences.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Sugiura, Yui; Seitelman, Brielle C; Gunz, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Differences in scapular morphology between modern humans and the African and lesser apes are associated with the distinct locomotor habits of these groups. However, several traits, particularly aspects of the supraspinous fossa, are convergent between Homo and Pongo-an unexpected result given their divergent locomotor habits. Many morphological assessments of the scapula rely on the limited number of static landmarks available, and traditional approaches like these tend to oversimplify scapular shape. Here, we present the results of two geometric morphometric (GM) analyses of hominoid supraspinous fossa shape-one employing five homologous landmarks and another with 83 sliding semilandmarks-alongside those of traditional methods to evaluate if three-dimensional considerations of fossa shape afford more comprehensive insights into scapular shape and functional morphology. Traditional measures aligned Pongo and Homo with narrow and transversely oriented supraspinous fossae, whereas African ape and Hylobates fossae are broader and more obliquely situated. However, our GM results highlight that much of the convergence between Homo and Pongo is reflective of their more medially positioned superior angles. These approaches offered a more complete assessment of supraspinous shape and revealed that the Homo fossa, with an intermediate superior angle position and moderate superoinferior expansion, is actually reminiscent of the African ape shape. Additionally, both Pongo and Hylobates were shown to have more compressed fossae, something that has not previously been identified through traditional analyses. Thus, the total morphological pattern of the Pongo supraspinous fossa is unique among hominoids, and possibly indicative of its distinctive locomotor habits.

  6. Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers

    PubMed Central

    Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material/Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

  7. Prevalence of sinus augmentation associated with maxillary posterior implants.

    PubMed

    Seong, Wook-Jin; Barczak, Michael; Jung, Jae; Basu, Saonli; Olin, Paul S; Conrad, Heather J

    2013-12-01

    Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus limits the quantity of alveolar bone available for implant placement and may result in a lack of primary stability and difficulty in achieving osseointegration. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze a group of patients who had implants placed in the posterior maxilla, calculate the prevalence of sinus augmentation, and identify factors related to sinus augmentation. With institutional review board approval, dental records from a population of patients who had implants placed in the maxillary posterior region between January 2000 and December 2004 were used to create a database. Independent variables were classified as continuous (age of the patient at stage 1 implant surgery [S1], time between extraction and S1, time between extraction and sinus augmentation, and time between sinus augmentation and S1) and categorical (gender, implant failure, American Society of Anesthesiologists system classification, smoking, osteoporosis, residual crestal bone height, implant position, implant proximity, prostheses type, and implant diameter and length). The dependent variable was the incidence of a sinus augmentation procedure. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each factor on the presence of sinus augmentation (P < .05). The final database included 502 maxillary posterior implants with an overall survival rate of 93.2% over a mean follow-up period of 35.7 months. Of 502 implants, 272 (54.2%) were associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Among variables, residual crestal bone height (P < .001), implant position (P < .001), implant proximity (P < .001), prosthesis type (P < .001), implant failure (P < .01), and implant diameter (P < .01), were statistically associated with sinus augmentation. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, the results suggest that more than half (54.2%) of the maxillary posterior implants were involved with a sinus augmentation procedure. The

  8. Silent sinus syndrome and maxillary sinus atelectasis in children.

    PubMed

    Farneti, Paolo; Sciarretta, Vittorio; Macrì, Giovanni; Piccin, Ottavio; Pasquini, Ernesto

    2017-07-01

    Silent sinus syndrome (SSS) and chronic maxillary atelectasis (CMA) are unusual conditions having subtle symptoms with a possible progressive evolution. They are particularly infrequent in the pediatric population. Our objective was to review our experience with pediatric patients having SSS or CMA, and to review all cases involving patients under 14 years of age reported in the literature. A retrospective review of 6 patients diagnosed with SSS or CMA surgically treated from 2001 to 2014 was carried out. All cases reported in literature were reviewed. All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery with an improvement in symptoms after surgery. Diplopia disappeared in two patients who presented with it and enophthalmos improved in all five patients presenting with it. Only one patient out of four presenting with headache had a persistence of the symptoms which were, however, milder than they had been preoperatively. Endoscopic examination demonstrated a reventilated maxillary sinus in all cases. A radiological examination at follow-up was performed in 5 cases and demonstrated a reexpansion of the maxillary sinus as compared to the contralateral side in all patients except one. None of the patients required an orbital floor reconstruction. Eleven similar cases reported in the literature were analyzed and compared. Endoscopic uncinectomy and middle meatal antrostomy should be the treatment of choice for these conditions in patients presenting with enophthalmos and/or hypoglobus and symptoms related to it. Orbital floor reconstruction should be performed as a delayed procedure only in selected cases. Chronic maxillary atelectasis or SSS should be considered as a possible cause of persistent headache of unknown origin in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  10. Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mahesh; Mogra, Subraya; Chalasani, Srikrishna; D’mello, Kuldeep; Dhakar, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion. PMID:25395777

  11. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use.

  12. Piriform and trochanteric fossae. A drawing mismatch or a terminology error? A review.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Stamatios A; Shepherd, Lane; Babourda, Eleni C; Papadakis, Stefanos

    2005-08-01

    The current literature indicates that the standard starting point for intramedullary nailing is the piriform fossa. The accuracy of the entry point for anterograde femoral intramedullary nailing between published texts and relevant illustrations was recorded. The piriform fossa is the site of insertion of the piriform tendon and represents a small, shallow depression located on the tip of the greater trochanter. The trochanteric fossa is a deep depression on the inner surface of the greater trochanter, and in the vast majority of the published data is indicated incorrectly as "piriform fossa". As a result of either a recurrent drawing mismatch or a terminology error, the correct entry point for anterograde femoral intramedullary nailing is confusing and should be indicated in the current literature. The trochanteric fossa appears to be the standard entry point that most surgeons recommend.

  13. Posterior fossa decompression and the cerebellum in Chiari type II malformation: a preliminary MRI study.

    PubMed

    Salman, Michael S

    2011-03-01

    Chiari type II malformation (CII) is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. The posterior fossa and cerebellum are small in CII. The cerebellar atrophy is associated with cognitive and motor deficits. Brainstem compression occurs in some patients with CII for whom posterior fossa decompression may be life saving. The aim was to determine whether posterior fossa decompression can prevent or reduce the cerebellar atrophy in CII. Cerebellar volumes and their tissue types (gray matter, white matter, and CSF volumes) from brain MRI were compared among four CII patients, aged 9.5 to 16.5 years, who had had posterior fossa decompression in infancy, 28 CII patients who had not had posterior fossa decompression, and ten age-matched normal controls. Parametric and non-parametric tests investigated group differences. Compared to controls, mean cerebellar volume was significantly smaller in CII patients (p<0.0001). Mean CSF volume within the cerebellar fissures and fourth ventricle was significantly smaller in patients without posterior fossa decompression compared to the CII patients who had the decompression, p=0.043. Mean CSF volume of the latter group was similar to the controls. Other cerebellar volumetric measurements did not differ between the CII groups. Posterior fossa decompression normalizes CSF spaces within the posterior fossa in CII but does not prevent the cerebellar atrophy. The author proposes that surgical expansion of the posterior fossa should be considered in infants with CII who have a significantly small posterior fossa, to prevent or reduce the deficits associated with the cerebellar atrophy. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  14. Evaluation of Condylar Position after Orthognathic Surgery for Treatment of Class II Vertical Maxillary Excess and Mandibular Deficiency by Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Reza; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahramnejad, Emad; Arabion, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: In orthognathic surgeries, proper condylar position is one of the most important factors in postoperative stability. Knowing the condylar movement after orthognathic surgery can help preventing postoperative instabilities. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the condylar positional changes after Le Fort I maxillary superior repositioning along with mandibular advancement by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 22 subjects who had class II skeletal malocclusion along with vertical maxillary excess. Subjects underwent maxillary superior repositioning (Le Fort I osteotomy) along with mandibular advancement. The CBCT images were taken a couple of days before the surgery (T0), and one month (T1) and 9 months (T2) after the surgery. The condyles positions were determined from the most superior point of the condyle to three distances including the deepest point of the glenoid fossa, the most anterior-inferior point of the articular eminence, and the most superior point of the external auditory meatus in the sagittal plane. Results: The mean mandibular advancement was 4.33±2.1 mm and the mean maxillary superior repositioning was 4.66±0.3 mm. The condyles displaced inferiorly, anteriorly, and laterally between T0 and T1. They were repositioned approximately in the initial position in T2. No correlation was observed between the mandibular and maxillary movement and the condylar positions. Conclusion: The condyles displaced in the inferior-anterior-lateral position one month after the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement in combination with the maxillary Le Fort I superior repositioning. It seems that the condyles adapted approximately in their initial position nine months after the surgeries. PMID:27942547

  15. Aseptic meningitis and hydrocephalus after posterior fossa surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, H H; Carmel, P W

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to define the tissue of origin of substances causing aseptic meningitis and secondary hydrocephalus after posterior fossa surgery, analysis of several marker substances from blood, brain, tumour and muscle in the CSF was performed early in seven postoperative patients. No clear pattern emerged which could relate the substances, CSF reaction, and meningeal scarring. The effects of various factors such as contrast studies, drainage, and steroids were also not clear. Review of the literature reveals that all four tissues can cause inflammation. Certain facts about the anatomy of the basilar cisterns and arachnoid villi probably make them logical sites for problems in CFS circulation. Children, for several reasons, are most susceptible to this complication. The complexity of factors in human cases suggests that the problem should be studied in an animal model.

  16. A Prostate Fossa Contouring Instructional Module: Implementation and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Jillian R; Liauw, Stanley L; Choi, Seungtaek; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Thaker, Nikhil G; Fuller, Clifton D; Stepaniak, Christopher J; Das, Prajnan; Golden, Daniel W

    2016-07-01

    Radiation oncology trainees frequently learn to contour through clinical experience and lectures. A hands-on contouring module was developed to teach delineation of the postoperative prostate clinical target volume (CTV) and improve contouring accuracy. Medical students independently contoured a prostate fossa CTV before and after receiving educational materials and live instruction detailing the RTOG approach to contouring this CTV. Metrics for volume overlap and surface distance (Dice similarity coefficient, Hausdorff distance (HD), and mean distance) determined discordance between student and consensus contours. An evaluation assessed perception of session efficacy (1 = "not at all" to 5 = "extremely"; reported as median[interquartile range]). Non-parametric statistical tests were used. Twenty-four students at two institutions completed the module, and 21 completed the evaluation (88% response). The content was rated as "quite" important (4[3.5-5]). The module improved comfort contouring a prostate fossa (pre 1[1-2] vs. post 4[3-4], p<.01), ability to find references (pre 2[1-3] vs. post 4[3.5-4], p<0.01), knowledge of CT prostate/pelvis anatomy (pre 2[1.5-3] vs. post 3[3-4], p<.01), and ability to use contouring software tools (pre 2[2-3.5] vs. post 3[3-4], p=.01). After intervention, mean DSC increased (0.29 to 0.68, p<0.01) and HD and mean distance both decreased, respectively (42.8 to 30.0, p<.01; 11.5 to 1.9, p<.01). A hands-on module to teach CTV delineation to medical students was developed and implemented. Student and expert contours exhibited near "excellent agreement" (as defined in the literature) after intervention. Additional modules to teach target delineation to all educational levels can be developed using this model. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance properties of hydrogen: imaging the posterior fossa

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.R.; Burl, M.; Clarke, G.J.

    1981-11-01

    Posterior fossa scans were performed on five healthy volunteers using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) machine constructed by Thorn-EMI Ltd. Three different NMR scanning sequences were used. In the first, a type of saturation-recovery technique was used to produce images strongly dependent on the density of hydrogen nuclei, but with some dependence on the spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1/). In the second, an inversion-recovery technique was used to produce images with a stronger dependence on the spin-lattice relaxation time. In the third, a spin-echo technique was used to obtain images with a dependence on the spin-spin relaxation time (T/sub 2/). All three types of NMR image were unaffected by bone artifact. Visualization of brain adjacent to the skull base was obtained without loss of detail due to partial-volume effect from bone. The saturation-recovery images highlighted arteries and veins that were clearly visible without the use of contrast agents. The inversion-recovery images showed remarkable gray-white matter differentiation enabling internal structure to be seen within the brainstem and cerebellum. The trigeminal nerve and ganglion were also seen outside the brain. Experience with the spin-echo technique is limited, but the images at the base of the brain show considerable soft-tissue detail. The NMR images of the posterior fossa in this study were comparable in quality to those obtained from a new rotate-rotate x-ray computed tomography machine and were superior in several respects.

  18. Posterior maxillary osteotomies: an aid for a difficult prosthodontic problem.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J M; Van Sickels, J E

    1979-06-01

    Patients who have supereruption of posterior dentoalveolar segments provide an interesting challenge to the dentisr. The severe problems require a team approach to achieve the best results. Factors influencing the treatment include the periodontal status of the involved teeth as well as the concern of the patient. The posterior maxillary osteotomy provides the chance to maintain the vital functional teeth in an otherwise difficult situation. It must be emphasized that the patient must wear an opposing splint or prosthesis following surgery to prevent relapse. This conservative approach maintains the teeth and their vitality and anatomically repositions the supererupted segment to an improved functional position.

  19. Maxillary unicystic ameloblastoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Agani, Zana; Hamiti-Krasniqi, Vjosa; Recica, Jehona; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-10-18

    Ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor. It is often aggressive and destructive, with the capacity to attain great size, erode bone and invade adjacent structures. Unicystic ameloblastoma is a rare odontogenic lesion, with clinical, radiographic and gross features of jaw cysts. The lesion histologically shows typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity with or without and/or mural tumor growth. Unicystic ameloblastoma usually presents in posterior mandibular ramus region, while it is rare and atypical in posterior maxillary region. . We report a case of 16 year old Kosovar male, Albanian ethnicity, who presented with a swelling located in right maxillary region. Clinical examination revealed a painless swelling extending from the maxillary right central incisor to the maxillary right first molar tooth. Panoramic radiograph disclosed a well corticated unilocular radiolucent lesion approximately 5 × 5 cm in diameter which was in contact with the roots of the teeth present inferiorly and with the maxillary sinus superiorly. Maxillary right canine impaction was noted and unerupted lateral incisor tooth was present inside the radiolucency. Preoperative diagnosis of the lesion was made as dentigerous cyst based on the age of the patient, location of the swelling, clinical and radiographic findings, but the unicystic ameloblastoma was also taken into consideration. The patient was treated by surgical enucleation of the lesion and extraction of lateral incisor tooth which was present inside the lesion. The histopathological examination of the lesion revealed confirmed finding for unicystic ameloblastoma mural form. No recurrence was observed in 1 year follow-up. Maxillary region is considered a rare and atypical location for unicystic ameloblastoma. We emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis of an odontogenic lesion with common clinical and radiological features that will impact the treatment planning and follow up

  20. Dimensions of the temporal glenoid fossa and tooth wear in prehistoric human skeletons.

    PubMed

    Owen, C P; Wilding, R J; Adams, L P

    1992-01-01

    Both the mandibular condyle and the glenoid fossa remodel in response to changes in the dentition during life, although the precise relationship between teeth and joint is not clear. This study was undertaken to ascertain changes, if any, occurring in the glenoid fossae in skeletons with much tooth wear. In a collection of skulls from an excavation site on the South African coast, occlusal wear was measured using the scale devised by Molnar. The dimensions of the glenoid fossae were measured using a reflex microscope. Profiles of the glenoid fossa at right angles to a line through its medial and lateral poles provided estimates of the slope of the articular eminence in three places: centrally, and midway between this slope and each of the poles. The mediolateral profile gave an estimate of the height and gabling of the fossa. Central and lateral slope angles showed weak correlation with molar wear, and the medial but not the lateral angel was significantly different from the central. The fossa appears to remodel in response to patterns of forces generated during function, but compared to the condyle, is not as strongly influenced. This may be accounted for if the relative load-bearing areas of the condyle and fossa are considered.

  1. [Effect of unilateral mastication on the remodeling of the glenoid fossae in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feiyu; Wang, Jianhua; Li, Xiaoqing

    2003-04-20

    To investigate the effect of unilateral mastication on glenoid fossae by means of animal experiment. An animal model of unilateral mastication was established by extracting right mandibular molars of Wistar rats. The rats were sacrificed in different period to examine the location changes of glenoid fossae through sagittal and horizontal plane. The anterior points of glenoid fossae in non-masticatory side of experimental groups were more anterior than those in masticatory sides. The anterior points of the glenoid fossae of non-masticatory sides in experimental groups were more anterior than those of the same sides in the control groups after inducing unilateral mastication for two and four months. After inducing unilateral mastication for two and four months, the anterior and the posterior points of the glenoid fossae of non-masticatory sides in experimental groups became closer to the midline by comparison with masticatory sides as well as the same sides in control groups. Locations of glenoid fossae in masticatory sides showed no changes in comparison with the same side of the control groups. The forward and inward remodeling of the glenoid fossae can be observed after unilateral mastication was induce to the non-masticatory sides of experimental rats. It is concluded that unilateral mastication might be one of the etiologic factor of temporomandibular joint disorders.

  2. MR imaging evaluation of inferior olivary nuclei: comparison of postoperative subjects with and without posterior fossa syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patay, Z; Enterkin, J; Harreld, J H; Yuan, Y; Löbel, U; Rumboldt, Z; Khan, R; Boop, F

    2014-04-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome is a severe postoperative complication occurring in up to 29% of children undergoing posterior fossa tumor resection; it is most likely caused by bilateral damage to the proximal efferent cerebellar pathways, whose fibers contribute to the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. When the triangle is disrupted, hypertrophic olivary degeneration develops. We hypothesized that MR imaging patterns of inferior olivary nucleus changes reflect patterns of damage to the proximal efferent cerebellar pathways and show association with clinical findings, in particular the presence or absence of posterior fossa syndrome. We performed blinded, randomized longitudinal MR imaging analyses of the inferior olivary nuclei of 12 children with and 12 without posterior fossa syndrome after surgery for midline intraventricular tumor in the posterior fossa. The Fisher exact test was performed to investigate the association between posterior fossa syndrome and hypertrophic olivary degeneration on MR imaging. The sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging findings of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration for posterior fossa syndrome were measured. Of the 12 patients with posterior fossa syndrome, 9 had bilateral inferior olivary nucleus abnormalities. The 12 patients without posterior fossa syndrome had either unilateral or no inferior olivary nucleus abnormalities. The association of posterior fossa syndrome and hypertrophic olivary degeneration was statistically significant (P < .0001). Hypertrophic olivary degeneration may be a surrogate imaging indicator for damage to the contralateral proximal efferent cerebellar pathway. In the appropriate clinical setting, bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration may be a sensitive and specific indicator of posterior fossa syndrome.

  3. [Craniological basis of operative approaches to the structures of posterior cranial fossa using endovideo-monitoring].

    PubMed

    Gaĭvoronskiĭ, A I

    2007-01-01

    Cranioscopic and craniometric characteristics of posterior cranial fossa and correlations between them were studied using 127 skulls with different cranial shape (dolicho-, meso- and brachicraniums). It was found that most of the craniometric characteristics were independent on gender and shape of the skull, while each characteristic had some individual peculiarities. Endovideomonitoring was used to assess the optimality of suboccipital paramedial and retrosigmoid approaches to posterior cranial fossa using 20 heads of the corpses belonging to adult individuals. It was demonstrated that retrosigmoid approach was optimal for the accessibility of major anatomical structures of posterior cranial fossa.

  4. A Ruptured Dermoid Cyst of the Cavernous Sinus Extending into the Posterior Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Seung-Chull; Cheong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    Supratentorial dermoid cysts are uncommon to develop in the cavernous sinus. We present a ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa. The patient was a 32-year-old female who complained occipital headache, blurred vision, and tinnitus over 4 years. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an enhanced tumor in the right cavernous sinus extending into the right temporal base and the posterior fossa with findings of ruptured cyst. Surgical resection was performed, and pathological findings were confirmed to be a dermoid cyst. We report a second case with ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa. PMID:26113964

  5. A Ruptured Dermoid Cyst of the Cavernous Sinus Extending into the Posterior Fossa.

    PubMed

    Paik, Seung-Chull; Kim, Choong-Hyun; Cheong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Min

    2015-05-01

    Supratentorial dermoid cysts are uncommon to develop in the cavernous sinus. We present a ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa. The patient was a 32-year-old female who complained occipital headache, blurred vision, and tinnitus over 4 years. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an enhanced tumor in the right cavernous sinus extending into the right temporal base and the posterior fossa with findings of ruptured cyst. Surgical resection was performed, and pathological findings were confirmed to be a dermoid cyst. We report a second case with ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa.

  6. Arachnoid Cyst in the Middle Cranial Fossa Presenting with Pulsatile Exophthalmos: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Atsushi; KON, Hiroyuki; HARYU, Shinya; MINO, Masaki; SASAKI, Tatsuya; NISHIJIMA, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman suffered gradual progression of right pulsatile exophthalmos and slight headache. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated outward and downward displacement of the right globe and an arachnoid cyst in the right middle cranial fossa associated with thinned and anterior protrusion of a bony orbit. Microscopic cystocisternotomy was performed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside of the cyst communicated into the carotid cistern and cistern in the posterior cranial fossa. Pulsatile exophthalmos improved immediately after surgery. Arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa presenting with exophthalmos is rare. Microscopic cystocisternotomy might successfully improve CSF flow and relieve exophthalmos. PMID:24305013

  7. Wound breakdown after middle cranial fossa craniotomy: an unusual complication after rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Moberly, Aaron C; Tweel, Benjamin C; Welling, D Bradley

    2014-02-01

    Wound complications after middle cranial fossa craniotomy are rare. We describe a patient who underwent a left middle fossa craniotomy for resection of a small internal auditory canal tumor with subsequent development of wound breakdown and infection 1 week postoperatively. Prompting of the patient elicited a history of bilateral rhytidectomies. Wound debridement, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, dermal regeneration template placement, and prolonged antibiotic treatment were performed. Complete secondary intention healing occurred with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Prior rhytidectomy scars must be identified and incorporated into the surgical planning prior to performing middle fossa craniotomy incisions.

  8. Early prediction of maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Ann-Sophie; Voet, Martine; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish prediction criteria for maxillary canine impaction in young patients, based on angular and linear measurements on panoramic radiographs. Methods: From 828 records having at least 2 panoramic radiographs, both taken between the ages of 7 and 14 years, with a minimum 1-year and maximum 3-year interval (T1 and T2), a training data set consisting of 30 subjects with unilateral canine impaction (12 males and 18 females) was selected. The patients' mean age was 10.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 1.3 years] at T1 and 11.9 years (SD 1.1 years) at T2. The training data set also consisted of 30 maxillary canines from the contralateral sides and an additional 60 normal erupted canines from 30 subjects. Those 30 subjects of a test data set were selected based on displaying bilateral maxillary canine eruption at T2 and being matched for gender and age with the subjects of the training data set [12 males and 18 females; mean age at T1, 10.1 years (SD 1.3 years) and at T2, 11.1 years (SD 1.2 years)]. Angular and linear measurements were performed separately by two observers on the total study sample at T1. Linear measurements were expressed as a multiplication of the maxillary central incisor width at the non-impacted side. Results: Significant differences for linear and angular measurements and radiographic factors were found between the maxillary impacted canine and erupted maxillary canine. The three best-discriminating parameters were canine to first premolar angle, canine cusp to midline distance and canine cusp to maxillary plane distance. These three parameters were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the probability of impaction, yielding a high area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–0.99), with 90% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusions: Prediction of maxillary canine impaction from a combination of parameters relating to angles and distances measured

  9. Maxillary Sinus Aeration in Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakci, Mustafa; Erel, Fuat; Bulbul, Erdogan; Yazici, Hasmet; Acar, Mustafa; Yanik, Bahar

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis, which is an important reason of nasal obstruction, and maxillary sinus aeration. Three hundred fifteen patients who have a complaint of nasal obstruction and scheduled to undergo skin prick test (SPT) with a suspicion of allergic rhinitis (AR) were enrolled for this study. Thirty-two patients with positive SPT result and 30 patients with a negative SPT result were determined as group 1 and 2 (control group), respectively. A 3-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography images of the 62 patients was used to assess and calculate maxillary sinus volumes (MSVs). Total maxillary sinus volumes were measured as 21.87 cm(3) and 30.15 cm(3) in group 1 and group 2, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between the MSVs of the groups (P < 0.001). Total maxillary sinus volumes were found to be significantly smaller for patients with a positive SPT compared to patients with a negative SPT. Thus, we may conclude that AR has a negative impact on maxillary sinus aeration.

  10. An adolescent treated with rapid maxillary expansion presenting with strabismus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few in vivo studies have investigated the effect of maxillary expansion on strabismus; however, some in vitro studies hypothesized that changes in the palatal width obtained with rapid maxillary expansion appliances could involve other bone structures that contain blood vessels and nerves conveying to the orbital cavity. The present case report seems to support that hypothesis, even if no analysis of pathogenetic mechanisms could be drawn. Case presentation We present the case of a 14-year-old Caucasian girl affected by strabismus and referred for the treatment of a class III malocclusion with transverse maxillary deficiency, which was corrected by the application of a rapid maxillary expansion appliance (Haas type). At 2 months follow-up, the patient, who had not undergone any ophthalmologic treatment, was submitted to an ophthalmologic examination that revealed a marked change in the vision defect, which slightly relapsed at 6 months. Conclusions The results of our clinical evaluation showed a remarkable modification of the oculomotor system of our patient as an outcome of the rapid maxillary expansion. Further studies are needed to clarify these findings and to investigate the clinical implications of these observations. PMID:23971857

  11. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral in either of the jaws. This paper reports the presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth in the right maxillary central incisor region with trauma involving both maxillary central incisors and also the management of the supernumerary tooth and traumatized teeth in a 14-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Pavuluri C, Nuvvula S. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):30-32. PMID:25206184

  12. Immediately loaded fixed maxillary implant treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Binon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Patients with a failing maxillary dentition typically require an extended treatment sequence that involves extractions, interim prosthesis wear, grafting and subsequent implant placement, and restoration with an implant-supported fixed or bar-retained prosthesis. Established maxillary implant protocols can take up to 15 or more months to complete. The purpose of this report is to describe a treatment sequence using zygomatic implants in a patient with advanced periodontal disease. A fixed prosthesis was fabricated without grafting, resulting in a shortened treatment time. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Radiographic evaluation of cone-beam computed tomography for oral implants: maxillary sinus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu

    2015-08-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has an important function in understanding implant operations. CBCT can be used to evaluate the basic condition of implant site before implant operation and decide whether it is suitable for implanting. CBCT also ensures whether the direction of implant and the operation method are satisfactory. CBCT can be used pre- or post-operation as long as the case involves the maxillary sinus. Clinical implant cases using CBCT were introduced to evaluate the maxillary sinus pre- or post-operation.

  14. Bilateral Supernumerary Deciduous Maxillary Lateral Incisors with Fusion: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Rafiee, Azade

    2016-01-01

    Dental anomaly in number, size and shape might be due to excessive activation of dental lamina during the morpho-differentiation stage. Fusion is one of the most unusual and rare anomalies of shape of the teeth. It frequently involves the supernumerary teeth resulting in a challenging differential diagnosis with gemination. Dental anomalies may result in different problems such as delayed eruption and crowding; thus, early diagnosis is required for effective intervention and proper in-time treatment. The case reported here is a 4-year-old girl with bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary lateral incisors associated with fusion between primary maxillary left lateral incisor and supernumerary lateral tooth. PMID:26966712

  15. Effect of Maxillary Osteotomy on Speech in Cleft Lip and Palate: Perceptual Outcomes of Velopharyngeal Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Valerie J.; Sell, Debbie; Tuomainen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abnormal facial growth is a well-known sequelae of cleft lip and palate (CLP) resulting in maxillary retrusion and a class III malocclusion. In 10-50% of cases, surgical correction involving advancement of the maxilla typically by osteotomy methods is required and normally undertaken in adolescence when facial growth is complete.…

  16. Effect of Maxillary Osteotomy on Speech in Cleft Lip and Palate: Perceptual Outcomes of Velopharyngeal Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Valerie J.; Sell, Debbie; Tuomainen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abnormal facial growth is a well-known sequelae of cleft lip and palate (CLP) resulting in maxillary retrusion and a class III malocclusion. In 10-50% of cases, surgical correction involving advancement of the maxilla typically by osteotomy methods is required and normally undertaken in adolescence when facial growth is complete.…

  17. A rare presentation of multiple dens invaginatus in maxillary dentition.

    PubMed

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-08-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental disturbance of the tooth and usually occurs in the maxillary lateral incisor of permanent dentition. In this article, a rare case of dens invaginatus affecting multiple permanent maxillary teeth is described.

  18. The effect of maxillary sinus surgery on its development.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Osman; Bahadir, Aysenur; Kosucu, Polat; Livaoglu, Murat

    2008-05-01

    The study showed that surgery in the maxillary sinus can affect its development. To quantitatively evaluate the long-term impact of sinus surgery on its development in the rabbit. This was an experimental study performed at an academic tertiary medical center using 20 4-week-old New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits underwent unilateral right maxillary sinus surgery. The contralateral maxillary sinus used as a control did not undergo the operation. The maxillary sinus ostium was enlarged on the operated side. Volumetric analysis of the maxillary sinus was performed 1 year post-surgery. The maxillary sinus volumes of both sides were calculated using Multidedector CT and the volumetric measurements of the operated side were compared with the non-operated side. Maxillary sinus development was significantly reduced on the surgical side. Maxillary sinus growth on the surgical side was determined as 87% compared with the non-surgical side.

  19. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tiago Maia Fernandes; Claudino, Lígia Vieira; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2). The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44) was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890) and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980). Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness. PMID:27901233

  20. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939

  1. Prosthetic rehabilitation of acquired maxillary defects secondary to mucormycosis: clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal J; Katyayan, Manish Khan; Katyayan, Preeti Agarwal; Chauhan, Vishal

    2014-03-01

    Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections such as osteomyelitis, viral infections, such as herpes zoster or fungal infections, such as mucormycosis, aspergillosis etc. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection, which mainly infects immunocompromised patients. Once the maxilla is involved, surgical resection and debridement of the necrosed areas can result in extensive maxillary defects. The clinician is to face many a challenge in order to replace not only the missing teeth, but also the lost soft tissues and bone, including hard palate and alveolar ridges. The prosthesis (Obturator) lacks a bony base and the lost structures of the posterior palatal seal area compromise retention of the prosthesis. Furthermore, the post surgical soft tissues are scarred and tense, which exert strong dislodging forces. The present article describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of maxillary necrosis secondary to mucormycosis in two cases, one completely edentulous and the other partially edentulous.

  2. Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, G; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V

    2012-09-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI.

  3. Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Shilpa, G.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V.

    2012-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI. PMID:23230364

  4. Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome associated with unique cleft palate: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Holla, Goda; Ramakrishna, Yeluri; Holla, Anup; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2014-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly that affects 1:50,000 live births. SMMCI syndrome is characterized by the presence of a single central incisor located on the maxillary midline in both primary and permanent dentitions. It may occur as an isolated finding or in association with developmental defects and systemic involvement. Congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI syndrome can include short stature, mild forms of deviation in craniofacial morphology, mild to severe intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, and cleft lip and/or palate. This report describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old girl with SMMCI syndrome--in addition to bilateral residual cleft and associated nasal regurgitation--that was treated with a removable maxillary obturator.

  5. Conservative approach to recurrent calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor occupying the maxillary sinus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is an uncommon benign cystic neoplasm of the jaw that develops from the odontogenic epithelium. Invasion into the maxillary sinus by a CCOT is not a typical, and the recurrence of the cystic variant of CCOT in the posterior maxilla is rare. This report describes a recurrent CCOT occupying most of the maxillary sinus of a 24-year-old male patient. As a treatment, marsupialization was carried out as a means of decompression, and the involved teeth were all endodontically treated. Afterward, surgical enucleation was performed. The size of the lesion continued to shrink after marsupialization, and the maxillary sinus restored its volume. This patient has been followed-up for 3 years after the surgery, and there have not been any signs of recurrence. PMID:27847742

  6. Solitary median maxillary central incisor, short stature, choanal atresia/midnasal stenosis (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, R K; Bankier, A; Aldred, M J; Kan, K; Lucas, J O; Perks, A G

    1997-12-01

    This article describes a series of 21 consecutive cases, each involving a solitary median maxillary central incisor; the patients were seen in the Department of Dentistry or the Victorian Clinical Genetics Unit, Murdoch Institute, at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, from 1966 to 1997. The spectrum of anomalies and associated features present in these cases--solitary median maxillary central incisor, choanal atresia, and holoprosencephaly--is described, and the literature related to the features, including genetic studies in these conditions, is reviewed. We relate our findings in these cases to current knowledge of developmental embryology. It is hoped that the findings, together with our interpretation of them, will help to clarify understanding of solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome. This syndrome was previously considered a simple midline defect of the dental lamina, but it is now recognized as a possible predictor of holoprosencephalies of varying degrees in the proband, in members of the proband's family, and in the family's descendants.

  7. Permanent maxillary central incisor impaction: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Sushant S; Kumar, G S; Raghunath, Vandana; Rekha, K P

    2003-01-01

    Impaction of the permanent maxillary central incisor is rare. Trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth is the most common cause. Two case reports of impacted permanent maxillary central incisors with a history of trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth are presented. In one case there was radiographic evidence of complete arrest of root formation, and in the other case the root was dilacerated from the cervical third and the enamel surface was rough.

  8. Nili Fossae in Natural Color and Across the Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of the Nili Fossae region at 0643 UTC (2:43 a.m. EDT) on June 21, 2007, near 21.15 degrees north latitude, 74.24 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several dozen that CRISM has taken to map the minerals at candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2010.

    The Nili Fossae region is critical to understanding the history of water on Mars and whether water ever formed environments suitable for life, because the region is underlain by a layer of phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. This type of mineralogy formed where water was in contact with Mars' crustal rocks for very long periods, altering the silicates in volcanic rocks. In addition, phyllosilicates can encapsulate and preserve organic chemicals associated with life (if life was present). Its rocky record of an ancient wet environment makes Nili Fossae a top contender among the 30-plus landing sites being considered for MSL, whose objectives include measuring the chemistry preserved in an ancient wet environment.

    This series of four different versions of the same 544-color image illustrates the mineral-mapping capability that comes from moving beyond the wavelength range of the human eye, and into infrared wavelengths where minerals leave distinct 'fingerprints' in reflected sunlight. At upper left, more than three dozen of the distinct wavelengths measured by CRISM were combined to mimic how the human eye would see the image. The subtle shading comes from the Sun's position high in Mars' sky when the image was taken, creating few shadows. The bland, butterscotch color comes from the dust coating nearly all of the Martian surface to some degree. At upper right

  9. Nili Fossae in Natural Color and Across the Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of the Nili Fossae region at 0643 UTC (2:43 a.m. EDT) on June 21, 2007, near 21.15 degrees north latitude, 74.24 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several dozen that CRISM has taken to map the minerals at candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2010.

    The Nili Fossae region is critical to understanding the history of water on Mars and whether water ever formed environments suitable for life, because the region is underlain by a layer of phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. This type of mineralogy formed where water was in contact with Mars' crustal rocks for very long periods, altering the silicates in volcanic rocks. In addition, phyllosilicates can encapsulate and preserve organic chemicals associated with life (if life was present). Its rocky record of an ancient wet environment makes Nili Fossae a top contender among the 30-plus landing sites being considered for MSL, whose objectives include measuring the chemistry preserved in an ancient wet environment.

    This series of four different versions of the same 544-color image illustrates the mineral-mapping capability that comes from moving beyond the wavelength range of the human eye, and into infrared wavelengths where minerals leave distinct 'fingerprints' in reflected sunlight. At upper left, more than three dozen of the distinct wavelengths measured by CRISM were combined to mimic how the human eye would see the image. The subtle shading comes from the Sun's position high in Mars' sky when the image was taken, creating few shadows. The bland, butterscotch color comes from the dust coating nearly all of the Martian surface to some degree. At upper right

  10. Phyllosilicate and Olivine around a Fracture in Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of part of the Nili Fossae region at the western margin of the Isidis impact basin at 3:07 (UTC) on December 12, 2006, near 21.9 degrees north latitude, 78.2 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    The Isidis basin resulted from a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The image of the Isidis basin at the top left is the colored elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) overlain on a digital image mosaic from the Viking mission. Reds represent higher elevations, and blue lower elevations. The western rim of the Isidis basin has numerous, concentric troughs (or 'fossae') which may have formed during faulting associated with the impact event. Since then, the Nili Fossae region has since been heavily eroded, and is one of the most mineralogically diverse spots on Mars.

    This CRISM image targets one of region's smaller fractures. The image is shown overlain on the Viking digital image mosaic at lower left. The lower right CRISM image was constructed from three visible wavelengths (0.71, 0.60 and 0.53 microns in the red, green and blue image planes, respectively) and is close to what the human eye would see. The blue on the right of the image is an artifact from light scattering in the atmosphere. The upper right image was constructed from three infrared channels (2.38, 1.80 and 1.15 microns in the red, green and blue image planes, respectively) to highlight the mineralogy of the area. The bright green areas are rich in 'phyllosilicates,' a category of minerals including clays. The purple material along the walls of the fracture likely contains small amounts of the iron- and magnesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The yellow-brown material contains the

  11. Osteosclerotic plasmacytoma of maxillary bone (orbital floor).

    PubMed

    Mustoe, T A; Fried, M P; Goodman, M L; Kelly, J H; Strome, M

    1984-09-01

    Plasma cell neoplasms have been classified as multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma and extramedullary plasmacytoma. They are usually considered as osteolytic lesions of bone except for the rare occurrence of osteosclerotic lesions. This paper describes the first reported osteosclerotic plasmacytoma of the maxillary bone and orbital floor. The difficulties in establishing a diagnosis and the relationship to other plasma cell neoplasms are discussed. Osteosclerotic plasmacytomas are a rare variant of plasma cell tumors which usually produce osteolytic lesions rather than bony sclerosis. Sixty-eight patients with the osteosclerotic variant have appeared in the world literature, with an overall incidence of about 1 per cent in a large series of plasma cell neoplasms (Dreidger and Pruzanski, 1979). There have been only six previous cases of solitary osteosclerotic plasmacytomas reported (Morley and Schweiger, 1964; Roberts et al., 1974; Rodriguez et al. 1976; Rushton, 1965; Schneinker, 1938; Brigham Medical Review, 1961) involving spine, sternum, or rib. None have previously been reported in the head and neck area. Plasma cell tumors have been classified into multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytomas of bone, and extramedullary plasmacytomas. Multiple myeloma is a disseminated plasma cell malignancy characterized by the production of homogeneous immunoglobulins (whole or fragments) which appear in the serum and urine. Plasma cell tumors can also occur as solitary plasmacytomas, usually in bone, but also in soft tissue. With time, most solitary plasmacytomas develop disseminated disease with all the characteristics of multiple myeloma (Wiltshaw, 1976). Extramedullary plasmacytomas arise in soft tissue rather than bone, and primarily occur in the head and neck region. Clinically, they remain localized and less frequently develop into disseminated myeloma.

  12. Chronic maxillary sinusitis and diabetes related maxillary osteonecrosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dental infections and maxillary sinusitis are the main causes of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis can occur in all age groups, and is more frequently found in the lower jaw than in the upper jaw. Systemic conditions that can alter the patient's resistance to infection including diabetes mellitus, anemia, and autoimmune disorders are predisposing factors for osteomyelitis. We report a case of uncommon broad maxillary osteonecrosis precipitated by uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic maxillary sinusitis in a female patient in her seventies with no history of bisphosphonate or radiation treatment. PMID:26734561

  13. Sinuous Ridge Cutting Across Geologic Units of the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-18

    Shown here is an exceptionally long sinuous ridge, possibly an inverted fluvial feature, that cuts across newly mapped geologic units of the Medusae Fossae Formation, from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  14. Topographic Post-Formation Modifications of Inverted Fluvial Features in the Western Medusa Fossae Formation, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, A.; Burr, D. M.; Beyer, R. A.; Howard, A. D.

    2011-03-01

    Topographic analyses of sinuous ridges in the western Medusa Fossae Formation (MFF) show gradients locally reversing direction of slope along the presumed flow direction, interpreted as indication of differential settling of the western MFF.

  15. Supratentorial Neurometabolic Alterations in Pediatric Survivors of Posterior Fossa Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rueckriegel, Stefan M.; Driever, Pablo Hernaiz; Bruhn, Harald

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Therapy and tumor-related effects such as hypoperfusion, internal hydrocephalus, chemotherapy, and irradiation lead to significant motor and cognitive sequelae in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. A distinct proportion of those factors related to the resulting late effects is hitherto poorly understood. This study aimed at separating the effects of neurotoxic factors on central nervous system metabolism by using H-1 MR spectroscopy to quantify cerebral metabolite concentrations in these patients in comparison to those in age-matched healthy peers. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with World Health Organization (WHO) I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated by resection only, 24 patients with WHO IV medulloblastoma (MB), who additionally received chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, and 43 healthy peers were investigated using single-volume H-1 MR spectroscopy of parietal white matter and gray matter. Results: Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly decreased in white matter (p < 0.0001) and gray matter (p < 0.0001) of MB patients and in gray matter (p = 0.005) of PA patients, compared to healthy peers. Decreased creatine concentrations in parietal gray matter correlated significantly with older age at diagnosis in both patient groups (MB patients, p = 0.009, r = 0.52; PA patients, p = 0.006, r = 0.7). Longer time periods since diagnosis were associated with lower NAA levels in white matter of PA patients (p = 0.008, r = 0.66). Conclusions: Differently decreased NAA concentrations were observed in both PA and MB groups of posterior fossa tumor patients. We conclude that this reflects a disturbance of the neurometabolic steady state of normal-appearing brain tissue due to the tumor itself and to the impact of surgery in both patient groups. Further incremental decreases of metabolite concentrations in MB patients may point to additional harm caused by irradiation and chemotherapy. The stronger decrease of NAA in MB

  16. Polygonal Dike Networks in the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Dickson, J. L.; Forget, F.; Head, J. W.; Grosfils, E. B.

    2013-09-01

    1. Introduction 1.1 The Medusae Fossae Formation The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a widespread and voluminous formation which covers 2.1 x 106 km2 between 130-230ºE and 12ºS-12ºN [1-3]. As a fine-grained, friable deposit, its surface is dominated by aeolian features such as yardangs [3-5] and a large number of both fresh and indurated transverse aeolian ridges [TARs] [5]. The deposition of the MFF began at the latest in the Hesperian [6], and over time it has been recognized that, by virtue of its fine-grained nature, the MFF may preserve an important record of Martian history, most directly as a result of the burial and exhumation of channels found in the Zephyria region of the formation [7]. In order to better document the occurrence of smallscale features of interest within the MFF, we examined 427 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images spread across the formation, during which the occurrence of features of interest were mapped [8]. HiRISE images were supplemented by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Imager (CTX), Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) and Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images where needed. Here we describe the occurrence and characteristics of several polygonal networks of rectilinear ridges. 1.2 Rectilinear Ridges on Mars Rectilinear ridges have been recognized in several different areas on Mars. Long, linear to slightly curving or en echelon ridges hypothesized to be exhumed magmatic dikes have been found in a variety of environments on Mars [9-13], particularly in formerly glaciated terrains where magma may have been emplaced into an icy substrate. A network of rectilinear ridges was described in detail in an unnamed crater on the dichotomy boundary [14]. These chaotic, intersecting ridges, forming irregular polygons ~1 km across, are hypothesized to be brecciated dikes emplaced during the process of crater formation [14]. A group of intersecting rectilinear ridges, informally known as

  17. Middle fossa approach: microsurgical anatomy and surgical technique from the neurosurgical perspective.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, Necmettin; Sanus, Galip Zihni; Ulu, Mustafa Onur; Tanriverdi, Taner; Akar, Ziya; Rubino, Pablo A; Rhoton, Albert L

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to call attention to the subtemporal approach directed through the petrous apex to the IAM. We studied the microsurgical anatomy of the middle floor to delineate a reliable angle between the GSPN and the IAM to precisely localize and expose the IAM from above. A new technique for the elevation of middle fossa floor in an anterior-to-posterior direction has also been examined in cadaveric dissections and performed in surgery. The microsurgical anatomy of the middle fossa floor was studied in 10 adult cadaveric heads (20 sides) after meatal drilling on the middle fossa. Five latex-injected specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to further define the microsurgical anatomy of the middle fossa approach. The middle fossa approach is illustrated in a patient for the decompression of the facial nerve to demonstrate the surgical technique and limitations of bone removal. Elevation of middle fossa dura in an anterior-to-posterior direction leads to early identification of the GSPN, where the nerve passes under V3. The most reliable and easily appreciated angle to be used in localizing the IAM is between the IAM and the long axis of the GSPN, which is approximately 61 degrees . Beginning drilling the meatus medially at the petrous ridge is safer than beginning laterally, where the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves become more superficial. The cochlea anteromedially, vestibule posterolaterally, and superior semicircular canal posteriorly significantly limit the bone removal at the lateral part of the IAM. The surgical technique for the middle fossa approach which includes an anterior-to-posterior elevation of middle fossa dura starting from the foramen ovale and uses the angle between the IAM and the long axis of the GSPN to localize the meatus from above may be an alternative to previously proposed surgical methods.

  18. A case of symptomatic mass in the right iliac fossa: a Bermuda Triangle which often lies the right diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Panarese, Alessandra; Pironi, Daniele; Pontone, Stefano; Vendettuoli, Maurizio; De Cristofaro, Flaminia; Antonelli, Manila; Romani, Annamaria; Filippini, Angelo

    2014-02-24

    Disease of the iliac fossa can often be accompanied by non-specific symptoms and some of these are exclusively caused by the compression of bulky masses of other neighboring structures. In young women a differential diagnosis is a non trivial task as several possible causes have to be taken into account. Thus, intraligamentary tumors, which are extremely rare finding, are frequently confused with uterus, ovary or intestinal tumors. Even if myomas are the most benign tumors of the female genital tract, broad ligament leiomyomas are an unusual finding in women of reproductive age. These tumors are often asymptomatic until they reach a volume likely to cause symptoms related to the mass pressure. An accurate patient's anamnesis and examination serve as a guide to further examinations. Ultrasound is the first line imaging as it can show ovarian or other pelvic mass and doesn't involve exposure to radiations in young patients, who can be pregnant. We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a broad ligament leiomyoma, which presented as an inguinal mass in a patient with a right iliac fossa pain. We also report our diagnostic process performing the differential diagnosis with other potential pathologies of RIF. In these cases, a preoperative disease classification discriminating the benign or malignant tumor nature is closely linked to the proper patient management.

  19. Contrecoup fractures of the anterior cranial fossae as a consequence of blunt force caused by a fall.

    PubMed

    Hein, P M; Schulz, E

    1990-01-01

    Contrecoup fractures of the base of the skull are regarded as rare in the clinical literature. In our material (n = 171 falls on the same level and on or from stairs), the overall frequency of contrecoup fractures of the anterior cranial fossa in fatal cranio-cerebral trauma due to falls was 12%, as compared to 24% with occipital point of impact of the head. The relationships between the impact site on the head, form of fracture at the point of impact with involvement of the skull cap and/or the base of the skull, coup and contrecoup injuries of the brain, localization of contrecoup fractures in the anterior cranial fossa and the occurrence of monocle and spectacle haematomas display a major variability. Fractures occur in the form of simple fractures and as impression fractures (fracture fragments or fracture boundaries displaced to the inside). Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the concealed position of the anterior skull base. Contrecoup fractures become of forensic medical significance when symptoms of a frontobasal injury occur for the first time after trauma which has occurred some time in the past and when the question arises as to the causal connection with the original trauma. In investigation of living persons, it may be difficult to decide whether haemorrhages in the region of the orbit and its vicinity result from a direct blunt force or derive from fractures of the base of the skull, especially contrecoup fractures.

  20. Segmental Maxillary Osteotomies in Conjunction With Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery: Indications - Safety - Outcome.

    PubMed

    Posnick, Jeffrey C; Adachie, Anayo; Choi, Elbert

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the indications, safety, and treating orthodontists' assessment of outcomes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery that included segmental osteotomies. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients treated by a single surgeon from 2004 to 2013. The index group consisted of a consecutive series of subjects with a bimaxillary dentofacial deformity (DFD) involving the chin and symptomatic chronic obstructive nasal breathing. All the subjects underwent Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomy, septoplasty, inferior turbinate reduction, and osseous genioplasty. The predictor variables included age, gender, pattern of presenting DFD, type of maxillary osteotomy, and maxillary premolar extractions. The outcome variables included orthodontist assessment of the results achieved and the occurrence of maxillary complications. The orthodontist assessment was documented through a survey questionnaire completed 1 to 11 years after surgery. The maxillary complications studied included gingival recession, pulpal injury, oronasal fistula, and the need for hardware removal. During the study period, 262 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Their age at surgery averaged 25 years (range 13 to 63), and 134 were female (51%). The major patterns of the presenting DFD included long face (30%) and maxillary deficiency (25%). Of the 262 subjects, 66 (25%) underwent maxillary premolar extractions to relieve dental compensations. Also, 30% of the subjects presented for preoperative reassessment with a posterior arch form of skeletal anomaly. They underwent 2-segment Le Fort I osteotomy, and 34% presented with both posterior arch form and curve of Spee skeletal anomalies. They underwent 3-segment Le Fort I osteotomy. The subjects who had not undergone preoperative maxillary premolar extractions were more likely to have undergone 3-segment Le Fort I osteotomy (P = .008). No direct surgical injury occurred to a dental root

  1. Can we safely monitor posterior fossa intracranial pressure? A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Vanaclocha, Vicente; Sáiz-Sapena, Nieves; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Ortiz-Criado, José María; Verdu-López, Francisco; Vanaclocha, Leyre

    2017-05-25

    measuring intracranial pressure (ICP) is considered the gold standard of care for brain injury. While supratentorial ICP monitoring has been adopted everywhere, posterior fossa ICP monitoring is rarely performed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of inserting ICP sensors into the posterior fossa of cadavers, to measure ICP in the posterior fossa. An ICP sensor was transcranially implanted into the posterior fossa of fifteen fresh adult cadavers. An extracranial point was defined in the retroauricular area 2 cm behind the tip of the mastoid process and 2 cm below the transverse sinus, in order to implant an ICP probe. The cranial cavity was opened and measures were taken of the distance that the ICP sensor had penetrated inside the posterior fossa, as well as the distance to nearby venous sinuses (lateral, transverse, sigmoid, inferior petrosal sinus, and jugular bulb). The cerebellar hemisphere was searched for any possible damage. the selected extracranial point (2 cm behind the tip of the mastoid process and 2 cm below the transverse sinus) was a safe location. Intracranial structures such as the brainstem and the cerebellar hemisphere were not damaged. The implanted ICP probe was at least 2 cm away from the venous sinuses, which were not damaged. ICP monitoring is safe and reliable at the described ICP probe placement site of the posterior fossa.

  2. Acoustic interaction between the right and left piriform fossae in generating spectral dips.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hironori; Adachi, Seiji; Mokhtari, Parham; Kitamura, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    It is known that the right and left piriform fossae generate two deep dips on speech spectra and that acoustic interaction exists in generating the dips: if only one piriform fossa is modified, both the dips change in frequency and amplitude. In the present study, using a simple geometrical model and measured vocal tract shapes, the acoustic interaction was examined by the finite-difference time-domain method. As a result, one of the two dips was lower in frequency than the two independent dips that appeared when either of the piriform fossae was occluded, and the other dip was higher in frequency than the two dips. At the lower dip frequency, the piriform fossae resonated almost in opposite phase, while at the higher dip frequency, they resonated almost in phase. These facts indicate that the piriform fossae and the lower part of the pharynx can be modeled as a coupled two-oscillator system whose two normal vibration modes generate the two spectral dips. When the piriform fossae were identical, only the higher dip appeared. This is because the lower mode is not acoustically coupled to the main vocal tract enough to generate an absorption dip.

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Nguyen, Tung T.; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Methods Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. Results The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. Conclusions This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. PMID:24182587

  4. [VEGETATIVE REACTIONS AS PROGNOSTIC FACTOR IN POSTERIOR FOSSA SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, R V; Kondrat'ev, A N

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rate related to posterior fossa tumors resection varies from 1 to 8 percent, according to various authors. It depends on tumor size and its growth characteristics. To determine the physiological acceptability of surgery, physiological significance of vegetative reactions associated with tumors resection has to be assessed. We divide these reactions (centrogenic reactions - CR) into 2 main groups. The first group has a relatively precise morphofunctional structure, similar to the classic reflex arc. They appear due to irritation of local centers or cranial nerves nuclei with mixed motor-vegetative structure. In most cases they are not connected with anatomic damage of CNS structures. The second group of CR is correlated with dysfunction of brain and represents brain s attempt to turn into a new functional state. Their presence should be considered as a functional degradation symptom, which might be even irreversible. Emergence from anesthesia in the operative room is not recommended in this clinical situation. Neurovegetative stabilization should be provided for a period of 6 to 24 hours after tumor resection.

  5. Pressure-supported ventilation for posterior fossa operation.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Takahashi, H; Yanase, T; Suzuki, M

    1990-03-01

    To maintain enough gas exchange while using spontaneous respiration as a monitor of the normal brainstem function, we tried pressure-supported ventilation (PSV) with a Servo 900C ventilator (Siemens Elema AB, Sweden) on 12 otherwise healthy patients during posterior fossa operation. Ventilation mode was switched from controlled to PSV after the dura was open uneventfully in all cases but one. With a trigger level of -1 to -2 cm H2O, spontaneous respiration was triggered to start the inspiration. With supporting inspiratory pressure of 4-20 cm H2O, PaCO2 was kept at 31.7-45.9 mm Hg. The ventilatory level could be monitored breath by breath by ventilatory frequency, tidal volume, minute volume, and end-tidal CO2 concentration shown on the ventilator system. Apnea was observed in two cases during surgical manipulation around the brainstem. It was indicated immediately by the ventilator's alarm for decreased expiratory minute volume, and no sign of brainstem dysfunction was observed postoperatively. PSV was useful in maintaining adequate ventilation whereas spontaneous respiration was used as an indicator of normal brainstem function. The alarm system of the ventilator was sensitive enough to detect the surgical invasion of the brainstem at a very early stage.

  6. Neuropsychological improvement after posterior fossa arachnoid cyst drainage.

    PubMed

    Cuny, M L; Pallone, M; Piana, H; Boddaert, N; Sainte-Rose, C; Vaivre-Douret, L; Piolino, P; Puget, S

    2017-01-01

    Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts (PFAC) are mostly considered as benign lesions of the cerebellum. Although many studies have shown the major role of the cerebellum in modulating movement, language, cognition, and social interaction, there are few studies on the cognitive impact and surgical decompression of PFAC. We present the cases of two brothers successively diagnosed with PFAC and neuropsychological delay. After multidisciplinary discussion with the boys' parents, it was decided to drain these lesions. Clinical signs, cerebral images, and neuropsychological status were assessed on admission and then 1 and 3 years after surgery. At presentation, both children had mild cerebellar signs, associated with cognitive and visual-motor impairments and academic regression. CT scans revealed retrovermian cysts, which were shunted. Post-operatively, both brothers demonstrated improved visual-motor skills and behavior. At follow-up, we observed disappearance of dysarthria and academic delay and significant improvement in cognition especially at the intelligence scale and in language. Fine motor skills had improved but remained slower than the average and writing skills appeared limited. Except for PFAC which impair cerebrospinal fluid circulation or which are responsible for a significant mass effect, most PFAC are usually considered as "asymptomatic" and do not require surgical treatment. The two cases reported herein suggest that these lesions might be responsible for some associated but potentially reversible neuropsychological impairment. In the future, clinical assessment should include neuropsychological evaluation to help inform decision for surgical decompression in these children with PFAC.

  7. Pedestal Craters and Wind Streaks, South Medusae Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mars is a desert planet in which wind has a considerable effect on the landscape. Bright and dark wind streaks in this image indicate past movement of fine sediment across the landscape from upper left toward lower right. Two impact craters that look like flowers or starfish are seen in the lower portion of the image. The ejecta deposits of these craters are raised above the surrounding terrain, and indicate that wind has deflated a layer of material (that is, blown it away, thus lowering the surface) that was present at the time that the craters formed. The craters were formed by impacts of meteorites into the earlier, higher surface, and the rocks and gravel thrown out when they formed protected some of this former layer from the wind's effects. This picture--showing part of the Medusae Fossae region near the martian equator--was taken in early April 1999 and covers an area only 1 kilometer (0.62 miles)wide. Illumination is from the lower right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. Pedestal Craters and Wind Streaks, South Medusae Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mars is a desert planet in which wind has a considerable effect on the landscape. Bright and dark wind streaks in this image indicate past movement of fine sediment across the landscape from upper left toward lower right. Two impact craters that look like flowers or starfish are seen in the lower portion of the image. The ejecta deposits of these craters are raised above the surrounding terrain, and indicate that wind has deflated a layer of material (that is, blown it away, thus lowering the surface) that was present at the time that the craters formed. The craters were formed by impacts of meteorites into the earlier, higher surface, and the rocks and gravel thrown out when they formed protected some of this former layer from the wind's effects. This picture--showing part of the Medusae Fossae region near the martian equator--was taken in early April 1999 and covers an area only 1 kilometer (0.62 miles)wide. Illumination is from the lower right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. Apical surgery of a maxillary molar creating a maxillary sinus window using ultrasonics: a clinical case.

    PubMed

    García, B; Peñarrocha, M; Peñarrocha, M A; Von Arx, T

    2010-11-01

    To describe a method of carrying out apical surgery of a maxillary molar using ultrasonics to create a lateral sinus window into the maxillary sinus and an endoscope to enhance visibility during surgery. A 37-year-old female patient presented with tenderness to percussion of the maxillary second right molar. Root canal treatment had been undertaken, and the tooth restored with a metal-ceramic crown. Radiological examination revealed an apical radiolucency in close proximity to the maxillary sinus. Apical surgery of the molar was performed through the maxillary sinus, using ultrasonics for the osteotomy, creating a window in the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. During surgery, the lining of the sinus was exposed and elevated without perforation. The root-end was resected using a round tungsten carbide drill, and the root-end cavity was prepared with ultrasonic retrotips. Root-end filling was accomplished with MTA(®) . An endoscope was used to examine the cut root face, the prepared cavity and the root-end filling. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth had no clinical signs or symptoms, and the radiograph demonstrated progressing resolution of the radiolucency. When conventional root canal retreatment cannot be performed or has failed, apical surgery may be considered, even in maxillary molars with roots in close proximity to the maxillary sinus. Ultrasonic sinus window preparation allows more control and can minimize perforation of the sinus membrane when compared with conventional rotary drilling techniques. The endoscope enhances visibility during endodontic surgery, thus improving the quality of the case. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Natal maxillary primary molars: case report.

    PubMed

    Galassi, Marlei Seccani; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Ramalho, Lizete Toledo Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    An unusual case of a newborn with two immature natal maxillary molars is presented. Clinical and histological examination showed that the teeth were rootless and incompletely mineralized. The patient was followed up during one year and we confirmed that the natal teeth were from normal primary series.

  11. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Faucett, Erynne A.; Marsh, Katherine M.; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as “meth mouth,” there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  12. [The mandible in labio-maxillary clefts].

    PubMed

    Cadenat, H; Barthélémy, R; Izac, F; Clouet, M; Fabert, G

    1977-01-01

    The writers have studied mandibular anomalies in a series of 20 surgically treated clefts. Anomalies of shape occur in one case out of two and are in the form of a mandible which is too long. Anomalies of position most often show a mandible in front of the maxillary and to the rear in comparison to the base of the skull.

  13. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema.

    PubMed

    Jaija, Abdullah M Zakria; El-Beialy, Amr Ragab; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment.

  14. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema

    PubMed Central

    Jaija, Abdullah M. Zakria; El-Beialy, Amr Ragab; Mostafa, Yehya A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment. PMID:27239374

  15. Autotransplantation of Ectopic Permanent Maxillary Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Abd Jalil, Laila; Muhd Noor, Nurhidayah

    2017-01-01

    The report presents examples of successful cases of autotransplantation of ectopic teeth as donor in the treatment of clinically missing maxillary anterior teeth in young patients. The transplanted teeth were either severely ectopic, inverted, rotated or in an unfavourable position that they are commonly sacrificed as a result. Details of surgical technique as well as clinical and radiographic assessments were discussed. PMID:28352481

  16. Hounsfield Units: a new indicator showing maxillary resistance in rapid maxillary expansion cases?

    PubMed

    Acar, Yasemin Bahar; Motro, Melih; Erverdi, A Nejat

    2015-01-01

    To determine if density measurements of several maxillary regions in Hounsfield Units (HU) and outcomes of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) are correlated. Is correlation powerful enough to give us direct information about maxillary resistance to RME? Twenty-two computed tomographic (CT) scans (14 years) are used in this archive study. Two CT records were collected, one before RME (T1) and one after 3 months of retention period (T2). Maxillary measurements were made using dental and skeletal landmarks in first molar and first premolar slides to measure the effects of RME. Density of midpalatal suture (MPSD) and segments of maxillary bone is measured in HU at T1. Correlation analysis was conducted between density measurements and maxillary variables. Regression analysis was then performed for variables that showed positive correlation. There was no correlation between density and skeletal measurements. Intermolar angle (ImA) in molar slice showed statistically significant correlation with density measurements. The ImA variable showed the highest correlation with MPSD in frontal section (r  =  0.669, P < .01). There is correlation of 32.1-43.3% between density measurements and ImA increase. Our density measurements explain a certain percentage of ImA increase, but density is not the only and definitive indicator of changes after RME.

  17. Maxillary Complete Denture Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Patient-Based Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thalji, Ghadeer; McGraw, Kate; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to report on the current knowledge regarding patient satisfaction as a primary outcome for maxillary complete denture therapy. We asked, "For the maxillary edentulous patient treated using maxillary dentures, what are the patient-based outcomes regarding quality of life and treatment satisfaction." An electronic search of publications up to March 2014 was established using four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase. To meet the ultimate goal of establishing clinical guidelines based on available information, prospective comparative studies, cohort prospective studies, and retrospective studies on more than 10 subjects were included. The electronic search identified 4,530 articles that were evaluated at the title, abstract, and article level to include 31 articles of interest. The patient-based outcomes and satisfaction data included were examined and reported. The studies included 5,485 participants. Of these, 2,685 were identified as wearing maxillary complete dentures. Reported mean ages ranged from 59.7 to 73.6 years. A systematic review indicated that the provision of new maxillary complete dentures for edentulous patients results in improved self-reported satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life. The included reports, while providing evidence that complete denture satisfaction of participants and new dentures improve self-reported outcomes, did not include variables that influence these positive outcomes. A broad range of evidence supports the use of complete dentures for rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla. When considering treatment of the edentulous maxilla, the expectations of patients for esthetic and phonetic (social) rehabilitation are high and can be met using maxillary complete dentures as the mode of prosthetic rehabilitation. Patients dissatisfied with new complete dentures may be referred for dental implant therapies involving fixed or removable prostheses.

  18. Should adjuvant radiotherapy to the supraclavicular fossa be routinely given in patients with breast conservative treatment?

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Hong; Chang, King-Jen; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2007-08-01

    To analyze the overall outcome, supraclavicular fossa (SCF) recurrence rate, and pattern of failure in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy excluding SCF treatment. A total of 143 patients were enrolled in the study. Ninety-two percent of patients were stages I and II, and 8% were stage III. The median age was 44 years, and 31% of patients were involved axillary nodes (N) >/= 4, and 0.8% in patients with N < 4. The 5-year SCF-recurrence-free survival in patients with N >/= 4 and N < 4 was 80% and 99%, respectively (P < 0.001). N >/= 4 was the only independent predictor for locoregional control (P = 0.045), disease-free survival (P = 0.001), and overall survival (P = 0.008) in multivariate analysis. Women with N >/= 4 have a significantly higher risk of SCF recurrence and poorer survival. The SCF might be safely spared in patients with N < 4, but should be routinely included in the radiotherapy design for those with N >/= 4.

  19. Hyperplastic Luschka Ducts: A Mimic of Adenocarcinoma in the Gallbladder Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Aatur D.; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Swierczynski, Sharon L.; Torbenson, Michael; Anders, Robert A.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Argani, Pedram

    2013-01-01

    Ducts of Luschka are a developmental abnormality found within the gallbladder fossa in up to 10% of cholecystectomy specimens. They are most often encountered by surgeons when injured during laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy, leading to bile leakage and subsequent peritonitis. Histologically, they are typically composed of lobular aggregates of small ductules lined by bland, cuboidal-to-columnar biliary-type epithelium, associated with centrally located, larger ductules surrounded by concentric fibrosis. We have identified 6 cases of florid Luschka duct proliferation in which the ductules demonstrated irregular growth pattern, loss of characteristic concentric fibrosis, and epithelial atypia that strongly suggested the diagnosis of invasive pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma or metastatic adenocarcinoma involving the gallbladder serosa. Two of the cases were initially diagnosed as invasive adenocarcinoma, whereas the other 4 were sent for consultation to rule out adenocarcinoma. All cases were associated with marked acute and chronic cholecystitis with mucosal ulceration, cholelithiasis, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. The ducts of Luschka were located within the rim of adherent liver in all 6 cases and the gallbladder serosa in 5 cases. Limited follow-up information was available for all patients with no documentation of progressive disease. Awareness and proper recognition of the anatomic location and histologic features are imperative in distinguishing florid ducts of Luschka from both non-neoplastic conditions and most importantly adenocarcinoma. PMID:21566517

  20. More actors, different play: sphenoethmoid cell intimately related to the maxillary nerve canal and cavernous sinus apex.

    PubMed

    Săndulescu, M; Rusu, M C; Ciobanu, Iulia Camelia; Ilie, Angela; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2011-01-01

    The sphenoid sinus is one of the most morphologically variable and surgically important structures of the skull base. Located below the sella turcica, neighbored by parasellar regions, such as the orbital apex, pterygopalatine fossa and lateral sellar region (cavernous sinus), it is clinically related to these and surgically relevant as corridor for various approaches. Moreover, at the sphenoethmoidal junction, important variations occur, most of these related to the presence of the Onodi cells and the intrasinusal protrusions of the optic nerve. That is why any identified and previously undescribed morphological variation at that level must be added to the well-established protocols, clinical and surgical. During a retrospective CT study of the sphenoid sinus anatomical features a previously unreported morphology was encountered and is reported here. It refers to a unilateral sphenoethmoid cell (SEC), Onodi-positive, not only overriding the superior aspect of the sphenoid but also its lateral side to get intimately related to the maxillary nerve. As that SEC expanded medially to the cavernous sinus apex, it altered the usual endosinusal morphological correlations and also added itself within the limits of the Mullan's triangle. It appears so that such postero-infero-lateral extended pneumatization of an Onodi cell alters the surgical landmarks and also can blur clinical pictures, by adding maxillary and pterygopalatine signs and symptoms.

  1. Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma on the Left Maxillary Alveolus: A Unique Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Geethika, V.; Rao, Nageswara; Smitha, B.; Kiran, Ch. Sai

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are a group of soft-tissue malignant tumours. They derive from primitive skeletal muscle tissue with head and neck as its principle location. These tumours are extremely rare in adults and it is believed to have a different natural course, treatment response, and prognosis. The invasiveness of tumour, metastasis, lymph node involvement, and the age at diagnosis is a predictor of outcome in patients with RMC. Hence early recognition and histological sub-typing is of critical importance in the therapy of the disease. We report a rare case of RMC in a 50-year-old female patient involving the left maxillary alveolus with a detailed clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:25859531

  2. MRI pre-treatment tumour volume in maxillary complex squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Eley, Karen A; Watt-Smith, Stephen R; Boland, Paul; Potter, Matthew; Golding, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Tumour volume (Tv) measurements obtained from pre-treatment CT and MRI have increasingly shown to be more reliable predictors of outcome than TNM stage. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of MRI calculated maxillary complex tumour volume with patient outcome. The medical records of 39 patients with squamous cell carcinoma involving the maxillary sinus, maxilla, hard palate and maxillary alveolus were reviewed and tumour volume measurements completed on pre-treatment MRI. The mean tumour volume was 12.79 ± 24.31 cm(3). Independent samples t test was significant for increasing overall all-cause survival and decreasing tumour volume (1 year: p = 0.003; 5-year: p = 0.031). Cox regression was significant for stratified tumour volume, nodal involvement and peri-neural invasion for predicting disease-free survival. MRI measured tumour volume assessment appears to be a reliable predictor of survival in patients with maxillary complex SCC treated by surgical resection. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relative placement of the mandibular fossa in great apes and humans.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Richard J; Rowley, Rebecca B; Ward, Steven C

    2002-07-01

    Several researchers have investigated, or commented on, the relative placement of the hominin mandibular fossa with regard to brain expansion and masticatory function. Two confounding factors are identified in this previous work. First, a number of different measurement techniques have been applied, confusing comparisons between studies. Second, the effects of squamous thickening due to temporal bone pneumatization are shown to influence measurements based relative to the ectocranial margin of the skull. To investigate the influence of these factors, a sample of adult human (n=12), chimpanzee (n=12), gorilla (n=15), and orang-utan (n=8) skulls from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin Zoology Museum, and University of Wisconsin Anthropology collections, were CT scanned. Coronal scans were horizontally aligned and measured on a personal computer using ImageJ (NIH). To identify fossa placement, fossa breadth was measured as the projected distance in the coronal plane between the tip of the entoglenoid to lateral margin of the articular surface. A second distance, from the tip of the entoglenoid to a sagittal plane, tangent to the lateralmost margin of the endocranial surface was taken to indicate the extent of medial placement of the fossa. By eliminating the influence of pneumatization, these data unambiguously confirmed the medial placement of the human fossa and show all great apes as having a laterally placed fossa. Similar measurements on three fossil hominins, KNM-BC 1 (Homo sp. indet.), OH 5 and KNM-ER 23000 (Paranthropus boisei) demonstrate that, while all specimens demonstrate a broad fossa, only KNM-BC 1 is characterized by a relatively medial placement while the latter two display lateral placement.

  4. Morphological study of fossa ovalis and its clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S.D.; Chawre, H.K.; Joshi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been implicated in the etiology of a number of different pathologies, including cryptogenic stroke, decompression sickness in divers, etc. It can act as a channel for paradoxical embolism. PFO is not an uncommon condition, with a probe-patency in 15–35% population. The fossa ovalis (FOv) varies in size and shape from heart to heart; the prominence of annulus FOv also varies. The entire FOv may be redundant and aneurysmal. The anatomico-functional characterization of interatrial septum seems to be of paramount importance for both atrial septal defect (ASD) and PFO, not only for the device selection, but also for the evaluation of the outcome of this procedure. Method This study was conducted in 50 apparently normal hearts available in Department of Anatomy. After opening the right atrium, the shape of FOv was observed. The size was measured with the digital vernier caliper; the prominence and extent of limbus, and the redundancy or otherwise of FOv were noted; probe patency was confirmed. Results In the majority, FOv was oval (82%); average transverse diameter was 14.53 mm and vertical 12.60 mm. In 90%, the rim of the annulus was raised; in 20%, a recess was found deep to the margin of the annulus; and 18% showed probe patency. Conclusion As no study of this nature has been carried out in the Indian population, this provides pertinent information on the morphology of FOv, which may be useful for device selection in treating ASD and PFO. PMID:27133322

  5. Hearing Loss following Posterior Fossa Microvascular Decompression: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bartindale, Matthew; Kircher, Matthew; Adams, William; Balasubramanian, Neelam; Liles, Jeffrey; Bell, Jason; Leonetti, John

    2017-09-01

    Objectives (1) Determine the prevalence of hearing loss following microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). (2) Demonstrate factors that affect postoperative hearing outcomes after MVD. Data Sources PubMed-NCBI, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases from 1981 to 2016. Review Methods Systematic review of prospective cohort studies and retrospective reviews in which any type of hearing loss was recorded after MVD for TN or HFS. Three researchers extracted data regarding operative indications, procedures performed, and diagnostic tests employed. Discrepancies were resolved by mutual consensus. Results Sixty-nine references with 18,233 operations met inclusion criteria. There were 7093 patients treated for TN and 11,140 for HFS. The overall reported prevalence of hearing loss after MVD for TN and HFS was 5.58% and 8.25%, respectively. However, many of these studies relied on subjective measures of reporting hearing loss. In 23 studies with consistent perioperative audiograms, prevalence of hearing loss was 13.47% for TN and 13.39% for HFS, with no significant difference between indications ( P = .95). Studies using intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring were more likely to report hearing loss for TN (relative risk [RR], 2.28; P < .001) but not with HFS (RR, 0.88; P = .056). Conclusion Conductive and sensorineural hearing loss are important complications following posterior fossa MVD. Many studies have reported on hearing loss using either subjective measures and/or inconsistent audiometric testing. Routine perioperative audiogram protocols improve the detection of hearing loss and may more accurately represent the true risk of hearing loss after MVD for TN and HFS.

  6. Medusae Fossae Formation: New perspectives from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Bethany A.; Sakimoto, Susan E. H.; Frey, Herbert; Zimbelman, James R.

    2002-08-01

    The nature and origin of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars has been debated since the return of the first Viking images. The MFF's young age, distinctive surface texture, and lack of obvious source have prompted multiple hypotheses for its origin. This study uses data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission to examine the MFF at all available scales. We discuss and quantify observations from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to better constrain the origin of the MFF. Topographic grid estimates yield a present extent of 2.1 × 106 km2 and a volume of 1.4 × 106 km3; however, remnant yardang deposits observed far from the thicker lobes of MFF material suggest that it may have once covered up to 5 × 106 km2. We do not find compelling evidence for extensive fluvial reworking of the MFF; however, in several regions, buried channels are apparent in the MFF because the formation is draped over underlying topography. Layering is apparent at all scales, from submeter to hundreds of meters, with variable resistance to weathering. Continuity of layers appears to be local to regional, but not likely formation-wide. Yardangs form both parallel and bidirectional patterns, with resistant layers and jointing probably influencing their orientations. A comparative study of MFF regional topography and surface expression indicates that the MFF is quantitatively dissimilar to Martian polar layered deposits. The material is most likely a friable and irregularly consolidated air fall deposit of probable volcanic origin.

  7. Nonsurgical treatment of severe Class II malocclusion with anterior open bite using mini-implants and maxillary lateral incisor and mandibular first molar extractions.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2017-05-01

    This clinical case report presents the nonsurgical orthodontic treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion, posterior crossbite, anterior open bite, accentuated dental discrepancies in both arches, and an odontoma. The proposed treatment involved maxillary expansion, extraction of atypical maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular first molars, and intrusion of maxillary teeth with the aid of mini-implants. The results obtained with these procedures included good tooth alignment, normal overbite and overjet, removal of the odontoma, and a harmonious smile. In complex cases, an accurate diagnosis is the key to a favorable outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Abolvardi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Finding a significant relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) may help early prediction and prevention of these problems. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of mandibular fossa and the articular eminence inclination in patients with TMD and in control group using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method The CBCT data of bilateral TMJs of 40 patients with TMD and 23 symptom-free cases were evaluated. The articular eminence inclination, as well as the glenoid fossa depth and width of the mandibular fossa were measured. The paired t-test was used to compare these values between two groups. Results The articular eminence inclination and glenoid fossa width and depth were significantly higher in patients with TMD than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The articular eminence inclination was steeper in patients with TMD than in the control group. Glenoid fossa width and depth were higher in patients with TMD than that in the control group. This information may shed light on the relationship between TMJ morphology and the incidence of TMD. PMID:27284559

  9. 3D printing the pterygopalatine fossa: a negative space model of a complex structure.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Ross; Parihar, Shivani; Skarparis, Yiannis; Varsou, Ourania; Cezayirli, Enis

    2017-08-30

    The pterygopalatine fossa is one of the most complex anatomical regions to understand. It is poorly visualized in cadaveric dissection and most textbooks rely on schematic depictions. We describe our approach to creating a low-cost, 3D model of the pterygopalatine fossa, including its associated canals and foramina, using an affordable "desktop" 3D printer. We used open source software to create a volume render of the pterygopalatine fossa from axial slices of a head computerised tomography scan. These data were then exported to a 3D printer to produce an anatomically accurate model. The resulting 'negative space' model of the pterygopalatine fossa provides a useful and innovative aid for understanding the complex anatomical relationships of the pterygopalatine fossa. This model was designed primarily for medical students; however, it will also be of interest to postgraduates in ENT, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and radiology. The technical process described may be replicated by other departments wishing to develop their own anatomical models whilst incurring minimal costs.

  10. Sandwich Wound Closure Reduces the Risk of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks in Posterior Fossa Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Heymanns, Verena; Oseni, Abidemi W.; Alyeldien, Ameer; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Parvin, Richard; Scholz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Posterior fossa surgery is demanding and hides a significant number of obstacles starting from the approach to the wound closure. The risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in posterior fossa surgery given in the literature is around 8%. The present study aims to introduce a sandwich closure of the dura in posterior fossa surgery, which reduces significantly the number of CSF leaks (3.8%) in the patients treated in our department. Three hundred and ten patients treated in our hospital in the years 2009-2013 for posterior fossa pathologies were retrospectively evaluated. The dura closure method was as following: lyophilized dura put under the dura and sealed with fibrin glue and sutures, dura adapting stitches, TachoSil® (Takeda Pharma A/S, Roskilde, Denmark), Gelfoam® (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) and polymethylmethacrylate (osteoclastic craniotomy). The incidence of postsurgical complications associated with the dural closure like CSF leakage, infections, bleeding is evaluated. Only 3.8% of patients developed CSF leakage and only 0.5% needed a second surgery for CSF leakage closure. Two percent had a cerebellar bleeding with no need for re-operation and 3% had a wound infection treated with antibiotics. The sandwich wound closure we are applying for posterior fossa surgery in our patients correlates with a significant reduction of CSF leaks compared to the literature. PMID:27478578

  11. Acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma in a newborn infant with Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Horikawa, Masahiro; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Hashimoto, Jyunya; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) in newborn infants is rare compared with other types of intracranial hemorrhages. Furthermore, posterior fossa EDH is extremely rare. We present a case of posterior fossa EDH in an infant with Menkes disease with accessory bones in the occiput. A male infant with a condition diagnosed with Menkes disease by prenatal testing was born at 39 weeks via vacuum extraction. The patient presented with a mild tremor at 2 days after delivery. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed an acute EDH in the posterior fossa, extending into the occipitoparietal area. Three-dimensional CT and bone window CT scan revealed several accessory bones, diastasis of 1 accessory suture, a communicated fracture, and a linear fracture in the occipital bone. Furthermore, a bone fragment from a communicated fracture displaced toward the inside. The patient was treated conservatively for EDH because of his good general condition. The hematoma gradually resolved, and his tremor did not recur. We suggest the following mechanism of posterior fossa EDH development in our patient: (1) external force was applied to the occiput inside the birth canal during delivery, resulting in diastasis; (2) a communicated fracture occurred, and a bone fragment displaced toward the inside (linear fracture was caused indirectly by the force); (3) a transverse sinus was injured by the fragment; and (4) EDH developed in both the posterior fossa and supratentorial region. Copper deficiency can also cause fragility of connective tissues, vessels, and bones.

  12. Comparison of two protocols for maxillary protraction: bone anchors versus face mask with rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.; De Clerck, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the active treatment effects for maxillary advancement induced by bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) and the active treatment effects for face mask in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM). Materials and Methods This is a study on consecutively treated patients. The changes in dentoskeletal cephalometric variables from start of treatment (T1) to end of active treatment (T2) with an average T1–T2 interval of about 1 year were contrasted in a BAMP sample of 21 subjects with a RME/FM sample of 34 patients. All subjects were prepubertal at T1. Statistical comparison was performed with t-tests for independent samples. Results The BAMP protocol produced significantly larger maxillary advancement than the RME/FM therapy (with a difference of 2 mm to 3 mm). Mandibular sagittal changes were similar, while vertical changes were better controlled with BAMP. The sagittal intermaxillary relationships improved 2.5 mm more in the BAMP patients. Additional favorable outcomes of BAMP treatment were the lack of clockwise rotation of the mandible as well as a lack of retroclination of the lower incisors. Conclusions The hypothesis is rejected. The BAMP protocol produced significantly larger maxillary advancement than the RME/FM therapy. PMID:20578848

  13. Assessment of vertical changes during maxillary expansion using quad helix or bonded rapid maxillary expander.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Piskai, Cara; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Viana, Maria Grace Costa; Oppermann, Nelson; Sanchez, Flavio; Edgren, Bradford; Kusnoto, Budi

    2016-11-01

    To determine if there is a significantly different effect on vertical changes during phase I palatal expansion treatment using a quad helix and a bonded rapid maxillary expander in growing skeletal Class I and Class II patients. This retrospective study looked at 2 treatment groups, a quad helix group and a bonded rapid maxillary expander group, before treatment (T1) and at the completion of phase I treatment (T2). Each treatment group was compared to an untreated predicted growth model. Lateral cephalograms at T1 and T2 were traced and analyzed for changes in vertical dimension. No differences were found between the treatment groups at T1, but significant differences at T2 were found for convexity, lower facial height, total facial height, facial axis, and Frankfort Mandibular Plane Angle (FMA) variables. A comparison of treatment groups at T2 to their respective untreated predicted growth models found a significant difference for the lower facial height variable in the quad helix group and for the upper first molar to palatal plane (U6-PP) variable in the bonded expander group. Overall, both the quad helix expander and the bonded rapid maxillary expander showed minimal vertical changes during palatal expansion treatment. The differences at T2 suggested that the quad helix expander had more control over skeletal vertical measurements. When comparing treatment results to untreated predicted growth values, the quad helix expander appeared to better maintain lower facial height and the bonded rapid maxillary expander appeared to better maintain the maxillary first molar vertical height.

  14. Mucosal cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Kundu, Sohag; Barik, Sabyasachi; Banerjee, Shoham; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2015-02-01

    Mucosal cavernous hemangiomas of maxillary sinus and the lateral nasal wall are seldom encountered and difficult to diagnose with misleading radiologic features like bone erosion and heterogeneity due to patchy contrast uptake. The overall picture mimicking sinonasal malignancy, it is unclear whether there is true breach in the bone or remodeling due to the lesion's chronicity. Interestingly, it often does not bleed as expected during surgery, questioning the use of therapeutic embolization and pre-intervention vascular shrinkage. The clinical presentation and management protocol of sinonasal cavernous hemangiomas seem greatly individualized. We here present a patient with cavernous hemangioma of maxillary sinus and discuss the distinguishing clinical, histologic and imaging characteristics and subsequent management options, and attempt to establish the findings as the basis of considering it as an important differential diagnosis of radiologically heterogeneous sinonasal mass with suspected bone erosions presenting with nasal obstruction and epistaxis, mostly in young women.

  15. Lagophthalmos after v2 maxillary nerve block.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amit A; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S

    2014-04-01

    We report a previously undescribed complication associated with percutaneous maxillary nerve blockade. After the procedure, the patient reported an inability to close her ipsilateral eye (lagophthalmos). The patient had received 5 mL of 0.5% lidocaine for skin anesthesia. After needle placement was confirmed fluoroscopically, a combination of 80 mg methylprednisolone (2 mL) and 0.25% bupivacaine (3 mL) was administered. Symptoms resolved within 40 minutes. The likely cause was local anesthetic effect on the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. When subcutaneous local anesthetic is given for maxillary block, smaller volumes should be considered. Doctors and patients should be aware of this complication, which may require treatment with artificial tears or patching of the eye to prevent corneal injury.

  16. Beware the solitary maxillary median central incisor.

    PubMed

    DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2008-03-01

    The incidence of a solitary maxillary median central incisor (SMMCI) tooth in the general population is low, in either the primary or secondary dentition. The most common cause of a missing maxillary central incisor is trauma, or more rarely hypodontia. However, SMMCI is also a recognized genetic anomaly and affected individuals can be carriers for a potentially more serious condition affecting midline development of the brain and face, holoprosencephaly (HPE). The presence of an SMMCI of unknown aetiology is therefore considered a risk factor for HPE, even in the absence of any other clinical signs. The orthodontist may be responsible for diagnosing cases of SMMCI with no obvious cause, and in these subjects due consideration should be given to referral for the appropriate genetic testing and counselling.

  17. Infantile Maxillary Sinus Osteomyelitis Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Nagarajan; Ramamoorthy, Nathan; Panchanathan, Suresh; Balasundaram, Jothiramalingam S

    2014-01-01

    Periorbital soft tissue swelling may result due to primary orbital pathology or from adjacent facio-maxillary or sino-nasal inflammatory causes. Osteomyelitis of maxilla in the pediatric age group is a rare entity in this era of antibiotics. We present an 11-month-old female infant who was brought with peri-orbital selling and purulent nasal discharge. Computed Tomography showed erosions of the walls of maxillary sinus suggestive of osteomyelitis. Culture of sinus scraping showed Staphylococcus aureus growth and the child improved with intravenous cloxacillin therapy. This case is presented due to the rarity of its presentation in this age group and for awareness to consider this entity in children having fever and peri-orbital swelling. PMID:25191055

  18. Maxillary sinus cavernous hemangioma: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Jammal, H; Barakat, F; Hadi, U

    2004-04-01

    Vascular lesions of the sinonasal tract are rare. These lesions do not have typical signs or symptoms. They may present insidiously with minimal symptoms. A high index of suspicion and a good preoperative evaluation are needed for diagnosis. No standard surgical approach is indicated. We report a case of cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus in an adult male. We present the diagnostic work-up and discuss the differential diagnosis and potential therapeutic approaches.

  19. Transcultural perception of maxillary midline diastema.

    PubMed

    Akinboboye, Bolanle; Umesi, Donna; Ajayi, Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    Perception of maxillary midline diastema as an esthetic trait varies in relation to culture, age group, and racial background. Although midline diastema is accepted in Africa, there are few reports on interethnic perception of midline diastema among Nigerians. Participants aged 19 to 45 years were selected from six geographical zones of Nigeria; one state was randomly selected from each zone, and a local government area (LGA) selected from each state. A structured questionnaire including a set of color smile photographs with varying sizes of maxillary midline diastema (narrowest=2 mm; widest=6 mm) was administered. Information sought was age, gender, socioeconomic group, tribe, presence of a midline diastema, and grading of attractiveness of smile. This information was evaluated using a Likert scale. A total of 402 subjects aged 19 to 45 years and a mean age of 36.3 years (±0.714) took part in this study. The highest proportion of subjects with midline diastema was aged 21 to 30 years (33.9%), females (29.8%), from the Hausa ethnic group (35%), and from the class II socioeconomic group (31.9%). Among the ethnic groups, Hausa had the highest (65%) preference for midline diastema. Females (58.8%) and those in the class II socioeconomic group (68.1%) also had the highest preference for midline diastema. There was a strong relationship between incidence of and preference for midline diastema (P=0.000). All ethnic groups rated maxillary midline diastema as attractive, especially when the width was within 2 to 3 mm (P=0.02). All ethnic groups perceived maxillary midline diastema to be an esthetic attribute, provided the width was within 2 to 3 mm.

  20. A new Strategy to Improve Drug Delivery to the Maxillary Sinuses: The Frequency Sweep Acoustic Airflow.

    PubMed

    El Merhie, Amira; Navarro, Laurent; Delavenne, Xavier; Leclerc, Lara; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of intranasal sinus deposition involves nebulization of a drug superimposed by an acoustic airflow. We investigated the impact of fixed frequency versus frequency sweep acoustic airflow on the improvement of aerosolized drug penetration into maxillary sinuses. Fixed frequency and frequency sweep acoustic airflow were generated using a nebulizing system of variable frequency. The effect of sweep cycle and intensity variation was studied on the intranasal sinus deposition. We used a nasal replica created from CT scans using 3D printing. Sodium fluoride and gentamicin were chosen as markers. Studies performed using fixed frequency acoustic airflow showed that each of maxillary sinuses of the nasal replica required specific frequency for the optimal aerosol deposition. Intranasal sinus drug deposition experiments under the effect of the frequency sweep acoustic airflow showed an optimal aerosol deposition into both maxillary sinus of the nasal replica. Studies on the effect of the duration of the sweep cycle showed that the shorter the cycle the better the deposition. We demonstrate the benefit of frequency sweep acoustic airflow on drug deposition into maxillary sinuses. However further in vivo studies have to be conducted since delivery rates cannot be obviously determined from a nasal replica.

  1. Treatment Options for Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patients with Emphasis on Maxillary Protraction

    PubMed Central

    Azamian, Zeinab; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. This type of malocclusion involves a number of cranial base and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental compensation components. In Class III malocclusion originating from mandibular prognathism, orthodontic treatment in growing patients is not a good choice and in most cases orthognathic surgery is recommended after the end of growth. Approximately 30–40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. An electronic search was conducted using the Medline database (Entrez PubMed), the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Group Database of Clinical Trials, Science Direct, and Scopus. In this review article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction. It seems that the most important factor for treatment of Class III malocclusion in growing patient is case selection. PMID:27144056

  2. Treatment Options for Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patients with Emphasis on Maxillary Protraction.

    PubMed

    Azamian, Zeinab; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. This type of malocclusion involves a number of cranial base and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental compensation components. In Class III malocclusion originating from mandibular prognathism, orthodontic treatment in growing patients is not a good choice and in most cases orthognathic surgery is recommended after the end of growth. Approximately 30-40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. An electronic search was conducted using the Medline database (Entrez PubMed), the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Group Database of Clinical Trials, Science Direct, and Scopus. In this review article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction. It seems that the most important factor for treatment of Class III malocclusion in growing patient is case selection.

  3. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  4. Internal Maxillary Bypass for Complex Pediatric Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Lu, Shuaibin; Qian, Hai; Shi, Xiang'en

    2017-07-01

    Complex pediatric aneurysms (PAs) are an unusual clinicopathologic entity. Data regarding the use of a bypass procedure to treat complex PAs are limited. Internal maxillary artery-to-middle cerebral artery bypass with radial artery graft was used to isolate PAs. Bypass patency and aneurysm stability were evaluated using intraoperative Doppler ultrasound, indocyanine green videoangiography, and postoperative angiography. Modified Rankin Scale was used to assess neurologic function. Over a 5-year period, 7 pediatric patients (≤18 years old) were included in our analysis. Mean age of patients was 14.4 years (range, 12-18 years), and mean size of PAs was 23.6 mm (range, 9-37 mm). All cases manifested with complex characteristics. Proximal artery occlusion was performed in 3 cases, complete excision following aneurysmal distal internal maxillary artery bypass was performed in 2 cases, and combined proximal artery occlusion and aneurysm excision was performed in the 2 remaining cases. Mean intraoperative blood flow was 61.6 mL/minute (range, 40.0-90.8 mL/minute). Graft patency rate was 100% during postoperative recovery and at the last follow-up examination (mean, 20 months; range, 7-45 months). All patients had excellent outcomes except for 1 patient who died of multiple-organ failure. Internal maxillary artery bypass is an essential technique for treatment of selected cases of complex PAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between a primary maxillary incisor with a talon cusp and the permanent successor: a study of 57 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Kei; King, Nigel Martyn; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Cho, Shiu-Yin

    2007-05-01

    Most reported cases of talon cusps in the primary dentition have been on the maxillary central incisors and the permanent successors have remained unaffected. Four of the five reported cases on a maxillary lateral incisor, however, have been associated with a supernumerary permanent successor. This paper describes the relationship between the presence of talon cusps on a primary maxillary incisor, and the morphology and number of the permanent successors in a population of Chinese children. The dental records of children diagnosed with a talon cusp on a primary incisor were retrieved for review. The diagnoses took place in a regional school dental clinic in Hong Kong between April 2002 and August 2005. Fifty-eight primary maxillary incisors with talon cusps were found. When the central incisors were involved, 32 of the 35 (91.4%) underlying permanent successors were not found to be associated with any odontogenic abnormalities. When the lateral incisors were involved, however, 18 of the 23 cases (78.3%) showed odontogenic abnormalities, 14 of which were associated with supernumerary teeth. The present study shows that, when there is a talon cusp on a primary maxillary lateral incisor, a high proportion of the underlying permanent successors can be expected to exhibit odontogenic abnormalities.

  6. Posterior fossa infected dermoid with congenital heart disease: A novel hypothesis of an unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Teegala, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts commonly present as a discharging sinus, local swelling, mass lesion, or abscess formation. These can sometimes be found in association with congenital anomalies. The author presents two original cases of infected posterior fossa dermoid associated with congenital heart diseases (CHDs) that is very rare. The embryologic basis for this unique occurrence is reviewed, and a new hypothesis proposed. Two infants with CHD presented with infected midline posterior fossa dermoid. Excision of the dermoid cyst with the sinus tract was performed. Postoperative period was uneventful. Both the infants had undergone surgery for congenial heart disease a few months prior to the present clinical presentation with uneventful recovery. Infected posterior fossa dermoid cyst without a discharging sinus should prompt a thorough examination to detect CHD. Early diagnosis and timely management results in better outcome. PMID:26557168

  7. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach to the Middle Cranial Fossa through the Cavernous Sinus Triangles: Anatomical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    KOMATSU, Fuminari; ODA, Shinri; SHIMODA, Masami; IMAI, Masaaki; SHIGEMATSU, Hideaki; KOMATSU, Mika; TSCHABITSCHER, Manfred; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    The lateral limit of endoscopic endonasal surgery has yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the lateral limit of endoscopic endonasal surgery at the level of the sphenoid sinus. Access from the sphenoid sinus to the middle cranial fossa through the cavernous sinus triangles was evaluated by cadaver dissection. Anatomical analysis demonstrated that the medial temporal dura mater was exposed through the anterior area of the clinoidal triangle, anteromedial triangle, and superior area of the anterolateral triangle, indicating potential corridors to the middle cranial fossa. This study suggests that the cavernous sinus triangles are applicable in selected cases to manage middle cranial fossa lesions by endoscopic endonasal surgery. PMID:25446385

  8. Effects of Airway Problems on Maxillary Growth: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    The volume of air passing through the nose and nasopharinx is limited by its shape and diameter. Continuous airflow through the nasal passage during breathing induces a constant stimulus for the lateral growth of maxilla and for lowering of the palatal vault. Maxillary morphological differences exist between patients with airway problems and control groups, identifying a potential etiological role in these patients. The purpose of this article was to review the literature on the interaction between airway problems and expressed maxillary morphology including specific dental and skeletal malocclusions. Statistically significant differences were found between patients with airway problems and control groups, in maxillary skeletal morphology including shorter maxillary length, more proclined maxillary incisors, thicker and longer soft palate, narrower maxillary arch and higher palatal vault. PMID:19756202

  9. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  10. Quadruple zygomatic implants supported rehabilitation in failed maxillary bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nocini, Pier Francesco; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; D'Agostino, Antonio; Zanette, Giovanni; Favero, Vittorio; Procacci, Pasquale

    2016-09-01

    Extreme atrophy of the jaws constitutes a challenge for maxillofacial surgeons. The technique involving Le Fort I osteotomy, bone grafting, and endosseous implants remains the gold standard treatment for class V and class VI atrophy of the maxilla. As severe maxillary atrophy is associated to impaired microvascularization of overlying soft tissues, reconstruction using vascularized free fibula flaps together with endosseous implants is one of the possible treatment plans. When this approach fails, however, retreating these patients using traditional techniques often proves unsatisfactory. This study outlines our clinical experience with full-arch zygoma implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation to treat severe atrophic maxilla following failure of strategies including multiple Le Fort I procedures or vascularized free fibular flaps.

  11. Complete intrusion of a maxillary right primary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Merkle, A

    2000-01-01

    This clinical article presents a rare presentation of complete intrusion of a maxillary right primary central incisor. Routine examination of a 29-month old female patient revealed an intrusion injury where the primary central incisor was displaced through the floor of the nasal cavity. The traumatic impaction was erroneously diagnosed as an avulsion injury by the attending emergency room physician and later discovered by the dental team during routine care. The injury was documented with radiographs. The intruded incisor was removed through the right naris utilizing general anesthesia to manage behavior and surgical access. This article emphasizes the importance of radiographs and demonstrates the need to involve the dental professional in initial assessment of dental trauma.

  12. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  13. Management of maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severely intruded maxillary central incisor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hisanobu; Yanamoto, Souichi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Fujiwara, Taku; Umeda, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    An 11-year-old male who injured his maxilla and right maxillary central incisor and lip during a fall was presented to our hospital. His lower lip and upper gingiva were lacerated with swelling and epistaxis, and he had a maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severe intrusion of the right maxillary central incisor, which had penetrated the floor of the nasal cavity with avulsion. Under local anesthesia, we repositioned the incisor and bone segment and fixed them with a titanium micromesh plate and self-tapping screws and splints. The incisor was also treated by root canal 3 days after the operation and was restored with a crown. We performed root canal filling 1 month later. Five months later, the plate and screws were removed. In prognosis of our case, no symptoms of inflammatory root resorption or ankylosis have observed for more than 1 year and 6 months of follow up based on both clinical and radiographic findings.

  14. Evaluation of the Maxillary Dental Midline Relative to the Face

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    for patients with transverse facial asymmetries by displacement of the maxillary dentition . 5 2.2 INTRODUCTION A generally accepted principle of smile...altered by digitally translating the teeth around the original arch form, not by transversely moving the maxillary dentition as a single unit. As the...horizontal position of the maxillary dentition can be used to camouflage facial discrepancies in the transverse plane. The purpose of this study was to

  15. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  16. Bladder metastasis from maxillary sinus undifferentiated carcinoma: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Le Gal, Sophie

    2012-05-01

    We report the rare case of a 72-year-old woman with maxillary sinus undifferentiated carcinoma with metachronous metastasis localized to the bladder. Bladder metastases and maxillary sinus carcinoma are rare tumors. The bladder is not 1 of the usual sites of distant extension for parasinus tumors. To our knowledge, no data have been reported regarding bladder metastasis originating from a maxillary sinus carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maxillary ulceration resulting from using a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Monini, André da Costa; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-05-01

    One of the characteristics of diabetes mellitus is the exaggerated inflammatory response. The present report shows the reaction from the use of a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient. A 9-year-old child presented an uncommon reaction to the treatment with a rapid maxillary expander, and on follow-up examination, it was discovered that the patient had diabetes mellitus. After controlling the disease, the proposed treatment was used without further incidents. The case calls attention to the presence of uncommon responses to treatment and the need for the orthodontist to suspect a patient's systemic compromise.

  18. Maxillary reconstruction and placement of dental implants after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Giacomo; Felisati, Giovanni; Biglioli, Federico; Tintinelli, Roberto; Valassina, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A fungus ball is one of the fungal diseases that can affect the paranasal sinuses. It requires surgical treatment. Because there is only one previously reported case of dental implant placement after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball, the authors here report on a case of a maxillary sinus fungus ball with bone erosion that was treated surgically with a combined endoscopic endonasal and endoral (Caldwell-Luc) approach. One year later, a graft from the ilium was obtained and a sinus elevation was performed to allow the placement of dental implants. Three months later, the dental implants were placed, and they were all osseointegrated at the 9-month follow-up.

  19. Unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies associated with posterior fossa exploration surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Ayman; Clerkin, James; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Green, Sandra; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cranial nerves palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment is a rare clinical presentation. This case report describes a young man who developed a unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment. There are different theories to explain this presentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We propose that this patient cranial nerve palsies developed following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, potentially as a consequence of rapid change in CSF dynamics. PMID:26951144

  20. Unusual anatomical detection of a third molar in the infratemporal fossa.

    PubMed

    Corega, C; Vaida, L; Festila, D; Bertossi, D

    2013-01-01

    Third molar presence in the infratemporal fossa is a rare event and it has been reported previously only two times in the literature, except for the cases which arise from complications occurring during the extraction of the impacted upper third molar. Due to the presence of important vessel bundles and nerves in this area, third molar removal requires a correct surgical management in order to avoid many possible serious side effects. We report an unusual case of upper third molar detected in the infratemporal fossa, which has been thoroughly investigated radiologically and removed through a safe surgical approach.

  1. Endodontic treatment of a multirooted permanent maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Galhotra, Virat; Pandit, I K; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report an unusual case of multirooted permanent maxillary canine. A 16-year-old female patient presented with pain and swelling related to the upper right permanent canine. Radiographic examination revealed a multirooted permanent maxillary canine--an unusual finding. Endodontic treatment was performed after amputation of 2 extra roots, and then the tooth was intentionally reimplanted. The prevalence of birooted permanent mandibular canines in the Japanese population has been reported, but the prevalence of this 3-rooted maxillary canine is still unknown. This report also states the potential etiological factors, effects on the developing dentition, and various treatment options for the multirooted maxillary permanent canine.

  2. Accessory Central Cusp in the Maxillary Second Primary Molars: A Rare Entity among the Rare

    PubMed Central

    Das, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Central accessory cusp in primary molars is an extremely rare condition which is due to abnormal proliferation and folding of inner enamel epithelium during morphodifferentiation stage of tooth development. The extension of the pulp in the cuspal area is often the reason for early involvement of pulp by the caries process. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment planning is necessary to maintain the integrity of primary dental arch. This article reports such a case of central accessory cusps involving maxillary second primary molars. How to cite this article: Chandra B, Das M. Accessory Central Cusp in the Maxillary Second Primary Molars: A Rare Entity among the Rare. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):202-205. PMID:25709302

  3. Pulp therapy in a maxillary fused primary central incisor--report of a case.

    PubMed

    Santos, L M; Forte, F D S; Rocha, M J C

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a case in which pulp therapy was provided in a fused maxillary primary central incisor in a 4-year-old patient with a history of fistula on the gingival mucosa. The tooth involved was larger than expected, suggesting fusion. The diagnosis of fusion was confirmed on radiographical examination. The clinical management of the case is described and the diagnosis and treatment discussed.

  4. Total intrusion and distalization of the maxillary arch to improve smile esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Eui Seon; Hwang, Soonshin; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This case report illustrates the successful treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion and an unesthetic smile involving excessive gingival display and large buccal corridors. By applying dual buccal interradicular miniscrews, total intrusion of the maxillary dentition along with distalization was induced to improve both the occlusion and smile esthetics. In addition to the conventional cephalometric superimposition, three-dimensional superimposition was performed and evaluated to validate the treatment outcome. PMID:28127540

  5. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  6. Identification of genetic risk factors for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

    PubMed

    Alves-Ferreira, M; Pinho, T; Sousa, A; Sequeiros, J; Lemos, C; Alonso, I

    2014-05-01

    Tooth agenesis affects 20% of the world population, and maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most frequent subtypes, characterized by the absence of formation of deciduous or permanent lateral incisors. Odontogenesis is a complex mechanism regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, controlled by activators and inhibitors involved in several pathways. Disturbances in these signaling cascades can lead to abnormalities in odontogenesis, resulting in alterations in the formation of the normal teeth number. Our aim was to study a large number of genes encoding either transcription factors or key components in signaling pathways shown to be involved in tooth odontogenesis. We selected 8 genes-MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, SPRY2, TGFA, SPRY4, and WNT10A-and performed one of the largest case-control studies taking into account the number of genes and variants assessed, aiming at the identification of MLIA susceptibility factors. We show the involvement of PAX9, EDA, SPRY2, SPRY4, and WNT10A as risk factors for MLIA. Additionally, we uncovered 3 strong synergistic interactions between MLIA liability and MSX1-TGFA, AXIN2-TGFA, and SPRY2-SPRY4 gene pairs. We report the first evidence of the involvement of sprouty genes in MLIA susceptibility. This large study results in a better understanding of the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this trait.

  7. [Evaluation of the speech outcomes in patients with unilateral maxillary defect rehabilitated with maxillary obturator prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Xing, Guo-fang; Jiao, Ting; Sun, Jian; Jiang, Yong-lin

    2005-08-01

    Evaluation of the outcomes in 15 patients with unilateral maxillary defect before and after maxillofacial obturator prosthesis. 15 patients with unilateral maxillary defect were included in this study, who received obturator prosthesis for maxillary rehabilitation. The pronunciation of the examined phonetics such as /a/, /o/, /e/, /i/, /u/ were transferred into CSL4400 before and after treatment. The mean value of the first, second, third formant were measured. Paired t test of SPSS11.0 was used for statistical analysis. There was statistically significant difference on F2 and F3 before and after treatment (P<0.05). After treatment the value of F3 was increased significantly. The soft palate was reconstructed after obturator treatment. The space between the nasal and oral cavity was sealed,through which a similar normal oral cavity was obtained. Except F1, F2 and F3 of all the vowels changed after treatment. Maxillofacial prosthesis can improve the speech function of patients with unilateral maxillary defect effectively.

  8. Endodontic Surgery of a Deviated Premolar Root in the Surgical Orthodontic Management of an Impacted Maxillary Canine.

    PubMed

    Pedullà, Eugenio; Valentino, Jessica; Rapisarda, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    Maxillary canine impactions are of multifactorial etiology. The incidence of maxillary canine impaction ranges from 1% to 4%. One of the reasons for canine impaction might be a deviated premolar root. This report describes surgical-orthodontic extrusion of an upper canine that occurred only after the endodontic surgery treatment of the adjacent deviated premolar root. Orthograde endodontic treatment followed by endodontic surgery with retrograde filling of the deviated premolar root was performed to obtain a surgical-orthodontic extrusion of the upper canine. A female patient, aged 15 years, with a class I molar relationship was referred to continue the orthodontic therapy. Although a correct surgical-orthodontic extrusion with adequate anchorage was carried out, the maxillary left canine had not erupted. Radiographic examination showed a deviated palatal root of the adjacent maxillary first premolar in the canine eruption path. Root canal filling followed by endodontic surgery of the first premolar deviated root has led to rapid progression of the canine and its placement in the arch in just 3 months. A multidisciplinary management involving endodontic treatment, endodontic surgery, and surgical-orthodontic extrusion could be considered a successful approach in the maxillary impacted canine cases in which adjacent premolar root is deviated. Long-term radiographic follow-up (6 years) indicated stable periodontal health of the canine and premolar without the presence of root resorption. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case Report of Esthetic and Functional Correction of Maxillary Protrusion Using a Prosthodontics-Centered Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cuiliu; Meng, Yukun

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary protrusion usually requires orthodontic therapy and orthognathic surgery. However, for some exceptional cases, a prosthodontics-centered multidisciplinary approach could serve as an alternative. This case report describes a 53-year-old patient with protrusive and proclined maxillary incisors, compensatory eruption of mandibular incisors, color and morphologic abnormalities of anterior teeth lip incompetence, and gummy smile. Final esthetic improvement was achieved in this patient by means of a multidisciplinary approach involving endodontic and periodontal procedures before prosthodontic treatment. Accurate diagnosis, comprehensive communication, a sophisticated treatment plan, and state-of-the-art therapeutic processes are all important factors for achieving a predictable esthetic result.

  10. Anesthetic concerns of external maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Granger B; Nargozian, Charles; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2004-01-01

    External maxillary distractions present additional anesthetic concerns to the existing complexity of the patient with craniofacial disorder. The distraction hardware is rigidly fixed to the cranium and projects in the frontofacial midline, thus limiting oronasal airway access. A review of 16 patients (10 male, 6 female) having external maxillary distraction was done. Patients with patent tracheostomies were excluded. In all cases, the same type of external distraction device was used (R.E.D., K.L.S. Martin, Jacksonville, FL, USA). Perioperative records were reviewed for medical history; operative diagnosis, presence of airway disease, tracheostomy, laryngoscopy grade, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, procedure, operative time, use of intraoperative steroid, day of postoperative extubation, and need for reintubation were documented. The study group was subdivided into two diagnostic categories: those with syndromic craniosynostosis (n = 9) and those with cleft lip/palate (CLP) (n = 7). Patients in the craniosynostotic group had grade 1 laryngoscopy views, with the exception of a single patient with Crouzon syndrome who had a grade 3 view. This was the only patient who required fiberoptic intubation. One patient with Apert syndrome required reintubation (48 hours after surgery); successful extubation was done 96 hours later. In the cleft lip/palate group, all patients had grade 1 laryngoscopic views, except one with a grade 3 view; no patient required fiberoptic intubation. Six of the seven patients were extubated immediately after surgery, with one patient extubated the next day. No patient experienced failure of extubation. External maxillary distraction minimally affects anesthetic management provided certain safeguards are observed. The vertical bar can be left attached to the cranial portion of the distractor, or it can be removed for extubation or reintubation. Removal of the vertical bar allows unobstructed direct laryngoscopy. This emphasizes the importance

  11. Cluster headache associated with acute maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Cluster headache is a primary headache by definition not caused by any known underlying structural pathology. However, symptomatic cases have been described, for example tumours, particularly pituitary adenomas, malformations, and infections/inflammations. The evaluation of cluster headache is an issue unresolved. I present a case of a 24-year-old patient who presented with a 4-week history of side-locked attacks of pain located in the left orbit. He satisfied the revised International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for cluster headache. His medical and family histories were unremarkable. There was no history of headache. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made. The patient responded to symptomatic treatment. Low-dose computer tomography scan after 2 weeks displayed a left-sided acute maxillary sinusitis. The headache attacks resolved completely after treatment with antibiotics and sinus puncture. Although I cannot exclude an unintentional comorbidity, in my opinion, the co-occurrence of an acute maxillary sinusitis with unilateral headache, in a hitherto headache-free man, points toward the fact that in this case the cluster headache was caused or triggered by the sinusitis. The headache attacks resolved completely after the treatment and the patient also remained headache free at the follow-up. The response of the headache to sumatriptan and other typical cluster headache medications does not exclude a secondary form. Symptomatic cluster headaches responsive to this therapy have been described. Associated cranial lesions such as infections have been reported in cluster headache patients and the attacks may be clinically indistinguishable from the primary form. Neuroimaging, preferably contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging including sinuses should always be considered in patients with cluster headache despite normal neurological examination. Acute maxillary sinusitis can present as cluster headache.

  12. A Cognitive and Affective Pattern in Posterior Fossa Strokes in Children: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Gonin-Flambois, Coralie; Gitiaux, Cyril; Quijano, Susana; Boddaert, Nathalie; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Barnerias, Christine; Dulac, Olivier; Brunelle, Francis; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Posterior fossa strokes account for about 10% of ischaemic strokes in children. Although motor and dysautonomic symptoms are common, to our knowledge cognitive and affective deficits have not been described in the paediatric literature. Our aim, therefore, was to describe these symptoms and deficits. Method: In a retrospective study, we…

  13. Snapshot quiz - recurrent right iliac fossa pain in the patient with a previous history of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Aris Chandran, Johan; Cobb, Will A; Keeler, Barrie D; Soin, Bob

    2015-06-01

    A low threshold for computed tomography (CT) scanning in patients with previous appendicectomy and right iliac fossa pain helps facilitate timely diagnosis and exclusion of other differential diagnoses. Here, we present a rare cause which has significant medicolegal ramifications and is accurately diagnosed with CT.

  14. Cranial nerve assessment in posterior fossa tumors with fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA).

    PubMed

    Mikami, Takeshi; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Yamaki, Toshiaki; Koyanagi, Izumi; Nonaka, Tadashi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2005-10-01

    Steady-state free precession is widely used for ultra-fast cardiac or abdominal imaging. The purpose of this work was to assess fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and to evaluate its efficacy for depiction of the cranial nerve affected by the tumor. Twenty-three consecutive patients with posterior fossa tumors underwent FIESTA sequence after contrast agent administration, and then displacement of the cranial nerve was evaluated. The 23 patients with posterior fossa tumor consisted of 12 schwannomas, eight meningiomas, and three cases of epidermoid. Except in the cases of epidermoid, intensity of all tumors increased on FIESTA imaging of the contrast enhancement. In the schwannoma cases, visualization of the nerve became poorer as the tumor increased in size. In cases of encapsulated meningioma, all the cranial nerves of the posterior fossa were depicted regardless of location. The ability to depict the nerves was also significantly higher in meningioma patients than in schwannoma patients (P<0.05). In cases of epidermoid, extension of the tumors was depicted clearly. Although the FIESTA sequence offers similar contrast to other heavily T2-weighted sequences, it facilitated a superior assessment of the effect of tumors on cranial nerve anatomy. FIESTA sequence was useful for preoperative simulations of posterior fossa tumors.

  15. Small-Scale Features of the Medusae Fossae Formation: Do They Support a Volcanic Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation is a widespread and voluminous fine-grained deposit that lies just north of the Martian equator along the dichotomy boundary. It is thought to consist of pyroclastic deposits, either in the form of pyroclastic flows or ashfall, though numerous other possibilities have been suggested, including wind-blown loess and icy dust. For this work a survey was conducted of 427 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images spread across the Medusae Fossae Formation. From these images maps were created of small-scale features which can aid in distinguishing between formation hypotheses for the deposit, including rootless cones, jointing, layering, and exposed dikes. Relationships between the Medusae Fossae Formation and adjacent lava plains and volcanoes were also carefully examined using HiRISE, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Imager (CTX), Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), and Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) images. The interactions between the Medusae Fossae Formation and nearby lava flows can inform us about the chronology of the deposit as well as how it has eroded over time. Certain diagnostic volcanic features were found, but mostly close to deposit boundaries where there are lava flows. The morphologies of the formation are compared with those of terrestrial pyroclastic deposits, terrestrial loess deposits, and other icy dust deposits on Mars. It is found that while the deposit is morphologically unlike icy layered deposits in most places, distinguishing between pyroclastic flow morphologies and reworked aeolian morphologies is more ambiguous.

  16. Geomorphic Mapping and Analysis of the Eastern Medusae Fossae Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takagi, M.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A geomorphic map of the MC-8SE quadrangle on Mars is used to examine hypotheses of origin for the Medusae Fossae Formation, as well as to characterize the regional setting of these enigmatic materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Increased depth-diameter ratios in the Medusae Fossae Formation deposits of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Depth to diameter ratios for fresh impact craters on Mars are commonly cited as approximately 0.2 for simple craters and 0.1 for complex craters. Recent computation of depth-diameter ratios in the Amazonis-Memnonia region of Mars indicates that craters within the Medusae Fossae Formation deposits found in this region display greater depth-diameter ratios than expected for both simple and complex craters. Photoclinometric and shadow length techniques have been used to obtain depths of craters within the Amazonis-Memnonia region. The 37 craters in the 2 to 29 km diameter range and displaying fresh impact morphologies were identified in the area of study. This region includes the Amazonian aged upper and middle members of the Medusae Fossae Formation and Noachian aged cratered and hilly units. The Medusae Fossae Formation is characterized by extensive, flat to gently undulating deposits of controversial origin. These deposits appear to vary from friable to indurated. Early analysis of crater degradation in the Medusae Fossae region suggested that simple craters excavated to greater depths than expected based on the general depth-diameter relationships derived for Mars. However, too few craters were available in the initial analysis to estimate the actual depth-diameter ratios within this region. Although the analysis is continuing, we are now beginning to see a convergence towards specific values for the depth-diameter ratio depending on geologic unit.

  18. Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa causing an epidural haematoma.

    PubMed

    Struewer, Johannes; Kiriazidis, Ilias; Figiel, Jens; Dukatz, Thomas; Frangen, Thomas; Ziring, Ewgeni

    2012-07-01

    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of mandibular trauma due to anatomical and biomechanical factors. Owing to the proximity of the temporal glenoid fossa to the middle meningeal artery, there is the risk of serious sequelae in case of trauma. The authors report the case of a 36-year-old male patient, who was beaten up in a family dispute and presented with complex mandibular and maxillofacial fractures, including mandibular condyle intrusion into the middle cranial fossa causing extensive meningeal bleeding. The patient underwent immediate surgery, with evacuation of the epidural haematoma via a temporal approach. In addition open reduction and reconstruction of the temporal glenoid fossa via anatomic reduction of the fragments was performed. A functional occlusion was re-established via miniplate reconstruction of the complex mandibular body and ramus fractures. Prompt diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach are essential to minimize the complications. Advanced imaging modalities of computed tomography are indicated. Treatment options should be individualized in particular in case of suspected neurological injury.

  19. Increased depth-diameter ratios in the Medusae Fossae Formation deposits of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, N. G.

    1993-03-01

    Depth to diameter ratios for fresh impact craters on Mars are commonly cited as approximately 0.2 for simple craters and 0.1 for complex craters. Recent computation of depth-diameter ratios in the Amazonis-Memnonia region of Mars indicates that craters within the Medusae Fossae Formation deposits found in this region display greater depth-diameter ratios than expected for both simple and complex craters. Photoclinometric and shadow length techniques have been used to obtain depths of craters within the Amazonis-Memnonia region. The 37 craters in the 2 to 29 km diameter range and displaying fresh impact morphologies were identified in the area of study. This region includes the Amazonian aged upper and middle members of the Medusae Fossae Formation and Noachian aged cratered and hilly units. The Medusae Fossae Formation is characterized by extensive, flat to gently undulating deposits of controversial origin. These deposits appear to vary from friable to indurated. Early analysis of crater degradation in the Medusae Fossae region suggested that simple craters excavated to greater depths than expected based on the general depth-diameter relationships derived for Mars. However, too few craters were available in the initial analysis to estimate the actual depth-diameter ratios within this region. Although the analysis is continuing, we are now beginning to see a convergence towards specific values for the depth-diameter ratio depending on geologic unit.

  20. A Cognitive and Affective Pattern in Posterior Fossa Strokes in Children: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Gonin-Flambois, Coralie; Gitiaux, Cyril; Quijano, Susana; Boddaert, Nathalie; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Barnerias, Christine; Dulac, Olivier; Brunelle, Francis; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Posterior fossa strokes account for about 10% of ischaemic strokes in children. Although motor and dysautonomic symptoms are common, to our knowledge cognitive and affective deficits have not been described in the paediatric literature. Our aim, therefore, was to describe these symptoms and deficits. Method: In a retrospective study, we…

  1. Applied anatomy of the anterior cranial fossa: what can fracture patterns tell us?

    PubMed

    Stephens, J R; Holmes, S; Evans, B T

    2016-03-01

    The skull base is uniquely placed to absorb anteriorly directed forces imparted either via the midfacial skeleton or cranial vault. A variety of skull base fracture classifications exist. Less well understood, however, is fracture extension beyond the anterior cranial fossa (ACF) into the middle and posterior cranial fossae. The cases of 81 patients from two UK major trauma centres were studied to examine the distribution of fractures across the skull base and any relationship between the vector of force and extent of skull base injury. It was found that predominantly lateral force to the craniofacial skeleton produced a fracture that propagated beyond the ACF into the middle cranial fossa in 77.4% of cases, significantly more (P<0.001) than for predominantly anterior force (12.0%). Fractures were significantly more likely to propagate into the posterior fossa with a lateral vector of impact compared to an anterior vector (P=0.049). This difference in energy transfer across the skull base may, in part, be explained by the local anatomy. The more delicate central ACF acts as a 'crumple zone' in order to absorb force. Conversely, no collapsible interface exists in the lateral aspect of the ACF, thus the lateral ACF behaves like a 'buttress', resulting in increased energy transfer. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modified folding radial forearm flap in soft palate and tonsillar fossa reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Gu; Park, Myong Chul; Lim, Hyoseob; Kim, Joo Hyoung; Lee, Il Jae

    2013-03-01

    Wide excision of cancer arising from the tonsillar fossa and soft palate has several functional sequelae (e.g., speech, swallowing, chewing, and breathing) that require surgical restoration of the pharyngeo-palatal structure and optimal velopharyngeal function. For this purpose, several kinds of surgical procedures have been introduced. Our method to reconstruct the tonsillar fossa and soft palate entails folding the flaps and reconstructions at the same time as the oral and nasal planes, with some modifications.Patient 1 was a 64-year-old man with left soft palate cancer. After wide excision of the tumor, the defect size of the nasal floor was 3 × 3 cm, and that of soft palate and tonsillar fossa was 8 × 5 cm. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man with left tonsil cancer. The defect size of the nasal floor was 3 × 3 cm, and that of left lateral wall of the tonsillar fossa was 8 × 3 cm. For reconstruction of oral, nasal, and tonsillar plane, we designed the flap fit to the defect site, especially cutting of the edge of the square plane of the flap to a round shape.Both patients achieved good functional recovery without surgical complications. The average speech intelligibility score in the 2 patients was 10. Swallowing functional score was 4 in both patients. Creative reconstruction with modified radial forearm free flap for tonsillar and soft palate area makes it possible to restore velopharyngeal function to levels close to the preoperative condition.

  3. [Recurrent right iliac fossa pain in children: two cases report related to food allergy].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Urribarri, Ana; Sabrá, Aderbal; Tenorio, Isaac; Sabrá, Selma; Arias-Stella Castillo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    To present two cases of food allergy of uncommon presentation and discuss the diagnostic approach to give in these cases: Case N° 1: 11-year-old girl, afflicting pain in the right iliac fossa 3 months ago. Prematurity, atopy (dermatitis, rhinitis, cramping). Sister and mother are atopic too. The physical exam show exquisite pain on right iliac fossa at palpation. Laboratory: Urine normal, parasitological serial negative. EDN (neurotoxin derived from eosinophils) fecal >3210 ng/ml (V. N. < 360 ng/ml). Colonoscopy: lymphoid hyperplasia of ileum. Case N° 2: Child of 9 years of age. Right fossa iliac painful three months ago, predominantly nocturnal and with irradiation to right thigh. A child psychiatrist may prescribe antidepressants. Personal History: Breastfeeding and formula since newborn. Atopy: asthma, atopic dermatitis, infant colic. Family history: Mother allergic to food, father presents rhinitis. The physical examination: Pain on palpation in the right iliac fossa. Laboratory: Immunoglobulin E 160.5 IU/ml (V. N. < 90) Colonoscopy: lymphoid hyperplasia in the distal ileum. Both cases relieved by hypoallergenic diet. When both, ileal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and atopy personal or familiar are present, we must be think in food allergy therapeutic.

  4. Hypopharynx and larynx defect repair after resection for pyriform fossa cancer with a platysma skin flap.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Liang, Faya; Huang, Xiaoming; Han, Ping; Pan, Yong; Zheng, Yiqing

    2015-02-01

    We used a platysma skin flap to repair larynx and hypopharynx defects to improve postoperative laryngeal function in patients with pyriform fossa cancer. Larynx-sparing surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were used in 10 patients with pyriform fossa cancer. The surgical approaches of lymph node dissection of the neck, vertical partial laryngectomy, and pyriform fossa resection were adopted, and a platysma skin flap was used to repair the resulting defects. In this group, the overall 3-year survival rate was 75% according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the local control rate was 90%. Additionally, all patients were able to speak fluently with mild-to-moderate hoarseness. The tracheal tube was removed in all cases. Laryngeal fistulas were observed in 1 patient during radiotherapy. In conclusion, a platysma skin flap can be used to rebuild the larynx and hypopharynx in larynx-sparing resection for pyriform fossa cancer. These patients can obtain good postoperative function in swallowing, breathing, and pronunciation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  5. Age and sex related differences in normal pituitary gland and fossa volumes.

    PubMed

    Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Pecina, Tatjana Cicvara; Vyroubal, Vlasta; Kruljac, Ivan; Slaus, Mario

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of age and sex on the volumes of the pituitary fossa and gland in 91 males and 108 females from Croatia who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the endocranium for complaints not related to the pituitary gland. Isometric 3DT1 MPRAGE and 3DT1 MPR sequences were obtained on 1.5. Tesla and analysed on ISSA software. The volumes were obtained from the sum of all the areas multiplied by the thickness of the section. The mean volume of the pituitary fossa for males was 1111.1.4 mm(3), for females 1354.4.2 mm(3). Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P=0.0.09) between age of the patient, and pituitary volume. Age of the patient and free volume demonstrate a significant positive correlation (P=0.0.01) indicating that the amount of unoccupied space in the pituitary fossa significantly increases with age. Determining general morphological values, as well as variations of pituitary depth and the occupation of the fossa with the pituitary gland is of great help in everyday diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  6. MOLA Topography of Small Volcanoes in Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae, Mars: Implications for Eruptive Styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, M. P.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to measure small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae regions of Mars. We find that previous geometry estimates based on imagery alone are inaccurate, but MOLA data support image-based interpretations of eruptive style. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Arterial relationships to the nerves and some rigid structures in the posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Surchev, N

    2008-09-01

    The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, S; Krishnan, I S

    2012-01-01

    Odontomas are considered to be the most common odontogenic tumors of the oral cavity. Some authors consider it as malformations rather than true neoplasms. The exact etiology of odontomes is still not known. Most odontomes are asymptomatic and are discovered during routine radiographic investigations. Odontomes generally cause disturbances in the eruption of the teeth, most commonly delayed eruption or deflection. The present report describes the surgical management of a case of compound odontoma in a 10-year-old boy who presented with a complaint of swelling in the maxillary right anterior region and retained deciduous incisors. The related literature is also being reviewed in this article.

  9. Maxillary ameloblastic fibroma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Miles, C R; Bell, C M; Pinkerton, M E; Soukup, J W

    2011-07-01

    A 4-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was presented for evaluation of a rostral maxillary gingival mass. An en bloc resection was performed after histologic diagnosis of ameloblastic fibroma from an incisional biopsy specimen. Histologically, the tumor was composed of (1) poorly differentiated vimentin-positive mesenchymal cells that surrounded islands and (2) thin anastomosing trabeculae of odontogenic epithelium that variably coexpressed pancytokeratin and vimentin. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ameloblastic fibroma in a dog. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings in this case are compared to those in other domestic animals and humans. © The Authors 2011

  10. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis obscured by midfacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Ryškienė, Silvija; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis whose sinonasal symptomatology was thought to be the consequence of a previous midfacial trauma. The patient was admitted to the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery after more than 10 years of exacerbations of sinonasal symptoms, which began to plague soon after a facial contusion. We decided to perform CT of paranasal sinuses, and despite the absence dental symptomatology, the dental origin of sinusitis was discovered. The majority of sinonasal symptoms resolved after appropriate dental treatment, and there was no need for nasal or sinus surgery.

  11. Geomorphology and structural geology of Saturnalia Fossae and adjacent structures in the northern hemisphere of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Yin, A.; Russell, C. T.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Williams, D. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.; Le Corre, L.; Mercer, C.; Yingst, R. A.; Garry, W. B.; Jaumann, R.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Schröder, S. E.; Ammannito, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vesta is a unique, intermediate class of rocky body in the Solar System, between terrestrial planets and small asteroids, because of its size (average radius of ∼263 km) and differentiation, with a crust, mantle and core. Vesta's low surface gravity (0.25 m/s2) has led to the continual absence of a protective atmosphere and consequently impact cratering and impact-related processes are prevalent. Previous work has shown that the formation of the Rheasilvia impact basin induced the equatorial Divalia Fossae, whereas the formation of the Veneneia impact basin induced the northern Saturnalia Fossae. Expanding upon this earlier work, we conducted photogeologic mapping of the Saturnalia Fossae, adjacent structures and geomorphic units in two of Vesta's northern quadrangles: Caparronia and Domitia. Our work indicates that impact processes created and/or modified all mapped structures and geomorphic units. The mapped units, ordered from oldest to youngest age based mainly on cross-cutting relationships, are: (1) Vestalia Terra unit, (2) cratered highlands unit, (3) Saturnalia Fossae trough unit, (4) Saturnalia Fossae cratered unit, (5) undifferentiated ejecta unit, (6) dark lobate unit, (7) dark crater ray unit and (8) lobate crater unit. The Saturnalia Fossae consist of five separate structures: Saturnalia Fossa A is the largest (maximum width of ∼43 km) and is interpreted as a graben, whereas Saturnalia Fossa B-E are smaller (maximum width of ∼15 km) and are interpreted as half grabens formed by synthetic faults. Smaller, second-order structures (maximum width of <1 km) are distinguished from the Saturnalia Fossae, a first-order structure, by the use of the general descriptive term 'adjacent structures', which encompasses minor ridges, grooves and crater chains. For classification purposes, the general descriptive term 'minor ridges' characterizes ridges that are not part of the Saturnalia Fossae and are an order of magnitude smaller (maximum width of <1 km vs

  12. Calcium hydroxide paste in the maxillary sinus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fava, L R

    1993-09-01

    A case is reported in which a perforation of the sinus floor of the maxillary sinus occurred with extrusion of a calcium hydroxide paste during routine root canal treatment of a maxillary premolar. All clinical manifestations are described as well as the results of a follow-up evaluation.

  13. Esthetic removable partial denture design in replacing maxillary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suk; Basho, Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation of missing maxillary anterior teeth requires special consideration to restore function and esthetics. This case report describes the prosthodontic management of a patient who lost three maxillary incisors due to a motor vehicle accident. A rotational path removable partial denture was constructed, for which a proximal undercut was created by means of a composite buildup to provide the retention for the prosthesis.

  14. Cervical metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolus.

    PubMed

    Koshkareva, Yekaterina; Liu, Jeffrey C; Lango, Miriam; Galloway, Thomas; Gaughan, John P; Ridge, John A

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence and treatment outcomes of neck metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the hard palate and/or maxillary alveolus after surgical excision of the primary tumor. We also sought to identify any risk factors for recurrence. Our study population was made up of 20 patients-9 men and 11 women, aged 46 to 88 years (mean: 72.6)-who had undergone excision of an SCC of the hard palate and/or maxillary alveolus at a tertiary care cancer center over a 7-year period. Half of all patients were former tobacco users. Of the 20 tumors, 10 involved the maxillary alveolus, 4 involved the hard palate, and 6 involved both sites. Three patients were clinically categorized as T1, 9 as T2, 6 as T3, and 2 as T4; pathologically, 8 tumors were categorized as T4a. In addition to maxillectomy, a neck dissection was performed in 7 patients-4 therapeutically and 3 electively. Eight of 20 patients experienced a recurrence: 4 local, 6 regional, and 2 distant (several patients had a recurrence at more than one site). Univariate analysis identified perineural invasion (p = 0.04) as a statistically significant risk factor for recurrence. Of 14 patients with a clinicopathologically negative neck, 5 (36%) developed a cervical recurrence, and 4 of them died of their disease. An advanced stage (T4 vs. maxillary alveolus.

  15. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  16. [Ostium of maxillary sinus in endoscopic sinus surgery].

    PubMed

    Tan, G; Sun, H; Chen, J

    1998-06-01

    To determine the clinical significance and operative method of maxillary sinus ostium in the treatment of chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps. Fifty-six patients (112 sides) undergone endoscopic sinus surgery were studied. The patency rates of the maxillary ostia in patients with enlarged and unchanged maxillary ostia were 92.9% and 80.4% respectively. Fifty-one patients (64 sides) undergone Caldwell-Luc operations were retrospectively studied. The patency rate of inferior antrostomy was 40.6%. CT scans of the sinuses of 38 cases with unilateral sinisitis or nasal polyps were reviewed. The scaled values of the maxillary hiatus on CT images showed no difference between the normal group and the diseased group. Pneumatization and proliferation of middle turbinate and bent uncinate process were the most common anatomic variation in the diseased group. The results suggest that management of anatomic variations surrounding the ostia is very important in the treatment of maxillary ostium.

  17. Longitudinal maxillary growth in Down syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Alió, Juan; Lorenzo, José; Iglesias, M Carmen; Manso, Francisco J; Ramírez, Eva M

    2011-03-01

    To assess maxillary growth in a sample of patients diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS). The sample comprised 47 subjects (25 boys, 22 girls) with DS. All patients had at least two radiographs that showed the cranial base. To obtain comparisons among age groups, the sample was divided into three groups: prepubescent (8-11 years old), pubescent (12-14 years old), and postpubescent (15-18 years old). A control group included 38 subjects without DS (22 boys, 16 girls) who were part of a longitudinal growth sample. Computerized cephalometric analysis was performed on all subjects, and cephalometric superimpositions were made. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to study the overall changes between groups. In addition, one-way ANOVA and the Duncan multiple-range test were used to analyze possible differences in the age groups. Sagittal maxillary growth in DS patients was constant from the age of 8 to 18 years; there was an average increase of 0.12 mm/year, measured at the level of point A. In the vertical plane it grows at an average rate of 0.62 mm/year and 0.70 mm/year, measured at the level of the ANS and PNS, respectively. The maxilla in the DS group shows hypoplasia in the vertical plane and the sagittal plane, and there was a mean deficit of almost 10 mm in the latter.

  18. Ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Angiero, Francesca; Borloni, Roberto; Macchi, Maurizia; Stefani, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a very rare malignant odontogenic neoplasm of the mandible and maxilla, accounting for some 66 reported cases. The case of a 68-year-old man who presented a fistula with orosinus communication of 14-year duration that, after anti-aggregant therapy, began bleeding is reported. The initial microscopic evaluation of the biopsy and radiographic findings were consistent with benign peripheral ameloblastoma without cellular atypia and extensive fields of acantomatous pattern, but immunohistochemical investigation found strong positivity for Bcl-2, cytokeratins CAM 5 and 6, and for Ki-67/MIB-1, changing our diagnosis. The treatment consisted of left maxillary resection followed by reconstruction. Cellular features of malignancy in the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma. This case of an aggressive ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva that presented with an unusual histological pattern illustrates that these tumors can create a diagnostic challenge that may require extensive surgical sampling and/or removal to establish the diagnosis. Immunohistochemically analyzed expression of bcl-2 protein, cytokeratins CAM 5 and 6, and Ki-67/MIB-1 antigen serve to characterize the cyto-differentiation and cellular activity of ameloblastic carcinoma.

  19. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: result of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, H.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Shioda, S.; Enomoto, S.

    1984-07-01

    This hundred and sixteen patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus received primary therapy consisting of external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, between 1953 and 1982. In our institution, methods of treating cancer of the maxillary sinus have been changed from time to time and showed different control rates and clinical courses. An actuarial 10-year survival rate of 21% has been obtained by the megavoltage irradiation alone as well as 34% actuarial 10-year survival rate by megavoltage irradiation with surgery. After the introduction of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, the local control rate has been improved. The amount of functional, cosmetic, and brain damages have been remarkably decreased by this mode of therapy. The actuarial five year survival rate was 67%. In addition, along with the improvement of the local control rate, the control of nodal and distant organ metastases have been emerging as one of the important contributions to the prognosis of this disease.

  20. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  1. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  2. Split Hollow Bulb Obturator to Rehabilitate Maxillary Defect: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Umamaheswari; Saravanakumar, Prathibha; Kumar, S Prasanna; Arunachalam, Ravikumar

    2016-01-01

    The rehabilitation of a maxillectomy patient involves meticulous treatment planning and designing. Lack of retention and facial support and limited mouth opening are the major issues that lead to functional and psychological trauma in post-maxillectomy patients. The successful rehabilitation of a maxillary defect includes restoring the function, esthetics, and a complete obturation of the defect, enabling the patient to feed without nasal regurgitation. This case report describes the fabrication of an obturator with a modified design, namely a split-antral hollow bulb obturator and oral part that is retained with a ball attachment, for a patient with right-side acquired maxillary defect due to recurrent myxoma. The primary advantage of this modification is enhanced facial support and a self-retentive antral obturation that improved the quality of life of the patient after an extensive maxillectomy. PMID:27433414

  3. [Maxillary trigeminal schwannoma. Presentation of a case and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Madrid-Sánchez, Alejandro Jacob; Castillo-Rangel, Carlos; Contreras-Ayala, Myriam Leticia; Ruiz-García, Edgardo; Castillo-Castro, Ana Karen; Ramírez-Aguilar, Ricardo

    2016-12-30

    Schwannomas are benign tumours that are relatively common in the head, however the involvement of the sinunasal region is rare and there are only 5 cases reported in the maxilla in current literature, representing less than 1% of bone tumours. We report the case of a woman with a right maxillary schwannoma who underwent a complete resection of the lesion. Emphasis is placed on the rarity of the lesion in terms of its location and includes a review of clinical behaviour, diagnosis and current treatment options. Maxillary trigeminal schwannoma must be suspected if vague sinunasal symptoms, paranasal mass or, as in this case, trigeminal neuralgia present. Surgical treatment is indicated, and approaches vary according to location and tumour size. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphometric analysis of treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction in growing Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, H. J.; Cevidanes, L. H.; Franchi, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present morphometric investigation was to evaluate the effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) in the treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. The shape and size changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 26 children with Class III malocclusions consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol were compared with a matched sample of 15 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. All subjects in the two groups were at a prepubertal stage of skeletal development at time of first observation. Average duration of treatment was 14 months. Significant treatment-induced modifications involved both the maxilla and the mandible. The most evident deformation consisted of marked forward displacement of the maxillary complex with more moderate favourable effects in the mandible. Deformations in the vertical dimension were not detected. The significant deformations were associated with significant differences in size in the group treated with the BAMP protocol. PMID:21187527

  5. Morphometric analysis of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle acoustic schwannoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Panigrahi, Manas K.; Gurram, Paniraj L.; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Kulkarni, Dilip

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the morphometry of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle schwannoma patients in order to know its influence on the extent of excision of the CP angle acoustic schwannomas. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of cerebellopontine angle schwannomas treated surgically by the senior author and 20 controls between January 2006 and June 2011 were consecutively investigated with computed tomography (CT) using the high-resolution CT bone windows before surgery. Evaluation of anatomic parameters of the petrous bone and posterior fossa cavity were done in all patients and controls. Data were entered in Excel software and were analyzed using NCSS software. All possible regression analysis was done to select the important variables to be included in the model to predict the excision of tumor with these variables. A prediction model was developed defining the binary outcome as total excision or subtotal excision as dependent variable and the morphometric data and grading of tumor as independent variables. Results: Interpetrous distance (IP) is the distance between the two petrous apices. Sigmoid distance (IS) distance is the distance between the two sigmoid points. Sigmoid point is the point at which the scalloped impression of the sigmoid sinus straightens to join the occipital bone posteriorly. SAG is the distance between the mid IP point and the mid-point on the inner wall of the occipital bone. The PM angle was 47.8±4.14 degrees (38-58), the PA angle was 42.68±4.47 degrees (34-53), the IP distance was 2.07±0.13 cm (1.5-2.8), the sagittal diameter of posterior fossa was 6.22±0.73 cm (5.1-9.8) and the intersigmoid distance was 9.45±0.73 cm (7.4-11). There was no significant gender difference in the posterior fossa morphometry between patients and controls. Inter-sigmoid distance and the petrous-apex angle were more in the Indians when compared to the European population mentioned in the Mathies and Samii study. Conclusions: The posterior fossa

  6. Properties of the Medussae Fossae Formation and its relation to the volcanic history of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Anton B.; Cantini, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Medussae Fossae (MFF) is a well known formation, stretching west of Tharsis volanoes. It is characterized as a relatively young Amazonian units (Amm, Amu), due to widespread signs of erosion. Earth based imaging radar observations at 3.5 cm [1] and 12 cm [2] have discovered a dark radar feature (Stealth), which roughly correlates with the MFF outline.Recent investigations [3], suggested that the unit emplacement is in fact during Hesperian period, but it is composed of material that can be easily eroded. It is not clear when the erosion happened and if it is a continuing process. Hypotheses on MFF formation range from volcanic material emplacement (ash flow tuffs or pyroclastic materials) to an ice-rich dusty mantle, deposited during high obliquity.In this work, we will present the latest observations of the East Medussae Fossae formation by the long wavelength MARSIS radar, continuing the work reported in [4], as well as complementing data surveyed by SHARAD data in [5]. The MARSIS radar has detected strong subsurface interfaces in the areas of Gordi and Eumenides Dorsae at depths up to 1.5km. We will present our analysis of the data, inferring the dielectric properties of the material to constrain properties of the material constituting the Medusae Fossae formation. We will also demonstrate an efficient user interface to work with MARSIS data inside a Geographical Information System (GIS).The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement 607379.[1] D. Muhleman, et al., "Radar images of mars," Science, vol. 253, no. 5027, 1991.[2] J. K. Harmon, et al., "Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces," Icarus, vol. 220, aug 2012.[3] L. Kerber, et al., "The dispersal of pyroclasts from Apollinaris Patera, Mars: Implications for the origin of the Medusae Fossae Formation," Icarus, vol. 216, nov 2011.[4] T. R. Watters, et al., "Radar Sounding of the

  7. Decrypting the Formation Conditions of the Basement Carbonate-Bearing Rocks at Nili Fossae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Nili Fossae region is the site of a number of proposed Landing Sites for the Mars 2020 Rover. A distinguishing feature of many of these sites is the access to large exposures of carbonate (Ehlmann et al. 2008). Serpentinization has been proposed as a formation mechanism of these carbonates, including carbonated (Brown et al. 2010, Viviano, et al. 2013) and low temperature, near surface serpentinization. The potential for carbonated serpentization at Nili Fossae links the region to Earth analogs in terrestrial greenstone belts such as the Pilbara in Western Australia, where talc-carbonate bearing komatiite cumulate units of the Dresser Formation overlie the siliceous, stromatolite-bearing Strelley Pool Chert unit (Van Kranendonk and Pirajno, 2004). If a similar relationship exists on Mars, investigations of rocks stratigraphically beneath the carbonate-bearing units at Nili Fossae ("the basement rocks") may provide the best chance to examine well preserved organic material from the Noachian. This hypothesis is testable by Mars 2020. In preparation for the the Mars 2020 landing site, we are examining the thermodynamic relationships that favor formation of serpentine and talc-carbonate and different pressures and temperatures in the crust (Barnes 2007). This will allow us to constrain the low grade metamorphism required to replicate the proposed models of serpentinisation and help us understand the regional metamophic gradient that is critical to furthering our knowledge of the ancient rocks of Nili Fossae. Refs:Barnes, S. J. "Komatiites: Petrology, Volcanology, Metamorphism, and Geochemistry." S.E.G. 13 (2007): 13. Brown, A. J., et al.. "Hydrothermal Formation of Clay-Carbonate Alteration Assemblages in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars." EPSL 297 (2010): 174-82. Ehlmann, B. L. et al. "Orbital Identification of Carbonate-Bearing Rocks on Mars." Science 322, no. 5909 1828-32. Van Kranendonk, M.J., and F. Pirajno. "Geochemistry of Metabasalts and Hydrothermal

  8. Morphometric analysis of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle acoustic schwannoma patients.

    PubMed

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Panigrahi, Manas K; Gurram, Paniraj L; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Kulkarni, Dilip

    2016-01-01

    To study the morphometry of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle schwannoma patients in order to know its influence on the extent of excision of the CP angle acoustic schwannomas. One hundred cases of cerebellopontine angle schwannomas treated surgically by the senior author and 20 controls between January 2006 and June 2011 were consecutively investigated with computed tomography (CT) using the high-resolution CT bone windows before surgery. Evaluation of anatomic parameters of the petrous bone and posterior fossa cavity were done in all patients and controls. Data were entered in Excel software and were analyzed using NCSS software. All possible regression analysis was done to select the important variables to be included in the model to predict the excision of tumor with these variables. A prediction model was developed defining the binary outcome as total excision or subtotal excision as dependent variable and the morphometric data and grading of tumor as independent variables. Interpetrous distance (IP) is the distance between the two petrous apices. Sigmoid distance (IS) distance is the distance between the two sigmoid points. Sigmoid point is the point at which the scalloped impression of the sigmoid sinus straightens to join the occipital bone posteriorly. SAG is the distance between the mid IP point and the mid-point on the inner wall of the occipital bone. The PM angle was 47.8±4.14 degrees (38-58), the PA angle was 42.68±4.47 degrees (34-53), the IP distance was 2.07±0.13 cm (1.5-2.8), the sagittal diameter of posterior fossa was 6.22±0.73 cm (5.1-9.8) and the intersigmoid distance was 9.45±0.73 cm (7.4-11). There was no significant gender difference in the posterior fossa morphometry between patients and controls. Inter-sigmoid distance and the petrous-apex angle were more in the Indians when compared to the European population mentioned in the Mathies and Samii study. The posterior fossa morphological parameters of the Indian and European population

  9. Maxillary antral bone grafts for repair of orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Copeland, M; Meisner, J

    1991-04-01

    Use of bone from the maxillary antrum to repair defects in the orbital floor was described more than 20 years ago but has not been reported for correction of orbital rim fractures. The method is appealing because the source is contiguous with the recipient site; enhanced exposure might allow better fracture reduction and evacuation of debris and hematoma from the maxillary sinus. The intraoral approach also avoids an external incision and scar, prevents such complications as pneumothorax or dural perforation, and reduces postoperative pain. In 60 cases of orbital and zygomatic complex fractures seen between 1985 and 1990, less than 8% required more extensive graft material than the maxillary antra could provide. To assess the potential advantages of local over extraanatomical bone grafts, we evaluated maxillary antral bone grafts obtained through buccal sulcus incisions in 14 patients for restoration following fractures of the orbit. Several of these patients are described. Bone union was complete in all patients and there was no morbidity related to infection, oroantral fistula formation, dehiscence, or disfigurement. Sufficient bone was available from the uninvolved contralateral side to repair even severely comminuted fractures. In zygomatic complex fractures, maxillary antral grafts appeared to provide additional strength in the region of the fractured maxillary buttress. The success of the procedure in our experience, coupled with the safety of bone harvesting from this source, and the avoidance of an external scar make maxillary antral bone well suited to reconstruction of all areas of the orbit.

  10. The use of internal maxillary distraction for maxillary hypoplasia: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Van Sickels, Joseph E; Madsen, Mathew J; Cunningham, Larry L; Bird, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a useful alternative to advance the maxilla in complicated cases of maxillary hypoplasia. The purpose of this article is to review the workup, experience, and preliminary results with the use of internal distraction osteogenesis for maxillary hypoplasia at one teaching institution. Over a 5-year period, more than 300 patients with craniofacial and dentofacial defects have undergone oral and maxillofacial surgery at our center to correct their skeletal discrepancies. Of these, 10 have had maxillary distraction osteogenesis done with internal distractors. Follow-up of 6 months or more was available for 8 patients. Stereolithographic models were used to bend distractors prior to surgery in 6 patients. Latency prior to the start of distraction was 3 to 7 days and varied with the age of the patient. Distraction occurred at approximately 1 mm per day with an average distraction length of 8.5 mm (range, 6-10 mm). Excellent occlusal results were obtained in 5 patients. Major complications including nonunion and failure to achieve acceptable occlusal results were observed in 3 patients. Minor complications including pain and loosening of the distracter devices were observed in 2 patients, but did not appear to affect the esthetic and functional results. Distraction osteogenesis is a useful alternative to traditional orthognathic surgery to treat maxillary hypoplasia. Internal distractions are attractive to patients, but are more difficult to place and can cause discomfort to patients when trying to achieve an ideal primary vector of distraction. Stereolithographic models can help with placement of the device. Changes in design of distractors may help with patient discomfort.

  11. Three-dimensional assessment of maxillary changes associated with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia; Cornelis, Marie A.; Heymann, Gavin; de Paula, Leonardo K.; De Clerck, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone-anchored maxillary protraction has been shown to be an effective treatment modality for the correction of Class III malocclusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the maxilla, the surrounding hard and soft tissues, and the circummaxillary sutures after bone-anchored maxillary protraction treatment. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean, 11.10 ± 1.1 years) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). Cone-beam computed tomographs were taken before initial loading and 1 year out. Three-dimensional models were generated from the tomographs, registered on the anterior cranial base, superimposed, and analyzed by using color maps. Results The maxilla showed a mean forward displacement of 3.7 mm, and the zygomas and the maxillary incisors came forward 3.7 and 4.3 mm, respectively. Conclusions This treatment approach produced significant orthopedic changes in the maxilla and the zygomas in growing Class III patients. PMID:22133943

  12. Accuracy of maxillary positioning in bimaxillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, W B; Zoder, W; Baciut, G; Bacuit, Mihaela; Wangerin, K

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of a modified pin system for the vertical control of maxillary repositioning in bimaxillary osteotomies. The preoperative cephalograms of 239 consecutive patients who were to have bimaxillary osteotomies were superimposed on the postoperative films. Planned and observed vertical and horizontal movements of the upper incisor were analysed statistically. The mean deviations of -0.07 mm (95% confidence intervals (CIs) -0.17 to 0.04 mm) for the vertical movement and 0.12 mm (95% CI -0.06 to 0.30 mm) for the horizontal movement did not differ significantly from zero. Comparison of the two variances between intrusion and extrusion of the maxilla did not differ significantly either (p=0.51). These results suggest that the modified pin system for vertical control combined with interocclusal splints provides accurate vertical positioning of the anterior maxilla in orthognathic surgery.

  13. Pulp revascularization of immature maxillary first premolar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Nuha S.; Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2015-01-01

    An immature maxillary first premolar in an 8-year-old female was treated using a regenerative approach. The root canal was gently irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite without instrumentation under aseptic conditions and then medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) for 3 weeks. The Ca(OH)2 was removed, and bleeding was initiated mechanically using a hand file to form an intracanal blood clot. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot, and the access cavity was sealed with a double filling. Increases in root length and width were radiographically evident, at the 6-month follow-up exam. The case was followed for 3 years. The development of 3 roots with complete apical closure was confirmed using cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26752847

  14. Pulp revascularization of immature maxillary first premolar.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Nuha S; Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2015-01-01

    An immature maxillary first premolar in an 8-year-old female was treated using a regenerative approach. The root canal was gently irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite without instrumentation under aseptic conditions and then medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) for 3 weeks. The Ca(OH)2 was removed, and bleeding was initiated mechanically using a hand file to form an intracanal blood clot. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot, and the access cavity was sealed with a double filling. Increases in root length and width were radiographically evident, at the 6-month follow-up exam. The case was followed for 3 years. The development of 3 roots with complete apical closure was confirmed using cone beam computed tomography.

  15. Maxillary undifferentiated carcinoma with rhabdoid features.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, P M; Junquera, L M; Herreros, M; Ferreras, J; Rodríguez, O

    2001-01-01

    The rhabdoid malignant tumor was individualized by Haas et al. as an independent entity within the kidney malignant neoplasms in 1981. From its histopathological characteristics, different cases of rhabdoid extra-renal tumor were documented. This aspect has been also recognized in a wide heterogeneous group of tumors (carcinoma, melanoma, mesothelioma and mesenchymal tumors). The diagnosis of extrarenal rhabdoid tumor is based on the presence of a proliferation of epithelioid cells with large nuclei, prominent nucleoli, abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and conspicuous cytoplasmic intermediate filaments, which compress the nuclei. In this article we present the case of a 50-year-old male patient with a malignant maxillary tumor with characteristic rhabdoid features. Its differential diagnosis will be discussed. The literature will also be reviewed.

  16. Giant complex odontoma in maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Visioli, Adriano Rossini; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a rare case report of giant complex odontoma in the maxillary sinus, where the applied therapy included complete excision of the lesion with a conservative approach. Odontomas are also called benign growth abnormalities or hamartomas. They represent a more common type of odontogenic tumor and are related to various disorders such as bad dental placements, expansion, increased volumetric bone, and no eruption of permanent teeth. Usually they have an asymptomatic evolutionary course. The etiologic factors, although obscure, are related to local trauma, infection, and genetic factor. The structural composition of an odontoma consists of mature dental tissues. Odontomas can be differentiated according to their anatomical presentations: Compound odontoma-clusters of several denticles and complex odontoma-well defined tumefaction mass. The diagnosis can be performed by radiographic examination. PMID:26389051

  17. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  18. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98.

  19. Effect of maxillary expansion on orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen; Jiang, Li-Ping; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2015-11-01

    To explore the effect of maxillary expansion on orthodontics. Eight beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups, with 4 dogs in each group. Dogs in group 1 were executed immediately and received the direct physical measurement. The magnetic expansion appliance was used in group 2 for the maxillary expansion. After the expansion, the model was taken again and they were executed after cone beam CT (CBCT) scanning. The model measurement method was adopted in group 1 to measure the dental measurement indicators and width of base bone arch. The CBCT measurement method was employed to measure the above dental indicators and bone indicators. The difference in the indicators measured by different methods was compared and analyzed. Before the expansion, there was no significant difference in the bone measurement indicators between the CBCT measurement method and direct physical measurement method. After the expansion, there was no significant difference in indicators between the CBCT measurement method and direct physical measurement. But there was significant difference among the model measurement method, CBCT measurement method and direct physical measurement method. There was the significant difference in the dental indicators between the CBCT measurement method and model measurement, as well as the bone indicators of posterior marginal spacing of greater palatine foramen, posterior marginal spacing of incisive foramen, width of base bone arch and spacing of implant anchorage. There is no significant difference between the effect of CBCT measurement method and direct physical measurement method, but CBCT is significantly better than the model measurement. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  1. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-04-09

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th-38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18-22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated.

  2. A minipig model of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Maria E; Troulis, Maria J; Glowacki, Julie; Kaban, Leonard B

    2010-11-01

    To establish a porcine model for maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to document the sequence of bone formation in the zone of advancement. Female Yucatan minipigs (n = 9) in the mixed dentition stage underwent modified Le Fort I osteotomy through a vestibular incision under general anesthesia. A unidirectional, semiburied Le Fort I distraction device was fixed across the osteotomy. The distraction protocol was 0-day latency, 1-mm/d rate for 12 days, and 24 days of fixation. Maxillary specimens (n = 9) were harvested and divided in half at the end of distraction (n = 6 sides), midfixation (n = 6), and the end of fixation (n = 6). Clinical stability, volume, and radiographic density across the zone of advancement were graded on semiquantitative scales. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscopy. Animals tolerated the operation, the distraction and fixation periods. There were no infections and no devices failed. At the end of the distraction period, bone trabeculae were present at the periphery and fibrous tissues, and vessels, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts were present in the center of the zone of advancement. Islands of chondrocyte-like cells appeared in 1 specimen each at midfixation and the end of fixation. At the end of fixation, clinical stability and radiographic density were graded 3/3 and bone formation was complete across the advancement zone in all specimens. A model for Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis was established. Intramembranous bone formation was the predominant mechanism of healing in the zone of advancement. Latency was not necessary for bone formation in this minipig model. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extreme redundancy of the valve of the fossa ovalis with right heart hypoplasia in a neonate with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Himeshkumar; Cabalka, Allison K

    2006-10-01

    Infants with trisomy 18 often have important cardiovascular malformations. We describe an infant with trisomy 18 who had extreme redundancy of the flap valve of the fossa ovalis along with right heart hypoplasia.

  4. An Exploration Zone in Cerberus Containing Young and Old Terrains, Including Fossae/Faults and Shergottite Distal Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. P.; Niles, P. B.; Bell, M. S.; Milbury, C.; Rice, J. W.; Burton, A. S.; Archer, P. D.; Rampe, E. B.; Piqueux, S.

    2015-10-01

    Cerberus contains Amazonian lava flows embaying a range of photogeologic units: ridged plains, heavily cratered terrain, highland knobs, and perhaps the Medusa Fossae Fm. Zunil Crater distal ejecta produced secondary crater fields (of shergottites?).

  5. Sphenoid bone changes in rapid maxillary expansion assessed with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Stepanko, Lucas S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is used to expand the maxilla and increase arch perimeter; yet, there are few reports on its effects on the sphenoid bone. With cone-beam computed topography (CBCT), it is possible to visualize sphenoid bone changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate sphenoid bone changes observed in conjunction with RME treatments, using CBCT. Methods Sixty patients (34 women and 26 men, aged 11–17 years) underwent RME as part of their orthodontic treatment. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a tooth-anchored group, a bone-anchored group, or a control group. Initial CBCT scans were performed preceding the RME treatment (T1) and again directly after the completion of expansion (T2). Statistical analysis included ANOVA, descriptive statistics, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results The reliability of the landmark location was at least 0.783, and the largest ICC mean measurement error was 2.32 mm. With regard to distances, the largest change was 0.78 mm, which was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Statistical significance was established in patient groups of the same sex and treatment type for the following distance measurements: right anterior lateral pterygoid plate to the right edge of the hypophyseal fossa (d2), anterior distance between the medial pterygoid plates (d4), and anterior distance between the left medial and lateral plates (d8). Conclusions In this study, there were no clinically significant changes in the sphenoid bone due to RME treatments regardless of sex or treatment type. PMID:27668190

  6. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction for correction of maxillary hypoplasia and dental crowding in cleft palate patients: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-X; Wang, X; Li, Z-L; Yi, B; Liang, C; Jia, Y-L; Zou, B-S

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) to correct maxillary hypoplasia and severe dental crowding in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients, 7 patients (average age 16.4 years) with maxillary hypoplasia, shortened maxillary dental arch length and severe anterior dental crowding secondary to CLP were selected for this study. After anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy, 3 patients were treated using bilateral internal distraction devices, and 4 patients were treated using rigid external distraction devices. Photographs and radiographs were taken to review the improvement in facial profile and occlusion after distraction. An average 10.25 mm anterior maxillary advancement was obtained in all patients after 10-23 days of distraction and 9-16 weeks of consolidation. The sella-nasion-point A (SNA) angle increased from 69.5 degrees to 79.6 degrees. Midface convexity was greatly improved and velopharyngeal competence was preserved. The maxillary dental arch length was greatly increased by 10.1 mm (P<0.01). Dental crowding and malocclusion were corrected by orthodontic treatment. These results show that AMSD can effectively correct the hypoplastic maxilla and severe dental crowding associated with CLP by increasing the midface convexity and dental arch length while preserving velopharyngeal function, and dental crowding can be corrected without requiring tooth extraction.

  7. A Middle Cranial Fossa Dermoid Cyst Treated by an Endonasal Endoscopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Abdullah; Yildizoğlu, Üzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Binar, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare, benign, congenital ectodermal inclusion cysts in the skull base, comprising skin supplements surrounded by squamous epithelium. In the period of embryological development, the cysts originate from ectodermal cells left behind in the cranial region by the closure of the neural tube and are primarily located at the midline, especially in the subarachnoid spaces. These lesions are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. When the cysts reach large sizes, they can be symptomatic due to infection, rupture, or mass effect around neurovascular tissue. The cysts typically demonstrate accurate radiological diagnostic features. In this case report, we present a rare dermoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa, treated by an endonasal endoscopic approach. The endonasal endoscopic management of appropriate middle cranial fossa is discussed as a recent advance in the extended applications of endoscopic sinus surgery.

  8. History and morphology of faulting in the Noctis Labyrinthus-Claritas Fossae Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Davis, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The topographically high areas cut by Noctis Labyrinthus, Noctis Fossae, and Claritas Fossae were subjected to only minor resurfacing during and following local tectonic activity. Principal resurfacing materials consist of lava flows from Syria Planum and Tharsis Montes. Thus, these areas preserve much of the fault record produced by tectonism in this region. Although recent geologic maps of the area have been produced from Viking images, the only detailed fault histories available until now were described from Mariner 9 images. Much of the faulting in the Tharsis tectonic province was centered in Syria Planum; therefore, understanding the fault history in this region is critical to understanding the stress history and tectonism of Tharsis as a whole.

  9. The small saphenous vein and other 'neglected' veins of the popliteal fossa: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, T F; Iafrati, M D

    2007-01-01

    The small saphenous vein (SSV) and other veins in the popliteal fossa merit little discussion in the literature or in didactic programmes regarding their role in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and, in this sense, they are neglected. The purpose of this review is to present both duplex ultrasound findings and the associated clinical characteristics of patients with SSV reflux, from several large series. Both the anatomic variations and the epidemiology of the SSV, as well as other veins of the popliteal fossa, the gastrocnemius veins, Gocamini vein, popliteal area veins and popliteal vein, will be discussed. Findings from our review of the current available literature will demonstrate the important role that these veins play in association with CVI. The implications for open and endovenous surgery will be underlined.

  10. Effects of friction massage of the popliteal fossa on blood flow velocity of the popliteal vein

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Koji; Mizukami, Masafumi; Asakawa, Yasutsugu; Endo, Yusuke; Takata, Yuichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshio, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Friction massage (friction) of the popliteal fossa is provided for the purpose of relieving pain related to circulatory disorders by improving venous flow in the lower legs. The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of enhancing the venous flow based on measuring the blood flow velocity of the popliteal vein before and after providing friction to the patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy male university students participated in the study. The Doppler ultrasonography (DU) was used to measure the blood flow velocity of the popliteal vein, in order to verify the effects of enhancing the venous flow by comparing the measured values before and after a friction massage. [Results] The result of comparing the blood flow velocity before and after providing friction showed that there was a significant increase after friction. [Conclusion] This study proved that friction to the popliteal fossa is effectively enhances venous flow by increasing the blood flow velocity in the popliteal vein. PMID:28356643

  11. [Maxillary sinus augmentation and implant placement following removal of a maxillary antral cyst: a preliminary clinical study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Di, Ping; Li, Jianhui; Hu, Xiulian; Lin, Ye

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of maxillary sinus augmentation and implant placement following removal of a maxillary antral cyst. In this study 32 patients with 33 maxillary antral cysts were enrolled. The partial wall of cyst was removed through a small lateral sinus approach and cyst spontaneous shrink was expected when wall of cyst was destroyed for open drainage. Three to six months later the secondary sinus approach 1.5 mm circling the first approach for augmentation was undertaken. Dental implants were placed simultaneously or later. All patients finished prosthetic rehabilitation in the study and were followed up for (30.9 ± 11.5) months. The intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. The survival rate of the implants was calculated. In this study, 33 maxillary antral cysts of 32 patients were removed. Maxillary sinus augmentation was performed after a mean of (4.5 ± 1.5) months (range, 2-8 months). Sixty-two implants were inserted and all patients finished prosthetic rehabilitation after a mean of (10.8 ± 2.7) months (range, 5-17 months). The survival rate of implants was 95% (59/62). Three implants failed before their prosthesis delivered due to failure of osseointegration and were reinserted later. No recurrence of cyst was observed until the last recall. In this study, 24 specimens were mucosal cysts. Five specimens were mucoceles and 4 specimens were not certain in pathology. Maxillary sinus cysts have a negative effect on maxillary sinus augumentation if not removed. The present preliminary data of the study suggests that the clinical result of maxillary sinus augmentation and implant placement following removal of a maxillary antral cyst is predictable.

  12. [The closed eruption technique in cases of impaction of permanent maxillary canines].

    PubMed

    van Schijndel, J E; de Lange, J; Baas, E M; Broers, P C

    2010-11-01

    The impaction of permanent maxillary canines occurs frequently. In recent decades, research has led to 2 methods of treatment: the modified window technique and the closed eruption technique. Although these methods have been described in detail, it is still not clear which method is most effective. In a study involving 73 orthodontic patients with an impacted, palatally displaced permanent maxillary canine, this cuspid was exposed by means of a gingival flap and an orthodontic bracket was immediately fixed on the exposed canine, after which the gingival flap was repositioned using sutures. The patients were clinically and radiographically examined 3 months after the orthodontic treatment. In a control group consisting of 93 orthodontic patients, there were no cases of impacted permanent maxillary cuspids. The overall success rate for the treatment in the study group was 63%. Problems in adjacent teeth were correlated significantly with older age among the patients. There was a significant difference in the number of pockets around the teeth adjacent to the canines in the study group and in the control group.

  13. Olfactory channels associated with the Drosophila maxillary palp mediate short- and long-range attraction

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, Hany KM; Ebrahim, Shimaa AM; Khallaf, Mohammed A; Koenig, Christopher; Farhan, Abu; Stieber, Regina; Weißflog, Jerrit; Svatoš, Aleš; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is equipped with two peripheral olfactory organs, antenna and maxillary palp. The antenna is involved in finding food, oviposition sites and mates. However, the functional significance of the maxillary palp remained unknown. Here, we screened the olfactory sensory neurons of the maxillary palp (MP-OSNs) using a large number of natural odor extracts to identify novel ligands for each MP-OSN type. We found that each type is the sole or the primary detector for a specific compound, and detects these compounds with high sensitivity. We next dissected the contribution of MP-OSNs to behaviors evoked by their key ligands and found that MP-OSNs mediate short- and long-range attraction. Furthermore, the organization, detection and olfactory receptor (Or) genes of MP-OSNs are conserved in the agricultural pest D. suzukii. The novel short and long-range attractants could potentially be used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs of this pest species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14925.001 PMID:27213519

  14. A Nomenclature for Vertebral Fossae in Sauropods and Other Saurischian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeffrey A.; D'Emic, Michael D.; Ikejiri, Takehito; Moacdieh, Emile M.; Whitlock, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs), like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system. Pneumatic signatures in the vertebral column of fossil saurischians include complex branching chambers within the bone (internal pneumaticity) and large chambers visible externally that are bounded by neural arch laminae (external pneumaticity). Although general aspects of internal pneumaticity are synapomorphic for saurischian subgroups, the individual internal pneumatic spaces cannot be homologized across species or even along the vertebral column, due to their variability and absence of topographical landmarks. External pneumatic structures, in contrast, are defined by ready topological landmarks (vertebral laminae), but no consistent nomenclatural system exists. This deficiency has fostered confusion and limited their use as character data in phylogenetic analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a simple system for naming external neural arch fossae that parallels the one developed for the vertebral laminae that bound them. The nomenclatural system identifies fossae by pointing to reference landmarks (e.g., neural spine, centrum, costal articulations, zygapophyses). We standardize the naming process by creating tripartite names from “primary landmarks,” which form the zygodiapophyseal table, “secondary landmarks,” which orient with respect to that table, and “tertiary landmarks,” which further delineate a given fossa. Conclusions/Significance The proposed nomenclatural system for lamina-bounded fossae adds clarity to descriptions of complex vertebrae and allows these structures to be sourced as character data for phylogenetic analyses. These anatomical terms denote potentially homologous pneumatic structures within Saurischia, but they could be applied to any vertebrate with vertebral laminae that enclose spaces, regardless of their developmental origin

  15. Primary Posterior Fossa Lesions and Preserved Supratentorial Cerebral Blood Flow: Implications for Brain Death Determination.

    PubMed

    Varelas, Panayiotis N; Brady, Paul; Rehman, Mohammed; Afshinnik, Arash; Mehta, Chandan; Abdelhak, Tamer; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2017-08-21

    Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions may clinically meet brain death criteria, but may retain supratentorial brain function or blood flow. These patients could be declared brain-dead in the United Kingdom (UK), but not in the United States of America (USA). We report the outcome of adult patients with primary posterior fossa lesions without concurrent major supratentorial injury. Henry Ford Hospital database was reviewed over a period of 88 months in order to identify all adult patients with isolated brainstem or posterior fossa lesions. We excluded patients with concurrent significant supratentorial pathology potentially confounding the clinical brain death examination. One more patient from a different hospital meeting these criteria was also included. Three patients out of 161 met inclusion criteria (1.9% of all brain deaths during this period). With the addition of a fourth patient from another hospital, 4 patients were analyzed. All four patients had catastrophic brainstem and cerebellar injuries meeting the clinical criteria of brain death with positive apnea test in the UK. All had preserved supratentorial blood flow, which after a period of 2 h to 6 days disappeared on repeat testing, allowing declaration of brain death by US criteria in all four. One patient became an organ donor. Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions, who clinically seem to be brain-dead, evolve from retaining to losing supratentorial blood flow. If absent cerebral blood flow is used as an additional criterion for the declaration of death by neurological criteria, these patients are not different than those who become brain death due to supratentorial lesions.

  16. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geologic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  17. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geo-logic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  18. The Lost City Hydrothermal Field: A Spectroscopic and Astrobiological Analogue for Nili Fossae, Mars.

    PubMed

    Amador, Elena S; Bandfield, Joshua L; Brazelton, William J; Kelley, Deborah

    2017-09-14

    Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface. Results from Lost City show a spectrally distinguishable suite of Mg-rich serpentine, Ca carbonates, talc, and amphibole minerals. Aggregated detections of low-grade metamorphic minerals in rocks from Nili Fossae were mapped and yielded a previously undetected serpentine exposure in the region. Direct comparison of the two spectral suites indicates similar mineralogy at both Lost City and in the Noachian (4-3.7 Ga) bedrock of Nili Fossae, Mars. Based on mapping of these spectral phases, the implied mineralogical suite appears to be extensive across the region. These results suggest that serpentinization was once an active process, indicating that water and energy sources were available, as well as a means for prebiotic chemistry during a time period when life was first emerging on Earth. Although the mineralogical assemblages identified on Mars are unlikely to be directly analogous to rocks that underlie the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, related geochemical processes (and associated sources of biologically accessible energy) were once present in the subsurface, making Nili Fossae a compelling candidate for a once-habitable environment on Mars. Key Words: Mars-Habitability-Serpentinization-Analogue. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  19. Posterior fossa dermoid with Klippel-Feil syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Ramzan, Altaf; Khursheed, Nayil; Rumana, Makhdoomi; Abrar, Wani; Ashish, Jain

    2011-09-01

    Intracranial dermoid tumors constitute a rare entity. Their association with Klippel-Feil anomaly is all the more rare. These lesions, if associated with dermal sinuses, receive attention when a patient presents with features of central nervous system infection. We describe a 5-year-old girl who presented with purulent discharge from an occipital dermal sinus with an infected posterior fossa dermoid associated with cerebellar abscesses and characteristic Klippel-Feil anomaly.

  20. Unilateral renal agenesis and other causes of the solitary photopenic renal fossa

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.H.; Bunker, S.R.; Karl, R.D. Jr.; Ralston, T.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    The differential diagnosis of a solitary photopenic defect in the renal fossa observed at renal scintigraphy is extensive. A case of one of the most unusual causes for this finding, renal agenesis, is presented. Additional cases that illustrate the similarity in the radionuclide appearance of other pathologic entities are also presented. Correlation with clinical findings and other imaging modalities is required to accurately distinguish these conditions.

  1. The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view for central venous catheter placement and catheter change over guidewire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Klebach, Christian; Heinze, Ingo; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2014-12-23

    The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view can be useful for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Venipuncture of the internal jugular veins (IJV) or subclavian veins is performed with a micro-convex ultrasound probe, using a neonatal abdominal preset with a probe frequency of 10 Mhz at a depth of 10-12 cm. Following insertion of the guidewire into the vein, the probe is shifted to the right supraclavicular fossa to obtain a view of the superior vena cava (SVC), right pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. Under real-time ultrasound view, the guidewire and its J-tip is visualized and pushed forward to the lower SVC. Insertion depth is read from guidewire marks using central venous catheter. CVC is then inserted following skin and venous dilation. The supraclavicular fossa view is most suitable for right IJV CVC insertion. If other insertion sites are chosen the right supraclavicular fossa should be within the sterile field. Scanning of the IJVs, brachiocephalic veins and SVC can reveal significant thrombosis before venipuncture. Misplaced CVCs can be corrected with a change over guidewire technique under real-time ultrasound guidance. In conjunction with a diagnostic lung ultrasound scan, this technique has a potential to replace chest radiograph for confirmation of CVC tip position and exclusion of pneumothorax. Moreover, this view is of advantage in patients with a non-p-wave cardiac rhythm were an intra-cardiac electrocardiography (ECG) is not feasible for CVC tip position confirmation. Limitations of the method are lack of availability of a micro-convex probe and the need for training.

  2. Intracranial Capillary Hemangioma in the Posterior Fossa of an Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial capillary hemangioma (ICH) is a rare entity, with approximately 24 reported cases in the literature. There are only three reported cases of ICH in an adult male. In this case report, we describe the fourth documented case of ICH in an adult male and, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever documented case of ICH in the posterior fossa of an adult male. We also discuss its imaging appearance and differential diagnosis. PMID:27747124

  3. A nomenclature for vertebral fossae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey A; D'Emic, Michael D; Ikejiri, Takehito; Moacdieh, Emile M; Whitlock, John A

    2011-02-28

    The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs), like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system. Pneumatic signatures in the vertebral column of fossil saurischians include complex branching chambers within the bone (internal pneumaticity) and large chambers visible externally that are bounded by neural arch laminae (external pneumaticity). Although general aspects of internal pneumaticity are synapomorphic for saurischian subgroups, the individual internal pneumatic spaces cannot be homologized across species or even along the vertebral column, due to their variability and absence of topographical landmarks. External pneumatic structures, in contrast, are defined by ready topological landmarks (vertebral laminae), but no consistent nomenclatural system exists. This deficiency has fostered confusion and limited their use as character data in phylogenetic analysis. We present a simple system for naming external neural arch fossae that parallels the one developed for the vertebral laminae that bound them. The nomenclatural system identifies fossae by pointing to reference landmarks (e.g., neural spine, centrum, costal articulations, zygapophyses). We standardize the naming process by creating tripartite names from "primary landmarks," which form the zygodiapophyseal table, "secondary landmarks," which orient with respect to that table, and "tertiary landmarks," which further delineate a given fossa. The proposed nomenclatural system for lamina-bounded fossae adds clarity to descriptions of complex vertebrae and allows these structures to be sourced as character data for phylogenetic analyses. These anatomical terms denote potentially homologous pneumatic structures within Saurischia, but they could be applied to any vertebrate with vertebral laminae that enclose spaces, regardless of their developmental origin or phylogenetic distribution.

  4. Acute Foramen Magnum Syndrome Following Single Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture: Consequence of a Small Posterior Fossa?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amandeep; Agrawal, Mohit; Prakash, Surya; Somorendra, Shambanduram; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Garg, Ajay; Singh, Manmohan; Sharma, Bhawani Shanker

    2016-07-01

    Type I Chiari malformation (CMI) is a rare complication of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage that is usually reported after lumbar drain or lumboperitoneal shunt placement. It usually remains asymptomatic; however, even if it becomes symptomatic, symptoms are usually mild. There are only a few reports of acute foramen magnum syndrome following continuous lumbar CSF drainage, and acute foramen magnum syndrome after a single diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP) has not been previously reported. We encountered this catastrophic complication in one of our patient. A 30-year-old woman with a large supratentorial meningioma and associated asymptomatic CMI presented with holocranial headache. She underwent successful and uneventful excision of the tumor. However, she developed quadriplegia and respiratory arrest 48 hours following a diagnostic LP performed on postoperative day 9. She underwent urgent posterior fossa decompression after magnetic resonance imaging showed increased tonsillar impaction and swelling along with cervicomedullary compression. Postoperatively, she steadily improved and regained normal power after 3 months. Retrospective quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a small posterior fossa. The association of intracranial tumors and lumbar CSF drainage with CMI is uncommon. The documentation of a small posterior fossa signifies the importance of both developmental (small posterior fossa) and acquired (intracranial tumor/lumbar CSF drainage) factors in pathogenesis of CMI. Although the extreme rarity of acute deterioration following a single LP does not warrant LP to be contraindicated in such patients, documentation of resolution of CMI with postoperative MRI before performing lumbar CSF drainage (whether therapeutic or diagnostic), might be helpful in avoiding this rare complication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A (comparative study on the nasal fossae of Tupaia glis and four insectivores.

    PubMed

    Woehrmann-Repenning, A; Meinel, W

    1977-01-01

    The macro- and microscopic anatomy of the nasal fossa of Tupaia glis was compared with those of some insectivores. No significant group differences were found as far as the intranasal structures are concerned. Since the number of receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium of Tupaia glis and Talpa europaea is smaller than in the other species studied, a slight reduction of the sense of smell is suggested.

  6. Effects of extraction treatment on maxillary and mandibular sagittal development in growing patients.

    PubMed

    Kalwitzki, Matthias; Godt, Arnim; Göz, Gernot

    2011-10-01

    This retrospective investigation was designed to assess the effects of extraction treatment on the sagittal dimensions of the maxillary and mandibular skeletal structures of growing patients. The records of 40 patients (17 girls, 23 boys; median age 10 years 11 months) whose orthodontic treatment involved extraction of four premolars were evaluated and compared with a control group of 100 patients (54 girls, 46 boys; median age 10 years 7 months) treated non-extraction. Two lateral cephalograms were obtained of each patient, the first before the extractions, T1, and the second at a later point, T2 (mean difference 59 months). Linear parameters, including S-N, the maxillary/mandibular alveolar process, and maxillary/mandibular base, were measured. The same parameters were determined in the control group at corresponding time points (mean difference 63 months). For analysis, the sagittal dimensions of the alveolar processes and jaw bases were compared with each other. The relationships were also established to a reference line known to be unaffected by extraction treatment (S-N). This procedure was performed for the whole sample and for three subgroups formed according to the Wits appraisal. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Student's t-test. Comparisons of the total sample showed differences between the groups, which were statistically significant for the maxillary alveolar process, the mandibular alveolar process, and the mandibular base. They varied however in the different subgroups. Whenever extraction treatment is considered, it should be borne in mind that the effects on the sagittal dimension of different bony structures may vary.

  7. Assessment of factors associated with surgical difficulty during removal of impacted maxillary third molars.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Wathson Feitosa; de Araújo Filho, Roberto Carlos Arruda; do Egito Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti

    2013-05-01

    Estimating the difficulty of removing third molars is a common dilemma. However, the estimation of the difficulty associated with maxillary third molar surgery has not yet been defined. The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of difficulty and identify predictor variables associated with the occurrence of difficulty in the removal of impacted maxillary third molars. A prospective cohort study was carried out involving patients who underwent at least 1 surgical removal of an impacted maxillary third molar at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, University of Pernambuco (Pernambuco, Brazil). Predictor variables indicative of surgical difficulty were classified by their demographic, clinical, and radiographic aspects. Degree of surgical difficulty was categorized as low, moderate, or high based on the surgical technique used. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed. In total, 106 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria and 204 surgeries were performed. Patients' mean age was 22.8 ± 2.2 years and the proportion of women to men was 3:1. Approximately 20% of patients were overweight. Surgical difficulty was generally low and 5 variables were significantly associated with the occurrence of a high degree of surgical difficulty. Surgical difficulty during the removal of impacted maxillary third molars is generally low. However, for cases with a high degree of difficulty, identification of predictor variables may be useful for students and inexperienced clinicians to consider the decision not to execute the procedure, thus avoiding complications that often require complex management. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Palatal Plate Thickness of Maxillary Prosthesis on Phonation- A Comparative Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    B, Sreedevi; Anne, Gopinadh; Manne, Prakash; Bindu O, Swetha Hima; Atla, Jyothi; Deepthi, Sneha; Chaitanya A, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prosthodontic treatment involves clinical procedures which influence speech performance directly or indirectly. Prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth with partial or complete maxillary removable dentures influences the individual voice characteristics like Phonation, resonance etc. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Acrylic palatal plate thickness (1mm-3mm) of maxillary prosthesis on phonation. Materials and Methods: Twelve subjects were selected randomly between the age group of 20-25 years who have full complement of teeth and have no speech problems. Speech evaluation was done under four experimental conditions i.e. Without any experimental acrylic palatal plate (control), with experimental acrylic palatal plates of thickness 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm respectively. The speech material for phonation test consisted of Vowels sounds /a/, /i/, and /o/. Speech analysis to assess phonation was done using digital acoustic analysis (PRAAT software). The obtained results were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple post-hoc for comparison of four experimental conditions with respect to different vowel sounds. Results: Mean harmonics to noise ratio (HNR) values obtained for all the Experimental conditions did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, an increase in the thickness of the acrylic palatal plate of maxillary prosthesis for about 1 mm - 3mm in complete or partial maxillary removable dentures resulted in no significant effect on phonation of vowel sounds /a/, /i/ and /o/. Conclusion: Increasing the thickness of the palatal plate from 1 mm to 3 mm has not shown any significant effect on the phonation. PMID:24959508

  9. Cochlear Implantation through the Middle Fossa Approach: A Review of Related Temporal Bone Studies and Reported Cases.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Juan Carlos Cisneros; Brito Neto, Rubens Vuono de; Martins, Graziela de Souza Queiroz; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Middle fossa approach has been suggested as an alternative for patients in whom other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated. Even though there are temporal bone studies about the feasibility of introducing the cochlear implant through the middle fossa, until now, very few studies have described results when cochlear implant surgery is done through this approach. Objective The objective of this study is to review a series of temporal bone studies related to cochlear implantation through the middle fossa and the results obtained by different surgical groups after cochlear implantation through this approach. Data Sources PubMed, MD consult and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis A total of 8 human cadaveric temporal bone studies and 6 studies reporting cochlear implant surgery through the middle fossa approach met the inclusion criteria. Temporal bone studies show that it is feasible to perform cochlear implantation through this route. So far, only two surgical groups have performed cochlear implantation through the middle fossa with a total of 15 implanted patients. One group entered the cochlea in the most upper part of the basal turn, inserting the implant in the direction of the middle and apical turns; meanwhile, the other group inserted the implant in the apical turn directed in a retrograde fashion to the middle and basal turns. Results obtained in both groups were similar. Conclusions The middle fossa approach is a good alternative for cochlear implantation when other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated.

  10. Cochlear Implantation through the Middle Fossa Approach: A Review of Related Temporal Bone Studies and Reported Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Juan Carlos Cisneros; Brito Neto, Rubens Vuono de; Martins, Graziela de Souza Queiroz; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Middle fossa approach has been suggested as an alternative for patients in whom other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated. Even though there are temporal bone studies about the feasibility of introducing the cochlear implant through the middle fossa, until now, very few studies have described results when cochlear implant surgery is done through this approach. Objective The objective of this study is to review a series of temporal bone studies related to cochlear implantation through the middle fossa and the results obtained by different surgical groups after cochlear implantation through this approach. Data Sources PubMed, MD consult and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis A total of 8 human cadaveric temporal bone studies and 6 studies reporting cochlear implant surgery through the middle fossa approach met the inclusion criteria. Temporal bone studies show that it is feasible to perform cochlear implantation through this route. So far, only two surgical groups have performed cochlear implantation through the middle fossa with a total of 15 implanted patients. One group entered the cochlea in the most upper part of the basal turn, inserting the implant in the direction of the middle and apical turns; meanwhile, the other group inserted the implant in the apical turn directed in a retrograde fashion to the middle and basal turns. Results obtained in both groups were similar. Conclusions The middle fossa approach is a good alternative for cochlear implantation when other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated. PMID:28050216

  11. The use of wavelet filters for reducing noise in posterior fossa Computed Tomography images

    SciTech Connect

    Pita-Machado, Reinado; Perez-Diaz, Marlen Lorenzo-Ginori, Juan V. Bravo-Pino, Rolando

    2014-11-07

    Wavelet transform based de-noising like wavelet shrinkage, gives the good results in CT. This procedure affects very little the spatial resolution. Some applications are reconstruction methods, while others are a posteriori de-noising methods. De-noising after reconstruction is very difficult because the noise is non-stationary and has unknown distribution. Therefore, methods which work on the sinogram-space don’t have this problem, because they always work over a known noise distribution at this point. On the other hand, the posterior fossa in a head CT is a very complex region for physicians, because it is commonly affected by artifacts and noise which are not eliminated during the reconstruction procedure. This can leads to some false positive evaluations. The purpose of our present work is to compare different wavelet shrinkage de-noising filters to reduce noise, particularly in images of the posterior fossa within CT scans in the sinogram-space. This work describes an experimental search for the best wavelets, to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Results showed that de-noising with wavelet filters improved the quality of posterior fossa region in terms of an increased CNR, without noticeable structural distortions.

  12. Rhesus Macaque as an Animal Model for Posterior Fossa Syndrome following Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Buzunov, Elena; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Robinson, Farrel R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims Posterior fossa tumors are the most common brain tumors in children. Surgeons usually remove these tumors via a midline incision through the posterior vermis of the cerebellum. Though often effective, this surgery causes hypotonia, ataxia, oculomotor deficits, transient mutism, difficulty in swallowing and nausea. To date, there is no animal model that mimics these complications. We found that the rhesus macaque is a good model for the consequences of this surgery. Methods We made a midline incision through the cerebellar vermis of one monkey to mimic the posterior fossa surgery. Then, we closely monitored the monkey for deficits following the surgery. Results In the first few days, the monkey exhibited nausea, hypotonia, ataxia, difficulty in swallowing and an absence of vocalization. At 28 days, we recorded eye movements and found severe deficits in the accuracy of rapid eye movements and smooth pursuit of a target. Additionally, the animal had trouble fixating and a rightward-beating nystagmus. Oculomotor signs persisted until we sacrificed the animal 99 days after surgery, but the other effects resolved by 37 days. Conclusion Our surgery in a monkey caused the same postsurgical signs observed in humans. We expect to use this model to improve the posterior fossa surgery methods. PMID:20664238

  13. [Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiation treatment of patients with medial middle fossa meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Golanov, A V; Cherekaev, V A; Serova, N K; Pronin, I N; Gorlachev, G E; Kotel'nikova, T M; Podoprigora, A E; Kudriavtseva, P A; Galkin, M V

    2010-01-01

    Medial middle fossa meningiomas are challenging for neurosurgical treatment. Invasion of cranial nerves and vessels leads to high risk of complications after removal of such meningiomas. Currently methods of conformal stereotactic radiation treatment are applied wider and wider for the discussed lesions. During a 3.5-year period 80 patients with medial middle fossa meningiomas were treated in Burdenko Moscow Neurosurgical Institute using linear accelerator "Novalis". In 31 case radiation treatment was preceded by surgical resection. In majority of patients symptoms included cranial nerve dysfunction: oculomotor disturbances in 62.5%, trigeminal impairment--in 37.5%, visual deficit--in 43.8%, facial nerve palsy--in 1.25%. 74 patients underwent radiotherapy with classical fractioning, 2--in hypofractionated mode and 4 received radiosurgery. In cases of classical fractioning mean marginal dose reached 46.3 Gy during 28-33 fractions, in hypofractioning (7 fractions)--31.5 Gy, in radiosurgery--16.25 Gy. Mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (6-42 months). Control of tumor growth was achieved in 97.5% of cases (78 patients): in 42 (52.5%) lesion shrinked, in 36 (45%) stabilization was observed. Clinical examination revealed improvement of visual function in 15 patients (18%) and deterioration in 2 (2.5%). No new neuropathies were found. Stereotactic radiation treatment is the method of choice for medial anterior and middle fossa meningiomas due to effective control of tumor progression and minimal rate of complications.

  14. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area.

  15. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis after condylar dislocation into the middle cranial fossa: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, G M; Nuñez, L F; Alvarez, L A; Otayza, F A; Fernández, M A; Donoso-Hofer, F

    2016-11-01

    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa after a trauma is a rare event. The lack of appropriate treatment can lead to ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We report about a case of TMJ ankylosis following intracranial dislocation of the mandibular condyle through the roof of the articular fossa. A 9-year-old patient was referred for a severe limitation of mouth opening that began progressively one year before. A history of chin injury due to an accidental fall was found. Preoperative CT scan showed a TMJ ankylosis on the right side combined with a dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa. Treatment consisted in an intracranial resection of the mandibular condyle, partial removal of the ankylosis block and TMJ arthroplasty. Our case is the second case of TMJ ankylosis following intracranial dislocation of the mandibular condyle and treated with arthroplasty alone published in the English literature. There is no consensus regarding the pathophysiology of TMJ ankylosis and regarding the attitude towards the ankylosis block. In our case, no recurrence was noticed after a one-year follow-up. An interdisciplinary approach is needed, including maxillofacial surgeon, neurosurgeon, physiotherapist and orthodontist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of posterior fossa tumors and hydrocephalus in children: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ta; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K

    2015-10-01

    Most pediatric patients that present with a posterior fossa tumor have concurrent hydrocephalus. There is significant debate over the best management strategy of hydrocephalus in this situation. The objectives of this paper were to review the pathophysiology model of posterior fossa tumor hydrocephalus, describe the individual risks factors of persistent hydrocephalus, and discuss the current management options. Specifically, the debate over preresection cerebrospinal fluid diversion is discussed. Only 10-40 % demonstrate persistent hydrocephalus after posterior fossa tumor resection. It appears that young age, moderate to severe hydrocephalus, transependymal edema, the presence of cerebral metastases, and tumor pathology (medulloblastoma and ependymoma) on presentation predict postresection or persistent hydrocephalus. The Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (CPPRH), a validated prediction model, can be used to stratify patients at point of first contact into high and low risk for persistent hydrocephalus. A protocol is proposed for managing hydrocephalus that utilizes the CPPRH. Low-risk patients can be monitored conservatively with or without an intraoperative extraventricular drain, while high-risk patients require the use of an intraoperative extraventricular drain, higher postoperative hydrocephalus surveillance, and even consideration for a preoperative endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

  17. Identifying quantitative imaging features of posterior fossa syndrome in longitudinal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, Michaela; Windridge, David; Avula, Shivaram; Kumar, Ram; Lewis, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Up to 25% of children who undergo brain tumor resection surgery in the posterior fossa develop posterior fossa syndrome (PFS). This syndrome is characterized by mutism and disturbance in speech. Our hypothesis is that there is a correlation between PFS and the occurrence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) in structures within the posterior fossa, known as the inferior olivary nuclei (ION). HOD is exhibited as an increase in size and intensity of the ION on an MR image. Longitudinal MRI datasets of 28 patients were acquired consisting of pre-, intra-, and postoperative scans. A semiautomated segmentation process was used to segment the ION on each MR image. A full set of imaging features describing the first- and second-order statistics and size of the ION were extracted for each image. Feature selection techniques were used to identify the most relevant features among the MRI features, demographics, and data based on neuroradiological assessment. A support vector machine was used to analyze the discriminative features selected by a generative k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The results indicate the presence of hyperintensity in the left ION as the most diagnostically relevant feature, providing a statistically significant improvement in the classification of patients (p=0.01) when using this feature alone. PMID:26835496

  18. Interactive web-based programs to teach functional anatomy: the pterygopalatine fossa.

    PubMed

    Sinav, Ahmet; Ambron, Richard

    2004-07-01

    Certain areas of the body contain structures that are difficult to envision in their proper spatial orientations and whose functions are complex and difficult to grasp. This is especially true in the head, where many structures are relatively small and inaccessible. To address this problem, we are designing Web-based programs that consist of high-resolution interactive bitmap illustrations, prepared using Adobe Photoshop, and vector-based animations, prepared via Macromedia Flash. Flash action script language is used for the animations. We have used this approach to prepare a program on the pterygopalatine fossa, an important neurovascular junction in the deep face that is especially difficult to approach by dissection and to depict in static images in an atlas. The program can be viewed online at http://cds.osr.columbia.edu/anatomy/ppfossa/. A table of contents simplifies navigation through the program and a menu enables the user to identify each of the vascular and neuronal components and either to insert or to remove each from its position in the fossa. The functional anatomy of the nerves in the fossa is animated. For example, users can activate and subsequently follow action potentials as they course along axons to their targets. This high degree of interactivity helps promote learning.

  19. Infratemporal fossa cellulitis caused by a remnant iatrogenic foreign body after a bimaxillary operation.

    PubMed

    Park, Do Yang; Choo, Oak-Sung; Hong, Sang Young; Kim, Hyun Jun

    2015-05-01

    Infratemporal fossa cellulitis is rare and mostly occurs because of sinusitis and dental procedures. Furthermore, cellulitis caused by iatrogenic foreign bodies is very rare. A 28-year-old woman who had previously undergone cosmetic bimaxillary operation visited our hospital complaining of left facial swelling, oppressive pain, and nasal obstruction since 2 years. She had been attending another clinic, but despite having additional procedures and taking medications, her symptoms persisted. A subsequent operation was performed, during which we found a remnant surgical gauze from the previous operation, which was decomposed and trapped around the necrotic soft tissue and had eroded the bony structure around the pterygoid fossa. The material was successfully removed by endoscopic surgery, and the necrotic tissue was debrided. After the operation, all symptoms disappeared, and the patient was discharged without sequelae. During any procedure, surgeons must meticulously check for remnant material. Additionally, physicians must carefully note patient history and perform a physical examination, even in patients without serious symptoms. We report a case of advanced infratemporal fossa cellulitis due to remnant gauze material during a previous operation that was undetected.

  20. Paecilomyces lilacinus as the cause of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rockhill, R C; Klein, M D

    1980-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus was isolated on two separate occasions from the left antrum of a patient with chronic maxillary sinusitis. The clinical presentation and characteristics of the fungus and the sinus debris histopathology are discussed. Images PMID:7430339

  1. Sex Determination of Adult Human Maxillary Sinuses on Panoramic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Leao de Queiroz, Cristhiane; Terada, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; Dezem, Thais Uenoyama; Gomes de Araújo, Lais; Galo, Rodrigo; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    Absract The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA). Measurements were repeated to calculate intra-observer agreement. Chi-Square test, Kappa, ANOVA and T-Student were used for results analysis for p≤ 0.05. Intra-observer agreement with correlation Kappa ranged between 0.38 and 0.96. For female subjects, the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus were 28.7856mm and 44.6178mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 27.7163mm for height and 45.1850mm for width. Male subjects were found to have the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus 30.9981mm and 48.7753mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 30.7403mm for height and 48.5753mm for width. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and width of maxillary sinuses between males and females. It can be concluded that maxillary sinuses height and width on panoramic radiographs can be used to determine the gender of adult human subjects. PMID:27847394

  2. Sex Determination of Adult Human Maxillary Sinuses on Panoramic Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Leao de Queiroz, Cristhiane; Terada, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; Dezem, Thais Uenoyama; Gomes de Araújo, Lais; Galo, Rodrigo; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; Alves da Silva, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA). Measurements were repeated to calculate intra-observer agreement. Chi-Square test, Kappa, ANOVA and T-Student were used for results analysis for p≤ 0.05. Intra-observer agreement with correlation Kappa ranged between 0.38 and 0.96. For female subjects, the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus were 28.7856mm and 44.6178mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 27.7163mm for height and 45.1850mm for width. Male subjects were found to have the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus 30.9981mm and 48.7753mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 30.7403mm for height and 48.5753mm for width. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and width of maxillary sinuses between males and females. It can be concluded that maxillary sinuses height and width on panoramic radiographs can be used to determine the gender of adult human subjects.

  3. Developmental disturbance of maxillary lateral incisor after trauma.

    PubMed

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yolcu, Umit; Tozoglu, Ummuhan

    2007-04-01

    Traumatic injury to a primary tooth has a potential to damage the underlying permanent tooth germ. It may lead to developmental disturbance of permanent dentition. The impaction of the permanent maxillary central incisor because of the root dilaceration in children is rare. The purpose of this paper is to report a developmental disturbance of a permanent right maxillary lateral incisor in a 12-year-old girl with a history of trauma at an early age.

  4. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  5. Unusal canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular second molars

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Ramachandran; Ebenezar, A. V. Rajesh; Mohan, Ajit George; Anand, S.

    2016-01-01

    This clinical article describes three different case reports of maxillary and mandibular second molars with the unusual anatomy of single root with a single canal and their endodontic management. An unusual case of bilateralism is observed in the first two cases in the form of single-rooted second mandibular molars in both the quadrant of the same patient. The presence of maxillary second molar with single root and single canal in the third case is unusual. PMID:27829778

  6. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Çağırankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  7. Jagged1 is essential for osteoblast development during maxillary ossification

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Cynthia R.; Yuasa, Masato; Schoenecker, Jonathan; Goudy, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia occurs due to insufficient maxillary intramembranous ossification, leading to poor dental occlusion, respiratory obstruction and cosmetic deformities. Conditional deletion of Jagged1 (Jag1) in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells using Wnt1-cre; Jagged1f/f (Jag1CKO) led to maxillary hypoplasia characterized by intrinsic differences in bone morphology and density using μCT evaluation. Jag1CKO maxillas had altered collagen deposition, delayed ossification, and reduced expression of early and late determinants of osteoblast development during maxillary ossification. In vitro bone cultures on Jag1CKO mouse embryonic maxillary mesenchymal (MEMM) cells demonstrated decreased mineralization that was also associated with diminished induction of osteoblast determinants. BMP receptor expression was dysregulated in the Jag1CKO MEMM cells suggesting that these cells were unable to respond to BMP-induced differentiation. JAG1-Fc rescued in vitro mineralization and osteoblast gene expression changes. These data suggest that JAG1 signaling in CNC-derived MEMM cells is required for osteoblast development and differentiation during maxillary ossification. PMID:24491691

  8. Development of the maxillary sinus in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Rychlik, Karen; Schroeder, James W

    2016-12-01

    To examine the age related volume change of the maxillary sinus in children by measuring the change of the height, weight, and depth using computed tomography (CT). Children <18 years of age who underwent a CT Scan of the sinuses for reasons other than sinus related issues were included in the study. 139 patients were included (68 females and 71 Males) and the mean age of the patients was 9.6 ± 5.4 years. The cohort was divided into three groups based on their ages - Age <6 years (n = 45), age between 6 and 12 years (n = 44) and age > 12 years (n = 50). Patients in each age group demonstrated an increase in their Maxillary sinus height (p<0.001). Patients < 6years of age and between 6 and 12 years of age had a significant increase in their maxillary sinus width and depth (p < 0.001). The maxillary sinus width, depth and volume did not increase significantly after the age of 12 years in these patients. We demonstrated periods of significant size increase of the maxillary sinuses as determined by different dimensions in children at various ages. The height of the maxillary sinus has steady growth from birth to at least the age of 18 years. The width and depth increase up to 12 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maxillary sinus atelectasis in a wild born gibbon (Hylobates moloch).

    PubMed

    Koppe, Thomas; Röhrer-Ertl, Olav; Breier, Silvana; Wallner, Claus-Peter

    2006-04-01

    In a mixed sex sample of ten adult gibbon (Hylobates moloch) skulls, one cranium of a male with maxillary sinus atelectasis of the left side was identified. While external inspection revealed a slight drop of the left orbital floor, serial coronal computer tomography (CT) scans show characteristic changes of the left maxillary sinus and its surrounding structures. In addition to the sunken orbital floor, radiological features of the specimen include an inward bowing of the medial sinus wall, sinus opacification, and a reduction in maxillary sinus size to a slit-like cavity, which suggest a diagnosis of silent sinus syndrome. This report is the first, to our knowledge, of maxillary sinus atelectasis in a non-human primate. This finding is valuable for the understanding of the pathogenesis and etiology of maxillary sinus atelectasis. At the same time, however, paleoanthropologists and primatologists may refer to this information when dealing with the interpretation of maxillary sinus pneumatization of partially broken archaeological and fossil skulls.

  10. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  11. A multidisciplinary treatment of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: a 14-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; MORANDINI, Ana Carolina Faria; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; CASTRO, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; INSABRALDE, Natalia Martins

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and the teeth, including the presentation of malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion must be considered. The objective of this study was to describe the etiology, prevalence and alternative treatment modalities for dental agenesis and to present a clinical case of agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors treated by the closure of excessive spaces and canine re-anatomization. A clinical case is presented to illustrate the interdisciplinary approach between orthodontics and restorative dentistry for improved esthetic results. In this report, the treatment of a girl with a Class II malocclusion of molars and canines with missing maxillary lateral incisors and convex facial profile is shown. Treatment was successfully achieved and included the space closure of the areas corresponding to the missing upper lateral incisors, through movement of the canines and the posterior teeth to mesial by fixed appliances as well as the canines transformation in the maxillary lateral incisors. This is a 14-year follow-up case report involving orthodontics and restorative dentistry in which pretreatment, post-treatment, and long-term follow-up records for the patient are presented. PMID:25466480

  12. Imaging features of paediatric haemophilic pseudotumour of the maxillary bone: report of three cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B T; Wang, Y Z; Wang, X Y; Wang, Z C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives : Haemophilic pseudotumour (HP) is an extremely rare lesion. The purpose of this study was to describe the CT and MRI features of maxillary bone HPs and introduce the key points to differentiate HP from the mimicking entities in the region. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed three paediatric patients with histology-proven HPs arising from the maxillary bone. All three patients underwent CT and/or MRI. Combined with six previously reported cases in the literature, the imaging features were comprehensively analysed. Results : All HPs showed a well-demarcated, multilobulated expansile osteolytic lesion in the maxillary bone. On non-enhanced CT, HPs appeared of mixed density relative to grey matter. The lesions appeared to have markedly heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images, with septa-like enhancement following the administration of contrast material, which corresponded to blood products in various stages of evolution. The lesions caused cortical thinning and even focal disappearance and multiple bone septa were identified within the involved maxillary bone. Some HPs were associated with radiated periosteal proliferation, which can easily be misdiagnosed as a malignant bone tumour. Conclusion : A high index of suspicion for HP and a familiarity with imaging findings may help to accurately diagnose this rare entity. PMID:22253339

  13. Orthodontic treatment of a transposed maxillary canine and first premolar in a young patient with Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Gracco, Antonio; Siviero, Laura; Perri, Alessandro; Favero, Lorenzo; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    A 12-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of an unaesthetic dental appearance. All permanent teeth were erupted, while the deciduous maxillary right canine was retained. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed a complete transposition of the maxillary left canine and first premolar involving both the crowns and the roots. Initial cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III pattern, with a slight maxillary retrusion and a compensated proclination of the upper incisors. The patient's teeth were considered to be in the correct position; therefore, we decided to attempt treatment by correcting the transposition and using only orthodontic compensation of the skeletal Class III malocclusion. After 25 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had a Class I molar and canine relationship on both sides, with ideal overbite and overjet values. Her profile was improved, her lips were competent, and cephalometric evaluation showed acceptable maxillary and mandibular incisor inclinations. The final panoramic radiograph showed that good root parallelism was achieved. Two-year follow-up intraoral photography showed stable results.

  14. Mechanisms for Olivine Carbonation at the Nili Fossae/Isidis Basin Boundary, Mars: Evidence of Intense Surface Aqueous Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most extensive surface deposits of carbonate on Mars is on the slopes of the Isidis Basin rising up to the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008; Niles et al., 2012; Edwards and Ehlmann 2015). A key factor for the formation of carbonate in this region is the association of carbonate with olivine: this ubiquitous relationship shows the reactants and products are in direct association. There are four clear hypotheses for the geologic environment of formation. 1) Water-rock interaction in the shallow subsurface at slightly elevated temperatures altered olivine to Mg-carbonate perhaps through extended periods of heat and water with burial leading to olivine-serpentine-talc-chlorite alteration pathway (Brown et al., 2010; Viviano et al., 2013). 2) Olivine-rich material, heated by impact or volcanic processes, emplaced on top of a water-bearing phyllosilicate rich unit initiated hydrothermal alteration along the contact. 3) Olivine-rich rocks were weathered to carbonate at surface (cold) temperatures in a manner similar to olivine weathering of meteorites in Antarctica. 4) Carbonate precipitated from shallow ephemeral lakes. These hypotheses are quite different in their predictions of mineral assemblage, water requirements, and habitability. I will show new data and analyses that are providing insights to the question of the mineralogy and assemblages of carbonate-bearing units in the region, diagostic of processes. It is becoming more evident that surface aqueous activity, perhaps involving an extensive cryosphere in the form of Hesperian ice sheets.

  15. Post-operative diffusion weighted imaging as a predictor of posterior fossa syndrome permanence in paediatric medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Felicia H Z; Thien, Ady; Ng, Lee Ping; Seow, Wan Tew; Low, David C Y; Chang, Kenneth T E; Lian, Derrick W Q; Loh, Eva; Low, Sharon Y Y

    2017-03-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) is a serious complication faced by neurosurgeons and their patients, especially in paediatric medulloblastoma patients. The uncertain aetiology of PFS, myriad of cited risk factors and therapeutic challenges make this phenomenon an elusive entity. The primary objective of this study was to identify associative factors related to the development of PFS in medulloblastoma patient post-tumour resection. This is a retrospective study based at a single institution. Patient data and all related information were collected from the hospital records, in accordance to a list of possible risk factors associated with PFS. These included pre-operative tumour volume, hydrocephalus, age, gender, extent of resection, metastasis, ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion, post-operative meningitis and radiological changes in MRI. Additional variables included molecular and histological subtypes of each patient's medulloblastoma tumour. Statistical analysis was employed to determine evidence of each variable's significance in PFS permanence. A total of 19 patients with appropriately complete data was identified. Initial univariate analysis did not show any statistical significance. However, multivariate analysis for MRI-specific changes reported bilateral DWI restricted diffusion changes involving both right and left sides of the surgical cavity was of statistical significance for PFS permanence. The authors performed a clinical study that evaluated possible risk factors for permanent PFS in paediatric medulloblastoma patients. Analysis of collated results found that post-operative DWI restriction in bilateral regions within the surgical cavity demonstrated statistical significance as a predictor of PFS permanence-a novel finding in the current literature.

  16. Perceptual Speech Assessment After Anterior Maxillary Distraction in Patients With Cleft Maxillary Hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sunil; Seelan, Nikkie S; Selvaraj, Dhivakar; Khandeparker, Rakshit V; Gnanamony, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    To assess speech outcomes after anterior maxillary distraction (AMD) in patients with cleft-related maxillary hypoplasia. Fifty-eight patients at least 10 years old with cleft-related maxillary hypoplasia were included in this study irrespective of gender, type of cleft lip and palate, and amount of required advancement. AMD was carried out in all patients using a tooth-borne palatal distractor by a single oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Perceptual speech assessment was performed by 2 speech language pathologists preoperatively, before placement of the distractor device, and 6 months postoperatively using the scoring system of Perkins et al (Plast Reconstr Surg 116:72, 2005); the system evaluates velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), resonance, nasal air emission, articulation errors, and intelligibility. The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon signed rank test. A P value less than .05 was considered significant. Eight patients were lost to follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, improvements of 62% (n = 31), 64% (n = 32), 50% (n = 25), 68% (n = 34), and 70% (n = 35) in VPI, resonance, nasal air emission, articulation, and intelligibility, respectively, were observed, with worsening of all parameters in 1 patient (2%). The results for all tested parameters were highly significant (P ≤ .001). AMD offers a substantial improvement in speech for all 5 parameters of perceptual speech assessment. Copyright © 2016 The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between maxillary canine intra-alveolar position and maxillary incisor angulation: a cone beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Baratieri, Carolina; Canongia, Ana Carolina Portes; Bolognese, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the angulation and inclination of permanent maxillary incisors and to correlate the results to the intra-alveolar permanent maxillary canine position during mixed dentition, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The subjects were 30 children aged 7 to 10 years in the inter-transitory period of mixed dentition (permanent incisors and first molars erupted; primary canines, first and second molars erupted; and permanent canines intraosseous). The CBCT scans were obtained and, using the Dolphin Imaging(®) software - version 11.0, 3D images were reconstructed and the measurements were performed. The angulation of the right and left lateral and central maxillary incisors was measured in relation to the sagittal plane and their inclination was measured in relation to the coronal plane. The intra-alveolar height of the right and left maxillary canines was measured from the cusp tip to the axial plane. Pearson's correlation at 5% significance level showed positive correlation between the canine height and the lateral incisor angulation. It was concluded that the intra-alveolar position of the maxillary canines has a direct influence on the angulation of maxillary incisors, especially the lateral incisors.

  18. Dentoskeletal effects of maxillary protraction in cleft patients with repetitive weekly protocol of alternate rapid maxillary expansions and constrictions.

    PubMed

    da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; de Menezes, Luciane Macedo; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Rizzatto, Susana

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the amount of maxillary protraction with face mask in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients submitted to two distinct rapid maxillary expansion (RME) protocols. The sample consisted of 20 individuals (nine boys and 11 girls; mean age of 10.4 +/- 2.62 years) with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate who had a constricted maxilla in the vertical and transverse dimensions. Ten patients underwent 1 week of RME with screw activation of one complete turn per day, followed by 23 weeks of maxillary protraction (group 1). The other 10 patients underwent 7 weeks of alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction, with one complete turn per day, followed by 17 weeks of maxillary protraction (group 2); both groups underwent a total of 6 months of treatment. Cephalometric measurements were taken at different times: pretreatment (T1), soon after RME (T2), and after 6 months of treatment (T3). Each measurement was analyzed with mixed models for repeated measures, and the covariance structure chosen was compound symmetry. The maxilla displaced slightly forward and downward with a counterclockwise rotation; the mandible rotated downward and backward, resulting in an increase in anterior facial height; the sagittal maxillomandibular relationship was improved; the maxillary molars and incisors were protruded and extruded; and the mandibular incisors were retroclined. There was no significant difference between the groups in evaluation time.

  19. Effect of maxillary osteotomy on speech in cleft lip and palate: perceptual outcomes of velopharyngeal function.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Valerie J; Sell, Debbie; Tuomainen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal facial growth is a well-known sequelae of cleft lip and palate (CLP) resulting in maxillary retrusion and a class III malocclusion. In 10-50% of cases, surgical correction involving advancement of the maxilla typically by osteotomy methods is required and normally undertaken in adolescence when facial growth is complete. Current evidence for the impact of the surgery on velopharyngeal function is weak and mixed. The first objective of the study was to investigate the nature of the effect of maxillary osteotomy on the perceptual outcomes of velopharyngeal function in CLP. The second objective was to establish if speech changes seen early at 3 months post-operation persisted for a year after/following surgery', when it is considered that the maxilla is relatively stable. Twenty consecutive patients with CLP undergoing maxillary osteotomy by a single surgeon were seen pre-operatively (T1), 3 months (T2) and 12 months (T3) post-operation. A non-cleft control group (NonCLP) undergoing surgery was also recruited. Speech data were collected using the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented (CAPS-A). A velopharyngeal composite score-summary (VPC-SUM) was derived from specific CAPS-A-rated parameters. An external CAPS-A-trained therapist, blinded to the study, rated the randomized samples and inter-rater reliability was established. For the CLP group, hypernasality and nasal turbulence increased significantly post-operation. Planned comparisons were significant for T1-T2 only with a medium effect size. For hypernasality, the CLP group differed statistically from the NonCLP group at T2 and T3. For nasal turbulence, the CLP group differed statistically from the NonCLP group at T2. For VPC-SUM, there were statistically significant changes post-operatively between T1-T2 and T1-T3 only with medium effect sizes for the CLP group only. This study provides evidence that maxillary osteotomy affects patients with and without CLP differently. In patients with CLP, surgery

  20. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxillary antrum in a young female patient.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Ram, R; Singhal, P; Bhatnagar, S; Das, U M

    2011-12-01

    The cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified as a fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws. It commonly presents as a progressively growing lesion that can attain an enormous size with resultant deformity if left untreated. The cemento-ossifying fibroma is a central neoplasm of bone as well as periodontium which has caused considerable controversy because of controversy regarding terminology and the criteria for its diagnosis. This case report describes a female patient with cemento-ossifying fibroma involving maxillary antrum. The clinical, radiographic and histological features as well as the surgical findings are presented.

  1. Diagnosis and Clinico-Radiological Presentation in an Aggressive Maxillary Brown Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Mubeen; KR, Vijayalakshmi; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Brown’s tumour is an uncommon focal giant cell lesion which arises as a result of the effect of increased parathyroid hormone on bone tissues in hyperparathyroidism. The mandible is the predominantly affected site in the maxillofacial area and a maxillary involvement is rare. The severity of the lesion, caused by a Brown’s tumour, may lead to evident osteolysis and gross deformity in the maxillofacial region, which suggests the need for making an early diagnosis and giving prompt treatment. We are reporting a male patient who presented with a massive painful swelling in the right maxilla as the first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism, caused by a parathyroid adenoma. PMID:24995255

  2. Mandibular incisor extraction treatment in Angle's Class I malocclusion with peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ankit H; Shah, Darshit H

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning are essential for obtaining ideal treatment result in cases involving mandibular incisor extraction. This case report describes a 15-year-old female with balanced soft-tissue profile, peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors, and moderate mandibular anterior crowding treated with a mandibular incisor extraction. Ideal overbite and overjet were achieved. “Black triangle” formation was avoided due to the bodily movement of mandibular incisors and the use of uprighting springs for ideal axial inclination of mandibular incisors. A mandibular incisor extraction can be an effective treatment option in carefully selected clinical situations. PMID:27556022

  3. Ectopic eruption of the maxillary second molar: Predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soonshin; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Ji Yeon; Chung, Chooryung; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic aspects, contributing conditions, and predictive key factors associated with ectopic eruption of maxillary second molars. This retrospective study evaluated the study models, lateral cephalographs, and panoramic radiographs of 40 adult subjects (20 men, 20 women) with bilateral ectopic eruption and 40 subjects (20 men, 20 women) with normal eruption of the maxillary second molars. Studied variables were analyzed statistically by independent t-tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, followed by receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Tooth widths of bilateral lateral incisors, canines, and premolars were wider in the ectopic group, which resulted in greater arch lengths. The ANB angle and maxillary tuberosity distance (PTV-M1, PTV-M2) were smaller in the ectopic group. The long axes of the maxillary molars showed significant distal inclination in the ectopic group. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that three key factors-arch length, ANB angle, and PTV-M1 distance-were significantly associated with ectopic eruption of the second molars. The area under the curve (AUC) was the largest for the combination of the three key factors with an AUC greater than 0.75. PTV-M1 alone was the single factor that showed the strongest association with ectopic eruption (AUC = 0.7363). An increase in arch length, decrease in ANB angle, and decrease in maxillary tuberosity distance to the distal aspect of the maxillary first molar (PTV-M1) were the most predictive factors associated with ectopic eruption of maxillary second molars.

  4. Implication of Tumor Location for Lymph Node Metastasis in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma: Indications for Elective Neck Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seung Hyuck; Han, Doo Hee; Won, Tae-Bin; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Wu, Hong-Gyun

    2017-04-01

    For either neck irradiation or dissection, the indications for elective neck treatment (ENT) of maxillary sinus carcinoma are still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the anatomic extent of the disease and lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma and to propose a recommendation regarding ENT. In the present retrospective cohort study, patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and undifferentiated carcinoma (UDC) of maxillary sinus treated with radical intent from January 1995 to June 2015 in a single institution were recruited by retrospective medical record review. The demographic and tumor characteristics of the patients and maxillary sinus wall invasion, verified on pretreatment volumetric imaging studies, were analyzed. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to find the risk factors for nodal relapse, distant metastasis, and survival. Among a total of 71 identified patients, 66 had SCC and 5 had UDC. In 55 patients with node-negative disease, the risk of ipsilateral nodal relapse was 25.1% without ENT. In contrast, no ipsilateral nodal relapse was reported after ENT. On multivariate analysis, no chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.25; P = .01), posterior wall invasion (HR = 6.51; P = .03), and local failure (HR = 6.42; P = .02) were identified to be the risk factors of nodal relapse. Nodal relapse influenced the risk of distant metastasis with marginal significance (HR = 3.95; P = .07) but did not have an effect on survival. The most common regions of lymph node metastasis, at both initial presentation and relapse, were ipsilateral levels I and II. For SCC and UDC of the maxillary sinus with posterior wall invasion, ENT involving ipsilateral levels I and II is recommended. Future studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to validate our conclusion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Maxillary sinus lift in conjunction with endosseous implants. A long-term follow-up scintigraphic study].

    PubMed

    Dimonte, M; Inchingolo, F; Dipalma, G; Stefanelli, M

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bone scintigraphy in the long-term follow-up of maxillary sinus lift by a mixture of bovine hydroxyapatite and autologous fibrin glue in conjunction with the insertion of endosseous implants. A three-years follow-up study involved 18 surgical interventions performed on 14 edentulous patients (4 F; 10 M; mean age 49 yrs) suffering from mono or bilateral severe distal maxillary resorbtion. The bone scintigraphy of the skull was performed before, 1-18 months and 36 months post-intervention. Perimplant bone metabolism was quantified by a parameter called M/V index, used to statistically compare normal, atrophic and regenerate maxillary bone. Conventional radiographies were performed every six months; CT dental-scan 12 months post-intervention. Bone perimplant metabolism showed top values 1-4 months post-intervention (M/V%2-2.2); then it showed a decreasing trend and the lowest values 36 months post-intervention. M/V index in the atrophic (0.6) and normal (0.7) maxillary bone was lower (p<0.05) than in the new formed one (0.8). Radiologically a good integration of the dental implants was found in the new formed bone; the CT-measured average maxillary height was equal to 1 cm. The combination of several bioactive components in the mixture used didn't allow to detect the bone inductive role of the single products. Instead, quantitative bone scintigraphy confirmed its efficacy to gain important data about natural history of the endosseous implants and the value of the surgical technique. In particular we observed complete osseous integration of dental implants inserted in the mix of bovine hydroxyapatite and autologous fibrin glue is achieved 2-3 years after the intervention. After this period, possible pathological aspects suggest an early treatment to save the implants.

  6. Avian Cerebellar Floccular Fossa Size Is Not a Proxy for Flying Ability in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Stig A.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Knoll, Monja A.; Bourdon, Estelle; Barrett, Paul M.; Milner, Angela C.; Nudds, Robert L.; Abel, Richard L.; Sterpaio, Patricia Dello

    2013-01-01

    Extinct animal behavior has often been inferred from qualitative assessments of relative brain region size in fossil endocranial casts. For instance, flight capability in pterosaurs and early birds has been inferred from the relative size of the cerebellar flocculus, which in life protrudes from the lateral surface of the cerebellum. A primary role of the flocculus is to integrate sensory information about head rotation and translation to stabilize visual gaze via the vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR). Because gaze stabilization is a critical aspect of flight, some authors have suggested that the flocculus is enlarged in flying species. Whether this can be further extended to a floccular expansion in highly maneuverable flying species or floccular reduction in flightless species is unknown. Here, we used micro computed-tomography to reconstruct “virtual” endocranial casts of 60 extant bird species, to extract the same level of anatomical information offered by fossils. Volumes of the floccular fossa and entire brain cavity were measured and these values correlated with four indices of flying behavior. Although a weak positive relationship was found between floccular fossa size and brachial index, no significant relationship was found between floccular fossa size and any other flight mode classification. These findings could be the result of the bony endocranium inaccurately reflecting the size of the neural flocculus, but might also reflect the importance of the flocculus for all modes of locomotion in birds. We therefore conclude that the relative size of the flocculus of endocranial casts is an unreliable predictor of locomotor behavior in extinct birds, and probably also pterosaurs and non-avian dinosaurs. PMID:23825638

  7. Avian cerebellar floccular fossa size is not a proxy for flying ability in birds.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stig A; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Knoll, Monja A; Bourdon, Estelle; Barrett, Paul M; Milner, Angela C; Nudds, Robert L; Abel, Richard L; Sterpaio, Patricia Dello

    2013-01-01

    Extinct animal behavior has often been inferred from qualitative assessments of relative brain region size in fossil endocranial casts. For instance, flight capability in pterosaurs and early birds has been inferred from the relative size of the cerebellar flocculus, which in life protrudes from the lateral surface of the cerebellum. A primary role of the flocculus is to integrate sensory information about head rotation and translation to stabilize visual gaze via the vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR). Because gaze stabilization is a critical aspect of flight, some authors have suggested that the flocculus is enlarged in flying species. Whether this can be further extended to a floccular expansion in highly maneuverable flying species or floccular reduction in flightless species is unknown. Here, we used micro computed-tomography to reconstruct "virtual" endocranial casts of 60 extant bird species, to extract the same level of anatomical information offered by fossils. Volumes of the floccular fossa and entire brain cavity were measured and these values correlated with four indices of flying behavior. Although a weak positive relationship was found between floccular fossa size and brachial index, no significant relationship was found between floccular fossa size and any other flight mode classification. These findings could be the result of the bony endocranium inaccurately reflecting the size of the neural flocculus, but might also reflect the importance of the flocculus for all modes of locomotion in birds. We therefore conclude that the relative size of the flocculus of endocranial casts is an unreliable predictor of locomotor behavior in extinct birds, and probably also pterosaurs and non-avian dinosaurs.

  8. Evidence for an additional uppermost geological unit in the Medusae Fossae Formation, Equatorial Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Samantha; Balme, Matt; Hagermann, Axel

    2013-04-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a geological formation comprising three geological units (members) spread across five principal outcrops. The MFF dominates roughly a quarter of the longitudinal extent of the equatorial region of Mars, extending east-west across a distance of ~ 5,500 km between the southern Elysium Planitia and the Tharsis region. The nature of these materials is often referred to as enigmatic, as their exact origin remains unknown. Harrison et al. (Icarus, 2010) presented new observations of outlying occurrences of MFF materials on the southern highlands, atop the dichotomy boundary. They presented two hypotheses to explain these observation: 1) the MFF had a much larger pre-erosional extent than previously thought or 2) these materials had initially been eroded from the main outcrops of the formation, then transported southward by wind and subsequently reworked. A subsequent extension of this work provided evidence for an even larger extent of outlying MFF materials, particularly around and south of the easternmost portions of the MFF. Here we present these new outlier data, together with new textural classification and facies mapping of this region of the MFF. These data show that MFF outlier textures, whilst external to the main MFF outcrops in many places, are also found superposing large areas of the "main" MFF formations. These data support the first of the two working hypotheses presented, but also suggest that these so-called outlying materials represent a previously unmapped, stratigraphically uppermost unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. We also suggest that, based upon our own morphometric study of yardangs across members and analogue studies by de Silva et al. (Icarus, 2010), these represent a less indurated material than other units of the formation. In the overall context of the origins of the MFF, we find that our data are consistent with the Medusae Fossae materials being a large-scale ignimbrite complex, perhaps with

  9. Condyle-fossa modifications and muscle interactions during herbst treatment, part 1. New technological methods.

    PubMed

    Voudouris, John C; Woodside, Donald G; Altuna, Gurkan; Kuftinec, Mladen M; Angelopoulos, Gerassimos; Bourque, Paul J

    2003-06-01

    Changes in the condyle, the glenoid fossa, and the muscles of mastication were investigated in subjects undergoing continuous orthopedic advancement of the mandible with a Herbst-block appliance. The total sample consisted of 56 subjects and included 15 nonhuman primates (in the middle mixed, early permanent, and permanent dentitions), 17 human Herbst patients in the early permanent dentition, and 24 human controls from the Burlington Growth Center. The 8 nonhuman primates in the middle mixed dentition were the focus of this study. Mandibular advancement was obtained progressively in 5 animals by adding stops to the telescopic arms of fixed functional Herbst appliances with occlusal coverage; activations of 5.0 mm, 7.0 mm, and 8.0 mm were achieved. Two primates served as controls, and the third was a sham control. Two experimental animals and the 2 controls also wore surgically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the superior and inferior heads of the lateral pterygoid muscles and in the superficial masseter and anterior digastric muscles. Changes in condylar growth direction and amount were assessed with the Björk method from measurements made on serial cephalometric tracings superimposed on metallic implants. Undecalcified sections, treated with intravenous tetracycline vital staining, were viewed with fluorescence microscopy to examine histologic changes in the condyle and the glenoid fossa. New bone formation in the fossa associated with continuous mandibular protrusion was quantified by using computerized histomorphometric analysis of decalcified histological sections and polarized light. The unique combination of permanently implanted electromyographic electrodes, tetracycline vital staining, and histomorphometry represents a significant technological advancement in methods and materials. Together, they demonstrated different muscle-bone interaction results for functional appliances than those reported in previous studies. In Part 1 of this study, we

  10. Usefulness of laboratory data in the management of right iliac fossa pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Ruiz De Adana-Belbel, Juan C; Hernández-Matías, Alberto; García-Septiem, Javier; Moreno-Azcoita, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    Background Inflammatory markers could be helpful in the management of patients with right iliac fossa pain, but the heterogeneity of designs and results precludes a definitive conclusion. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed to assess the usefulness of laboratory data in the management of these patients. Patients and methods Patients with right iliac fossa pain referred to the surgeon were included. Blood samples were obtained for C-reactive protein, leukocyte, and granulocyte analysis. Clinical, surgical, and histopathologic data were collected. Analysis of inflammatory parameters was performed with logistic regression and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were compared. Results One hundred thirty-four patients were included. C-reactive protein increased with the severity of appendicitis and predicted accurately perforation (r2 = 0.613; P < 0.0005), showing the highest accuracy among inflammatory markers (areas under the ROC curve were 0.846, 0.753 and 0.685 for C-reactive protein, leukocyte and granulocytes, respectively; P < 0.001). Accuracy improved when C-reactive protein and leukocytes were combined (positive and negative predictive values were 93.2 percent and 92.3 percent, respectively). Conclusions C-reactive protein is a helpful marker in the management of patients with right iliac fossa pain. It increases with the evolution of the inflammatory process. Its predictive values improve in combination with the leukocyte count. A patient with normal C-reactive protein and leukocytes has a very low probability of appendicitis and should not undergo surgery. PMID:18484138

  11. Lateral Skull Base Attenuation in Patients with Anterior Cranial Fossa Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Brendan P; Stevens, Shawn M; Xiao, Christopher C; Meyer, Ted A; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2016-06-01

    (1) Determine if patients with anterior fossa spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (SCSF) leaks demonstrate lateral skull base bone attenuation. (2) Examine the relation between body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and skull base thickness. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care hospital. Retrospective review from 2004 to 2013 identified 96 patients with anterior cranial fossa SCSF leaks. A control group was identified from a consecutive series of clinic patients. Controls had no history of chronic sinonasal or temporal bone pathology and were divided according to BMI into nonobese (<30 kg/m(2)) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2)) groups. Composite skull base thickness was calculated for lateral and anterior subsites through predefined points according to previously published protocols. Thirty-two patients were included in each group. Composite lateral skull base thickness was less in patients with SCSF leaks(0.7 ± 0.1 mm) when compared with nonobese controls (0.8 ± 0.1 mm, P = .004); no differences were apparent when SCSF leaks were compared with obese controls (0.7 ± 0.1 mm, P = .99). A direct relation was observed between anterior skull base and lateral skull base thickness (r = 0.48, P < .0001). An inverse correlation was noted between BMI and lateral skull base (r =-0.40, P < .0001). Patients with anterior fossa SCSF leaks demonstrate attenuation of the lateral skull base. A significant correlation between anterior skull base thickness and lateral skull base thickness was observed. BMI was inversely related to lateral skull base thickness. Taken together, SCSF leaks are associated with obesity, which appears to be partly responsible for diffuse skull base erosion observed in patients with this condition. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  12. Hearing preservation surgery for vestibular schwannoma: experience with the middle fossa approach.

    PubMed

    DeMonte, Franco; Gidley, Paul W

    2012-09-01

    In the early 1960s William F. House developed the middle fossa approach for the removal of small vestibular schwannomas (VSs) with the preservation of hearing. It is the best approach for tumors that extend laterally to the fundus of the internal auditory canal, although it does have the potential disadvantage of increased facial nerve manipulation, especially for tumors arising from the inferior vestibular nerve. The aim of this study was to monitor the hearing preservation and facial nerve outcomes of this approach. A prospective database was constructed, and data were retrospectively reviewed. Between December 2004 and January 2012, 30 patients with small VSs underwent surgery via a middle fossa approach for hearing preservation. The patients consisted of 13 men and 17 women with a mean age of 46 years. Tumor size ranged from 7 to 19 mm. Gross-total resection was accomplished in 25 of 30 patients. Preoperative hearing was American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) Class A in 21 patients, Class B in 5, Class C in 3, and undocumented in 1. Postoperatively, hearing was graded as AAO-HNS Class A in 15 patients, Class B in 7, Class C in 1, Class D in 2, and undocumented in 5. Facial nerve function was House-Brackmann (HB) Grade I in all patients preoperatively. Postoperatively, facial nerve function was HB Grade I in 28 patients, Grade III in 1, and Grade IV in 1. There were 3 complications: CSF leakage in 1 patient, superficial wound infection in 1, and extradural hematoma (asymptomatic) in 1. The overall hearing preservation rate of at least 73% and HB Grade I facial nerve outcome of 93% in this cohort are in keeping with other contemporary reports. The middle fossa approach for the resection of small VSs with hearing preservation is a viable and relatively safe option. It should be considered among the various options available for the management of small, growing VSs.

  13. Assessment of the relationship between the maxillary molars and adjacent structures using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationship between the roots of the maxillary molars and the maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and measured the distances between the roots of the maxillary molars and the sinus floor as well as the thickness of the bone between the root and the alveolar cortical plate. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of 83 patients with normally erupted bilateral maxillary first and second molars. A total of 332 maxillary molars were examined using CBCT images. The vertical relationship of each root with the maxillary sinus was classified into four types on CBCT cross-sectional images. The distance between the sinus floor and root and the bone thickness between the root and alveolar cortical plate were measured. Results In the buccal roots of the maxillary molars, a root protruding into the sinus occurred most frequently. A root projecting laterally along the sinus cavity was most common in the palatal roots of the maxillary first molars. The mesiobuccal roots of the maxillary second molar were closest to the sinus. The mesiobuccal roots of the first molars were closest to the cortical plate. Conclusion The relationship between the roots of the maxillary molars and the sinus differed between the buccal and palatal roots. A root protruding into the sinus occurred more frequent in the buccal roots of the maxillary molars. The mesiobuccal root of the maxillary second molar was closest to the maxillary sinus floor and farthest from the alveolar cortical plate. PMID:23301207

  14. Chronic Maxillary Rhinosinusitis of Dental Origin: A Systematic Review of 674 Patient Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lechien, Jerome R.; Filleul, Olivier; Costa de Araujo, Pedro; Hsieh, Julien W.; Chantrain, Gilbert; Saussez, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this systematic review is to study the causes of odontogenic chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis (CMRS), the average age of the patients, the distribution by sex, and the teeth involved. Materials and Methods. We performed an EMBASE-, Cochrane-, and PubMed-based review of all of the described cases of odontogenic CMRS from January 1980 to January 2013. Issues of clinical relevance, such as the primary aetiology and the teeth involved, were evaluated for each case. Results. From the 190 identified publications, 23 were selected for a total of 674 patients following inclusion criteria. According to these data, the main cause of odontogenic CMRS is iatrogenic, accounting for 65.7% of the cases. Apical periodontal pathologies (apical granulomas, odontogenic cysts, and apical periodontitis) follow them and account for 25.1% of the cases. The most commonly involved teeth are the first and second molars. Conclusion. Odontogenic CMRS is a common disease that must be suspected whenever a patient undergoing dental treatment presents unilateral maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:24817890

  15. Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Caused by Denture Lining Material

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Chie; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Sakagami, Go; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of chronic maxillary sinusitis caused by denture lining material entering through an oroantral fistula after tooth extraction. The patient was an 80-year-old female who visited us with a complaint of pus discharge from the right posterior maxilla. She had extraction of the upper right second molar and had her upper denture relined with silicone lining material. The patient noticed swelling of the right cheek and purulent rhinorrhea 20 days before her first visit to our clinic. Oral examination showed an oroantral fistula with a diameter of 3 mm in the posterior alveolar ridge of the right maxilla. Computed tomography revealed a hyperdense foreign body in the right maxillary sinus and thickening of the mucosal lining. Under diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis caused by a foreign body, endoscopic maxillary surgery was performed simultaneously with the removal of the foreign body. The foreign body removed was 12 × 6 mm in size, oval in shape, light pink in color, and compatible with silicone denture lining material. During the follow-up it was observed that the oroantral fistula closed spontaneously after the removal of the foreign body. The maxillary sinus was in a good shape without recurrence of sinusitis seven months after surgery. PMID:27386012

  16. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss.

  17. Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Caused by Denture Lining Material.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Chie; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Sakagami, Go; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of chronic maxillary sinusitis caused by denture lining material entering through an oroantral fistula after tooth extraction. The patient was an 80-year-old female who visited us with a complaint of pus discharge from the right posterior maxilla. She had extraction of the upper right second molar and had her upper denture relined with silicone lining material. The patient noticed swelling of the right cheek and purulent rhinorrhea 20 days before her first visit to our clinic. Oral examination showed an oroantral fistula with a diameter of 3 mm in the posterior alveolar ridge of the right maxilla. Computed tomography revealed a hyperdense foreign body in the right maxillary sinus and thickening of the mucosal lining. Under diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis caused by a foreign body, endoscopic maxillary surgery was performed simultaneously with the removal of the foreign body. The foreign body removed was 12 × 6 mm in size, oval in shape, light pink in color, and compatible with silicone denture lining material. During the follow-up it was observed that the oroantral fistula closed spontaneously after the removal of the foreign body. The maxillary sinus was in a good shape without recurrence of sinusitis seven months after surgery.

  18. Effects of lateral osteotomy on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F M; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M A C; Gonçales, E S; Santos-Pinto, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential effects of two different osteotomy designs of the maxillary lateral wall on dental and skeletal changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups according to the lateral osteotomy design: group 1 (n=16) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in a horizontal straight fashion, and group 2 (n=14) underwent lateral osteotomy performed in parallel to the occlusal plane with a step at the zygomatic buttress. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained preoperatively (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and 6 months after expansion (T3). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed no significant interaction effect between groups and time points. Therefore, maxillary expansion was effective in both groups. Statistically significant increases in all dental and skeletal measurements were observed immediately after expansion (P<0.001). Relapse of the nasal floor width, tipping of the supporting teeth, and an increase in root distance in molars occurred at T3 (P<0.05). In summary, the maxillary lateral osteotomy design did not influence the results of SARME, which occurred mainly through the inclination of maxillary segments.

  19. Vibration perception thresholds of human maxillary and mandibular central incisors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lee T; Levy, Jay H; Petrisor, Daniel; Lilly, David J; Dong, W K

    2003-04-01

    Tactile information from dental mechanoreceptors contributes to the perception of food bolus textures and the control of mastication. While numerous studies have measured the light-touch sensory thresholds of teeth, little information is available about the vibrotactile perception thresholds of teeth. This study uses an adaptive psychophysical procedure to determine thresholds of vibratory stimulation of maxillary and mandibular central incisors in 16 healthy human subjects. An electromechanical vibrator delivered labiolingual forces perpendicular to the long axis of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at 10 stimulation frequencies between 40 and 315 Hz. The median thresholds ranged between 44 and 104 mN. A linear regression analysis revealed a significant increase in the vibrotactile thresholds with increasing frequencies for stimulation of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. No significant differences were found between regression slopes of the thresholds of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. These results indicated that maxillary and mandibular incisors should be able to discriminate effectively among a variety of textures based on their ability to encode a wide range of vibration frequencies.

  20. Biochemical and Clinical Assessments of Segmental Maxillary Posterior Tooth Intrusion

    PubMed Central

    Tasanapanont, Jintana; Wattanachai, Tanapan; Apisariyakul, Janya; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Midtbø, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare chondroitin sulphate (CS) levels around maxillary second premolars, first molars, and second molars between the unloaded and the loaded periods and to measure the rates of intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth during segmental posterior tooth intrusion. Materials and Methods. In this prospective clinical study, 105 teeth (from 15 patients exhibiting anterior open bite and requiring maxillary posterior tooth intrusion) were studied. Competitive ELISA was used to detect CS levels. Dental casts (during the unloaded and loaded periods) were scanned, and posterior tooth intrusion distances were measured. Results. During the unloaded period, the median CS levels around maxillary second premolars, first molars, second molars (experimental teeth), and mandibular first molars (negative control) were 0.006, 0.055, 0.056, and 0.012 and during the loaded period were 2.592, 5.738, 4.727, and 0.163 ng/μg of total protein, respectively. The median CS levels around experimental teeth were significantly elevated during the loaded period. The mean rates of maxillary second premolar and first and second molar intrusion were 0.72, 0.58, and 0.40 mm/12 weeks, respectively. Conclusions. Biochemical and clinical assessments suggested that the segmental posterior tooth intrusion treatment modality with 50 g of vertical force per side was sufficient. Trial Registration. The study is registered as TCTR20170206006. PMID:28321256